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1

Climate change impact, adaptation and associated costs for coastal risks in France  

E-print Network

Climate change impact, adaptation and associated costs for coastal risks in France Gonéri Le.Pons@developpement-durable.gouv.fr Abstract As part of the French climate plan, an inter-ministerial working group called "climate change by climate change and to identify possible mitigation measures. Seven thematic committees were organized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Energy Infrastructures in France: Climate Change Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As indicated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its 4 th report, certain short and medium-term effects of cl imate change will be unavoidable. While some action has been taken at the internation al level to reduce the negative effects of climate change, related to the adaptatio n aspect, much work has still to be done concerning

Maria Mansanet-Bataller; Morgan Herv-Mignucci; Alexia Leseur

3

Quantifying 21st-century France climate change and related uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tackle here the question of past and future climate change at sub-regional or country scale with the example of France. We assess France climate evolution during the 20th and 21st century as simulated by an exhaustive range of global climate simulations. We first show that the large observed warming of the last 30 years can be simulated only if anthropogenic forcings are taken into account. We also suggest that human influence could have made a substantial contribution to the observed 20th century multi-decadal temperature fluctuations. We then show that France averaged annual mean temperature at the end of the 21st century is projected to be on the order of 4.5 K warmer than in the early 20th century under the radiative concentration pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. Summer changes are greater than their winter counterpart (6 K versus 3.7 K). Near-future (2020-2049) changes are on the order of 2.1 K (with 2.6 K in summer and 1.8 K in winter). Model projections also suggest a substantial summer precipitation decrease (-0.6 mm/day), in particular over southern France, and a moderate winter increase, (0.3 mm/day), mostly over the northernmost part of France. Uncertainties about the amplitude of these precipitation changes remain large. We then quantify the various sources of uncertainty and study how their ranking varies with time. We also propose a physically-based metric approach to reduce model uncertainty and illustrate it with the case of summer temperature changes. Finally, timing and amplitude of France climate change in case of a global average 2-K warming are investigated. Aggressive mitigation pathways (such as RCP2.6) are absolutely required to avoid crossing or barely exceeding the 2-K global threshold. However, France climate change requiring adaptation measures is still to be expected even if we achieve to remain below the 2-K global target.

Terray, Laurent; Bo, Julien

2013-03-01

4

Possible effects of climate change on wheat and maize crops in France  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the possible effects of climate modifications induced by increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere, on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water demand in France. CERES-wheat and CERES-maize models are used with two French weather series and soil conditions. Weather variables were varied from present conditions, as simulated by various global climate models (GCMs). This chapter emphasizes the process of model calibration and the consequent uncertainties in final simulated results. Under the simulation conditions: (i) season lengths are shortened under climate change scenarios; (ii) yield decreases under climate change alone, but the decrease can be somewhat counteracted by direct CO{sub 2} effects on the crop, up to a 5 C temperature increase; and (iii) water use decreases under climate changes. Even if the large diversity of French climates and soils prohibits generalization of these results to the entire country, the main conclusions are: (i) under both temperate and Mediterranean climates, winter cereal yields will not be decreased by future conditions, provided that irrigation supply is not limiting under dry conditions and (ii) under temperate climate, maize could take advantage of development phase shrinkage and improve its radiation use efficiency. Changing sowing date produces varying results according to weather scenario, plant, and location. A more precise knowledge of initial soil water or temperature under changing conditions is necessary before optimal agronomic adaptation to future climate can be suggested.

Delecolle, R.; Ruget, F.; Ripoche, D. [INRA, Avignon (France). Unite de Bioclimatologie; Gosse, G. [INRA, Thiveral-Grignon (France). Unite de Bioclimatologie

1995-12-31

5

Impact of Climate Change on Extreme Rainfall in France Throughout Trend Detections in Average Climatic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great interest on climate change during these last years has led to a quasi unanimous conclusion for scientists: the Earth climate changes. An increase of precipitation in the middle and high latitude area of north hemisphere was detected. In order to prevent hydrological risks, it's interesting to know if these global changes lead to an increase of extreme events.

P. Cantet; P. Arnaud

2008-01-01

6

Anticipate response of climate change on coastal risks at regional scale in Aquitaine and Languedoc Roussillon (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

LIFE Environment\\/RESPONSE project (20032006) aimed to evaluate and map, at regional scale, the impact of climate change on coastal risks (erosion and marine flooding), by anticipating the response to regional climatic change scenarios of coastal systems. These are described by their geomorphology, coastal processes, known hazardous events and existing defences. Application on Aquitaine and Languedoc Roussillon regions (France) assesses the

C. Vinchon; S. Aubie; Y. Balouin; L. Closset; M. Garcin; D. Idier; C. Mallet

2009-01-01

7

Climate change impact on the management of water resources in the Seine River basin, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is today commonly accepted that adaptation strategies will be needed to cope with the hydrological consequences of projected climate change. The main objective of the IWRM-Net Climaware project is to design adaptation strategies for various socio-economic sectors and evaluate their relevance at the European scale. Within the project, the Seine case study focuses on dam management. The Seine River basin at Paris (43800km) shows major socio-economic stakes in France. Due to its important and growing demography, the number of industries depending on water resources or located on the river sides, and the developed agricultural sector, the consequences of droughts and floods may be dramatic. To mitigate the extreme hydrological events, a system of four large multi-purpose reservoirs was built in the upstream part of the basin between 1949 and 1990. The IPCC reports indicate modifications of the climate conditions in northern France in the future. An increase of mean temperature is very likely, and the rainfall patterns could be modified: the uncertainty on future trends is still high, but summer periods could experience lower quantities of rainfall. Anticipating these changes are crucial: will the present reservoirs system be adapted to these conditions? Here we propose to evaluate the capacity of the Seine River reservoirs to withstand future projected climate conditions using the current management rules. For this study a modeling chain was designed. We used two hydrological models: GR4J, a lumped model used as a benchmark, and TGR, a semi-distributed model. TGR was tuned to explicitly account for reservoir management rules. Seven climatic models forced by the moderate A1B IPCC scenario and downscaled using a weather-type method (DSCLIM, Pag et al., 2009), were used. A quantile-quantile type method was applied to correct bias in climate simulations. A model to mimic the way reservoirs are managed was also developed. The evolution of low flows, high flows and annual flows were assessed under natural condition (i.e. without the inclusion of the reservoirs in the models). Then, the impact of reservoirs and their management were accounted for in the modeling chain. Results will be discussed relatively to future hydro-climatic conditions and current mitigation objectives within the basin. Reference: Pag, C., L. Terray et J. Bo, 2009: dsclim: A software package to downscale climate scenarios at regional scale using a weather-typing based statistical methodology. Technical Report TR/CMGC/09/21, SUC au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No1875, Toulouse, France. Link : http://www.cerfacs.fr/~page/dsclim/dsclim_doc-latest.pdf

Dorchies, David; Thirel, Guillaume; Chauveau, Mathilde; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Perrin, Charles; Dehay, Florine

2013-04-01

8

How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhne river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while expected impacts of climate changes on the Thau system were expected to be linked to water balance depletion in the catchment, the main threats are now linked to the impact on water quality of the introduction of the Rhne river waters within the system. This study is conducted in the CLIMB EU-FP7 project (2010-2014).

La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

2014-05-01

9

The study of climate suitability for grapevine cropping using ecoclimatic indicators under climatic change conditions in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic conditions play a fundamental role in the suitability of geographical areas for cropping. In the case of grape, climatic conditions such as water supply and temperatures have an effect of grape quality. In the context of climate change, we could expect changes in overall climatic conditions and so, in grape quality. We proposed to use GETARI (Generic Evaluation Tool of Ecoclimatic Indicators) in order to assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape (Vitis vinifera) regarding its quality. GETARI calculates an overall climate suitability index at the annual scale, from a designed evaluation tree. This aggregation tool proposes the major ecophysiological processes taking place during phenological periods, together with the climatic effects that are known to affect their achievement. The effects of climate on the ecophysiological processes are captured by the ecoclimatic indicators, which are agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. They give information about crop response to climate through ecophysiological or agronomic thresholds. These indicators are normalized and aggregated according to aggregation rules in order to compute an overall climate index. To assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape regarding its quality, we designed an evaluation tree from GETARI, by considering the effect of water deficit between flowering and veraison and the effect of water deficit, water excess, heat stress, temperature ranges between day and night, night temperatures and mean temperatures between veraison and harvest. The two sites are located in Burgundy and Rhone valley which are two of the most important vineyards in the world. Ecoclimatic indicators are calculated using phenological cycle of the crop. For this reason we chose Grenache and Pinot Noir as long and short cycle varieties respectively. Flowering, veraison and harvest dates were simulated (Parker et al., 2011; Yiou et al., 2012). Daily climatic data from 1950 to 2100 were simulated by the global climate model ARPEGE forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario were used (data from CERFACS SCRATCH08 - http://www.drias-climat.fr), using the quantile-quantile downscaling method. The results provide information about the climate suitability for grapevine quality in the future and can be used for anticipating and adapting viticulture. This work is carried out under the research program ORACLE (Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France (and Europe). Parker, A. K., de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G., van Leeuwen, C., Chuine, I., 2011. General phenological model to characterise the timing of flowering and veraison of Vitis vinifera L. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. 17, 206-216. Yiou, P., de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G., Chuine, I., Daux, V., Garnier, E., Viovy, N., van Leeuwen, C., Parker, A. K., Boursiquot, J. M., 2012. Continental atmospheric circulation over Europe during the Little Ice Age inferred from grape harvest dates. Climate of the Past. 8, 577-588.

Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Caubel, J.; Cufi, J.; Huard, F.; Launay, M.; deNoblet, N.

2013-12-01

10

Climate Change impacts in the Drme department (southeastern France): the GICC-DECLIC Project (2010-2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The national DECLIC ("Drme: Eau, CLimat Impacts lis aux Changements") project, coordinated at LTHE (Grenoble-France) has begun in beginning of 2010 and is financed by the national GICC-2 program. This project deals with the climatic variability and the interactions in the Drme's low mountain range. The main goal is to initiate an operational partnership between academics (three research laboratories LTHE, PACTE and ESPACE) and the involved Territorial Agencies, to define potential climate changes and future adaptations. Analyses will concern especially the climatic variations observed during the last 50 years at the administrative scale (namely the "Dpartement" in the French organization), and their significant impacts on the current and future water resources, i.e. pluviometric regimes, quality of the snow coverage, flow stream variations, availability of the resources. The express request from the local administrators concerns mainly the variations of plant productivity (forests and agriculture), and mainly those due to isolated or recurrent drought periods (productivity, biomass, phenology, use of water resources). DECLIC project also concerns interactions between climatic variations and departmental tourist activities, in connection with water resources (consumption and quality). The final objective is to write a green paper about adaptation strategies on climate change for policies. The whole study will lean at first on a diagnostic study of climatic time-series and to various environmental data. One step will also use regional modelling of the impact of the climate on water resources. Besides geostatistic modelling, another methodology will use a simplified physical model that gives the benefit to take into account explicitly the topography at fine scale.

Rome, Sandra; Bigot, Sylvain; Dubus, Nathalie; Anquetin, Sandrine

2010-05-01

11

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site allows educators to locate and use the best resources for teaching about Earth's climate system and the changing climate over the past one million years. Here you will find climate data, visualizations, teaching activities and case studies. By learning from past climate changes, we can apply this to present-day and future climate shifts.

12

Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years climate change has become recognised as the foremost environmental problem of the twenty-first century. Not only will climate change potentially affect the multibillion dollar energy strategies of countries worldwide, but it also could seriously affect many species, including our own. A fascinating introduction to the subject, this textbook provides a broad review of past, present and likely

Jonathan Cowie

2001-01-01

13

Changing Climates  

E-print Network

. Masiello and her group, Rice Isotope Biogeochemistry, are currently studying how changes in climate and land use are controlling river carbon cycling. At The University of Texas at Austin (UT), researchers at the Environmental Science Institute (ESI... research grant, Dr. John Holbrook, professor of Earth and environmental sciences at The University of Texas at Arlington, is examining the rates and processes by which the Missouri River changes its pattern and erosion trends due to climate change...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

14

Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

Weather can be hot or cold, dry or wet, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Climate is the average weather in a place over a long period of time. Changes in climate may be due to natural forces or from human activities. ...

15

Can metric-based approaches really improve multi-model climate projections? A perfect model framework applied to summer temperature change in France.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble approaches for climate change projections have become ubiquitous. Because of large model-to-model variations and, generally, lack of rationale for the choice of a particular climate model against others, it is widely accepted that future climate change and its impacts should not be estimated based on a single climate model. Generally, as a default approach, the multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM) is considered to provide the best estimate of climate change signals. The MMEM approach is based on the implicit hypothesis that all the models provide equally credible projections of future climate change. This hypothesis is unlikely to be true and ideally one would want to give more weight to more realistic models. A major issue with this alternative approach lies in the assessment of the relative credibility of future climate projections from different climate models, as they can only be evaluated against present-day observations: which present-day metric(s) should be used to decide which models are "good" and which models are "bad" in the future climate? Once a supposedly informative metric has been found, other issues arise. What is the best statistical method to combine multiple models results taking into account their relative credibility measured by a given metric? How to be sure in the end that the metric-based estimate of future climate change is not in fact less realistic than the MMEM? It is impossible to provide strict answers to those questions in the climate change context. Yet, in this presentation, we propose a methodological approach based on a perfect model framework that could bring some useful elements of answer to the questions previously mentioned. The basic idea is to take a random climate model in the ensemble and treat it as if it were the truth (results of this model, in both past and future climate, are called "synthetic observations"). Then, all the other members from the multi-model ensemble are used to derive thanks to a metric-based approach a posterior estimate of climate change, based on the synthetic observation of the metric. Finally, it is possible to compare the posterior estimate to the synthetic observation of future climate change to evaluate the skill of the method. The main objective of this presentation is to describe and apply this perfect model framework to test different methodological issues associated with non-uniform model weighting and similar metric-based approaches. The methodology presented is general, but will be applied to the specific case of summer temperature change in France, for which previous works have suggested potentially useful metrics associated with soil-atmosphere and cloud-temperature interactions. The relative performances of different simple statistical approaches to combine multiple model results based on metrics will be tested. The impact of ensemble size, observational errors, internal variability, and model similarity will be characterized. The potential improvements associated with metric-based approaches compared to the MMEM is terms of errors and uncertainties will be quantified.

Bo, Julien; Terray, Laurent

2014-05-01

16

Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather can change many times a day. Climate.the sum of weather.changes slowly, over decades and centuries, but it can change\\u000a abruptly with large volcanic eruptions, instabilities in ocean currents, or meteorite crashes. The dramatic 1815 Tambora eruption\\u000a spewed 100 km3 of ash, causing a year without a summer to cool Earth by 4C. Cooling from volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols must

David Hafemeister

17

Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors--an application on Toulouse urban area (France).  

PubMed

Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone?UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. PMID:21269746

Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Grgoire

2011-01-01

18

Climate Change Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources BoardBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

19

Climate Change Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change as approved Prepared by the California AirBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

20

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is intended to describe the differences between weather and climate. It includes sections about sky, sea, ice, land, life, and people. Each section has a discussion of the human impact on that part of the environment.

2009-05-04

21

Climate change action plan  

E-print Network

Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing

22

Relative sea-level change, climate, and sequence boundaries: insights from the Kimmeridgian to Berriasian platform carbonates of Mount Salve (E France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study analyses the stratal architecture of the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) to Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) sedimentary succession of Mount Salve (E France), and four Berriasian stratigraphic intervals containing four sequence-boundary zones reflecting lowering trends of the relative sea-level evolution. Massive Kimmeridgian limestones characterized by the presence of colonial corals appear to be stacked in an aggrading pattern. These non-bedded thick deposits, which are interpreted to have formed in balance between relative sea-level rise and carbonate accumulation, suggest a keep-up transgressive system. Above, well-bedded Tithonian-to-Berriasian peritidal carbonates reflect a general loss of accommodation. These strata are interpreted as a highstand normal-regressive unit. During the early phase of this major normal regression, the vertical repetition of upper intertidal/lower supratidal lithofacies indicates an aggrading depositional system. This is in agreement with an early stage of a highstand phase of relative sea level. The Berriasian sequence-boundary zones investigated (up to 4 m thick) developed under different climatic conditions and correspond to higher-frequency, forced- and normal-regressive stages of relative sea-level changes. According to the classical sequence-stratigraphic principles, these sequence-boundary zones comprise more than one candidate surface for a sequence boundary. Three sequence-boundary zones studied in Early Berriasian rocks lack coarse siliciclastic grains, contain a calcrete crust, as well as marly levels with higher abundances of illite with respect to kaolinite, and exhibit fossilized algal-microbial laminites with desiccation polygons. These sedimentary features are consistent with more arid conditions. A sequence-boundary zone interpreted for the Late Berriasian corresponds to a coal horizon. The strata above and below this coal contain abundant quartz and marly intervals with a higher kaolinite content when compared to the illite content. Accordingly, this Late Berriasian sequence-boundary zone was formed under a more humid climate. The major transgressive-regressive cycle of relative sea level identified and the climate change from more arid to more humid conditions recognized during the Late Berriasian have been reported also from other European basins. Therefore, the Kimmeridgian to Berriasian carbonate succession of Mount Salve reflects major oceanographic and climatic changes affecting the northern margin of the Alpine Tethys ocean and thus constitutes a reliable comparative example for the analysis of other coeval sedimentary records. In addition, the stratigraphic intervals including sequence-boundary zones characterized in this study constitute potential outcrop analogues for sequence-boundary reflectors mapped on seismic profiles of subsurface peritidal carbonate successions. The detailed sedimentological analyses provided here highlight that on occasions the classical principles of sequence stratigraphy developed on seismic data are difficult to apply in outcrop. A sequence-boundary reflector when seen in outcrop may present successive subaerial exposure surfaces, which formed due to high-frequency sea-level changes that were superimposed on the longer-term trend of relative sea-level fall.

Bover-Arnal, Telm; Strasser, Andr

2013-03-01

23

Climate Change Adaptation Planning  

E-print Network

Climate Change Adaptation Planning On the Navajo Nation #12;Navajo Nation Climate Change Adaptation of Colorado Law School #12;What is Climate Change Adaptation? "Adjustment in natural or human systems change #12;Examples of Adaptation Activities Seed banks Land restoration #12;What is Climate Change

Neff, Jason

24

Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?  

E-print Network

Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate

Pan, Feifei

25

Climate Change and Transportation  

E-print Network

1 Climate Change and Transportation Addressing Climate Change in the Absence of Federal Guidelines;6 WSDOT Efforts · Climate Change Team · Project Level GHG Approach · Planning Level GHG Approach · Alternative Fuels Corridor · Recent legislation and research #12;7 WSDOT Efforts: Climate Change Team

Minnesota, University of

26

Climate Change Schools Project...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project

McKinzey, Krista

2010-01-01

27

Changes in planktic and benthic foraminifer assemblages in the Gulf of Lions, off south France: Response to climate and sea level change from MIS 6 to MIS 11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary study involving micropaleontological and geochemical tools was carried out in borehole PRGL1 (Promess 1), with the aim of reconstructing the impact of climate change and sea level variation between 133 ka and 406 ka in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions. We used factor analysis to obtain three main benthic assemblages related to eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oxygenated environments; planktic foraminifers were grouped as warm-water and cold-turbulent species. These results were compared with records of CaCO3 and major and trace elements (Al, Ca, K, Sr) as well as the C/N ratio of organic matter. Power and cross-spectral analysis showed a straightforward relationship between precession minima and thermal stratification of the water column as well as the occurrence of eutrophic bottom conditions during lowstand periods and mesotrophic environments at times of highstand. These eutrophic-mesotrophic oscillations, usually driven by global eustatic change, also involved regional variations in CaCO3 source to this environment. During periods of precession maxima, enhancement of northwesterly winds increased primary productivity by mixing, enhancing the percentage of cold-turbulent species in the water column and the proportion of oxygenated benthic species on the bottom. During interglacial stages, these events were recorded by lower biogenic carbonate at the expense of higher silicate-related components most likely due to a higher supply from Pyrenees rivers. The record of oxygenated benthic species can be a good proxy to monitor past changes in Winter Intermediate Water dynamics driven by northwesterly winds.

Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Filippelli, Gabriel; Flores, Jos Abel; Bern, Serge

2013-04-01

28

Corporate Climate Change Adaptation.  

E-print Network

?? On-going and future climate change is universally acknowledged. Climate changeincorporating global mean temperature rise, impacts on global hydrology and ecosystems willaffect human society and (more)

Herbertsson, Nicole

2010-01-01

29

Climate Change: Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... change is happening now. Learn More What are climate change and global warming? Global warming refers to the ... effects, that occur over several decades or longer. Climate change is happening Our Earth is warming. Earth's average ...

30

"Managing Department Climate Change"  

E-print Network

"Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

Sheridan, Jennifer

31

Abrupt Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a broad introduction to the subject of abrupt climate change. It cites several historical examples of climate change and their impact on human civilization. In addition, some of the current questions about climate are presented including the drying of the Sahel since the 1960s and changes in the El Nino pattern. The site includes links to a question and answer feature, paleoclimate research that focuses on how and why abrupt climate change events occurred in the recent past, and an explanation of a joint observational and modeling approach to climate change. There is also a link to the Climate Kids Corner with on-line activities.

32

Fiddling with climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composer and string musician, turned award-winning environmentalist, Aubrey Meyer tells Nature Climate Change why he is campaigning for countries to adopt his 'contraction and convergence' model of global development to avoid dangerous climate change.

2012-01-01

33

Climate Change and Biodiverstiy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes climate change due to human activities and natural factors; future scenarios due to global warming; and how climate change will impact ecosystems and biodiversity. It includes information on political activity such as avoidance, mitigation and adaptation as a response to climate change. Current projects of the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre( UNEP-WCMC) involving involving climate change migration and adaptation and impact on the ecosystem services.

34

Evaluation of climate change on flood event by using parametric T-test and non-parametric Mann-Kendall test in Barcelonnette basin, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of a trend in hydrological and meteorological time series is detected by statistical tests. The trend analysis of hydrological and meteorological series is important to consider, because of the effects of global climate change. Parametric or non-parametric statistical tests can be used to decide whether there is a statistically significant trend. In this paper, first a homogeneity analysis

Azadeh Ramesh; Thomas Glade; Jean-Philippe Malet

2010-01-01

35

Environment and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE #12;The opinions expressed;Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE Edited by Frank Laczko and Christine with with the financial support of #12;3 Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence Contents

Galles, David

36

Climate Change 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Nations Environment Program and the World Meterological Organization set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 to provide an authoritative international consensus of scientific opinion on climate change. This report, prepared by IPCC Working Groups I and II, reviews the latest scientific evidence on the following key topics: radiative forcing of climate change; the latest

John T. Houghton; L. G. Meira Filho; James P. Bruce; Hoesung Lee; Bruce A. Callander; E. F. Haites

1995-01-01

37

Climate change and conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospect of human-induced climate change encourages drastic neomalthusian scenarios. A number of claims about the conflict-inducing effects of climate change have surfaced in the public debate in recent years. Climate change has so many potential consequences for the physical environment that we could expect a large number of possible paths to conflict. However, the causal chains suggested in the

Ragnhild Nords; Nils Petter Gleditsch

2007-01-01

38

Global Climate Change Exploratorium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, funded by NSF, is the home page for the Global Climate Change research explorer. Multicolor tabs at the top of the page link to further information and visualizations (graphs, charts, pictures, etc.) for climate change resources in each of the Earth's spheres, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and global effects of climate change.

Exploratorium, The

39

Climate Change Workshop 2007  

E-print Network

1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

40

Forest Research: Climate Change  

E-print Network

Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

41

Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry,

B. Metz; O. Davidson; P. Bosch; R. Dave; L. Meyer

2007-01-01

42

IISDnet: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) provides this site to present its knowledge base for climate change and adaptation. The knowledge base includes links to global projects on climate change, policy documents and research reports. The e-newsletter, Climate Canada, is accessible from this site as well.

43

Is Climate Change Happening?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this lesson, the guiding Concept Question is: What is climate change and how does climate relate to greenhouse gas concentrations over time? This activity is the second lesson in a nine-lesson module 'Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change' produced by the International Year of Chemistry project (2011).

Science, King'S C.

44

NOVA: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment describes climate data collection from Greenland ice cores that indicate Earth's climate can change abruptly over a single decade rather than over thousands of years. The narrator describes how Earth has undergone dramatic climate shifts in relatively short spans of time prior to 8000 years ago. The video and accompanying essay provide explanations of the differences between weather and climate and how the climate itself had been unstable in the past, with wide variations in temperature occurring over decadal timescales.

Domain, Wgbh T.

45

Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent changes in the Earth's climate. Summarizes reports on changes related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, sea level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the changes. Lists 16 references. (YP)

Hall, Dorothy K.

1989-01-01

46

Financing climate change adaptation.  

PubMed

This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources. We present an overview of financial resources and propose the employment of a two-track approach: one track that attempts to secure climate change adaptation funding under the UNFCCC; and a second track that improves mainstreaming of climate risk management in development efforts. Developed countries would need to demonstrate much greater commitment to the funding of adaptation measures if the UNFCCC were to cover a substantial part of the costs. The mainstreaming of climate change adaptation could follow a risk management path, particularly in relation to disaster risk reduction. 'Climate-proofing' of development projects that currently do not consider climate and weather risks could improve their sustainability. PMID:16512861

Bouwer, Laurens M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H

2006-03-01

47

Responding to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the ninth and final lesson in a series of lessons about climate change. This lesson focuses on the various activities that humans can do to mitigate the effects of climate change. This includes information on current and predicted CO2 emission scenarios across the globe, alternative energy sources, and how people are currently responding to climate change. Importantly, this lesson is motivating in showing students that they can make a difference.

Science, King'S C.

48

Security and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite it being the most studied and arguably most profound of global environmental change problems, there is relatively little research that explores climate change as a security issue. This paper systematically explores the range of possible connections between climate change and security, including national security considerations, human security concerns, military roles, and a discussion of the widely held assumption that

Jon Barnett; Macmillan Brown

2003-01-01

49

Past and future changes in water and carbon fluxes in temperate managed Pine forests from Southern France : attribution to climate, management and biophysical drivers (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensification of forest management concerns an increasing fraction of temperate and tropical forests. The managed Pine forests in south-western Europe are submitted to increased soil preparation, fertilisation, drainage, thinning, clearcutting, whole tree - harvesting and rotation shortening and therefore provide a good example of such management changes. For the last 15 years, these forests were hit by a series of extreme climate events: two unprecedented storms in 1999 and 2009, severe soil droughts in 2002, 2005 and 2006 and heatwaves in 2003 and 2005. At flux tower sites located in a young stand following clearcut and mature stands respectively, the half-hourly fluxes of CO2, H2O vapour and energy as well as vegetation and soil carbon and water contents have been monitored during this period. Using data collected from flux tower sites and forest and soil inventories together with a process based model of forest growth, GO+, and geographic information, we analysed the impact of these events on the time series of forest canopy exchanges of water and CO2 and its interaction with management. The Bowen ratio of the forest was strongly enhanced and evapotranspiration decreased leading to a dramatic increase in water runoff and peak flows from the watersheds damaged by windstorms. Clearcutting following wind storms reversed the ecosystem from a net sink into a source of C-CO2 and that was not offset ten years later. Soil drought impacted mature forests through stomatal closure and leaf shedding, making their annual carbon balance almost neutral. Tree growth was however not affected to the same extent. Drought affected also dramatically the net carbon and water balances of young forest stands. However, at this stage, the effects of successive management operations (ploughing, vegetation burial, thinning) overtook climate impacts. Independent of stand age, the canopy photosynthesis was more sensitive to climate and management than the ecosystem respiration. A direct projection of these data allowed to assess the impact of the successive storms and droughts on the regional CO2, heat and water vapour fluxes at the sub-regional scale. The GO+ model applications to the prediction and analysis of climate scenarios impacts on southwestern European forests allowed to attributing the role of management alternatives, precipitation regime, CO2 concentration and atmospheric humidity in forest-atmosphere exchanges at larger spatial and temporal scales. Frequency of soil preparation operations and vegetation management at the juvenile stage and climate and rotation duration at the adult phase were the major drivers of the carbon and water balances, respectively. The model predicts that a drier and warmer climate will reduce productivity and deplete soil carbon stocks in forest from Southwestern Europe within decades, such effects being amplified by intensive management alternatives.

Loustau, D.; Moreaux, V.

2013-12-01

50

Climate Change Economics and Policy  

E-print Network

AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate

Romano, Daniela

51

RESEARCH ARTICLE Climate change model predicts 33 % rice yield decrease  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Climate change model predicts 33 % rice yield decrease in 2100 in Bangladesh online: 12 June 2012 # INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2012 Abstract In Bangladesh, projected climate parameters on rice. The effects of climate change on yield of a popular winter rice cultivar in Bangladesh

Boyer, Edmond

52

Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management  

E-print Network

Initiative on Climate Change Impacts addresses ways to adapt to consequences of climate change. #12;WeClimate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management in Wisconsinin Wisconsin NASECA February 3, 2011 David S. Liebl #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing

Sheridan, Jennifer

53

Climate Change and Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human civilisations have for millennia depended on the stability of groundwater resources to survive dry or unreliable climates.\\u000a While groundwater supplies are buffered against short-term effects of climate variability, they can be impacted over longer\\u000a time frames through changes in rainfall, temperature, snowfall, melting of glaciers and permafrost and vegetation and land-use\\u000a changes. Groundwater provides an archive of past climate

Catherine E. Hughes; Dioni I. Cendn; Mathew P. Johansen; Karina T. Meredith

54

Climate Change and Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

challenges our planet faces today. Yet, a changing climate isn't anything new. Our climate is naturally variable, so it is always in the process of change. Over millions of years, the area we know as Canada has been covered at different times by glaciers, lush rain forests, fresh- water lakes, and even saltwater seas. The problem isn't just that our

Jim Richards

55

Learning and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning i.e. the acquisition of new information that leads to changes in our assessment of uncertainty plays a prominent role in the international climate policy debate. For example, the view that we should postpone actions until we know more continues to be influential. The latest work on learning and climate change includes new theoretical models, better informed simulations

Brian C. Oneill; Paul Crutzen; Arnulf Grbler; Minh Ha-Duong; Klaus Keller; Charles Kolstad; Jonathan Koomey; Andreas Lange; Michael Obersteiner; Michael Oppenheimer; William Pepper; Warren Sanderson; Michael Schlesinger; Nicolas Treich; Alistair Ulph; Mort Webster; Chris Wilson

2006-01-01

56

Climate Change Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing scientific evidence to suggest that humans are gradually but certainly changing the Earth's climate. In an effort to prevent further damage to the fragile atmosphere, and with the belief that action is required now, the scientific community has been prolific in its dissemination of information on climate change. Inspired by the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on

Catrinus J. Jepma; Mohan Munasinghe; Robert Watson; James P. Bruce

1998-01-01

57

Population and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population and Climate Change provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and climate change. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a

Brian C. O'Neill; F. Landis MacKellar; Wolfgang Lutz

2000-01-01

58

Climate Change Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing scientific evidence to suggest that humans are gradually but certainly changing the Earth's climate. In an effort to prevent further damage to the fragile atmosphere, and with the belief that action is required now, the scientific community has been prolific in its dissemination of information on climate change. Inspired by the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on

Catrinus J. Jepma; Mohan Munasinghe

1997-01-01

59

Climate Change and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is already having adverse effects on animal life, and those effects are likely to prove devastating in the future. Nonetheless, the relevant harms to animals have yet to become a serious part of the analysis of climate change policy. Even if animals and species are valued solely by reference to human preferences, inclusion of their welfare dramatically increases

Wayne Hsiung; Cass R. Sunstein

60

Climate Change and Health  

MedlinePLUS

... 17178. Arnell NW. Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change Human and Policy Dimensions , 2004, 14:3152. Zhou XN et ...

61

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air ResourcesBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

62

Forestry and ClimateForestry and Climate ChangeChange  

E-print Network

be made with significant uncertainty ­ we can outline likely consequences of the choices · Climate changeForestry and ClimateForestry and Climate ChangeChange Green Team April 2009 #12;Climate Change and Forests:Climate Change and Forests: The GoodThe Good ·Forests as carbon sinks ·Longer growing season · CO2

Sheridan, Jennifer

63

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

Hulme, Mike

64

Coastal Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As climate changes, dynamic coastal regions are experiencing a wide range of impacts. Sea levels, ocean acidification, sea surface temperatures, ocean heat, and ocean circulation have all been changing in ways unseen for thousands of years. Arctic sea ice melted significantly more during summers in the last 30 years, and storms are intensifying. Coastal ecosystems stand to be damaged, and coasts will likely erode from rising sea levels, intensified storm surges, and flooding that climate change may amplify. Coastal communities will need to prepare adaptation strategies to cope, and many who live or work in coastal regions are wondering what climate change might mean for them. This module provides an overview of the impacts coastal regions are experiencing and may continue to experience as a result of Earths changing climate. A video series within the module demonstrates effective strategies for communicating climate science.

Comet

2011-05-31

65

Modeling Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding global climate change is challenging, even for adults, yet having an understanding of this topic is consequential for the future. In this activity, middle school students learn about global climate change using models that allow them to make predictions, observations, and then explain mechanisms for climate change. Component ideas include change over time, deep time, and accumulation. Students are asked to act as advisers on how to lower energy use, and refine their understanding of how and why this is important, before testing their ideas and finally revising their advice.

Svihla, Vanessa

66

Abrupt climate change.  

PubMed

Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur for many reasons, it is conceivable that human forcing of climate change is increasing the probability of large, abrupt events. Were such an event to recur, the economic and ecological impacts could be large and potentially serious. Unpredictability exhibited near climate thresholds in simple models shows that some uncertainty will always be associated with projections. In light of these uncertainties, policy-makers should consider expanding research into abrupt climate change, improving monitoring systems, and taking actions designed to enhance the adaptability and resilience of ecosystems and economies. PMID:12663908

Alley, R B; Marotzke, J; Nordhaus, W D; Overpeck, J T; Peteet, D M; Pielke, R A; Pierrehumbert, R T; Rhines, P B; Stocker, T F; Talley, L D; Wallace, J M

2003-03-28

67

Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate Change 1995--The Science of Climate Change is the most comprehensive assessment available of current scientific understanding of human influences on past, present and future climate. Prepared under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), each chapter is written by teams of lead authors and contributors recognized internationally as leading experts in their field. Climate Change 1995

John T. Houghton; L. G. Meiro Filho; B. A. Callander; N. Harris; A. Kattenburg; K. Maskell

1996-01-01

68

What Is Climate Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weather consists of those meteorological events, such as rain, wind and sunshine, which can change day-by-day or even hour-by-hour. Climate is the average of all these events, taken over a period of time. The climate varies over different parts of the world. Climate is usually defined as the average of the weather over a 30-year period. It is when

Beswick, Adele

2007-01-01

69

Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

70

Climate change and skin.  

PubMed

Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

2013-02-01

71

Climate Change Education .org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change Education .org is a volunteer organization made up primarily of docents and interns at California science centers and museums, along with students, scientists, and staff at the University of California, Berkeley. The organization specializes in hands-on science demonstrations relevant to climate change and other topics, and the encouragement of partnerships in education. The group's two portal web sites, Climate Change Education .org and Global Warming California .net, direct visitors to hundreds of links to great resources on subjects of interest.

72

Climate Change: An Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to

Lewis, Garry

1995-01-01

73

Understanding climate change  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this book are: include volcanism; biogeochemistry; land hydrology; modeling climate; past and present; cryosphere; paleoclimates; land-surface processes; tropical oceans and the global atmosphere; clouds and atmospheric radiation; aeronomy and planetary atmospheres; and modeling future climate changes. The papers presented include uptake by the Atlantic Ocean of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide and radiocarbon.

Berger, A.; Dickinson, R.E.; Kidson, J.W.

1989-01-01

74

Climate Change and the Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity covers the role that the oceans may play in climate change and how climate change may affect the oceans. It is lesson 8 in a nine-lesson module Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change.

Science, The K.

75

Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises  

E-print Network

Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

76

Mitigating Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Navajo Technical College, meet a chemistry professor who explains some of the core concepts connected to climate change: carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and emissions from energy use.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-03-23

77

Global Climatic Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cites some of the evidence which suggests that the production of carbon dioxide and methane from human activities has begun to change the climate. Describes some measures which should be taken to stop or slow this progression. (RT)

Houghton, Richard A.; Woodwell, George M.

1989-01-01

78

Rapid climate change  

SciTech Connect

Interactions between insolation changes due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a climate model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the climate system during periods of documented rapid climate change, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid climate shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current climate. 53 refs.

Morantine, M.C. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

79

Climate Change Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate change has emerged as one of the major challenges for mankind in the centuries to come. The strongly modified composition of the atmosphere, due to emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosol particles, leads to an enhanced greenhouse effect and also intensified backscattering of solar radiation by aerosol particles. The resulting global mean warming will have a major impact on the entire cryosphere, with global consequences via mean sea level rise and redistributed precipitation. This introductory presentation will summarize the emergence of the topic, its already observed consequences for the cryosphere, and it will also discuss issues in climate policy making when dealing with the climate change challenge.

Grassl, Hartmut

2011-09-01

80

Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

1989-04-01

81

Climate Change 1994  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations Environment Program and the World Meterological Organization set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 to provide an authoritative international consensus of scientific opinion on climate change. This report, prepared by IPCC Working Groups I and II, reviews the latest scientific evidence on the following key topics: radiative forcing of climate change; the latest values of global warming potential (used to compare the potential effect on future climate of different anthropogenic factors); the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere; and an evaluation of scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers in climatology and environmental science, as well as environmental and science policy, will benefit from this book.

Houghton, John T.; Meira Filho, L. G.; Bruce, James P.; Lee, Hoesung; Callander, Bruce A.; Haites, E. F.

1995-06-01

82

Holocene climate variability in south-western France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation and climate changes in western France/northern Spain are documented for the last c. 9000 cal. yr BP in a well dated shelf core, KS05-10, retrieved in the southwestern margin of the Bay of Biscay (Basque country) (4322'765N, 216'744W). The continuous high resolution pollen record shows orbital and suborbital climate fluctuations similar to those noticed for the North Atlantic region and Greenland. A long-term Pinus, Quercus and Corylus forest reduction follows the cooling trend in Greenland and the general decrease of mid-latitude summer insolation until approximately 350 yr cal. BP. Within the millennial scale variability, the southwestern Bay of Biscay pollen record shows 6 main phases: The first phase, c. 9000 and 6600 cal. yr BP, is marked by a Pinus and deciduous Quercus forest with Corylus, indicating a humid and temperate climate. During the phase, c. 6600 - 4500 cal. yr BP, the pollen record shows a stable period of rich, mixed Quercus forest. During this interval occurred the establishment of Alnus, Ulmus, Tilia, Fraxinus excelsior-type and Fagus trees and the reduction of Pinus forest. This vegetation assemblage probably indicates an increase in moisture in relatively mild conditions. Fagus became continuously present in the region after c. 4500 c. cal. yr BP in agreement with what have been noticed by continental pollen sequences. An important contraction of Pinus, deciduous Quercus and Corylus forest occur after c. 3600 cal. yr BP. This evolution is contemporaneous to the maximum expansion of Fagus and the increase of heaths, which may be linked to a weakening of seasonality and more humid summer conditions. A strong forest reduction, involving all trees except pine, and a marked spread of herbaceous plants took place after c. 1400 cal. years BP. The presence of Juglans, Cerealia type and Castanea after c. 550 cal. yr BP and the re-expansion of Pinus after c. 350 cal. yr BP testify the increasing role played by the human activity in the region.

Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Trigo, R.; Rodrigues, T.; Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.

2012-04-01

83

International Finance and Climate Change  

E-print Network

International Finance and Climate Change Thursday, October 17, 2013 Breakfast ­ 8:30 a Principal Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Group at International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group Vladimir Stenek Senior Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Department of the International

Zhang, Junshan

84

Purdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for  

E-print Network

on the State of Indiana, as well as the potential opportunities and consequences of climate change mitigationPurdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for the State of Indiana Prepared for: The Honorable Richard G. Lugar Prepared by: The Purdue Climate Change Research Center

85

Poverty and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poor are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental change because they have the least amount of resources with which to adapt, and they live in areas (e.g. flood plains, low-lying coastal areas, and marginal drylands) that are particularly vulnerable to the manifestations of climate change. By quantifying the various environmental, economic, and social factors that can contribute to poverty, we identify populations that are most vulnerable to poverty and poverty traps due to environmental change. We define vulnerability as consisting of risk (probability of event and exposed elements), resiliency, and capacity to respond. Resiliency captures the social system's ability to absorb a natural disaster while retaining the same basic structure, organization, and ways of functioning, as well as its general capacity to adapt to stress and change. Capacity to respond is a surrogate for technical skills, institutional capabilities, and efficacy within countries and their economies. We use a "climate change multiplier" to account for possible increases in the frequency and severity of natural events due to climate change. Through various analytical methods, we quantify the social, political, economic, and environmental factors that contribute to poverty or poverty traps. These data sets are then used to determine vulnerability through raster multiplication in geospatial analysis. The vulnerability of a particular location to climate change is then mapped, with areas of high vulnerability clearly delineated. The success of this methodology indicates that it is indeed possible to quantify the effects of climate change on global vulnerability to natural disasters, and can be used as a mechanism to identify areas where proactive measures, such as improving adaptation or capacity to respond, can reduce the humanitarian and economic impacts of climate change.

van der Vink, G.; Franco, E.; Fuckar, N. S.; Kalmbach, E. R.; Kayatta, E.; Lankester, K.; Rothschild, R. E.; Sarma, A.; Wall, M. L.

2008-05-01

86

Current Climate Variability & Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and climate change. The next section guides students through the exploration of temporal changes in global temperature from the surface to the lower stratosphere. Students discover that there has been global warming over the past several decades, and the subsequent section allows them to consider solar radiation and greenhouse gases as possible causes of this warming. Students then zoom in on different latitudinal zones to examine changes in temperature for each zone and hypothesize about why one zone may have warmed more than others. The final section, prior to the answering of the essential questions, is an examination of the following effects of the current change in temperatures: loss of sea ice; rise of sea level; loss of permafrost loss; and moistening of the atmosphere. The lab addresses 14 climate-literacy concepts and all seven climate-literacy principles through data and images that are mainly NASA products. It focuses on the satellite era of climate data; therefore, 1979 is the typical starting year for most datasets used by students. Additionally, all time-series analysis end with the latest year with full-year data availability; thus, the climate variability and trends truly are 'current.'

Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

2013-12-01

87

Climate Change: Good for Us?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity with the objective of encouraging students to think about the effects of climate change. Explains background information on dependence to climate and discuses whether climate change is important. Provides information for the activity, extensions, and evaluation. (YDS)

Oblak, Jackie

2000-01-01

88

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the greenhouse effect is related to global warming and how global warming impacts our planet, including global climate change. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and how we react to these changes are the main points of focus of this lesson.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

89

Solar Influence: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video, the sixth in the National Academies Climate Change, Lines of Evidence series, explores the hypothesis that changes in solar energy output may be responsible for observed global surface temperature rise. Several lines of evidence, such as direct satellite observations, are reviewed.

Council, National R.; Academies, The N.

90

Climate Change Major information sources  

E-print Network

Wh #12;3 What is the evidence, causes and consequences of changes in Earth's climate since the pre about the environmental, social, and economic consequences of climate changes since the pre1 Climate Change Major information sources: Climate Change : IPCC Synthesis Reports at http

91

Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD SPECIAL REPORT 290 #12;#12;Committee on Climate Change and U Washington, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation TRANSPORTATION

Sheridan, Jennifer

92

Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture  

E-print Network

contribute to changes in global climate patterns. Global warming can occur from a variety of causes, both generally to large scale weather patterns in time or space, i.e. a tropical climate. Climate Change & Global Warming Climate Change: Any systematic change in the state of the atmosphere (temperature, humidity

93

Climate change and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change, although a natural phenomenon, is accelerated by human activities. Disaster policy response to climate change is dependent on a number of factors, such as readiness to accept the reality of climate change, institutions and capacity, as well as willingness to embed climate change risk assessment and management in development strategies. These conditions do not yet exist universally. A

Geoff O'Brien; Phil O'Keefe; Joanne Rose; Ben Wisner

2006-01-01

94

CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVES AND NEPAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes various aspects of the climate change issues that could be of interest to Nepal. It also describes the climate change activities in Nepal. Being a signatory of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and looking to the considerable vulnerable situation with the lack of resources to cope with the impacts of the climate changes,

Shobhakar Dhakal

95

Climate Change and Runoff Management  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Runoff Management in Wisconsin Fox-Wolf Watershed Alliance May 10, 2011 David S of Engineering #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts of a changing climate J. Magnuson Source: IPCC 2007 Potter, et al. A longer record is better! #12;What about

Sheridan, Jennifer

96

Climate change and marine plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how climate change will affect the planet is a key issue worldwide. Questions concerning the pace and impacts of climate change are thus central to many ecological and biogeochemical studies, and addressing the consequences of climate change is now high on the list of priorities for funding agencies. Here, we review the interactions between climate change and plankton communities,

Graeme C. Hays; Anthony J. Richardson; Carol Robinson

2005-01-01

97

EPA's Climate Change Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this site in order to present or direct users to accurate and timely social, scientific, and logistic information on the very broad issue of climate change and global warming in a way that is accessible and meaningful to all parts of society. The subtopics covered are climate - which includes information on global warming or The Greenhouse Effect -, emissions - with information on the Greenhouse Gases -, impacts, and actions, including what you can do to help with the problem of global warming. Specific information is presented for Concerned Citizens, Kids and Educators, Small Business and Industry and how they can help with the issue of global warming, Public Decision makers, International, Coastal Residents, Health Professionals, Meteorologists, and Wildlife Advocates. Some features are News, Calendar, Publications, Presentations (slide shows), Online tools (including software, calculators, case studies, and document searches), Science Frequently Asked Questions, Uncertainties, Glossary, and Links. The United States has based its climate change policies on the conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has provided an authoritative international consensus on the science of climate change.

98

Climate-change scenarios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the United States Congress passed the Global Change Research Act directing the Executive Branch of government to assess the potential effects of predicted climate change and variability on the nation. This congressional action followed formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 by the United Nations Environmental Program and World Meteorological Organization. Some 2,000 scientists from more than 150 nations contribute to the efforts of the IPCC. Under coordination of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the congressionally ordered national assessment has divided the country into 19 regions and five socio-economic sectors that cut across the regions: agriculture, coastal and marine systems, forests, human health, and water. Potential climate-change effects are being assessed in each region and sector, and those efforts collectively make up the national assessment. This document reports the assessment of potential climate-change effects on the Rocky Mountain/Great Basin (RMGB) region which encompasses parts of nine western states. The assessment began February 16-18, 1998 with a workshop in Salt Lake City co-convened by Frederic H. Wagner of Utah State University and Jill Baron of the U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (BRD). Invitations were sent to some 300 scientists and stakeholders representing 18 socio-economic sectors in nine statesa?|

Wagner, F.H.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Baldwin, C.K.; Mearns, L.O.

2003-01-01

99

Anthropogenic climate change  

SciTech Connect

The climate modeling community would agree that the present generation of theoretical models cannot adequately answer important question about the climatic implications of increasing concentrations of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases. Society, however, is presently deciding by its action, or inaction, the policies that will deal with the extent and results of our collective flatulence. In this situation, an engineering approach to estimating the developing pattern of anthropogenic climate change is appropriate. For example, Budyko has argued that, while scientists may have made great advances in modelling the flow around an airfoil, engineers make extensive use of empirical equations and measurements to design airplanes that fly. Budyko and Izreal have produced an encyclopedic treatise summarizing the results of Soviet researchers in applying empirical and semiempirical methods to estimating future climatic patterns, and some of their ensuring effects. These techniques consist mainly of statistical relationships derived from 1850-1950 network data and of patterns revealed by analysis of paleoclimatic data. An important part of the Soviet effort in anthropogenic climate-change studies is empirical techniques that represent independent verification of the results of theoretical climate models.

Budyko, M.I.; Izreal, Yu.A. (eds.)

1991-01-01

100

Status of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Status of Climate Change 2013 CaTee Conference San Antonio 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Menu for Today IPCC 2013: Assessment Report #5 Facts about Climate Change... Who will Win, Who will Lose What Needs to be Done ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 IPCC #5 No great surprises - Sharper language Uncertainties are still large Essentially...

North, G.

2013-01-01

101

Understanding and Attributing Climate Change  

E-print Network

9 Understanding and Attributing Climate Change Coordinating Lead Authors: Gabriele C. Hegerl (USA. Nicholls, J.E. Penner and P.A. Stott, 2007: Under- standing and Attributing Climate Change. In: Climate of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M

Box, Jason E.

102

Biological Impacts of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may

McCarty, John P.

103

The Mathematics Climate Change  

E-print Network

must be used by US Congress before funding large projects. #12;Examples: Asteroids and Global Warming Warming: Probability of global warming is 1, it is happening Will produce a permanent loss of about $2;Evaluating global warming #12;The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) nds that human - induced

Zeeman, Mary Lou

104

Emissions versus climate change  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change is likely to offset some of the improvements in air quality expected from reductions in pollutant emissions. A comprehensive analysis of future air quality over North America suggests that, on balance, the air will still be cleaner in coming decades....

105

Coping with climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Second North American Conference on Preparing for Climate Change may be the most ambitious assemblage of experts ever to assess impact and response strategies to the twin challenges of greenhouse warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Presentations were made by over 160 scientists, environmental leaders and policy makers from the Western Hemisphere, Europe and Asia in 38 sessions over a

Topping; J. C. Jr

1989-01-01

106

Confronting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage

Roach, Ronald

2009-01-01

107

Climate Change? When? Where?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city. The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is

Boon, Helen

2009-01-01

108

Biological Effects of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How important is climate change--something that has occurred throughout Earth's history? Can ecosystems tolerate the magnitude and rate of future change? How will other conservation threats interact with climate change? How likely are widespread extinction

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee Jr., Richard E.

2008-10-01

109

Volcanoes and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Major volcanic eruptions alter the Earth's radiative balance, as volcanic ash and gas clouds absorb terrestrial radiation and scatter a significant amount of the incoming solar radiation, an effect known as "radiative forcing" that can last from two to three years following a volcanic eruption. This results in reduced temperatures in the troposphere, and changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. This site uses text, photographs, and links to related sites to describe volcano-induced climate change.

110

Climate Kids: What is Global Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A question and answer format is used to differentiate between weather and climate, and to provide a brief overview of global warming. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

111

Sea-salt aerosol response to climate change: Last Glacial Maximum, preindustrial, and doubled carbon dioxide climates  

E-print Network

carbon dioxide climates Natalie M. Mahowald,1 Jean-Franc¸ois Lamarque,1 Xue Xi Tie,1 and Eric Wolff2-salt aerosols to climate change for the Last Glacial Maximum, preindustrial, current, and doubled carbon dioxide the current climate and a doubled carbon dioxide climate. While ice core studies show twofold to fivefold

Mahowald, Natalie

112

Climate Change and Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A senior researcher discusses extinction due to global warming in this two-minute sound segment. He says that as climate warms, species will probably move upslope and towards the poles but in many cases, that may put species that are found on mountain tops at risk. Species with small ranges or lowland species that may not be able to get to mountain slopes and find equitable climate will die out. His study suggests that as many as one million species of plants and animals worldwide could be facing extinction as a result of climate change. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

2004-07-12

113

The origin of climate changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Investigation on climate change is coordinated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has the delicate task of collecting recent knowledge on climate change and the related impacts of the observed changes, and then developing a consensus statement from these findings. The IPCC's last review, published at the end of 2007, summarised major findings on the present

P. Delecluse

2008-01-01

114

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change

115

Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, irreversible changes in climate may have a major effect on the economies of the world. The social costs of climate change will vary dramatically from country to country. This landmark assessment from Working Group III of the IPCC addresses the costs of climate change, both in terms of society and equity issues, and the economic burden of combating adverse

James P. Bruce; Hoesung Lee; Erik F. Haites

1996-01-01

116

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

Polz, Martin

117

Perception of climate change.  

PubMed

"Climate dice," describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons, have become more and more "loaded" in the past 30y, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3?) warmer than the climatology of the 1951-1980 base period. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface during the base period, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change. PMID:22869707

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto

2012-09-11

118

Climate Change and Citizen Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how citizen observations can document the impact of climate change on plants and animals. It introduces the topic of phenology and data collection, the impact of climate change on phenology, and how individuals can become citizen scientists.

Citizen Science Central, Cornell L.

119

Health Effects of Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

... over generations. TODAY It is now established that climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. These ... are becoming alert to the dynamic relationship between climate change and human health. Some of these impacts are ...

120

Climate change and child health.  

PubMed

Postindustrial human activity has contributed to rising atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases causing global warming and climate change. The adverse effects of climate change affect children disproportionately, especially in the developing world. Urgent action is necessary to mitigate the causes and adapt to the negative effects of climate change. Paediatricians have an important role in managing the effects of climate change on children and promoting sustainable development. PMID:21335625

Seal, Arnab; Vasudevan, Chakrapani

2011-12-01

121

Sensitivity of deep lake temperature to past and future climatic changes: A modeling study for Lac d'Annecy, France, and Ammersee, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotope ratios (?18O) of deep-lake ostracod valves can provide excellent estimates of the oxygen isotopic composition of past atmospheric precipitation (?18OP). One of the major steps of such a ?18OP reconstruction is the calculation of the ?18O of the lake water (?18OL) from the valve ?18O, which includes an appropriate estimate of the past water temperature during valve formation. In order to simulate changes in lake vertical temperature profile and specifically the bottom water temperature during ostracod valve formation, we have redeveloped a one-dimensional eddy diffusion thermal lake model including a lake ice model and refined it by including a seasonal light extinction model. This model was tested for two different sites, Lac d'Annecy and Ammersee. Sensitivity studies show that the ostracod calcification temperature is approaching constant 3.7C for colder, but may significantly vary for warmer than present conditions. In Lac d'Annecy, such temperature effects can lead to a significant underestimation of positive ?18OP excursions. In Ammersee the underestimation is smaller because the hypolimnic temperatures are less sensitive to surface temperature changes. Our model can be used to better constrain such temperature effects and such further increase the quality of the ?18OL and ?18OP reconstruction.

Danis, P.-A.; von Grafenstein, U.; Masson-Delmotte, V.

2003-10-01

122

Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report  

E-print Network

of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change This summary, approved in detail at IPCC Plenary XXVII (Valencia, Spain out by the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It providesClimate Change 2007: Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers An Assessment

Pasternack, Gregory B.

123

CLIMATE CHANGE: A POLITICAL INTRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syllabus Summary Climate change has now grown from a scientific concern to one of the most pressing issues of our time. This seminar aims to look at the topic from a political viewpoint, and analyze the different mechanisms of cooperation in the fight against climate change. The first part provides an appraisal of climate change as a political issue: it

Franois Gemenne

124

4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 2875­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Climate change impact­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

125

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

126

Climate Change Action Plan Report  

E-print Network

Climate Change Action Plan Report Intermountain Region 2013 National Park Service Resource Stewardship and Science Landscape Conservation and Climate Change Division #12;About this Report Each National Park Service is responding to the challenge of climate change; and (2) raise awareness among NPS

Hansen, Andrew J.

127

Designing Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

2012-12-01

128

Agriculture and climate change  

SciTech Connect

How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

Abelson, P.H.

1992-07-03

129

Population and climate change.  

PubMed

To review, the four broad dimensions of any complex human problem, including climate change, are the human population, economics, culture, and environment. These dimensions interact with one another in all directions and on many time-scales. From 2010 to 2050, the human population is likely to grow bigger, more slowly, older, and more urban. It is projected that by 2050 more than 2.6 billion people (almost 94% of global urban growth) will be added to the urban population in today's developing countries. That works out to 1.26 million additional urban people in today's developing countries every week from 2010 to 2050. Humans alter the climate by emitting greenhouse gases, by altering planetary albedo, and by altering atmospheric components. Between 1900 and 2000, humans' emissions of carbon into the atmosphere increased fifteenfold, while the numbers of people increased less than fourfold. Population growth alone, with constant rates of emissions per person, could not account for the increase in the carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The world economy grew sixteenfold in the twentieth century, accompanied by enormous increases in the burning of gas, oil, and coal. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, population grew much faster in developing countries than in high-income countries, and, compared with population growth, the growth of carbon emissions to the atmosphere was even faster in developing countries than in high-income countries. The ratio of emissions-to-population growth rates was 2.8 in developing countries compared with 1.6 in high-income countries. Emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases are influenced by the sizes and density of settlements, the sizes of households, and the ages of householders. Between 2010 and 2050, these demographic factors are anticipated to change substantially. Therefore demography will play a substantial role in the dynamics of climate changes. Climate changes affect many aspects of the living environment, including human settlements, food production, and diseases. These changes will affect poor people more severely than rich, and poor nations more severely than rich. Yet not enough is known to predict quantitatively many details that will matter enormously to future people and other species. Three kinds of responses are related to demographic issues that affect climate changes: universal secondary education, voluntary contraception and maternal health services, and smarter urban design and construction. These responses may prevent, reduce, or ameliorate the impacts of climate changes. They are as relevant to rich countries as to poor, though in ways that are as different as are rich countries and poor. They are desirable in their own right because they improve the lives of the people they affect directly; and they are desirable for their beneficial effects on the larger society and globe. They are effective responses to the twin challenges of reducing poverty and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:21553595

Cohen, Joel E

2010-06-01

130

Free Podcasts on Climate and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In partnership with the National Science Digital Library and Apple, NCAR and UCAR offer podcasts that provide a brief and accessible overview on climate and climate change. These podcasts, short 5-8 minute videos you can download on your computer or iPod, are a part of the NSDL on iTunes U collection.

Payo, Robert

131

Scenarios of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of current and prospected climate changes, their causes and implied threats, and of a possible route to keep the changes within a tolerable level. The global mean temperature has up to 2005 risen by almost 0.8C, and the change expected by 2100 is as large as glacial-interglacial changes in the past, which were commonly spread out over 10000 years. As is well known, the principle actor is man-made CO2, which, together with other anthropogenic gases, enhances the atmospheres greenhouse effect. The only man-made cooling agent appears to be atmospheric aerosols. Atmospheric CO2 has now reached levels unprecedented during the past several million years. Principal threats are a greatly reduced biodiversity (species extinction), changes in the atmospheric precipitation pattern, more frequent weather extremes, and not the least, sea level rise. The expected precipitation pattern will enhance water scarcity in and around regions that suffer from water shortage already, affecting many countries. Sea level rise will act on a longer time scale. It is expected to amount to more than 50 cm by 2100, and over the coming centuries the potential rise is of the order of 10 m. A global-mean temperature increase of 2C is often quoted as a safe limit, beyond which irreversible effects must be expected. To achieve that limit, a major, rapid, and coordinated international effort will be needed. Up to the year 2050, the man-made CO2 releases must be reduced by at least 50%. This must be accompanied by a complete overhaul of the global energy supply toward depending increasingly on the Suns supply of energy, both directly and in converted form, such as wind energy. Much of the information and insight available today has been generated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in particular its Fourth Assessment Report of 2007, which greatly advanced both public attention and political action.

Gral, H.

2009-09-01

132

Climate change and ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What does it matter if the climate changes? This kind of question does not admit of a scientific answer. Natural science can tell us what some of its biophysical effects are likely to be; social scientists can estimate what consequences such effects could have for human lives and livelihoods. But how should we respond? The question is, at root, about how we think we should live--and different people have myriad different ideas about this. The distinctive task of ethics is to bring some clarity and order to these ideas.

Hayward, Tim

2012-12-01

133

Climate change and security.  

PubMed

Climate change was originally expected to have its main impact on countries in temperate latitudes which, because of their relative wealth, would be best able to cope. It is now far more likely that much poorer states in the tropics and sub-tropics will experience severe impacts. This is compounded by the widening socioeconomic divide and the combination of these divisions, with environmental constraints, will have a profound impact on human security. The dangerous response to the prospects of mass migration and radical social movements is to attempt to maintain control without addressing underlying problems. Instead, there is an urgent need to embrace new concepts of sustainable security. PMID:19435111

Rogers, Paul

2009-04-01

134

Contrails and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, learners analyze the role of condensation trails from jets, or contrails, and their role in climate change. Contrails are thin ice clouds that form from the burning of jet fuel and release of water vapor. The issue with contrails is that narrow trails can spread and coalesce to form significant banks of cirrus-type clouds. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

135

Prehistoric Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners use fossils to infer temperatures 55 million years ago, at the sites where the fossils were found. Using their observation skills, learners examine fossils of tree leaves and sort them into "smooth" and "toothed" leaves. Learners follow the process founded by Smithsonian paleontologist Scott Wing (featured in a video) to determine the temperature at the site where the fossils were found. Learners are challenged to: distinguish between smooth and toothed leaves using a scientific method called "leaf-margin analysis"; calculate the smooth-leaf percentage; calculate average annual temperature at two fossil sites; compare calculations between sites; and consider how prehistoric climate change matters today.

Institution, Smithsonian

2009-01-01

136

Climate Variability and Change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on climate variability and change and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2007-01-01

137

Enviropedia: Introduction to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the concept of climate change and discusses past climate changes, as evidenced by sea sediments and sedimentary rock studied by paleoclimatologists. More recently, ice cores, tree rings, and historical records tell of changes such as interglacial periods and the little ice age. Other factors like volcanoes, changes in the Earth's orbit, comets, and meteorites that may alter the energy balance, change the greenhouse effect, or cause climate forcing are also explored in these pages.

138

Climate Change and Extreme Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module discusses how a changing climate can also lead to changes in extreme weather events on the local scale. The role of natural variability is also explained. The module describes how climate change can have both positive and negative effects, depending on the situation, location, and the vulnerability of the population. While research on climate change and extreme events is still relatively new, the module discusses what changes scientists think are likely if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise.

Comet

2012-08-14

139

Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International  

E-print Network

for the fact that in the real world agents vary in both: (1) their resources to mitigate climate change, and (2 were more skeptical about climate change in the real world cooperated less in our games. Insofar states, these results suggest that voluntary cooperation to avoid climate catastrophe in the real world

West, Stuart

140

Climate change and vegetation response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, as many other current investigations in palaeoecology is focused on the long-term dynamics of vegetation and the extent to which they are controlled by climate change. Climate and classes of climate change are defined and reviewed, and examples cited of vegetation response. The concepts of vegetation, plant community and equilibrium are examined, with particular emphasis on theories on

J. C. Ritchie

1986-01-01

141

Climate Change and Regional Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short module is an overview of the different effects climate change produces in different regions of the United States. In addition to discussing impacts already being experienced, the module presents information on how climate scientists use specialized models and statistical techniques to estimate how regional climates are likely to change in the future.

Comet

2012-08-14

142

Human Engineering and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate change is arguably one of the biggest problems that confront us today. There is ample evidence that climate change is likely to affect adversely many aspects of life for all people around the world, and that existing solutions such as geoengineering might be too risky and ordinary behavioural and market solutions might not be sufficient to mitigate climate

S. Matthew Liao; Anders Sandberg; Rebecca Roache

2012-01-01

143

Climate Change on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today, Mars is cold and dry. With a 7 mbar mean surface pressure, its thin predominantly CO2 atmosphere is not capable of raising global mean surface temperatures significantly above its 217K effective radiating temperature, and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is equivalent to a global ocean only 10 microns deep. Has Mars always been in such a deep freeze? There are several lines of evidence that suggest it has not. First, there are the valley networks which are found throughout the heavily cratered terrains. These features are old (3.8 Gyr) and appear to require liquid water to form. A warm climate early in Mars' history has often been invoked to explain them, but the precise conditions required to achieve this have yet to be determined. Second, some of the features seen in orbiter images of the surface have been interpreted in terms of glacial activity associated with an active hydrological cycle some several billion years ago. This interpretation is controversial as it requires the release of enormous quantities of ground water and enough greenhouse warming to raise temperatures to the melting point. Finally, there are the layered terrains that characterize both polar regions. These terrains are geologically young (10 Myr) and are believed to have formed by the slow and steady deposition of dust and water ice from the atmosphere. The individual layers result from the modulation of the deposition rate which is driven by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. The ongoing research into each of these areas of Martian climate change will be reviewed, and similarities to the Earth's climate system will be noted.

Haberle, R. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

144

Communicating Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss the various challenges scientists must confront in efforts to communicate the science and implications of climate change to the public. Among these challenges is the stiff headwind we must fight of a concerted disinformation effort designed to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding of the problem and the reality of the underlying societal threat. We also must fight the legacy of the publics perception of the scientist. That is to say, we must strive to communicate in plainspoken language that neither insults the intelligence of our audience, nor hopelessly loses them in jargon and science-speak. And through all of this, we must maintain our composure and good humor even in the face of what we might consider the vilest of tactics by our opposition. When it comes to how best to get our message out to the broader public, I dont pretend to have all of the answers. But I will share some insights and anecdotes that I have accumulated over the course of my own efforts to inform the public about the reality of climate change and the potential threat that it represents.

Mann, M. E.

2009-12-01

145

Uncertainty in Climate Change Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn why trout are important indicators in Wisconsin’s changing climate, and why the uncertainty of global climate models complicates predictions about their survival, in this video produced by the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board.

Ecb, Wisconsin

2010-11-30

146

Abrupt climate change revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taken together, evidence from east Greenland's mountain moraines and results from atmospheric models appear to provide the answer to a question which has long dogged abrupt climate change research: namely, how were impacts of the Younger Dryas (YD), Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) and Heinrich (H) events transmitted so quickly and efficiently throughout the northern hemisphere and tropics? The answer appears to lie in extensive winter sea ice formation which created Siberian-like conditions in the regions surrounding the northern Atlantic. Not only would this account for the ultra cold conditions in the north, but, as suggested by models, it would have pushed the tropical rain belt southward and weakened the monsoons. The requisite abrupt changes in the extent of sea ice cover are of course best explained by the turning on and turning off of the Atlantic's conveyor circulation.

Broecker, Wallace S.

2006-12-01

147

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National  

E-print Network

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National Adaptation Programme Meg Patel Defra #12 change #12;Weather & climate impacts - economic, societal, environmental Water consumption per capita;Legislative Framework Climate Change Act 2008 Adaptation Reporting Power 2011 Climate Change Risk Assessment

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

148

Ecological Impacts of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 28-page downloadable booklet is based on Ecological Impacts of Climate Change (2009), a report by an independent panel of experts convened by the National Research Council. It explains general themes about the ecological consequences of climate change and identifies examples of ecological changes across the United States. Also available are powerpoints on current effects of climate changes. Each example is of a specific species. The powerpoints are tailored for different parts of the country.

2009-03-10

149

Climate change and marine life.  

PubMed

A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

Richardson, Anthony J; Brown, Christopher J; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T; Duarte, Carlos M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J; O'Connor, Mary I; Pandolfi, John M; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

2012-12-23

150

Climate change and marine life  

PubMed Central

A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F.; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V.; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J.; O'Connor, Mary I.; Pandolfi, John M.; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S.; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.

2012-01-01

151

Earth's Climate and Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the way climate affects our world. Global climate, regional climate, and climate change are all explained. There is an important section on what controls climate change, like the sun, volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, snow, and ice. there is a module called Energy Choices and Climate Change that provides a new way to look at issues related to energy and climate change. In the scenarios within this module, you will be able to make decisions about the types and amount of energy used and see what effect your decisions have on the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere. Your goal is to reduce the amount of warming greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere from fossil fuel emissions while keeping costs within reason.

2004-05-11

152

Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.

153

Preparing for climate change.  

PubMed

There is a distinct probability that humankind is changing the climate and at the same time raising the sea level of the world. The most plausible projections we have now suggest a rise in mean world temperature of between 1 degree Celsius and 2 degrees Celsius by 2030--just 40 years hence. This is a bigger change in a smaller period than we know of in the experience of the earth's ecosystems and human societies. It implies that by 2030 the earth will be warmer than at any time in the past 120,000 years. In the same period, we are likely to see a rise of 15-30 centimeters in sea level, partly due to the melting of mountain glaciers and partly to the expansion of the warmer seas. This may not seem much--but it comes on top of the 12-centimeter rise in the past century and we should recall that over 1/2 the world's population lives in zones on or near coasts. A quarter meter rise in sea level could have drastic consequences for countries like the Maldives or the Netherlands, where much of the land lies below the 2-meter contour. The cause of climate change is known as the 'greenhouse effect'. Greenhouse glass has the property that it is transparent to radiation coming in from the sun, but holds back radiation to space from the warmed surfaces inside the greenhouse. Certain gases affect the atmosphere in the same way. There are 5 'greenhouse gases' and we have been roofing ourselves with them all: carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have increased 25% above preindustrial levels and are likely to double within a century, due to tropical forest clearance and especially to the burning of increasing quantities of coal and other fossil fuels; methane concentrations are now twice their preindustrial levels as a result of releases from agriculture; nitrous oxide has increased due to land clearance for agriculture, use of fertilizers, and fossil fuel combustion; ozone levels near the earth's surface have increased due mainly to pollution from motor vehicles; and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been released in great quantities through their use in aerosol sprays, refrigerator fluids, and insulating foams. We can get rid of CFCs and curb the pollutants generating ozone, but it will be difficult to put the brake on either methane or nitrous oxide. And the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will demand major changes in energy policy as well as action to slow deforestation. It appears that we are already committed to rising temperatures and sea levels. The question is by how much, in which areas? A number of things can be done to prepare for these changes: Governments must recognize that there is a problem; Better models must be worked out, especially to define where the greatest impacts from climate change and sea level rise will hit; Reference scenarios must be developed to see what the impacts are likely to be in ecological, agricultural, social and economic terms; Every country should develop "avoidance strategies" to minimize risk (for example, by not building on land likely to be flooded); We must cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from human activities, by eliminating CFCs and adopting energy conservation programs and other measures to minimize CO2 release; Global agreements to protect the atmosphere are needed. PMID:12285901

Holdgate, M

1989-01-01

154

Forests, climate change and tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests are an important store of carbon within the global carbon cycle and increasingly play a role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The review illustrates that the cultural, economic and environmental services of forests that are utilized for tourism and recreation are being affected by climate change. In addition to the changes to the distribution and composition of forests

C. Michael Hall; Daniel Scott; Stefan Gssling

2011-01-01

155

Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

Change, Project A.; University, Purdue

156

Climate Change and Agriculture: Economic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is arguably the most important sector of the economy that is highly dependent on climate. A large body of scientific data and models have been developed to predict the impacts of the contemporary and future climate. Since the first IPCC Assessment Report was published in 1990, substantial efforts have been directed toward understand - ing climate change impacts on

John M. Antle

2008-01-01

157

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

158

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

159

Geomorphic responses to climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of this book is the response of landscapes to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic changes. During the past 40 ky the global climate has varied from full-glacial to interglacial. Global temperatures decreased between 40 and 20 ka culminating in full-glacial climatic conditions at 20 ka. This resulted in a sea level decline of 130 m. Only 8 to

W. B. Bull

1991-01-01

160

Methodological proposals for estimating the price of climate in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current project linking economists, geographers and mathematicians evaluates the price of climate in France. The economic data are mainly from housing surveys conducted by the INSEE. It consists in a total of 9,640 buyers of single-detached houses, 2,658 buyers of apartments, 3,447 tenants of single-detached houses and 8,615 tenants of apartments. Each transaction is located in space by X-Y geographical coordinates. The climatic data are derived from the Meteo-France data base (normal 1970-2000). They are related to (1) mean annual temperature, (2) mean temperature for January and July, (3) number of days with temperatures of less than -5 C in January and more than 30 C in July, (4) mean monthly rainfall, (5) rainfall in January and July, (6) number of days' precipitation in January and July. These data are recorded by a network of scattered weather stations. A raster GIS composed by ten data layers derived from a DEM and remote sensing images at 250 m resolution is used to initiate interpolations. Four types of interpolation techniques were tested. First we used regressions between climatic data (variables to be explained) and explanatory variables stored into the GIS. Second we used ordinary kriging; third a double step method linking regression and then kriging of the regression residuals. Finally we used a local interpolation method. Based on standard deviation values obtained by cross validation and R values, the comparison between the four methods shows that the last one reduces the residuals to the minimum and explains the maximum of variance. It was retained in our project to compute continuous field of the climatic data. The predicted values are then merged with the housing survey data. We use the hedonic price method (Rosen, 1974) to determine the price of climatic attributes, which are capitalized in land rents. Three econometric methods are used: a fixed-effects model estimated by OLS or PLS method and a mixed model with random intercepts. The identification problem, well-known in hedonic literature, is not a problem here, because climate is a non-produced good. Some explanatory variables may be endogenous; thus, we use the instrumental method. Finally, multicollinearity, detected by the condition number, occurs between climatic variables; thus we use a second estimation procedure, Partial Least Squares. The mean annual temperature has a positive significant effect on the housing price for owner occupiers: a rise of 1 C entails an increase in housing prices of 5.9-6.2% (according to the equation and estimation method). The sign is also positive for tenants, with values between 2.5 and 3.9%, which are roughly half as much as for owner-occupiers. The effect of warmer summers (mean July temperature minus mean annual temperature) is compounded with the preceding one for single-detached houses: an extra 1 C entails a price increase of 3.7 to 8.4% (depending on the model). This effect is insignificant for apartments. Hot summer days (more than 30 C) have a significant effect for owner-occupiers of single-detached houses and renters of apartments. At the median point, an extra day of heat lowers the value of housing by 4.3% (owner-occupiers) or by 1% (tenants). This effect is quadratic, probably due to seaside sites where hot summers are appreciated. French households are insensitive to cold winters, either the January temperature minus the mean annual temperature or the number of coldest days (less than - 5 C). The number of days' rain in January and July has a significant effect on real-estate values. The January sign is the expected: prices or rents fall by almost 1.2-2.3% for an extra day's rain. The number of days of rainfall in July also exerts a positive effect on the price of apartments (but not on the price of single-detached houses), indicating that households pay more for their housing (1.4 to 4.4%) for an extra summer day's rain. Rosen S., 1974. Hedonic prices and implicit markets: product differentiation in pure competition. J. of Polit. Economy 82: 34-55.

Joly, D.; Brossard, T.; Cardot, H.; Cavailhes, J.; Hilal, M.; Wavresky, P.

2009-09-01

161

Climate change hastens population extinctions  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to alter the distribution and abundance of many species. Predictions of climate-induced population extinctions are supported by geographic range shifts that correspond to climatic warming, but few extinctions have been linked mechanistically to climate change. Here we show that extinctions of two populations of a checkerspot butterfly were hastened by increasing variability in precipitation, a phenomenon predicted by global climate models. We model checkerspot populations to show that changes in precipitation amplified population fluctuations, leading to rapid extinctions. As populations of checkerspots and other species become further isolated by habitat loss, climate change is likely to cause more extinctions, threatening both species diversity and critical ecosystem services. PMID:11972020

McLaughlin, John F.; Hellmann, Jessica J.; Boggs, Carol L.; Ehrlich, Paul R.

2002-01-01

162

Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate scientists configure computer model parameters through the portal user interface. After model configuration, scientists then launch the computing task. Next, data is atomized and distributed to computing engines that are running on citizen participants' computers. Scientists will receive notifications on the completion of computing tasks, and examine modeling results via visualization modules of the portal. Computing tasks, computing resources, and participants are managed by project managers via portal tools. A portal prototype has been built for proof of concept. Three forums have been setup for different groups of users to share information on science aspect, technology aspect, and educational outreach aspect. A facebook account has been setup to distribute messages via the most popular social networking platform. New treads are synchronized from the forums to facebook. A mapping tool displays geographic locations of the participants and the status of tasks on each client node. A group of users have been invited to test functions such as forums, blogs, and computing resource monitoring.

Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

2011-12-01

163

Ground Water and Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

2013-01-01

164

Congress Assesses Climate Change Paleodata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The `hockey stick' graph of surfacetemperature change overthe past millennium and implicationsfor climate change assessments wasthe subject of two hearings held by the U.S.House of Representatives Energy and CommerceSubcommittee on Oversight andInvestigations, on 19 and 27 July. These hearingsmarked only the second time that thecommittee has discussed climate issuessince George W. Bush became president.

Bierly, Eugene W.

2006-08-01

165

Sorting Out Climate Change Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much debate has swirled around the idea of human-induced climate change for several decades now. The idea that human activities could alter the composition of the seemingly massive atmosphere seemed far- fetched, let alone change global-scale patterns in temperature and precipitation. Climate science has made dramatic leaps forward over these past decades to help paint a clearer and clearer picture

Michael A. Crimmins

166

Climate change and its consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are humans changing the climate? In its latest assessment, scientists on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change say we probably are, and the consequences could be serious. But uncertainties about risks and response costs make it difficult to formulate a specific long-term action plan. The potential risks the panel identifies, however, are sufficient to warrant additional actions beyond those now

M. A. Toman; J. Firor; J. Darmstadter

1996-01-01

167

Could climate change precipitate peace?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing interest in the social consequences of climate change has fueled speculation that global warming could lead to an increase in various forms of political violence. This article examines the effects of climate change on international conflict subsequent to the onset of European industrialization. Surprisingly, analysis at the system level suggests that global warming is associated with a reduction in

Erik Gartzke

2012-01-01

168

Market Strategies for Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of climate change has attracted increasing business attention in the past decade. Whereas companies initially aimed primarily at influencing the policy debate, corporate strategies increasingly include economic responses. Existing classifications for climate change strategies however still reflect the political, non-market components. Using empirical information from the largest multinational companies worldwide, this article examines current market responses, focusing on

Ans Kolk; Jonatan Pinkse

2004-01-01

169

Comedy, Economics, and Climate Change!  

E-print Network

Comedy, Economics, and Climate Change! Tuesday, October 22, 2013 12:00 - 1:30 p.m. University Club for reforming our tax system and tackling climate change with a revenue-neutral carbon tax that places higher, South Room Arizona State University, Tempe campus (lunch will be provided) Yoram Bauman Environmental

Zhang, Junshan

170

Generating Arguments About Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article from the NSTA Press Journal, Science Scope, students participate in a unit on global climate change by engaging in the process of scientific argumentation. The lessons presented in this article were created using the generate-an-argument model to help students understand climate change science. The article is free to both NSTA members and nonmembers.

Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin

2012-03-01

171

Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International  

E-print Network

.1007/s10584-012-0579-1 "Grand Paris": regional landscape change to adapt city to climate warming V. #12;"Grand Paris": regional landscape change to adapt city to climate warming V. Masson & Y. Lion & A and the local microclimate. 1 Introduction The goal of this interdisciplinary study is to show how city planning

Ribes, Aurélien

172

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This organization was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change. The website contains reports, publications, technical papers, press releases, and official documents related to climate change.

World Meteorological Organization, United N.

173

Climate change and forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the impacts of climate change on forest fires and describes how this, in turn, will impact on the forests of the United States. In addition to reviewing existing studies on climate change and forest fires we have used two transient general circulation models (GCMs), namely the Hadley Centre and the Canadian GCMs, to estimate fire season severity

M. D Flannigan; B. J Stocks; B. M Wotton

2000-01-01

174

Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

2011-01-01

175

Generating Arguments about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is a different and fun way to engage students with an extremely important topic, climate change, which cuts across scientific and nonscientific disciplines. While climate change itself may not be listed in the curriculum of every science class, the authors contend that such a unit is appropriate for virtually any science curriculum.

Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin

2012-01-01

176

SPRING 2011 + Solving climate change  

E-print Network

SPRING 2011 + Solving climate change one continent at a time + Supporting former child soldiers in Uganda Education improves global stability Studying abroad changes lives #12;CEHD.UMN.EDU 1 from the dean

Blanchette, Robert A.

177

Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Whether the characteristics of tropical cyclones have changed or will change in a warming climate and if so, how has been the subject of considerable investigation, often with conflicting results. Large amplitude ...

Knutson, Thomas R.

178

AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Aaas

179

1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate  

E-print Network

Ange And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011Alysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;4 DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE. Deforestation, land use change and climate...................................................... 43 4. Summary

180

Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary,  

E-print Network

will reverse in the near future. 1 Introduction Since the end of the last ice age the earth's climate has enjoyed a period of relative stability. The earth is now in a period of rising global temperatures millenia, in an effort to estimate the natural variability of the earth's climate. These series often

Reale, Marco

181

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION: PHYSIOLOGY, LIFE HISTORY, AND ECOSYSTEM CHANGE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center of the uncertainties with climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems is understanding where transitions

182

The World Bank: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change continues to be of grave concern to many, and the World Bank is particularly concerned with the ramifications it will have on people in the developing world. Their Climate Change site is designed to provide an overview of their work on this vexing problem including information about their current projects, data sets, research papers, and books. Visitors should start by looking over their weblog, and then take a look at their "News" area. Here, they can learn about innovative carbon trading programs, engineering projects, and international agreements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change. The "Research" area has dozens of free publications, including the very relevant "Climate Resilient Cities" work, which discusses how city governments can better understand how to plan for the impact of climate change through sound urban planning.

183

Vegetation and climate since the last interglacial in the Vienne area (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomes and climate reconstructions are based on variations of the pollen content of the sediments. Pollen analysis was conducted on sediment deposits sampled at Chantemerle site (Vienne department, France). The pollen diagram covered only the last 7200 years BP. Consequently, additional pollen sequences, derived from the European Pollen Database, have been used to provide a first climate and biome reconstruction

Sverine Fauquette; Jol Guiot; Marianne Menut; Jacques-Louis de Beaulieu; Maurice Reille; Pascal Guenet

1999-01-01

184

Earth's Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1896, Svante Arrhenius published the first model of the effects of industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on Earth's climate. Since the days of Arrhenius, scientists have moved from pencils to supercomputers. Calculations take hours or days instead

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee Jr., Richard E.

2008-10-01

185

CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction Richard Allan, Department of Meteorology r.p.allan@reading.ac.uk #12;Text Books and References · Henson, B., Rough Guide to Climate Change http://www.amazon.co.uk/Climate-Change-Guides-Reference- Titles/dp/1858281059 · Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007, www

Allan, Richard P.

186

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government  

E-print Network

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local: RESOURCES THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT 3. Past and Future Climate Change and Its Impacts 4

Pedersen, Tom

187

Dictionary of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book represents a revision of the climate change lexicon that was prepared for the Second World Climate Conference in 1990. The conference had 1400 participants and consisted of a scientific component followed by a ministerial meeting. To foster communication among the different constituencies, a lexicon of climate and climate change was prepared for the participants. The dictionary includes definitions and descriptions of most of the scientific terms, organizations, and programs related to the physical aspects of climate change. Nearly 40% of the material describes organized projects, experiments, or programs, mostly international. Some information on biological topics, such as the difference between C3 and C4 plants, is also included. The length of definitions and descriptions ranges from one line to one or more pages, with the longer descriptions usually related to programs.

Maunder, W.J. (ed.)

1992-01-01

188

Climate change, wine, and conservation  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

2013-01-01

189

Climate change, wine, and conservation.  

PubMed

Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

2013-04-23

190

BIOFUELS, AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of ever-increasing petroleum prices combined with concerns about climate change, timing of adoption and rate of diffusion of land-based fuels and backstop technologies for transportation use are examined in this paper. A global model of land allocation joined with a Hotelling model has been developed. Using this framework, effects of climate and energy policies on world agricultural

Marie-Helene Hubert; Ujjayant Chakravorty; G. Cornelis van Kooten

2008-01-01

191

Climate change: Flawed science, or  

E-print Network

- Past climates 2. Impacts - Plants & animals - The seasons 3. Fundamental dilemma - Overpopulation-shaped valley of Glen Coe #12;Ice cores #12;Antarctic ice: the world's air museum Climate Records from changing seasons in a warming world. (2004) #12;Thompson, 2011 #12;Recent developments in LED technology

192

Extinction risk from climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change over the past ~30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of

Chris D. Thomas; Alison Cameron; Rhys E. Green; Michel Bakkenes; Linda J. Beaumont; Yvonne C. Collingham; Barend F. N. Erasmus; Marinez Ferreira de Siqueira; Alan Grainger; Lee Hannah; Lesley Hughes; Brian Huntley; Albert S. van Jaarsveld; Guy F. Midgley; Lera Miles; Miguel A. Ortega-Huerta; A. Townsend Peterson; Oliver L. Phillips; Stephen E. Williams

2004-01-01

193

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER SYSTEM Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012020 Prepared for: California consideration of climate change effects on highelevation hydropower supply and demand in California. Artificial

194

A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning  

E-print Network

A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning THE H. JOHN HEINZ III CENTER FOR SCIENCE, ECONOMICS" "Cities Preparing for Climate Change: A Study of 6 Urban Regions" "Adapting to Climate Change and Climate Change: A Guidance Manual for Local Governments in New Zealand" "Climate Adaptation: Risk

Ford, Andrew

195

Climate Change and Tourism Dr David Viner  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Tourism éCLAT Dr David Viner Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia d.viner@uea.ac.uk Tourism has a strong international dimension and is sensitive to any changes of climate that alter to attract visitors are likely to be vulnerable to climate change and the implementation of climate change

Feigon, Brooke

196

Natural and anthropogenic climate change  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of two parts: (1) progress for the period 9/1/91--3/31/92 and (2) the plan for the remaining period 4/1/92--8/31/92. The project includes two tasks: atmospheric radiation and improvement of climate models to evaluate the climatic effects of radiation changes. The atmospheric radiation task includes four subtasks: (1) Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM), (2) analysis of the water vapor continuum using line-by-line calculations to develop a parameterization for use in climate models, (3) parameterization of longwave radiation and (4) climate/radiation interactions of desert aerosols. Our effort in this period is focused on the first three subtasks. The improvement of climate models to evaluate the subtasks: (1) general circulation model study and (2) 2- D model development and application.

Ko, M.K.W.; Clough, S.A.; Molnar, G.I.; Iacono, M. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Wang, W.C. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States) State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center)

1992-03-01

197

Climate Change and Future World.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Climate change, as a security problem, is a global problem that could affect everyone, everywhere, and in many cases with negative repercussions. It constitutes a 'threat multiplier' that accelerates and amplifies existing trends, tensions, and instabilit...

S. Scanu

2013-01-01

198

Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

199

Taking Action on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this Government of Canada website, visitors can "learn about the science, impacts and adaptation to climate change and how individuals, governments, businesses, industry and communities take action by reducing greenhouse gas emissions." Through maps, graphs, and clear text, users can learn the basics of climate change and the greenhouse gases. The website details many of the ecological, economic, and global impacts of climate change. Users can find out about the One-Tonne Challenge, which encourages everyone to reduce their emissions. Teachers can find questions and activities to educate their students about climate change. The website also offers a calculator to estimate a user's current emissions, a series of videos instructing individuals how to create an energy efficient home and car, as well as publications and media resources. This site is also reviewed in the March 18, 2005 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

200

Climate Change and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, students explore, at their own pace, how global climate change may affect health issues. Issues include airborne diseases, developmental disorders, mental health disorders, vector-borne diseases and waterborne diseases.

Sciences, National I.; Domain, Teachers'

201

Climate Change is About... Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change Is About...Water tells the story of climate change and impacts on water in Bolivia through a range of voices and multimedia materials. Case studies bring the explanatory analysis of vulnerability and the social, economic and cultural impacts of climate change vividly to life. A Teaching and Activities Guide is available to help educators and learners delve into this material, understand the realities of climate change for affected communities, apply this to their own experiences and encourage citizenship in responding to it. The resources are designed to be flexible and accessible for use with secondary-level students upwards, and can be adapted for self-led or teacher-led exploration in both formal and informal settings.

Center, The D.

202

Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication  

E-print Network

Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour;1 Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour? Thomas D. Lowe 1 these kinds of messages (which have recently been dubbed `climate porn' (Ereaut and Segnit, 2006)), can

Watson, Andrew

203

Is Climate Change Predictable? Really?  

SciTech Connect

This project is the first application of a completely different approach to climate modeling, in which new prognostic equations are used to directly compute the evolution of two-point correlations. This project addresses three questions that are critical for the credibility of the science base for climate prediction: (1) What is the variability spectrum at equilibrium? (2) What is the rate of relaxation when subjected to external perturbations? (3) Can variations due to natural processes be distinguished from those due to transient external forces? The technical approach starts with the evolution equation for the probability distribution function and arrives at a prognostic equation for ensemble-mean two-point correlations, bypassing the detailed weather calculation. This work will expand our basic understanding of the theoretical limits of climate prediction and stimulate new experiments to perform with conventional climate models. It will furnish statistical estimates that are inaccessible with conventional climate simulations and likely will raise important new questions about the very nature of climate change and about how (and whether) climate change can be predicted. Solid progress on such issues is vital to the credibility of the science base for climate change research and will provide policymakers evaluating tradeoffs among energy technology options and their attendant environmental and economic consequences.

Dannevik, W P; Rotman, D A

2005-11-14

204

Climate Change and Knowledge Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is a global problem whose particular characteristics mean that public-sector policy is fundamental in tackling it: a public-sector policy implemented world-wide that requires the co-operation of a large number of very different stakeholders. Innovative instruments are needed that can overcome the difficulties inherent in a global challenge of this magnitude. This paper looks at climate change as an

M. C. Gallastegui; Ibon Galarraga

2010-01-01

205

Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Service, Congressional R.; Environment, National C.

206

Climate change epidemiology: methodological challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is now thought to be unequivocal, while its potential effects on global and public health cannot be ignored.\\u000a However, the complexities of the causal webs, the dynamics of the interactions and unpredictability mean that climate change\\u000a presents new challenges to epidemiology and magnifies existing methodological problems. This article reviews a number of such\\u000a challenges, including topics such as

Wei W. Xun; Aneire E. Khan; Edwin Michael; Paolo Vineis

2010-01-01

207

Global Climate Change and National Security  

E-print Network

5/16/2014 1 Global Climate Change and National Security RADM Jon White Oceanographer and Navigator of the Navy Director, Task Force Climate Change 15 May 2014 Our climate is changing ... Our world is changing Change Increases with Time CLIMATE CHANGE CONSIDERATIONS Maintenance Actions Major Refurbishment

Howat, Ian M.

208

Climate Change: Teaching Through Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine Mathematics and Science Alliance Dec. 6, 2007 Agenda 8:00 Welcome Puzzle Intro Overview: The Science of Climate Change Carbon Cycle Activity Data Analysis: Buoy Data Activity Using Technology Effectively 10:00-10:15 Break Links to the 2007 Maine Learning Results Introduction to Afternoon Exploration COSEE (COSEE Ocean-Climate beta website) Giovanni project (Givoanni: Arabian Sea Lesson) (Giovanni Graphing Activity) Earth Exploration Toolkit: Whither Arctic Sea Ice? (Whither Arctic Sea Ice?) Google Earth Climate Change Resources 11:15-12:00 Lunch Afternoon Resource Exploration Exploration Report and Discussion Antarctic Expedition Opportunity WAIS Divide Outreach Blog WAIS Divide Main Science Page Wrap-Up/Evaluation ...

Chad, Deb A.

2007-12-06

209

Global Climate Change Policy Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website summarizes the current administration's approach to global climate change, including the President's Program of Domestic and International Initiatives. These include a national goal to reduce emissions growth by 18 percent in the next ten years, substantially improve the emission reduction registry, protect and provide transferable credits for emissions reduction, increase funding for America's commitment to climate change, take action on the Science and Technology Review and a range of international climate initiatives. Descriptions of these programs, as well as their costs, are included.

House, The W.

210

Climate Change: The Sun's Role  

E-print Network

The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

Gerald E. Marsh

2007-06-23

211

Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

Armstrong, Jennifer

2014-05-01

212

Potential impact of climate change on durum wheat cropping in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effect of climate change on durum wheat in Tunisia is assessed using a simple crop simulation model and a climate\\u000a projection for the 20712100 period, obtained from the Mto-France ARPEGE-Climate atmospheric model run under the IPCC (International\\u000a Panel on Climate Change) scenario A1B. In the process-oriented crop model, phenology is estimated through thermal time. Water\\u000a balance is calculated

J. P. Lhomme; R. Mougou; M. Mansour

2009-01-01

213

Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012  

E-print Network

Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012 to climate change! May 29­May 31, 2012, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA Conference Web Site: http://www.adaptation.arizona.edu/adaptation, and by UNEP's Programme of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA

Matthews, Adrian

214

The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change  

E-print Network

1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley · Changes to surface and atmosphere by aerosols · Climate sensitivity to changes in aerosols and CO2 Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central

215

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE UNITED STATES The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability SynthesisTeam Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change is a landmark in the major ongoing

McCarl, Bruce A.

216

IN THIS ISSUE Regional Climate Change..............1  

E-print Network

IN THIS ISSUE · Regional Climate Change..............1 · From the Executive Director...........2 release of new climate change scenarios from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) heralds of the fundamental questions remaining with respect to understanding climate change and even climate variability. And

Hamann, Andreas

217

Climate change and human security in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses a major threat to human security and poverty in Africa. In Africa, where livelihoods are mainly based on climate-dependent resources and environment, the effect of climate change will be disproportionate and severe. Moreover, Africa's capacity to adapt to and cope with the adverse effects of climate variability is generally weak. This article discusses how climate change affects

Asfaw Kumssa; John F. Jones

2010-01-01

218

Abrupt climate change: can society cope?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and

Mike Hulme

2003-01-01

219

GUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

, develop effective adaptation strategies, and build resilience in the face of climate change. Vulnerability is collaborating with the Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI), whose aim is to provide climate adaptationGUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT For the Gunnison Climate Working Group

Neff, Jason

220

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

E-print Network

-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using climate change Á Biodiversity Á Central America 1 Introduction The Mexican and Central American landmass

Bradley, Raymond S.

221

The EPA Climate Change Kids Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive site features games, animations, and teachers' materials intended to introduce younger students to climate change. There is information about what climate change is, the difference between weather and climate, and the greenhouse effect. There are also materials on the climate system, ancient climates, and how scientists investigate climate. Other topics include discussions of whether people can actually change Earth's climate, what the potential effects might be, and what people can do to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

2003-01-29

222

Urban sites in climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the 21st century a significant rise of near surface air temperature is expected from IPCC global climate model simulations. The additional heat load associated with this warming will especially affect cities since it adds to the well-known urban heat island effect. With already more than half of the world's population living in cities and continuing urbanization highly expected, managing urban heat load will become even more important in future. To support urban planners in their effort to maintain or improve the quality of living in their city, detailed information on future urban climate on the residential scale is required. To pursue this question the 'Umweltamt der Stadt Frankfurt am Main' and the 'Deutscher Wetterdienst' (DWD, German Meteorological Service) built a cooperation. This contribution presents estimates of the impact of climate change on the heat load in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, using the urban scale climate model MUKLIMO3 and climate projections from different regional climate models for the region of Frankfurt. Ten different building structures were considered to realistically represent the spatial variability of the urban environment. The evaluation procedure combines the urban climate model simulations and the regional climate projections to calculate several heat load indices based on the exceedance of a temperature threshold. An evaluation of MUKLIMO3 results is carried out for the time period 1971 - 2000. The range of potential future heat load in Frankfurt is statistically analyzed using an ensemble of four different regional climate projections. Future work will examine the options of urban planning to mitigate the enhanced heat load expected from climate change.

Frh, B.; Kossmann, M.

2010-09-01

223

Climate change impacts on forestry  

SciTech Connect

Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. The authors' review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. They concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand.

Kirilenko, A.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science and Policy; Sedjo, R.A. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

2007-12-11

224

Predictions of avian Plasmodium expansion under climate change  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne diseases are particularly responsive to changing environmental conditions. Diurnal temperature variation has been identified as a particularly important factor for the development of malaria parasites within vectors. Here, we conducted a survey across France, screening populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) for malaria (Plasmodium relictum). We investigated whether variation in remotely-sensed environmental variables accounted for the spatial variation observed in prevalence and parasitemia. While prevalence was highly correlated to diurnal temperature range and other measures of temperature variation, environmental conditions could not predict spatial variation in parasitemia. Based on our empirical data, we mapped malaria distribution under climate change scenarios and predicted that Plasmodium occurrence will spread to regions in northern France, and that prevalence levels are likely to increase in locations where transmission already occurs. Our findings, based on remote sensing tools coupled with empirical data suggest that climatic change will significantly alter transmission of malaria parasites. PMID:23350033

Loiseau, Claire; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Bichet, Coraline; Julliard, Romain; Garnier, Stephane; Lendvai, Adam Z.; Chastel, Olivier; Sorci, Gabriele

2013-01-01

225

CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER SUPPLY SECURITY  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER SUPPLY SECURITY: Reconfiguring Groundwater Management to Reduce with climate change, present a significant planning challenge for California's water agencies. This research Drought Vulnerability A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate

226

Indigenous health and climate change.  

PubMed

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

Ford, James D

2012-07-01

227

The Science of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

limate change is a complex scientific problem, but its implications could have major consequences for the human species and indeed the rest of the world. Moreover, human actions to reduce climate change and adapt to its effects could also have major consequences. In order to make informed decisions about our responses to the issue, we require robust scientific un- derstanding

Richard A. Betts

228

Surviving climate change in the  

E-print Network

; IBM Global Business Services across other industries) have responded in a narrow fashion addressingSurviving climate change in the property & casualty industry by growing customer advocacy Insurance; The property & casualty (P&C) industry is facing significant change. Shifting demographics, evolving consumer

229

Conservation and Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

it back down to earth, creating a ``greenhouse effect'' that warms the earth's surface interannual how the Earth is responding, both from an abiotic perspective (including atmo- spheric changes for conservation under conditions of a changing climate. Finally, we end with a discussion of Go here for book

Landweber, Laura

230

FY 2002 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

PRA Goal 6: Reducing Global and Transboundary Environmental Risks Objective 6.2: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Sub-Objective 6.2.3: Global Climate Change Research Activity F55 - Assessing the Consequences of Global Change on Ecosystem Health NRMRL R...

231

Faces of Climate Change: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of three short videos showcasing the dramatic changes in Alaska's marine ecosystems through interviews with scientists and Alaska Natives. This introduction to the impacts of climate change in Alaska includes interviews with Alaska Natives, commentary by scientists, and footage from Alaska's Arctic.

Dugan, Darcy; Noaa Sea Grant, Alaska C.

232

Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge," we conclude the special section by assuming that you have been persuaded by Thompson's paper or other evidence that global warming is real and poses a threat that must be dealt with, and that for now the only way to deal with it is by changing behavior. Then we ask what you, as behavior analysts, can do

Chance, Paul; Heward, William L.

2010-01-01

233

Climate Wisconsin: Temperature Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive visualization allows users to compare future projections of Wisconsin's average annual temperature with the actual changes of the last five decades. Text on the web page encourages students to think about the challenges Wisconsin could face if these changes occur.

Ryan, Finn; Pauli, Scott; Interactive, Pitch; Board, Wisconsin E.

234

Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011  

E-print Network

1 Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011 J. Hansen, M. Sato, coincident with increased global warming. The most dramatic and important change of the climate dice change is the natural variability of climate. How can a person discern long-term climate change, given

Hansen, James E.

235

The Forcing Agents Underlying Climate Change An Alternative Scenario for Climate Change in the 21st  

E-print Network

The Forcing Agents Underlying Climate Change An Alternative Scenario for Climate Change in the 21st for the forcing agents that underlie climate change. These are climate forcings that exist today, compared climate projection is the "business-as-usual" scenario. It leads to dramatic climate change later

236

Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17,  

E-print Network

Variability in Rates of Climate Change IPCC WGI AR5. 2013 Chang. 2013 #12;Ecological Consequences of PastGlobal Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17, 29,000 km into space. #12;Natural Variation in Climate #12;Natural Variation in Climate Precession - change in the orientation of the rotational axis

Hansen, Andrew J.

237

Climate Change and Trout in Wisconsin Streams  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Trout in Wisconsin Streams Photo Matt Mitro W John J. Magnuson Center Climate Change Fishes and Climate Change Adaptation Magnuson Photo #12;The Invisible Present The Invisible in Weather versus Climate Change Magnuson 2009 #12;Magnuson 2006 The Invisible Present The Invisible Place

Sheridan, Jennifer

238

How overconfident are current climate change projections?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change projections are an important input for decision-making about water resource management. These climate change projections are typically driven by greenhouse gas emission scenarios provided, for example, by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). Here we show how relying on SRES scenarios can lead to overconfident climate change projections. Using

K. Keller; L. Miltich; A. Robinson; R. S. Tol

2006-01-01

239

Adapting to Climate Change: Research Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability Community Coordination; Boulder, Colorado, 8-9 January 2009; In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) reaffirmed that anthropogenic climate change is under way, that future climate change is unavoidable, and that observed impacts can be attributed, at least in part, to anthropogenic warming. In addition, a growing number of

Jean Palutikof; Patricia Romero-Lankao

2009-01-01

240

Can Science Win Over Climate Change Skeptics?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explaining global warming is complex, making it harder to argue against climate change skeptics. Teaching the nature of science may be a better way to help students and the public understand that climate change is real; highlight the benefits from climate change awareness; and provide concise, direct answers to critics of climate change theory.

Michael Dougherty (The American Society of Human Genetics;)

2009-07-25

241

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation  

E-print Network

understanding of climate change. A solid body of vital data is available to assist state and local leadersOur Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change in California A Summary Report on the Third Assessment from the California Climate Change Center #12;1 OUR

242

CLIMATE CHANGE 2013 The Physical Science Basis  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE 2013 The Physical Science Basis Summary for Policymakers WORKING GROUP I INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON climate change #12;#12;Climate Change 2013 The Physical Science Basis Working Group I be cited as: IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis

Stocker, Thomas

243

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co of global climate change­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Projected Climate Change 200-2100 What Global Change Probability Distribution of 14 Global Climate Model Projections D. Vimont, UW-Madison 90% chance

Sheridan, Jennifer

244

Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers  

E-print Network

1 Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers in the US and South Korea Pierre Y. Julien Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng. Colorado State University Seoul, South Korea August 11, 2009 Climate Change and Large Rivers 1. Climatic changes have been on-going for some time; 2. Climate changes usually predict

Julien, Pierre Y.

245

An iconic approach to representing climate change  

E-print Network

1 An iconic approach to representing climate change Saffron Jessica O'Neill A thesis submitted-experts to be meaningfully engaged with the issue of climate change. This thesis investigates the value of engaging non-experts with climate change at the individual level. Research demonstrates that individuals perceive climate change

Feigon, Brooke

246

Behavioral dimensions of climate change: drivers, responses,  

E-print Network

Overview Behavioral dimensions of climate change: drivers, responses, barriers, and interventions of global climate change, reviews the behavioral and psychological responses to its impacts (including for confronting the complex challenges posed by global climate change. The human dimensions of climate change

Pedersen, Tom

247

Fisheries and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When populations of harvestable fish start to decline, managers look for explanations of the changes throughout the Earth system. In this activity, the impact of global climate change on marine and Great Lakes fish is considered. First, decline in the striped bass population of the North Atlantic, noted in the Downeaster Alexa song by Billy Joel, is examined with spreadsheet analysis and on-line searches of National Marine Fisheries Service databases. In a second investigation, ArcView generates a model of the Lake Erie depths that could be associated with global climate change (shallower water). Students identify fish species that use nearshore shallows for spawning and nursery areas, and speculate on the impact of the lower water. In both activities, the thermal niche of the species is considered as a factor in where fish populations may migrate with new climate regimes.

Fortner, Rosanne; Merry, Carolyn

2008-04-08

248

Interactive Quizzes on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website allows you to test your knowledge on 5 topics. Warm Up: Test your knowledge about global temperature change and its impact on Earth's climate; Freeze Frames: How much do you know about glaciers and ice caps?; Sea Change: Test your knowledge of sea level rise and its effect on global populations; It's A Gas: Test your knowledge of carbon dioxide and why it's so important to climate stability and our quality of life; Each test consists of 10 questions and are immediately scored. The final module, 10 Things You Never Knew About Earth: Discover some amazing and little-known facts about our home planet, allows you to learn facts about the Earth and Climate Change.

249

Changing the intellectual climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calls for more broad-based, integrated, useful knowledge now abound in the world of global environmental change science. They evidence many scientists' desire to help humanity confront the momentous biophysical implications of its own actions. But they also reveal a limited conception of social science and virtually ignore the humanities. They thereby endorse a stunted conception of 'human dimensions' at a time when the challenges posed by global environmental change are increasing in magnitude, scale and scope. Here, we make the case for a richer conception predicated on broader intellectual engagement and identify some preconditions for its practical fulfilment. Interdisciplinary dialogue, we suggest, should engender plural representations of Earth's present and future that are reflective of divergent human values and aspirations. In turn, this might insure publics and decision-makers against overly narrow conceptions of what is possible and desirable as they consider the profound questions raised by global environmental change.

Castree, Noel; Adams, William M.; Barry, John; Brockington, Daniel; Bscher, Bram; Corbera, Esteve; Demeritt, David; Duffy, Rosaleen; Felt, Ulrike; Neves, Katja; Newell, Peter; Pellizzoni, Luigi; Rigby, Kate; Robbins, Paul; Robin, Libby; Rose, Deborah Bird; Ross, Andrew; Schlosberg, David; Srlin, Sverker; West, Paige; Whitehead, Mark; Wynne, Brian

2014-09-01

250

Teaching About Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Association of American Geographers (AAG) presents free, online professional development modules for geography and social studies teachers at middle and high school levels who are preparing to teach about global climate change. The modules provide information and materials including assessments, overview of the Earth system science, frequently asked questions about global climate change, examples of how to address common student misconceptions and an interactive resource library that delivers a resource list to your e-mail inbox. Free registration is required to access the complete materials and resources.

251

About sponsorship Climate change  

E-print Network

included sessions on climatology, dinosaurs, longevity and alien life SCOTT WING, a palaeo was one of a panel of experts on emissions of ancient greenhouse gases that gathered at the American. The main body of this evidence is changes in the chemical properties of the fossilised remains of ancient

Bice, Karen L.

252

Climate Change and Speciation of Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing and informative interview highlights the keypoints in the climate change/ speciation debate. Whether climate change is a major factor in speciation, the author explains that new species of mammals evolve when significant climate change persists over very long periods of time, when mammals cant move to habitats that provide favorable climate, climate change leads to evolutionary changes or extinction, and fossils provide clues that can help predict effects on species in the current warming trend.

Anthony Barnosky (University of California¢Berkeley;)

2006-03-01

253

Public Engagement on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change communication is complicated by complexity of the scientific problem, multiple perspectives on the magnitude of the risk from climate change, often acrimonious disputes between scientists, high stakes policy options, and overall politicization of the issue. Efforts to increase science literacy as a route towards persuasion around the need for a policy like cap and trade have failed, because the difficulty that a scientist has in attempting to make sense of the social and political complexity is very similar to the complexity facing the general public as they try to make sense of climate science itself. In this talk I argue for a shift from scientists and their institutions as information disseminators to that of public engagement and enablers of public participation. The goal of engagement is not just to inform, but to enable, motivate and educate the public regarding the technical, political, and social dimensions of climate change. Engagement is a two-way process where experts and decision-makers seek input and learn from the public about preferences, needs, insights, and ideas relative to climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, solutions and policy options. Effective public engagement requires that scientists detach themselves from trying to control what the public does with the acquired knowledge and motivation. The goal should not be to "sell" the public on particular climate change solutions, since such advocacy threatens public trust in scientists and their institutions. Conduits for public engagement include the civic engagement approach in the context of community meetings, and perhaps more significantly, the blogosphere. Since 2006, I have been an active participant in the climate blogosphere, focused on engaging with people that are skeptical of AGW. A year ago, I started my own blog Climate Etc. at judithcurry.com. The demographic that I have focused my communication/engagement activities are the technically educated and scientifically literate public, many of whom have become increasingly skeptical of climate science the more they investigate the topic. Specific issues that this group has with climate science include concerns that science that cannot easily be separated from risk assessment and value judgments; concern that assessments (e.g. IPCC) have become a Maxwell's daemon for climate research; inadequate assessment of our ignorance of this complex scientific issue; elite scientists and scientific institutions losing credibility with the public; political exploitation of the public's lack of understanding; and concerns about the lack of public accountability of climate science and climate models that are being used as the basis for far reaching decisions and policies. Individuals in this group have the technical ability to understand and examine climate science arguments and are not prepared to cede judgment on this issue to the designated and self-proclaimed experts. This talk will describe my experiences in engaging with this group and what has been learned, both by myself and by participants in the discussion at Climate Etc.

Curry, J.

2011-12-01

254

Changing kidney allocation policy in France: the value of simulation.  

PubMed

This paper advocates the value of simulation to promote changes in kidney allocation. Due to the scarcity of organs and to the competition between transplantation centers to obtain the best organs for their patients, any change in organ allocation policy remains a sensitive issue in public health decision-making. Organ allocation is not easily available for prospective experimental study. Observational stud-ies only support limited changes. A simulation tool in this context permits the comparison of observed results against simulated ones. In our experience in France, it has shown to be a helpful tool during the allocation design phase providing objective facts for the debates and increasing the potential for change. PMID:17238366

Jacquelinet, Christian; Audry, Benot; Golbreich, Christiine; Antoine, Corinne; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Claquin, Jacky; Loty, Bernard

2006-01-01

255

United Nations Environment Programme: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to information on the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) initiatives on the issue of climate change. Materials include UNEP's areas of focus on addressing climate change (climate, finance, and business; emissions mitigation; carbon sequestration; vulnerability and adaptation to climate change; and others); links to UNEP Climate Change Centres; links to partner organizations; and links to information and media activities. There are also links to multimedia materials (posters, films, and video), printed publications on climate change, maps and graphics, and links to other organizations working on the issue of climate change.

256

Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop NASA/Ames Research Center May 15-17, 2012 Climate change on Mars has been a subject of great interest to planetary scientists since the 1970's when orbiting spacecraft first discovered fluvial landforms on its ancient surfaces and layered terrains in its polar regions. By far most of the attention has been directed toward understanding how "Early Mars" (i.e., Mars >~3.5 Gya) could have produced environmental conditions favorable for the flow of liquid water on its surface. Unfortunately, in spite of the considerable body of work performed on this subject, no clear consensus has emerged on the nature of the early Martian climate system because of the difficulty in distinguishing between competing ideas given the ambiguities in the available geological, mineralogical, and isotopic records. For several reasons, however, the situation is more tractable for "Recent Mars" (i.e., Mars during past 20 My or so). First, the geologic record is better preserved and evidence for climate change on this time scale has been building since the rejuvenation of the Mars Exploration Program in the late 1990's. The increasing coverage of the planet from orbit and the surface, coupled with accurate measurements of surface topography, increasing spatial resolution of imaging cameras, improved spectral resolution of infrared sensors, and the ability to probe the subsurface with radar, gamma rays, and neutron spectroscopy, has not only improved the characterization of previously known climate features such as polar layered terrains and glacier-related landforms, but has also revealed the existence of many new features related to recent climate change such as polygons, gullies, concentric crater fill, and a latitude dependent mantle. Second, the likely cause of climate change - spin axis/orbital variations - is more pronounced on Mars compared to Earth. Spin axis/orbital variations alter the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of sunlight, which can mobilize and redistribute volatile reservoirs both on and below the surface. And for Mars, these variations are large. In the past 20 My, for example, the obliquity is believed to have varied from a low of 15 to a high of 45 with a regular oscillation time scale of ~10^5 years. These variations are typically less than two degrees on the Earth. Mars, therefore, offers a natural laboratory for the study of orbitally induced climate change on a terrestrial planet. Finally, general circulation models (GCMs) for Mars have reached a level of sophistication that justifies their application to the study of spin axis/orbitally forced climate change. With recent advances in computer technology the models can run at reasonable spatial resolution for many Mars years with physics packages that include cloud microphysics, radiative transfer in scattering/absorbing atmospheres, surface heat budgets, boundary layer schemes, and a host of other processes. To be sure, the models will undergo continual improvement, but with carefully designed experiments they can now provide insights into mechanisms of climate change in the recent past. Thus, the geologic record is better preserved, the forcing function is large, and GCMs have become useful tools. While research efforts in each of these areas have progressed considerably over the past several decades, they have proceeded mostly on independent paths occasionally leading to conflicting ideas. To remedy this situation and accelerate progress in the area, the NASA/Ames Research Center's Mars General Circulation Modeling Group hosted a 3-day workshop on May 15-17, 2012 that brought together the geological and atmospheric science communities to collectively discuss the evidence for recent climate change on Mars, the nature of the change required, and how that change could be brought about. Over 50 researchers, students, and post-docs from the US, Canada, Europe, and Japan attended the meeting. The program and abstracts from the workshop are presented in this NASA/CP and are available to the public at http://spa

Haberle, Robert M.; Owen, Sandra J.

2012-11-01

257

The origin of climate changes.  

PubMed

Investigation on climate change is coordinated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has the delicate task of collecting recent knowledge on climate change and the related impacts of the observed changes, and then developing a consensus statement from these findings. The IPCC's last review, published at the end of 2007, summarised major findings on the present climate situation. The observations show a clear increase in the temperature of the Earth's surface and the oceans, a reduction in the land snow cover, and melting of the sea ice and glaciers. Numerical modelling combined with statistical analysis has shown that this warming trend is very likely the signature of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases linked with human activities. Given the continuing social and economic development around the world, the IPCC emission scenarios forecast an increasing greenhouse effect, at least until 2050 according to the most optimistic models. The model ensemble predicts a rising temperature that will reach dangerous levels for the biosphere and ecosystems within this century. Hydrological systems and the potential significant impacts of these systems on the environment are also discussed. Facing this challenging future, societies must take measures to reduce emissions and work on adapting to an inexorably changing environment. Present knowledge is sufficientto start taking action, but a stronger foundation is needed to ensure that pertinent long-term choices are made that will meet the demands of an interactive and rapidly evolving world. PMID:18819661

Delecluse, P

2008-08-01

258

Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, AR4) has resulted in a wider acceptance of global climate change climate extremes and change impacts. Uncertainties in process studies, climate models, and associated

259

The Atlantic Climate Change Program  

SciTech Connect

The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Molinari, R.L. (Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., Miami, FL (United States)); Battisti, D. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)); Bryan, K. (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Walsh, J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

1994-07-01

260

The Science of Abrupt Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of abrupt climate change has been highlighted by a recent National Academy of Sciences (NRC) study as one of the most troubling potential aspects of future global climate change. The science of abrupt climate change originated in the discovery and study of huge climatic shifts during the last glacial period, particularly in and around the North Atlantic. We

J. T. Overpeck

2002-01-01

261

4, 289308, 2008 Climate change and  

E-print Network

CPD 4, 289­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title forum of Climate of the Past Recent climate change affecting rainstorm occurrences? A case study in East­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title Page Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

262

The basic science of anthropogenic climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the basic science of climate change upon which our concern of possible anthropogenic interference with the climate system is based. Where possible, those aspects of particular relevance to the study of climate change impact assessment will be highlighted to set the scene for the remaining articles in this issue, which focus on the effects of climate change

Kathy Maskell

1995-01-01

263

Perceptions of Climate Change 27 March 2011  

E-print Network

are causing global warming (or global climate disruption, as you please). It is hard to persuade peoplePerceptions of Climate Change 27 March 2011 This past winter, for the second year in a row, seemed seasonal climate change is stacking up against expectations. People's perception of climate change may

Hansen, James E.

264

Stormwater, Climate Change and Wisconsin's Coastal Communities  

E-print Network

Stormwater, Climate Change and Wisconsin's Coastal Communities Johnson Foundation at Wingspread · Precipitation and high water · Adapting to our changing climate · Assisting coastal communities Photo: WDNR #12 source of risk from changing climate. City of Green Bay watershed - #12;Predicted climate includes

Sheridan, Jennifer

265

Appendix L: Climate Change and Power Planning  

E-print Network

Page 1 Appendix L: Climate Change and Power Planning Power Committee Webinar June 3, 2009 June 3, 2009 2 Outline · Climate Change Data · Assessing impacts to the power system · Dealing with climate;Page 5 June 3, 2009 9 Outline · Climate Change Data · Assessing impacts to the power system · Dealing

266

Conservation, Development and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in Latin America, especially in the A mazon Basin, is a major source of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 which contribute to global warming. Protected area s play a vital role in minimizing forest loss and in supplyi ng key environmental services, including carbon sequestration and rainfall regulat ion, which mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change amidst

Anthony Hall

267

Climate change and knowledge politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the paradox that although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has reached a broad consensus, various governments pursue different, if not opposing policies. This puzzle not only challenges the traditional belief that scientific knowledge is objective and can be more or less directly translated into political action, but also calls for a better understanding of the relation

Reiner Grundmann

2007-01-01

268

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,  

E-print Network

in both regions. Lack of car ownership was the major impact in creating such inequalities. Air pollution IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AND FRESNO REGIONS A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission

269

Forests / Climate change persp ctive  

E-print Network

T Forests / Climate change persp ctive e 15The recent food price increases in international markets threaten food security and have led many researchers, policy makers and NGOs to ana- lyse them in order countries. Placing these spikes within the context of an upward trend opens new avenues for national

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Impacts of Climate Change Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents one of three animated films for schoolchildren, commissioned by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. An emotive and visual animation conveys the effects climate change will have on marine ecosystems and suggests ways to minimize our impact.

2010-01-01

271

CLIMATE CHANGE AND N DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

This project investigates the potential influence of climate change on wet deposition of reduced nitrogen across the U.S. The concentration of ammonium-nitrogen in precipitation is known to increase with temperature, owing to temperature dependent ammonia source strengths (natur...

272

Forensic entomology and climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate

Margherita Turchetto; Stefano Vanin

2004-01-01

273

Climatic Change and Human Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of the Earth over four billion years, and shows how climate has had an important role to play in the evolution of humans. Posits that the world's rapidly growing human population and its increasing use of energy is the cause of present-day changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (Author/JRH)

Garratt, John R.

1995-01-01

274

A Lesson on Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cooperative learning activity, for grades 7-12, promotes critical thinking skills within the context of learning about the causes and effects of climate change. Objectives include: (1) understanding factors that reduce greenhouse gases; (2) understanding the role of trees in reducing greenhouse gases; (3) identifying foods that produce

Lewis, Jim

275

Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

to global warming. The UKgovernment has just announced it is investing $1 billion in their developmentHot Topics Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change Green Building Hydraulic Fracturing Nuclear globally. These facilities will trap carbon emissions, which scientists believe maybe contributing

Sóbester, András

276

Responding to Climate Change Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to Climate Change was the topic for the 2011 Big Issues Forum recently hosted by The University of Notre Dame Australia (UNDA). Panellists included Senator Scott Ludlam, Federal Greens Senator for WA; Melissa Parke MP, Federal Labor Member for Fremantle; Dr Dennis Jensen MP, Federal Liberal Member for Tangney and Dr Michael OLeary, UNDA Lecturer in the School of

Leigh Dawson

2011-01-01

277

Climate Change Wildlife and Wildlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video focuses on the science of climate change and its impacts on wildlife on land and in the sea, and their habitats in the U.S. There are short sections on walruses, coral reefs, migrating birds and their breeding grounds, freshwater fish, bees, etc. Video concludes with some discussion about solutions, including reduce/recyle/reuse, energy conservation, backyard habitats, citizen scientists.

Service, U. S.; Program, U. S.

278

Climate Change: Evidence and Causes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamentals of climate change are well established: greenhouse gases warm the planet; their concentrations in the atmosphere are increasing; Earth has warmed, and is going to continue warming with a range of impacts. This article summarises the contents of a recent publication issued by the UK's Royal Society and the US National Academy

Wolff, Eric

2014-01-01

279

Climate change and intertidal wetlands.  

PubMed

Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

2013-01-01

280

Inuit Observations of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features changes in the land, sea, and animals that are being observed by the residents of Sachs Harbour, Northwest Territories, Canada â many of whom hunt, trap, and fishâbecause of their long-standing and intimate connection with their ecosystem. Scientists interview the residents and record their observations in order to deepen our understanding of climate change in the polar region. Background essay and discussion questions are included.

Wgbh/boston

281

Chapter 10: Biological Impacts of ClimateChange 1.Nature of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Chapter 10: Biological Impacts of ClimateChange 1.Nature of Climate Change 2.Current and Future the industrial era Human and Natural Drivers of ClimateChange IPCC 2007 #12;Warming of the climate system, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global mean sea level. Direct Observations of Recent ClimateChange

Gottgens, Hans

282

A common-sense climate index: is climate changing noticeably?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent already, but in most places climate trends are too small to stand out above year-to-year variability. The climate index is strongly correlated with global surface temperature, which has increased as rapidly as projected by climate models in the 1980s. We argue that the global area with obvious climate change will increase notably in the next few years. But we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has declined in recent years, and thus there is an opportunity to keep climate change in the 21st century less than "business-as-usual" scenarios.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Glascoe, J.; Ruedy, R.

1998-01-01

283

A common-sense climate index: Is climate changing noticeably?  

PubMed Central

We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent already, but in most places climate trends are too small to stand out above year-to-year variability. The climate index is strongly correlated with global surface temperature, which has increased as rapidly as projected by climate models in the 1980s. We argue that the global area with obvious climate change will increase notably in the next few years. But we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has declined in recent years, and thus there is an opportunity to keep climate change in the 21st century less than business-as-usual scenarios. PMID:9539699

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Glascoe, Jay; Ruedy, Reto

1998-01-01

284

Climate change and allergic disease.  

PubMed

Allergies are prevalent throughout the United States and impose a substantial quality of life and economic burden. The potential effect of climate change has an impact on allergic disorders through variability of aeroallergens, food allergens and insect-based allergic venoms. Data suggest allergies (ocular and nasal allergies, allergic asthma and sinusitis) have increased in the United States and that there are changes in allergies to stinging insect populations (vespids, apids and fire ants). The cause of this upward trend is unknown, but any climate change may induce augmentation of this trend; the subspecialty of allergy and immunology needs to be keenly aware of potential issues that are projected for the near and not so distant future. PMID:23065327

Bielory, Leonard; Lyons, Kevin; Goldberg, Robert

2012-12-01

285

Global Climate Change and Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 C by the end of the 21st century.

Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2009-01-01

286

Climate Science in a Nutshell: Climate Change Around the World?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is part of the Climate Science in a Nutshell video series. This short video looks at the effects of climate change happening right now around the globe, including: more extreme weather events, droughts, forest fires, land use changes, altered ranges of disease-carrying insects, and the loss of some agricultural products. It concludes with a discussion of the differences among weather, climate variability and climate change.

Nutshell, Planet; Network, Utah E.

287

Risk management and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection of climate policies should be an exercise in risk management reflecting the many relevant sources of uncertainty. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. Hence policy analysis cannot effectively evaluate alternatives using standard approaches, such as expected utility theory and benefit-cost analysis. This Perspective highlights the value of robust decision-making tools designed for situations such as evaluating climate policies, where consensus on probability distributions is not available and stakeholders differ in their degree of risk tolerance. A broader risk-management approach enables a range of possible outcomes to be examined, as well as the uncertainty surrounding their likelihoods.

Kunreuther, Howard; Heal, Geoffrey; Allen, Myles; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Field, Christopher B.; Yohe, Gary

2013-05-01

288

Geological perspective on climate change  

SciTech Connect

Current estimates of fossil fuel reserves approach 6x the current atmospheric CO[sub 2] content; model calculations have shown that much of this carbon will remain in the atmosphere for several millennia. The potential increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] over the next few centuries dwarfs natural fluctuations on Milankovitch time scales. Indeed, one must turn far into the geological past to find an analogy for the climate system under such remarkably different atmospheric and climatic states. As a result, perhaps, of the growing need to understand future climates, paleoclimate research activity has intensified. The focus of much of this research has been on the unusually warm periods of the Eocene and Cretaceous. Atmospheric general circulation models have been used to study the adjustment of the climate system to changes in the geographical distribution of the continents. Such efforts generally show that the achievement of significantly enhanced global temperatures requires increases in the atmospheric content of greenhouse gases. The question then arises as to whether these modifications of atmospheric composition are consistent with the geologic record and its interpretation based on global geochemical cycles. Several approaches have been advanced to address this question. The dependence upon CO[sub 2] concentration of the isotope discrimination during photosynthesis means that the carbon isotopic composition of organic and carbonate carbon, as it is preserved in coeval sedimentary rocks, is a potential CO[sub 2] paleobarometer. Similarly, the isotopic composition of paleosols can be used to infer ancient atmospheric carbon contents. Finally, models of the global carbon cycle, especially when coupled with climate models, demonstrate that long-term climate change is intimately interwoven with the factors that affect the carbon cycle, including the geographical distribution of weathering lithologies, and intensity of tectonism.

Kump, L.R. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept of Geosciences)

1992-01-01

289

Public Perceptions of Climate Change: A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine for a sample of Los Angeles residents their willingness to pay to prevent significant climate change. We employ a frac- tional factorial design in which various climate change sce narios differing in ways consistent with existing variation in climate are pres ented to respon- dents. These are contrasted to respondents' current climat e before willing-

Richard A. Berk; Robert G. Fovell

1998-01-01

290

1000 years of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar activity has been observed to vary on decadal and centennial time scales. Recent evidence (Bond, 2002) points to a major semi-periodic variation of approximately 1,500 yrs. For this reason, and because high resolution proxy records are limited to the past thousand years or so, assessing the role of the sun's variability on climate change over this time f ame has received much attention. A pressingr application of these assessments is the attempt to separate the role of the sun from that of various anthropogenic forcings in the past century and a half. This separation is complicated by the possible existence of natural variability other than solar, and by the fact that the time-dependence of solar and anthropogenic forcings is very similar over the past hundred years or so. It has been generally assumed that solar forcing is direct, i.e. changes in sun's irradiance. However, evidence has been put forth suggesting that there exist various additional indirect forcings that could be as large as or even exceed direct forcing (modulation of cosmic ray - induced cloudiness, UV- induced stratospheric ozone change s, or oscillator -driven changes in the Pacific Ocean). Were such forcings to be large, they could account for nearly all 20th Century warming, relegating anthropogenic effects to a minor role. Determination of climate change over the last thousand years offers perhaps the best way to assess the magnitude of total solar forcing, thus allowing its comparison with that of anthropogenic sources. Perhaps the best proxy records for climate variation in the past 1,000 yrs have been variations in temperat ure sensitive tree rings (Briffa and Osborne, 2002). A paucity of such records in the Southern Hemisphere has largely limited climate change determinations to the subtropical NH. Two problems with tree rings are that the rings respond to temperature differently with the age of the tree, and record largely the warm, growing season only. It appears that both these problems have been adequately solved although caution is warranted. A promising adjunct to tree rings is actual measurement of temperatures in boreholes. Inversion of such records gives low frequency temperatures that are potentially more accurate than any proxy- derived ones. All these records give a fairly consistent picture of at least one major warming and cooling extreme (Medieval Warming Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Many modeling efforts using direct solar forcing have been done. These typically employ proxy data (sunspot number and variations in Be-10 and C -14 calibrated by satellite observations) for changes in solar forcing, and give the same general picture-- that of a substantial warming 1,000 yrs ago (MWP) followed by cooling that was particularly marked in the late 17th and early 19th centuries (LIA). The resulting amplitude of temperature change between MWP and LIA agrees well with paleo-temperature reconstructions and suggests that solar forcing alone is inadequate to account for more than about half the 20th century warming (Lean et al 1995, Crowley and Lowry 2000). Since these quantitatively reproduce climate variations in the past 1000 years, the role of indirect solar forcing is inferred to be small but may be important (Lean and Rind 2001). Gerard Bond, Bernd Kromer, Juerg Beer, Raimund Muscheler, Michael N. Evans, William Showers, Sharon Hoffmann, Rusty Lotti-Bond, Irka Hajdas, and Georges Bonani, (2001) Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate During the Holocene,Science 294: 2130-2136 Briffa and Osborne, (2002) Blowing Hot and Cold, Science 295, 2227-2228. Lean, J., Beer, J., and Bradley, R., (1995) Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett.., 22, 3195-3198. Crowley ,T., (2000) Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years, Science,289, 270- 277. Lean and Rind, (2001), Earth's Response to a Variable Sun, Science, 292, 234-236.

Keller, C.

291

Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17,  

E-print Network

that there is a discernible human influence on global climate." December 1995. #12;Ecological Consequences of Past Change #12Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17, 29,000 km into space. #12;Natural Variation the paleo record of the earth. Global Change Impacts 2009. #12;Has Climate Changed as Predicted? #12;Mc

Hansen, Andrew J.

292

FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA Changes in the Distribution and Frequency of Fire's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012026 Prepared for: California Energy Commission to climate change has the potential to induce alteration of future fire activity. This research presents just

293

Understanding Climate Change: The Global Carbon  

E-print Network

­ convenient? Temperature Changes #12;Global Warming Past + Present (From: Mann and Kump, 2009) During the pastUnderstanding Climate Change: The Global Carbon Budget and Ocean Chemistry Talk Overview - Climate Change Basics - CO2 and Temperature Relationship - Global C Budget - High Latitude Climate Change - Ocean

Parker, Matthew D. Brown

294

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co changes due to global climate change." ­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Future Climate Change What of precipitation High water impacts Adaptation strategies #12;1930 2008WI Cooperative Weather Stations We've been

Sheridan, Jennifer

295

Challenges and Possibilities in Climate Change Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating and communicating about climate change is challenging. Researchers reported that climate change concepts are often misunderstood. Some people do not believe that climate change will have impacts on their own life. Other challenges may include people's difficulty in perceiving small or gradual environmental changes, the fact that

Pruneau,, Diane; Khattabi, Abdellatif; Demers, Melanie

2010-01-01

296

Climate Change and Civil Violence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore provides an opportunity for targeted proactive measures to mitigate certain classes of future civil violence events.

van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

2009-05-01

297

Severe thunderstorms and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the planet warms, it is important to consider possible impacts of climate change on severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. To further that discussion, the current distribution of severe thunderstorms as a function of large-scale environmental conditions is presented. Severe thunderstorms are much more likely to form in environments with large values of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and deep-tropospheric wind shear. Tornadoes and large hail are preferred in high-shear environments and non-tornadic wind events in low shear. Further, the intensity of tornadoes and hail, given that they occur, tends to be almost entirely a function of the shear and only weakly depends on the thermodynamics. Climate model simulations suggest that CAPE will increase in the future and the wind shear will decrease. Detailed analysis has suggested that the CAPE change will lead to more frequent environments favorable for severe thunderstorms, but the strong dependence on shear for tornadoes, particularly the strongest ones, and hail means that the interpretation of how individual hazards will change is open to question. The recent development of techniques to use higher-resolution models to estimate the occurrence of storms of various kinds is discussed. Given the large interannual variability in environments and occurrence of events, caution is urged in interpreting the observational record as evidence of climate change.

Brooks, H. E.

2013-04-01

298

Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin  

PubMed Central

A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes reflect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was ?0.12 day per year, an overall increase in phenological earliness at this site during the period. Some phenophases have not increased in earliness, as would be expected for phenophases that are regulated by photoperiod or by a physiological signal other than local temperature. PMID:10449757

Bradley, Nina L.; Leopold, A. Carl; Ross, John; Huffaker, Wellington

1999-01-01

299

A Common-Sense Climate Index: Is Climate Changing Noticeably?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent

James Hansen; Makiko Sato; Jay Glascoe; Reto Ruedy

1998-01-01

300

Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Hydrological Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is going to be one of the key, if not the most critical, environmental issues in the twenty-first century because of the escalation in socio-economic pressures on the environment in general. Any future climate change or climate variability will only accentuate such pressures. This volume initially follows the perspective of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to infer

Jan C. van Dam

2003-01-01

301

America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video production is a part of a four-panel report from the National Academies' America's Climate Choices project. The video maps out the realm of our accumulated knowledge regarding climate change and charts a path forward, urging that research on climate change enter a new era focused on the needs of decision makers.

Academies, National

302

Novel communities from climate change  

PubMed Central

Climate change is generating novel communities composed of new combinations of species. These result from different degrees of species adaptations to changing biotic and abiotic conditions, and from differential range shifts of species. To determine whether the responses of organisms are determined by particular species traits and how species interactions and community dynamics are likely to be disrupted is a challenge. Here, we focus on two key traits: body size and ecological specialization. We present theoretical expectations and empirical evidence on how climate change affects these traits within communities. We then explore how these traits predispose species to shift or expand their distribution ranges, and associated changes on community size structure, food web organization and dynamics. We identify three major broad changes: (i) Shift in the distribution of body sizes towards smaller sizes, (ii) dominance of generalized interactions and the loss of specialized interactions, and (iii) changes in the balance of strong and weak interaction strengths in the short term. We finally identify two major uncertainties: (i) whether large-bodied species tend to preferentially shift their ranges more than small-bodied ones, and (ii) how interaction strengths will change in the long term and in the case of newly interacting species. PMID:23007079

Lurgi, Miguel; Lopez, Bernat C.; Montoya, Jose M.

2012-01-01

303

Probabilistic Integrated Assessment of ``Dangerous'' Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate policy decisions are being made despite layers of uncertainty. Such decisions directly influence the potential for ``dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.'' We mapped a metric for this concept, based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment of climate impacts, onto probability distributions of future climate change produced from uncertainty in key parameters of the coupled social-natural system-climate sensitivity, climate damages, and discount rate. Analyses with a simple integrated assessment model found that, under midrange assumptions, endogenously calculated, optimal climate policy controls can reduce the probability of dangerous anthropogenic interference from ~45% under minimal controls to near zero.

Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

2004-04-01

304

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education  

E-print Network

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate 1 September 2011) Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize

Niyogi, Dev

305

The impact of climate change changes over time Cleo Bertelsmeier  

E-print Network

review has shown that almost all major global studies on the impact of climate change on biodiversityThe impact of climate change changes over time Cleo Bertelsmeier , Gloria M. Luque, Franck Accepted 28 July 2013 Keywords: Climate change Species distribution models Global change Biological

Courchamp, Franck

306

Climate change, zoonoses and India.  

PubMed

Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review. PMID:22435190

Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

2011-12-01

307

Teaching Climate Change Through Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2006, Peter Weiss aka "The Singing Scientist" performed many music assemblies for elementary schools (K-5) in Santa Cruz County, California, USA. These assemblies were an opportunity for him to mix a discussion of climate change with rock n' roll. In one song called "Greenhouse Glasses", Peter and his band the "Earth Rangers" wear over-sized clown glasses with "molecules" hanging off them (made with Styrofoam balls and pipe cleaners). Each molecule is the real molecular structure of a greenhouse gas, and the song explains how when the wearer of these glasses looks up in the sky, he/she can see the "greenhouse gases floating by." "I've seen more of them this year than the last / 'Cuz fossil fuels are burning fast / I wish everyone could see through these frames / Then maybe we could prevent climate change" Students sing, dance and get a visual picture of something that is invisible, yet is part of a very real problem. This performance description is used as an example of an educational style that can reach a wide audience and provide a framework for the audience as learners to assimilate future information on climate change. The hypothesis is that complex socio-environmental issues like climate change that must be taught in order to achieve sustainability are best done so through alternative mediums like music. Students develop awareness which leads to knowledge about chemistry, physics, and biology. These kinds of experiences which connect science learning to fun activities and community building are seriously lacking in primary and secondary schools and are a big reason why science illiteracy is a current social problem. Science education is also paired with community awareness (including the local plant/animal community) and cooperation. The Singing Scientist attempts to create a culture where it is cool to care about the environment. Students end up gardening in school gardens together and think about their "ecological footprint".

Weiss, P. S.

2007-12-01

308

Climate change 'understanding' and knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent surveys find that many people report having "a great deal" of understanding about climate change. Self-assessed understanding does not predict opinions, however, because those with highest "understanding" tend also to be most polarized. These findings raise questions about the relationship between "understanding" and objectively-measured knowledge. In summer 2011 we included three new questions testing climate-change knowledge on a statewide survey. The multiple-choice questions address basic facts that are widely accepted by contrarian as well as mainstream scientists. They ask about trends in Arctic sea ice, in CO2 concentrations, and the meaning of "greenhouse effect." The questions say nothing about impacts, attribution or mitigation. Each has a clear and well-publicized answer that does not presume acceptance of anthropogenic change. About 30% of respondents knew all three answers, and 36% got two out of three. 34% got zero or one right. Notably, these included 31% of those who claimed to have "a great deal" of understanding. Unlike self-assessed understanding, knowledge scores do predict opinions. People who knew more were significantly more likely to agree that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. This positive relationship remains significant controlling for gender, age, education, partisanship and "understanding." It does not exhibit the interaction effects with partisanship that characterize self-assessed understanding. Following the successful statewide test, the same items were added to a nationwide survey currently underway. Analyses replicated across both surveys cast a new light on the problematic connections between "understanding," knowledge and opinions about climate science.

Hamilton, L.

2011-12-01

309

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and its important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

310

NASA Nice Climate Change Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors: 1 Kaiem Frink, 4 Sherry Crocker, 5 Willie Jones, III, 7 Sophia S.L. Marshall, 6 Anuadha Dujari 3 Ervin Howard 1 Kalota Stewart-Gurley 8 Edwinta Merriweathe Affiliation: 1. Mathematics & Computer Science, Virginia Union University, Richmond, VA, United States. 2. Mathematics & Computer Science, Elizabeth City State Univ, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 3. Education, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 4. College of Education, Fort Valley State University , Fort Valley, GA, United States. 5. Education, Tougaloo College, Jackson, MS, United States. 6. Mathematics, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, United States. 7. Education, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, United States. 8. Education, Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University, Huntsville, AL, United States. ABSTRACT: In this research initiative, the 2013-2014 NASA NICE workshop participants will present best educational practices for incorporating climate change pedagogy. The presentation will identify strategies to enhance instruction of pre-service teachers to aligned with K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) standards. The presentation of best practices should serve as a direct indicator to address pedagogical needs to include climate education within a K-12 curriculum Some of the strategies will include inquiry, direct instructions, and cooperative learning . At this particular workshop, we have learned about global climate change in regards to how this is going to impact our life. Participants have been charged to increase the scientific understanding of pre-service teachers education programs nationally to incorporate climate education lessons. These recommended practices will provide feasible instructional strategies that can be easily implemented and used to clarify possible misconceptions and ambiguities in scientific knowledge. Additionally, the presentation will promote an awareness to the many facets in which climate change education can be beneficial to future learners and general public. The main scope is to increase the amount of STEM knowledge throughout the nations scientific literacy as we are using the platform of climate change. Federal entities which may include but not limited to National Security Agency and the Department of Homeland Security and Management will serve as resources partners for this common goal of having a more knowledgeable technological savvy and scientific literate society. The presentation will show that incorporating these best practices into elementary and early childhood education undergraduate programs will assist with increasing a enhance scientific literate society. As a measurable outcome have a positive impact on instructional effectiveness of future teachers. Their successfully preparing students in meeting the standards of the Common Core Initiative will attempt to measure across the curriculum uniformly.

Frink, K.; Crocker, S.; Jones, W., III; Marshall, S. S.; Anuradha, D.; Stewart-Gurley, K.; Howard, E. M.; Hill, E.; Merriweather, E.

2013-12-01

311

Comparison of statistical and dynamical downscaling of extreme precipitations over France in present-day and future climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comparison of two downscaling methods of extreme precipitations over France at a climatic time scale : a dynamical one performed with the Regional Climate Model ALADIN-Climate used at a resolution of 12 km, and a statistical one based on the weather regime approach and using the analog methodology to reconstruct daily fields of precipitations at a 8

Jeanne Colin; Michel Dqu; Emila Sanchez Gomez; Samuel Somot

2010-01-01

312

Past and Current Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1837 the Swiss geologist and palaeontologist Louis Agassiz was the first scientist to propose the existence of an ice age in the Earth's past. Nearly two centuries after discussing global glacial periods... while the average global temperature is rising very quickly because of our economic and industrial model. In tribute to these pioneers, we have selected a major climate change of the past as the Snowball Earth and, through various activities in the classroom, compared to the current anthropogenic climate change. First, we include multiple geological processes that led to a global glaciation 750 million years ago as the decrease in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4, the effect of climate variations in solar radiation due to emissions of volcanic dust and orbital changes (Milankovitch cycles), being an essential part of this model the feedback mechanism of the albedo of the ice on a geological scale. Moreover, from simple experiments and studies in the classroom this time we can compare the past with the current anthropogenic global warming we are experiencing and some of its consequences, highlighting that affect sea level rise, increased extreme and effects on health and the biosphere weather.

Mercedes Rodrguez Ruibal, Ma

2014-05-01

313

Climate change, environment and allergy.  

PubMed

Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

2012-01-01

314

Fossil Energy Perspective on Global Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses global climates change from a fossil energy power generation perspective. As such, it highlights the substantial uncertainties that underlie the forecasts of GHG emissions, GHG concentrations, and climate change--forecasts that some ...

1990-01-01

315

RISKS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Adaptation is an important approach for protecting human health, ecosystems, and economic systems from the risks posed by climate variability and change, and to exploit beneficial opportunities provided by a changing climate. This paper presents nine fundamental principles that ...

316

Mitigating Climate Change in China and Ethiopia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Hope in a Changing Climate, learn how an environmentally devastated ecosystem has been restored, benefiting both the local economy and global efforts to fight climate change.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

317

Arnold Schwarzenegger CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS FOR  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGING NORTHERN CALIFORNIA WATER development). Please cite this report as follows: HRCGWRI, 2011. Climate Change Implications Commission. It does not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees or the State

318

Characterizing loss and damage from climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policymakers are creating mechanisms to help developing countries cope with loss and damage from climate change, but the negotiations are largely neglecting scientific questions about what the impacts of climate change actually are.

James, Rachel; Otto, Friederike; Parker, Hannah; Boyd, Emily; Cornforth, Rosalind; Mitchell, Daniel; Allen, Myles

2014-11-01

319

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

320

Breaking the climate change communication deadlock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change communication is trapped between the norms that govern scientific practice and the need to engage the public. Overcoming this tension requires new societal institutions where the science and politics of climate change can co-exist.

Corner, Adam; Groves, Christopher

2014-09-01

321

Agriculture, Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Bruce A. McCarl  

E-print Network

Agriculture, Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor Change Happen Let's Avoid Climate Change Mitigation Effects Presented at Texas Recycling and Sustainability Summit San Antonio, Sept 29, 2004 #12;Climate Change has in part a human cause Source http

McCarl, Bruce A.

322

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING IN  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING Columbia must adapt to climate change by preparing for expected and unexpected changes in their communities that planners do not have a high level of knowledge of climate change adaptation. Planners feel that the impacts

Pedersen, Tom

323

Applied Climate-Change Analysis: The Climate Wizard Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough the message of global climate change is catalyzing international action, it is local and regional changes that directly affect people and ecosystems and are of immediate concern to scientists, managers, and policy makers. A major barrier preventing informed climate-change adaptation planning is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting climate-change information. To address this problem, we developed a powerful, yet

Evan H. Girvetz; Chris Zganjar; George T. Raber; Edwin P. Maurer; Peter Kareiva; Joshua J. Lawler; Anna Traveset

2009-01-01

324

The Amazon Rain Forest and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module discusses global climate change that is occurring largely because of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities, and in particular the impact that tropical deforestation plays in the climate system. It also covers signs of climate change, the current thinking on future changes, and international agreements that are attempting to minimize the effects of climate change. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD Programme) is also discussed.

Comet

2009-12-22

325

Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities Jim Crawford Trane jim.crawford@trane.com www.trane.com Abstract Atmospheric scientists tell us that mankind is changing the climate, and is setting in motion forces that can...Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities Jim Crawford Trane jim.crawford@trane.com www.trane.com Abstract Atmospheric scientists tell us that mankind is changing the climate, and is setting in motion forces that can...

Crawford, J. G.

326

Climate Change Impact on Forestry in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate change represents a significant threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. Climate change is expected\\u000a to have also impacts on forest ecology. It is thus important to make assessments of possible impacts of climate change on\\u000a forests in different regions to allow respective governments and communities to adapt. Climate change is projected to affect\\u000a individual organisms, populations, species distributions

Geetanjali Kaushik; M. A. Khalid

327

Local Response to Global Climate Change: The Role of Local Development Plans in Climate Change Management  

E-print Network

actors in the global climate change management strategy. Cities are centers of production and consumption in our society and as such will be crucial for global climate change management strategy. Despite these links, demands for consideration of climate...

Grover, Himanshu

2011-10-21

328

Waste and Climate Change ISWA WHITE PAPER  

E-print Network

38 2 List of Contents #12;The climate change phenomenon, its causes and consequences, is nowWaste and Climate Change ISWA WHITE PAPER #12;Preface 3 Re-evaluating waste: ISWA key messages 4 on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This reduction was mainly due to increased landfill methane recovery. · In the EU

329

Population Dynamical Consequences of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Population Dynamical Consequences of Climate Change for a Small Temperate Songbird B.-E. Sæther,1 attention be- cause of the need to predict the biological consequences of climate change (2). To an- swer of an expected climatic change requires estimates and modeling of stochastic factors as well as density

Tufto, Jarle

330

Online Courses: Mississippi State University: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our Climate Change course will provide you with an understanding of climate change over the entire history of Earth - not just the past few decades. Students will learn about the complexity of climate change and how it results from anthropogenic and natu

1900-01-01

331

Climate change-integrated conservation strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Conservation strategies currently include little consider- ation of climate change. Insights about the biotic impacts of climate change from biogeography and palaeoecology, there- fore, have the potential to provide significant improvements in the effectiveness of conservation planning. We suggest a collaboration involving biogeography, ecology and applied conservation. The resulting Climate Change-integrated Conservation Strategies (CCS) apply available tools to respond

L. Hannah; G. F. Midgley; D. Millar

2002-01-01

332

Climate Change and U.S. Interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public policy debate on the appropriate American response to climate change is now in full swing. There are no longer significant voices disputing that climate change is real or that it is primarily the result of human activity. The issue today is what the United States should do about climate change given the risks the country faces and the

Andrew T Guzman; Jody Freeman

2009-01-01

333

Climate Change: Fitting the Pieces Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module discusses climate change, particularly as it is currently being affected by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities. It also covers signs of climate change, how scientists study climate, the current thinking on future changes, and what can be done to minimize the effects. Updated in 2012.

Comet

2009-05-11

334

CLIMATE CHANGE -POPULATION INTERACTIONS: A SPATIAL AND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE - POPULATION INTERACTIONS: A SPATIAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE Susana B. Adamo CIESIN Conference Marrakech, 27 September ­ 2 October 2009 Plenary Session on Population and Climate Change #12, and demographic processes. ­ implications of the regional/local variability for vulnerability to climate changes

Columbia University

335

7, 1114111189, 2007 Climate change and  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric ozone G. Zeng et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone and its global budgets G. Zeng, J. A. Pyle, and P. Zeng (guang.zeng@atm.ch.cam.ac.uk) 11141 #12;ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Climate change projections and stratospheretroposphere interaction  

E-print Network

Climate change projections and stratosphere­troposphere interaction 1234567 15578379AB72C4DE F547A1 #12;1 1 Climate Change Projections and Stratosphere-Troposphere Interaction Adam A. Scaife*,1 , Thomas ­ University of Toronto, Canada. #12;2 2 ABSTRACT Climate change is expected to increase winter rainfall

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

337

Climate Change and Water Resources in the  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Water Resources in the Tropical Andes Mathias Vuille Inter-American Development Bank Environmental Safeguards Unit TECHNICAL NOTE No. IDB-TN-515 March 2013 #12;Climate Change-American Development Bank Felipe Herrera Library Vuille, Mathias. Climate change and water resources in the tropical

Vuille, Mathias

338

The Scientific Basis Climate Change 2001  

E-print Network

Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Summary for Policymakers A Report of Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change and Technical Summary of the Working Change Summary for Policymakers A Report of Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate

Stocker, Thomas

339

Whither the International Climate Change Regime?  

E-print Network

Whither the International Climate Change Regime? The Road from Cancun Wednesday, January 19, 2011 Bodansky is a preeminent authority on global climate change whose teaching and research focus on international environmental law and public international law. He has served as the climate change coordinator

Zhang, Junshan

340

As climate changes, so do glaciers  

PubMed Central

Understanding abrupt climate changes requires detailed spatial/temporal records of such changes, and to make these records, we need rapidly responding, geographically widespread climate trackers. Glacial systems are such trackers, and recent additions to the stratigraphic record show overall synchronous response of glacial systems to climate change reflecting global atmosphere conditions. PMID:10677465

Lowell, Thomas V.

2000-01-01

341

The Regional Impacts of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which human conditions and the natural environment are vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change is a key concern for governments and the environmental science community worldwide. This book from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides the best available base of scientific information for policymakers and public use. The Regional Impacts of Climate Change:

Robert T. Watson; Marufu C. Zinyowera; Richard H. Moss

1997-01-01

342

The Regional Impacts of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which human conditions and the natural environment are vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change is a key concern for governments and the environmental science community worldwide. This book from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides the best available base of scientific information for policymakers and public use. The Regional Impacts of Climate Change:

Robert T. Watson; Marufu C. Zinyowera; Richard H. Moss

1998-01-01

343

Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

Saving Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE Edited by Lee Hannah ISLANDPRESS-in-Publication Data Saving a million species : extinction risk from climate change / edited by LeeHannah. p. cm. ISBN-10: 1-59726-570-5 (paper) 1. Climatic changes. 2. Global warming. 3. Extinction (Biology

Poff, N. LeRoy

344

Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and  

E-print Network

Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers Northern. ABSTRACT #12;Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers Edited, cswanston@fs.fed.us Maria Janowiak is a climate change adaptation and carbon management scientist

345

Integrating climate change adaptation into forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change will affect society's ability to use forest resources. We take account of climate in forest management and this will help us adapt to the effects of climate change on forests. However, society will have to adjust to how forests adapt by changing expectations for the use of forest resources because management can only influence the timing and

David L. Spittlehouse

2005-01-01

346

Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic  

E-print Network

Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic Tomography, Satellite Altimetry, and Modeling The ATOC to thermal expansion. Interpreting climate change signals from fluctuations in sea level is therefore in the advective heat flux. Changes in oceanic heat storage are a major expected element of future climate shifts

Frandsen, Jannette B.

347

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FLOODING IN WISCONSIN Ken Potter and Zach Schuster flood scenarios in Wisconsin · Potential impact of climate change on Wisconsin flooding · Ongoing #12;WISCONSIN INITIATIVE ON CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS · Partnership between the University of Wisconsin

Sheridan, Jennifer

348

BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change  

E-print Network

BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

Kraft, Nathan

349

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change  

E-print Network

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change: The Role of NOAA Sea Grant Extension years and generations about how to adapt to a changing climate. Effective preparation for possible effects of climate change includes engagement of resource managers, planners, public works officials

350

Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1  

E-print Network

Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1 J. Marotzke,2 W. D. Nordhaus,3 J. T. Overpeck,4 D. M. Peteet,5. Wallace8 Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

351

Addressing Climate Change in Environmental Impact Analysis  

E-print Network

Addressing Climate Change in Environmental Impact Analysis 2010 CTS Research Conference Carissa impact analysis (EIA) as a tool to address climate change ·! Consider approaches to measuring and addressing climate change at the project scale #12;Purpose ·! Funded by U of M Institute on the Environment

Minnesota, University of

352

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change  

E-print Network

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change: Opportunities and Challenges for Data A Climate change is the defining environmental challenge facing our planet, yet there is considerable.Anew and transformative approach is required to understand the potential impact of climate change. Data driven approaches

California at Davis, University of

353

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC Climate change will affect both sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff

354

Arnold Schwarzenegger DATA SOURCES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor DATA SOURCES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH WITH A COMPUTABLE GENERAL-Holst, University of California, Berkeley PIERPROJECTREPORT June 2007 CEC-500-2006-080 #12;California Climate Change for Climate Change Research with a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model of the California Economy

355

The Environmental Justice Dimensions of Climate Change  

E-print Network

The Environmental Justice Dimensions of Climate Change Marie Lynn Miranda, Douglas A. Hastings to mitigate the severe impacts of climate change predicted to occur in the twenty-first century. Many with climate change. This study investigates the varying degrees to which developing and developed nations

356

Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing  

E-print Network

Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental climate change when relicensing hydropower units, stating that there is a lack of scientific information this project, researchers are conducting an environmental study on climate change for the Yuba River

357

Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social

Anderson, Allison

2012-01-01

358

Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change

Dawson, Vaille

2012-01-01

359

Understanding the regional impacts of climate change  

E-print Network

on the Economics of Climate Change Rachel Warren, Nigel Arnell, Robert Nicholls, Peter Levy and Jeff Price IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE Research Report Prepared for the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change 5. Global 181 6. North Africa 187 7. North America 191 8. Russia and Central Asia 195 9. South

Watson, Andrew

360

UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE UNITED NATIONS 1992 FCCC/INFORMAL/84 GE.05-62220 (E) 200705 #12;UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Parties to this Convention in predictions of climate change, particularly with regard to the timing, magnitude and regional patterns thereof

Laughlin, Robert B.

361

Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5  

E-print Network

Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5 J relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model climate and Earth System Models, both developed in France and contributing to the 5th coupled model

Codron, Francis

362

North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Producing Regional Climate Change Projections for Climate Impacts Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is constructing projections of regional climate change over the coterminous United States and Canada in order to provide climate change information at decision relevant scales. A major goal of NARCCAP is to estimate uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate by using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within multiple

R. W. Arritt; L. Mearns; C. Anderson; D. Bader; E. Buonomo; D. Caya; P. Duffy; N. Elguindi; F. Giorgi; W. Gutowski; I. Held; A. Nunes; R. Jones; R. Laprise; L. R. Leung; D. Middleton; W. Moufouma-Okia; D. Nychka; Y. Qian; J. Roads; S. Sain; M. Snyder; L. Sloan; E. Takle

2006-01-01

363

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural and human influences result in

Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Anita Roychoudhury; Andrew Hirsch

2011-01-01

364

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural and human influences result in

Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Anita Roychoudhury; Andrew Hirsch

2012-01-01

365

Conceptualizing Climate Change in the Context of a Climate System: Implications for Climate and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural

Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Roychoudhury, Anita; Hirsch, Andrew

2012-01-01

366

Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review.  

PubMed

The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

2014-11-01

367

Climate Change in Small Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated islands are especially vulnerable to climate change. But their climate is generally not well reproduced in GCMs, due to their small size and complex topography. Here, results from a new generation of climate models, forced by scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, established by the IPCC for its fifth report, are used to characterize the climate of the islands of Azores and Madeira, and its response to the ongoing global warming. The methodology developed here uses the new global model EC-Earth, data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and results from an extensive set of simulations with the WRF research model, using, for the first time, a dynamic approach for the regionalization of global fields at sufficiently fine resolutions, in which the effect of topographical complexity is explicitly represented. The results reviewed here suggest increases in temperature above 1C in the middle of the XXI century in Azores and Madeira, reaching values higher than 2.5C at the end of the century, accompanied by a reduction in the annual rainfall of around 10% in the Azores, which could reach 30% in Madeira. These changes are large enough to justify much broader impacts on island ecosystems and the human population. The results show the advantage of using the proposed methodology, in particular for an adequate representation of the precipitation regime in islands with complex topography, even suggesting the need for higher resolutions in future work. The WRF results are also compared against two different downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and a modified version of the upslope precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005).

Tom, Ricardo; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Brito de Azevedo, Eduardo; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.

2014-05-01

368

Climate Change or Land Use Dynamics: Do We Know What Climate Change Indicators Indicate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different components of global change can have interacting effects on biodiversity and this may influence our ability to detect the specific consequences of climate change through biodiversity indicators. Here, we analyze whether climate change indicators can be affected by land use dynamics that are not directly determined by climate change. To this aim, we analyzed three community-level indicators of climate

Miguel Clavero; Daniel Villero; Llus Brotons; Stephen G. Willis

2011-01-01

369

STERN REVIEW: The Economics of Climate Change 1 Climate Change our approach  

E-print Network

that societies can adapt to the consequences of climate change that can no longer be avoided. The Review takes an international perspective. Climate change is global in its causes and consequences, and the response requiresSTERN REVIEW: The Economics of Climate Change 1 Part I Climate Change ­ our approach Part I

370

FAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE  

E-print Network

FAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING. Alvarez, J. Jolley, A. Edwards #12;RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE TABLE CLIMATE "I am persuaded that global climate change is one of the most important issues that we will face

Fernandez, Eduardo

371

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

Saldin, Dilano

372

Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law  

E-print Network

Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law Monica Molina, Columbia College '14 Supervisor Meredith Wilensky, J.D. Introduction The Climate Change Laws of the World Project is an ongoing effort at the Center for Climate Change Law (CCCL) to aggregate existing domestic

373

A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century  

E-print Network

A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century Miche`le B; accepted 30 November 2006; published 10 January 2007. [1] A Climate Change Index (CCI) is developed to a single index that is a measure for the strength of future climate change relative to today's natural

Fischlin, Andreas

374

Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change: Implications for · Wisconsin's changing climate · Stormwater management · Impacts and adaptation #12;WICCI Identifying impacts activities. Develop and recommend adaptation strategies. Mission: Assess and anticipate climate change

Sheridan, Jennifer

375

Maps of Recent and Projected Climate Change in Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts  

E-print Network

Maps of Recent and Projected Climate Change in Wisconsin Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change INITIATIVE ON CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS (WICCI) Except for northeastern Wisconsin, most of Wisconsin has warmed of linear regression fits for the entire 1950-2006 time series. #12;3 WISCONSIN INITIATIVE ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Sheridan, Jennifer

376

Climate change and global infectious disease threats.  

PubMed

The world's climate is warming up and, while debate continues about how much change we can expect, it is becoming clear that even small changes in climate can have major effects on the spread of disease. Erwin K Jackson, a member of Greenpeace International's Climate Impacts Unit and a delegate to the 11th session of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Rome, 11-15 December), reviews the scientific evidence of this new global threat to health. PMID:8538543

Jackson, E K

377

Towards a Psychology of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper gives a structured overview about possible contributions of psychology to the climate change debate. As a starting\\u000a point, it assumes that understanding peoples behaviour related to climate change (mitigation and adaptation) is crucial for\\u000a successfully dealing with the future challenges. Climate change-related behaviour includes voting, support for climate lobbyists,\\u000a individual consumption, adapting new technology, and taking adaptive actions.

Christian A. Kloeckner

378

Climate Reel: Global Climate Change - NASA's Eyes on the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of NASA's best videos and visualizations of climate change. The Top 10 Climate Movies are featured. Other videos, animated visuals and images are listed by themes: Life on Earth, Water, The Land, The Atmosphere, The Sun, Frozen Places, and Climate Data. Links to complete transcripts are available.

379

Climate engineering and the risk of rapid climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has highlighted risks associated with the use of climate engineering as a method of stabilizing global temperatures, including the possibility of rapid climate warming in the case of abrupt removal of engineered radiative forcing. In this study, we have used a simple climate model to estimate the likely range of temperature changes associated with implementation and removal of

Andrew Ross; H. Damon Matthews

2009-01-01

380

Using Satellites to Understand Climate and Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the measurement of climate with the use of satellites. The basic greenhouse effect, Ice-albedo feedback, climate models and observations, aerosol-cloud interactions, and the Antarctic are discussed, along with the human effect on climate change.

Fetzer, Eric

2007-01-01

381

Changes in Labour Market Status Surrounding Union Dissolution in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In France, as in many other countries, union dissolution has become increasingly common over the last few decades. While the economic consequences of separation have generated an abundant international literature, research on this question is still rare in France, doubtless for lack of suitable data. This article analyses the labour force participation of men and women in the two years

Anne Solaz; Jonathan Mandelbaum; Elisabeth Algava; Carole Bonnet

2010-01-01

382

Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

1999-01-01

383

Understanding Climate Change: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Woods Hole Research Center, The Warming of the Earth introduces the concept of global warming through the following topics: the greenhouse effect, scientific evidence, the culprits, potential outcomes, what the skeptics don't tell you, and the Kyoto Protocol. The text relies heavily on reports published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Throughout the website, additional, but intimately related resources can be accessed through linked material. Examples include a link to the IPCC and a letter written by 2400 scientists to President Clinton. Several diagrams exist depicting the rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and related atmospheric warming over the past several decades.

384

World Wildlife Fund: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about the World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) position on climate change and its efforts to address the issue. There are links to information about the causes and potential risks of global warming, to some suggested solutions for energy, business and industry, and public policy solutions. There are also suggestions for actions that individuals can take themselves to conserve energy, as well as links to news articles on the issue. Other links provide access to press materials, to a blog, and to conference reports and a brochure describing WWF's activities on behalf of the issue.

385

PETM: Unearthing Ancient Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, a team of paleontologists, paleobotanists, soil scientists, and other researchers take to the field in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin to document how the climate, plants, and animals there changed during the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) when a sudden, enormous influx of carbon flooded the ocean and atmosphere for reasons that are still unclear to scientists. The PTEM is used as an analog to the current warming occurring. The scientists' research may help inform our understanding of current increases in carbon in the atmosphere and ocean and the resulting impact on ecosystems. Supporting materials include essay and interactive overview of animals that existed in the Basin after the PETM event.

History, American M.

386

Climate change: believing and seeing implies adapting.  

PubMed

Knowledge of factors that trigger human response to climate change is crucial for effective climate change policy communication. Climate change has been claimed to have low salience as a risk issue because it cannot be directly experienced. Still, personal factors such as strength of belief in local effects of climate change have been shown to correlate strongly with responses to climate change and there is a growing literature on the hypothesis that personal experience of climate change (and/or its effects) explains responses to climate change. Here we provide, using survey data from 845 private forest owners operating in a wide range of bio-climatic as well as economic-social-political structures in a latitudinal gradient across Europe, the first evidence that the personal strength of belief and perception of local effects of climate change, highly significantly explain human responses to climate change. A logistic regression model was fitted to the two variables, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.07 (SD 0.01) to 0.81 (SD 0.03) for self-reported adaptive measures taken. Adding socio-demographic variables improved the fit, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.022 (SD 0.008) to 0.91 (SD 0.02). We conclude that to explain and predict adaptation to climate change, the combination of personal experience and belief must be considered. PMID:23185568

Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Tom, Margarida; Hanewinkel, Marc

2012-01-01

387

Climate Change: Believing and Seeing Implies Adapting  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of factors that trigger human response to climate change is crucial for effective climate change policy communication. Climate change has been claimed to have low salience as a risk issue because it cannot be directly experienced. Still, personal factors such as strength of belief in local effects of climate change have been shown to correlate strongly with responses to climate change and there is a growing literature on the hypothesis that personal experience of climate change (and/or its effects) explains responses to climate change. Here we provide, using survey data from 845 private forest owners operating in a wide range of bio-climatic as well as economic-social-political structures in a latitudinal gradient across Europe, the first evidence that the personal strength of belief and perception of local effects of climate change, highly significantly explain human responses to climate change. A logistic regression model was fitted to the two variables, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.07 (SD 0.01) to 0.81 (SD 0.03) for self-reported adaptive measures taken. Adding socio-demographic variables improved the fit, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.022 (SD 0.008) to 0.91 (SD 0.02). We conclude that to explain and predict adaptation to climate change, the combination of personal experience and belief must be considered. PMID:23185568

Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Tome, Margarida; Hanewinkel, Marc

2012-01-01

388

ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF RECENT CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Global climate change is frequently considered a major conservation threat. The Earth's climate has already warmed by 0.5 degrees C over the past century, and recent studies show that it is possible to detect the effects of a changing climate on ecological systems....

389

Integrated assessment of abrupt climatic changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most controversial conclusions to emerge from many of the first generation of integrated assessment models (IAMs) of climate policy was the perceived economic optimality of negligible near-term abatement of greenhouse gases. Typically, such studies were conducted using smoothly varying climate change scenarios or impact responses. Abrupt changes observed in the climatic record and documented in current models

Michael D. Mastrandrea; Stephen H. Schneider

2001-01-01

390

INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) HOMEPAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The IPCC is divided into three Working Groups. Working Group I assesses the scientific aspects of the climate system and climate change. Working Group II assesses the vulnerability to climate change of, and the negative and positive impacts for, ecological systems, socio-economic...

391

On climate change and economic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic impact of climate change is usually measured as the extent to which the climate of a given period affects social welfare in that period. This static approach ignores the dynamic effects through which climate change may affect economic growth and hence future welfare. In this paper we take a closer look at these dynamic effects, in particular saving

Samuel Fankhauser; Richard S. J. Tol

2005-01-01

392

The physical science behind climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists,

William Collins; Robert Colman; James Haywood; Martin R. Manning; Philip Mote

2007-01-01

393

Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change Robert Socolow Princeton University socolow should provide at least one wedge. #12;"The Wedge Model is the iPod of climate change: You fill/yr, 30 miles per gallon b) Fly 10,000 miles/yr c) Heat home Natural gas, average house, average climate d

394

The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda  

E-print Network

The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda CEPS Working Document No. 295/June 2008 Thomas L. Brewer Abstract Climate change, international trade, investment and technology transfer are all issues that have............................................................................ 6 3.2 Coverage of the Multilateral Climate and Trade Regimes

395

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012031 Commissioner), Chuck Dudley (President of the Yolo County Farm Bureau), John MottSmith (Yolo County Climate

396

Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological

Stern, Paul C.

2011-01-01

397

Climate change, parasites and shifting boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Around the world the three major components of climate change already evident and escalating in magnitude and significance are; 1) warming; 2) altered patterns of precipitation; and 3) an increased incidence of extreme climatic events [1]. For the structure and function of ecosystems, impacts of climate change vary with place and with time, and among the key outcomes are

Lydden Polley; Eric Hoberg; Susan Kutz

2010-01-01

398

EOS-EarthData: Climate Change Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides a compendium of current climate change information, including scientific evidence for climate change, policy documents (including the Kyoto Protocol and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports), summaries of specific climate change issues, and links to additional resources. These data holdings can be searched spatially, temporally, or by keyword, freetext, or collection name. There are also links to climate model projections from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), satellite and land use modeling data, and case studies. Registration and log-in are required to obtain some materials.

2005-12-02

399

Changes in Streamflow Percentiles under Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various studies have shown that the occurrence of floods and droughts will change under global warming. This study uses the bias-corrected runoff outputs of multiple general circulation models (GCMs) participating in the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to analyze the changes in the extreme streamflow percentiles. Under the highest emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5), compared to 20C (1971-2000) multimodel mean, ~77% (19%) of the world shows increase (decrease) in high flow (10th percentile) in 21C (2071-2100). Similarly, ~63% (32%) shows increase (decrease) in low flow (90th percentile). Consistency among GCMs in showing similar sign (increase or decrease) of change of high flow is relatively high with more than 9 out of 11 models showing increase in ~39% of the world and more than 9 out of 11 models showing decrease in 13% of the world. Similar high consistency among models in showing similar change of low flow can be seen in 34% (increase) and 23% (decrease) of the world. Further, in 16% of the world, the high flow will increase and low flow will decrease in future suggesting reduced water availability and elevated risk of flood. As most of these regions are located in South America, Central Africa, and eastern China, which also have large population density, the number of people facing water scarcity and flood events is bound to increase with climate change. Change in multimodel mean and consistency among models for 10th percentile/high flow (a and b, respectively) and 90th percentile/low flow (c and d, respectively). Change is presented in percentage (increase is in blue shades and decrease in red shades) and consistency is presented as number of model (blue shades indicate regions with increase and red shade indicate regions with decrease).

Koirala, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Roobavannan, M.; Kanae, S.

2013-12-01

400

Forest response to climate change  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two decades, a number of studies have examined the likely response of forests to projected climate change. The consensus of these studies, as described in the second IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) assessment and other studies (e.g., Houghton et al. 1996: Smith and Tirpak 1989), is that dieback of forest is likely and could occur on regional scales. Deforestation of certain regions is even predicted by some analyses. If such events are indeed probable, they have significant policy implications. projected dieback of the southern boreal forest, for example, could have major regional economic repercussions. Range shrinkage of certain forest species is projected to be so severe that extinctions may occur. Such projections lend weight to calls for reduction of fossil fuel consumption. Although all models are necessarily only approximations of reality, the fact that so many different models have all predicted similar catastrophic results for different regions tends to lend credence to their dire predictions. Thus, the dominant view is that, in spite of uncertainty, in the models, the general trends they project are probably correct. This paper argues that, as a class, these models exhibit catastrophic effects. That is, they tend to predict forest dieback where none is likely to occur and predict range shrinkages over decades that could actually take centuries or even millennia. 10 refs.

Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1996-09-01

401

Seasonality and Cenozoic climate change  

SciTech Connect

Previous attempts to model the transition from an ice-free to an ice-covered state have employed annually-averaged insolation to determine whether continental drift may have caused high-latitude cooling. Results have been ambiguous. Resolving the seasonal cycle greatly changes this picture. The authors have modeled the evolution of high-latitude temperatures during the last 100 million years with an energy balance model that resolves geography and has a seasonal cycle. Early Cenozoic summer temperatures were relatively high due to increased continentality over key areas. However, changing land/sea distribution caused a significant reduction in the magnitude of summer warming. Results indicate that summer temperatures decreased by more than 10/sup 0/C over Greenland and about 7/sup 0/C over Antarctica. The transition to near-freezing temperatures occurs during the Oligocene in both hemispheres and suggests that significant ice volume may have developed by that time. An important implication of their model results concerns the nature of presumed ice-free climates. Since warm summers are balanced by cold winters, their results imply that an ice-free earth may not necessarily be a particularly warm earth. Preliminary reevaluation of some paleoecological data either support the authors hypothesis or raise questions about the alternate hypothesis that an ice-free climate implies year-around warmth at all high latitudes.

Crowley, T.J.; Short, D.A.; North, G.R.

1985-01-01

402

10 Facts on Climate Change and Health  

MedlinePLUS

... and other greenhouse gases to affect the global climate. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased ... lower atmosphere. The resulting changes in the global climate bring a range of risks to health, from ...

403

Climate Change: A simulation with commentary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains two videos that show climate visualizations created by super computers. Both videos show climate changes that may occur during the 21st Century due to human activities based on IPCC science.

Research, Center F.; Ministry Of The Environment, Japan

404

Abrupt climate change: can society cope?  

PubMed

Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and those who argue that the unknowns in the Earth system are too large to justify such early action. This paper explores the question of abrupt climate change in terms of its potential implications for society, focusing on the UK and northwest Europe in particular. The nature of abrupt climate change and the different ways in which it has been defined and perceived are examined. Using the example of the collapse of the thermohaline circulation (THC), the suggested implications for society of abrupt climate change are reviewed; previous work has been largely speculative and has generally considered the implications only from economic and ecological perspectives. Some observations about the implications from a more social and behavioural science perspective are made. If abrupt climate change simply implies changes in the occurrence or intensity of extreme weather events, or an accelerated unidirectional change in climate, the design of adaptation to climate change can proceed within the existing paradigm, with appropriate adjustments. Limits to adaptation in some sectors or regions may be reached, and the costs of appropriate adaptive behaviour may be large, but strategy can develop on the basis of a predicted long-term unidirectional change in climate. It would be more challenging, however, if abrupt climate change implied a directional change in climate, as, for example, may well occur in northwest Europe following a collapse of the THC. There are two fundamental problems for society associated with such an outcome: first, the future changes in climate currently being anticipated and prepared for may reverse and, second, the probability of such a scenario occurring remains fundamentally unknown. The implications of both problems for climate policy and for decision making have not been researched. It is premature to argue therefore that abrupt climate change - in the sense referred to here - imposes unacceptable costs on society or the world economy, represents a catastrophic impact of climate change or constitutes a dangerous change in climate that should be avoided at all reasonable cost. We conclude by examining the implications of this contention for future research and policy formation. PMID:14558906

Hulme, Mike

2003-09-15

405

Climate Kids: A Student's Guide to Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A product of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this website features sections entitled "Learn the Basics," "See the Impacts," "Think Like a Scientist," and "Be Part of the Solution" through which participants gain a deeper understanding of climate change issues. This resource is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

406

PERSPECTIVE Climate change, adaptation, and phenotypic plasticity  

E-print Network

that climate change is the specific causal agent have rarely involved the testing ­ and exclusion ­ of otherPERSPECTIVE Climate change, adaptation, and phenotypic plasticity: the problem and the evidence Montreal, QC, Canada Keywords environmental change, evolution, genetics, global change, individual

Hendry, Andrew

407

Responding to the Consequences of Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning climate change, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate climate change and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the changing water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality climate change. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and sea ice; changes in runoff; rising sea level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of climate change is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and changes in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and changes in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of climate-induced changes in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, changes in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of climate change effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale changes in human behavior that affect the climate and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on climate, the many options for mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.

Hildebrand, Peter H.

2011-01-01

408

Climate change and mining in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate is an important component of the operating environment for the Canadian mining sector. However, in recent years mines\\u000a across Canada have been affected by significant climatic hazards, several which are regarded to be symptomatic of climate\\u000a change. For the mining sector, climate change is a pressing environmental threat and a significant business risk. The extent\\u000a to which the mining

Tristan D. Pearce; James David Ford; Jason Prno; Frank Duerden; Jeremy Pittman; Maude Beaumier; Lea Berrang-Ford; Barry Smit

2011-01-01

409

Climate Change Effects on Marine Ecological Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is no secret that our climate is changing rapidly and together with it, oceans change as well. The Intergovernmental\\u000a Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), consisting of hundreds of scientists worldwide, have shown that changes in global climate\\u000a have accelerated since the 1750s, causing an overall increase in temperature both on land and in the sea. The IPCC

Gil Rilov; Haim Treves

410

Are abrupt climate changes predictable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is taken for granted that the limited predictability in the initial value problem, the weather prediction, and the predictability of the statistics are two distinct problems. Lorenz (1975) dubbed this predictability of the first and the second kind respectively. Predictability of the first kind in a chaotic dynamical system is limited due to the well-known critical dependence on initial conditions. Predictability of the second kind is possible in an ergodic system, where either the dynamics is known and the phase space attractor can be characterized by simulation or the system can be observed for such long times that the statistics can be obtained from temporal averaging, assuming that the attractor does not change in time. For the climate system the distinction between predictability of the first and the second kind is fuzzy. This difficulty in distinction between predictability of the first and of the second kind is related to the lack of scale separation between fast and slow components of the climate system. The non-linear nature of the problem furthermore opens the possibility of multiple attractors, or multiple quasi-steady states. As the ice-core records show, the climate has been jumping between different quasi-stationary climates, stadials and interstadials through the Dansgaard-Oechger events. Such a jump happens very fast when a critical tipping point has been reached. The question is: Can such a tipping point be predicted? This is a new kind of predictability: the third kind. If the tipping point is reached through a bifurcation, where the stability of the system is governed by some control parameter, changing in a predictable way to a critical value, the tipping is predictable. If the sudden jump occurs because internal chaotic fluctuations, noise, push the system across a barrier, the tipping is as unpredictable as the triggering noise. In order to hint at an answer to this question, a careful analysis of the high temporal resolution NGRIP isotope record is presented. The result of the analysis points to a fundamental limitation in predictability of the third kind. Reference: P. D. Ditlevsen and S. Johnsen, "Tipping points: Early warning and wishful thinking", Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, 2010

Ditlevsen, Peter

2013-04-01

411

Technology InnovationTechnology Innovation and Climate Changeand Climate Change  

E-print Network

Department of Engineering and Public Policy Department of Mechanical Engineering Carnegie Mellon University1 Technology InnovationTechnology Innovation and Climate Changeand Climate Change Edward S. Rubin change · What action is needed? · The role of technology innovation · The role of government policies

412

Economic Consequences Of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the climate conflict resulting from green houses gases (GHG) emissions was evident by the Nineties and the well-known agreements made, their enforcement is more difficult than that of other environmental agreements. That is because measures to reduce GHG emissions interfere with the heart of the economy and the market: energy (in a broader sense than the energy sector as defined by statistics) and economical growth. Analyzing the environmental policy responses to climate change the conclusion is that GHG emission reduction can only be achieved through intensive environmental policy. While extensive environmental protection complements production horizontally, intensive environmental protection integrates into production and the environment vertically. The latter eliminates the source of the pollution, preventing damage. It utilizes the biochemical processes and self-purification of the natural environment as well as technical development which not only aims to produce state-of-the-art goods, but to make production more environmentally friendly, securing a desired environmental state. While in extensive environmental protection the intervention comes from the outside for creating environmental balance, in intensive environmental protection the system recreates this balance itself. Instead of dealing with the consequences and the polluter pays principle, the emphasis is on prevention. It is important to emphasize that climate strategy decisions have complex effects regarding the aspects of sustainability (economical, social, ecological). Therefore, all decisions are political. At present, and in the near future, market economy decisions have little to do with sustainability values under normal circumstances. Taking social and ecological interests into consideration can only be successful through strategic political aims.

Szlvik, Jnos

2009-07-01

413

Effect of climate change on air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results. The future climate is expected to be more stagnant, due to a weaker global circulation and a decreasing frequency of mid-latitude cyclones. The observed correlation between surface ozone and temperature in polluted regions points to a detrimental effect of warming. Coupled GCM-CTM studies find that climate change alone will increase summertime surface ozone in polluted regions by 1-10 ppb over the coming decades, with the largest effects in urban areas and during pollution episodes. This climate penalty means that stronger emission controls will be needed to meet a given air quality standard. Higher water vapor in the future climate is expected to decrease the ozone background, so that pollution and background ozone have opposite sensitivities to climate change. The effect of climate change on particulate matter (PM) is more complicated and uncertain than for ozone. Precipitation frequency and mixing depth are important driving factors but projections for these variables are often unreliable. GCM-CTM studies find that climate change will affect PM concentrations in polluted environments by 0.1-1 ?g m -3 over the coming decades. Wildfires fueled by climate change could become an increasingly important PM source. Major issues that should be addressed in future research include the ability of GCMs to simulate regional air pollution meteorology and its sensitivity to climate change, the response of natural emissions to climate change, and the atmospheric chemistry of isoprene. Research needs to be undertaken on the effect of climate change on mercury, particularly in view of the potential for a large increase in mercury soil emissions driven by increased respiration in boreal ecosystems.

Jacob, Daniel J.; Winner, Darrell A.

414

Statistical principles for climate change studies  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of climate change due to human-induced increases in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations have been an ongoing arena for debate and discussion. A major difficulty in early detection of changes resulting from anthropogenic forcing of the climate system is that the natural climate variability overwhelms the climate change signal in observed data. Statistical principles underlying fingerprint methods for detecting a climate change signal above natural climate variations and attributing the potential signal to specific anthropogenic forcings are discussed. The climate change problem is introduced through an exposition of statistical issues in modeling the climate signal and natural climate variability. The fingerprint approach is shown to be analogous to optimal hypothesis testing procedures from the classical statistics literature. The statistical formulation of the fingerprint scheme suggests new insights into the implementation of the techniques for climate change studies. In particular, the statistical testing ideas are exploited to introduce alternative procedures within the fingerprint model for attribution of climate change and to shed light on practical issues in applying the fingerprint detection strategies.

Levine, R.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Statistics] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Statistics; Berliner, L.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); [National Inst. of Statistical Sciences, Columbus, OH (United States)

1999-02-01

415

Covering Climate Change in Wikipedia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first hit in an internet search for "global warming" using any of the three leading search engines (Google, Bing, or Yahoo) is the article "Global warming" in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The article garners about half a million page views per month. In addition to the site's visibility with the public, Wikipedia's articles on climate-related topics are widely referenced by policymakers, media outlets, and academia. Despite the site's strong influence on public understanding of science, few geoscientists actively participate in Wikipedia, with the result that the community that edits these articles is mostly composed of individuals with little or no expertise in the topic at hand. In this presentation we discuss how geoscientists can help shape public understanding of science by contributing to Wikipedia. Although Wikipedia prides itself on being "the encyclopedia that anyone can edit," the site has policies regarding contributions and behavior that can be pitfalls for newcomers. This presentation is intended as a guide for the geoscience community in contributing to information about climate change in this widely-used reference.

Arritt, R. W.; Connolley, W.; Ramjohn, I.; Schulz, S.; Wickert, A. D.

2010-12-01

416

Sulfate aerosol and climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The predicted Earth warming based on recent increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases is slightly more than the observed warming of the atmosphere. In addition, the warming trend in North America does not appear to follow the global pattern. What might account for these and other deviations of fact from theory The answer is ironic. In all probability, aerosols primarily composed of sulfates, themselves the result of commercial activity, enhance the ability of the atmosphere to reflect sunlight back into space before it can reach the planet's surface and participate in the warming process. The sulfate particles, about 0.1 to one micron in diameter, are particularly concentrated over the industrial area of the Northern Hemisphere. Their capacity to cool by scattering sunlight has become a recognized force in climatic change only recently. Clearly, both the cooling effects of aerosols and the warming caused by greenhouse gases must be taken into account if we are to attain accurate climate models and effective industrial policies. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Charlson, R.J. (Univ. of Washington, WA (United States)); Wigley, T.M.L. (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))

1994-02-01

417

COP4: International Conference on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News highlights a critical international conference on climate change, the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, currently being held (November 2-13) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Convention on Climate Change, signed and ratified by over 175 countries, is one of a series of recent international agreements dedicated to reducing anthropogenic (human-induced) climate change. Although the detection of climate change is a complex and contentious issue among scientists (and is generally refuted by industries afraid of the regulatory consequences), the potential impacts to the earth's ecosystems cannot be ignored. Thus, the Convention's "ultimate objective" is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level -- and with enough time -- to prevent "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere." The nine sites discussed provide background information, resources, and information related to COP4 and to climate change.

Nannapaneni, Sujani.

418

Changes in the diagnosis of autism: How parents and professionals act and react in France  

E-print Network

1 Changes in the diagnosis of autism: How parents and professionals act and react in France B in the Diagnosis of Autism: How Parents and Professionals Act and React in France Abstract The category of autism, and intra- professional debates in psychiatry. Our data support the notion that the diagnosis of autism

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

Climate Change in Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a visualization tool for Earth Sciences data and imagery one big advantage of virtual globes is they give the user a tremendous amount of control over how the imagery is viewed. Features like zoom, orientation and tilt provide a great deal of flexibility for looking at the imagery in different ways. For the National Snow and Ice Data Center's entry into the Google Earth outreach gallery we chose data that would benefit from capabilities Google Earth provides. We looked for imagery that showed visually dramatic evidence of climate change. Included in the kmz are repeat photographs of glaciers in Alaska taken several decades apart, an animation of the last 29 years of the Arctic sea ice minimum, and an animation of the 2002 break-up of the Larsen B ice shelf in Antarctica.

Swick, R.; Ballagh, L. M.

2007-12-01

420

Atmospheric Composition and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment has student teams comparing a sample of room air with one of the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or methane - and observing the relative effectiveness of the gases in trapping infrared (IR) radiation. The activity requires an IR heat source, such as a heat lamp, two 2-liter beverage bottles, #4 one hole rubber stoppers, and a thermometer or temperature probes. Nitrous oxide can be obtained from a dentist, methane from gas jets in a chemistry lab, and CO² can be generated using vinegar and baking soda. Students compare the heating and cooling curves in data they collect. The investigation is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

421

Climate Variability and Change Lectures, July 2013  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson presents 13 recorded presentations from the 29 July2 August, 2013 offering of the Climate Variability and Change Virtual Course (CVCVC). This five-day live facilitated online course provided an extensive background on a range of climate variability and change topics with an emphasis on developing communication skills for challenging climate topics. The topics covered in this course, while aimed primarily at NOAA operational climate services delivery staff will also be helpful for others who already possess a basic level of understanding of climate science. Presentations include: Weather vs. Climate Derek Arndt, National Climatic Data Center, NOAA Climate Variability Matt Newman, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Climate Science Communication Derek Arndt, National Climatic Data Center, NOAA The El Niño/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Cycle Michelle L'Heureux, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service NOAA's Atlantic Hurricane Season Outlooks Gerry Bell, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service The Madden-Julian Oscillation Jon Gottschalk, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service Drought: Science, Monitoring and Early Warning Roger Pulwarty, National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), Earth System Research Laboratory/NOAA Climate Prediction Center Outlooks Mike Halpert, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service Climate.gov: Information, Products, and Tools David Herring, Climate Program Office, NOAA/National Weather Service Climate Communication Skills for Decision-support Audiences Susan Buhr, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado Climate Change Science Wayne Higgins, Climate Program Office, NOAA Climate Change Impacts Peter Backlund, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Managing Marine and Coastal Resources in a Changing Climate Kenric Osgood, Marine Ecosystems Division, NOAA, NMFS Please Note: There are no quizzes available on MetEd for these materials. However, National Weather Service users may complete a quiz for each lecture and receive credit in the NWS Learning Center. The quizzes may be found in the NWS Learning Center by searching for "Climate Variability and Change Lecture". Alternatively, a learning plan containing quizzes for all 13 lectures is available on the NWS Learning Center's COMET Page.

Comet

2014-04-08

422

Global Climate Change Pilot Course Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fall 2011 a pilot course on "Global Climate Change" is being offered, which has been proposed to educate urban, diverse, undergraduate students about climate change at the introductory level. The course has been approved to fulfill two general college requirements, a natural sciences requirement that focuses on the scientific method, as well as a global diversity requirement. This course presents the science behind global climate change from an Earth systems and atmospheric science perspective. These concepts then provide the basis to explore the effect of global warming on regions throughout the world. Climate change has been taught as a sub-topic in other courses in the past solely using scientific concepts, with little success in altering the climate change misconceptions of the students. This pilot course will see if new, innovative projects described below can make more of an impact on the students' views of climate change. Results of the successes or failures of these projects will be reported, as well as results of a pre- and post-course questionnaire on climate change given to students taking the course. Students in the class will pair off and choose a global region or country that they will research, write papers on, and then represent in four class discussions spaced throughout the semester. The first report will include details on the current climate of their region and how the climate shapes that region's society and culture. The second report will discuss how that region is contributing to climate change and/or sequestering greenhouse gases. Thirdly, students will discuss observed and predicted changes in that region's climate and what impact it has had, and could have, on their society. Lastly, students will report on what role their region has played in mitigating climate change, any policies their region may have implemented, and how their region can or cannot adapt to future climate changes. They will also try to get a feel for the region's attitude towards climate change science, policy, and the stances taken by other regions on climate change. The professor will provide a model of integrative research using the U.S. as a focus, and on discussion days, prompt a sort of United Nations discussion on each of these topics with the intention of having the students look at climate change from a different point of view that contrasts their current U.S.-centric view, as well as realize the interdependence of regions particularly in regards to climate change.

Schuenemann, K. C.; Wagner, R.

2011-12-01

423

IPCC Report Calls Climate Changes Unprecedented  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming of the Earth's climate "is unequivocal and since the 1950s many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia," according to a new assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The 27 September summary for policy makers of IPCC's report "Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis" also states that "it is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."

Showstack, Randy

2013-10-01

424

Climate change adaptation in the ski industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the success of climate change mitigation efforts, the international community has concluded that societies around\\u000a the world will need to adapt to some magnitude of climate change in the 21st century. While some economic sectors (e.g., agriculture,\\u000a water resources and construction) have been actively engaged in climate change adaptation research for years, adaptation has\\u000a received scant consideration within

Daniel Scott; Geoff McBoyle

2007-01-01

425

Australian agriculture: coping with dangerous climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian agriculture has operated successfully in one of the worlds most hostile environments for two centuries. However,\\u000a climate change is posing serious challenges to its ongoing success. Determining what might constitute dangerous climate change\\u000a for Australian agriculture is not an easy task, as most climate-related risks are associated with changes in the highly uncertain\\u000a hydrological cycle rather than directly to

Will Steffen; John Sims; James Walcott; Greg Laughlin

2011-01-01

426

Managing for Multiple Resources Under Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,This study explores potential adaptation approa- ches in planning and management,that the United States Forest Service might adopt to help achieve its goals and objectives in the face of climate change. Availability of information, vul- nerability of ecological and socio-economic systems, and uncertainties associated with climate change, as well as the interacting non-climatic changes, influence selection of the adaptation approach.

David L. Peterson

427

Rustproofing wheat for a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers projections of potential effects of climate change on rusts of wheat and how we should factor in a changing\\u000a climate when planning for the future management of these diseases. Even though the rusts of wheat have been extensively studied\\u000a internationally, there is a paucity of information on the likely effects of a changing climate on the rusts

Sukumar Chakraborty; Jo Luck; Grant Hollaway; Glenn Fitzgerald; Neil White

2011-01-01

428

Global climate change and international security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration

Karas; Thomas H

2003-01-01

429

CLIMATE CHANGE 2013: THE PHYSICAL SCIENCE BASIS  

E-print Network

11 CLIMATE CHANGE 2013: THE PHYSICAL SCIENCE BASIS IPCC reports are policy-relevant but not policy Climate Change 2013: the Physical Science Basis . With this milestone, the first of three major IPCC Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report

Plattner, Gian-Kasper

430

Effects of climate change on rainfall extremes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change due to enhanced emissions of greenhouse gases intensifies the hydrologic cycle and may have substantial impact on the natural environment and socio-economic activities. The rainfall process, being the principal component of the hydrologic cycle, is the most important element for quantifying both the extent of climate change and its consequential impacts on water resources. The change in extreme

S. S. Demissie; C. Cunnane

2003-01-01

431

AO\\/NAO response to climate change: 1. Respective influences of stratospheric and tropospheric climate changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We utilize the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model and eight different climate change experiments, many of them focused on stratospheric climate forcings, to assess the relative influence of tropospheric and stratospheric climate change on the extratropical circulation indices (Arctic Oscillation, AO; North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). The experiments are run in two different ways: with variable sea surface temperatures (SSTs)

D. Rind; J. Perlwitz; P. Lonergan

2005-01-01

432

Earth's Climate Changes: Virtual Bookshelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of carefully selected books for grades K-5 highlights nonfiction about climate proxies, those preserved physical characteristics, such as fossils, that scientists use to reconstruct past climates. Also highlighted are a few books that provide information about two past climatic events -- the last ice age and the Dust Bowl. In each issue of the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, the virtual bookshelf recommends books that accurately portray the theme drawn from the principles of climate sciences.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-07-01

433

Climate change: The IPCC scientific assessment  

SciTech Connect

Book review of the intergovernmental panel on climate change report on global warming and the greenhouse effect. Covers the scientific basis for knowledge of the future climate. Presents chemistry of greenhouse gases and mathematical modelling of the climate system. The book is primarily for government policy makers.

Houghton, J.T.; Jenkins, G.J.; Ephraums, J.J. (eds.)

1990-01-01

434

Tools for Teaching Climate Change Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) develops public outreach materials and educational resources for schools. Studies prove that science education in rural and indigenous communities improves when educators integrate regional knowledge of climate and environmental issues into school curriculum and public outreach materials. In order to promote understanding of ACRF climate change studies, ACRF Education and Outreach has

A. M. Maestas; L. A. Jones

2005-01-01

435

Advanced Review Greenland climate change: from  

E-print Network

regional warming albeit with global sea level and climatic impacts. 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. HowAdvanced Review Greenland climate change: from the past to the future Val´erie Masson-Delmotte,1 cores in and around Greenland allow us to place the current trends in regional climate, ice sheet

Bhatt, Uma

436

Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under a NASA grant, Mathematical and Geospatial Pathways to Climate Change Education, students at California State University, Northridge integrated Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, satellite data technologies, and climate modelling into the study of global climate change under a Pathway for studying the Mathematics of Climate Change (PMCC). The PMCC, which is an interdisciplinary option within the BS in Applied Mathematical Sciences, consists of courses offered by the departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Geography and is designed to prepare students for careers and Ph.D. programs in technical fields relevant to global climate change. Under this option students are exposed to the science, mathematics, and applications of climate change science through a variety of methods including hands-on experience with computer modeling and image processing software. In the Geography component of the program, ESRI's ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine mapping, spatial analysis and image processing software were used to explore NASA satellite data to examine the earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in areas that are affected by climate change or affect climate. These technology tools were incorporated into climate change and remote sensing courses to enhance students' knowledge and understanding of climate change through hands-on application of image processing techniques to NASA data. Several sets of exercises were developed with specific learning objectives in mind. These were (1) to increase student understanding of climate change and climate change processes; (2) to develop student skills in understanding, downloading and processing satellite data; (3) to teach remote sensing technology and GIS through applications to climate change; (4) to expose students to climate data and methods they can apply to solve real world problems and incorporate in future research projects. In the Math and Physics components of the course, students learned about atmospheric circulation with applications of the Lorenz model, explored the land-sea breeze problem with the Dynamics and Thermodynamics Circulation Model (DTDM), and developed simple radiative transfer models. Class projects explored the effects of varying the content of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere, as well as the properties of paleoclimates in atmospheric simulations using EdGCM. Initial assessment of student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with these activities, particularly about climate change, was measured. Pre- and post-course surveys provided student perspectives about the courses and their learning about remote sensing and climate change concepts. Student performance on the tutorials and course projects evaluated students' ability to learn and apply their knowledge about climate change and skills with remote sensing to assigned problems or proposed projects of their choice. Survey and performance data illustrated that the exercises were successful in meeting their intended learning objectives as well as opportunities for further refinement and expansion.

Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

2013-12-01

437

Climate change and trace gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the 'albedo flip' property of ice\\/water, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that 'flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Inertia

James Hansen; Makiko Sato; Pushker Kharecha; Gary Russell; David W. Lea; Mark Siddall

2007-01-01

438

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

439

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations 3 because the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

440

Model simulation of climate changes in China  

SciTech Connect

At present there are a large amount of work about influence of human activities and industrization on global climate changes. But due to the non-homogeneous boundary layer between earth and atmosphere there exist distinct difference of climate changes between different regions. China locates in the cast edge of Eurasian continent and border on the Pacific Ocean, it is the most famous monsoon region in the world. Climate of this region is very complex not only because of monsoon but also because its complicated topography. Researches about climate change in this region arc far from adequate. For this reason we use the Australia CSIRO 9-level truncated spectral model to nest with our regional climate model to simulate climate changes of China under conditions of double co2. Models arc running continuously for three years in both conditions of present co2 level and double co2 ppm.

Chen Ming; Fu Congbin

1997-12-31

441

Understanding public complacency about climate change: adults mental models of climate change violate conservation of matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public attitudes about climate change reveal a contradiction. Surveys show most Americans believe climate change poses serious\\u000a risks but also that reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sufficient to stabilize atmospheric GHG concentrations can\\u000a be deferred until there is greater evidence that climate change is harmful. US policymakers likewise argue it is prudent to\\u000a wait and see whether climate change

John D. Sterman; Linda Booth Sweeney

2007-01-01

442

The Status of Mars Climate Change Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers have reviewed the evidence that the climate of Mars has changed throughout its history. In this paper, the discussion focuses on where we stand in terms of modeling these climate changes. For convenience, three distinct types of climate regimes are considered: very early in the planet's history (more than 3.5 Ga), when warm wet conditions are thought to have prevailed; the bulk of the planet's history (3.5-1 Ga), during which episodic ocean formation has been suggested; and relatively recently in the planet's history (less than 1 Ga), when orbitally induced climate change is thought to have occurred.

Haberle, Robert M.

1997-01-01

443

Climate Change in an IB PYP Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in elementary school are inherently curious, which allows them to explore, experiment and investigate various themes, while also demonstrating the will to preserve the resources that surround them and take action to contribute to a better world. One of the units taught at International School Carinthia is "climate change" and its impacts on life on Earth. During this unit, grade 4 students conduct research to answer their own inquiries related to this topic. They investigate the different climate zones on our planet, examine why climate change happens, and discover how global warming and climate change are connected and its consequences on living beings.

da Costa, Ana

2014-05-01

444

Global climate changes and the soil cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between climate changes and the soil cover are analyzed. The greenhouse effect induced by the rising concentrations\\u000a of CO2, CH4, N2O, and many other trace gases in the air has been one of the main factors of the global climate warming in the past 3040\\u000a years. The response of soils to climate changes is considered by the example

V. N. Kudeyarov; V. A. Demkin; D. A. Gilichinskii; S. V. Goryachkin; V. A. Rozhkov

2009-01-01

445

Climate change and Quebec's ski industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of a second-generation climate change assessment for three key ski regions of Quebc incorporating snowmaking as a climate adaptation strategy. Potential economic ramifications for ski operators are assessed separately for the main revenue-generating period and shoulder seasons. The paper concludes that climate change does not pose a threat to the Quebc ski industry under 2020s

Daniel Scott; Geoff McBoyle; Alanna Minogue

2007-01-01

446

Global climate change and US agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

1990-01-01

447

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has sponsored several state-of-the-art assessments of future impacts of climate change on various climate-sensitive threats such as malaria, hunger, water shortage, coastal flooding, habitat loss, lowered carbon-sink capacity, and diminished coastal wetlands. The results, based on IPCC emission scenarios, figure prominently in the international debate about climate change, and

Indur M. Goklany

2008-01-01

448

Impacts of Climate Change on Life Climate change is upon us, and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-print Network

to promote understanding of climate change and its consequences For further information contact: Sarah GravemImpacts of Climate Change on Life ________________________________________________________________ Climate change is upon us, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise: Air temperatures 1.37º F

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

449

Climate change in China and China's policies and actions for addressing climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first assessment report (FAR) of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1990, the international scientific community has made substantial progresses in climate change sciences. Changes in components of climate system, including the atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere, indicate that global warming is unequivocal. Instrumental records demonstrate that the global mean temperature has a significant increasing trend during the

D. Qin; J. Huang; Y. Luo

2010-01-01

450

The LASP Climate Change Compendium: Looking at Climate Change at the Poles for IPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding our climate, how it's changing, and how it is impacting the poles is an important gateway to understanding global warming. The International Polar Year (2007-2008) allows us an opportunity to focus on climate change at the poles and look at how it may impact the rest of the globe. The Climate Change Compendium compiles 40 outstanding inquiry-based lessons and

E. Wood; N. Marks; E. Cobabe-Ammann; L. Harvey

2007-01-01

451

China's National Assessment Report on Climate Change (II): Climate change impacts and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant and various impacts of climate change have been observed in China, showing both positive and adverse effects, dominantly the latter, in different sectors and regions. It is very likely that future climate change would cause significant adverse impacts on the ecosystems, agriculture, water resources, and coastal zones in China. Adoption of adaptive measures to climate change can alleviate the

Lin Erda; Xu Yinlong; Wu Shaohong; Ju Hui; Ma Shiming

452

Climate Change Projections for Bangladesh using PRECIS Regional Climate Change Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction scenarios of climate change at finer resolution (~50km) are useful for various impact studies such as changes of extreme hydrological events, vulnerability on ecosystem, and impact on agriculture and food securities etc. A study has been conducted using regional climate change model PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate for Impact Studies) developed by Met Office, UK to predict temperature and rainfall

A. S. Islam

2009-01-01

453

Late Pleistocene (MIS 3-4) climate inferred from micromammal communities and ?18O of rodents from Les Pradelles, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle Paleolithic stratigraphic sequence of Les Pradelles (Charente, France) spans from the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 until the middle of MIS 3. Micromammal remains are present in all the stratigraphic levels, offering a rare opportunity to address the questions of both environmental and climatic fluctuations throughout this period. Climate modes were studied through the taphonomy, biodiversity and oxygen isotope compositions of phosphate (?18Op) from 66 samples of rodent tooth enamel. The ?18Op values from the lower sedimentary levels provide summer mean air temperatures of 19 2C (level 2/1) and of 16 2C (levels 2A, 2B and 4A). Within the middle of sequence (level 4B), a paleobiodiversity change can be identified with an increase of Dicrostonyx torquatus, which is associated with the largest amplitude in ?18Op values and the highest maximal ?18Op values. At the top of the sequence (level 5-2), a biodiversity change is observed with the increase of Microtus arvalis, but without any change in ?18Op values. The association of cold rodent species with unexpected high and large amplitudes in the ?18Op values of their teeth, possibly indicative of aridity, suggests their deposition during a Heinrich event.

Royer, Aurlien; Lcuyer, Christophe; Montuire, Sophie; Escarguel, Gilles; Fourel, Franois; Mann, Alan; Maureille, Bruno

2013-07-01

454

The Regional Impacts of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree to which human conditions and the natural environment are vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change is a key concern for governments and the environmental science community worldwide. This book from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides the best available base of scientific information for policymakers and public use. The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability reviews state-of-the-art information on potential impacts of climate change for ecological systems, water supply, food production, coastal infrastructure, human health, and other resources for ten global regions. It also illustrates that the increasing costs of climate and climate variability, in terms of loss of human life and capital due to floods, storms, and droughts, are a result of the lack of adjustment and response in society's policies and use of resources. This book points to management options that would make many sectors more resilient to current variability in climate and thus help these sectors adapt to future changes in climate. This book will become the primary source of information on regional aspects of climate change for policymakers, the scientific community, and students.

Watson, Robert T.; Zinyowera, Marufu C.; Moss, Richard H.

1997-12-01

455

The Regional Impacts of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree to which human conditions and the natural environment are vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change is a key concern for governments and the environmental science community worldwide. This book from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides the best available base of scientific information for policymakers and public use. The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability reviews state-of-the-art information on potential impacts of climate change for ecological systems, water supply, food production, coastal infrastructure, human health, and other resources for ten global regions. It also illustrates that the increasing costs of climate and climate variability, in terms of loss of human life and capital due to floods, storms, and droughts, are a result of the lack of adjustment and response in society's policies and use of resources. This book points to management options that would make many sectors more resilient to current variability in climate and thus help these sectors adapt to future changes in climate. This book will become the primary source of information on regional aspects of climate change for policymakers, the scientific community, and students.

Watson, Robert T.; Zinyowera, Marufu C.; Moss, Richard H.

1998-01-01

456

Climate Change or Land Use Dynamics: Do We Know What Climate Change Indicators Indicate?  

PubMed Central

Different components of global change can have interacting effects on biodiversity and this may influence our ability to detect the specific consequences of climate change through biodiversity indicators. Here, we analyze whether climate change indicators can be affected by land use dynamics that are not directly determined by climate change. To this aim, we analyzed three community-level indicators of climate change impacts that are based on the optimal thermal environment and average latitude of the distribution of bird species present at local communities. We used multiple regression models to relate the variation in climate change indicators to: i) environmental temperature; and ii) three landscape gradients reflecting important current land use change processes (land abandonment, fire impacts and urbanization), all of them having forest areas at their positive extremes. We found that, with few exceptions, landscape gradients determined the figures of climate change indicators as strongly as temperature. Bird communities in forest habitats had colder-dwelling bird species with more northern distributions than farmland, burnt or urban areas. Our results show that land use changes can reverse, hide or exacerbate our perception of climate change impacts when measured through community-level climate change indicators. We stress the need of an explicit incorporation of the interactions between climate change and land use dynamics to understand what are current climate change indicators indicating and be able to isolate real climate change impacts. PMID:21533025

Clavero, Miguel; Villero, Daniel; Brotons, Llus

2011-01-01

457

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GROUNDWATER RESOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses uncertainties to the supply and management of water resources. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.6 0.2 o C since 1861, and predicts an increase of 2 to 4 o C over the next 100 years. Temperature increases also affect the hydrologic cycle by directly increasing

R. D. Singh; C. P. Kumar

2010-01-01

458

Climate Change: Perceptions and Discourses of Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some of the issues that affect risk awareness with respect to climate change and what their impact has been on people's attitudes. It highlights the large gap between the scientific community and the general public in terms of their understanding, awareness and perception of risks associated with climate change. Awareness is driven both by environmental values or

David Etkin; Elise Ho

2007-01-01

459

Further mycotoxin effects from climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will affect mycotoxins in food. The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report is reinterpreted herein to account for what may occur with mycotoxins. Warmer weather, heat waves, greater precipitation and drought will have various impacts, depending on which regions of the world and mycotoxin systems are considered. The humidity issues are more complex as some areas will

R. R. M. Paterson; N. Lima

2011-01-01

460

GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of climate change issues and their related international initiatives to response the challenge of the global warming. It addresses the different technologies for the mitigation of climate changes, including energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, and greenhouse gas capture and sequestration. It focuses on the technologies of CO2 capture and sequestration and the recent development on

Jinyue Yan

461

Climate Change, Equity and Human Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Climate change is increasingly described as anissue of equity that has implications for human security. Yet to date, equity concerns have been largely framed as a North-South issue relevant to debates about climate change mitigation, development and sustainability. Human security issues, in contrast, have largely been framed in terms of conflict or cooperation, rather than in terms ofWhose security

Karen O'Brien; Robin Leichenko

462

Global climate change and international security  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes

1991-01-01

463

Global food security under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on food security. It is found that of the four main elements of food security, i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access, only the first is routinely addressed in simulation studies. To this end, published results indicate that the impacts of climate change are significant, however, with a wide projected range (between

Josef Schmidhuber; Francesco N. Tubiello

464

Climate change and insurance: A critical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several issues relating to insurance and the damage costs of climate change are discussed. It is argued that the option of insuring climate change is severely limited because the associated damages are hardly quantifiable and little diversifiable; in addition, binding contracts are a problem on long time scales and in an international context. Hedging, consumption smoothing over time, precautionary investments

Richard S. J. Tol

1998-01-01

465

Climatic changes and groundwater resources in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper aims to understand the impacts of climate changes on groundwater resources in the African continent in which groundwater components constitute one of the most indispensable resources for development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Observed data are used for the first time to illustrate the manifested impacts of climate changes on the groundwater resources either directly or indirectly, this includes

Samir Anwar Al-Gamal; Youba Sokona; Abdel-Kader Dodo

2009-01-01

466

Climate change, water resources and child health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is occurring and has tremendous consequences for children's health worldwide. This article describes how the rise in temperature, precipitation, droughts, floods, glacier melt and sea levels resulting from human-induced climate change is affecting the quantity, quality and flow of water resources worldwide and impacting child health through dangerous effects on water supply and sanitation, food production and human

Elizabeth J Kistin; John Fogarty; Ryan Shaening Pokrasso; Michael McCally; Peter G McCornick

2010-01-01

467

GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

468

PROPOSITION 23, AB 32, AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

PROPOSITION 23, AB 32, AND CLIMATE CHANGE September 2010 California at the Crossroads: WRITTEN BY, AND CLIMATE CHANGE | Proposition 23, an initiative appearing on California's November 2010 general election pressing environmental and energy challenges of our time at the state, local, and national levels, drawing

Kammen, Daniel M.

469

IDENTIFYING AND OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING AND OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN SAN FRANCISCO BAY Results from Case Studies A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center Commission. It does not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees or the State

470

Renewable Energy - Panacea for Climate Change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a few short decades, climate change has become a menacing reality rather than a remote possibility, threatening the planet Earth and its inhabitants. There is frantic activity at many fronts to thwart its advance and reverse the trend. Use of renewable energy sources is often hailed as one of the measures in combating climate change. There are action plans

. Gl

2007-01-01

471

NASA NDATC Global Climate Change Education Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project aligns with NASA's Strategic Goal 3A - ``Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs and focuses on funding from the GCCE Funding Category 2: Strengthen the Teaching and Learning About Global Climate Change Within Formal Education Systems. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (2007) those communities with the least amount

B. Bennett; E. Wood; D. Meyer; N. Maynard; R. E. Pandya

2009-01-01

472

Marine viruses and global climate change.  

PubMed

Sea-surface warming, sea-ice melting and related freshening, changes in circulation and mixing regimes, and ocean acidification induced by the present climate changes are modifying marine ecosystem structure and function and have the potential to alter the cycling of carbon and nutrients in surface oceans. Changing climate has direct and indirect consequences on marine viruses, including cascading effects on biogeochemical cycles, food webs, and the metabolic balance of the ocean. We discuss here a range of case studies of climate change and the potential consequences on virus function, viral assemblages and virus-host interactions. In turn, marine viruses influence directly and indirectly biogeochemical cycles, carbon sequestration capacity of the oceans and the gas exchange between the ocean surface and the atmosphere. We cannot yet predict whether the viruses will exacerbate or attenuate the magnitude of climate changes on marine ecosystems, but we provide evidence that marine viruses interact actively with the present climate change and are a key biotic component that is able to influence the oceans' feedback on climate change. Long-term and wide spatial-scale studies, and improved knowledge of host-virus dynamics in the world's oceans will permit the incorporation of the viral component into future ocean climate models and increase the accuracy of the predictions of the climate change impacts on the function of the oceans. PMID:21204862

Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'anno, Antonio; Fuhrman, Jed A; Middelburg, Jack J; Noble, Rachel T; Suttle, Curtis A

2011-11-01

473

Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Climate Change Adaptation Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate Change Adaptation for Water Managers; Oracle, Arizona, 4-5 February 2008; The most visible manifestation of climate change in the American Southwest is its effects on water resources. Since 1999, the region's water supplies and major rivers have been tested by burgeoning population growth and drought. Model projections suggest increasing drought severity and duration due to rising temperatures, increased evapotranspiration,

Gregg Garfin; Katharine Jacobs; James Buizer

2008-01-01

474

UNCERTAINTY AND INSURANCE IN ENDOGENOUS CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

UNCERTAINTY AND INSURANCE IN ENDOGENOUS CLIMATE CHANGE Georg M?LLER-F?RSTENBERGER Ingmar SCHUMACHER IN ENDOGENOUS CLIMATE CHANGE* Georg M?LLER-F?RSTENBERGER1 Ingmar SCHUMACHER2 January 2009 Cahier n° 2009 opportunities; ii) we can fully characterize and quantify the impact of uncertainty on the agent's decisions

Boyer, Edmond

475

Law: Environmental Impact Statements and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent demands by atmospheric scientists and policy makers for immediate, comprehensive, and effective responses to the threat of global climate change have focused political attention on policies and laws that affect the quality of the environment. In January, the Reagan White House blocked the issuance of policy guidance that would have directed federal agencies to consider global climate change in

Glenn T. Prickett; David A. Wirth

1989-01-01

476

Chloe Adelmann Climate Change VS. Smog  

E-print Network

Chloe Adelmann ATOC 3500 3/13/11 Climate Change VS. Smog The Story California Dairy Farmer, John to generate the electricity contributes to smog. The Federal air quality regulations in California over their limits, making the cut back of smog more important than reduction of climate change. NOx is associated

Toohey, Darin W.

477

The Psychological Impacts of Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological

Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan

2011-01-01

478

Model driven visualisation of climate change scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will affect us all. In addition to the projected temperature rise, models suggest changes in other climatic averages (e.g., rainfall, sunshine) and also more frequent incidence of special events (e.g., frost, deluge, high winds). These will affect the capacity of the land to support different agricultural or forest products and different modes of production. Land managers need to

C. J. Pettit; C. Stock; V. Sposito

479

Uncertain Outcomes and Climate Change Policy  

E-print Network

Focusing on tail effects, I incorporate distributions for temperature change and its economic impact in an analysis of climate change policy. I estimate the fraction of consumption w*(?) that society would be willing to ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

480

Uncertain Outcomes and Climate Change Policy  

E-print Network

Focusing on tail effects, I incorporate distributions for temperature change and its economic impact in an analysis of climate change policy. I estimate the fraction of consumption w_(_ ) that society would be willing to ...

Pindyck, Robert S.