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1

Holocene climatic changes in the Western Mediterranean, from south-east France to south-east Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holocene climatic changes along coastal regions from south-east France to south-east Spain were studied using pollen ratios. Comparing modern pollen rain, vegetation and climate along selected transects from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean, we obtained threshold values of two different ratios corresponding to the different climatic conditions along the transects. These pollen ratios and threshold values were employed to

Guy Jalut; Augustin Esteban Amat; Louis Bonnet; Thierry Gauquelin; Michel Fontugne

2000-01-01

2

Describing the possible climate changes in France and some examples of their effects on main crops used in livestock systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of climate change on forage and crop production are an important question for the farmers and more largely for the food security in the world. Estimating the effect of climate change on agricultural production needs the use of two types of tools: a model to estimate changes in national or local climates and an other model using climatic data to estimate the effects on vegetation. In this paper, we will mainly present the effects of climate change on climatic features, the variability of criteria influencing crop production in various regions of France and some possible effects on crops.

Ruget, F.; Moreau, J.-C.; Ferrand, M.; Poisson, S.; Gate, P.; Lacroix, B.; Lorgeou, J.; Cloppet, E.; Souverain, F.

2010-08-01

3

Climate change impact on renewable energy sources during the 21st century over France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of climate change on three types of green electricity production over France, wind, hydro and solar energies, is studied through the evolution of related climate variables during the 21st century. Climate projections of these variables, obtained from the IPCC model database, are downscaled to higher resolution grids (25 km for solar radiation and 50 km for precipitation) and a wind farm network. The statistical downscaling method used here is based on the matching of large and local scale cumulative density functions. Models are forced by three greenhouse gas emission scenarios, SRESA2, SRESA1B and SRESB1. For each of these scenarios, the downscaling outputs are combined using a Bayesian model merging approach. Results are shown for two periods, 2046-2065 and 2081-2100.

Michelangeli, Paul-Antoine; Kolasinski, Michel; Kallache, Malaak; Naveau, Philippe; Vrac, Mathieu

2010-05-01

4

Shoreline sandwaves along the Aquitanian Coast (France): influence of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. CONTEXT Climate change induced vulnerability is defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as the combination of sensitivity to climatic variations, probability of adverse climate change, and adaptive capacity. As stated by the IPCC (Watson et al., 1997), the \\

D. Idier; A. Falquès; C. Mallet; B. Castelle; J. P. Parisot; G. Le Cozannet; E. Delvallée

2009-01-01

5

Climate Change impacts in the Drôme department (southeastern France): the GICC-DECLIC Project (2010-2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The national DECLIC ("Drôme: Eau, CLimat Impacts liés aux Changements") project, coordinated at LTHE (Grenoble-France) has begun in beginning of 2010 and is financed by the national GICC-2 program. This project deals with the climatic variability and the interactions in the Drôme's low mountain range. The main goal is to initiate an operational partnership between academics (three research laboratories LTHE, PACTE and ESPACE) and the involved Territorial Agencies, to define potential climate changes and future adaptations. Analyses will concern especially the climatic variations observed during the last 50 years at the administrative scale (namely the "Département" in the French organization), and their significant impacts on the current and future water resources, i.e. pluviometric regimes, quality of the snow coverage, flow stream variations, availability of the resources. The express request from the local administrators concerns mainly the variations of plant productivity (forests and agriculture), and mainly those due to isolated or recurrent drought periods (productivity, biomass, phenology, use of water resources). DECLIC project also concerns interactions between climatic variations and departmental tourist activities, in connection with water resources (consumption and quality). The final objective is to write a « green paper » about adaptation strategies on climate change for policies. The whole study will lean at first on a diagnostic study of climatic time-series and to various environmental data. One step will also use regional modelling of the impact of the climate on water resources. Besides geostatistic modelling, another methodology will use a simplified physical model that gives the benefit to take into account explicitly the topography at fine scale.

Rome, Sandra; Bigot, Sylvain; Dubus, Nathalie; Anquetin, Sandrine

2010-05-01

6

The 2003 Heat Wave in France: Dangerous Climate Change Here and Now  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an analysis of the French episode of heat wave in 2003, this article highlights how heat wave dangers result from the intricate association of natural and social factors. Unusually high temperatures, as well as socioeconomic vulnerability, along with social attenuation of hazards, in a general context where the anthropogenic contribution to climate change is becoming more plausible, led to

Marc Poumadère; Claire Mays; Sophie Le Mer; Russell Blong

2005-01-01

7

Changing Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following questions are discussed: (1) Is global climate changing. (2) What is the pattern of global climatic change. (3) What causes global climate to change. (4) Is man's activity inadvertently influencing global climate. (5) What are the possibilit...

J. O. Fletcher

1968-01-01

8

Shoreline sandwaves along the Aquitanian Coast (France): influence of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. CONTEXT Climate change induced vulnerability is defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as the combination of sensitivity to climatic variations, probability of adverse climate change, and adaptive capacity. As stated by the IPCC (Watson et al., 1997), the "coastal systems should be considered vulnerable to changes in climate". Within the French ANR VULSACO project (VULnerability of SAndy COast to climate change and anthropic pressure), the present day erosion tendencies as well as the potentially future erosion trends are investigated. In the present work, shoreline sandwaves are considered. These morphologic features are shoreline undulations with typical wavelengths of several kilometers (Ashton et al., 2001). They generally appear under high angle incidence waves (Ashton et al, 2001; Falques and Calvete, 2005). These types of rhythmic feature is found for instance along most of the Dutch coast (Falques, 2006). The French Aquitanian Coast is mainly composed of sandy beaches, along more than 230 km. This area is characterized meso-macrotidal semi-diurnal tides and exposed to energetic waves (Hsmean~1.5 m). Furthermore, this area is characterised by the presence of an outer crescentic bar and an inner bar exhibiting rather regularly spaced rip channel with a mean wavelength of 700 m and 400 m, respectively. These nearshore rhythmic patterns are likely to be mirrored at the shoreline. Here we present the shoreline stability of the French Aquitanian coast under present day wave climate. In addition, the influence of a change in the wave regime under climate change on the shoreline undulations is investigated. 2. DATA ANLYSIS The presence of shoreline sandwaves on the Aquitanian coast has never been investigated so far. Several sets of shoreline data have been used. One set was based on vegetation limits detected by remote sensing (data from OCA Aquitaine Coast Observatory , covering several decades). The other one was based on Digital Elevation Models and tidal model (Histolitt data, SHOM-IGN). Several approaches, including Fourier transformation, wavelet analysis and E.O.F. have been used to characterise shoreline sandwaves along the Aquitanian Coast. The data analysis shows the occurrence of shoreline undulations with typical wavelengths of 2, 4, 8, 10-15 and 30 km. 3. PRESENT DAY SHORELINE INSTABILITY The one-line modeling is a well known tool in coastal engineering. It is often used to predict changes of the coastline position. This approach, which is based on the computation of wave-driven alongshore sediment fluxes, is known to smooth the coastline irregularities. However it has been shown that high wave angle with respect to shore-normal can induce the development of shoreline instabilities. Falqués and Calvete (2005) extended the classic one-line formulation by performing a linear stability analysis. Using this method, they showed that not only the occurrence of high angle incidence wave instability depends on the wave angle but it also depends on the wave height and periods. This model, so-called 1d-morfo, also confirmed the existence of HAWI (High Angle Wave Instability). The 1d-morfo (Falques, 2006) model is applied to simulate the appearance of shoreline sandwaves along the Aquitanian coast. A typical winter (February 2008) profile is used (ECORS/SHOM 2008 campaign) and three tide levels are considered (Low/Mid/High tide). The local wave regime forcing has been analysed using a data clustering algorithm (Butel, 2002) applied on long time serie of wave data (GFS/NWW3). With this method, ten wave classes representative of the present wave climate have been obtained and introduced as wave input of the model. At mid-tide and high tide, the model exhibits some instability, with wavelength comprised between 400 and 1200 m and time scale of few days. This wavelengths falls in the range of the crescentic bar wavelengths, rather than the shoreline wavelengths obtained with the shoreline analysis. 4. SENSITIVITY STUDY REGARDING CLIMATE CHANGE The model and literature review on clima

Idier, D.; Falquès, A.; Mallet, C.; Castelle, B.; Parisot, J. P.; Le Cozannet, G.; Delvallée, E.

2009-04-01

9

Polycyclism, a fundamental tree growth process, decline with recent climate change: the example of Pinus halepensis Mill. in Mediterranean France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclism, the ability for a plant to produce several flushes in the same growing season, is a key process of plant development.\\u000a Polycyclism frequency is likely to change with the anticipated climate trend, expected to impact plant growth over the next\\u000a century. However, polycyclism processes are not well described in the literature, and an important lack of knowledge prevents\\u000a any

François Girard; Michel Vennetier; Samira Ouarmim; Yves Caraglio; Laurent Misson

2011-01-01

10

Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather can change many times a day. Climate.the sum of weather.changes slowly, over decades and centuries, but it can change\\u000a abruptly with large volcanic eruptions, instabilities in ocean currents, or meteorite crashes. The dramatic 1815 Tambora eruption\\u000a spewed 100 km3 of ash, causing “a year without a summer” to cool Earth by 4°C. Cooling from volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols must

David Hafemeister

11

Climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

But there are many reasons to question the wisdom of the Kyoto Protocol's approach to climate change policy, including questions about the scientific grounding of the protocol; questions about the feasibility of the proposed implementation mechanisms; questions about the efficacy of those measures; questions about the adverse consequences of diverting resources to address highly uncertain risks using tools with uncertain

Staffordshire County Council; Anthony J. Richardson; RICHARD MCCANN; HOWARD AYLESWORTH; MARY L. VIGILANTE

1974-01-01

12

Climate Change Terms  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Climate ChangeClimate change refers to any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of time. In other words, climate change includes major changes in temperature, precipitation, or wind patterns, among others, that occur over several decades or longer.   From Climate Change Terms  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing "climate change"

2011-04-20

13

Evaluation of climate change on flood event by using parametric T-test and non-parametric Mann-Kendall test in Barcelonnette basin, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of a trend in hydrological and meteorological time series is detected by statistical tests. The trend analysis of hydrological and meteorological series is important to consider, because of the effects of global climate change. Parametric or non-parametric statistical tests can be used to decide whether there is a statistically significant trend. In this paper, first a homogeneity analysis was performed by using the non-parametric Bartlett test. Then, trend detection was estimated by using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. The null hypothesis in the Mann-Kendall test is that the data are independent and randomly ordered. The result of Mann-Kendall test was compared with the parametric T-Test for finding the existence of trend. To reach this purpose, the significance of trends was analyzed on monthly data of Ubaye river in Barcelonnette watershed in southeast of France at an elevation of 1132 m (3717 ft) during the period from 1928 to 2009 bases with the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and parametric T-Test for river discharge and for meteorological data. The result shows that a rainfall event does not necessarily have an immediate impact on discharge. Visual inspection suggests that the correlation between observations made at the same time point is not very strong. In the results of the trend tests the p-value of the discharge is slightly smaller than the p-value of the precipitation but it seems that in both there is no statistically significant trend. In statistical hypothesis testing, a test statistic is a numerical summary of a set of data that reduces the data to one or a small number of values that can be used to perform a hypothesis test. Statistical hypothesis testing is determined if there is a significant trend or not. Negative test statistics and MK test in both precipitation and discharge data indicate downward trends. As conclusion we can say extreme flood event during recent years is strongly depending on: 1) location of the city: It is situated in an elongated form extending below mountain slopes and along a river channel. 2) Seasonal Changes: During spring, the melting of snow result in an increase water level in river channels and this will be amplified whenever a warm rainfall occurs. Then it could be conclude that climate change did not has a significant effect on flood in case study area Keywords: Trend, parametric and non parametric test, T-Test, Mann-Kendall test

Ramesh, Azadeh; Glade, Thomas; Malet, Jean-Philippe

2010-09-01

14

Climatic Change and Climate Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The heat balance method together with certain other methods of theoretical climatology for investigating the laws of natural climatic changes and for determining the possibility of controlling such changes is discussed.

M. I. Budyko

1964-01-01

15

Low flows in France and their relationship to large-scale climate indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trend analysis for low flows in France, based on 220 stations over the period 1968-2008. Correlations with large-scale climate variability (AMO, NAO, weather patterns). Unlike correlations with climate indices, temporal trends are not stable when changing the period of analysis. Lagged correlations could be used for seasonal forecasting.

Giuntoli, I.; Renard, B.; Vidal, J.-P.; Bard, A.

2013-03-01

16

Detailed chronology of mid-altitude fluvial system response to changing climate and societies at the end of the Little Ice Age (Southwestern Alps and Cévennes, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a historical timescale, landscapes have been strongly affected by fluctuations in climate and by the impact of human societies. This study examines the historical evolution of mid-altitude fluvial systems in the Western Alps and Cévennes (SE Massif Central) in the context of marked climate and anthropogenic change at the end of the Little Ice Age (late 19th century). This

Laurent Astrade; Nicolas Jacob-Rousseau; Jean-Paul Bravard; Françoise Allignol; L. Simac

2011-01-01

17

Changes in planktic and benthic foraminifer assemblages in the Gulf of Lions, off south France: Response to climate and sea level change from MIS 6 to MIS 11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary study involving micropaleontological and geochemical tools was carried out in borehole PRGL1 (Promess 1), with the aim of reconstructing the impact of climate change and sea level variation between 133 ka and 406 ka in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions. We used factor analysis to obtain three main benthic assemblages related to eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oxygenated environments; planktic foraminifers were grouped as warm-water and cold-turbulent species. These results were compared with records of CaCO3 and major and trace elements (Al, Ca, K, Sr) as well as the C/N ratio of organic matter. Power and cross-spectral analysis showed a straightforward relationship between precession minima and thermal stratification of the water column as well as the occurrence of eutrophic bottom conditions during lowstand periods and mesotrophic environments at times of highstand. These eutrophic-mesotrophic oscillations, usually driven by global eustatic change, also involved regional variations in CaCO3 source to this environment. During periods of precession maxima, enhancement of northwesterly winds increased primary productivity by mixing, enhancing the percentage of cold-turbulent species in the water column and the proportion of oxygenated benthic species on the bottom. During interglacial stages, these events were recorded by lower biogenic carbonate at the expense of higher silicate-related components most likely due to a higher supply from Pyrenees rivers. The record of oxygenated benthic species can be a good proxy to monitor past changes in Winter Intermediate Water dynamics driven by northwesterly winds.

Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Filippelli, Gabriel; Flores, José Abel; Berné, Serge

2013-04-01

18

Climate Change: Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... change is happening now. Learn More What are climate change and global warming? Global warming refers to the ... effects, that occur over several decades or longer. Climate change is happening Our Earth is warming. Earth's average ...

19

Climate Change Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing scientific evidence to suggest that humans are gradually but certainly changing the Earth's climate. In an effort to prevent further damage to the fragile atmosphere, and with the belief that action is required now, the scientific community has been prolific in its dissemination of information on climate change. Inspired by the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Second Assessment Report, Jepma and Munasinghe set out to create a concise, practical and compelling approach to climate change issues. They deftly explain the implications of global warming, and the risks involved in attempting to mitigate climate change. They look at how and where to start action, and what organization is needed to be able to implement the changes. This book represents a much needed synopsis of climate change and its real impacts on society. It will be an essential text for climate change researchers, policy analysts, university students studying the environment, and anyone with an interest in climate change issues.

Jepma, Catrinus J.; Munasinghe, Mohan

1997-11-01

20

Fiddling with climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composer and string musician, turned award-winning environmentalist, Aubrey Meyer tells Nature Climate Change why he is campaigning for countries to adopt his 'contraction and convergence' model of global development to avoid dangerous climate change.

2012-01-01

21

Global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book places the scientific debate over global climate change into a useful policymaking framework. It presents scientific evidence in support of global warming, and describes the uncertainties surrounding predictions of climate change. Addresses potential regional impacts of global warming. It also discusses state policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change.

Not Available

1990-01-01

22

Climate Change Collection (CCC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Climate Change Collection (CCC) provides access to high quality, digital materials relating to natural and human induced climate change and variability, including scientific, economic and policy issues of climate change. The collection focuses on background resources and learning activities that communicate the principles that underlie climate change and variability, including the differences and links between weather and climate; the basics of the climate system including the greenhouse effect and energy balance; climatic processes that occur at varying time scales, including orbital cycles and forcing; how scientific research is conducted relative to measuring change and variability; and how human activities, including the combustion of fossil fuels and changes of land cover, impact the climate system. The resources have been reviewed for scientific accuracy and currency, and annotated with comments and suggestions relating to their potential value to Earth system science teachers and their students, particularly at the middle school level.

23

Climate Change Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing scientific evidence to suggest that humans are gradually but certainly changing the Earth's climate. In an effort to prevent further damage to the fragile atmosphere, and with the belief that action is required now, the scientific community has been prolific in its dissemination of information on climate change. Inspired by the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Second Assessment Report, Jepma and Munasinghe set out to create a concise, practical, and compelling approach to climate change issues. They deftly explain the implications of global warming, and the risks involved in attempting to mitigate climate change. They look at how and where to start action, and what organization is needed to be able to implement the changes. This book represents a much needed synopsis of climate change and its real impacts on society. It will be an essential text for climate change researchers, policy analysts, university students studying the environment, and anyone with an interest in climate change issues. A digestible version of the IPCC 1995 Economics Report - written by two of IPCC contributors with a Foreword by two of the editors of Climate Change 1995: Economics of Climate Change: i.e. has unofficial IPCC approval Focusses on policy and economics - important but of marginal interest to scientists, who are more likely to buy this summary than the full IPCC report itself Has case-studies to get the points across Separate study guide workbook will be available, mode of presentation (Web or book) not yet finalized

Jepma, Catrinus J.; Munasinghe, Mohan; Bolin, Foreword By Bert; Watson, Robert; Bruce, James P.

1998-03-01

24

"Dangerous" Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current climate change mitigation policy decisions must be made despite layers of uncertainty. Modeling of future climate, projections for future economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions, and characterizations of the interactions and feedbacks within the coupled social-natural system all contain uncertain components. Researchers communicating with policymakers have learned that, instead of presenting "best guesses" or other point estimates, uncertainty assignments require such techniques as probability distributions of outcomes and quantitatively defined descriptions of subjective confidence. We present a quantification of "dangerous" climate change, a term important in policy discussions. Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change expresses the opinion of the signing Parties that steps be taken to "prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system," but the Convention did not specify what constitutes the value judgment of being "dangerous." We present one possible definition. A threshold for "dangerous" climate change is a clear tool for evaluating the need for and impact of proposed climate policy. Monte Carlo analyses with a simple integrated assessment model demonstrate that endogenously calculated climate policy controls appreciably reduce the probability of "dangerous" climate change. Under mid-range assumptions, climate policy reduces the probability of "dangerous" climate change by 30-50%.

Mastrandrea, M. D.

2003-12-01

25

Our Changing Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,…

Newhouse, Kay Berglund

2007-01-01

26

Our Changing Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,…

Newhouse, Kay Berglund

2007-01-01

27

Sahel Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workshop on Sahel Climate Change, Columbia University, New York, 19-21 March 2007 The Sahel transition to persistent drought in the early 1970s is an archetypal example of recent abrupt climate change. This workshop assessed the mechanisms for variability at interannual and interdecadal timescales, and discussed mechanisms of future climate change and sources of model disagreement. Participating scientists brought a diverse range of expertise: mesoscale and paleo observationalists; atmospheric dynamicists; dust and vegetation modelers.

Biasutti, Michela; Giannini, Alessandra; Sobel, Adam H.; Held, Isaac M.; Chiang, John C. H.

2007-07-01

28

Security and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite it being the most studied and arguably most profound of global environmental change problems, there is relatively little research that explores climate change as a security issue. This paper systematically explores the range of possible connections between climate change and security, including national security considerations, human security concerns, military roles, and a discussion of the widely held assumption that

Jon Barnett; Macmillan Brown

2003-01-01

29

Communicating Urban Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of climate change. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down climate change. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to climate change requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand climate change and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic climate change. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with climate scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about climate change and its impacts on urban audiences. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about climate change. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused climate education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about climate science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global climate change in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of models for community programming and this session will present early results of these efforts while engaging participants in exploring approaches to connecting urban communities and their local concerns to the issues of global climate change.

Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership

2011-12-01

30

Climate change and children.  

PubMed

Climate change is increasing the burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes worldwide. Acting through increasing temperature, changes in the hydrologic cycle, and sea level rise, climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of heat events and extreme events (floods and droughts), change the geographic range and incidence of climate-sensitive vector-, food-, and waterborne diseases, and increase diseases associated with air pollution and aeroallergens. Children are particularly vulnerable to these health outcomes because of their potentially greater exposures, greater sensitivity to certain exposures, and their dependence on caregivers. PMID:17448357

Ebi, Kristie L; Paulson, Jerome A

2007-04-01

31

Climate Change in Prehistory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How did humankind deal with the extreme challenges of the last Ice Age? How have the relatively benign post-Ice Age conditions affected the evolution and spread of humanity across the globe? By setting our genetic history in the context of climate change during prehistory, the origin of many features of our modern world are identified and presented in this illuminating book. It reviews the aspects of our physiology and intellectual development that have been influenced by climatic factors, and how features of our lives - diet, language and the domestication of animals - are also the product of the climate in which we evolved. In short: climate change in prehistory has in many ways made us what we are today. Climate Change in Prehistory weaves together studies of the climate with anthropological, archaeological and historical studies, and will fascinate all those interested in the effects of climate on human development and history.

Burroughs, William James

2005-06-01

32

Climate Change and Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human civilisations have for millennia depended on the stability of groundwater resources to survive dry or unreliable climates.\\u000a While groundwater supplies are buffered against short-term effects of climate variability, they can be impacted over longer\\u000a time frames through changes in rainfall, temperature, snowfall, melting of glaciers and permafrost and vegetation and land-use\\u000a changes. Groundwater provides an archive of past climate

Catherine E. Hughes; Dioni I. Cendón; Mathew P. Johansen; Karina T. Meredith

33

Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L. (eds.)

2007-07-01

34

Alleviating climate change Alleviating climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing climate change will require dramatic policy shifts in the fields of energy, livestock production and forest management. The following paper summarises where we are now and what we need to do, with an emphasis on how multilateral organisations like The World Bank can help to address the challenges ahead.

Robert Goodland; Simon Counsell

2008-01-01

35

Learning and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning – i.e. the acquisition of new information that leads to changes in our assessment of uncertainty – plays a prominent role in the international climate policy debate. For example, the view that we should postpone actions until we know more continues to be influential. The latest work on learning and climate change includes new theoretical models, better informed simulations

Brian C. Oneill; Paul Crutzen; Arnulf Grübler; Minh Ha-Duong; Klaus Keller; Charles Kolstad; Jonathan Koomey; Andreas Lange; Michael Obersteiner; Michael Oppenheimer; William Pepper; Warren Sanderson; Michael Schlesinger; Nicolas Treich; Alistair Ulph; Mort Webster; Chris Wilson

2006-01-01

36

Modeling Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding global climate change is challenging, even for adults, yet having an understanding of this topic is consequential for the future. In this activity, middle school students learn about global climate change using models that allow them to make predictions, observations, and then explain mechanisms for climate change. Component ideas include change over time, deep time, and accumulation. Students are asked to act as advisers on how to lower energy use, and refine their understanding of how and why this is important, before testing their ideas and finally revising their advice.

Svihla, Vanessa

37

What Is Climate Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weather consists of those meteorological events, such as rain, wind and sunshine, which can change day-by-day or even hour-by-hour. Climate is the average of all these events, taken over a period of time. The climate varies over different parts of the world. Climate is usually defined as the average of the weather over a 30-year period. It is when…

Beswick, Adele

2007-01-01

38

Climate Change Education .org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change Education .org is a volunteer organization made up primarily of docents and interns at California science centers and museums, along with students, scientists, and staff at the University of California, Berkeley. The organization specializes in hands-on science demonstrations relevant to climate change and other topics, and the encouragement of partnerships in education. The group's two portal web sites, Climate Change Education .org and Global Warming California .net, direct visitors to hundreds of links to great resources on subjects of interest.

39

Climate Change and California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Climate change represents a significant risk to California as a result of a warming and increasingly variable climate. The signs of a global warming trend continue to become more evident and much of the scientific debate is now focused on expected rates a...

2003-01-01

40

Climate Change Made Simple  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.…

Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

2007-01-01

41

Climate Change: An Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

Lewis, Garry

1995-01-01

42

Climate Processes and Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1997 Kyoto summit on climate change demonstrates the world community's desire to protect future generations from harmful effects induced by the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. On the other hand, the worldwide impacts of the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event serve as a reminder of how natural variability can strongly influence weather. In this book, Bryant provides a bird's-eye view of natural climate change over the last 2 million years, rather than the fish's-eye view of the more recent possible anthropogenic global warming.The key feature that sets this text apart is the perspective of climate change on a larger timescale. The author recognizes that climate is not constant, and that only small perturbations are necessary to shift climate into an extreme state. If this is the case, however, anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing may also produce extreme climate change. Climate Processes and Change also differs from other texts by raising the awareness of uncertainties in historical observations, trends, and the complex and nonlinear relationships between observations and theory.

Jenkins, Gregory S.

43

Mitigating Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Navajo Technical College, meet a chemistry professor who explains some of the core concepts connected to climate change: carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and emissions from energy use.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-03-23

44

Climate change and jobs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development expert Barbara Harriss-White leads a team of specialists from agriculture to economics, environmental science and policy to investigate neglected aspects of the climate change response in India.

2012-05-01

45

Climate Change and Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1998-01-01

46

Climate Change and Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1998-01-01

47

Climate Change and Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1997-01-01

48

Climate Change and Arkansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1998-01-01

49

Climate Change and Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1997-01-01

50

Population and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Population and Climate Change provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and climate change. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a way that is comprehensible to members of both communities. The book will be of primary interest to researchers in the fields of climate change, demography, and economics. It will also be useful to policy-makers and NGOs dealing with issues of population dynamics and climate change, and to teachers and students in courses such as environmental studies, demography, climatology, economics, earth systems science, and international relations.

O'Neill, Brian C.; Landis MacKellar, F.; Lutz, Wolfgang

2000-11-01

51

Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

1989-04-01

52

Holocene climate variability in south-western France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation and climate changes in western France/northern Spain are documented for the last c. 9000 cal. yr BP in a well dated shelf core, KS05-10, retrieved in the southwestern margin of the Bay of Biscay (Basque country) (43°22'765N, 2°16'744W). The continuous high resolution pollen record shows orbital and suborbital climate fluctuations similar to those noticed for the North Atlantic region and Greenland. A long-term Pinus, Quercus and Corylus forest reduction follows the cooling trend in Greenland and the general decrease of mid-latitude summer insolation until approximately 350 yr cal. BP. Within the millennial scale variability, the southwestern Bay of Biscay pollen record shows 6 main phases: The first phase, c. 9000 and 6600 cal. yr BP, is marked by a Pinus and deciduous Quercus forest with Corylus, indicating a humid and temperate climate. During the phase, c. 6600 - 4500 cal. yr BP, the pollen record shows a stable period of rich, mixed Quercus forest. During this interval occurred the establishment of Alnus, Ulmus, Tilia, Fraxinus excelsior-type and Fagus trees and the reduction of Pinus forest. This vegetation assemblage probably indicates an increase in moisture in relatively mild conditions. Fagus became continuously present in the region after c. 4500 c. cal. yr BP in agreement with what have been noticed by continental pollen sequences. An important contraction of Pinus, deciduous Quercus and Corylus forest occur after c. 3600 cal. yr BP. This evolution is contemporaneous to the maximum expansion of Fagus and the increase of heaths, which may be linked to a weakening of seasonality and more humid summer conditions. A strong forest reduction, involving all trees except pine, and a marked spread of herbaceous plants took place after c. 1400 cal. years BP. The presence of Juglans, Cerealia type and Castanea after c. 550 cal. yr BP and the re-expansion of Pinus after c. 350 cal. yr BP testify the increasing role played by the human activity in the region.

Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Trigo, R.; Rodrigues, T.; Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.

2012-04-01

53

Climate variability and trends in downscaled high-resolution simulations and projections over Metropolitan France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fulfill the society demand for climate information at the spatial scale allowing impact studies, long-term high-resolution climate simulations are produced, over an area covering metropolitan France. One of the major goals of this article is to investigate whether such simulations appropriately simulate the spatial and temporal variability of the current climate, using two simulation chains. These start from the global IPSL-CM4 climate model, using two regional models (LMDz and MM5) at moderate resolution (15-20 km), followed with a statistical downscaling method in order to reach a target resolution of 8 km. The statistical downscaling technique includes a non-parametric method that corrects the distribution by using high-resolution analyses over France. First the uncorrected simulations are evaluated against a set of high-resolution analyses, with a focus on temperature and precipitation. Uncorrected downscaled temperatures suffer from a cold bias that is present in the global model as well. Precipitations biases have a season- and model-dependent behavior. Dynamical models overestimate rainfall but with different patterns and amplitude, but both have underestimations in the South-Eastern area (Cevennes mountains) in winter. A variance decomposition shows that uncorrected simulations fairly well capture observed variances from inter-annual to high-frequency intra-seasonal time scales. After correction, distributions match with analyses by construction, but it is shown that spatial coherence, persistence properties of warm, cold and dry episodes also match to a certain extent. Another aim of the article is to describe the changes for future climate obtained using these simulations under Scenario A1B. Results are presented on the changes between current and mid-term future (2021-2050) averages and variability over France. Interestingly, even though the same global climate model is used at the boundaries, regional climate change responses from the two models significantly differ.

Vautard, Robert; Noël, Thomas; Li, Laurent; Vrac, Mathieu; Martin, Eric; Dandin, Philippe; Cattiaux, Julien; Joussaume, Sylvie

2013-09-01

54

Climate Change 1994  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations Environment Program and the World Meterological Organization set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 to provide an authoritative international consensus of scientific opinion on climate change. This report, prepared by IPCC Working Groups I and II, reviews the latest scientific evidence on the following key topics: radiative forcing of climate change; the latest values of global warming potential (used to compare the potential effect on future climate of different anthropogenic factors); the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere; and an evaluation of scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers in climatology and environmental science, as well as environmental and science policy, will benefit from this book.

Houghton, John T.; Meira Filho, L. G.; Bruce, James P.; Lee, Hoesung; Callander, Bruce A.; Haites, E. F.

1995-06-01

55

Avoiding dangerous climate change  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

2006-02-15

56

Poverty and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poor are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental change because they have the least amount of resources with which to adapt, and they live in areas (e.g. flood plains, low-lying coastal areas, and marginal drylands) that are particularly vulnerable to the manifestations of climate change. By quantifying the various environmental, economic, and social factors that can contribute to poverty, we identify populations that are most vulnerable to poverty and poverty traps due to environmental change. We define vulnerability as consisting of risk (probability of event and exposed elements), resiliency, and capacity to respond. Resiliency captures the social system's ability to absorb a natural disaster while retaining the same basic structure, organization, and ways of functioning, as well as its general capacity to adapt to stress and change. Capacity to respond is a surrogate for technical skills, institutional capabilities, and efficacy within countries and their economies. We use a "climate change multiplier" to account for possible increases in the frequency and severity of natural events due to climate change. Through various analytical methods, we quantify the social, political, economic, and environmental factors that contribute to poverty or poverty traps. These data sets are then used to determine vulnerability through raster multiplication in geospatial analysis. The vulnerability of a particular location to climate change is then mapped, with areas of high vulnerability clearly delineated. The success of this methodology indicates that it is indeed possible to quantify the effects of climate change on global vulnerability to natural disasters, and can be used as a mechanism to identify areas where proactive measures, such as improving adaptation or capacity to respond, can reduce the humanitarian and economic impacts of climate change.

van der Vink, G.; Franco, E.; Fuckar, N. S.; Kalmbach, E. R.; Kayatta, E.; Lankester, K.; Rothschild, R. E.; Sarma, A.; Wall, M. L.

2008-05-01

57

Poverty and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental change because they have the least amount of resources with which to adapt, and they live in areas (e.g. flood plains, low-lying coastal areas, and marginal drylands) that are particularly vulnerable to the manifestations of climate change. By quantifying the various environmental, economic, and social factors that can contribute to poverty, we identify

G. van der Vink; E. Franco; N. S. Fuckar; E. R. Kalmbach; E. Kayatta; K. Lankester; R. E. Rothschild; A. Sarma; M. L. Wall

2008-01-01

58

Adaptation to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Even if significant reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions are achieved, some amount of climate change appears to be inevitable. Local, regional, state, and federal planning and regulation should begin to address how to adapt to these changes.Purpose: This article presents a policy synthesis of adaptation planning issues, using California as a case study. We examine the institutional and

Louise W. Bedsworth; Ellen Hanak

2010-01-01

59

Solar Influence: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video, the sixth in the National Academies Climate Change, Lines of Evidence series, explores the hypothesis that changes in solar energy output may be responsible for observed global surface temperature rise. Several lines of evidence, such as direct satellite observations, are reviewed.

Council, National R.; Academies, The N.

60

Mapping climate change in European temperature distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses challenges for decision makers across society, not just in preparing for the climate of the future but even when planning for the climate of the present day. When making climate sensitive decisions, policy makers and adaptation planners would benefit from information on local scales and for user-specific quantiles (e.g. the hottest/coldest 5% of days) and thresholds (e.g. days above 28?° C), not just mean changes. Here, we translate observations of weather into observations of climate change, providing maps of the changing shape of climatic temperature distributions across Europe since 1950. The provision of such information from observations is valuable to support decisions designed to be robust in today’s climate, while also providing data against which climate forecasting methods can be judged and interpreted. The general statement that the hottest summer days are warming faster than the coolest is made decision relevant by exposing how the regions of greatest warming are quantile and threshold dependent. In a band from Northern France to Denmark, where the response is greatest, the hottest days in the temperature distribution have seen changes of at least 2?° C, over four times the global mean change over the same period. In winter the coldest nights are warming fastest, particularly in Scandinavia.

Stainforth, David A.; Chapman, Sandra C.; Watkins, Nicholas W.

2013-09-01

61

Climate change and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change, although a natural phenomenon, is accelerated by human activities. Disaster policy response to climate change is dependent on a number of factors, such as readiness to accept the reality of climate change, institutions and capacity, as well as willingness to embed climate change risk assessment and management in development strategies. These conditions do not yet exist universally. A

Geoff O'Brien; Phil O'Keefe; Joanne Rose; Ben Wisner

2006-01-01

62

Coping with climate change  

SciTech Connect

The Second North American Conference on Preparing for Climate Change may be the most ambitious assemblage of experts ever to assess impact and response strategies to the twin challenges of greenhouse warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Presentations were made by over 160 scientists, environmental leaders and policy makers from the Western Hemisphere, Europe and Asia in 38 sessions over a three day period. Chapters in this volume correspond to the seven regional panels of the Second North American Conference, with discussions of implications of climate changes for the Caribbean, the Arctic, California, the Southern United States, the Chesapeake Bay, Atlantic Canada and New England, and the Great Lakes. This book also contains a policy overview of the climate challenge with contributions from US, Canadian, British and Caribbean governmental and corporate leaders. A chapter devoted to a scientific overview of climate change includes a skillful overview of the key scientific and policy issues involved in greenhouse warming, a seminal article on regional implications of climate change and the potential impacts of global warming on droughts and floods, and a panel discussion involving four of the world's leading stratospheric scientists. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

Topping, J.C. Jr. (ed.)

1989-06-01

63

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Climate Change is one of the Exploring the Environment series of online modules. Emphasizing an integrated approach to environmental earth science through problem-based learning, this module asks students to predict how increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide is changing the climate, and the possible effects this may have on Kansas wheat crops. Students access remote sensing data via links to both current and historical data and work through a sequence of hyperlinked background resources to investigate this problem. The site also offers a glossary, teacher resources, and a general description of the problem-based learning model.

2000-01-01

64

EVOLUTIONARY RESPONSES TO CHANGING CLIMATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until now, Quaternary paleoecologists have regarded evolution as a slow process relative to climate change, predicting that the primary biotic response to changing climate is not adaptation, but instead (1) persistence in situ if changing climate remains within the species' tolerance limits, (2) range shifts (migration) to regions where climate is currently within the species' tolerance limits, or (3) extinction.

Margaret B. Davis; Ruth G. Shaw; Julie R. Etterson

2005-01-01

65

On predicting climate under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can today’s global climate model ensembles characterize the 21st century climate in their own ‘model-worlds’? This question is at the heart of how we design and interpret climate model experiments for both science and policy support. Using a low-dimensional nonlinear system that exhibits behaviour similar to that of the atmosphere and ocean, we explore the implications of ensemble size and two methods of constructing climatic distributions, for the quantification of a model’s climate. Small ensembles are shown to be misleading in non-stationary conditions analogous to externally forced climate change, and sometimes also in stationary conditions which reflect the case of an unforced climate. These results show that ensembles of several hundred members may be required to characterize a model’s climate and inform robust statements about the relative roles of different sources of climate prediction uncertainty.

Daron, Joseph D.; Stainforth, David A.

2013-09-01

66

Extinction and climate change.  

PubMed

Arising from F. He & S. P. Hubbell 473, 368-371 (2011). Statistical relationships between habitat area and the number of species observed (species-area relationships, SARs) are sometimes used to assess extinction risks following habitat destruction or loss of climatic suitability. He and Hubbell argue that the numbers of species confined to-rather than observed in-different areas (endemics-area relationships, EARs) should be used instead of SARs, and that SAR-based extinction estimates in the literature are too high. We suggest that He and Hubbell's SAR estimates are biased, that the empirical data they use are not appropriate to calculate extinction risks, and that their statements about extinction risks from climate change do not take into account non-SAR-based estimates or recent observations. Species have already responded to climate change in a manner consistent with high future extinction risks. PMID:22358847

Thomas, Chris D; Williamson, Mark

2012-02-22

67

Climate for Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume provides a challenging explanation of the forces that have shaped the international global warming debate. It takes a novel approach to the subject by concentrating on the ways non-state actors--such as scientific, environmental and industry groups, as opposed to governmental organizations--affect political outcomes in global fora on climate change. It also provides insights into the role of the media in influencing the agenda. The book draws on a range of analytical approaches to assess and explain the influence of these nongovernmental organizations on the course of global climate politics. The book will be of interest to all researchers and policy makers associated with climate change, and will be used in university courses in international relations, politics, and environmental studies.

Newell, Peter

2000-09-01

68

Changing climate, changing forests: The impacts of climate change ...  

Treesearch

Description: Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect effects ... over the past 100 years and that there are more extreme precipitation events. ... northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS -99.

69

Addressing the climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

While calls are being made to deal with the linkages between climate change and sustainable development to arrive at an integrated policy, concrete steps in this direction have been very limited so far. One of the possible instruments through which both issues may be approached simultaneously is a multi-stakeholder partnership, a form of governance with the potential to address existing

Jonatan Pinkse; Ans Kolk

2012-01-01

70

Communicating Climate Change (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

I will discuss the various challenges scientists must confront in efforts to communicate the science and implications of climate change to the public. Among these challenges is the stiff headwind we must fight of a concerted disinformation effort designed to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding of the problem and the reality of the underlying societal

M. E. Mann

2009-01-01

71

Dating martian climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological evidence indicates that low-latitude polygonally-patterned grounds on Mars, generally thought to be the product of flood volcanism, are periglacial in nature and record a complex signal of changing climate. By studying the martian surface stratigraphically (in terms of the geometrical relations between surface landforms and the substrate) rather than genetically (by form analogy with Earth), we have identified dynamic

David P. Page; Matthew R. Balme; Monica M. Grady

2009-01-01

72

Wetlands and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This instructional guide is designed to provide instructors with lecture materials and resources that examine the relationship between wetlands and global climate change. Student objectives, a general lecture outline and a more detailed PowerPoint presentation with instructor notes are provided. The role of wetlands in global carbon budgets and as sources and sinks of greenhouse gases is discussed. Anticipated impacts of climate change on both coastal and inland wetlands are also presented.Instructors who are looking for videos or additional print and web-based resources on the topics covered here should consult the resources list provided at the end of this module where these resources are summarized and cited.Upon successful completion of this module students should be able to:* Describe the importance of wetlands as sources and sinks of greenhouse gases* Describe the impacts of wetlands on global climate change* Describe the impacts of global climate change on both coastal and inland wetlands* Describe how carbon trading has been applied to wetlands

Cudmore, Wynn

2011-09-20

73

Pollen and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students study the relationship between changing climate conditions and the distribution of plants across North America, using a unique tool called the Pollen Viewer. This tool allows the user to animate the retreat of the North American glacier and the migration of plant species during the waning period of the most recent Ice Age.

Pickle, John; Kranz, Becca; Frazier, Katharina; Terc

74

Secular Changes of Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR some time past it has been generally believed that the climate of Central Asia was once less arid than at present, but we now know, as Dr. Sven Hedin explained to the Royal Geographical Society on December 8 (p. 134), that important changes have taken place since the Christian era began. He found in the Lob Nor region forests

T. G. Bonney

1902-01-01

75

Confronting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage…

Roach, Ronald

2009-01-01

76

Biological Effects of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How important is climate change--something that has occurred throughout Earth's history? Can ecosystems tolerate the magnitude and rate of future change? How will other conservation threats interact with climate change? How likely are widespread extinction

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee Jr., Richard E.

2008-10-01

77

Dating martian climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological evidence indicates that low-latitude polygonally-patterned grounds on Mars, generally thought to be the product of flood volcanism, are periglacial in nature and record a complex signal of changing climate. By studying the martian surface stratigraphically (in terms of the geometrical relations between surface landforms and the substrate) rather than genetically (by form analogy with Earth), we have identified dynamic surfaces across one-fifth of martian longitude. New stratigraphical observations in the Elysium-Amazonis plains have revealed a progressive surface polygonisation that is destructive of impact craters across the region. This activity is comparable to the climatically-driven degradation of periglacial landscapes on Earth, but because it affects impact craters—the martian chronometer—it can be dated. Here, we show that it is possible to directly date this activity based on the fraction of impact craters affected by polygon formation. Nearly 100% of craters (of all diameters) are superposed by polygonal sculpture: considering the few-100 Ma age of the substrate, this suggests that the process of polygon formation was active within the last few million years. Surface polygonisation in this region, often considered to be one of the signs of young, 'plains-forming' volcanism on Mars, is instead shown to postdate the majority of impact craters seen. We therefore conclude that it is post-depositional in origin and an artefact of thermal cycling of near-surface ground ice. Stratigraphically-controlled crater counts present the first way of dating climate change on a planet other than Earth: a record that may tell us something about climate change on our own planet. Parallel climate change on these two worlds—an ice age Mars coincident with Earth's glacial Quaternary period—might suggest a coupled system linking both. We have previously been unable to generalise about the causes of long-term climate change based on a single terrestrial example—with the beginnings of a chronology for climate change on our nearest planetary neighbour, we can.

Page, David P.; Balme, Matthew R.; Grady, Monica M.

2009-10-01

78

Changing climate, changing democracy: a cautionary tale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has come to hold a central position within many policy arenas. However, a particular framing of climate change and climate science, underpinned by modernist assumptions, dominates policy discourse. This leads to restricted policy responses reflecting particular interests and socio-political imaginaries. There is little public debate concerning this framing or the assumptions underpinning approaches to climate policy. The implications

Mhairi Aitken

2012-01-01

79

Weather, Climate, Climate Change and Actions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This e-book contains the basics of weather and climate, climate change, and basic actions one can do to combat climate change. Included are embedded videos, slideshows, readings, and graphics. Discussion questions follow each section or chapter. This resource allows one to learn and/or use in a variety of ways integrating online resources that extend the learning, specifically flash animations, online labs, videos, curriculum, and readings. An iPad version is also available.

2012-01-01

80

Dialogue on Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a summary of a 2 day seminar on the topic "Dialogue on Global Climate Change." The sessions on October 1 included a scientific overview of global climate change, a discussion on religious perspectives on global climate change, and consideration of impacts and equity. The sessions on October 2 focused on policy considerations and the Kyoto Convention on Climate Change. Panelists discussed economic challenges in responding to climate change, reviewed the Kyoto convention and its political prospects, and examined the roles of science, religion, values, and economics in crafting public policy on climate change.

;

2007-06-28

81

Climate Change and Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A senior researcher discusses extinction due to global warming in this two-minute sound segment. He says that as climate warms, species will probably move upslope and towards the poles but in many cases, that may put species that are found on mountain tops at risk. Species with small ranges or lowland species that may not be able to get to mountain slopes and find equitable climate will die out. His study suggests that as many as one million species of plants and animals worldwide could be facing extinction as a result of climate change. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

2004-07-12

82

Projections of Future Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Contents: Executive Summary 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Climate and Climate Change 9.3 Projections of Climate Change 9.4 General Summary Appendix 9.1: Tuning of a Simple Climate Model toAOGCM Results References

Cubasch, U.; Meehl , G.; Boer, G. J.; Stouffer, Ron; Dix, M.; Noda, A.; Senior, C. A.; Raper, S.; Yap, K. S.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Brinkop, S.; Claussen, M.; Collins, M.; Evans, J.; Fischer-Bruns, I.; Flato, G.; Fyfe, J. C.; Ganopolski, A.; Gregory, J. M.; Hu, Z. Z.; Joos, Fortunat; Knutson, T.; Knutti, R.; Landsea, C.; Mearns, L. O.; Milly, C.; Mitchell, J. F.; Nozawa, T.; Paeth, H.; Raisanen, J.; Sausen, R.; Smith, Steven J.; Stocker, T.; Timmermann, A.; Ulbrich, U.; Weaver, A.; Wegner, J.; Whetton, P.; Wigley, T. M.; Winton, M.; Zwiers, F.; Kim, J. W.; Stone, J.

2001-10-01

83

Learn About Colorado's Changing Climate: Climate Change and Colorado's Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of teacher-developed and teacher-tested model lessons are designed to engage students in the science of climate change. All topics are linked to one or more of five Learn More About Climate videos, which localize climate change by pairing interviews with leading climate scientists with everyday Coloradans who explain how climate change is affecting Colorado communities. Each lesson outlines the essential principles, learning objectives and Colorado State Science Standards addressed and is accompanied by a variety of classroom materials that can be adapted for learners in grades 5-12. Suggestions for potential extensions and links to additional climate change curricula and other classroom resources are also provided.

84

Teaching Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science of climate change often gets lost behind the political debate. It presents those of us who teach physical science both the responsibility and the opportunity to teach both the science and, as importantly, the process of science to our students and the general public. Part of the problem is that the science - reconstruction of past climate through the use of proxy sources, such as isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen - is complex, making teaching it to science-averse students and general audiences even more challenging. Also, in our times when every action and statement is suspected of having a political motivation, teaching the process of science - data gathering and analysis, hypothesis testing and peer review - as our way of keeping science as truthful as possible so that the conclusions are more than just another opinion presents as great a challenge as teaching the science itself. I have been teaching a course in Global Climate since 2000, have taught elderhostel courses twice, and have given many public talks on this topic. Thus I have experience in this area to share with others. I would also like to learn of others' approaches to the vast amount of scientific information and getting past the politics. A special interest group on climate change will allow those of us to teach this important topic to share how we approach both the science and the politics of this issue.

O'Donoghue, A.

2011-09-01

85

Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, irreversible changes in climate may have a major effect on the economies of the world. The social costs of climate change will vary dramatically from country to country. This landmark assessment from Working Group III of the IPCC addresses the costs of climate change, both in terms of society and equity issues, and the economic burden of combating adverse

James P. Bruce; Hoesung Lee; Erik F. Haites

1996-01-01

86

Smithsonian climate change exhibits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

Kumar, Mohi

2006-05-01

87

Climate Change and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how global climate change affects human health in this interactive activity adapted from A Human Health Perspective: On Climate Change by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-07-01

88

Climate Change and Citizen Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how citizen observations can document the impact of climate change on plants and animals. It introduces the topic of phenology and data collection, the impact of climate change on phenology, and how individuals can become citizen scientists.

Citizen Science Central, Cornell L.

89

Outchasing climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pygmy possums, monarch butterflies, spoon-billed sandpipers, and a number of trees and other plants could be among the species unable to migrate fast enough to new habitat in the face of potential global climate changes, according to an August 30 report by the Switzerland-based World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the U.S. based Clean-Air-Cool Planet (CACP), two conservation organizations.

Showstack, Randy

90

Implications of abrupt climate change.  

PubMed Central

Records of past climates contained in ice cores, ocean sediments, and other archives show that large, abrupt, widespread climate changes have occurred repeatedly in the past. These changes were especially prominent during the cooling into and warming out of the last ice age, but persisted into the modern warm interval. Changes have especially affected water availability in warm regions and temperature in cold regions, but have affected almost all climatic variables across much or all of the Earth. Impacts of climate changes are smaller if the changes are slower or more-expected. The rapidity of abrupt climate changes, together with the difficulty of predicting such changes, means that impacts on the health of humans, economies and ecosystems will be larger if abrupt climate changes occur. Most projections of future climate include only gradual changes, whereas paleoclimatic data plus models indicate that abrupt changes remain possible; thus, policy is being made based on a view of the future that may be optimistic.

Alley, Richard B.

2004-01-01

91

Climate change hastens population extinctions  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to alter the distribution and abundance of many species. Predictions of climate-induced population extinctions are supported by geographic range shifts that correspond to climatic warming, but few extinctions have been linked mechanistically to climate change. Here we show that extinctions of two populations of a checkerspot butterfly were hastened by increasing variability in precipitation, a phenomenon predicted by global climate models. We model checkerspot populations to show that changes in precipitation amplified population fluctuations, leading to rapid extinctions. As populations of checkerspots and other species become further isolated by habitat loss, climate change is likely to cause more extinctions, threatening both species diversity and critical ecosystem services.

McLaughlin, John F.; Hellmann, Jessica J.; Boggs, Carol L.; Ehrlich, Paul R.

2002-01-01

92

Activities for Conceptualizing Climate and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is a digitally-based instructional program that contains data-rich case studies and visualization activities, as well as a visual library as a resource for teachers and students. A series of activities is organized to move scientifically from climate, to climate variability, to climate change. The site contains free teacher lesson plans, powerpoints, student activities, a summary of research on student conceptions and a curricular framework/philosopy document.

93

CLIMATE CHANGE: A POLITICAL INTRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syllabus Summary Climate change has now grown from a scientific concern to one of the most pressing issues of our time. This seminar aims to look at the topic from a political viewpoint, and analyze the different mechanisms of cooperation in the fight against climate change. The first part provides an appraisal of climate change as a political issue: it

François Gemenne

94

Understanding recent climate change.  

PubMed

The Earth's atmosphere has a natural greenhouse effect, without which the global mean surface temperature would be about 33 degrees C lower and life would not be possible. Human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases in trace amounts. This has enhanced the greenhouse effect, resulting in surface warming. Were it not for the partly offsetting effects of increased aerosol concentrations, the increase in global mean surface temperature over the past 100 years would be larger than observed. Continued surface warming through the 21st century is inevitable and will likely have widespread ecological impacts. The magnitude and rate of warming for the global average will be largely dictated by the strength and direction of climate feedbacks, thermal inertia of the oceans, the rate of greenhouse gas emissions, and aerosol concentrations. Because of regional expressions of climate feedbacks, changes in atmospheric circulation, and a suite of other factors, the magnitude and rate of warming and changes in other key climate elements, such as precipitation, will not be uniform across the planet. For example, due to loss of its floating sea-ice cover, the Arctic will warm the most. PMID:20121837

Serreze, Mark C

2010-02-01

95

Free Podcasts on Climate and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In partnership with the National Science Digital Library and Apple, NCAR and UCAR offer podcasts that provide a brief and accessible overview on climate and climate change. These podcasts, short 5-8 minute videos you can download on your computer or iPod, are a part of the NSDL on iTunes U collection.

Payo, Robert

96

Climatic change on Mars.  

PubMed

The equatorial sinuous channels on Mars detected by Mariner 9 point to a past epoch of higher pressures and abundant liquid water. Advective instability of the martian atmosphere permits two stable climates-one close to present conditions, the other at a pressure of the order of 1 bar depending on the quantity of buried volatiles. Variations in the obliquity of Mars, the luminosity of the sun, and the albedo of the polar caps each appear capable of driving the instability between a current ice age and more clement conditions. Obliquity driving alone implies that epochs of much higher and of much lower pressure must have characterized martian history. Climatic change on Mars may have important meteorological, geological, and biological implications. PMID:17731265

Sagan, C; Toon, O B; Gierasch, P J

1973-09-14

97

Sensitivity of deep lake temperature to past and future climatic changes: A modeling study for Lac d'Annecy, France, and Ammersee, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotope ratios (?18O) of deep-lake ostracod valves can provide excellent estimates of the oxygen isotopic composition of past atmospheric precipitation (?18OP). One of the major steps of such a ?18OP reconstruction is the calculation of the ?18O of the lake water (?18OL) from the valve ?18O, which includes an appropriate estimate of the past water temperature during valve formation. In order to simulate changes in lake vertical temperature profile and specifically the bottom water temperature during ostracod valve formation, we have redeveloped a one-dimensional eddy diffusion thermal lake model including a lake ice model and refined it by including a seasonal light extinction model. This model was tested for two different sites, Lac d'Annecy and Ammersee. Sensitivity studies show that the ostracod calcification temperature is approaching constant 3.7°C for colder, but may significantly vary for warmer than present conditions. In Lac d'Annecy, such temperature effects can lead to a significant underestimation of positive ?18OP excursions. In Ammersee the underestimation is smaller because the hypolimnic temperatures are less sensitive to surface temperature changes. Our model can be used to better constrain such temperature effects and such further increase the quality of the ?18OL and ?18OP reconstruction.

Danis, P.-A.; von Grafenstein, U.; Masson-Delmotte, V.

2003-10-01

98

World Bank Group: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the World Bank's Environment Department, the Climate Change team "provides resources and expertise for the World Bank's participation in international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and provides technical advice to the World Bank's Global Environment Facility Program." Understandably, the site contains a brief explication of the key themes surrounding contemporary concerns about climate change, along with offering a detailed discussion of the various programs and research projects with which the Climate Change group is engaged directly or in tandem with other related organizations and institutions. From the main page, visitors can read about the nature of international climate change (and its disproportionate effects on the developing world), peruse a list of relevant online publications, and read press releases from the Climate Change team.

99

Climate Change: Prospects for Nature  

ScienceCinema

Thomas Lovejoy, President of The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, explores the impact of climate change on the natural world. He also discusses the implications of climate change for climate policy and natural resource management.

100

Human Engineering and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate change is arguably one of the biggest problems that confront us today. There is ample evidence that climate change is likely to affect adversely many aspects of life for all people around the world, and that existing solutions such as geoengineering might be too risky and ordinary behavioural and market solutions might not be sufficient to mitigate climate

S. Matthew Liao; Anders Sandberg; Rebecca Roache

2012-01-01

101

Scenarios of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of current and prospected climate changes, their causes and implied threats, and of a possible route to keep the changes within a tolerable level. The global mean temperature has up to 2005 risen by almost 0.8°C, and the change expected by 2100 is as large as glacial-interglacial changes in the past, which were commonly spread out over 10000 years. As is well known, the principle actor is man-made CO2, which, together with other anthropogenic gases, enhances the atmosphere’s greenhouse effect. The only man-made cooling agent appears to be atmospheric aerosols. Atmospheric CO2 has now reached levels unprecedented during the past several million years. Principal threats are a greatly reduced biodiversity (species extinction), changes in the atmospheric precipitation pattern, more frequent weather extremes, and not the least, sea level rise. The expected precipitation pattern will enhance water scarcity in and around regions that suffer from water shortage already, affecting many countries. Sea level rise will act on a longer time scale. It is expected to amount to more than 50 cm by 2100, and over the coming centuries the potential rise is of the order of 10 m. A global-mean temperature increase of 2°C is often quoted as a safe limit, beyond which irreversible effects must be expected. To achieve that limit, a major, rapid, and coordinated international effort will be needed. Up to the year 2050, the man-made CO2 releases must be reduced by at least 50%. This must be accompanied by a complete overhaul of the global energy supply toward depending increasingly on the Sun’s supply of energy, both directly and in converted form, such as wind energy. Much of the information and insight available today has been generated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in particular its Fourth Assessment Report of 2007, which greatly advanced both public attention and political action.

Graßl, H.

2009-09-01

102

Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plan for Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program for global monitoring of man's inadvertent modification of weather and climate. The interrelated activities, several of which sho...

1971-01-01

103

Climate Change: Assessing Our Actions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The power sector is a major source of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that threaten the stability of the global climate system. OPIC understands the serious implications of GHG emissions and climate change and was the first bilateral fina...

2000-01-01

104

Uncertainty in Climate Change Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn why trout are important indicators in Wisconsin’s changing climate, and why the uncertainty of global climate models complicates predictions about their survival, in this video produced by the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board.

Ecb, Wisconsin

2010-11-30

105

The Changing Health System in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the performance of French health care system from an economic viewpoint. It also provides some policy recommendations. The health system in France is regarded as delivering high quality services, with freedom of choice and generally no waiting lists for treatments. Access to medical services is equal among the population and, unlike in some other countries, people can

Yutaka Imai; Stéphane Jacobzone; Patrick Lenain

2000-01-01

106

California Climate Change Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global warming and climate change have been a top priority for a number of international organizations, and in recent years, a number of states have also become profoundly concerned about these transformations. Not surprisingly, the state of California has been interested in these subjects for some time, and this website is an initiative of the various agencies working in this area of research. On this site, visitors can learn about various initiatives sponsored by different agencies within the state and also peruse a list of FAQÂs on the subject. First-time visitors will want to start at the ÂBackground section; they may then proceed to the ÂPolicy & Program area, where they can learn what the state is doing to combat this situation. Some of these programs include a voluntary greenhouse gas emission registry for California companies and a research program to spur environmentally-friendly energy alternatives. Finally, the site also includes a very nice glossary of terms used in discussing global climate change.

107

Communicating Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss the various challenges scientists must confront in efforts to communicate the science and implications of climate change to the public. Among these challenges is the stiff headwind we must fight of a concerted disinformation effort designed to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding of the problem and the reality of the underlying societal threat. We also must fight the legacy of the public’s perception of the scientist. That is to say, we must strive to communicate in plainspoken language that neither insults the intelligence of our audience, nor hopelessly loses them in jargon and science-speak. And through all of this, we must maintain our composure and good humor even in the face of what we might consider the vilest of tactics by our opposition. When it comes to how best to get our message out to the broader public, I don’t pretend to have all of the answers. But I will share some insights and anecdotes that I have accumulated over the course of my own efforts to inform the public about the reality of climate change and the potential threat that it represents.

Mann, M. E.

2009-12-01

108

Climate change and marine life.  

PubMed

A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

Richardson, Anthony J; Brown, Christopher J; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T; Duarte, Carlos M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J; O'Connor, Mary I; Pandolfi, John M; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

2012-07-11

109

Groundwater under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has a large impact on different environmental issues, such as groundwater availability. In Switzerland, springs provide nearly 40 % of the drinking water and are, in many regions, the main water supply. Dry periods show how vulnerable some of these systems are. The response of springs to drought, however, is complex and not readily predictable. While some show a decrease of discharge and low water table values, others do not react, or only slightly, to such extreme weather conditions. The aim of this study is to understand the behavior of springs and to estimate their vulnerability under different climate scenarios. Two different field sites are presented. The first site is located at Wohlenschwil in a relatively flat moraine landscape (400 m a.s.L.) overlying a porous aquifer. Because of the water abstraction scheme, no spring discharge can be observed but the dynamic of this system is typical of spring behavior. The second site is located in the Upper Emme valley, a hilly region where groundwater flows mostly in fractured Molasse before discharging through springs at an altitude of 860 m a.s.L. Tracer tests and isotopes measurements, as well as geophysical and hydraulic methods to quantify recharge processes and estimate buffer capacity of the systems during dry phases, are applied for unsaturated and saturated zones. All field results are used to build up a fully coupled numerical model (HydroGeoSphere), which gives results about the dynamic of the system with given climate scenarios. Preliminary results from tracer tests and numerical modeling show that, only with an integral approach that includes both the saturated and unsaturated zones, a global assessment of transit times and of the buffer capacity is possible. Furthermore, numerical modeling based partly on soil water measurements and a structure analysis of the “Wohlenschwil” catchment shows that recharge processes are only controlled by precipitation and that inflow from borders are of minor role. The dynamic of this area is strongly dependent on the local climate. The next step will be a more detailed investigation of the soil to obtain a better understanding of direct recharge and flow processes in the unsaturated zone. Therefore soil moisture measurements at different location in the catchment will be carried out

Moeck, C.; Schirmer, M.; Hunkeler, D.; Project Of National Research Programme "Sustainable Water Management" (Nrp 61)

2010-12-01

110

Modelling Arctic Climate Change: Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate prediction requires the use of coupled models of the atmosphere-deep ocean-sea ice and land surface. This paper outlines the formulation of processes relevant to the simulation and prediction of climate change in the Arctic of one such model, that of the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research at the Meteorological Office. Comparison of the simulation of a number

D. J. Drewry; J. Crossley

1995-01-01

111

Natural and anthropogenic climate changes  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following three components of the project: analysis of climate data in US and China to study the regional climate changes; analysis of general circulation model simulations of current and CO[sub 2]-doubled global and regional climates; and studies of desertification in the United States and China.

Wang, W.C.; Ronberg, B.; Gutowski, W.; Gutzler, D.; Portman, D. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Li, K.; Wang, S. (Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Geography)

1987-01-06

112

Geomorphic responses to climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of this book is the response of landscapes to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic changes. During the past 40 ky the global climate has varied from full-glacial to interglacial. Global temperatures decreased between 40 and 20 ka culminating in full-glacial climatic conditions at 20 ka. This resulted in a sea level decline of 130 m. Only 8 to

W. B. Bull

1991-01-01

113

Environmental magnetism and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major and pressing problem is to understand how, and how fast, the Earth's climate has changed in the past, with and without human influences on the global carbon cycle. Magnetic, remanence-acquiring, minerals, mostly iron oxides and sulphides, occur ubiquitously in sediments. They can act as sensitive recorders of past climates, because as climate has varied (from glacial to interglacial,

Barbara A. Maher

2007-01-01

114

Expert credibility in climate change  

PubMed Central

Although preliminary estimates from published literature and expert surveys suggest striking agreement among climate scientists on the tenets of anthropogenic climate change (ACC), the American public expresses substantial doubt about both the anthropogenic cause and the level of scientific agreement underpinning ACC. A broad analysis of the climate scientist community itself, the distribution of credibility of dissenting researchers relative to agreeing researchers, and the level of agreement among top climate experts has not been conducted and would inform future ACC discussions. Here, we use an extensive dataset of 1,372 climate researchers and their publication and citation data to show that (i) 97–98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field surveyed here support the tenets of ACC outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and (ii) the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of the convinced researchers.

Anderegg, William R. L.; Prall, James W.; Harold, Jacob; Schneider, Stephen H.

2010-01-01

115

Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.

116

Pembina Institute: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the Pembina Institute, provides access to materials related to the threat of climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions as seen in Canada, and some possible solutions to the problem. There is a science overview that describes the increase in atmospheric Carbon dioxide due to human activity and how it causes Earth's atmosphere to retain heat, and a section on government policy, both worldwide and in Canada, to stabilize or reduce emission of greenhouse gases. There is also an overview of the Institute's work to aid implementation of the Kyoto protocol in Canada and achieve future reductions in GHG emssions. There are also links to additional materials such as publications and news releases, information on renewable energy sources, E-education programs, and teaching tools.

117

Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

Change, Project A.; University, Purdue

118

Clouds and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As concern grows over the possibility of altering the Earth's climate, a major uncertainty exists in computer models used to study the Earth's atmosphere, regarding our current understanding of clouds and our ability to simulate their effect on climate. A number of recent observations and computer simulation studies, however, have shed light on the important role of clouds in determining the present and future climate of our atmosphere.Data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment have been used to obtain an accurate picture of how clouds affect our present global climate system [Ramanathan, 1989]. The effect of clouds on solar and thermal radiation entering and leaving our climate is known as cloud forcing. Low clouds generally cool the Earth's surface, while high clouds warm the climate system. For the entire planet, however, the cooling effect of low clouds is stronger than the warming effect from high clouds, so that overall, clouds cool the climate.

Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

119

Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report is an attempt to describe what is known about abrupt climate changes and their impacts, based on paleoclimate proxies, historical observations, and modeling. Large, abrupt climate changes have repeatedly affected much or all of the earth, locally reaching as much as 10 Celsius degrees change in 10 years. Available evidence suggests that abrupt climate changes are not only possible but likely in the future, potentially with large impacts on ecosystems and societies. The report does not focus on large, abrupt causes like nuclear wars or giant meteorite impacts, but rather on new findings that cite gradual causes that push the earth system across a threshold. The slow effects of drifting continents, wobbling orbits or changing atmospheric composition may "switch" the climate to a new state. Faster earth-system changes, whether natural or human-caused, are likely to increase the probability of encountering a threshold that triggers a still faster climate shift.

120

FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the first binding international legal instrument that deals directly with climate change. The Convention was adopted on 9 May 1992 after negotiations by the UN-sponsored Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Fra...

121

Climate Change Mitigation in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most contentious issues in the debate over global climate change is the perceived divide between interests and obligations of developed and developing countries. Equity demands that developed countries act first to reduce emissions. That principle is embedded in the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which sets binding emission

KAMIL KAYGUSUZ

2004-01-01

122

Generating Arguments about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit is a different and fun way to engage students with an extremely important topic, climate change, which cuts across scientific and nonscientific disciplines. While climate change itself may not be listed in the curriculum of every science class, the authors contend that such a unit is appropriate for virtually any science curriculum.…

Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin

2012-01-01

123

Climate change, conflict and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both conflict and climate change may produce serious negative health consequences. However, there is insufficient evidence that climate change, e.g. through environmental degradation or fresh water shortages, leads to conflict as is often claimed. Also, current theory on causes of conflict would refute this hypothesis.

Egbert Sondorp; Preeti Patel

2003-01-01

124

Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

2011-01-01

125

Climate Change and Your Health  

MedlinePLUS

Nearly all scientists agree that climate change is real, is here, and that we humans are part of the problem — and part of the solution. Experts also agree ... the effects of global warming are serious. But climate change threatens more than the environment. It also threatens ...

126

Idea Bank: Climate Change Inquiries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can students engage in authentic inquiry on global climate change if they are not able to do the actual experiments? Many questions about climate change emerge over large areas and long periods of time. The good news is that much of the data from thes

Bowman, Ryan

2010-02-01

127

Take Aim At Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This music video features a rap song about some of the causes and effects of climate change with the goal of increasing awareness of climate change and how it will impact nature and humans. The website also includes links to short fact sheets with lyrics to the song that are annotated with the sources of the information in the lyrics.

Palooza.com, Polar

128

Congress Assesses Climate Change Paleodata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The `hockey stick' graph of surfacetemperature change overthe past millennium and implicationsfor climate change assessments wasthe subject of two hearings held by the U.S.House of Representatives Energy and CommerceSubcommittee on Oversight andInvestigations, on 19 and 27 July. These hearingsmarked only the second time that thecommittee has discussed climate issuessince George W. Bush became president.

Bierly, Eugene W.

2006-08-01

129

Climate Change and Aerosol Feedbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate instability is expected as mixing ratios of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere increase. The current trend in rising temperature can be related to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, this trend may change as feedback mechanisms amplify; one of the least-understood aspects of climate change. Formation of cloud condensation nuclei from rising sulfate concentrations in the atmosphere may counteract

Ann-Lise Norman

2008-01-01

130

BIRD MIGRATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explain and forecast the dependency of different migratory processes: spring arrival dates, migratory take-off, transit autumnal and spring migrations, migration abruption, and their characteristics upon different climatic parameters. We tried to explain the change in migratory-resident state of birds, and defined the effect of climate change upon species specificity of bird migration, mechanisms

Mecislovas ŽALAKEVI?IUS

1997-01-01

131

Changing with the climate - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013 ... Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific ... Changes to the global climate have significant repercussions and will ... As we grapple with what these changes mean for ecosystems, and how the output ...

132

Projected Impact of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This visualization is a chart that displays future climate change in terms of temperature increases and the impacts and Food, Water, Ecosystems, Extreme Weather Events, and Risk of Abrupt and Irreversible Changes that are predicted with the increasing temperature benchmarks.

Berger, Ketill; Unep/grid-Arendal

133

AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Aaas

134

Climate Change and Human Health  

PubMed Central

Climate change science points to an increase in sea surface temperature, increases in the severity of extreme weather events, declining air quality, and destabilizing natural systems due to increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The direct and indirect health results of such a global imbalance include excessive heat-related illnesses, vector- and waterborne diseases, increased exposure to environmental toxins, exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases due to declining air quality, and mental health stress among others. Vulnerability to these health effects will increase as elderly and urban populations increase and are less able to adapt to climate change. In addition, the level of vulnerability to certain health impacts will vary by location. As a result, strategies to address climate change must include health as a strategic component on a regional level. The co-benefits of improving health while addressing climate change will improve public health infrastructure today, while mitigating the negative consequences of a changing climate for future generations.

Luber, George; Prudent, Natasha

2009-01-01

135

Climate and hydrological uncertainties in projections of flood and low-flows in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in river flows are associated with different types of uncertainties, due to an imperfect knowledge of both future climate and rainfall-runoff processes. Due to computational constraints, impact and adaptation studies unfortunately cannot always afford to perform a detailed analysis of all these uncertainties. In that case, the modelling efforts have to focus on the most relevant source of uncertainty in order to provide the best estimate of the overall uncertainty. As part of the national Explore2070 project, the present study thus aims at assessing the hierarchy of uncertainties in changes on river flow extremes at the scale of France. Amongst all possible sources of uncertainties, two are here considered: (1) the uncertainty in General Circulation Model (GCM) configuration, with 7 different models that adequately sample the range of changes as projected by the GCMs used in the IPCC AR4 over France, and (2) the uncertainty in hydrological model structure, with 2 quite different models: GR4J (Perrin et al., 2003), a lumped conceptual model, and Isba-Modcou (Habets et al., 2008), a suite of a land surface scheme and a distributed hydrogeological model. The hydrological models have been run at more than 1500 locations in France over the 1961-1990 baseline period with forcings from both the Safran near-surface atmospheric reanalysis (Vidal et al., 2010) and the GCM control runs downscaled with a weather type method (Boé et al., 2006), and over the 2046-2065 period with forcings from all downscaled GCM runs under the A1B emissions scenario. Various high flow indices (annual maximum daily flow with return period of 10 and 20 years, the daily flow value exceeded 10% of the time) and low flow indices (annual minimum monthly flow with a 5-year return period, annual minimum 10-day mean flow with a 2-year return period, the daily flow value exceeded 95% of the time) as well as seasonality indices have been computed for both periods. An analysis of variance has been performed for each river flow index and at all stations shared by the two hydrological models (around 500) in order to assess the two considered sources of uncertainties in index changes as well as their hierarchy. Results first show spatial differences in the amount of sampled uncertainties due to both sub-regional climate specificities and catchment properties. The analysis of hierarchy between climate and hydrological uncertainties show striking differences (1) over France for a single index and (2) between different indices. The part of uncertainty relative to the hydrological response for example appears to be much more important for low-flow indices than for high-flow indices. Experiments have additionally been performed to possibly reduce the overall uncertainty by weighting combinations of GCM and hydrological model through their ability of reproducing observed river flow extreme values over the baseline period. The results of this study will help to define the relevant hydrological scenarios to be used in the adaptation part of the Explore2070 project for deriving national-scale adaptation strategies. Boé et al. (2006) A simple statistical-dynamical downscaling scheme based on weather types and conditional resampling. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D23106. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006889 Habets et al. (2008) The SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrometeorological model applied over France. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D06113. doi: 10.1029/2007JDOO8548 Perrin et al. (2003) Improvment of a parsimonious model for streamflow simulation. Journal of Hydrology, 279, 275-289. doi: 10.1016/S0022-1694(03)00225-7 Vidal et al. (2010) Multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France with the Safran-Isba-Modcou hydrometeorological suite. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 459-478.doi: 10.5194/hess-14-459-2010

Sauquet, E.; Vidal, J.-P.; Perrin, C.; Bourgin, P.-Y.; Chauveau, M.; Chazot, S.

2012-04-01

136

The World Bank: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change continues to be of grave concern to many, and the World Bank is particularly concerned with the ramifications it will have on people in the developing world. Their Climate Change site is designed to provide an overview of their work on this vexing problem including information about their current projects, data sets, research papers, and books. Visitors should start by looking over their weblog, and then take a look at their "News" area. Here, they can learn about innovative carbon trading programs, engineering projects, and international agreements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change. The "Research" area has dozens of free publications, including the very relevant "Climate Resilient Cities" work, which discusses how city governments can better understand how to plan for the impact of climate change through sound urban planning.

137

The World Bank: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change continues to be of grave concern to many, and the World Bank is particularly concerned with the ramifications it will have on people in the developing world. Their Climate Change site is designed to provide an overview of their work on this vexing problem and information about their current projects, data sets, research papers, and books. Visitors should start by looking over their weblog, and then take a look at their "What's New" area. Here they can learn about innovative carbon trading programs, engineering projects, and international agreements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change. The "Research & Analysis" area has dozens of free publications, including the very relevant "Climate Resilient Cities" work, which discusses how city governments can better understand how to plan for the impact of climate change through sound urban planning.

2009-08-13

138

Climate change hot-spots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI), is developed based on regional mean precipitation change, mean surface air temperature change, and change in precipitation and temperature interannual variability. The RCCI is a comparative index designed to identify the most responsive regions to climate change, or Hot-Spots. The RCCI is calculated for 26 land regions from the latest set of climate change projections by 20 global climate models for the A1B, A2 and B1 IPCC emission scenarios. The Mediterranean and North Eastern European regions emerge as the primary Hot-Spots, followed by high latitude northern hemisphere regions and by Central America, the most prominent tropical Hot-Spot. The main African Hot-Spots are Southern Equatorial Africa and the Sahara. Eastern North America is the prominent Hot-Spot over the continental U.S. Different factors over different regions contribute to the magnitude of the RCCI, which is in fact greater than 0 for all regions.

Giorgi, F.

2006-04-01

139

Diverse views on climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Third Santa Fe Conference on Global and Regional Climate Change; Santa Fe, New Mexico, 30 October to 4 November 2011 At the Third Santa Fe Conference on Global and Regional Climate Change, hosted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Center for Nonlinear Studies, researchers offered some of the latest thinking on how to observe and model the driving forces as well as the impacts of regional and global climate change, climate system responses, and societal impacts. It was the third in a series of conferences held at 5-year intervals. More than 140 climate science experts from the United States and foreign universities and research centers attended the conference, held at the La Fonda Hotel in historic downtown Santa Fe. The conference program included more than 80 invited and contributed oral presentations and about 30 posters. The oral sessions were grouped by topic into sessions of four or five talks, with discussion occurring at the end of each session

Garrett, Timothy; Dubey, Manvendra; Schwartz, Stephen

2012-04-01

140

Dictionary of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book represents a revision of the climate change lexicon that was prepared for the Second World Climate Conference in 1990. The conference had 1400 participants and consisted of a scientific component followed by a ministerial meeting. To foster communication among the different constituencies, a lexicon of climate and climate change was prepared for the participants. The dictionary includes definitions and descriptions of most of the scientific terms, organizations, and programs related to the physical aspects of climate change. Nearly 40% of the material describes organized projects, experiments, or programs, mostly international. Some information on biological topics, such as the difference between C3 and C4 plants, is also included. The length of definitions and descriptions ranges from one line to one or more pages, with the longer descriptions usually related to programs.

Maunder, W.J. (ed.)

1992-01-01

141

Agrometeorological adaptation strategies to increasing climate variability and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper starts with summarizing the indications for climate change as they are reviewed in the most recent WMO global climate system reviews. There are indications in the paper for increasing climate variability in certain areas. Some of the principal causes of increasing climate variability and climate change (ICV & CC) are a mixture of external and internal factors to

M. J. Salinger; C. J. Stigter; H. P. Das

2000-01-01

142

Climate change and marine turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine turtles occupy a wide range of terrestrial and marine habitats, and many aspects of their life history have been demonstrated to be closely tied to climatic variables such as ambient temperature and storminess. As a group, therefore, marine turtles may be good indicators of climate change effects on coastal and marine habitats. Despite the small number of species in

Lucy A. Hawkes; Annette C. Broderick; Matthew H. Godfrey; Brendan J. Godley

2009-01-01

143

Aerosol, Clouds, and Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence...

S. E. Schwartz

2005-01-01

144

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Outline of talk: A. What causes climate change B. Possible changes in the world's and the Pacific Northwest's climate C. Possible impacts of climate change I. The world and U.S. II. Oregon D. Possible solutions E. Discussion ...

145

Natural and anthropogenic climate change  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of two parts: (1) progress for the period 9/1/91--3/31/92 and (2) the plan for the remaining period 4/1/92--8/31/92. The project includes two tasks: atmospheric radiation and improvement of climate models to evaluate the climatic effects of radiation changes. The atmospheric radiation task includes four subtasks: (1) Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM), (2) analysis of the water vapor continuum using line-by-line calculations to develop a parameterization for use in climate models, (3) parameterization of longwave radiation and (4) climate/radiation interactions of desert aerosols. Our effort in this period is focused on the first three subtasks. The improvement of climate models to evaluate the subtasks: (1) general circulation model study and (2) 2- D model development and application.

Ko, M.K.W.; Clough, S.A.; Molnar, G.I.; Iacono, M. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Wang, W.C. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States) State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center)

1992-03-01

146

Assessing Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale climatic patterns, rather than a growing “heat island” effect, are the overriding influence on weather in the Potomac River area, and temperature data in the area can therefore be validly compared to global trends. At least temporarily, however, the area, which includes Washington, D.C., has lost its coupling with global temperature trends.Short-term regional anomalies in the Potomac River area's weather, especially high summer temperatures, may promote legislative action in the U.S. Congress on long-term global climate research. However, the current benign weather conditions in the political center of the United States tend to divert attention away from global climate research, diminishing the likelihood of significant expansion of research funding and greenhouse gas legislation.

Covey, Curt; Gleckler, null

147

Is Climate Change Predictable? Really?  

SciTech Connect

This project is the first application of a completely different approach to climate modeling, in which new prognostic equations are used to directly compute the evolution of two-point correlations. This project addresses three questions that are critical for the credibility of the science base for climate prediction: (1) What is the variability spectrum at equilibrium? (2) What is the rate of relaxation when subjected to external perturbations? (3) Can variations due to natural processes be distinguished from those due to transient external forces? The technical approach starts with the evolution equation for the probability distribution function and arrives at a prognostic equation for ensemble-mean two-point correlations, bypassing the detailed weather calculation. This work will expand our basic understanding of the theoretical limits of climate prediction and stimulate new experiments to perform with conventional climate models. It will furnish statistical estimates that are inaccessible with conventional climate simulations and likely will raise important new questions about the very nature of climate change and about how (and whether) climate change can be predicted. Solid progress on such issues is vital to the credibility of the science base for climate change research and will provide policymakers evaluating tradeoffs among energy technology options and their attendant environmental and economic consequences.

Dannevik, W P; Rotman, D A

2005-11-14

148

Psychology: Climate change hits home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engaging the public with climate change has proved difficult, in part because they see the problem as remote. New evidence suggests that direct experience of one anticipated impact -- flooding -- increases people's concern and willingness to save energy.

Elke U. Weber

2011-01-01

149

Climate Change and New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1998-01-01

150

Climate Change and New Hampshire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1997-01-01

151

Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

152

NASA Climate Change Resource Reel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of resources from NASA includes animations and still shots covering a wide range of topics in climate, including the cryosphere, ocean sciences, changes on land, the atmosphere, and satellite images.

Nasa

153

Climate Change and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, students explore, at their own pace, how global climate change may affect health issues. Issues include airborne diseases, developmental disorders, mental health disorders, vector-borne diseases and waterborne diseases.

Sciences, National I.; Domain, Teachers'

154

Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Service, Congressional R.; Environment, National C.

155

Ocean productivity and climate change.  

PubMed

Satellite measurements and the development of new techniques have confirmed the importance of ocean biology in controlling the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) content of the atmosphere. The marine sedimentary record shows that climate change and the ocean carbon cycle are closely linked: during glacial periods, marine productivity was enhanced and atmospheric CO(2) levels were reduced. Global warming may have the opposite effect, with reduced uptake of CO(2) exacerbating the problems of climate change. PMID:21232378

Williamson, P; Holligan, P M

1990-09-01

156

Climate Change: Teaching Through Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine Mathematics and Science Alliance Dec. 6, 2007 Agenda 8:00 Welcome Puzzle Intro Overview: The Science of Climate Change Carbon Cycle Activity Data Analysis: Buoy Data Activity Using Technology Effectively 10:00-10:15 Break Links to the 2007 Maine Learning Results Introduction to Afternoon Exploration COSEE (COSEE Ocean-Climate beta website) Giovanni project (Givoanni: Arabian Sea Lesson) (Giovanni Graphing Activity) Earth Exploration Toolkit: Whither Arctic Sea Ice? (Whither Arctic Sea Ice?) Google Earth Climate Change Resources 11:15-12:00 Lunch Afternoon Resource Exploration Exploration Report and Discussion Antarctic Expedition Opportunity WAIS Divide Outreach Blog WAIS Divide Main Science Page Wrap-Up/Evaluation ...

Chad, Deb A.

2007-12-06

157

Aerosol lifetime and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant removal mechanism for atmospheric aerosol is activation of particles to cloud droplets and subsequent wet deposition in precipitation. The atmospheric lifetime of aerosol is thus closely coupled to the atmospheric cycling time of water vapor. Changes of hydrological cycle characteristics resulting from climate change therefore directly affect aerosol lifetime, and thus the radiative forcing exerted by aerosol. This study expresses the coupling between water vapor and aerosol lifetimes and their temperature sensitivities in fundamental equations and in terms of the efficiency of processing of air by precipitating clouds. Based on climate model simulations these temperature sensitivities are estimated to be on the order of +5.3% K-1, but this may be an overestimation. Generally, shifting spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol (precursor) emissions and precipitation, and changes in aerosol activation efficiency probably influence aerosol lifetimes more than climate change itself, resulting in a wide range of simulated aerosol lifetime sensitivities between aerosol-climate models. It is possible that the climate sensitivity of models plays a role. It can be argued that climate sensitivity is intrinsically coupled with the simulated (temperature sensitivity of the) aerosol lifetime through the distribution of water vapor and aerosol between the lower and upper troposphere. This implies a fundamental relation between various feedback forcings (water vapor, lapse rate, cloud) and the aerosol forcing, illustrating the key role of the hydrological cycle in different aspects of the climate system.

Roelofs, G.-J.

2012-07-01

158

Abrupt climate change: can society cope?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and

Mike Hulme

2003-01-01

159

Changes in drought characteristics in France during the 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standardized drought indices such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) have been shown to be highly relevant for drought reconstruction and drought monitoring. Such indices can be built to deal with different types of drought (meteorological, agricultural and hydrological) and to study droughts at different time and spatial scales. In this study, a 50-year multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France recently built with Safran-Isba-Modcou hydrometeorological suite will serve as a basis for assessing the impact of climate change on droughts. An ensemble of climate projections have been statistically downscaled in order to force the Isba and Modcou hydrological models over France and generate 8-km gridded soil moisture time series as well as streamflow time series at more than 900 locations. Two different statistical downscaling methods have been applied using the Safran high resolution atmospheric reanalysis dataset over France: a method based on weather types and regressions, and a quantile-quantile method. As a first step, transient runs from only one general circulation model have been used under different climate scenarios. Three different standardized indices previously applied for the drought reanalysis are here used to estimate the evolution of droughts in the future: the commonly used SPI, the Standardized Soil Wetness Index (SSWI) based on soil moisture simulated by Isba and the Standardized Flow Index (SFI) based on streamflow computed by Modcou. Changes in the characteristics (occurrence, intensity, duration, spatial scale) of meteorological, agricultural and hydrological droughts in France during the 21st century are here presented using the different drought indices. This panel of indices may provide useful information at the level of interest of different human activities (water supply, irrigation, hydropower, etc.).

Najac, Julien; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Martin, Eric; Franchisteguy, Laurent; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel

2010-05-01

160

Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a brief version of an in-depth report published as a book, which examines the current scientific evidence and theoretical understanding used to describe current knowledge about abrupt climate change, including patterns and magnitudes, mechanisms, and probability of occurrence. The report identifies critical knowledge gaps concerning the potential for future abrupt changes, including those aspects of change most important to society and economies, and outlines a research strategy to close those gaps. Based on the best and most current research available, the book surveys the history of climate change and makes a series of specific recommendations for the future. The brief version at this site captures the highlights.

161

Climate change and avian influenza  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in water bird populations will continue with endless adaptation and evolution. In domestic poultry, too little is known about the direct effect of environmental factors on highly pathogenic avian influenza transmission and persistence to allow inference about the possible effect of climate change. However, possible indirect links through changes in the distribution of duck-crop farming are discussed.

Slingenbergh, J.; Xiao, X.

2009-01-01

162

Climate change and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is already widespread change in the natural calendars (phenology) of plants and animals, as well as change in some species distributions. Now threshold change (sudden, fundamental change) in ecosystems is beginning to be observed in nature. At minimum, the natural world will experience an equal amount of warming to that which has already taken place. This all suggests

T. Lovejoy

2008-01-01

163

Study of Climate Change in the Arctic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes why and how scientists study climate change in the Arctic. It includes information on the climate indices and important research concepts used by scientists to study climate change.

Overland, Jim; Soreide, Nancy; Bond, Nick

2000-01-01

164

Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... All Responses Is there a scientific consensus on climate change? The major scientific agencies of the United States ... or natural variations in climate responsible for the climate change being observed today? The Earth does go through ...

165

Climate change and food security.  

PubMed

Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

2005-11-29

166

Indigenous health and climate change.  

PubMed

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

Ford, James D

2012-05-17

167

Predictions of avian Plasmodium expansion under climate change.  

PubMed

Vector-borne diseases are particularly responsive to changing environmental conditions. Diurnal temperature variation has been identified as a particularly important factor for the development of malaria parasites within vectors. Here, we conducted a survey across France, screening populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) for malaria (Plasmodium relictum). We investigated whether variation in remotely-sensed environmental variables accounted for the spatial variation observed in prevalence and parasitemia. While prevalence was highly correlated to diurnal temperature range and other measures of temperature variation, environmental conditions could not predict spatial variation in parasitemia. Based on our empirical data, we mapped malaria distribution under climate change scenarios and predicted that Plasmodium occurrence will spread to regions in northern France, and that prevalence levels are likely to increase in locations where transmission already occurs. Our findings, based on remote sensing tools coupled with empirical data suggest that climatic change will significantly alter transmission of malaria parasites. PMID:23350033

Loiseau, Claire; Harrigan, Ryan J; Bichet, Coraline; Julliard, Romain; Garnier, Stéphane; Lendvai, Adám Z; Chastel, Olivier; Sorci, Gabriele

2013-01-24

168

Climate change dialogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human influence on the planet is undeniable. Making a switch from exploitation to maintenance of natural resources depends on a step change in communication, to convince the Earth's population of the necessity for a fundamental change of course.

2012-05-01

169

Climate change impacts on forestry  

PubMed Central

Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. Our review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. We concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand.

Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Sedjo, Roger A.

2007-01-01

170

Congress probes climate change uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers are demanding information about climate change faster than it can be turned out by scientists. This conflict between politics and science was debated at a recent congressional hearing on priorities in global change research. On October 8 and 10, panels of scientists that included AGU president-elect Ralph J. Cicerone of the University of California attempted to identify scientific uncertainties

Lynn Teo Simarski

1991-01-01

171

Invasive species and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

Middleton, Beth A.

2006-01-01

172

Faces of Climate Change: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of three short videos showcasing the dramatic changes in Alaska's marine ecosystems through interviews with scientists and Alaska Natives. This introduction to the impacts of climate change in Alaska includes interviews with Alaska Natives, commentary by scientists, and footage from Alaska's Arctic.

Dugan, Darcy; Noaa Sea Grant, Alaska C.

173

Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In "Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge," we conclude the special section by assuming that you have been persuaded by Thompson's paper or other evidence that global warming is real and poses a threat that must be dealt with, and that for now the only way to deal with it is by changing behavior. Then we ask what you, as behavior analysts, can do…

Chance, Paul; Heward, William L.

2010-01-01

174

Linkages between climate change and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change does not yet feature prominently within the environmental or economic policy agendas of developing countries. Yet evidence shows that some of the most adverse effects of climate change will be in developing countries, where populations are most vulnerable and least likely to easily adapt to climate change, and that climate change will affect the potential for development in

Noreen Beg; Jan Corfee Morlot; Ogunlade Davidson; Yaw Afrane-Okesse; Lwazikazi Tyani; Fatma Denton; Youba Sokona; Jean Philippe Thomas; Emilio Lèbre La Rovere; Jyoti K. Parikh; Kirit Parikh; A. Atiq Rahman

2002-01-01

175

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

176

The Climate of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in information technology, in institutional or societal imperatives, and in user expectations are forcing library administrators to re-examine not only the library's basic services but also the organizational structures which have been created over time to support those services. Organizational change-particularly structural change-is prescribed. The traditional separation of the two major divisions of libraries, technical services and public services,

Patricia M. Larsen

1991-01-01

177

Species richness changes lag behind climate change.  

PubMed

Species-energy theory indicates that recent climate warming should have driven increases in species richness in cool and species-poor parts of the Northern Hemisphere. We confirm that the average species richness of British butterflies has increased since 1970-82, but much more slowly than predicted from changes of climate: on average, only one-third of the predicted increase has taken place. The resultant species assemblages are increasingly dominated by generalist species that were able to respond quickly. The time lag is confirmed by the successful introduction of many species to climatically suitable areas beyond their ranges. Our results imply that it may be decades or centuries before the species richness and composition of biological communities adjusts to the current climate. PMID:16777739

Menéndez, Rosa; Megías, Adela González; Hill, Jane K; Braschler, Brigitte; Willis, Stephen G; Collingham, Yvonne; Fox, Richard; Roy, David B; Thomas, Chris D

2006-06-22

178

TOPEX/POSEIDON: A United States/France Mission. Oceanography from Space: The Oceans and Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate ...

1992-01-01

179

Fisheries and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When populations of harvestable fish start to decline, managers look for explanations of the changes throughout the Earth system. In this activity, the impact of global climate change on marine and Great Lakes fish is considered. First, decline in the striped bass population of the North Atlantic, noted in the Downeaster Alexa song by Billy Joel, is examined with spreadsheet analysis and on-line searches of National Marine Fisheries Service databases. In a second investigation, ArcView generates a model of the Lake Erie depths that could be associated with global climate change (shallower water). Students identify fish species that use nearshore shallows for spawning and nursery areas, and speculate on the impact of the lower water. In both activities, the thermal niche of the species is considered as a factor in where fish populations may migrate with new climate regimes.

Fortner, Rosanne; Merry, Carolyn

2002-07-31

180

Interactive Quizzes on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website allows you to test your knowledge on 5 topics. Warm Up: Test your knowledge about global temperature change and its impact on Earth's climate; Freeze Frames: How much do you know about glaciers and ice caps?; Sea Change: Test your knowledge of sea level rise and its effect on global populations; It's A Gas: Test your knowledge of carbon dioxide and why it's so important to climate stability and our quality of life; Each test consists of 10 questions and are immediately scored. The final module, 10 Things You Never Knew About Earth: Discover some amazing and little-known facts about our home planet, allows you to learn facts about the Earth and Climate Change.

181

Abrupt Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on a current issue in science in order to help students understand the process by which scientific knowledge is developed and refined. The goal of science is to advance human understanding of the natural world and that sometimes means changing long-held views. According to recent studies, many students think that changes come mainly through facts and improved observational and measuring technology. However, they often do not make the distinction that advancements or changes can come from both new observations and reinterpreting old observations.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)

2008-04-28

182

Atmospheric rivers in changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric rivers are impressive, intermittent circulation features in mid-latitude regions of the globe that can cause disastrous floods if they smash against mountainous terrain. While discovered by meteorologists and long feared by hydrologists they have only recently come to the broader attention of climate scientists. In a new letter published in Environmental Research Letters, Lavers et al (2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 034010) investigate atmospheric rivers reaching the British Isles in the context of climate change. They consider these potentially devastating meteorological features in present and future climate model scenarios, and walk through possible mechanisms that could cause them to strengthen. This is a refreshingly new work that estimates extreme events in future climates with an impact driven approach.

Liepert, Beate G.

2013-09-01

183

Public Engagement on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change communication is complicated by complexity of the scientific problem, multiple perspectives on the magnitude of the risk from climate change, often acrimonious disputes between scientists, high stakes policy options, and overall politicization of the issue. Efforts to increase science literacy as a route towards persuasion around the need for a policy like cap and trade have failed, because the difficulty that a scientist has in attempting to make sense of the social and political complexity is very similar to the complexity facing the general public as they try to make sense of climate science itself. In this talk I argue for a shift from scientists and their institutions as information disseminators to that of public engagement and enablers of public participation. The goal of engagement is not just to inform, but to enable, motivate and educate the public regarding the technical, political, and social dimensions of climate change. Engagement is a two-way process where experts and decision-makers seek input and learn from the public about preferences, needs, insights, and ideas relative to climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, solutions and policy options. Effective public engagement requires that scientists detach themselves from trying to control what the public does with the acquired knowledge and motivation. The goal should not be to "sell" the public on particular climate change solutions, since such advocacy threatens public trust in scientists and their institutions. Conduits for public engagement include the civic engagement approach in the context of community meetings, and perhaps more significantly, the blogosphere. Since 2006, I have been an active participant in the climate blogosphere, focused on engaging with people that are skeptical of AGW. A year ago, I started my own blog Climate Etc. at judithcurry.com. The demographic that I have focused my communication/engagement activities are the technically educated and scientifically literate public, many of whom have become increasingly skeptical of climate science the more they investigate the topic. Specific issues that this group has with climate science include concerns that science that cannot easily be separated from risk assessment and value judgments; concern that assessments (e.g. IPCC) have become a Maxwell's daemon for climate research; inadequate assessment of our ignorance of this complex scientific issue; elite scientists and scientific institutions losing credibility with the public; political exploitation of the public's lack of understanding; and concerns about the lack of public accountability of climate science and climate models that are being used as the basis for far reaching decisions and policies. Individuals in this group have the technical ability to understand and examine climate science arguments and are not prepared to cede judgment on this issue to the designated and self-proclaimed experts. This talk will describe my experiences in engaging with this group and what has been learned, both by myself and by participants in the discussion at Climate Etc.

Curry, J.

2011-12-01

184

Teaching About Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Association of American Geographers (AAG) presents free, online professional development modules for geography and social studies teachers at middle and high school levels who are preparing to teach about global climate change. The modules provide information and materials including assessments, overview of the Earth system science, frequently asked questions about global climate change, examples of how to address common student misconceptions and an interactive resource library that delivers a resource list to your e-mail inbox. Free registration is required to access the complete materials and resources.

185

United Nations Environment Programme: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to information on the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) initiatives on the issue of climate change. Materials include UNEP's areas of focus on addressing climate change (climate, finance, and business; emissions mitigation; carbon sequestration; vulnerability and adaptation to climate change; and others); links to UNEP Climate Change Centres; links to partner organizations; and links to information and media activities. There are also links to multimedia materials (posters, films, and video), printed publications on climate change, maps and graphics, and links to other organizations working on the issue of climate change.

186

AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

SciTech Connect

Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

SCHWARTZ, S.E.

2005-09-01

187

Tourism and climate change: An international perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the implications of climate change for tourism through a survey of national tourism and meteorological organisations. While climate change may have far?reaching consequences for tourism, it is shown that while most respondents felt that climate is important to their country's tourism industry, very few were aware of climate change research specifically related to tourism. Almost half felt

Geoffrey Wall; Catherine Badke

1994-01-01

188

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by

N. Bhatti; R. R. Cirillo; R. K. Dixon

1995-01-01

189

Simulated Climate Change by the Community Climate System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) are presented that consider the predicted magnitude and spatial patterns of natural climate variability and anthropogenically forced climate change. These simulations will consider changes from the inter-annual to century time scales for both the 20th and 21st centuries. Special focus will be given to the simulated variability and change in Earth's hydrologic

J. T. Kiehl

2001-01-01

190

The origin of climate changes.  

PubMed

Investigation on climate change is coordinated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has the delicate task of collecting recent knowledge on climate change and the related impacts of the observed changes, and then developing a consensus statement from these findings. The IPCC's last review, published at the end of 2007, summarised major findings on the present climate situation. The observations show a clear increase in the temperature of the Earth's surface and the oceans, a reduction in the land snow cover, and melting of the sea ice and glaciers. Numerical modelling combined with statistical analysis has shown that this warming trend is very likely the signature of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases linked with human activities. Given the continuing social and economic development around the world, the IPCC emission scenarios forecast an increasing greenhouse effect, at least until 2050 according to the most optimistic models. The model ensemble predicts a rising temperature that will reach dangerous levels for the biosphere and ecosystems within this century. Hydrological systems and the potential significant impacts of these systems on the environment are also discussed. Facing this challenging future, societies must take measures to reduce emissions and work on adapting to an inexorably changing environment. Present knowledge is sufficientto start taking action, but a stronger foundation is needed to ensure that pertinent long-term choices are made that will meet the demands of an interactive and rapidly evolving world. PMID:18819661

Delecluse, P

2008-08-01

191

The Atlantic Climate Change Program  

SciTech Connect

The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Molinari, R.L. (Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., Miami, FL (United States)); Battisti, D. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)); Bryan, K. (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Walsh, J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

1994-07-01

192

The Atlantic Climate Change Program.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include 1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; 2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; 3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and 4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation.

Molinari, Robert L.; Battisti, David; Bryan, Kirk; Walsh, John

1994-07-01

193

Climate Change and California. Staff Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Change is happening to Californias climate. The frequency of extreme climatic events worldwide indicates that climate variability may be on the rise and scientists predict global warming will significantly increase that variability in the future. Californ...

2003-01-01

194

Smithsonian climate change exhibits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal

Mohi Kumar

2006-01-01

195

Orbital changes and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 41,000-period of orbital tilt, summer insolation forces a lagged response in northern ice sheets. This delayed ice signal is rapidly transferred to nearby northern oceans and landmasses by atmospheric dynamics. These ice-driven responses lead to late-phased changes in atmospheric CO2 that provide positive feedback to the ice sheets and also project ‘late’ 41-K forcing across the tropics and

William F. Ruddiman

2006-01-01

196

Climate change and trace gases.  

PubMed

Palaeoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the 'albedo flip' property of ice/water, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that 'flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Inertia of ice sheet and ocean provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the largest human-made climate forcing, but other trace constituents are also important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. The most important of the non-CO2 forcings is methane (CH4), as it causes the second largest human-made GHG climate forcing and is the principal cause of increased tropospheric ozone (O3), which is the third largest GHG forcing. Nitrous oxide (N2O) should also be a focus of climate mitigation efforts. Black carbon ('black soot') has a high global warming potential (approx. 2000, 500 and 200 for 20, 100 and 500 years, respectively) and deserves greater attention. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could preserve Arctic ice, while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity and the global environment. PMID:17513270

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Kharecha, Pushker; Russell, Gary; Lea, David W; Siddall, Mark

2007-07-15

197

A Lesson on Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cooperative learning activity, for grades 7-12, promotes critical thinking skills within the context of learning about the causes and effects of climate change. Objectives include: (1) understanding factors that reduce greenhouse gases; (2) understanding the role of trees in reducing greenhouse gases; (3) identifying foods that produce…

Lewis, Jim

198

1000 years of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar activity has been observed to vary on decadal and centennial time scales. Recent evidence (Bond, 2002) points to a major semi-periodic variation of approximately 1,500 yrs. For this reason, and because high resolution proxy records are limited to the past thousand years or so, assessing the role of the sun's variability on climate change over this time f ame

C. Keller

2002-01-01

199

A Lesson on Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This cooperative learning activity, for grades 7-12, promotes critical thinking skills within the context of learning about the causes and effects of climate change. Objectives include: (1) understanding factors that reduce greenhouse gases; (2) understanding the role of trees in reducing greenhouse gases; (3) identifying foods that produce…

Lewis, Jim

200

Climatic Change and Human Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces the history of the Earth over four billion years, and shows how climate has had an important role to play in the evolution of humans. Posits that the world's rapidly growing human population and its increasing use of energy is the cause of present-day changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (Author/JRH)|

Garratt, John R.

1995-01-01

201

Global Climate Change Interaction Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)|

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

202

Impacts of Climate Change Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents one of three animated films for schoolchildren, commissioned by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. An emotive and visual animation conveys the effects climate change will have on marine ecosystems and suggests ways to minimize our impact.

2010-01-01

203

Urban development and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

With growing worldwide concern about global climate change, this article asks two critical questions: What reduction in vehicle?miles traveled (VMT) is possible in the USA with compact development rather than continuing urban sprawl?; and What reduction in greenhouse gas emissions would accompany such a reduction in VMT? Based on four different planning literatures, the answer to the first question appears

Reid Ewing; Keith Bartholomew; Steve Winkelman; Jerry Walters; Geoffrey Anderson

2008-01-01

204

Conservation, Development and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in Latin America, especially in the A mazon Basin, is a major source of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 which contribute to global warming. Protected area s play a vital role in minimizing forest loss and in supplyi ng key environmental services, including carbon sequestration and rainfall regulat ion, which mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change amidst

Anthony Hall

205

Climate Change Wildlife and Wildlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video focuses on the science of climate change and its impacts on wildlife on land and in the sea, and their habitats in the U.S. There are short sections on walruses, coral reefs, migrating birds and their breeding grounds, freshwater fish, bees, etc. Video concludes with some discussion about solutions, including reduce/recyle/reuse, energy conservation, backyard habitats, citizen scientists.

Service, U. S.; Program, U. S.

206

Climate Change and Agricultural Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document discusses the impact that global climate change has on food production both globally and in Latin America and the Caribbean. The author discusses environmental issues including extreme temperatures, water scarcity, flooding, and soil erosion. Using available information, this document discusses the impacts of these issues on Mesoamerica, the Caribbean Islands, the Andean Community, and the Southern Cone. Finally,

Rodomiro Ortiz

2012-01-01

207

Climate Science in a Nutshell: Climate Change Around the World?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is part of the Climate Science in a Nutshell video series. This short video looks at the effects of climate change happening right now around the globe, including: more extreme weather events, droughts, forest fires, land use changes, altered ranges of disease-carrying insects, and the loss of some agricultural products. It concludes with a discussion of the differences among weather, climate variability and climate change.

Nutshell, Planet; Network, Utah E.

208

Changing Climates @ Colorado State: 100 (Multidisciplinary) Views of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We would like to talk about a multidisciplinary education and outreach program we co-direct at Colorado State University, with support from an NSF-funded STC, CMMAP, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes. We are working to raise public literacy about climate change by providing information that is high quality, up to date, thoroughly multidisciplinary, and easy for non-specialists to understand. Our primary audiences are college-level students, their teachers, and the general public. Our motto is Climate Change is Everybody's Business. To encourage and help our faculty infuse climate-change content into their courses, we have organized some 115 talks given by as many different speakers-speakers drawn from 28 academic departments, all 8 colleges at CSU, and numerous other entities from campus, the community, and farther afield. We began with a faculty-teaching-faculty series and then broadened our attentions to the whole campus and surrounding community. Some talks have been for narrowly focused audiences such as extension agents who work on energy, but most are for more eclectic groups of students, staff, faculty, and citizens. We count heads at most events, and our current total is roughly 6,000. We have created a website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) that includes videotapes of many of these talks, short videos we have created, and annotated sources that we judge to be accurate, interesting, clearly written, and aimed at non-specialists, including books, articles and essays, websites, and a few items specifically for college teachers (such as syllabi). Pages of the website focus on such topics as how the climate works / how it changes; what's happening / what might happen; natural ecosystems; agriculture; impacts on people; responses from ethics, art, literature; communication; daily life; policy; energy; and-pulling all the pieces together-the big picture. We have begun working on a new series of very short videos that can be combined in various ways to comprise focused, lively, accurate primers to what we all need to know about climate change. With college classrooms as our intended venue, we are looking at such topics as why the weather in your backyard tells you nothing about global climate change-but a good deal about climate; how tiny molecules warm the planet; how snowpack, drought, bark beetles, fire suppression, and wildfire interact as stress complexes; why (and where) women, children, and the poor are especially vulnerable to harm from climate change; what international policy negotiators argue about; what poets and artists can contribute to understanding and solving the climate problem; and why ecologists are worried about changes in the seasonal timing of natural events. We will describe what we have done and how we did it; offer a few tips to others who might wish to do something similar; and introduce our website.

Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Changing Climates, Cmmap Education; Diversity Team

2011-12-01

209

Environment and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended to convey a broad understanding of the nature of climate change and its potential impacts. Students will come to understand the effects of radiation imbalance in the Arctic, fluctuations in albedo, and ecological consequences of decreasing albedo in the Arctic. Upon completion of the module, they will be able to explain: the consequences of decreasing stratospheric ozone, potential hazards of POP's entering Arctic food chains, and the possible impacts of environmental changes on traditional lifestyles in the Arctic.

210

Risk management and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection of climate policies should be an exercise in risk management reflecting the many relevant sources of uncertainty. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. Hence policy analysis cannot effectively evaluate alternatives using standard approaches, such as expected utility theory and benefit-cost analysis. This Perspective highlights the value of robust decision-making tools designed for situations such as evaluating climate policies, where consensus on probability distributions is not available and stakeholders differ in their degree of risk tolerance. A broader risk-management approach enables a range of possible outcomes to be examined, as well as the uncertainty surrounding their likelihoods.

Kunreuther, Howard; Heal, Geoffrey; Allen, Myles; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Field, Christopher B.; Yohe, Gary

2013-05-01

211

Changing feedbacks in the climate- biosphere system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems influence climate through multiple pathways, primarily by changing the energy, water, and green- house-gas balance of the atmosphere. Consequently, efforts to mitigate climate change through modification of one pathway, as with carbon in the Kyoto Protocol, only partially address the issue of ecosystem-climate interactions. For example, the cooling of climate that results from carbon sequestration by plants may be

F F SSttuuaarrtt; CChhaappiinn IIIIII

212

The ACIA, climate change and fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) is a project of the intergovernmental Arctic Council, intended to synthesize knowledge of the effects of climate change on the Arctic. This paper is based on the primary output of the ACIA project, a 1042 page book entitled Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Our concern is with the effects of Arctic climate change on fisheries.

William E. Schrank

2007-01-01

213

Validation of species-climate impact models under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing concern over the implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of species-climate envelope models to project species extinction risk under climate- change scenarios. However, recent studies have demonstrated significant variability in model predictions and there remains a pressing need to validate models and to reduce uncertainties. Model validation is problematic as predictions are made for

MIGUEL B. A RAUJO; R ICHARD G. P EARSON; W ILFRIED T HUILLER; MARKUS E RHARD

2005-01-01

214

Validation of species-climate impact models under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing concern over the implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of species-climate envelope models to project species extinction risk under climate- change scenarios. However, recent studies have demonstrated significant variability in model predictions and there remains a pressing need to validate models and to reduce uncertainties. Model validation is problematic as predictions are made for

MIGUEL B. A RAUJO; W ILFRIED T HUILLER

215

America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video production is a part of a four-panel report from the National Academies' America's Climate Choices project. The video maps out the realm of our accumulated knowledge regarding climate change and charts a path forward, urging that research on climate change enter a new era focused on the needs of decision makers.

Academies, National

216

The effects of climate change on tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is one of the major environmental issues facing the world today. The ongoing global warming has had and will continue to have serious impact on natural environment. The impact of climate change on the natural environment is manifested in changes in geography, landscape and ecosystems. Tourism is one of the sectors causing global climate change. This is an

S. K. Yazdi; B. Shakouri

2010-01-01

217

Ecological Restoration and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing consensus that global climate change occurs and that potential changes in climate are likely to have important regional consequences for biota and ecosystems. Ecological restoration, including (re)- afforestation and rehabilitation of degraded land, is included in the array of potential human responses to cli- mate change. However, the implications of climate change for the broader practice

James A. Harris; Richard J. Hobbs; Eric Higgs; James Aronson

2006-01-01

218

Extinction risk from climate change.  

PubMed

Climate change over the past approximately 30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of extinction shows a power-law relationship with geographical range size, we predict, on the basis of mid-range climate-warming scenarios for 2050, that 15-37% of species in our sample of regions and taxa will be 'committed to extinction'. When the average of the three methods and two dispersal scenarios is taken, minimal climate-warming scenarios produce lower projections of species committed to extinction ( approximately 18%) than mid-range ( approximately 24%) and maximum-change ( approximately 35%) scenarios. These estimates show the importance of rapid implementation of technologies to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and strategies for carbon sequestration. PMID:14712274

Thomas, Chris D; Cameron, Alison; Green, Rhys E; Bakkenes, Michel; Beaumont, Linda J; Collingham, Yvonne C; Erasmus, Barend F N; De Siqueira, Marinez Ferreira; Grainger, Alan; Hannah, Lee; Hughes, Lesley; Huntley, Brian; Van Jaarsveld, Albert S; Midgley, Guy F; Miles, Lera; Ortega-Huerta, Miguel A; Peterson, A Townsend; Phillips, Oliver L; Williams, Stephen E

2004-01-01

219

1000 years of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar activity has been observed to vary on decadal and centennial time scales. Recent evidence (Bond, 2002) points to a major semi-periodic variation of approximately 1,500 yrs. For this reason, and because high resolution proxy records are limited to the past thousand years or so, assessing the role of the sun's variability on climate change over this time f ame has received much attention. A pressingr application of these assessments is the attempt to separate the role of the sun from that of various anthropogenic forcings in the past century and a half. This separation is complicated by the possible existence of natural variability other than solar, and by the fact that the time-dependence of solar and anthropogenic forcings is very similar over the past hundred years or so. It has been generally assumed that solar forcing is direct, i.e. changes in sun's irradiance. However, evidence has been put forth suggesting that there exist various additional indirect forcings that could be as large as or even exceed direct forcing (modulation of cosmic ray - induced cloudiness, UV- induced stratospheric ozone change s, or oscillator -driven changes in the Pacific Ocean). Were such forcings to be large, they could account for nearly all 20th Century warming, relegating anthropogenic effects to a minor role. Determination of climate change over the last thousand years offers perhaps the best way to assess the magnitude of total solar forcing, thus allowing its comparison with that of anthropogenic sources. Perhaps the best proxy records for climate variation in the past 1,000 yrs have been variations in temperat ure sensitive tree rings (Briffa and Osborne, 2002). A paucity of such records in the Southern Hemisphere has largely limited climate change determinations to the subtropical NH. Two problems with tree rings are that the rings respond to temperature differently with the age of the tree, and record largely the warm, growing season only. It appears that both these problems have been adequately solved although caution is warranted. A promising adjunct to tree rings is actual measurement of temperatures in boreholes. Inversion of such records gives low frequency temperatures that are potentially more accurate than any proxy- derived ones. All these records give a fairly consistent picture of at least one major warming and cooling extreme (Medieval Warming Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Many modeling efforts using direct solar forcing have been done. These typically employ proxy data (sunspot number and variations in Be-10 and C -14 calibrated by satellite observations) for changes in solar forcing, and give the same general picture-- that of a substantial warming 1,000 yrs ago (MWP) followed by cooling that was particularly marked in the late 17th and early 19th centuries (LIA). The resulting amplitude of temperature change between MWP and LIA agrees well with paleo-temperature reconstructions and suggests that solar forcing alone is inadequate to account for more than about half the 20th century warming (Lean et al 1995, Crowley and Lowry 2000). Since these quantitatively reproduce climate variations in the past 1000 years, the role of indirect solar forcing is inferred to be small but may be important (Lean and Rind 2001). Gerard Bond, Bernd Kromer, Juerg Beer, Raimund Muscheler, Michael N. Evans, William Showers, Sharon Hoffmann, Rusty Lotti-Bond, Irka Hajdas, and Georges Bonani, (2001) Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate During the Holocene,Science 294: 2130-2136 Briffa and Osborne, (2002) Blowing Hot and Cold, Science 295, 2227-2228. Lean, J., Beer, J., and Bradley, R., (1995) Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett.., 22, 3195-3198. Crowley ,T., (2000) Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years, Science,289, 270- 277. Lean and Rind, (2001), Earth's Response to a Variable Sun, Science, 292, 234-236.

Keller, C.

220

Overview-Climate Change and Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses a grave threat to sustainability. The first section of Sustainability2009: The Next Horizon, therefore, is devoted to Climate Change and Adaptation. Contributions focus on the historical consequences of climate change for human societies, as well as the effects of current climate change on sea level, lightning intensity, fire, the El Nin~o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and hurricane intensity. Chapters on fisheries and coral reefs highlight the cascading effects climatic warming, rising sea level, and ocean acidification. Adaptation to climate change and its consequences will be necessary to buy time for mitigation and reversal of the effects of greenhouse-gas emissions.

Aronson, Richard B.

2009-07-01

221

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it’s important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

222

Climate Change Scenarios and Sea Level Rise Estimates For the California 2009 Climate Change Scenarios Assessment. A Paper From: California Climate Change Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the 2008 California Climate Change Assessment, to further investigate possible future climate changes in California, a set of 12 climate change model simulations was selected and evaluated. From the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Ass...

D. Cayan E. Maurer H. Hidalgo M. Dettinger M. Tyree N. Graham P. Bromirski R. Flick T. Das

2009-01-01

223

Severe thunderstorms and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the planet warms, it is important to consider possible impacts of climate change on severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. To further that discussion, the current distribution of severe thunderstorms as a function of large-scale environmental conditions is presented. Severe thunderstorms are much more likely to form in environments with large values of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and deep-tropospheric wind shear. Tornadoes and large hail are preferred in high-shear environments and non-tornadic wind events in low shear. Further, the intensity of tornadoes and hail, given that they occur, tends to be almost entirely a function of the shear and only weakly depends on the thermodynamics. Climate model simulations suggest that CAPE will increase in the future and the wind shear will decrease. Detailed analysis has suggested that the CAPE change will lead to more frequent environments favorable for severe thunderstorms, but the strong dependence on shear for tornadoes, particularly the strongest ones, and hail means that the interpretation of how individual hazards will change is open to question. The recent development of techniques to use higher-resolution models to estimate the occurrence of storms of various kinds is discussed. Given the large interannual variability in environments and occurrence of events, caution is urged in interpreting the observational record as evidence of climate change.

Brooks, H. E.

2013-04-01

224

Global Climate Change: Threat Multiplier for AFRICOM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent increased pace in which extreme weather patterns are occurring has received national attention. Whatever the catalyst for this abrupt climate change, stability for Africa hinges upon mitigating the effects of global climate change to prevent fu...

T. A. Yackle

2007-01-01

225

Global Climate Change: Policy Implications for Fisheries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. These include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. For fisheries resources, p...

H. Gucinski R. T. Lackey B. C. Spence

1990-01-01

226

Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earth's climate is changing, with the global temperature now rising at rates unprecedented in the experience of human society. While some historical changes in climate have resulted from natural causes and variations, the strength of the trends and the pa...

2009-01-01

227

Mitigating Climate Change in China and Ethiopia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Hope in a Changing Climate, learn how an environmentally devastated ecosystem has been restored, benefiting both the local economy and global efforts to fight climate change.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

228

Climate change 'understanding' and knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent surveys find that many people report having "a great deal" of understanding about climate change. Self-assessed understanding does not predict opinions, however, because those with highest "understanding" tend also to be most polarized. These findings raise questions about the relationship between "understanding" and objectively-measured knowledge. In summer 2011 we included three new questions testing climate-change knowledge on a statewide survey. The multiple-choice questions address basic facts that are widely accepted by contrarian as well as mainstream scientists. They ask about trends in Arctic sea ice, in CO2 concentrations, and the meaning of "greenhouse effect." The questions say nothing about impacts, attribution or mitigation. Each has a clear and well-publicized answer that does not presume acceptance of anthropogenic change. About 30% of respondents knew all three answers, and 36% got two out of three. 34% got zero or one right. Notably, these included 31% of those who claimed to have "a great deal" of understanding. Unlike self-assessed understanding, knowledge scores do predict opinions. People who knew more were significantly more likely to agree that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. This positive relationship remains significant controlling for gender, age, education, partisanship and "understanding." It does not exhibit the interaction effects with partisanship that characterize self-assessed understanding. Following the successful statewide test, the same items were added to a nationwide survey currently underway. Analyses replicated across both surveys cast a new light on the problematic connections between "understanding," knowledge and opinions about climate science.

Hamilton, L.

2011-12-01

229

Climate Change in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a South Asia, is home to over one fifth of the world’s population and is known to be the most disaster prone region in the world.\\u000a The high rates of ­population growth, and natural resource degradation, with continuing high rates of poverty and food insecurity\\u000a make South Asia one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. In

Mannava V. K. Sivakumar; Robert Stefanski

230

Climate change, zoonoses and India.  

PubMed

Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review. PMID:22435190

Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

2011-12-01

231

Teaching Climate Change Through Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2006, Peter Weiss aka "The Singing Scientist" performed many music assemblies for elementary schools (K-5) in Santa Cruz County, California, USA. These assemblies were an opportunity for him to mix a discussion of climate change with rock n' roll. In one song called "Greenhouse Glasses", Peter and his band the "Earth Rangers" wear over-sized clown glasses with "molecules" hanging off them (made with Styrofoam balls and pipe cleaners). Each molecule is the real molecular structure of a greenhouse gas, and the song explains how when the wearer of these glasses looks up in the sky, he/she can see the "greenhouse gases floating by." "I've seen more of them this year than the last / 'Cuz fossil fuels are burning fast / I wish everyone could see through these frames / Then maybe we could prevent climate change" Students sing, dance and get a visual picture of something that is invisible, yet is part of a very real problem. This performance description is used as an example of an educational style that can reach a wide audience and provide a framework for the audience as learners to assimilate future information on climate change. The hypothesis is that complex socio-environmental issues like climate change that must be taught in order to achieve sustainability are best done so through alternative mediums like music. Students develop awareness which leads to knowledge about chemistry, physics, and biology. These kinds of experiences which connect science learning to fun activities and community building are seriously lacking in primary and secondary schools and are a big reason why science illiteracy is a current social problem. Science education is also paired with community awareness (including the local plant/animal community) and cooperation. The Singing Scientist attempts to create a culture where it is cool to care about the environment. Students end up gardening in school gardens together and think about their "ecological footprint".

Weiss, P. S.

2007-12-01

232

Energy Choices and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive provides a new way for students to look at issues related to energy and climate change. In the scenarios within this module, students make decisions about the types and amount of energy used and see what effect their decisions have on the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere. Their goal is to reduce the amount of warming greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere from fossil fuel emissions while keeping costs within reason.

Universe, Windows T.; Education, Ncar O.

233

Temperature-related mortality in France, a comparison between regions with different climates from the perspective of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to explain the results of an observational population study that was carried out between 1991 and 1995 in six regions (departments) in France. The study was to assess the relationship between temperature and mortality in a few areas of France that offer widely varying climatic conditions and lifestyles, to determine their thermal optimum, defined as a 3°C

Mohamed Laaidi; Karine Laaidi; Jean-Pierre Besancenot

2006-01-01

234

Climate Change: A Case Study Over India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   A brief account of various causes of climate change in recent decades and climate change trends in the Indian region is presented.\\u000a It is of great importance to determine the influence of human activities on the likely climate change during recent decades.\\u000a Local temperature is one of the major climatic elements to record the changes in the atmospheric environment

A. K. Sahai

1998-01-01

235

Climate Change Impact on Forestry in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate change represents a significant threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. Climate change is expected\\u000a to have also impacts on forest ecology. It is thus important to make assessments of possible impacts of climate change on\\u000a forests in different regions to allow respective governments and communities to adapt. Climate change is projected to affect\\u000a individual organisms, populations, species distributions

Geetanjali Kaushik; M. A. Khalid

236

Climate change, environment and allergy.  

PubMed

Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

2012-03-13

237

Communicating Uncertainties on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term of uncertainty in common language is confusing since it is related in one of its most usual sense to what cannot be known in advance or what is subject to doubt. Its definition in mathematics is unambiguous but not widely shared. It is thus difficult to communicate on this notion through media to a wide public. From its scientific basis to the impact assessment, climate change issue is subject to a large number of sources of uncertainties. In this case, the definition of the term is close to its mathematical sense, but the diversity of disciplines involved in the analysis process implies a great diversity of approaches of the notion. Faced to this diversity of approaches, the issue of communicating uncertainties on climate change is thus a great challenge. It is also complicated by the diversity of the targets of the communication on climate change, from stakeholders and policy makers to a wide public. We will present the process chosen by the IPCC in order to communicate uncertainties in its assessment reports taking the example of the guidance note to lead authors of the fourth assessment report. Concerning the communication of uncertainties to a wide public, we will give some examples aiming at illustrating how to avoid the above-mentioned ambiguity when dealing with this kind of communication.

Planton, S.

2009-09-01

238

Mushroom fruiting and climate change  

PubMed Central

Many species of fungi produce ephemeral autumnal fruiting bodies to spread and multiply. Despite their attraction for mushroom pickers and their economic importance, little is known about the phenology of fruiting bodies. Using ?34,500 dated herbarium records we analyzed changes in the autumnal fruiting date of mushrooms in Norway over the period 1940–2006. We show that the time of fruiting has changed considerably over this time period, with an average delay in fruiting since 1980 of 12.9 days. The changes differ strongly between species and groups of species. Early-fruiting species have experienced a stronger delay than late fruiters, resulting in a more compressed fruiting season. There is also a geographic trend of earlier fruiting in the northern and more continental parts of Norway than in more southern and oceanic parts. Incorporating monthly precipitation and temperature variables into the analyses provides indications that increasing temperatures during autumn and winter months bring about significant delay of fruiting both in the same year and in the subsequent year. The recent changes in autumnal mushroom phenology coincide with the extension of the growing season caused by global climate change and are likely to continue under the current climate change scenario.

Kauserud, Havard; Stige, Leif Christian; Vik, Jon Olav; ?kland, Rune H.; H?iland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2008-01-01

239

Climate Change: Fitting the Pieces Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Gauge and the COMET Program have designed a two-hour course for that provides a basic overview of climate change science and resources to answer common questions about climate change. Although initially designed for broadcast meteorologists, the course is a good primer for anyone interested in climate change.

2009-01-01

240

International business and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has become an important topic on the business agenda with strong pressure being placed on companies to respond and contribute to finding solutions to this urgent problem. This text provides a comprehensive analysis of international business responses to global climate change and climate change policy. Embedded in relevant management literature, this book gives a concise treatment of developments

J. Pinkse; A. Kolk

2008-01-01

241

Climate change impacts on electricity demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is expected to lead to changes in ambient temperature, wind speed, humidity, precipitation and cloud cover. As electricity demand is closely influenced by these climatic variables, there is likely to be an impact on demand patterns. The potential impact of future changes in climate on electricity demand can be seen on a daily and seasonal basis through the

S. Parkpoom; G. P. Harrison; J. W. Bialek

2004-01-01

242

Climate Change Impacts on Southeast Asian Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the extensive interest in measuring the economic impacts of climate change in general, there is very little empirical research on Asia. This study extrapolates results from India and selected experiments to the rest of Southeast Asia in order to measure the impact of climate change on agriculture in this region. The study examines a variety of climate change predictions

Robert Mendelsohn

243

Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change

Dawson, Vaille

2012-01-01

244

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: GOVERNMENT OF CANADA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Government of Canada Climate Change Site was developed to inform Canadians about climate change and how it affects our environment. The site explains what the Government of Canada is doing about climate change and how individuals, communities, businesses, industries, and ever...

245

Climate change and poverty in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa is most vulnerable to climate change, although it makes the least contribution to factors that result in global and regional climatic changes. High levels of vulnerability and low adaptive capacity across the continent have been linked to, among other things, poverty. This paper discusses and analyses the relationship between climate change and poverty in Africa. It investigates the relationship

Kempe Ronald Hope Sr

2009-01-01

246

Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

Anderson, Allison

2012-01-01

247

As climate changes, so do glaciers  

PubMed Central

Understanding abrupt climate changes requires detailed spatial/temporal records of such changes, and to make these records, we need rapidly responding, geographically widespread climate trackers. Glacial systems are such trackers, and recent additions to the stratigraphic record show overall synchronous response of glacial systems to climate change reflecting global atmosphere conditions.

Lowell, Thomas V.

2000-01-01

248

Climate change, human security and violent conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is increasingly been called a ‘security’ problem, and there has been speculation that climate change may increase the risk of violent conflict. This paper integrates three disparate but well-founded bodies of research – on the vulnerability of local places and social groups to climate change, on livelihoods and violent conflict, and the role of the state in development

Jon Barnett; W. Neil Adger

2007-01-01

249

Climate Change Compounding Risks in North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of climate change on agriculture and poor groups’ livelihoods are one of the greatest potential threats to development and a key challenge in climate change agenda. The North Africa region is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to geographic and ecological features. The situation is aggravated by the interaction of multiple economic and social sources of stress and

Imed Drine

2011-01-01

250

Analysis of mechanisms and effects of snow-melting on the groundwater recharge downstream mountainous watershed in a climate-changing context. Example: the Lignon du Forez watershed, Massif Central, France.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this abstract is to present a three years research on a tributary of the Loire River, with a low mountain rain-snow system, the Lignon du Forez. The goal of this research is to describe the water proportion stored on a solid state on the heads of watershed and the effect of frozen soils on watertable recharge and rivers flows. This research takes place in a climate changing and water-weakening context. This work is a continuance of the hydrogeological and climatic researches on the Monts du Forez led by Etlicher 1986, 1983. First, the survey will made up of a hydrological monitoring in several stream draining the Mont du Forez mountains, in particular in winter time in order to check the consequences of solid state precipitations on the water stream. This hydrological survey includes a geophysical monitoring of the snow pack (georadar) to quantify the best as possible the snow water equivalent and precipitations-flows relationships. To determine runoff and infiltration conditions in wintertime, a temperature and moisture monitoring of the soils and air on an entire hydrological cycle will be carried out (TDR probes, winter 2011-2012). A second part includes the precipitations forecasting function of seasons and land use. A compilation with GIS software and digital modelling will be applied to a sub-basins group then to throughout watershed to make a mapping of precipitations (solid and liquid state), runoff and infiltration. A global and distributed and/or semi-distributed hydrological modelling will be used at the same time of this land mapping. Lastly, isotopic tools (O16/O18) will provide in a third time to accurate the first simulations obtained with the flow modelling. Then, this modelling will be correlated and integrated in larger scales simulations (upper reaches of river Lignon). Key words: snow water equivalent, hydrology, snow cover, frozen soils, distributed modelling, water resource, runoff, GIS.

Bouron, G.; Mimoun, D.; Graillot, D.

2012-04-01

251

Ocean Circulation and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the mainstream media has provided extensive coverage of El Nino and La Nina -- the warmer and colder phases of a perpetual oscillation in the surface temperature of the tropical Pacific Ocean -- little attention has been paid to deep-water phases. Several recent publications in leading scientific journals (Science and Nature) are adding new dimensions to the link between large-scale ocean circulation patterns and climate. Researchers Dr. Wallace Broecker and researchers at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (see the November 5, 1999 issue of Science and the November 9, 1999 issue of The New York Times) found that deep ocean currents, operating as an oceanic "conveyor belt," may hold clues to climate change. The conveyor belt works by transporting warm, increasingly salty, ocean water from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean; eventually, the warm water current runs into a cold water current, causing the warm water to cool quickly and sink, due to greater density. In turn, this creates a "sub-surface countercurrent which carries the cool water back to the Indian and Pacific oceans" (2). In this week's issue of Nature (December 2, 1999), German scientist Carsten Ruhlemann and colleagues provide new evidence that the thermohaline circulation has triggered rapid climate change events in the past, including the last deglaciation. In addition, the current issue of Science Times (December 7, 1999) highlights the connection between thawing Arctic ice sheets and oceanic currents. This week's In The News focuses on ocean circulation patterns and climate change. The seven resources provide background information and specific links to related resources.

Payne, Laura X.

252

Congress probes climate change uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policymakers are demanding information about climate change faster than it can be turned out by scientists. This conflict between politics and science was debated at a recent congressional hearing on priorities in global change research. On October 8 and 10, panels of scientists that included AGU president-elect Ralph J. Cicerone of the University of California attempted to identify scientific uncertainties in global warming research before the House Science Committee's Subcommittee on Science.“Decisionmakers provided with incomplete information are left with the problem of choosing among options where the consequences of a wrong choice could be disastrous,” said subcommittee chair Rick Boucher (D-Va.).

Simarski, Lynn Teo

253

Arctic Climate Change: Are Current Climate Models too Conservative?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic Climate Change: Are Current Climate Models too Conservative? Julienne Stroeve, Marika Holland, Mark Serreze Climate models have long predicted that warming in the Arctic in response to greenhouse gas loading will be especially pronounced. This strong warming is closely related to loss of the sea ice cover. However, observed sea ice losses since 1979 have been stronger than those

J. C. Stroeve; M. Holland; M. Serreze

2006-01-01

254

Climate, climate change and human health in Asian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will affect the health of urban populations. It represents a range of environmental hazards and will affect populations where the current burden of climate-sensitive disease is high — such as the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding the current impact of weather and climate variability on the health of urban populations is the first step towards

Sari Kovats; Rais Akhtar

2008-01-01

255

The science of climate change.  

SciTech Connect

A complex debate is underway on climate change linked to proposals for costly measures that would reshape our power grid. This confronts technical experts outside of the geophysical disciplines with extensive, but unfamiliar, data both supporting and refuting claims that serious action is warranted. For example, evidence is brought to the table from one group of astrophysicists concerned with sunspots--this group believes there is no issue man can manage; while another group of oceanographers concerned with the heat balance in the world's oceans are very alarmed at the loss of arctic ice. What is the evidence? In an effort to put some of these issues in perspective for a technical audience, without a background in geophysics, a brief survey will consider (1) an overview of the 300 years of scientific inquiry on man's relationship to climate; (2) a basic discussion of what is meant by the ''greenhouse'' and why there are concerns which include not only CO{sub 2}, but also CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CFC's; (3) the geological record on CO{sub 2}--which likely was present at 1,000 times current levels when life began; (4) the solar luminosity and sunspot question; and (5) the current evidence for global climate change. We are at a juncture where we are attempting to understand the earth as an integrated dynamic system, rather than a collection of isolated components.

Doctor, R. D.

1999-09-10

256

Uncertainties in summer evapotranspiration changes over Europe and implications for regional climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in summer evapotranspiration over central and eastern Europe are very uncertain in the World Climate Research Programme's (WRCP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model data set. We show that the response of evapotranspiration in the future climate over this area is strongly linked to the way the models represent the respective role of soil moisture and radiative energy at surface on evapotranspiration at the interannual time scale in the present climate. Actually, the models for which the limiting effect of soil moisture upon evapotranspiration is already large in the present climate generally responds by a decrease of evapotranspiration whereas the other models generally exhibit an increase of evapotranspiration. The uncertainties in evapotranspiration changes seem to have an important impact in precipitation and temperature changes. Finally, we assess the realism of the controls of evapotranspiration in the CMIP3 models over France using a hydro-meteorological simulation.

Boé, Julien; Terray, Laurent

2008-03-01

257

Climate change scenarios for the assessments of the climate change on regional ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the different methods which may be used for the construction of regional climate change scenarios. The main focus of the paper is the construction of regional climate change scenarios from climate change experiments carried out using General Circulation Models (GCMs). An introduction to some GCM climate change experiments highlights the difference between model types and experiments (e.g.

D. Viner; M. Hulme; S. C. B. Raper

1995-01-01

258

Climate Change or Land Use Dynamics: Do We Know What Climate Change Indicators Indicate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different components of global change can have interacting effects on biodiversity and this may influence our ability to detect the specific consequences of climate change through biodiversity indicators. Here, we analyze whether climate change indicators can be affected by land use dynamics that are not directly determined by climate change. To this aim, we analyzed three community-level indicators of climate

Miguel Clavero; Daniel Villero; Lluís Brotons; Stephen G. Willis

2011-01-01

259

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:� Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.� Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.� Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.� Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

260

Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

1990-01-01

261

PROTERINA-C: assessing the effects of Climate Change to enhance Community adaptation and Civil Protection response to wildfire risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROTERINA C is a project funded by the EU under the Italy-France Maritime Programme. The objective of PROTERINA C is to make a multi sectorial assessment of the impact of climate change over an area of South Europe particularly affected by large and destructive wildfires: Sardinia, Liguria (Italy) and Corsica (France). A key concern of PROTERINA C is to investigate

Quirico Antonio Cossu; Francesco Gaetani; Antonella Bodini; Erika Entrade; Paolo Fiorucci; Ulderica Parodi; Simona Canu; Floriana Manca

2010-01-01

262

Hydrological change--climate change impact simulations for Sweden.  

PubMed

Climate change resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to give rise to changes in hydrological systems. This hydrological change, as with the change in climate variables, will vary regionally around the globe. Impact studies at local and regional scales are needed to assess how different regions will be affected. This study focuses on assessment of hydrological impacts of climate change over a wide range of Swedish basins. Different methods of transferring the signal of climate change from climate models to hydrological models were used. Several hydrological model simulations using regional climate model scenarios from Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM) are presented. A principal conclusion is that subregional impacts to river flow vary considerably according to whether a basin is in northern or southern Sweden. Furthermore, projected hydrological change is just as dependent on the choice of the global climate model used for regional climate model boundary conditions as the choice of anthropogenic emissions scenario. PMID:15264601

Andréasson, Johan; Bergström, Sten; Carlsson, Bengt; Graham, L Phil; Lindström, Göran

2004-06-01

263

Towards a Psychology of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper gives a structured overview about possible contributions of psychology to the climate change debate. As a starting\\u000a point, it assumes that understanding people’s behaviour related to climate change (mitigation and adaptation) is crucial for\\u000a successfully dealing with the future challenges. Climate change-related behaviour includes voting, support for climate lobbyists,\\u000a individual consumption, adapting new technology, and taking adaptive actions.

Christian A. Kloeckner

264

Climate Change in the Preservice Teacher's Mind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the recent media attention on the public's shift in opinion toward being more skeptical about climate change, 154 preservice teachers' participated in an intervention in an elementary science methods course. Findings indicated that students developed a deeper level of concern about climate change. Their perceptions on the evidence for climate change, consensus of scientists, impacts of climate change, and influence of politics also changed significantly. The curriculum and instruction appear to be an important factor in increasing understanding of climate change and developing perceptions more aligned to those of climate scientists. More broadly, this study provides preliminary support for the value of providing a careful framing of the topic of climate change within the context of science methods courses.

Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

2013-10-01

265

Tree rings, carbon dioxide, and climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree rings have been used in various appli- cations to reconstruct past climates as well as to assess the effects of recent climatic and environmental change on tree growth. In this paper we brief ly review two ways that tree rings provide information about climate change and CO2 :( i )i n determining whether recent warming during the period of

GORDON C. JACOBY; ROSANNE D. D'ARRIGO

1997-01-01

266

The ocean and climate change policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean plays a major role in regulating Earth's climate system, and is highly vulnerable to climate change, but continues to receive little attention in the ongoing policymaking designed to mitigate and adapt to global climate change. There are numerous ways to consider the ocean more significantly when developing these policies, several of which offer the co-benefits of biodiversity protection

Grantly Galland; Ellycia Harrould-Kolieb; Dorothée Herr

2012-01-01

267

Climate change, parasites and shifting boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Around the world the three major components of climate change already evident and escalating in magnitude and significance are; 1) warming; 2) altered patterns of precipitation; and 3) an increased incidence of extreme climatic events [1]. For the structure and function of ecosystems, impacts of climate change vary with place and with time, and among the key outcomes are

Lydden Polley; Eric Hoberg; Susan Kutz

2010-01-01

268

ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF RECENT CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Global climate change is frequently considered a major conservation threat. The Earth's climate has already warmed by 0.5 degrees C over the past century, and recent studies show that it is possible to detect the effects of a changing climate on ecological systems....

269

The scientific consensus of climate change revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first reviews previous work undertaken to assess the level of scientific consensus concerning climate change, concluding that studies of scientific consensus concerning climate change have tended to measure different things. Three dimensions of consensus are determined: manifestation, attribution and legitimation. Consensus concerning these dimensions are explored in detail using a time series of data from surveys of climate

Dennis Bray

2010-01-01

270

Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological contributions, summarizes what psychology has learned, and sets out an agenda for making additional

Paul C. Stern

2011-01-01

271

Climate Change and Human Security1  

Microsoft Academic Search

percent of those living below the poverty line are women 3 for whom climate change represents very specific threats to security. When the impacts of climate change are brought home, then women, in their roles as the primary managers of family, food, water and health, must deal very directly with the impacts. While natural climate variations have existed for millennia,

Ben Wisner; Maureen Fordham; Ilan Kelman; Barbara Rose Johnston; David Simon; Allan Lavell; Hans Günter; Gustavo Wilches-Chaux; Marcus Moench

272

Advancing the Science of Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change, one of five groups convened under the Americas Climate Choices suite of activities (see Foreword), was charged to address the following question: What can be done to better understand climate change an...

2010-01-01

273

Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecosystems, and the biodiversity and services they support, are intrinsically dependent on climate. During the twentieth century, climate change has had documented impacts on ecological systems, and impacts are expected to increase as climate change continues and perhaps even accelerates. This techn...

274

CLIMATE CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN WILDLIFE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A large and growing body of scientific evidence indicates the Earth’s climate is changing, and the recent International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) declared that “warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean tempera...

275

Projecting Climate Change Impacts on Wildfire Probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present preliminary results of the 2008 Climate Change Impact Assessment for wildfire in California, part of the second biennial science report to the California Climate Action Team organized via the California Climate Change Center by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research Program pursuant to Executive Order S-03-05 of Governor Schwarzenegger. In order to support decision making by

A. L. Westerling; B. P. Bryant; H. Preisler

2008-01-01

276

Communicating Climate Change: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

For climate scientists, climate change is a problem that has a significant chance of having catastrophic environmental, social and economic consequences during the course of this century. In contrast, public opinion seems to regard with scepticism the pronouncements on climate change that emanate from the scientific community. Why the difference? This is what our research project was designed to examine.

Kevin A. Parton; Mark Morrison

2011-01-01

277

El Niño in a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Niño events, characterized by anomalous warming in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, have global climatic teleconnections and are the most dominant feature of cyclic climate variability on subdecadal timescales. Understanding changes in the frequency or characteristics of El Niño events in a changing climate is therefore of broad scientific and socioeconomic interest. Recent studies show that the canonical El

Sang-Wook Yeh; Jong-Seong Kug; Boris Dewitte; Min-Ho Kwon; Ben P. Kirtman; Fei-Fei Jin

2009-01-01

278

Practical resilience to climate change.  

PubMed

With the NHS generating around 18 million tonnes of carbon and CO2 annually, estates personnel face a considerable challenge in meeting tough Government and EU energy reduction targets while maintaining patient safety/comfort amid predictions of, for instance, hotter summers. A three-year research project, which builds on the conclusions of two recent academic papers examining low energy design and refurbishment strategies for NHS buildings, and the opportunities for low energy ventilation and cooling, is investigating practical ways to adapt the NHS Retained Estate to increase its climate change resilience while simultaneously reducing its carbon footprint. PMID:20597384

2010-06-01

279

PETM: Unearthing Ancient Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, a team of paleontologists, paleobotanists, soil scientists, and other researchers take to the field in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin to document how the climate, plants, and animals there changed during the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) when a sudden, enormous influx of carbon flooded the ocean and atmosphere for reasons that are still unclear to scientists. The PTEM is used as an analog to the current warming occurring. The scientists' research may help inform our understanding of current increases in carbon in the atmosphere and ocean and the resulting impact on ecosystems. Supporting materials include essay and interactive overview of animals that existed in the Basin after the PETM event.

History, American M.

280

Climate Change: A Controlled Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Researchers are altering temperature, carbon dioxide and precipitation levels across plots of forests, grasses and crops to see how plant life responds. Warmer temperatures and higher CO{sub 2} concentrations generally result in more leaf growth or crop yield, but these factors can also raise insect infestation and weaken plants ability to ward off pests and disease. Future field experiments that can manipulate all three conditions at once will lead to better models of how long-term climate changes will affect ecosystems worldwide.

Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Strahl, Maya [ORNL

2010-01-01

281

EOS-WEBSTER: Climate Change Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides a compendium of current climate change information, including scientific evidence for climate change, policy documents (including the Kyoto Protocol and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports), summaries of specific climate change issues, and links to additional resources. These data holdings can be searched spatially, temporally, or by keyword, freetext, or collection name. There are also links to climate model projections from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), satellite and land use modeling data, and case studies. Registration and log-in are required to obtain some materials.

2005-12-02

282

Is climate change affecting human health?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First principles suggest that climate change is affecting human health, based on what is understood about the relationships between the mean and variability of temperature, precipitation, and other weather variables and climate-sensitive health outcomes, and the magnitude of climate change that has occurred. However, the complexity of these relationships and the multiple drivers of climate-sensitive health outcomes makes the detection and attribution of changing disease patterns to climate change very challenging. Nevertheless, efforts to do so are vital for informing policy and for prioritizing adaptation and mitigation options.

Ebi, Kristie L.

2013-09-01

283

Comparison of two potato simulation models under climate change. II Application of climate change scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of climate change (for the year 2050 compared to ambient climate) and change in climatic variability on potato growth and production at 6 sites in Europe were calculated. These calculations were done with both a simple growth model, POTATOS, and a comprehensive model, NPOTATO. Comparison of the results from both models indicated the sort of climate change conditions

J. Wolf

2002-01-01

284

Climate Change: A simulation with commentary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains two videos that show climate visualizations created by super computers. Both videos show climate changes that may occur during the 21st Century due to human activities based on IPCC science.

Research, Center F.; Ministry Of The Environment, Japan

285

Climate Change Education in Earth System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory data analysis the approaches on climate time series, trend analysis and extreme events analysis are explained. Tools to describe relations within the data sets and significance tests further corroborate this. Within the weekly exercises that have to be prepared at home, the students work with self-selected climate data sets and apply the learned methods. The presentation and discussion of intermediate results by the students is as much part of the exercises as the illustration of possible methodological procedures by the teacher using exemplary data sets. The total time expenditure of the course is 270 hours with 90 attendance hours. The remainder consists of individual studies, e.g., preparation of discussions and presentations, statistical data analysis, and scientific writing. Different forms of examination are applied including written or oral examination, scientific report, presentation and portfolio work.

Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

2013-04-01

286

Abrupt climate change: can society cope?  

PubMed

Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and those who argue that the unknowns in the Earth system are too large to justify such early action. This paper explores the question of abrupt climate change in terms of its potential implications for society, focusing on the UK and northwest Europe in particular. The nature of abrupt climate change and the different ways in which it has been defined and perceived are examined. Using the example of the collapse of the thermohaline circulation (THC), the suggested implications for society of abrupt climate change are reviewed; previous work has been largely speculative and has generally considered the implications only from economic and ecological perspectives. Some observations about the implications from a more social and behavioural science perspective are made. If abrupt climate change simply implies changes in the occurrence or intensity of extreme weather events, or an accelerated unidirectional change in climate, the design of adaptation to climate change can proceed within the existing paradigm, with appropriate adjustments. Limits to adaptation in some sectors or regions may be reached, and the costs of appropriate adaptive behaviour may be large, but strategy can develop on the basis of a predicted long-term unidirectional change in climate. It would be more challenging, however, if abrupt climate change implied a directional change in climate, as, for example, may well occur in northwest Europe following a collapse of the THC. There are two fundamental problems for society associated with such an outcome: first, the future changes in climate currently being anticipated and prepared for may reverse and, second, the probability of such a scenario occurring remains fundamentally unknown. The implications of both problems for climate policy and for decision making have not been researched. It is premature to argue therefore that abrupt climate change - in the sense referred to here - imposes unacceptable costs on society or the world economy, represents a catastrophic impact of climate change or constitutes a dangerous change in climate that should be avoided at all reasonable cost. We conclude by examining the implications of this contention for future research and policy formation. PMID:14558906

Hulme, Mike

2003-09-15

287

Intracontinental Miocene: Climate and paleolake volumes in the Forez Basin, France (Part I)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European Tertiary sedimentary basins as the Forez Graben, France, are potential records of continental paleoclimates. The Forez Basin hosts deposited and precipitated sediments of Oligocene to Miocene age. Geochemical data of carbonates indicate strictly continental origin starting at Eocene-Oligocene with tropical to temperate climate conditions, then during the Middle Miocene a temperate continental climate prevails. Combining volume of calcite deposits and their geochemical data, volumes of large lakes and evaporation/inflow ratios were reconstructed. The Late Miocene in the Forez Graben has been affected by dissolution and secondary precipitation of calcite, barite, which is the result of wetter and colder climate conditions. These lake volume calculations represent the first estimation of large lakes volumes in Western Europe during the Miocene.

Renac, C.; Michon, G.; Gonord, H.; Gerbe, M.-C.

2013-04-01

288

Climate change scenarios for the California region  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate possible future climate changes in California, a set of climate change model simulations was selected and evaluated.\\u000a From the IPCC Fourth Assessment, simulations of twenty-first century climates under a B1 (low emissions) and an A2 (a medium-high\\u000a emissions) emissions scenarios were evaluated, along with occasional comparisons to the A1fi (high emissions) scenario. The\\u000a climate models whose simulations were

Daniel R. Cayan; Edwin P. Maurer; Michael D. Dettinger; Mary Tyree; Katharine Hayhoe

2008-01-01

289

Climate Change and Aerosol Feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate instability is expected as mixing ratios of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere increase. The current trend in rising temperature can be related to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, this trend may change as feedback mechanisms amplify; one of the least-understood aspects of climate change. Formation of cloud condensation nuclei from rising sulfate concentrations in the atmosphere may counteract the current warming trend. A key point is where the sulfate, and cloud condensation nuclei are formed. Is cloud formation widespread or localized near sulfate emission sources? A major source of atmospheric sulfate is dimethylsulfide, a compound related to biotic turnover in the surface ocean that constitutes a widespread natural source of aerosols over the remote ocean. A second major source contributing a significant proportion of atmospheric sulfate in the northern hemisphere is produced over continents from industrial activities and fossil fuel combustion. Distinguishing the source of sulfate in well-mixed air is important so that relationships with cloud formation, sea-ice in polar regions, and albedo can be explored. This distinction in sulfate sources can be achieved using isotope apportionment techniques. Recent measurements show an increase in biogenic sulfate coincident with rising temperatures in the Arctic and large amounts sulfur from DMS oxidation over the Atlantic, potentially indicating a widespread biotic feedback to warming over northern oceans.

Norman, Ann-Lise

2008-05-01

290

Climate Change Effects on Marine Ecological Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is no secret that our climate is changing – rapidly – and together with it, oceans change as well. The Intergovernmental\\u000a Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), consisting of hundreds of scientists worldwide, have shown that changes in global climate\\u000a have accelerated since the 1750s, causing an overall increase in temperature both on land and in the sea. The IPCC

Gil Rilov; Haim Treves

291

The United Kingdom Environmental Change Network: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource briefly discusses the facts about climate change, and what effects a change in climate will have on humans. This includes a look at how the climate has already changed in recent times, and changes that will occur such as a rise in sea level, changes in vegetation, increases in disease, and changes in ecosystems. There is also a section discussing what can be done to stop this process.

292

Climate Change: Environmental Literacy and Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change is a technology-supported middle school science inquiry curriculum. This curriculum focuses on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change. Students use geospatial information technology tools (Google Earth), Web-based tools (including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline), and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate important climate change topics. Climate Change is aligned to the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy in addition to national science and environmental education standards. The unit takes 21 days which include pretest and post test. Assessments for each learning activity are available using the following login and password: Login: eliteacher Password: 87dja92

293

Statistical Principles for Climate Change Studies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical principles underlying `fingerprint' methods for detecting a climate change signal above natural climate variations and attributing the potential signal to specific anthropogenic forcings are discussed. The climate change problem is introduced through an exposition of statistical issues in modeling the climate signal and natural climate variability. The fingerprint approach is shown to be analogous to optimal hypothesis testing procedures from the classical statistics literature. The statistical formulation of the fingerprint scheme suggests new insights into the implementation of the techniques for climate change studies. In particular, the statistical testing ideas are exploited to introduce alternative procedures within the fingerprint model for attribution of climate change and to shed light on practical issues in applying the fingerprint detection strategies.

Levine, Richard A.; Berliner, L. Mark

1999-02-01

294

Low flows in France and their relationship to large scale climate indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the relationship between low flows in France and large scale climate variability. To this aim, a national low flows reference network of near-natural catchments called R2SE was set up. It consists of 220 French gauging stations suited to the monitoring of low flow evolution in France. Daily streamflow records for the period 1968-2008 were used to detect trends in several drought indices: three severity indices (mean annual flow, annual minimum flow and volume deficit) and three timing indices (drought start, center and end). In addition to testing for trend with respect to time, four climate indices were used as covariates: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the frequency of two Weather Patterns corresponding to circulation types associated to wet (WP2) and dry (WP8) conditions over France. Due to their specific dynamics, NAO and WPs were also analyzed seasonally. Results first show a consistent increase of drought severity in southern France with respect to time, NAO and AMO. Additionally, significant relationships with WPs are found throughout France, with the exception of the Mediterranean coast. Timing indices appear to be less related to large scale climate indices, whereas some evidence of a negative association with time is found (i.e. an earlier start of the annual low flow period). Seasonal climate indices appear to have stronger links with low flow indices than their annual counterparts. The summer (JJA) NAO shows a strong link with severity indices in the northern half of France. This link is found again for the winter (DJF) WP2. Lastly, significant links are detected between timing indices and seasonal WP8, while these links could not be detected at the annual scale. In order to assess the robustness of the above relationships, a subset of 28 stations with a longer record period is studied on three different periods: 1948-1988, 1968-2008, and on the whole period 1948-2008. Importantly, trends with respect to time clearly lack robustness: trends of opposite sign are found in the first and second period, and no compelling trends are found in the whole period 1948-2008. Conversely, the relationship between low flow indices and climate indices remain stable across all three time periods. The above result demonstrates that time cannot be used beyond purely descriptive purposes. In particular, this lack of stability precludes the use of time as a covariate for forecasting purposes: extrapolating a temporal trend in the future could lead to misleading predictions. On the other hand, the stability of the relationships between low flow and climate indices provides confidence that these relationships result from physical mechanisms linking atmospheric circulation and surface hydrology. Moreover, it paves the way for useful seasonal forecasting applications. As an illustration, information about drought severity could be inferred several months ahead from either a forecasted summer NAO or more directly from the WP2 frequency observed during the previous winter.

Giuntoli, I.; Renard, B.; Vidal, J.-P.; Bard, A.

2012-04-01

295

The economics of abrupt climate change.  

PubMed

The US National Research Council defines abrupt climate change as a change of state that is sufficiently rapid and sufficiently widespread in its effects that economies are unprepared or incapable of adapting. This may be too restrictive a definition, but abrupt climate change does have implications for the choice between the main response options: mitigation (which reduces the risks of climate change) and adaptation (which reduces the costs of climate change). The paper argues that by (i) increasing the costs of change and the potential growth of consumption, and (ii) reducing the time to change, abrupt climate change favours mitigation over adaptation. Furthermore, because the implications of change are fundamentally uncertain and potentially very high, it favours a precautionary approach in which mitigation buys time for learning. Adaptation-oriented decision tools, such as scenario planning, are inappropriate in these circumstances. Hence learning implies the use of probabilistic models that include socioeconomic feedbacks. PMID:14558908

Perrings, Charles

2003-09-15

296

Global climate change and international security  

SciTech Connect

On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

Rice, M.

1991-01-01

297

Tools for Teaching Climate Change Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) develops public outreach materials and educational resources for schools. Studies prove that science education in rural and indigenous communities improves when educators integrate regional knowledge of climate and environmental issues into school curriculum and public outreach materials. In order to promote understanding of ACRF climate change studies, ACRF Education and Outreach has

A. M. Maestas; L. A. Jones

2005-01-01

298

Manufacturing weather: climate change, indoors and out  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many parts of the world, the indoor climate - by which I mean temperature, humidity and ventilation within buildings - has been transformed over the last two centuries in ways that are of direct consequence for global warming and (outdoor) climate change. In this short paper I consider the relation between indoor and outdoor climates. I do so first

Elizabeth Shove

299

Climate change: The IPCC scientific assessment  

SciTech Connect

Book review of the intergovernmental panel on climate change report on global warming and the greenhouse effect. Covers the scientific basis for knowledge of the future climate. Presents chemistry of greenhouse gases and mathematical modelling of the climate system. The book is primarily for government policy makers.

Houghton, J.T.; Jenkins, G.J.; Ephraums, J.J. (eds.)

1990-01-01

300

Does the Sun contribute to climate change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous attempts have been made over the years to link various aspects of solar variability to changes in the Earth's climate. Since the Sun's output of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles varies, and since the Sun is the ultimate driver for the climate system, it seems natural to link the two together and look for the source of climate variability

Paal Brekke

2010-01-01

301

Climate change adaptation in the ski industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the success of climate change mitigation efforts, the international community has concluded that societies around\\u000a the world will need to adapt to some magnitude of climate change in the 21st century. While some economic sectors (e.g., agriculture,\\u000a water resources and construction) have been actively engaged in climate change adaptation research for years, adaptation has\\u000a received scant consideration within

Daniel Scott; Geoff McBoyle

2007-01-01

302

Plural Methodologies in Climate Change Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The proposed paper explores plural methodological strategies in climate change. The paper investigates the possibilities and difficulties associated with bridging the gap between model- based approaches in climate change science and climate-change economics, which need validation or 'ground-truthing', and qualitative and case-study based approaches of other social sciences, which from an instrumental viewpoint would need to be more generalisable.

J. Paavola

303

Australian agriculture: coping with dangerous climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian agriculture has operated successfully in one of the world’s most hostile environments for two centuries. However,\\u000a climate change is posing serious challenges to its ongoing success. Determining what might constitute dangerous climate change\\u000a for Australian agriculture is not an easy task, as most climate-related risks are associated with changes in the highly uncertain\\u000a hydrological cycle rather than directly to

Will Steffen; John Sims; James Walcott; Greg Laughlin

2011-01-01

304

Climate change and health - what's the problem?  

PubMed Central

The scientific consensus is that global warming is occurring and is largely the result of greenhouse gas emissions from human activity. This paper examines the health implications of global warming, the current socio-political attitudes towards action on climate change and highlight the health co-benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, policy development for climate change and health should embrace health systems strengthening, commencing by incorporating climate change targets into Millennium Development Goal 7.

2013-01-01

305

Effects of Climatic Change on Fisheries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of our accumulated knowledge of the effects of temperature and salinity have come through large-scale natural experiments, when major climatic changes have caused measured changes in the ocean environment, to which changes in abundance or distributio...

J. L. McHugh

1976-01-01

306

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

307

Volcanoes and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data; develop descriptions, explanations, predictions and models using evidence; develop an understanding of the Earth as a system by understanding that global patterns of atmospheric movement influence climate, including local weather; and understand that internal and external processes of the Earth system cause natural hazards (volcanoes) that can change or destroy human and wildlife habitats, damage property and harm or kill humans. Students will demonstrate numerous cooperative learning strategies in response to a presentation of basic concepts. They will also collect, analyze, and interpret data, and make predictions based on its synthesis. The lesson provides detailed instructions as well as worksheets, charts, internet access, and publications.

308

Chemistry implications of climate change  

SciTech Connect

Since preindustrial times, the concentrations of a number of key greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and the nitric oxides (N{sub 2}O) have increased. Additionally, the concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols have also increased during the same time period. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are expected to increase temperature, while the aerosols tend to have a net cooling effect. Taking both of these effects into account, the current best scientific estimate is that the global average surface temperature is expected to increase by 2{degrees}C between the years 1990 to 2100. A climate change if this magnitude will both directly and indirectly impact atmospheric chemistry. For example, many important tropospheric reactions have a temperature dependence (either Arrhenius or otherwise). Thus, if temperature increase, reaction rates will also increase.

Atherton, C.S.

1997-05-01

309

Climate Change and Biodiversity in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is already affecting European biodiversity, as de m- onstrated by changes in species' ranges and ecosystem boundaries, shifts in reproductive cycles and growing seasons, and cha nges to the complex ways in which species interact (predation, pollination, competition and disease). These effects vary between regions and ecosystems. Strategies adopted to mitigate or adapt to climate change also impact

Hannah Reid

310

Will climate change affect ectoparasite species ranges?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Over the next 100 years, human-driven climate change and resulting changes in species occurrences will have global impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human health. Here we examine how climate change may affect the occurrences of tick species in Africa and alter the suitability of habitat outside Africa for African ticks. Location Africa and the world. Methods We predicted

Graeme S. Cumming; Detlef P. Van Vuuren

2006-01-01

311

The economics of abrupt climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US National Research Council defines abrupt climate change as a change of state that is sufficiently rapid and sufficiently widespread in its effects that economies are unprepared or incapable of adapting. This may be too restrictive a definition, but abrupt climate change does have implications for the choice between the main response options: mitigation (which reduces the risks of

Charles Perrings

2003-01-01

312

Climate Change: The Public Health Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing cli- mate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are un-

Howard Frumkin; Jeremy Hess; George Luber; Josephine Malilay; Michael McGeehin

2008-01-01

313

Climate change: the public health response.  

PubMed

There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18235058

Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

2008-01-30

314

Climate Change: The Public Health Response  

PubMed Central

There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations.

Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

2008-01-01

315

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

316

The ESA Climate Change Initiative - Climate Modellers User Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) approved in 2009 is in the process of being set up. The overall objective of the CCI, as laid out in the Programme declaration approved by ESA member states is: \\

Roger Saunders; Alexander Loew; Dick Dee; Mark Ringer; Serge Planton; Pierre-Philippe Mathieu

2010-01-01

317

Climate change risks for African agriculture.  

PubMed

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment of major risks for African agriculture and food security caused by climate change during coming decades is confirmed by a review of more recent climate change impact assessments (14 quantitative, six qualitative). Projected impacts relative to current production levels range from -100% to +168% in econometric, from -84% to +62% in process-based, and from -57% to +30% in statistical assessments. Despite large uncertainty, there are several robust conclusions from published literature for policy makers and research agendas: agriculture everywhere in Africa runs some risk to be negatively affected by climate change; existing cropping systems and infrastructure will have to change to meet future demand. With respect to growing population and the threat of negative climate change impacts, science will now have to show if and how agricultural production in Africa can be significantly improved. PMID:21368199

Müller, Christoph; Cramer, Wolfgang; Hare, William L; Lotze-Campen, Hermann

2011-02-28

318

Critical climate change as an approach to assess climate change impacts in Europe: development and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new methodology called the “critical climate change” approach for evaluating policies for reducing climate change impacts on natural ecosystems. This method is particularly suited for integrated assessments because of its long-term and large-scale perspective. This is an analogous approach to the “critical loads” concept used for assessing regional air pollution impacts in Europe. Critical climate change

Jelle G van Minnen; Janina Onigkeit; Joseph Alcamo

2002-01-01

319

Asian Public Opinion on Climate Change and Its Implications for Climate Change Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has been a focal point in recent environmental public debate and policymaking. Latest polls show virtually unanimous consensus among the global public on the significance of the problem. This paper examines Asian public opinion on key issues of climate change policy in a comparative by comparing the level of public awareness and support for climate change policies in

So Young Kim

320

The Little Ice Age: Understanding Climate and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a classroom activity about the forcing mechanisms for the most recent cold period: the Little Ice Age (1350-1850). Students receive data about tree ring records, solar activity, and volcanic eruptions during this time period. By comparing and contrasting time intervals when tree growth was at a minimum, solar activity was low, and major volcanic eruptions occurred, they draw conclusions about possible natural causes of climate change and identify factors that may indicate climate change.

Gardiner, Lisa; University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

321

Physical Controls of the Earth's Climate and Climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's climate system and changes to it are determined by the physical processes that govern the flows of energy to and from the atmosphere and Earth's surface. Although the energy exchanges at the top of the atmosphere are well determined from available satellite measurements, the global character of the energy flows within the climate system, and to and from the Earth's surface in particular, are not directly measured and thus are much more uncertain. The surface energy balance is particularly important since geographical variations of its distribution drives ocean circulations, dictates the amount of water evaporated from the Earth's surface, fuels the planetary hydrological cycle and ultimately controls how this hydrological cycle responds to forced climate change. This talk reviews our state of understanding of the physical processes that determine the energy balance, couple to the Earth's water cycle and are responsible for the most important climate feedbacks that dictate the pace of climate change. Challenges in understanding the mechanisms responsible for feedbacks associated with clouds and precipitation, water vapor, snow cover and carbon will be highlighted. The further complexity and uncertainty that aerosols add to the cloud and precipitation feedbacks will also be reviewed. The effects of uncertainties in our understanding of the physical climate system, and feedbacks within it, will be reviewed in the context of climate change projections.

Stephens, Graeme

2013-03-01

322

RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has been identified as one of the greatest challenge by all the nations, government, business and citizens of the globe. The threats of climate change on our green planet 'Earth' demands that renewable energy share in the total energy generation and consumption should be substantially increased as a matter of urgency. India's energy development programme has been put

S. P. RAGHUVANSHI; A. K. RAGHAV; A. CHANDRA

323

NASA NDATC Global Climate Change Education Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project aligns with NASA's Strategic Goal 3A - ``Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs and focuses on funding from the GCCE Funding Category 2: Strengthen the Teaching and Learning About Global Climate Change Within Formal Education Systems. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (2007) those communities with the least amount

B. Bennett; E. Wood; D. Meyer; N. Maynard; R. E. Pandya

2009-01-01

324

A Model for Climate Change Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate models predict serious impacts on the western U.S. in the next few decades, including increased temperatures and reduced precipitation. In combination, these changes are linked to profound impacts on fundamental systems, such as water and energy supplies, agriculture, population stability, and the economy. Global and national imperatives for climate change mitigation and adaptation are made actionable at the state

D. Pasqualini; G. N. Keating

2009-01-01

325

Global food security under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on food security. It is found that of the four main elements of food security, i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access, only the first is routinely addressed in simulation studies. To this end, published results indicate that the impacts of climate change are significant, however, with a wide projected range (between

Josef Schmidhuber; Francesco N. Tubiello

326

What Australia Can Do About Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are a group of five youths and citizens of Australia with a strong interest in climate change and human security. Collectively we made the decision to participate in the Garnaut Review in reaction to our immense alarm over the threat of destruction to our lives and well-being that is being caused by climate change. We believe that our generation

Kira Bayfield; Lachlan Bradburn; Alexander Brown; Emma Francis; Kathryn Kalinowski

327

Australia, Climate Change and the Global South  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia's climate change relationship with developing countries is framed by the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Under those agreements, Australia has committed to take a lead in cutting greenhouse gas emissions and to provide technological and financial support to developing countries. In practice, Australian governments of both political hues have adopted a

Lorraine Elliott

2011-01-01

328

Climate change, water resources and child health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is occurring and has tremendous consequences for children's health worldwide. This article describes how the rise in temperature, precipitation, droughts, floods, glacier melt and sea levels resulting from human-induced climate change is affecting the quantity, quality and flow of water resources worldwide and impacting child health through dangerous effects on water supply and sanitation, food production and human

Elizabeth J Kistin; John Fogarty; Ryan Shaening Pokrasso; Michael McCally; Peter G McCornick

2010-01-01

329

The Economic Effects of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate change have been published, a research effort that is in sharp contrast to the urgency of the public debate and the proposed expenditure on greenhouse gas emission reduction. These estimates

Richard S. J. Tol

2009-01-01

330

Global climate change and international security  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes

1991-01-01

331

Climate change, vulnerability, and risk linkages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research aims to develop a model that may be used to determine the effective adaptive measures to implement in a system affected by climate change. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The three primary dimensions of the model were individually investigated and then the linkages among them were developed. Specifically, the nature of climate change was examined and the issues emerging

Sining C. Cuevas

2011-01-01

332

Some dangers of ‘dangerous’ climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The UNFCCC has set the objective of preventing ,‘dangerous’ climate change. The concept of climate ,change being ‘dangerous’ has generally been interpreted to mean that there are thresholds below which the planet is ‘safe’ and above which it is in danger. This creates the fiction that danger can be averted, when that is largely a matter of perspective. Policies

James S. Risbey

2006-01-01

333

Climate Change and Tourism: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the relationship between tourism and global climate change. On the one hand, the tourism industry may be one of the greatest economic victims of climate change. Yet, on the other hand, the broader tourism sector is also a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. This study traces the evolution of academic interest in tourism

Sharon F. H. Pang; Bob McKercher; Bruce Prideaux

2012-01-01

334

Climate change and insurance: A critical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several issues relating to insurance and the damage costs of climate change are discussed. It is argued that the option of insuring climate change is severely limited because the associated damages are hardly quantifiable and little diversifiable; in addition, binding contracts are a problem on long time scales and in an international context. Hedging, consumption smoothing over time, precautionary investments

Richard S. J. Tol

1998-01-01

335

Climate change and urban bioclimate: Adaptation possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will affect climate in urban areas and also urban bioclimate. Therefore, there is a demand on adaptation strategies and possibilities in the urban structures and microclimate. The performed simulations are based on changes in parameters which have the biggest variation in urban structures: mean radiant temperature and wind speed. REMO data for A1B and B1 one have been

Andreas Matzarakis; Christina Endler

336

The impact of climate change on agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies that include moderate climate forecasts, farmer adaptation, carbon fertilization, and warm-loving crops tend to show that climate change will have only mild impacts on average global agricultural output and may even improve temperate agricultural production. On this point, recent studies yield strikingly consistent results. Of course, impact estimates still contain uncertainties. Key questions include how agriculture might change by

Susan Helms; Robert Mendelsohn; Jim Neumann

1996-01-01

337

Model driven visualisation of climate change scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will affect us all. In addition to the projected temperature rise, models suggest changes in other climatic averages (e.g., rainfall, sunshine) and also more frequent incidence of special events (e.g., frost, deluge, high winds). These will affect the capacity of the land to support different agricultural or forest products and different modes of production. Land managers need to

C. J. Pettit; C. Stock; V. Sposito

338

Global Warming and Climate Change Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change has emerged as a major scientific and political issue within a few short decades. Scientific evidence clearly indicates that this change is a result of a complex interplay between a number of human-related and natural earth systems. While the complexity of the earth-ocean-atmosphere system makes the understanding and prediction of global climate change very difficult, improved scientific knowledge and research capabilities are advancing our understanding of global climate change resulting from rising atmospheric levels of radiatively important (mostly heat-trapping) gases and particles. The effects of climate change can be assessed with climate models, which account for complex physical, chemical and biological processes, and interactions of these processes with human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels along with land use changes. This presentation begins with a discussion of the current understanding of the concerns about climate change, and then discusses the role climate models in scientific projections of climate change as well as their current strengths and weaknesses.

Jain, Atul

2008-03-01

339

Greenhouse Gas and Climate Change Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Mitigating the production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and developing strategies to prepare for changes in climate is an important challenge to the transportation planning profession.Purpose: This article identifies the research needed to inform planning practice on the relationship between transportation and climate change.Methods: I chaired the panel that prepared a recent Transportation Research Board special report on research

Michael D. Meyer

2010-01-01

340

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER POLLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing climate has implications for land use and the fate and behaviour of anthropogenic and natural chemicals particularly with respect to their interaction with the hydrological cycle. Climate change may influence mobilisation and fate of chemicals applied to land, increasing discharge to surface and groundwater. Discharge volumes of storm water containing various contaminants may also increase. The bioavailability of sediment-

Dave Sheahan

341

Why We Disagree About Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is not 'a problem' waiting for 'a solution'. It is an environmental, cultural and political phenomenon which is re-shaping the way we think about ourselves, our societies and humanity's place on Earth. Drawing upon twenty-five years of professional work as an international climate change scientist and public commentator, Mike Hulme provides a unique insider's account of the emergence

Mike Hulme

342

Law: Environmental Impact Statements and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent demands by atmospheric scientists and policy makers for immediate, comprehensive, and effective responses to the threat of global climate change have focused political attention on policies and laws that affect the quality of the environment. In January, the Reagan White House blocked the issuance of policy guidance that would have directed federal agencies to consider global climate change in

Glenn T. Prickett; David A. Wirth

1989-01-01

343

Tajikistan’s Vulnerability to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tajikistan is classified by the World Bank as one of the CIS countries that are most vulnerable to climate change risks. This paper provides a closer look at a set of variables that determine Tajikistan’s vulnerability to risk in general and to climate change risk in particular. After presenting some background information on Tajikistan (Chapter 1), we provide a conceptual

Zvi Lerman

2011-01-01

344

Anthropogenic albedo changes and the earth's climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators have long discounted the possibility that anthropogenic environmental changes not involving sophisticated modern technology could significantly influence climate. However, physical models suggest a causal connection between several such changes and significant climatic variation experienced in many regions of the world. In the Rajasthan Desert, parts of the Sahara, and Lebanon, overgrazing and lack of vegetation have led to desertification

C. Sagan; O. B. Toole; J. B. Pollack

1979-01-01

345

The Psychological Impacts of Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological…

Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan

2011-01-01

346

Climatic change and Great Lakes water levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

World climatologists believe that increasing concentrations of CO2 in the earth's atmosphere will result in significant changes in the world's climate during the next century. In the present paper, the predictions of monthly temperature and precipitation for the Great Lakes basin derived from a current General Circulation (climatic change) Model, are incorporated into a hydrologie model of the Great Lakes

M. Sanderson; L. Wong

347

Climate Change and Biomass Energy for Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world needs to develop a coherent and practical approach to climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has recently confirmed that the evidence for global warming is unequivocal; meanwhile, an effort is under way to develop a successor to the Kyoto Protocol and provide a roadmap towards the lower carbon world of the future. On the other hand,

K. Kaygusuz

2010-01-01

348

Climate Change and Extreme Heat Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between climate change and the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events is now well established. General circulation models of climate change predict that heatwaves will become more frequent and intense, especially in the higher latitudes, affecting large metropolitan areas that are not well adapted to them. Exposure to extreme heat is already a significant public health problem

George Luber; Michael McGeehin

2008-01-01

349

The physical science behind climate change  

SciTech Connect

For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists, like all good scientists, want to ensure that the highest standards of proof apply to everything they discover. And the evidence of change has mounted as climate records have grown longer, as our understanding of the climate system has improved and as climate models have become ever more reliable. Over the past 20 years, evidence that humans are affecting the climate has accumulated inexorably, and with it has come ever greater certainty across the scientific community in the reality of recent climate change and the potential for much greater change in the future. This increased certainty is starkly reflected in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the fourth in a series of assessments of the state of knowledge on the topic, written and reviewed by hundreds of scientists worldwide. The panel released a condensed version of the first part of the report, on the physical science basis of climate change, in February. Called the 'Summary for Policymakers,' it delivered to policymakers and ordinary people alike an unambiguous message: scientists are more confident than ever that humans have interfered with the climate and that further human-induced climate change is on the way. Although the report finds that some of these further changes are now inevitable, its analysis also confirms that the future, particularly in the longer term, remains largely in our hands--the magnitude of expected change depends on what humans choose to do about greenhouse gas emissions. The physical science assessment focuses on four topics: drivers of climate change, changes observed in the climate system, understanding cause-and-effect relationships, and projection of future changes. Important advances in research into all these areas have occurred since the IPCC assessment in 2001. In the pages that follow, we lay out the key findings that document the extent of change and that point to the unavoidable conclusion that human activity is driving it.

Collins, William; Collins, William; Colman, Robert; Haywood, James; Manning, Martin R.; Mote, Philip

2007-07-01

350

Frontiers in climate change-disease research.  

PubMed

The notion that climate change will generally increase human and wildlife diseases has garnered considerable public attention, but remains controversial and seems inconsistent with the expectation that climate change will also cause parasite extinctions. In this review, we highlight the frontiers in climate change-infectious disease research by reviewing knowledge gaps that make this controversy difficult to resolve. We suggest that forecasts of climate-change impacts on disease can be improved by more interdisciplinary collaborations, better linking of data and models, addressing confounding variables and context dependencies, and applying metabolic theory to host-parasite systems with consideration of community-level interactions and functional traits. Finally, although we emphasize host-parasite interactions, we also highlight the applicability of these points to climate-change effects on species interactions in general. PMID:21481487

Rohr, Jason R; Dobson, Andrew P; Johnson, Pieter T J; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Paull, Sara H; Raffel, Thomas R; Ruiz-Moreno, Diego; Thomas, Matthew B

2011-04-12

351

Global climate change and infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth's atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations. PMID:23022814

Shuman, E K

2011-01-01

352

Climate Variability, Climate Change and Fisheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we approach the end of the twentieth century, public and scientific attention is focusing increasingly on the detection and assessment of changes in our environment. This unique volume addresses the potential implications of global warming for fisheries and the societies which depend on them. Using a æforecasting by analogy' approach, which draws upon experiences from the recent past in coping with regional fluctuations in the abundance or availability of living marine resources, it is shown how we might be able to assess our ability to respond to the consequences of future environmental changes induced by a potential global warming. The book takes the form of a series of integrated case studies from around the globe, which are presented by an interdisciplinary group of leading researchers. This important and thought-provoking volume will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working in the fields of biology, marine and environmental science, climatology, economics and anthropology, as well as resource managers and policy makers concerned with the health and future of living marine resources.

Glantz, Michael H.

2005-08-01

353

Climate change on the Great Lakes Basin  

SciTech Connect

This publication is a compilation of five papers presented at the Symposium of Climate Change on the Great Lakes Basin held as part of the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago in February 1992. The five papers included in the publication are: [open quotes]Great Lakes 20th Century Climate Variability: Implications for Future Scenarios [close quotes]; [open quotes]Effects of Climate Change on the Water Resources of the Great Lakes[close quotes]; [open quotes]Climate Change in the Great Lakes Basin: Impacts, Research Priorities and Policy Issues[close quotes]; [open quotes]Climate and Global Change: The Responses and Policy Issues Related to Climate Change in the Great Lakes Basin[close quotes] and; [open quotes]A Proposed US Research Program to Assess Climate Change in the Great Lakes[close quotes]. The results of these five papers provide an overview of various aspects of climatic change relative to the Great Lakes Basin.

Not Available

1992-01-01

354

Man-Made Climatic Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews environmental studies which show that national climatic fluctuations vary over a wide range. Solar radiation, earth temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric gases and suspended particulates are discussed in relation to urban and extraurban effects. Local weather modifications and attempts at climate control by man seem to have substantial…

Landsberg, Helmut E.

1970-01-01

355

Climate change and skin cancer.  

PubMed

Depletion of the ozone layer and climate change by the increasing greenhouse effect are distinctly different processes. It is becoming quite clear, however, that the two global environmental problems are interlinked in several ways [D. L. Albritton, P. J Aucamp, G. Mégie, R. T. Watson, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, 1998, World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report No. 44 (WMO, Geneva, 1998)]. In the present analysis we deal with the possibility of such an interlinkage within one effect on human health, namely, skin cancer. The increase in the incidence of skin cancer is one of the most extensively studied effects of increasing ultraviolet radiation by ozone depletion (F. R. de Gruijl, Skin cancer and solar radiation, Eur. J Cancer, 1999, 35, 2003-2009). We wondered if this impact could also be influenced by increasing environmental temperatures. Here we show that it is likely that such an influence will occur. For the same reason, it is likely that the baseline incidence of skin cancer will be augmented by rising temperatures, which may become significant in magnitude. PMID:12653470

van der Leun, Jan C; de Gruijl, Frank R

2002-05-01

356

Getting to the Core of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate climate changes going back thousands of years by graphing and analyzing ice core data from Greenland and Antarctica. They use information about natural and human-caused changes in the atmosphere to formulate predictions about the climate of Earth. Students will: create a graph, explain the pattern of data on a graph, make predictions that go beyond the data, analyze and discuss the relationships among data on different graphs, explain how ice cores provide information about the past atmosphere and climate of Earth, and describe how natural and human-related (anthropogenic) factors can affect climate.

Tremblay, Rolf

357

Climatic and hydrological control on trace element variations in a speleothem from the Chauvet Cave, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ICPMS quantitative analysis of Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, U, Mn, Y and 14 Rare Earth Elements (REE) has been performed on a speleothem from the Chauvet cave (south-east of France). The Chau-stm-6 stalagmite that grew from 33 ky to 11.5 ky before present had been previously dated by U-Th series method and the published d13C and d18O profile is used as a paleoclimatic benchmark. Chau-stm-6 recorded that major element Ca ratios (Mg, Ba, Sr), U and REY (REE + Y) responded to early deglaciation (15 ky). Their concentrations show relative variations of 40% to 75%. Ba and Sr profiles are significantly correlated (r = 0.85) and show a two-step increase during early deglaciation. Mg and U are weakly correlated and display a decreasing trend from 15 ky to 11.5 ky. REY concentrations decrease during early deglaciation (15 ky to 14.5 ky). The clear onset of Younger Dryas as recorded by both d13C and d18O profiles is not well marked by any of these trace elements though the averaged Sr concentration is slightly lower in the more recent part of the profile. Sr and Ba increase is best explained by the tenfold rise of the growth rate rather than changes in water residence time in the karst which would also increase Mg. The incongruent dissolution of dolomite upstream is invalidated by the absence of reported dolomite in the Chauvet karst system. No correlation was found between REY and Mn (an element strongly bound with colloidal and particular phases in water), suggesting that REY were mainly dissolved (and likely to be complexed) in groundwater. Due to the poorly developed soil above the cave, REY are thought to come mainly from the dissolution of the limestone bedrock. Bedrock samples display a rather flat pattern, only slightly depleted in LREE (light REE) and with a weak cerium (Ce) anomaly (0.6 to 1). In comparison Chau-stm-6 patterns show a marked depletion in LREE and a more pronounced Ce anomaly (0.3 to 0.75). This shale-normalized pattern is construed as coming from REY fractionation during mobilization or transport of the elements in seepage water rather than from the mixing of several REY sources. Preferential removal of LREE may come from their stronger affinity with particles and from a weaker carbonate complexation. The different climatic and environmental conditions don't seem to have affected REY fractionation - LREE/HREE (light REE on heavy REE) remained quite constant, although the ratio peaks or fall sharply at the climatic transitions. This could be the result of brief periods of intense leaching of colloids or particles. A weak anticorrelation was found between the Y/REE ratio and Ce anomaly. Moreover glacial conditions correspond to a high Y/REE-low Ce pattern whereas milder climate correspond to the opposite situation. The probable higher concentration of particles during the warmer period could explain both the better transport of REE relative to Y that has a slower particle-reactivity and larger scavenging of all REE that smoothes Ce anomaly. pH and Eh could also control the selective removal of Ce. Again no significant difference between Bolling-Allerod and Younger Dryas samples could be observed on REY patterns. This study is one of the first steps towards the use of REY as paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic proxies in continental environments.

Bourdin, C.; Genty, D.; Douville, E.

2009-04-01

358

Urban Runoff Response due to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change may produce a significant modification in the hydrological response that requires a change in overall water resources planning and management. Climate change particularly the projected change in extreme precipitation is likely to affect the runoff characteristics both regionally and temporally. The research presented here will focus on the changes in flood potential due to climate change, specifically event based storms for urban watersheds. The study site is the Flamingo-Tropicana watershed, one of the major contributors to the Las Vegas Wash in Clark County, Nevada. The output from Global Climate Models (GCMs) considers the three standard scenarios (A1B, A2, B1) for future greenhouse gas emissions. The average and maximum data derived from the entire GCM output for all scenarios will be considered. The combined climate and hydrologic modeling will follow three major steps: (1) selection of hydrological model; (2) selection of flood event and creation of climate scenarios; and (3) application of constructed scenarios to the calibrated hydrologic model. Measured flood data will be transformed to future data to represent the future climate conditions. The statistically downscaled climate projections are made available through World Climate Research Programme’s (WCRP’s) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset. The GCM output will be downscaled to simulate the real time future climate scenarios for local impact analysis. The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers ‘HEC’ software will be utilized for modeling the extreme storm event that represents the most severe historical flood event. The analysis will be carried out over future time periods that represents 2010-40, 2040-70 and 2070-2100 (mid 2030’s, 60’s and 90’s). The progressive change in runoff due to future climate trends (precipitation projections) will be used to analyze the adaptability of existing flood control facilities and further improve the design and flood control policies.

Acharya, A.; Piechota, T. C.

2009-12-01

359

Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of future climate change depends substantially on the greenhouse gas emission pathways we choose. Here we explore the implications of the highest and lowest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions pathways for climate change and associated impacts in California. Based on climate projections from two state-of-the-art climate models with low and medium sensitivity (Parallel Climate Model and Hadley

Katharine Hayhoe; Daniel Cayan; Christopher B. Field; Peter C. Frumhoff; Edwin P. Maurer; Norman L. Miller; Susanne C. Moser; Stephen H. Schneider; Kimberly Nicholas Cahill; Elsa E. Cleland; Larry Dale; Ray Drapek; R. Michael Hanemann; Laurence S. Kalkstein; James Lenihan; Claire K. Lunch; Ronald P. Neilson; Scott C. Sheridan; Julia H. Verville

2004-01-01

360

Global Climate Change: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most scientists believe that Earth's climate is changing and in fact heating up. However, they don't all agree about the rate of change, the extent of the impact on our environment, or what can or should be done about it. This module is based on the premise that understanding what influences Earth's energy balance is necessary (though not sufficient) to make sound decisions about climate change. Among the key concepts: how weather and climate relate to transfer of energy in and out of Earth's atmosphere, and how human activities have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-05-16

361

Global climate change and children's health.  

PubMed

There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to this change. PMID:17967923

Shea, Katherine M

2007-10-29

362

Carbon Management Strategy of Tourism in Response to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assertion that climate change is now unequivocally taking place, the Davos Declaration has prioritized the need for the tourism sector to respond to the climate change challenge. There is a need to reduce emissions through carbon management strategy of tourism in response to avoid dangerous climate change. Climate change impacts require tourism

Bao Wen

2010-01-01

363

Temperature-related mortality in France, a comparison between regions with different climates from the perspective of global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to explain the results of an observational population study that was carried out between 1991 and 1995 in six regions (departments) in France. The study was to assess the relationship between temperature and mortality in a few areas of France that offer widely varying climatic conditions and lifestyles, to determine their thermal optimum, defined as a 3°C temperature band with the lowest mortality rate in each area, and then to compare the mortality rates from this baseline band with temperatures above and below the baseline. The study period was selected because it did not include extreme cold or hot events such as a heatwave. Data on daily deaths from each department were first used to examine the entire population and then to examine men, women, various age groups and various causes of death (respiratory disease, stroke, ischæmic heart disease, other disease of the circulatory system, and all other causes excluding violent deaths). Mean temperatures were provided by the National Weather Service. The results depicted an asymmetrical V- or U-shaped relationship between mortality and temperature, with a thermal optimum lower for the elderly, and generally lower for women than for men except in Paris. The relationship was also different depending on the cause of death. In all cases, more evidence was collected showing that cold weather was more deadly than hot weather, and it would now be interesting to enlarge the study to include years with cold spells and heatwaves. Furthermore, the results obtained could be of great use in estimating weather-related mortality as a consequence of future climate-change scenarios.

Laaidi, Mohamed; Laaidi, Karine; Besancenot, Jean-Pierre

2006-11-01

364

Temperature-related mortality in France, a comparison between regions with different climates from the perspective of global warming.  

PubMed

This paper aims to explain the results of an observational population study that was carried out between 1991 and 1995 in six regions (departments) in France. The study was to assess the relationship between temperature and mortality in a few areas of France that offer widely varying climatic conditions and lifestyles, to determine their thermal optimum, defined as a 3 degrees C temperature band with the lowest mortality rate in each area, and then to compare the mortality rates from this baseline band with temperatures above and below the baseline. The study period was selected because it did not include extreme cold or hot events such as a heatwave. Data on daily deaths from each department were first used to examine the entire population and then to examine men, women, various age groups and various causes of death (respiratory disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, other disease of the circulatory system, and all other causes excluding violent deaths). Mean temperatures were provided by the National Weather Service. The results depicted an asymmetrical V- or U-shaped relationship between mortality and temperature, with a thermal optimum lower for the elderly, and generally lower for women than for men except in Paris. The relationship was also different depending on the cause of death. In all cases, more evidence was collected showing that cold weather was more deadly than hot weather, and it would now be interesting to enlarge the study to include years with cold spells and heatwaves. Furthermore, the results obtained could be of great use in estimating weather-related mortality as a consequence of future climate-change scenarios. PMID:16847688

Laaidi, Mohamed; Laaidi, Karine; Besancenot, Jean-Pierre

2006-07-18

365

Cenozoic climate change influences mammalian evolutionary dynamics.  

PubMed

Global climate change is having profound impacts on the natural world. However, climate influence on faunal dynamics at macroevolutionary scales remains poorly understood. In this paper we investigate the influence of climate over deep time on the diversity patterns of Cenozoic North American mammals. We use factor analysis to identify temporally correlated assemblages of taxa, or major evolutionary faunas that we can then study in relation to climatic change over the past 65 million years. These taxa can be grouped into six consecutive faunal associations that show some correspondence with the qualitative mammalian chronofaunas of previous workers. We also show that the diversity pattern of most of these chronofaunas can be correlated with the stacked deep-sea benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope (?(18)O) curve, which strongly suggests climatic forcing of faunal dynamics over a large macroevolutionary timescale. This study demonstrates the profound influence of climate on the diversity patterns of North American terrestrial mammals over the Cenozoic. PMID:22203974

Figueirido, Borja; Janis, Christine M; Pérez-Claros, Juan A; De Renzi, Miquel; Palmqvist, Paul

2011-12-27

366

Introduction: food crops in a changing climate.  

PubMed

Changes in both the mean and the variability of climate, whether naturally forced, or due to human activities, pose a threat to crop production globally. This paper summarizes discussions of this issue at a meeting of the Royal Society in April 2005. Recent advances in understanding the sensitivity of crops to weather, climate and the levels of particular gases in the atmosphere indicate that the impact of these factors on crop yields and quality may be more severe than previously thought. There is increasing information on the importance to crop yields of extremes of temperature and rainfall at key stages of crop development. Agriculture will itself impact on the climate system and a greater understanding of these feedbacks is needed. Complex models are required to perform simulations of climate variability and change, together with predictions of how crops will respond to different climate variables. Variability of climate, such as that associated with El Niño events, has large impacts on crop production. If skilful predictions of the probability of such events occurring can be made a season or more in advance, then agricultural and other societal responses can be made. The development of strategies to adapt to variations in the current climate may also build resilience to changes in future climate. Africa will be the part of the world that is most vulnerable to climate variability and change, but knowledge of how to use climate information and the regional impacts of climate variability and change in Africa is rudimentary. In order to develop appropriate adaptation strategies globally, predictions about changes in the quantity and quality of food crops need to be considered in the context of the entire food chain from production to distribution, access and utilization. Recommendations for future research priorities are given. PMID:16433087

Slingo, Julia M; Challinor, Andrew J; Hoskins, Brian J; Wheeler, Timothy R

2005-11-29

367

Comparison of two soya bean simulation models under climate change : II Application of climate change scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of climate change (for 2050 compared to ambient climate) and change in climatic variability on soya bean growth and production at 3 sites in the EU have been calculated. These calculations have been done with both a simple growth model, SOYBEANW, and a comprehensive model, CROPGRO. Comparison of the results from the 2 models indicated the sort of

J. Wolf

2002-01-01

368

Regional climate change projections over southern Africa: Benefits of a high resolution climate change simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern African region is known to be a biodiversity hotspot but future climate change is likely to have a major influence on the biodiversity. To estimate the impacts of climate change on the biosphere high resolution climate information is needed for both current and future conditions. In the framework of the BIOTA South project we are therefore applying the

A. Haensler; S. Hagemann; D. Jacob

2009-01-01

369

A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Climate Change Index (CCI) is developed that is composed of annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation indicators. These indicators are aggregated to a single index that is a measure for the strength of future climate change relative to today's natural variability. The CCI does not represent climate impacts. Its aim is to comply with the increasing need of policy

Michèle B. Baettig; Martin Wild; Dieter M. Imboden

2007-01-01

370

Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate

Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

2012-01-01

371

Is climate change changing the EU? The second image reversed in climate politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The participation of the European Union (EU) in the international negotiations on climate change has attracted a significant share of scholarly attention. Climate change has certainly become a new dimension of European foreign policy and has enabled the EU to play a leadership role in the international arena. However, the relationship between the EU and the international climate regime is

Oriol Costa

2008-01-01

372

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTIVE RESPONSE IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the distinction between climate and climate change. Adaptation to current climate variability has been proposed as an additional way to approach adaptation to long-term climate change. In effect improved adaptation to current climate is a step in preparation for longer term climate change. International programs of research and assessment are separately organized to deal with natural disasters

Ian Burton

1997-01-01

373

Regional Climate Change Hotspots over Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI), is developed based on regional mean precipitation change, mean surface air temperature change, and change in precipitation and temperature interannual variability. The RCCI is a comparative index designed to identify the most responsive regions to climate change, or Hot- Spots. The RCCI is calculated for Seven land regions over North Africa and Arabian region from the latest set of climate change projections by 14 global climates for the A1B, A2 and B1 IPCC emission scenarios. The concept of climate change can be approaches from the viewpoint of vulnerability or from that of climate response. In the former case a Hot-Spot can be defined as a region for which potential climate change impacts on the environment or different activity sectors can be particularly pronounced. In the other case, a Hot-Spot can be defined as a region whose climate is especially responsive to global change. In particular, the characterization of climate change response-based Hot-Spot can provide key information to identify and investigate climate change Hot-Spots based on results from multi-model ensemble of climate change simulations performed by modeling groups from around the world as contributions to the Fourth Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) is defined based on four variables: change in regional mean surface air temperature relative to the global average temperature change ( or Regional Warming Amplification Factor, RWAF ), change in mean regional precipitation (P % , of present day value ), change in regional surface air temperature interannual variability (T % ,of present day value), change in regional precipitation interannual variability (P % ,of present day value ). In the definition of the RCCI it is important to include quantities other than mean change because often mean changes are not the only important factors for specific impacts. We thus also include inter annual variability, which is critical for many activity sectors, such as agriculture and water management. The RCCI is calculated for the above mentioned set of global climate change simulations and is inter compared across regions to identify climate change, Hot- Spots, that is regions with the largest values of RCCI. It is important to stress that, as will be seen, the RCCI is a comparative index, that is a small RCCI value does not imply a small absolute change, but only a small climate response compared to other regions. The models used are: CCMA-3-T47 CNRM-CM3 CSIRO-MK3 GFDL-CM2-0 GISS-ER INMCM3 IPSL-CM4 MIROC3-2M MIUB-ECHO-G MPI-ECHAM5 MRI-CGCM2 NCAR-CCSM3 NCAR-PCM1 UKMO-HADCM3

Anber, U.; Zakey, A.; Abd El Wahab, M.

2009-04-01

374

Regional Climate Change Hotspots over Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI), is developed based on regional mean precipitation change, mean surface air temperature change, and change in precipitation and temperature interannual variability. The RCCI is a comparative index designed to identify the most responsive regions to climate change, or Hot- Spots. The RCCI is calculated for Seven land regions over North Africa and Arabian region from the latest set of climate change projections by 14 global climates for the A1B, A2 and B1 IPCC emission scenarios. The concept of climate change can be approaches from the viewpoint of vulnerability or from that of climate response. In the former case a Hot-Spot can be defined as a region for which potential climate change impacts on the environment or different activity sectors can be particularly pronounced. In the other case, a Hot-Spot can be defined as a region whose climate is especially responsive to global change. In particular, the characterization of climate change response-based Hot-Spot can provide key information to identify and investigate climate change Hot-Spots based on results from multi-model ensemble of climate change simulations performed by modeling groups from around the world as contributions to the Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) is defined based on four variables: change in regional mean surface air temperature relative to the global average temperature change ( or Regional Warming Amplification Factor, RWAF ), change in mean regional precipitation ( , of present day value ), change in regional surface air temperature interannual variability ( ,of present day value), change in regional precipitation interannual variability ( , of present day value ). In the definition of the RCCI it is important to include quantities other than mean change because often mean changes are not the only important factors for specific impacts. We thus also include inter annual variability, which is critical for many activity sectors, such as agriculture and water management. The RCCI is calculated for the above mentioned set of global climate change simulations and is inter compared across regions to identify climate change, Hot- Spots, that is regions with the largest values of RCCI. It is important to stress that, as will be seen, the RCCI is a comparative index, that is a small RCCI value does not imply a small absolute change, but only a small climate response compared to other regions. The models used are: CCMA-3-T47 CNRM-CM3 CSIRO-MK3 GFDL-CM2-0 GISS-ER INMCM3 IPSL-CM4 MIROC3-2M MIUB-ECHO-G MPI-ECHAM5 MRI-CGCM2 NCAR-CCSM3 NCAR-PCM1 UKMO-HADCM3 Note that the 3 IPCC emission scenarios, A1B, B1 and A2 almost encompass the entire IPCC scenario range, the A2 being close to the high end of the range, the B1 close to the low end and the A1B lying toward the middle of the range. The model data are obtained from the IPCC site and are interpolated onto a common 1 degree grid to facilitate intercomparison. The RCCI is here defined as in Giorgi (2006), except that the entire yea is devided into two six months periods, D J F M A M and J J A S O N. RCCI=[n(?P)?n(??P)+n(RWAF)+n(??T)]D...M + [n(?P)?n(??P)+n(RWAF)+n(??T)]J…N (1)

Anber, U.

2009-04-01

375

The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a dynamical method for modelling temporal and geographical variations in ammonia emissions in regional-scale chemistry transport models (CTMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs). The method is based on the meteorology in the models and gridded inventories. We use the dynamical method to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of ammonia emissions across part of Europe and study how these emissions are related to geographical and year-to-year variations in atmospheric temperature alone. For simplicity we focus on the emission from a storage facility related to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections from an ensemble of climate models. The results point towards four overall issues. (1) Emissions can easily vary by 20% for different geographical locations within a country due to overall variations in climate. The largest uncertainties are seen for large countries such as the UK, Germany and France. (2) Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20%. (3) Climate change may increase emissions by 0-40% in central to northern Europe. (4) Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen between neighbour countries (e.g. between the UK and France) can be reduced by using a dynamical methodology for calculating emissions. Acting together these four factors can cause substantial uncertainties in emission. Emissions are generally considered among the largest uncertainties in the model calculations made with CTM and CCM models. Efforts to reduce uncertainties are therefore highly relevant. It is therefore recommended that both CCMs and CTMs implement a dynamical methodology for simulating ammonia emissions in a similar way as for biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) - a method that has been used for more than a decade in CTMs. Finally, the climate penalty on ammonia emissions should be taken into account at the policy level such as the NEC and IPPC directives.

Skjøth, C. A.; Geels, C.

2013-01-01

376

Lakes as sentinels of climate change  

PubMed Central

While there is a general sense that lakes can act as sentinels of climate change, their efficacy has not been thoroughly analyzed. We identified the key response variables within a lake that act as indicators of the effects of climate change on both the lake and the catchment. These variables reflect a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological responses to climate. However, the efficacy of the different indicators is affected by regional response to climate change, characteristics of the catchment, and lake mixing regimes. Thus, particular indicators or combinations of indicators are more effective for different lake types and geographic regions. The extraction of climate signals can be further complicated by the influence of other environmental changes, such as eutrophication or acidification, and the equivalent reverse phenomena, in addition to other land-use influences. In many cases, however, confounding factors can be addressed through analytical tools such as detrending or filtering. Lakes are effective sentinels for climate change because they are sensitive to climate, respond rapidly to change, and integrate information about changes in the catchment.

Adrian, Rita; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Zagarese, Horacio; Baines, Stephen B.; Hessen, Dag O.; Keller, Wendel; Livingstone, David M.; Sommaruga, Ruben; Straile, Dietmar; Van Donk, Ellen; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Winder, Monika

2010-01-01

377

Invertebrates, ecosystem services and climate change.  

PubMed

The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. Unquestionably a dominant feature of most ecosystems, invertebrates affect many ecosystem services and are also highly responsive to climate change. However, there is still a basic lack of understanding of the direct and indirect paths by which invertebrates influence ecosystem services, as well as how climate change will affect those ecosystem services by altering invertebrate populations. This indicates a lack of communication and collaboration among scientists researching ecosystem services and climate change effects on invertebrates, and land managers and researchers from other disciplines, which becomes obvious when systematically reviewing the literature relevant to invertebrates, ecosystem services, and climate change. To address this issue, we review how invertebrates respond to climate change. We then review how invertebrates both positively and negatively influence ecosystem services. Lastly, we provide some critical future directions for research needs, and suggest ways in which managers, scientists and other researchers may collaborate to tackle the complex issue of sustaining invertebrate-mediated services under a changing climate. PMID:23217156

Prather, Chelse M; Pelini, Shannon L; Laws, Angela; Rivest, Emily; Woltz, Megan; Bloch, Christopher P; Del Toro, Israel; Ho, Chuan-Kai; Kominoski, John; Newbold, T A Scott; Parsons, Sheena; Joern, A

2012-12-06

378

Global Warming and Climate Change Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change has emerged as a major scientific and political issue within a few short decades. Scientific evidence clearly indicates that this change is a result of a complex interplay between a number of human-related and natural earth systems. While the complexity of the earth-ocean-atmosphere system makes the understanding and prediction of global climate change very difficult, improved scientific

Atul Jain

2008-01-01

379

Natural and anthropogenic climate change. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report describes a one-year research project which was the initial phase of a research program intended: (1) to refine and validate a 2-D climate model for studying the CO/sub 2/ and trace gases climatic effects; and (2) to participate in the United States of America (USA) Department of Energy/The People's Republic of China (PRC) Academia Sinica research project on CO/sub 2/-induced climate changes. The overall objective is to find ways to model regional climate change in a global warming environment potentially induced by CO/sub 2/ increase. The first task has two subtasks: (a) to incorporate a boundary layer parameterization into the 2-D radiative-dynamical model of Wang et al. (1984) and study its impact on climate sensitivity; and (b) to validate the 2-D radiative-dynamical models through comparisons with data and with other more comprehensive climate models so that our confidence in the model simulation of trace gases climatic effects can be increased. The second task is intended to: (a) analyze the climate data to improve our understanding of local/regional climate changes (in particular the desertification problem); and (b) coordinate the various research programs within the USA/PRC CO/sub 2/ project, which is critical in successfully achieving the research project scientific goals.

Wang, W.C.; Ronberg, B.; Gutowski, W.; Molnar, G.; Li, K.R.

1986-08-01

380

Detecting Arctic Climate Change Using KÖppen Climate Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological impacts of the recent warming trend in the Arctic are already noted as changes in tree line and a decrease in tundra area with the replacement of ground cover by shrubs in northern Alaska and several locations in northern Eurasia. The potential impact of vegetation changes to feedbacks on the atmospheric climate system is substantial because of the large

MUYIN WANG; JAMES E. OVERLAND

2004-01-01

381

Detecting Arctic climate change using Köppen climate classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological impacts of the recent warming trend in the Arctic are already noted as a decrease in tundra area with replacement by shrubs, and changes in the tree line. The potential impact of vegetation changes to feedbacks on the atmospheric climate system is enormous because of their large land surface area and the multiyear memory of the vegetation cover. While

M. Wang; J. Overland

2003-01-01

382

On an International Framework Convention on Climate Change: Global climate change in the context of global change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The report prepared by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for the Second World Climate Conference contains\\u000a well-weighted assessments of the present-day state of climate studies and of the possible consequences of climate change.\\u000a Since IPCC's report is supposed to be a basis for working out an International Framework Convention on Climate Change, an\\u000a analysis has been made of

K. Ya. Kondratyev

1992-01-01

383

Physiological mechanisms in coping with climate change.  

PubMed

Although many studies have modeled the effects of climate change on future species distributions and extinctions, the theoretical approach most commonly used-climate envelope modeling-typically ignores the potential physiological capacity of animals to respond to climate change. We explore the consequences of the phenotypic plasticity available to animals, by examining physiological responses of free-living animals in their natural habitats and by applying integrative, mechanistic models of heat exchange in invertebrates and humans. Specifically, we explore how behavioral, autonomic, and morphological modifications such as nocturnal activity, selective brain cooling, and body color may potentially serve as buffers to the consequences of climate change. Although some species may adapt to climate change through phenotypic plasticity, there are significant limits to this strategy. Furthermore, predictions of the response of organisms to changes in climate can be erroneous when modeled at large scales using coarse spatial or temporal data. Environmental heterogeneity can provide habitats suitable for species even though large-scale changes in the climate might predict a species' extinction. A detailed understanding of physiology, combined with integrative biophysical modeling and ecological manipulation, provides a powerful tool for predicting future ecological patterns and managing their consequences. PMID:20578846

Fuller, Andrea; Dawson, Terence; Helmuth, Brian; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K

384

Identifying uncertainties in Arctic climate change projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide ranging climate changes are expected in the Arctic by the end of the 21st century, but projections of the size of these changes vary widely across current global climate models. This variation represents a large source of uncertainty in our understanding of the evolution of Arctic climate. Here we systematically quantify and assess the model uncertainty in Arctic climate changes in two CO2 doubling experiments: a multimodel ensemble (CMIP3) and an ensemble constructed using a single model (HadCM3) with multiple parameter perturbations (THC-QUMP). These two ensembles allow us to assess the contribution that both structural and parameter variations across models make to the total uncertainty and to begin to attribute sources of uncertainty in projected changes. We find that parameter uncertainty is an major source of uncertainty in certain aspects of Arctic climate. But also that uncertainties in the mean climate state in the 20th century, most notably in the northward Atlantic ocean heat transport and Arctic sea ice volume, are a significant source of uncertainty for projections of future Arctic change. We suggest that better observational constraints on these quantities will lead to significant improvements in the precision of projections of future Arctic climate change.

Hodson, Daniel L. R.; Keeley, Sarah P. E.; West, Alex; Ridley, Jeff; Hawkins, Ed; Hewitt, Helene T.

2013-06-01

385

Climatic Change as a Mathematical Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulating reasonable hypotheses regarding climatic change requires physical insight and ingenuity, but subsequently testing these hypotheses demands quantitative computation. Many features of today's climate have been reproduced by mathematical models (equations arranged for numerical solution by digital computers), similar to those used in weather prediction. Models currently in use generally predict only the atmosphere, and pre-specify the state of its

Edward N. Lorenz

1970-01-01

386

How Can We Avert Dangerous Climate Change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent analyses indicate that the amount of atmospheric CO2 required to cause dangerous climate change is at most 450 ppm, and likely less than that. Reductions of non-CO2 climate forcings can provide only moderate, albeit important, adjustments to the CO2 limit. Realization of how close the planet is to \\

James Hansen

2007-01-01

387

A Cooperative Classroom Investigation of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists have a particularly difficult time explaining warming trends in Antarctica--a region with a relatively short history of scientific observation and a highly variable climate (Clarke et al. 2007). Regardless of the mechanism of warming, however, climate change is having a dramatic impact on Antarctic ecosystems. In this article, the…

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

2007-01-01

388

Biofuels: A Solution for Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our lives are linked to weather and climate, and to energy use. Since the late 1970s, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has invested in research and technology related to global climate change. DOE's Office Fuels Development (OFD) manages the National B...

S. Woodward

1999-01-01

389

Airport management in a changing economic climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the rapidly changing climate of aviation in a climate of movement toward liberalization, deregulation and privatization. After discussing the principal motives for deregulation and privatization, the author deals with the various methods currently used for effecting privatization of airports. A categorization of airports is produced depending on airport function, scale and political jurisdiction to identify how

Norman Ashford

1994-01-01

390

SENSITITVITY OF MOUNTAIN REGIONS TO CLIMATIC CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountains are also a key element of the hydrological cycle, being the source of many of the world's major river systems. Shifts in climatic regimes, particularly precipitation, in space or seasonally in a changing global climate, would impact heavily on the river systems originating in mountain areas, leading to disruptions of the existing socio-economic structures of populations living within the

Martin Beniston; Wilfried Haeberli

391

Climate change mitigation and intergenerational justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing climate change mitigation policies are particularly concerned with the reconciliation of two seemingly conflicting aims: environmental protection and economic efficiency. The normative principles underlying these policies meanwhile focus on two central ideas: fair burden-sharing and agents' responsibility. However, both existing policy instruments and their supporting philosophical principles are highly problematic in terms of intergenerational justice and truly effective climate

Fabian Schuppert

2011-01-01

392

Diagnosis Earth: The Climate Change Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the scrum of popular and political discourse on global warming, the scholarship of climate science is often left sitting on the sideline. Yet understanding the science and the scientists presents the best chance of developing an informed opinion about climate change. Confusion about the science, misunderstanding of risk assessment and…

Anderegg, William R. L.

2010-01-01

393

An ecological ‘footprint’ of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been increasing evidence of species' range shifts due to changes in climate. Whereas most of these shifts relate ground truth biogeographic data to a general warming trend in regional or global climate data, we here present a reanalysis of both biogeographic and bioclimatic data of equal spatio- temporal resolution, covering a time span of more than 50

Gian-Reto Walther; Silje Berger; Martin T. Sykes

2005-01-01

394

Addressing climate change: a media perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysing media coverage can shed light on the politics of climate policy. Conventional notions of how the public sphere represents (or fails to represent) significant social and political issues to citizens are examined. The prominence of global warming stories in the British press is a principal focus. The contours of climate change discourse and the coverage of emissions trading are

Neil T. Gavin

2009-01-01

395

Earth science: The timing of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative assessment of climate change calculates the year in which ongoing warming will surpass the limits of historical climate variability. Three experts explain this calculation's significance compared with conventional approaches, and its relevance to Earth's biodiversity. See Article p.183

Huntingford, Chris; Mercado, Lina; Post, Eric

2013-10-01

396

Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Glaciers serve as early indicators of climate change. Over the last 35 years, our research team has recovered ice-core records of climatic and environmental variations from the polar regions and from low-latitude high-elevation ice fields from 16 countries. The ongoing widespread melting of high-elevation glaciers and ice caps, particularly in…

Thompson, Lonnie G.

2010-01-01

397

Extreme Weather Events: Lessons for Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

To cope with coming climate change will require that we: (1) assess our future vulnerabilities; (2) mitigate our anthropogenic contributions; and (3) adapt where possible. Since our abilities in these three areas are limited, we must (4) accelerate our research and (5) step up our technology development across the board. Our task is made more daunting because climate and weather

William H. Hooke

2001-01-01

398

CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTION USING DATA MINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great progress has been made in the effort to understand and predict El Nino, the anomalous warming of the sea surface temperature (SST) along the equator off the coast of South America which has a strong impact on the climate change over the world. Advances in improved climate predictions will result in significantly enhanced economic opportunities, particularly for the national

N. Shikoun; H. El-Bolok; M. A. Ismail

2005-01-01

399

Mammalian Response to Cenozoic Climatic Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple episodes of rapid and gradual climatic changes influenced the evolution and ecology of mammalian species and communities throughout the Cenozoic. Climatic change influenced the abundance, genetic diversity, morphology, and geographic ranges of individual species. Within communities these responses interacted to catalyze immigration, speciation, and extinction. Combined they affected long-term patterns of community stability, functional turnover, biotic turnover, and diversity. Although the relative influence of climate on particular evolutionary processes is oft debated, an understanding of processes at the root of biotic change yields important insights into the complexity of mammalian response. Ultimately, all responses trace to events experienced by populations. However, many such processes emerge as patterns above the species level, where shared life history traits and evolutionary history allow us to generalize about mammalian response to climatic change. These generalizations provide the greatest power to understand and predict mammalian responses to current and future global change.

Blois, Jessica L.; Hadly, Elizabeth A.

2009-05-01

400

Regional climate modelling of 2m temperature and precipitation changes in future climate over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) has been used to assess 2m temperature and precipitation change and variability over Europe. RegCM3 was forced with coupled ocean-atmosphere model (ECHAM5 and MPI-OM). Dynamical downscaling of three ensemble members was performed for present climate (period P0:1961-1990) and future climate (period P1:2011-2040, period P2:2041-2070) under the IPCC A2 scenario. Regional model domain covered central and southern Europe and small part of northern Africa. RegCM3 horizontal resolution was 35km. The P0 period was verified against CRU dataset for all seasons. The analysis of climate change was focused on changes in annual cycle, seasonal means and variability between two future periods and present climate. Student's t-test was used to assess statistical significance of changes in mean climate. RegCM3 exhibits cold bias in all seasons except in winter when warmer temperatures are seen over most of Europe. In summer, model is too dry over central and eastern Europe and in the Mediterranean region, while wet bias is seen in northern part of the domain. In other seasons wet bias is extended further south, and dry bias is seen only over the Alps and in coastal regions in the Mediterranean area. In future climate, warming is strongest in summer and over Mediterranean region, particularly over the Iberian peninsula. In winter and spring, warming is dominant in northeastern part of the domain. The amplitude of warming is higher for maximum than for minimum temperatures. Climate change signal is stronger in P2 than in P1. In spring and summer in P1, precipitation will increase in eastern and decrease in western part of the domain. In autumn, precipitation will increase in southern part of the domain, while in winter changes in precipitation are very small with decrease in the Mediterranean coastal regions, and increase over France. In the second period (P2), decrease in southern and increase in northern part of the domain is seen in all seasons except in summer, when precipitation will decrease in western Europe and in the Mediterranean, with very small changes in central and northeastern Europe.

Patarcic, M.; Guettler, I.; Srnec, L.; Brankovic, C.

2010-09-01

401

The changing world of climate change: Oregon leads the States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following on the heels of recent national and international developments in climate change policy, Oregon's ‘best-of-batch’ processing has validated the use of CO2 offsets as a cost-effective means of advancing climate change mitigation goals. The proceeding was a first in several respects and represents a record commitment of funds to CO2 mitigation by a private entity.

Philip H. Carver; Sam Sadler; Laura H. Kosloff; Mark C. Trexler

1997-01-01

402

A Grid Application on Climate Change in EUAsiaGrid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over periods of decades or longer, regardless of cause. However this change could be very different from one region to another. Glaciers are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change, advancing when climate cools and retreating when climate warms.

Cofiño, A. S.; Boonya-Aroonnet, S.; Chitradon, Royol; Lin, Simon C.; Paganoni, Marco; Petitdidier, M.; Yen, Eric

403

Bahamians and Climate Change: An Analysis of Risk Perception and Climate Change Literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is forecasted to be adversely impacted by the effects of climate change. This presentation will present the results of an assessment of the risk perception toward climate change and climate change literacy among Bahamians. 499 Bahamians from the health care and hospitality industries participated in surveys and/or focus groups and three (3) areas of climate change literacy (attitude, behavior and knowledge) were analyzed as well as risk perception. In general, 1) Bahamians demonstrated an elementary understanding of the underlying causes of climate change, 2) possessed positive attitudes toward adopting new climate change policies, and 3) are already adjusting their behaviors in light of the current predictions. This research also resulted in the development of a model of the relationships between the climate literacy subscales (attitude, behavior and knowledge) and risk perception. This study also examined information sources and their impacts on climate change literacy. As the source of information is important in assessing the quality of the information, participants also identified the source(s) of most of their climate change information. The TV news was cited as the most common source for climate change information among Bahamians. As there is limited active research generating specific climate change information in the Bahamas, all the information Bahamians receive as it pertains to climate change is generated abroad. As a result, Bahamians must decipher through to make sense of it on an individual level. From the focus groups, many of the participants have been able to view possible changes through a cultural lens and are willing to make adjustments to maintain the uniqueness and viability of the Bahamas and to preserve it for generations. Continued study of Bahamians' climate change literacy will inform adaption and mitigation policy as well as individual action.

Neely, R.; Owens, M. A.

2011-12-01

404

The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 1000 prominent representatives from science, industry, politics and NGOs were gathered in Aarhus on 5-7 March 2009 for the international climate conference 'Beyond Kyoto: Addressing the Challenges of Climate Change'. Thematically, Beyond Kyoto was divided into seven areas of particular interest for understanding the effects of the projected future climate change and how the foreseen negative impacts can be counteracted by mitigation and adaptation measures. The themes were: Climate policy: the role of law and economics; Biodiversity and ecosystems; Agriculture and climate change; Nanotechnology solutions for a sustainable future; Citizens and society, and The Arctic. The main responsible scientists for the seven conference themes and representatives from the think-tank CONCITO delivered 'The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change' as part of the closing session of the conference. The statements were also communicated to the Danish Government as well as to the press. This article is the product of the collective subsequent work of the seven theme responsibles and is a presentation of each theme statement in detail, emphasizing the current state of knowledge and how it may be used to minimize the expected negative impacts of future climate change.

Margrethe Basse, Ellen; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Læssøe, Jeppe; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Lange, Lene

2009-03-01

405

Modeling Coastline Response to Changing Storm Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gradients in wave-driven alongshore sediment transport cause long-term change in the shape of sandy coastlines. Recent modeling work (Ashton, et. al. 2001; Ashton and Murray 2006) suggests coastlines can attain shapes that are in quasi-equilibrium with a regional wave climate—the distribution of wave influences as a function of deep-water wave-approach angles. Changes in storm frequency and/or magnitude will alter the wave climates affecting coastlines. Such a shift in wave forcing will tend to alter large-scale shapes of sedimentary coastlines (Slott et al., 2007). Even moderate changes in wave climate may cause coastlines to change shape rapidly, compared to a steady-wave-climate scenario. Such large-scale shape changes involve greatly accentuated rates of local erosion, and highly variable erosion/accretion rates. A recent analysis of wave records from the Southeastern US (Komar and Allen, 2007) indicates that wave climates have already been changing; for the past three decades, the heights of waves attributable to tropical storms have been increasing, changing the angular distribution of wave influences. These observations motivate ongoing, more refined modeling of how coastlines in this region should already be changing shape. Simulating patterns of shoreline change on actual coastlines involves examining the role of varying dynamical approximations in sub models of different environments (including wave propagation over the continental shelf) and uncertainties in model forcing (including the relationship between offshore buoy records and the wave climates affecting the coastline, when storm tracks often extend onshore of the buoy). Results suggest that modifications to the wave climate as recently seen along the Southeastern US give rise to rapid changes in shoreline shape and associated changes in patterns of erosion and accretion. Comparisons with results from related work, in which we examine historical and recent patterns of shoreline change for the Carolina coastline, provide a promising test of location-specific model predictions.

McNamara, D.; Murray, A. B.; Moore, L. J.; Brenner, O.

2009-12-01

406

Native Student Filmmakers Focus on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment features student filmmakers from Haskell Indian Nations University. Their film project, titled Where Words Touch the Earth, is a vehicle to share indigenous wisdom with other Native students and with the broader population who view their work. The video segment features Native student filmmakers as well as Elders talking about climate change. It begins with the student filmmakers explaining the meaning behind the film project, Where Words Touch the Earth, and why their involvement matters. Native Elders then share some of their observations of how climate has changed and the sense of responsibility Native people share not to stand idly by in the face of change. The background essay explains how climate change affects us all, and helps promote the idea of knowledge about climate change and our environment. The discussion questions ask what students themselves can do to help climate change, as well as what aspects of climate change interest the student the most. There is a helpful section that shows your states standards for grades K-12, and links are provided for related resources on the teachers domain website.

2010-01-01

407

Climate change, uncertainty, and natural resource management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate change and its associated uncertainties are of concern to natural resource managers. Although aspects of climate change may be novel (e.g., system change and nonstationarity), natural resource managers have long dealt with uncertainties and have developed corresponding approaches to decision-making. Adaptive resource management is an application of structured decision-making for recurrent decision problems with uncertainty, focusing on management objectives, and the reduction of uncertainty over time. We identified 4 types of uncertainty that characterize problems in natural resource management. We examined ways in which climate change is expected to exacerbate these uncertainties, as well as potential approaches to dealing with them. As a case study, we examined North American waterfowl harvest management and considered problems anticipated to result from climate change and potential solutions. Despite challenges expected to accompany the use of adaptive resource management to address problems associated with climate change, we conclude that adaptive resource management approaches will be the methods of choice for managers trying to deal with the uncertainties of climate change. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

Nichols, J. D.; Koneff, M. D.; Heglund, P. J.; Knutson, M. G.; Seamans, M. E.; Lyons, J. E.; Morton, J. M.; Jones, M. T.; Boomer, G. S.; Williams, B. K.

2011-01-01

408

Anthropogenic Climate Change in Asia: Key Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy, agricultural, and water sectors in Asia, a vast continent that comprises more than half of the world's population, are crucially vulnerable to shifts in climate. The acceleration of economic development in Asia over the past few decades, the dependence of its huge agricultural economy on rainfall, and its growing energy demands have thrust climate change and its impacts squarely into important sectors of the Asian society. Further, it is likely that there has been significant anthropogenic warming over the past 50 years averaged over the Asian continent (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [2007]; see Figure 1a). Asian megacities are already witnessing stresses in food, water, transportation, health, and air quality. The situation could become even worse with projected changes in temperature and rainfall in the 21st century, coupled with the likelihood that climate change will exacerbate extremes.

Ramaswamy, V.

2009-12-01

409

Global Climate Change: National Security Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carolyn Pumphrey Triangle Institute for Security Studies The Evolution of a Problem. Until fairly recent times no one thought climate changed, let alone was influenced by human activities. By the 19th century, scientists were theorizing that temperatures ...

C. Pumphrey

2008-01-01

410

CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL ISOPRENE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission of isoprene from vegetation affects tropospheric chemistry at the regional and global scales. rojected global climate change will potentially alter emission rates, with corresponding influences on concentrations of ozone and other radiatively important trace gases. rogre...

411

Catalyzing Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DISCCRS: Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Climate Change Research; Mesa, Arizona, 13-20 March 2010; Each year, the Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Climate Change Research (DISCCRS; http://disccrs.org) brings together a select group of 34 recent Ph.D. graduates to facilitate peer networking and professional development and to encourage interdisciplinary research related to climate change. This year, the invited scholars included physical, biological, and social scientists specializing in fields ranging from atmospheric science to environmental governance. The meeting focused on the challenges and benefits of collaborative interdisciplinary research and the imperative to achieve climate change solutions. Professional development activities provided participants with new tools for scientific communication, leadership, and facilitation of collaboration. The symposium demonstrated the value of interacting in an intensive, structured setting with a highly diverse group around a shared scientific interest.

Marlon, Jennifer R.; Patenaude, Genevieve; Barnes, Rebecca T.

2010-08-01

412

Hitting Home: Climate Change in Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students examine and interpret varied observational datasets and are asked to determine whether the data supports or does not support the statement: climate change is occurring in Colorado.

Bicknell, Laura; Courtney, Kellie; Campbell, Jessica; Gerber, John; Boulder, University O.

413

Climate Change and the Health of Children  

MedlinePLUS

... differences in physiology and psychology. Top of page Air Pollution The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects declining ... Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Environmental Health. Ambient Air Pollution: Health Hazards to Children. Pediatrics . 2004; 1699-1707 ...

414

United States: Taking Action on Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Climate change threatens the United States and all nations. To help address this threat, the United States is taking significant new steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. During the past year, President Clinton launched initiatives on bioenergy, wind ...

1999-01-01

415

Climate Change and Global Isoprene Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emission of isoprene from vegetation affects tropospheric chemistry at the regional and global scales. Projected global climate change will potentially alter emission rates, with corresponding influences on concentrations of ozone and other radiatively im...

D. P. Turner A. G. Wones D. Pross D. L. Phillips

1991-01-01

416

CLIMATE CHANGE: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This State of Knowledge document presents an introduction to human effects that during the past 100 years have led to increased atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in global temperatures. The world's leading climate scientists have concluded that Ea...

417

Polar Bears and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer reviewed article discusses how a warming climate is altering sea ice conditions, which affects polar bears in many ways, including more difficulty in getting to and hunting prey, fewer den areas and lower cub survival, increased interactions between bears and humans, and lower survival rate of the species in general.

Andrew E. Derocher (University of Alberta, Canada;)

2008-05-01

418

Negotiating challenges and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulties in negotiating a post-2012 regime of binding targets and timetables and the decisions of the US, Canada, and Russia on the Kyoto Protocol regime have led to pessimism about the future of the climate regime. Negotiation issues for different coalitions and actors are placed in a wider historical context by examining the key challenge facing the evolving long-term

Joyeeta Gupta

2012-01-01

419

A Record of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hydrologic cycle is a very basic scientific principle. In this article, background information is presented on how the hydrologic cycle provides scientists with clues to understanding the history of Earth's climate. Also detailed is a web-based activity that allows students to learn about how scientists are able to piece together a record of…

Smith, Zach

2007-01-01

420

Climate Change and Crop Yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our data are county level yields. Soil quality and climatic conditions can vary significantly within a county and the estimated value at the centroid might be quite different from what farmers experience. To more accurately reflect this reality, we therefore average the soil characteristics over all the farmland area in a county. Farmland area is derived from the 1992 National

Wolfram Schlenker

421

Climatic Change, Wildfire, and Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic variability is a dominant factor affecting large wildfires in the western United States, an observation supported by palaeoecological data on charcoal in lake sediments and reconstructions from fire-scarred trees. Although current fire management focuses on fuel reductions to bring fuel loadings back to their historical ranges, at the regional scale extreme fire weather is still the dominant influence on

DONALD McKENZIE; ZE'EV GEDALOF; DAVID L. PETERSON; PHILIP MOTE

2004-01-01

422

A Record of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The hydrologic cycle is a very basic scientific principle. In this article, background information is presented on how the hydrologic cycle provides scientists with clues to understanding the history of Earth's climate. Also detailed is a web-based activity that allows students to learn about how scientists are able to piece together a record of…

Smith, Zach

2007-01-01

423

Engaging the Public in Climate Change Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, currently finishing its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (life

K. K. Meymaris; S. Henderson; P. Alaback; K. Havens; J. Schwarz Ballard

2009-01-01

424

Electricity demand in a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our interest is in electricity demand and the temperature aspects of climate change. Electricity consumption is of interest\\u000a both from the perspectives of adaptation to climate change and emission reductions. We study the relationship between European\\u000a electricity consumption and outdoor temperature and other variables, using a panel data set of 31 countries. Apart from providing\\u000a a rare quantitative window into

Gunnar S. Eskeland; Torben K. Mideksa

2010-01-01

425

International business and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to climate change: Technology and institutionsClimate change represents the ultimate trade-off between human wellbeing and the burden placed on the natural environment. The criticality of this trade-off appears in stark relief when the UN's Human Development Index is graphed against the earth's current bio-capacity. The earth's bio-capacity is characterized by the ecological footprint, the ratio of the demand for

Sarianna M Lundan

2011-01-01

426

Global Climate Change, Stress and Plant Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global climate change, rated as the most serious threat to the environment, has been the center of debate among environmentalists\\u000a and policy makers as it has become not only an environmental, a political and an economic issue, but also a global problem,\\u000a of which agriculture is the major target. At the plant or field scale, climate change is likely to

Altaf Ahmad; Hema Diwan; Yash P. Abrol

427

Leaf morphology shift linked to climate change  

PubMed Central

Climate change is driving adaptive shifts within species, but research on plants has been focused on phenology. Leaf morphology has demonstrated links with climate and varies within species along climate gradients. We predicted that, given within-species variation along a climate gradient, a morphological shift should have occurred over time due to climate change. We tested this prediction, taking advantage of latitudinal and altitudinal variations within the Adelaide Geosyncline region, South Australia, historical herbarium specimens (n = 255) and field sampling (n = 274). Leaf width in the study taxon, Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustissima, was negatively correlated with latitude regionally, and leaf area was negatively correlated with altitude locally. Analysis of herbarium specimens revealed a 2 mm decrease in leaf width (total range 1–9 mm) over 127 years across the region. The results are consistent with a morphological response to contemporary climate change. We conclude that leaf width is linked to maximum temperature regionally (latitude gradient) and leaf area to minimum temperature locally (altitude gradient). These data indicate a morphological shift consistent with a direct response to climate change and could inform provenance selection for restoration with further investigation of the genetic basis and adaptive significance of observed variation.

Guerin, Greg R.; Wen, Haixia; Lowe, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

428

Framing Climate Change to Account for Values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Belief, trust and values are important but generally overlooked in efforts to communicate climate change. Because climate change has often been framed too narrowly as an environmental issue, it has failed to engage segments of the public for whom environmentalism is not an important value. Worse, for some of these people, environmentalism and the policies that accompany it may be seen as a threat to their core values, such as the importance of personal freedoms and the free market. Climate science educators can improve this situation by more appropriately framing climate change as an issue affecting the economy and our most basic human needs: food, water, shelter, security, health, jobs, and the safety of our families. Further, because people trust and listen to those with whom they share cultural values, climate change educators can stress the kinds of values their audiences share. They can also enlist the support of opinion leaders known for holding these values. In addition, incorporating messages about solutions to climate change and their many benefits to economic prosperity, human health, and other values is an important component of meeting this challenge. We must also recognize that local impacts are of greater concern to most people than changes that feel distant in place and time. Different audiences have different concerns, and effective educators will learn what their audiences care about and tailor their messages accordingly.

Hassol, S. J.

2011-12-01

429

Tittel: Climate change and sustainability in Europe Title: Climate change and sustainability in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the climate history of the Earth, exploring some of the driving forces of climate change along the way. It points out that it may not be the gradual increase in global mean temperature that we have to fear the most. Rather the variability of the climate may pose an even greater threat to us. The paper outlines

Knut H. Alfsen

430

Projecting Climate Change Impacts on Wildfire Probabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of the 2008 Climate Change Impact Assessment for wildfire in California, part of the second biennial science report to the California Climate Action Team organized via the California Climate Change Center by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research Program pursuant to Executive Order S-03-05 of Governor Schwarzenegger. In order to support decision making by the State pertaining to mitigation of and adaptation to climate change and its impacts, we model wildfire occurrence monthly from 1950 to 2100 under a range of climate scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We use six climate change models (GFDL CM2.1, NCAR PCM1, CNRM CM3, MPI ECHAM5, MIROC3.2 med, NCAR CCSM3) under two emissions scenarios--A2 (C02 850ppm max atmospheric concentration) and B1(CO2 550ppm max concentration). Climate model output has been downscaled to a 1/8 degree (~12 km) grid using two alternative methods: a Bias Correction and Spatial Donwscaling (BCSD) and a Constructed Analogues (CA) downscaling. Hydrologic variables have been simulated from temperature, precipitation, wind and radiation forcing data using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Macroscale Hydrologic Model. We model wildfire as a function of temperature, moisture deficit, and land surface characteristics using nonlinear logistic regression techniques. Previous work on wildfire climatology and seasonal forecasting has demonstrated that these variables account for much of the inter-annual and seasonal variation in wildfire. The results of this study are monthly gridded probabilities of wildfire occurrence by fire size class, and estimates of the number of structures potentially affected by fires. In this presentation we will explore the range of modeled outcomes for wildfire in California, considering the effects of emissions scenarios, climate model sensitivities, downscaling methods, hydrologic simulations, statistical model specifications for california wildfire, and their intersection with a range of development scenarios for California.

Westerling, A. L.; Bryant, B. P.; Preisler, H.

2008-12-01

431

Climate Change on the Antarctic Peninsula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula, learners investigate environmental changes in the living and nonliving resources of Antarctic peninsula and the impact of these changes on AdÃlie penguin communities. The activity stresses the importance of evidence in the formulation of scientific explanations.

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Jr., Richard E.; Magazine, M. U.

432

Enhancing the Communication of Climate Change Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate scientists have an important role to play in the critical task of informing the public, media and policymakers. Scientists can help in publicizing and illuminating climate science. However, this task requires combining climate science expertise with advanced communication skills. For example, it is entirely possible to convey scientific information accurately without using jargon or technical concepts unfamiliar to non-scientists. However, making this translation into everyday language is a job that few scientists have been trained to do. In this talk, we give examples from our recent experience working with scientists to enhance their ability to communicate well. Our work includes providing training, technical assistance, and communications tools to climate scientists and universities, government agencies, and research centers. Our experience ranges from preparing Congressional testimony to writing major climate science reports to appearing on television. We have also aided journalists in gathering reliable scientific information and identifying trustworthy experts. Additionally, we are involved in developing resources freely available online at climatecommunication.org. These include a feature on the links between climate change and extreme weather, a climate science primer, and graphics and video explaining key developments in climate change science.

Somerville, R. C.; Hassol, S. J.

2011-12-01

433

California Rare Endemics and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California is known for its wide variety of endemic flora, from its annuals such as the Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) to the perennials like the Arctostaphylos pallida (Alameda manzanita), which happens to be a rare species. Each species plays an important role in the biodiversity of California, yet there are species that are threatened, not only by human interaction and urbanization, but by climate change. Species that we seldom see are now on the verge of becoming eradicated; rare endemics similar to Arctostaphylos pallida are now facing a new challenge that may severely impair their survival. The climate has changed significantly over the twentieth century and it has affected the distribution of rare endemics in California, both geographically as well as within their climatic and edaphic niches. Lilaeopsis masonii is just one rare endemic, however it serves as a representative of the other 23 species that were studied. Using Maxent, a climate-modeling program, it was viable to construct two climate envelopes of the masonii species: the early century envelope (1930-1959) and the later century envelope (1990-2009). When these two climate envelopes were compared, it became clear that the later century climate envelope had contracted radically, reshaping the climate niche of all rare endemics in California due to an increase in temperature. It is possible to conclude that the future of rare endemics hangs in the balance, where one degree higher in temperature is enough to topple the scale.

Espinoza, M.

2010-12-01

434

The Climate-G Portal: a scientific gateway for climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate-G is a data-oriented research effort conceived in the context of the EGEE Earth Science Cluster and devoted to the Climate Change community. The testbed is an interdisciplinary effort joining expertise in the field of climate change and computational science. The main goal of Climate-G is to allow scientists carrying out geographical and cross-institutional data discovery, access, visualization and sharing of climate data. The involved partners are: Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC, Italy), Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL/CNRS, France), Fraunhofer Institut für Algorithmen und Wissenschaftliches Rechnen (SCAI, Germany), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR, USA) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI, USA), University of Reading (Reading, UK), University of Cantabria (UC, Spain), and University of Salento (UniSalento, Italy). The main results of this testbed are the distributed data/metadata architecture (exploiting the GRelC service) and the scientific gateway of the testbed (Climate-G Portal). The latter is a central topic of this contribution. Data distribution comes from the need of sharing data among centres without moving it into a central repository. Each partner can contribute with new datasets to the testbed just adding a new data service into the infrastructure and mapping it on a specific metadata server. The metadata management plays a critical role in such a distributed environment, since it enables search and discovery activities, allows describing and cataloguing datasets, makes data effectively accessible and shareable by the scientific community. The novel grid enabled harvesting system will be presented and discussed showing a map-enabled search page providing aggregated metadata information. Climate-G exploits both grid technologies connected with the EGEE project and domain-based tools and services. The general grid services provide a solid basis at an infrastructural level ensuring great flexibility, scalability and manageability; the domain-based services provide support for domain specific activities (i.e. subsetting of data, map retrieving) and are well known, well tested and widely adopted in the climate change community. The coexistence of grid and domain-related services is an important point to satisfy user requirements on a robust and mature infrastructure. The Climate-G Portal is the scientific gateway of the testbed and it is intended for scientists and researchers that want to carry out search and discovery activities on the available large scale digital library. It provides a ubiquitous and pervasive way to ease data publishing, metadata search & discovery, metadata annotation and validation, data access, etc. The latest updates concerning harvesting functionalities, new analysis tools, the monitoring system and portal extensions will be presented and discussed.

Fiore, S.; Aloisio, G.; Blower, J. D.; Cofino, A.; Denvil, S.; Fox, P. A.; Petitdidier, M.; Schwichtenberg, H.

2010-12-01

435

Modeling transient response of forests to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our hypothesis is that a high diversity of dominant life forms in Tennessee forests conveys resilience to disturbance such as climate change. Because of uncertainty in climate change and their effects, three climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2080 from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) were used to simulate a range of potential climate conditions for the state. These climate

Virginia H. Dale; M. Lynn Tharp; Karen O. Lannom; Donald G. Hodges

2010-01-01

436

Selection of climate change scenario data for impact modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact models investigating climate change effects on food safety often need detailed climate data. The aim of this study was to select climate change projection data for selected crop phenology and mycotoxin impact models. Using the ENSEMBLES database of climate model output, this study illustrates how the projected climate change signal of important variables as temperature, precipitation and relative humidity

M. Sloth Madsen; C. Fox Maule; N. MacKellar; J. E. Olesen; J. Hesselbjerg Christensen

2012-01-01

437

U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation measures improve our ability to cope with or avoid harmful climate impacts and take advantage of beneficial ones, now and as climate varies and changes. Adaptation and mitigation are necessary elements of an effective response to climate change. Adaptation options also have the potential to moderate harmful impacts of current and future climate variability and change. The Global Climate

R. Pulwarty

2009-01-01

438

Soil Moisture-Ecosystem-Climate Interactions in a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture is a key variable of the climate system. It constrains plant transpiration and photosynthesis in several regions of the world, with consequent impacts on the water, energy and biogeochemical cycles (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2010). Moreover it is a storage component for precipitation and radiation anomalies, inducing persistence in the climate system. Finally, it is involved in a number of feedbacks at the local, regional and global scales, and plays a major role in climate-change projections. This presentation will provide an overview on these interactions, based on several recent publications (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2006, Orlowsky and Seneviratne 2010, Teuling et al. 2010, Hirschi et al. 2011). In particular, it will highlight possible impacts of soil moisture-ecosystem coupling for climate extremes such as heat waves and droughts, and the resulting interconnections between biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks in the context of climate change. Finally, it will also address recent regional- to global-scale trends in land hydrology and ecosystem functioning, as well as issues and potential avenues for investigating these trends (e.g. Jung et al. 2010, Mueller et al. 2011). References Hirschi, M., S.I. Seneviratne, V. Alexandrov, F. Boberg, C. Boroneant, O.B. Christensen, H. Formayer, B. Orlowsky, and P. Stepanek, 2011: Observational evidence for soil-moisture impact on hot extremes in southeastern Europe. Nature Geoscience, 4, 17-21, doi:10.1038/ngeo1032. Jung, M., et al., 2010: Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply. Nature, 467, 951-954. doi:10.1038/nature09396 Mueller, B., S.I. Seneviratne, et al.: Evaluation of global observations-based evapotranspiration datasets and IPCC AR4 simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L06402, doi:10.1029/2010GL046230 Orlowsky, B., and S.I. Seneviratne, 2010: Statistical analyses of land-atmosphere feedbacks and their possible pitfalls. J. Climate, 23(14), 3918-3932 Seneviratne, S.I., T. Corti, E.L. Davin, M. Hirschi, E.B. Jaeger, I. Lehner, B. Orlowsky, and A.J. Teuling, 2010: Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing climate: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 99, 3-4, 125-161, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.02.004 Seneviratne, S.I., D. Lüthi, M. Litschi, and C. Schär, 2006: Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443, 205-209. Teuling, A.J., S.I. Seneviratne, et al. 2010: Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves. Nature Geoscience, 3, 722-727, doi:10.1038/ngeo950.

Seneviratne, S. I.; Davin, E.; Hirschi, M.; Mueller, B.; Orlowsky, B.; Teuling, A.

2011-12-01

439

Conceptual Understanding of Climate Change with a Simple Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future climate change projections are essentially based on coupled general circulation model (CGCM) simulations, which give a distinct global warming pattern with arctic winter amplification, an equilibrium land-sea warming contrast and an inter-hemispheric warming gradient. While these simulations are the most important tool of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predictions, the conceptual understanding of these predicted structures of climate change and the causes of their uncertainties is very difficult to reach if only based on these highly complex CGCM simulations. In the study presented here we will introduce a very simple, globally resolved energy balance (GREB) model, which is capable of simulating the main characteristics of global warming. The model shall give a bridge between the strongly simplified energy balance models and the fully coupled 4-dimensional complex CGCMs. It provides a fast tool for the conceptual understanding and development of hypotheses for climate change studies and teaching. It is based on the surface energy balance by very simple representations of solar and thermal radiation, the atmospheric hydrological cycle, sensible turbulent heat flux, the transport by the mean atmospheric circulation and heat exchange with the deeper ocean. It can be run on any PC computer and compute 200yrs climate scenarios within minutes. The simple model's climate sensitivity and the spatial structure of the warming pattern are within the uncertainties of the IPCC models simulations. It is capable of simulating the arctic winter amplification, the equilibrium land-sea warming contrast and the inter-hemispheric warming gradient with good agreement to the IPCC models in amplitude and structure.

Dommenget, Dietmar; Floeter, Janine

2010-05-01

440

An ecological 'footprint' of climate change  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been increasing evidence of species' range shifts due to changes in climate. Whereas most of these shifts relate ground truth biogeographic data to a general warming trend in regional or global climate data, we here present a reanalysis of both biogeographic and bioclimatic data of equal spatio-temporal resolution, covering a time span of more than 50 years. Our results reveal a coherent and synchronous shift in both species' distribution and climate. They show not only a shift in the northern margin of a species, which is in concert with gradually increasing winter temperatures in the area, they also confirm the simulated species' distribution changes expected from a bioclimatic model under the recent, relatively moderate climate change.

Walther, Gian-Reto; Berger, Silje; Sykes, Martin T

2005-01-01

441

The climate crisis: An introductory guide to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human-induced climate change, sometimes called “global warming,” has, unfortunately, become a “hot” topic, embroiled in controversy, misinformation, and claims and counterclaims. It should not be this way, because there are many scientific facts that provide solid information on which to base policy. There is a very strong observational, theoretical, and modeling base in physical science that underpins current understanding of what has happened to Earth's climate and why and what the prospects are for the future under certain assumptions. Moreover, these changes have impacts, which are apt to grow, on the environment and human society. To avoid or reduce these impacts and the economic and human effects of undesirable future climate change requires actions that are strongly opposed by those with vested interests in the status quo, some of whom have funded misinformation campaigns that have successfully confused the public and some politicians, leading to paralysis in political action. Without mitigation of climate change, one would suppose that at least society would plan sensibly for the changes already happening and projected, but such future adaptation plans are also largely in limbo. The implication is that we will suffer the consequences. All of these aspects are addressed in this informative and attractive book, which is written for a fairly general but technically informed audience. The book is strongly based upon the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and therefore has a solid scientific basis. Many figures, graphs, and maps come from the three IPCC working group reports, although the captions often do not explain the detail shown. Given that the IPCC reports totaled nearly 3000 pages, to distill the complex material down to 249 pages is no mean task, and the authors have succeeded quite well.

Trenberth, Kevin E.

2011-06-01

442

Energy policy and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The problem,of massive emissions of carbon,dioxide (CO2) from the burning of fossil fuels and their climatic impact,have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric,CO2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO2 emissions worldwide. Energy savings and carbon sequestration, including CO2 capture\\/storage and enhancement of natural carbon sinks, can be highly beneficial, although it is suggested

P. Jean-baptiste; R. Ducroux

2002-01-01

443

Energy policy and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of massive emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the burning of fossil fuels and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO2 emissions worldwide. Energy savings and carbon sequestration, including CO2 capture\\/storage and enhancement of natural carbon sinks, can be highly beneficial, although

Philippe Jean-Baptistea

444

Stained glass and climate change: How are they connected?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As expressions of vernacular architecture, medieval Gothic churches often possess adaptations to their prevailing climate regime. The late medieval period in Europe is also marked by a transition from warm and sunny to cooler and cloudier conditions in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. It is within the context of this climate change that we consider interior daylighting, one of the most important features in Gothic churches, during the transition from the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA). For the first time, an extensive data set of luminance and illuminance measurements has been collected in Gothic churches in France, Germany, and Spain. In addition, in order to determine the light-admitting capacity of windows from different eras, recent advances in HDR imagery were used to construct luminance fields and determine the relative transmissivities of authentic medieval windows. This quantitative overview reveals a significant increase in the use of high-translucency glazing, raising interior lighting levels by as much as an order of magnitude as precipitation and cloudiness likely increased in the late thirteenth century. Furthermore, we determine that this clearer glass provided limited lighting gains compared to earlier programs under sunny conditions but substantial lighting improvements for cloudy conditions. The results suggest that the human response to naturally-induced climate change, as seen through the lens of architecture, may have been significant in the middle ages, providing important implications for the adaptability of construction in today's greenhouse era.

Simmons, Christopher; Mysak, Lawrence

2010-05-01

445

Climate change and stained glass: how are they connected?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As expressions of vernacular architecture, medieval Gothic churches often possess adaptations to their prevailing climate regime. The late medieval period in Europe is also marked by a transition from warm and sunny to cooler and cloudier conditions in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. It is within the context of this climate change that we consider interior daylighting, one of the most important features in Gothic churches, during the transition from the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA). For the first time, an extensive data set of luminance and illuminance measurements has been collected in Gothic churches in France, Germany, and Spain. In addition, in order to determine the light-admitting capacity of windows from different eras, recent advances in HDR imagery were used to construct luminance fields and determine the relative transmissivities of authentic medieval windows. This quantitative overview reveals a significant increase in the use of high-translucency glazing, raising interior lighting levels by as much as an order of magnitude as precipitation and cloudiness increased in the late thirteenth century. Furthermore, we determine that this clearer glass provided limited lighting gains compared to earlier programs under sunny conditions but substantial lighting improvements for cloudy conditions. The results suggest that the human response to naturally-induced climate change, as seen through the lens of architecture, may have been significant in the middle ages, providing important implications for the adaptability of construction in today’s greenhouse era.

Simmons, C. T.; Mysak, L. A.

2009-12-01

446

Extreme climatic events in a changing climate: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While changes in the long-term mean state of climate will have many important consequences on numerous environmental, social, and economic sectors, the most significant impacts of climatic change are likely to come about from shifts in the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events. Indeed, insurance costs resulting from extreme weather events have been steadily increasing over the last two decades, in response to both population pressures in regions that are at risk, but also because of the frequency and severity of certain forms of extremes. Regions now safe from catastrophic wind storms, heat waves, and floods could suddenly become vulnerable. The associated damage costs would consequently be extremely high. It seems appropriate, therefore, considering the environmental, human and economic costs exerted by extreme climatic events, to address the problem of whether there may be significant shifts in extremes of wind, precipitation or temperature in a changing global climate. In order to achieve these goals, the level of current scientific understanding and the availability of computational resources now enable numerical modeling techniques to be applied to this problem area. Examples will be given of particular numerical simulations of extreme events that have affected Western Europe and the alpine region in recent years. These simulations and impacts studies will be compared to observed events and trends during the 20th century, where adequate data is available to assess the manner in which certain forms of extreme events have changed, in part as a response to the global warming observed over the last 100 years.

Beniston, M.

2003-04-01

447

America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A video that discusses the perspectives and insights necessary to report out about climate change. The video can be used to demonstrate how different perspectives impact different stakeholders and different levels, and that there is a need to have a clear, coordinated national response.

Academies, The N.

448

Energy and global climate change: Why ORNL?  

SciTech Connect

Subtle signs of global warming have been detected in studies of the climate record of the past century after figuring in the cooling effects of sulfur emissions from volcanoes and human sources. According to the December 1995 report of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the earth`s surface temperature has increased by about 0.2{degrees}C per decade since 1975. the panel projects about a 2{degrees} increase in global temperature by 2100. The IPCC report states that pollutants-greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and fluorocarbons that warm the globe and sulfur emission that cool it-are responsible for recent patterns of climate change. {open_quotes}The balance of evidence,{close_quotes} states the report, {open_quotes}suggests that there is a discrenible human influence on global climate.{close_quotes} This human influence stems largely from fossil fuel combustion, cement production, and the burning of forests, and could intensify as populations grow and developing countries increase energy production and industrial development. The two facts have caught the attention of the news media and public. First, 1995 was declared the hottest year in the 140-year-long record of reliable global measurements. Second, recent years have been marked by an unusually high number of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, blizzards, and floods. In the 1990`s the world has become more aware of the prospect and possible impacts of global climate change. In the late 1950`s, global climate change was an unknown threat to the world`s environment and social systems. Except for a few ORNL researchers who had just completed their first briefing to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission on the need to understand the global carbon cycle, the connection between rising carbon dioxide concentrations and potential changes in global climate was not common knowledge, nor were the consequences of climate change understood.

Farrell, M.P.

1995-12-31

449

Marine Ecosystem Sensitivity to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

that the earth is experienc-ing a period of rapid cli-mate change. Never before has it been so important to understand how environmental change influences the earth's biota and to distinguish an-thropogenic change from natural variability. Long-term studies in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region provide the opportunity to observe how changes in the physical environment are related to changes in

Raymond C. Smith; David Ainley; Karen Baker; Eugene Domack; Steve Emslie; Bill Fraser; James Kennett; Amy Leventer; Ellen Mosley-Thompson; Sharon Stammerjohn; Maria Vernet

1999-01-01

450

Integrated Assessment of Abrupt Climatic Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most controversial conclusions to emerge from many of the first generation of integrated assessments models (IAMs) of climate policy is a recommendation for negligible near-term abatement of greenhouse gases. . Typically, such studies are con- ducted using smoothly varying climate change scenarios or impact responses. Abrupt changes observed in the climatic record and documented in current models could sub- stantially alter the stringency of IAM policy recommendations. Such abrupt climatic changesUor consequent impacts­would be less foreseeable and provide less time to ° adapt, and thus would have far greater economic or environmental impacts than grad- ual warming. We extend conventional, smooth IAM analysis by coupling a climate model capable of one type of abrupt change to a well-established energy-economy model (DICE). We compare the DICE optimal policy using the standard climate sub- model to our version that allows for abrupt changeUand consequent enhanced climate ° damageUthrough changes in the strength of the North Atlantic thermohaline circula- ° tion (THC). We confirm the potential significance of abrupt climate change in IAM policy recommendations, thus calling into question all previous work neglecting such possibilitiesUat the least for the wide ranges of relevant social and climate system ° parameters we consider. In addition, we obtain an emergent property of our coupled social-natural system model: Soptimal policiesT that do consider abrupt changes may, & cedil;under relatively low discount rates, recommend emission control levels sufficient to avoid significant abrupt change, when Soptimal policiesT disregarding abrupt change & cedil;would not prevent this non-linear event. However, there is a threshold in discount rate above which present value of future damages are so low that control rates drop suf- ficiently to allow THC collapse, even for very large enhanced damages in the 22nd century when such a collapse would be most likely to occur. Thus, any models not accounting for potential abrupt non-linear behavior and its interaction with the dis- counting formulation are likely to miss an important set of possibilities relevant to the climate policy debate.

Mastrandrea, M.; Schneider, S.

451

Climate Change Education for Engineering Undergraduate Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outreach and educational component of my NSF-CAREER grant focused on the development of a new undergraduate course on climate change for engineering undergraduate students and development of project-based course modules for middle and high-school students. Engineering students have minimal formal education on climate issues, but are increasingly finding themselves in positions where they have to participate and address climate change and mitigation issues. Towards this end, we developed a new three-credit course, entitled Global Climate Change: Science, Engineering, and Policy. With a focus on engineering students, this course was structured as a highly quantitative course, taught through an inquiry-based pedagogical approach. The students used a combination of historical climate data from ground-stations and satellites and model results of future climate conditions for different scenarios to ascertain for themselves the current extent of climate change and likely future impacts. Students also combined mitigation efforts, concentrated on geoengineering and alternate energy choices, with climate modeling to determine the immediacy of such efforts. The impacts of the course on the students were assessed with a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches that used pre-post climate literacy and engineering self-efficacy surveys as well as qualitative focus group discussions at the end of the course. I will discuss our undergraduate course development effort and the primary outcomes of the course. I will also briefly describe our k-12 outreach effort on the development of course modules for project-based learning related to air quality and atmospheric science topics.

Dhaniyala, S.; Powers, S.

2011-12-01

452

The effects of changing solar activity on climate: contributions from palaeoclimatological studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural climate change currently acts in concert with human-induced changes in the climate system. To disentangle the natural variability in the climate system and the human-induced effects on the global climate, a critical analysis of climate change in the past may offer a better understanding of the processes that drive the global climate system. In this review paper, we present palaeoclimatological evidence for the past influence of solar variability on Earth's climate, highlighting the effects of solar forcing on a range of timescales. On a decadal timescale, instrumental measurements as well as historical records show the effects of the 11-year Schwabe cycle on climate. The variation in total solar irradiance that is associated with a Schwabe cycle is only ~1 W m-2 between a solar minimum and a maximum, but winter and spring temperatures on the Northern Hemisphere show a response even to this small-scale variability. There is a large body of evidence from palaeoclimatic reconstructions that shows the influence of solar activity on a centennial to millennial timescale. We highlight a period of low solar activity starting at 2800 years before present when Europe experienced a shift to colder and wetter climate conditions. The spatial pattern of climate change that can be recognized in the palaeoclimatological data is in line with the suggested pattern of climate change as simulated by climate models. Millennial-scale climate oscillations can be recognized in sediment records from the Atlantic Ocean as well as in records of lake-level fluctuations in southeastern France. These oscillations coincide with variation in 14C production as recognized in the atmospheric 14C record (which is a proxy-record for solar activity), suggesting that Earth's climate is sensitive to changes in solar activity on a millennial timescale as well.

Engels, Stefan; van Geel, Bas

2012-07-01

453

The ICLIPS Impacts Tool: Presenting climate impact response functions for integrated assessments of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ICLIPS model is an integrated assessment model of climate change that links global climate change with regional impacts and mitigation efforts by integrating components from different disciplines and various spatial scales. Its reduced-form impact module consists of climate impact response functions (CIRFs) that depict the regional sensitivity of selected climate-sensitive impact sectors to changes in important climatic and atmospheric

Hans-Martin Fussel

454

Uncertainty in climate change and drought  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of projections of climate change were applied to a watershed model of the Delaware River basin to identify sources of uncertainty in predicting effects of climate change on drought in the basin as defined by New York City reservoir contents. The watershed model is a calibrated, monthly time-step water-balance model that incorporates the operation of reservoirs and diversion canals, and accounts for all inflows to and outflows from the basin at several key nodes. The model assesses the effects of projected climate change on reservoir contents by calculating the frequency with which the basin enters drought conditions under a range of climate-change conditions. Two primary sources of uncertainty that affect predictions of drought frequency in the Delaware River basin were considered: (1) uncertainty in the amount of change in mean air temperature and precipitation, and (2) uncertainty in the effects of natural climate variability on future temperature and precipitation. Model results indicate that changes in drought frequency in the Delaware River basin are highly sensitive to changes in mean precipitation; therefore, the uncertainty associated with predictions of future precipitation has a large effect on the prediction of future drought frequency in the basin.

McCabe, Jr. , Gregory, J.; Wolock, David, M.; Tasker, Gary, D.; Ayers, Mark, A.

1991-01-01

455

Climate change, biotic interactions and ecosystem services  

PubMed Central

Climate change is real. The wrangling debates are over, and we now need to move onto a predictive ecology that will allow managers of landscapes and policy makers to adapt to the likely changes in biodiversity over the coming decades. There is ample evidence that ecological responses are already occurring at the individual species (population) level. The challenge is how to synthesize the growing list of such observations with a coherent body of theory that will enable us to predict where and when changes will occur, what the consequences might be for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and what we might do practically in order to maintain those systems in as good condition as possible. It is thus necessary to investigate the effects of climate change at the ecosystem level and to consider novel emergent ecosystems composed of new species assemblages arising from differential rates of range shifts of species. Here, we present current knowledge on the effects of climate change on biotic interactions and ecosystem services supply, and summarize the papers included in this volume. We discuss how resilient ecosystems are in the face of the multiple components that characterize climate change, and suggest which current ecological theories may be used as a starting point to predict ecosystem-level effects of climate change.

Montoya, Jose M.; Raffaelli, Dave

2010-01-01

456

Projected Climate Change Impacts on Pennsylvania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an assessment of the potential impacts of human-induced climate change on the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. We first assess a suite of 21 global climate models for the state, rating them based on their ability to simulate the climate of Pennsylvania on time scales ranging from submonthly to interannual. The multi-model mean is superior to any individual model. Median projections by late century are 2-4 degrees C warming and 5-10 percent precipitation increases (B1 and A2 scenarios), with larger precipitation increases in winter and spring. Impacts on the commonwealth's aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources, agriculture, forests, energy, outdoor recreation, tourism, and human health, are evaluated. We also examine barriers and opportunities for Pennsylvania created by climate change mitigation. This assessment was sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection which, pursuant to the Pennsylvania Climate Change Act, Act 70 of 2008, is required to develop a report on the potential scientific and economic impacts of climate change to Pennsylvania.

Najjar, R.; Shortle, J.; Abler, D.; Blumsack, S.; Crane, R.; Kaufman, Z.; McDill, M.; Ready, R.; Rydzik, M.; Wagener, T.; Wardrop, D.; Wilson, T.

2009-05-01

457

Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The principles of systematic conservation planning are now widely used by governments and non-government organizations alike to develop biodiversity conservation plans for countries, states, regions, and ecoregions. Many of the species and ecosystems these plans were designed to conserve are now being affected by climate change, and there is a critical need to incorporate new and complementary approaches into these plans that will aid species and ecosystems in adjusting to potential climate change impacts. We propose five approaches to climate change adaptation that can be integrated into existing or new biodiversity conservation plans: (1) conserving the geophysical stage, (2) protecting climatic refugia, (3) enhancing regional connectivity, (4) sustaining ecosystem process and function, and (5) capitalizing on opportunities emerging in response to climate change. We discuss both key assumptions behind each approach and the trade-offs involved in using the approach for conservation planning. We also summarize additional data beyond those typically used in systematic conservation plans required to implement these approaches. A major strength of these approaches is that they are largely robust to the uncertainty in how climate impacts may manifest in any given region.

Groves, Craig R.; Game, Edward T.; Anderson, Mark G.; Cross, Molly; Enquist, Carolyn; Ferdana, Zach; Girvetz, Evan; Gondor, Anne; Hall, Kimberly R.; Higgins, Jonathan; Marshall, Rob; Popper, Ken; Schill, Steve; Shafer, Sarah L.

2012-01-01

458

Global fish production and climate change  

PubMed Central

Current global fisheries production of ?160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but we have low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are governed by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipitation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the principal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change.

Brander, K. M.

2007-01-01

459

Global fish production and climate change  

SciTech Connect

Current global fisheries production of {approx}160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but there is low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are giverned by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recyc