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Climate change impact, adaptation and associated costs for coastal risks in France  

E-print Network

Climate change impact, adaptation and associated costs for coastal risks in France Gonéri Le, including the "natural risks, insurance and adaptation to climate change" committee, within which called "climate change impacts, adaptations and associated costs in France" was created to evaluate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Possible effects of climate change on wheat and maize crops in France  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the possible effects of climate modifications induced by increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere, on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water demand in France. CERES-wheat and CERES-maize models are used with two French weather series and soil conditions. Weather variables were varied from present conditions, as simulated by various global climate models (GCMs). This chapter emphasizes the process of model calibration and the consequent uncertainties in final simulated results. Under the simulation conditions: (i) season lengths are shortened under climate change scenarios; (ii) yield decreases under climate change alone, but the decrease can be somewhat counteracted by direct CO{sub 2} effects on the crop, up to a 5 C temperature increase; and (iii) water use decreases under climate changes. Even if the large diversity of French climates and soils prohibits generalization of these results to the entire country, the main conclusions are: (i) under both temperate and Mediterranean climates, winter cereal yields will not be decreased by future conditions, provided that irrigation supply is not limiting under dry conditions and (ii) under temperate climate, maize could take advantage of development phase shrinkage and improve its radiation use efficiency. Changing sowing date produces varying results according to weather scenario, plant, and location. A more precise knowledge of initial soil water or temperature under changing conditions is necessary before optimal agronomic adaptation to future climate can be suggested.

Delecolle, R.; Ruget, F.; Ripoche, D. [INRA, Avignon (France). Unite de Bioclimatologie; Gosse, G. [INRA, Thiveral-Grignon (France). Unite de Bioclimatologie



Holocene climatic changes in the Western Mediterranean, from south-east France to south-east Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holocene climatic changes along coastal regions from south-east France to south-east Spain were studied using pollen ratios. Comparing modern pollen rain, vegetation and climate along selected transects from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean, we obtained threshold values of two different ratios corresponding to the different climatic conditions along the transects. These pollen ratios and threshold values were employed to

Guy Jalut; Augustin Esteban Amat; Louis Bonnet; Thierry Gauquelin; Michel Fontugne



How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhne river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while expected impacts of climate changes on the Thau system were expected to be linked to water balance depletion in the catchment, the main threats are now linked to the impact on water quality of the introduction of the Rhne river waters within the system. This study is conducted in the CLIMB EU-FP7 project (2010-2014).

La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia



The study of climate suitability for grapevine cropping using ecoclimatic indicators under climatic change conditions in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic conditions play a fundamental role in the suitability of geographical areas for cropping. In the case of grape, climatic conditions such as water supply and temperatures have an effect of grape quality. In the context of climate change, we could expect changes in overall climatic conditions and so, in grape quality. We proposed to use GETARI (Generic Evaluation Tool of Ecoclimatic Indicators) in order to assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape (Vitis vinifera) regarding its quality. GETARI calculates an overall climate suitability index at the annual scale, from a designed evaluation tree. This aggregation tool proposes the major ecophysiological processes taking place during phenological periods, together with the climatic effects that are known to affect their achievement. The effects of climate on the ecophysiological processes are captured by the ecoclimatic indicators, which are agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. They give information about crop response to climate through ecophysiological or agronomic thresholds. These indicators are normalized and aggregated according to aggregation rules in order to compute an overall climate index. To assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape regarding its quality, we designed an evaluation tree from GETARI, by considering the effect of water deficit between flowering and veraison and the effect of water deficit, water excess, heat stress, temperature ranges between day and night, night temperatures and mean temperatures between veraison and harvest. The two sites are located in Burgundy and Rhone valley which are two of the most important vineyards in the world. Ecoclimatic indicators are calculated using phenological cycle of the crop. For this reason we chose Grenache and Pinot Noir as long and short cycle varieties respectively. Flowering, veraison and harvest dates were simulated (Parker et al., 2011; Yiou et al., 2012). Daily climatic data from 1950 to 2100 were simulated by the global climate model ARPEGE forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario were used (data from CERFACS SCRATCH08 -, using the quantile-quantile downscaling method. The results provide information about the climate suitability for grapevine quality in the future and can be used for anticipating and adapting viticulture. This work is carried out under the research program ORACLE (Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France (and Europe). Parker, A. K., de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G., van Leeuwen, C., Chuine, I., 2011. General phenological model to characterise the timing of flowering and veraison of Vitis vinifera L. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. 17, 206-216. Yiou, P., de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G., Chuine, I., Daux, V., Garnier, E., Viovy, N., van Leeuwen, C., Parker, A. K., Boursiquot, J. M., 2012. Continental atmospheric circulation over Europe during the Little Ice Age inferred from grape harvest dates. Climate of the Past. 8, 577-588.

Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Caubel, J.; Cufi, J.; Huard, F.; Launay, M.; deNoblet, N.



Climate change, energy security, and riskdebating nuclear new build in Finland, France and the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about climate change and energy security have been major arguments used to justify the recent return of nuclear power as a serious electricity generation option in various parts of the world. This article examines the recent public discussion in Finland, France, and the UK three countries currently in the process of constructing or planning new nuclear power stations.

Tuula Tervinen; Markku Lehtonen; Mari Martiskainen



Climate change and viticulture in Mediterranean climates: the complex response of socio-ecosystems. A comparative case study from France and Australia (1955-2040)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wine industry is very sensitive to extreme weather events, especially to temperatures above 35C and drought. In a context of global climate change, Mediterranean climate regions are predicted to experience higher variability in rainfall and temperatures and an increased occurrence of extreme weather events. Some viticultural systems could be particularly at risk in those regions, considering their marginal position in the growth climatic range of Vitis vinifera, the long commercial lifespan of a vineyard, the high added-value of wine and the volatile nature of global markets. The wine industry, like other agricultural systems, is inserted in complex networks of climatic and non-climatic (other physical, economical, social and legislative) components, with constant feedbacks. We use a socio-ecosystem approach to analyse the adaptation of two Mediterranean viticultural systems to recent and future increase of extreme weather events. The present analysis focuses on two wine regions with a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (CSb type in the Kppen classification): Ctes-du-Roussillon in southern France and McLaren Vale in southern Australia. Using climate data from two synoptic weather stations, Perpignan (France) and Adelaide (Australia), with time series running from 1955 to 2010, we highlight changes in rainfall patterns and an increase in the number of days with Tx >35c since the last three decades in both regions. Climate models (DRIAS project data for France and CSIRO Mk3.5 for Australia) project similar trends in the future. To date, very few projects have focused on an international comparison of the adaptive capacity of viticultural systems to climate change with a holistic approach. Here, the analysis of climate data was complemented by twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews with key actors of the two regional wine industries, in order to analyse adaptation strategies put in place regarding recent climate evolution. This mixed-methods approach allows for a comprehensive assessment of adaptation capacity of the two viticultural systems to future climate change. The strategies of grape growers and wine producers focus on maintaining optimal yields and a constant wine style adapted to markets in a variable and uncertain climate. Their implementation and efficiency depend strongly on non-climatic factors. Thus, adaptation capacity to recent and future climate change depends strongly on adaptation to other non-climatic changes.

Lereboullet, A.-L.; Beltrando, G.; Bardsley, D. K.



Multifractal Analysis of Rainfall Change Over France in a Climate Scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation the scaling properties of rainfall time-series generated by a climate model are analysed by means of a multifractal characterization based on the "universal multifractal" formalism. The analysed data are the rainfall daily time-series over France computed in a simulation over the period 1860-2100 by the climate model CNRM-CM3 of Meteo-France in a coupled IPCC climate scenario (A2). We quantify the scaling variability of the simulated rainfall with the help of a few relevant multifractal exponents characterizing the intermittency and multifractality of the field. These multifractal exponents are determined by the Double Trace Moment (DTM) which shows a scaling range from one day to about 16 days. The opposite trends found in the evolution of the intermittency and multifractality exponents, have contradictory effects on the evolution of the extremes. However, a refined analysis shows that due to the dominant effect of intermittency increase, we may expect an effective increase of rainfall extremes for the next hundred years.

Royer, J.; Biaou, A.; Chauvin, F.; Schertzer, D. J.; Lovejoy, S.



Climate Change  


... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...


Climate change changing hazards?  

E-print Network

Climate change ­ changing hazards? Andreas Sterl Geert Lenderink, Sarah Kew KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands Climate system change modelling extremes #12;21.03.2012 Andreas Sterl, Insurance Strategy, Brussels Climate ­ what's that? Climate = statistics of weather Weather = state of atmosphere

Stoffelen, Ad


A method for modeling the effects of climate and land use changes on erosion and sustainability of soil in a Mediterranean watershed (Languedoc, France).  


Global climate and land use changes could strongly affect soil erosion and the capability of soils to sustain agriculture and in turn impact regional or global food security. The objective of our study was to develop a method to assess soil sustainability to erosion under changes in land use and climate. The method was applied in a typical mixed Mediterranean landscape in a wine-growing watershed (75km(2)) within the Languedoc region (La Peyne, France) for two periods: a first period with the current climate and land use and a second period with the climate and land use scenarios at the end of the twenty-first century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B future rainfall scenarios from the Mto France General circulation model was coupled with four contrasting land use change scenarios that were designed using a spatially-explicit land use change model. Mean annual erosion rate was estimated with an expert-based soil erosion model. Soil life expectancy was assessed using soil depth. Soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy were combined into a sustainability index. The median simulated soil erosion rate for the current period was 3.5t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 273 years, showing a low sustainability of soils. For the future period with the same land use distribution, the median simulated soil erosion rate was 4.2t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 249 years. The results show that soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy are more sensitive to changes in land use than to changes in precipitation. Among the scenarios tested, institution of a mandatory grass cover in vineyards seems to be an efficient means of significantly improving soil sustainability, both in terms of decreased soil erosion rates and increased soil life expectancies. PMID:25460424

Paroissien, Jean-Baptiste; Darboux, Frdric; Couturier, Alain; Devillers, Benot; Mouillot, Florent; Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves



Climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

But there are many reasons to question the wisdom of the Kyoto Protocol's approach to climate change policy, including questions about the scientific grounding of the protocol; questions about the feasibility of the proposed implementation mechanisms; questions about the efficacy of those measures; questions about the adverse consequences of diverting resources to address highly uncertain risks using tools with uncertain

Staffordshire County Council; Anthony J. Richardson; RICHARD MCCANN; HOWARD AYLESWORTH; MARY L. VIGILANTE



Biodiversity Requires Adaptations Under a Changing Climate in Northwest Europe: Planning and Coastal Wildlife, the Example of Normandy in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Interreg IIIB BRANCH project evaluated potential impacts of climate change on coastal wildlife in Northwest Europe and\\u000a aimed at identifying planning strategies in cooperation with stakeholders.A specific technical and methodological effort focused\\u000a on elaborating a GIS as a support for prospective work. This paper deals with the example of the French coastal case study\\u000a sites in Normandy:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Several

Isabelle Rauss; Pascal Hacquebart; Catherine Zambettakis; Emmanuel Caillot; Emmanuel De Saint Lger; Franck Bruchon


Climate change action plan  

E-print Network

Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan © #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing


Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather is notoriously unpredictable; however, climate descriptions, which identify average and normal temperatures and precipitation levels, tend to be perceived as stable, at least over time scales that humans can easily relate to. New evidence suggests that hasn't always been the case. This video segment describes climate data, obtained from ice cores drilled into the Greenland Ice Sheet, that suggest the Earth has undergone dramatic climate shifts in relatively short spans of time. The segment is five minutes forty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.




E-print Network

CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE CERTAINTIES AND UNCERTAINTIES Stephen E. Schwartz http concentrations of "greenhouse gases" · Radiative forcing of climate change · Climate system response: Observations of temperature change on various time scales · Climate system sensitivity: Models and Observations

Schwartz, Stephen E.


Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?  

E-print Network

Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate

Pan, Feifei


Forest plant community changes during 1989-2007 in response to climate warming in the Jura Mountains (France and Switzerland)  

E-print Network

Mountains (France and Switzerland) J. Lenoir, J.C. Ge´ gout, J.L. Dupouey, D. Bert & J.-C. Svenning Abstract, lenoir.john@gmail. com) & Ge´ gout, J.C. ( AgroParis- Tech, UMR 1092 Agro

Bert, Didier


Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on  

E-print Network

Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on Forests of the Northeastern 2012 Email: Abstract Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect to climate for thousands of years. However, current human-accelerated climate change is much more rapid


Climate Change Schools Project...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project

McKinzey, Krista



Climate Change and Transportation  

E-print Network

1 Climate Change and Transportation Addressing Climate Change in the Absence of Federal Guidelines;6 WSDOT Efforts · Climate Change Team · Project Level GHG Approach · Planning Level GHG Approach · Alternative Fuels Corridor · Recent legislation and research #12;7 WSDOT Efforts: Climate Change Team

Minnesota, University of


Corporate Climate Change Adaptation.  

E-print Network

?? On-going and future climate change is universally acknowledged. Climate changeincorporating global mean temperature rise, impacts on global hydrology and ecosystems willaffect human society and (more)

Herbertsson, Nicole



Combating climate change.  

E-print Network

?? Level: Master thesis in Business administration with concentration towards Ecological economics Title: Combating climate change a case study of Statoils climate strategy (more)

Jnsson, Josefin



programs in climate change  

E-print Network

existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change


"Managing Department Climate Change"  

E-print Network

"Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

Sheridan, Jennifer


Climate Change and Biodiverstiy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes climate change due to human activities and natural factors; future scenarios due to global warming; and how climate change will impact ecosystems and biodiversity. It includes information on political activity such as avoidance, mitigation and adaptation as a response to climate change. Current projects of the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre( UNEP-WCMC) involving involving climate change migration and adaptation and impact on the ecosystem services.


Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CAMPUS Southwestern Pennsylvania Program review and input from scholars with expertise in climate change and communication. #12; Welcome Thank you

Attari, Shahzeen Z.


The Changing Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the global change of climate. Presents the trend of climate change with graphs. Describes mathematical climate models including expressions for the interacting components of the ocean-atmosphere system and equations representing the basic physical laws governing their behavior. Provides three possible responses on the change. (YP)

Schneider, Stephen H.



Forest Research: Climate Change  

E-print Network

Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes


Climate Change Workshop 2007  

E-print Network

1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of


Abrupt Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur for many reasons, it is conceivable that human forcing of climate change is increasing the probability of large, abrupt events. Were such an event to recur, the economic and ecological impacts

R. B. Alley; J. Marotzke; W. D. Nordhaus; J. T. Overpeck; D. M. Peteet; R. A. Pielke Jr; R. T. Pierrehumbert; P. B. Rhines; T. F. Stocker; L. D. Talley; J. M. Wallace



The Mathematics Climate Change  

E-print Network

The Mathematics of Climate Change Graciela Chichilnisky UNESCO Professor of Mathematics January 7 & 8, 2008 #12;Climate Change is a New Phenomenon Notoriously di cult to model mathematically;Evaluating global warming #12;The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) nds that human - induced

Zeeman, Mary Lou


Population and climate change  

E-print Network

Population and climate change: a proposal Eugenia Kalnay University of Maryland with deep gratitude) Impact of land use and land-use change on climate (Observations minus Reanalysis): over the last 30 years and Mars data assimilation 2) Impact of land use and land-use change on climate (Observations minus

Kalnay, Eugenia


Relative sea-level change, climate, and sequence boundaries: insights from the Kimmeridgian to Berriasian platform carbonates of Mount Salve (E France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study analyses the stratal architecture of the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) to Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) sedimentary succession of Mount Salve (E France), and four Berriasian stratigraphic intervals containing four sequence-boundary zones reflecting lowering trends of the relative sea-level evolution. Massive Kimmeridgian limestones characterized by the presence of colonial corals appear to be stacked in an aggrading pattern. These non-bedded thick deposits, which are interpreted to have formed in balance between relative sea-level rise and carbonate accumulation, suggest a keep-up transgressive system. Above, well-bedded Tithonian-to-Berriasian peritidal carbonates reflect a general loss of accommodation. These strata are interpreted as a highstand normal-regressive unit. During the early phase of this major normal regression, the vertical repetition of upper intertidal/lower supratidal lithofacies indicates an aggrading depositional system. This is in agreement with an early stage of a highstand phase of relative sea level. The Berriasian sequence-boundary zones investigated (up to 4 m thick) developed under different climatic conditions and correspond to higher-frequency, forced- and normal-regressive stages of relative sea-level changes. According to the classical sequence-stratigraphic principles, these sequence-boundary zones comprise more than one candidate surface for a sequence boundary. Three sequence-boundary zones studied in Early Berriasian rocks lack coarse siliciclastic grains, contain a calcrete crust, as well as marly levels with higher abundances of illite with respect to kaolinite, and exhibit fossilized algal-microbial laminites with desiccation polygons. These sedimentary features are consistent with more arid conditions. A sequence-boundary zone interpreted for the Late Berriasian corresponds to a coal horizon. The strata above and below this coal contain abundant quartz and marly intervals with a higher kaolinite content when compared to the illite content. Accordingly, this Late Berriasian sequence-boundary zone was formed under a more humid climate. The major transgressive-regressive cycle of relative sea level identified and the climate change from more arid to more humid conditions recognized during the Late Berriasian have been reported also from other European basins. Therefore, the Kimmeridgian to Berriasian carbonate succession of Mount Salve reflects major oceanographic and climatic changes affecting the northern margin of the Alpine Tethys ocean and thus constitutes a reliable comparative example for the analysis of other coeval sedimentary records. In addition, the stratigraphic intervals including sequence-boundary zones characterized in this study constitute potential outcrop analogues for sequence-boundary reflectors mapped on seismic profiles of subsurface peritidal carbonate successions. The detailed sedimentological analyses provided here highlight that on occasions the classical principles of sequence stratigraphy developed on seismic data are difficult to apply in outcrop. A sequence-boundary reflector when seen in outcrop may present successive subaerial exposure surfaces, which formed due to high-frequency sea-level changes that were superimposed on the longer-term trend of relative sea-level fall.

Bover-Arnal, Telm; Strasser, Andr



Climate Change Collection (CCC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Climate Change Collection (CCC) provides access to high quality, digital materials relating to natural and human induced climate change and variability, including scientific, economic and policy issues of climate change. The collection focuses on background resources and learning activities that communicate the principles that underlie climate change and variability, including the differences and links between weather and climate; the basics of the climate system including the greenhouse effect and energy balance; climatic processes that occur at varying time scales, including orbital cycles and forcing; how scientific research is conducted relative to measuring change and variability; and how human activities, including the combustion of fossil fuels and changes of land cover, impact the climate system. The resources have been reviewed for scientific accuracy and currency, and annotated with comments and suggestions relating to their potential value to Earth system science teachers and their students, particularly at the middle school level.


IISDnet: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) provides this site to present its knowledge base for climate change and adaptation. The knowledge base includes links to global projects on climate change, policy documents and research reports. The e-newsletter, Climate Canada, is accessible from this site as well.


Global Climatic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed.

Richard A. Houghton; George M. Woodwell



Is Climate Change Happening?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this lesson, the guiding Concept Question is: What is climate change and how does climate relate to greenhouse gas concentrations over time? This activity is the second lesson in a nine-lesson module 'Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change' produced by the International Year of Chemistry project (2011).

Science, King'S C.


Messaging climate change uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is full of uncertainty and the messengers of climate science are not getting the uncertainty narrative right. To communicate uncertainty one must first understand it, and then avoid repeating the mistakes of the past.

Cooke, Roger M.



Climate change portal established  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Bank has developed a Climate Change Knowledge Portal as a kind of onestop shop for climate-related information, data, and tools. The portal provides access to global, regional, and national data and reports with an aim to providing a resource for learning about climate information and increasing knowledge on climate changerelated actions. For more information, see

Showstack, Randy



Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent changes in the Earth's climate. Summarizes reports on changes related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, sea level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the changes. Lists 16 references. (YP)

Hall, Dorothy K.



Responding to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the ninth and final lesson in a series of lessons about climate change. This lesson focuses on the various activities that humans can do to mitigate the effects of climate change. This includes information on current and predicted CO2 emission scenarios across the globe, alternative energy sources, and how people are currently responding to climate change. Importantly, this lesson is motivating in showing students that they can make a difference.

Science, King'S C.


Climate Change Economics and Policy  

E-print Network

AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate

Romano, Daniela


Our Changing Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,

Newhouse, Kay Berglund



Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary,  

E-print Network

1 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes of competing models have been proposed. The fractional Gaussian noises and their discrete time counter

Reale, Marco


Communicating Urban Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of climate change. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down climate change. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to climate change requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand climate change and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic climate change. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with climate scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about climate change and its impacts on urban audiences. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about climate change. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused climate education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about climate science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global climate change in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of models for community programming and this session will present early results of these efforts while engaging participants in exploring approaches to connecting urban communities and their local concerns to the issues of global climate change.

Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership



Climate change hastens the turnover of stream fish assemblages  

E-print Network

Climate change hastens the turnover of stream fish assemblages L A E¨ T I T I A B U I S S O N *w Grenoble Cedex 9, France Abstract Stream fish are expected to be significantly influenced by climate change a deleter- ious effect of climate change, whereas downstream species would expand their range by migrating

Grenouillet, Gael


Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L. (eds.)



Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

Hulme, Mike


Abrupt Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores how scientific knowledge changes in the context of abrupt climate change. Until a few years ago, it was believed that climate changes gradually on Earth. But results from ice cores and other geologic records of past temperature changes indicate that this is not necessarily the case and that abrupt climate changes may be the norm rather than the exception. Using this issue, students will be given a glimpse into the process by which scientific knowledge is developed and refined by new data.


Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats  

E-print Network

Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats B A C K G R O U DN C H E C K ! Habitat, Food, Water the potential to affect plants,animals and humans around the globe. #12;Climate Change Action Pack 158 Habitat out in shapes of hills, waves, leaves, and berries. #12;Climate Change Action Pack 159 PROCEDURE

Gunawardena, Arunika


Coastal Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As climate changes, dynamic coastal regions are experiencing a wide range of impacts. Sea levels, ocean acidification, sea surface temperatures, ocean heat, and ocean circulation have all been changing in ways unseen for thousands of years. Arctic sea ice melted significantly more during summers in the last 30 years, and storms are intensifying. Coastal ecosystems stand to be damaged, and coasts will likely erode from rising sea levels, intensified storm surges, and flooding that climate change may amplify. Coastal communities will need to prepare adaptation strategies to cope, and many who live or work in coastal regions are wondering what climate change might mean for them. This module provides an overview of the impacts coastal regions are experiencing and may continue to experience as a result of Earths changing climate. A video series within the module demonstrates effective strategies for communicating climate science.




Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data



E-print Network

CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND FOR INFORMED DECISION-MAKING Stephen E. Schwartz in climate change. Global mean surface temperature is higher today than it's been for at least a millennium Climate Research Unit, East Anglia UK #12;INDICATIONS OF SYSTEMATIC WARMING IN RECENT YEARS The 1990s were

Schwartz, Stephen E.


Climate change and skin.  


Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C



Geochemical risk assessment of a case study of climate change adaptation policy: the managed realignment of an island in the Gironde Estuary (SW France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last millennium, poldering had consisted to reclaim land from the sea by pumping and creating dike to develop, for example, agricultural lands (e.g. tidal marshes, estuarine island). During 1980's, gain land from the sea stopped in Europe because of the concern of rising sea level and for better controlling flood events. This study aims at evaluating the impact of an accidental realignment due to a dam-break on the "Ile Nouvelle" in the Gironde Estuary (France) during the "Xynthia" storm (27-28 February 2010). After this accident, the General Council of Gironde and the national office for coastal territory preservation ("Conservatoire du Littoral"), which own this island, have adopted a new policy of managed realignment allowing soil submersion by estuarine water during each high tide in order to promote rehabilitation of a wetland ecosystem. This management policy has resulted in the re-inundation of formerly agricultural embanked soils. The regular tidal re-inundation of formerly agricultural embanked soils has induced strong biological and morphological changes (mechanical erosion, siltation). Based on 50 soils samples, spatial distribution of priority metal contaminants (Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Cd, Pb and Hg) was conducted using GIS (Arcview). Metal concentrations were compared to local geochemical background measured at the bottom of a sediment core in the Gironde Estuary. Only a moderate Cd enrichment was observed (~2 to 7 times) and attributed to former deliberate submersion of vineyard soils on the island to fight off the damage caused by Phylloxera. Leaching experiments simulating episodic immersion during winter (salinity 0) and summer (salinity 12) were performed for investigating metal reactivity during soil suspension. Part of Cu and As were released from the soils at whatever salinity, whereas Cd release occurred only for salinity 12. Such desorption processes present potential geochemical risk to the Gironde Estuary. In contrast, during winter submersion events the studied soils would act as Cd sinks, adsorption being the dominating process. Coupling Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and 2 multi-parameters probes (OBS and SMATCH) during 2 spring-tide cycles allowed estimating residual metal fluxes, suggesting that under these conditions the Ile Nouvelle acts as a metal sink receiving ~5 kg of Cd, 440 kg of Cu et 480 kg of As. A bathymetry mapping of the corridor (mechanical erosion of the de-poldering area) was used to estimate the annual sedimentary and metals fluxes exported due to its erosion. Annual fluxes related to corridor erosion, compared to fluxes into the Gironde Estuary are significant for Cu and As. With climate change adaptation policies, managed realignment is becoming more common in the future. Consequently, it will be necessary before this management policy to assess the geochemical risk of the re-inundation of formerly embanked soils.

Ivanovsky, Anastasia; Coynel, Alexandra; Kessaci, Kahina; Kervella, Stphane; Curti, Ccile; Sottolichio, Aldo; Blanc, Grard



OECD: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change is something that is on the minds of many major non-governmental organizations and international think tanks. It has certainly not escaped the attention of the Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), which has had a climate change group as part of their environment directorate for a number of years. Their work is meant "to assist countries to implement effective and efficient policies to address climate change by conducting policy-relevant research and analysis." Visitors can gather relevant statistics, read news, browse content by country and more.


Climate Change Education .org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change Education .org is a volunteer organization made up primarily of docents and interns at California science centers and museums, along with students, scientists, and staff at the University of California, Berkeley. The organization specializes in hands-on science demonstrations relevant to climate change and other topics, and the encouragement of partnerships in education. The group's two portal web sites, Climate Change Education .org and Global Warming California .net, direct visitors to hundreds of links to great resources on subjects of interest.


Climate Change and the Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity covers the role that the oceans may play in climate change and how climate change may affect the oceans. It is lesson 8 in a nine-lesson module Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change.

Science, The K.



E-print Network

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation


Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises  

E-print Network

Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate


Conservation and Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

Landweber, Laura


Climate Change: An Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to

Lewis, Garry



Climate Change Adaptation Planning  

E-print Network

hazard) Is drought having an impact? (climate hazard) #12;Phase 2: Vulnerability and Risk Assessments Report Western Water Assessment NIDIS (National Integrated Drought Information System) The University of Colorado Law School #12;What is Climate Change Adaptation? "Adjustment in natural or human systems

Neff, Jason


Climate Processes and Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1997 Kyoto summit on climate change demonstrates the world community's desire to protect future generations from harmful effects induced by the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. On the other hand, the worldwide impacts of the 1997-1998 El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event serve as a reminder of how natural variability can strongly influence weather. In this book, Bryant provides a bird's-eye view of natural climate change over the last 2 million years, rather than the fish's-eye view of the more recent possible anthropogenic global warming.The key feature that sets this text apart is the perspective of climate change on a larger timescale. The author recognizes that climate is not constant, and that only small perturbations are necessary to shift climate into an extreme state. If this is the case, however, anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing may also produce extreme climate change. Climate Processes and Change also differs from other texts by raising the awareness of uncertainties in historical observations, trends, and the complex and nonlinear relationships between observations and theory.

Jenkins, Gregory S.


Global climate change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.

Levine, Joel S.



Climate Change and Health  


... can result in improved health, particularly through reduced air pollution. Climate change Over the last 50 years, human ... carbon emissions, and cut the burden of household air pollution, which causes some 4.3 million deaths per ...


Global Climatic Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cites some of the evidence which suggests that the production of carbon dioxide and methane from human activities has begun to change the climate. Describes some measures which should be taken to stop or slow this progression. (RT)

Houghton, Richard A.; Woodwell, George M.



Climate Change: Basic Information  


... and ongoing rise in global average temperature near Earth's surface. It is caused mostly by increasing concentrations ... decades or longer. Climate change is happening Our Earth is warming. Earth's average temperature has risen by ...


Rapid climate change  

SciTech Connect

Interactions between insolation changes due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a climate model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the climate system during periods of documented rapid climate change, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid climate shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current climate. 53 refs.

Morantine, M.C. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering



Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.



Purdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for  

E-print Network

Purdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for the State of Indiana Prepared for: The Honorable Richard G. Lugar Prepared by: The Purdue Climate Change Research Center February 2008 #12;1 Executive Summary We have analyzed the potential "no-action" impacts of climate change


Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management  

E-print Network

Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management in Wisconsinin Wisconsin NASECA February 3, 2011 David S. Liebl #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts · Adaptation strategies #12;Visible Light Energy in = Energy out Absorbed

Sheridan, Jennifer


Current Climate Variability & Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and climate change. The next section guides students through the exploration of temporal changes in global temperature from the surface to the lower stratosphere. Students discover that there has been global warming over the past several decades, and the subsequent section allows them to consider solar radiation and greenhouse gases as possible causes of this warming. Students then zoom in on different latitudinal zones to examine changes in temperature for each zone and hypothesize about why one zone may have warmed more than others. The final section, prior to the answering of the essential questions, is an examination of the following effects of the current change in temperatures: loss of sea ice; rise of sea level; loss of permafrost loss; and moistening of the atmosphere. The lab addresses 14 climate-literacy concepts and all seven climate-literacy principles through data and images that are mainly NASA products. It focuses on the satellite era of climate data; therefore, 1979 is the typical starting year for most datasets used by students. Additionally, all time-series analysis end with the latest year with full-year data availability; thus, the climate variability and trends truly are 'current.'

Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.



Avoiding dangerous climate change  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)



Solar Influence: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video, the sixth in the National Academies Climate Change, Lines of Evidence series, explores the hypothesis that changes in solar energy output may be responsible for observed global surface temperature rise. Several lines of evidence, such as direct satellite observations, are reviewed.

Council, National R.; Academies, The N.


Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the greenhouse effect is related to global warming and how global warming impacts our planet, including global climate change. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and how we react to these changes are the main points of focus of this lesson.



Climate Change and Runoff Management  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Runoff Management in Wisconsin Fox-Wolf Watershed Alliance May 10, 2011 David S of Engineering #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts of a changing climate J. Magnuson Source: IPCC 2007 Potter, et al. A longer record is better! #12;What about

Sheridan, Jennifer


Debating Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

Malone, Elizabeth L.



International Finance and Climate Change  

E-print Network

and adapt to climate change. Miller has authored reports on climate financing, climate policy and environmental regulation. Stenek leads the IFC's Climate Risk and Adaptation Program, along with otherInternational Finance and Climate Change Thursday, October 17, 2013 Breakfast ­ 8:30 a

Zhang, Junshan


EPA's Climate Change Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this site in order to present or direct users to accurate and timely social, scientific, and logistic information on the very broad issue of climate change and global warming in a way that is accessible and meaningful to all parts of society. The subtopics covered are climate - which includes information on global warming or The Greenhouse Effect -, emissions - with information on the Greenhouse Gases -, impacts, and actions, including what you can do to help with the problem of global warming. Specific information is presented for Concerned Citizens, Kids and Educators, Small Business and Industry and how they can help with the issue of global warming, Public Decision makers, International, Coastal Residents, Health Professionals, Meteorologists, and Wildlife Advocates. Some features are News, Calendar, Publications, Presentations (slide shows), Online tools (including software, calculators, case studies, and document searches), Science Frequently Asked Questions, Uncertainties, Glossary, and Links. The United States has based its climate change policies on the conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has provided an authoritative international consensus on the science of climate change.


Climate-change scenarios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the United States Congress passed the Global Change Research Act directing the Executive Branch of government to assess the potential effects of predicted climate change and variability on the nation. This congressional action followed formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 by the United Nations Environmental Program and World Meteorological Organization. Some 2,000 scientists from more than 150 nations contribute to the efforts of the IPCC. Under coordination of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the congressionally ordered national assessment has divided the country into 19 regions and five socio-economic sectors that cut across the regions: agriculture, coastal and marine systems, forests, human health, and water. Potential climate-change effects are being assessed in each region and sector, and those efforts collectively make up the national assessment. This document reports the assessment of potential climate-change effects on the Rocky Mountain/Great Basin (RMGB) region which encompasses parts of nine western states. The assessment began February 16-18, 1998 with a workshop in Salt Lake City co-convened by Frederic H. Wagner of Utah State University and Jill Baron of the U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (BRD). Invitations were sent to some 300 scientists and stakeholders representing 18 socio-economic sectors in nine statesa?|

Wagner, F.H.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Baldwin, C.K.; Mearns, L.O.



Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are likely to remain the same until the 2040's, then followed by a second step of warming and drying trend. During the last ten years, local farmers have been experiencing difficulties to combine challenges from an increasing competition in markets and from hotter and drier conditions. Helped by public subsidies, almost one-third of the vineyard was pulled out during that period. Up until the 2040's, with similar conditions, the local viticultural system should continue its transformation, favouring dynamic, proactive and enterprising farmers. Thus the composition of the farming community might change gradually, and count in the 2040's a majority of producers with a higher individual adaptive capacity than now. The timing and intensity of near-future climate change as measured by the climate model, combined to regional economic change, might thus be an asset to prepare and facilitate adaptation in the longer term.

Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Grard



Software research and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop explored the contributions that software research can make to the challenge of climate change. Climate change is likely to be the defining issue of the 21st Century. Recent studies indicate that climate change is accelerating, confirming the most pessimistic of scenarios identified by climate scientists. Our past use of fossil fuels commit the world to around 2C average

Steve M. Easterbrook; Michael Glenn; Jorge Aranda; Jon Pipitone



Biological Impacts of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may

McCarty, John P.


Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture  

E-print Network

7/23/2009 1 Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture Dev Niyogi Indiana State Climatologist it l d f d i li tWebsite: and What is Climate Change? (and...... what generally to large scale weather patterns in time or space, i.e. a tropical climate. Climate Change & Global


Understanding and Attributing Climate Change  

E-print Network

9 Understanding and Attributing Climate Change Coordinating Lead Authors: Gabriele C. Hegerl (USA. Nicholls, J.E. Penner and P.A. Stott, 2007: Under- standing and Attributing Climate Change. In: Climate of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M

Box, Jason E.


Droughts and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is a complex phenomenon whose central characteristic is the notion of water deficit. Droughts and desertification are intimately linked to specific components of the hydrologic cycle and thus their occurrence as well as their intensity in time and space can be greatly influenced by climatic changes. The primary forcing factors are changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration. They cause alterations not only in the mean conditions of water availability but very importantly also in the variability and seasonality of supply (and demand) of the resource. In addition to these direct effects, climatically induced changes in vegetation may have a considerable impact on the hydrologic cycle. As a feedback effect, the storage of heat and moisture in the soil is a key factor in determining the spatial and temporal character of climate. The strong coupling between the forcing factors and the soil moisture conditions over large spatial scales may undergo shifts and alterations of pronounced character as a result of climatic changes. The consequences of such changes can be of great importance for the persistence of droughts and the occurrence of desertification conditions.

Rodrguez-Iturbe, Ignacio



Confronting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage

Roach, Ronald



What is Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is offered by Canada's Natural Resources Department. The main page describes the basics of the phenomenon, while the links tell about the impact of climate change on health and safety, communities, land resources, water resources, and coastal regions. Although specific to Canadian regions, the site will give visitors from all over a good introduction to the potential problems of global warming.


Climate Change? When? Where?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city. The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is

Boon, Helen



Predicting climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few scientific topics evoke such general interests and public discussion as climate change. It is a subject that has been highly politicized. New results enter the environmental debate as evidence supporting a position. Usually the qualifiers, the background, and perspective needed to understand the result have been stripped away to form an appropriate sound bite. The attention is understandable given




Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a brief overview of processes and properties associated with global climate change and its rate of change, which is of current concern to scientists. The carbon cycle is discussed including its sources, sinks, and release agents along with the fact that it is critical to the biosphere and must continue cycling to support life on Earth. The information at this site should lead students to an understanding of carbon dioxide and the other major greenhouse gases, which is necessary to identify the current trends in atmospheric concentrations and climate change. Three other concepts addressed at this site include the profound effects living organisms in an ecosystem can have upon the local atmosphere, profound effects changes in vegetation can have upon wind speed, and the link of human activity to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This section serves as a reference for and includes links to seven classroom activities.



Climate Kids: What is Global Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A question and answer format is used to differentiate between weather and climate, and to provide a brief overview of global warming. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.


Status of Climate Change  

E-print Network

no change in Projections except Sea Level Change expected higher than #4 No Change for Hurricanes, Severe Weather still very uncertain Ocean Acidification more certain, probably more serious ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy...-18 IPCC #5 future Climate Change ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Oceans become More Acidic due to Dissolving CO2 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

North, G.



Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change


Climate Change in Chris Brierley  

E-print Network

Climate Change in HadCM3 Chris Brierley Chapa Club - 21/06/06 #12;Increase in CO2 A climate forcing References Climate Change SRES Scenarios - T. C. Johns, J. M. Gregory,W. J. Ingram, C. E. Johnson, A. Jones leads to a change in the energy balance of earth. Earth responds by changing its characteristics

Jones, Peter JS


Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

Polz, Martin


Health Effects of Climate Change  


... over generations. TODAY It is now established that climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. These ... are becoming alert to the dynamic relationship between climate change and human health. Some of these impacts are ...


Climate Change and Citizen Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how citizen observations can document the impact of climate change on plants and animals. It introduces the topic of phenology and data collection, the impact of climate change on phenology, and how individuals can become citizen scientists.

Citizen Science Central, Cornell L.


Forests / Climate change persp ctive  

E-print Network

Z Forests / Climate change persp ctive e 18Zoonotic diseases cause 2.2 million deaths and 2: in an interconnected world that is undergo- ing considerable climate and environmental change, human, animal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 2875­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Climate change impact­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Climate Change Action Plan Report  

E-print Network

Climate Change Action Plan Report Intermountain Region 2013 National Park Service Resource Stewardship and Science Landscape Conservation and Climate Change Division #12;About this Report Each National Park Service is responding to the challenge of climate change; and (2) raise awareness among NPS

Hansen, Andrew J.



E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible


Climate Change The Physical Background  

E-print Network

Climate Change ­ The Physical Background Andreas Sterl KNMI · Basics of the climate system/18) #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11.10.2007 Observed climate change #12;Andreas Sterl · Anthropogenic influence · Projected changes & impact #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11

Haak, Hein


Surviving climate change in the  

E-print Network

Surviving climate change in the property & casualty industry by growing customer advocacy Insurance build a sustainable competitive advantage. Surviving climate change in the property & casualty industry by growing customer advocacy By Andrea Eichhorn and Bob Heffernan Surviving climate change in the P


Designing Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.



Agriculture and climate change  

SciTech Connect

How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

Abelson, P.H.



Free Podcasts on Climate and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In partnership with the National Science Digital Library and Apple, NCAR and UCAR offer podcasts that provide a brief and accessible overview on climate and climate change. These podcasts, short 5-8 minute videos you can download on your computer or iPod, are a part of the NSDL on iTunes U collection.

Payo, Robert


Insects and climate change  

SciTech Connect

In this article the author describes some of the significant late glacial and Holocene changes that occurred in the Rocky Mountains, including the regional extirpation of certain beetle species. The fossil data presented here summarize what is known about regional insect responses to climate change in terms of species stability and geographic distribution. To minimize potential problems of species interactions (i.e., insect-host plant relationships, host-parasite relationships, and other interactions that tie a particular insect species' distribution to that of another organism), only predators and scavengers are discussed. These insects respond most rapidly to environmental changes, because for the most part they are not tied to any particular type of vegetation.

Elias, S.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))



Climate Change: Prospects for Nature  

SciTech Connect

Thomas Lovejoy, President of The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, explores the impact of climate change on the natural world. He also discusses the implications of climate change for climate policy and natural resource management.

Thomas Lovejoy



Climate Change and Regional Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short module is an overview of the different effects climate change produces in different regions of the United States. In addition to discussing impacts already being experienced, the module presents information on how climate scientists use specialized models and statistical techniques to estimate how regional climates are likely to change in the future.




Climate Change Workshop Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is a collection of useful Web links to climate change resources. Only a few resources here right now, but you get the idea... NIERRS Water quality monitoring data page NERRS - Water quality monitoring data This is a great site for water stuff. GOMOOS Site -- buoy monitoring data GOMOOS - Weather and water data (real-time) from Gulf of Maine buoys This is a great site for ocean temperatures and wind speed, etc. Coastal Ocean Observing Center Here\\'s another: The COOLroom ...

Deb and Chad



Contrails and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, learners analyze the role of condensation trails from jets, or contrails, and their role in climate change. Contrails are thin ice clouds that form from the burning of jet fuel and release of water vapor. The issue with contrails is that narrow trails can spread and coalesce to form significant banks of cirrus-type clouds. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.


Prehistoric Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners use fossils to infer temperatures 55 million years ago, at the sites where the fossils were found. Using their observation skills, learners examine fossils of tree leaves and sort them into "smooth" and "toothed" leaves. Learners follow the process founded by Smithsonian paleontologist Scott Wing (featured in a video) to determine the temperature at the site where the fossils were found. Learners are challenged to: distinguish between smooth and toothed leaves using a scientific method called "leaf-margin analysis"; calculate the smooth-leaf percentage; calculate average annual temperature at two fossil sites; compare calculations between sites; and consider how prehistoric climate change matters today.

Institution, Smithsonian



Climate Variability and Change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on climate variability and change and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

U.S. Geological Survey



UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National  

E-print Network

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National Adaptation Programme Meg Patel Defra #12 change #12;Weather & climate impacts - economic, societal, environmental Water consumption per capita;Legislative Framework Climate Change Act 2008 Adaptation Reporting Power 2011 Climate Change Risk Assessment

Wirosoetisno, Djoko


Ruminants, climate change and climate policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant meat production are significant. Reductions in global ruminant numbers could make a substantial contribution to climate change mitigation goals and yield important social and environmental co-benefits.

Ripple, William J.; Smith, Pete; Haberl, Helmut; Montzka, Stephen A.; McAlpine, Clive; Boucher, Douglas H.



Climate Kids: Birds and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some bird species appear to respond to extreme weather changes in their native habitat by moving to more hospitable environments. This article discusses the role of NASA satellites, along with field and citizen scientists, in studying that movement. The article also includes an activity on constructing a bird feeder. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.


Climate Change on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today, Mars is cold and dry. With a 7 mbar mean surface pressure, its thin predominantly CO2 atmosphere is not capable of raising global mean surface temperatures significantly above its 217K effective radiating temperature, and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is equivalent to a global ocean only 10 microns deep. Has Mars always been in such a deep freeze? There are several lines of evidence that suggest it has not. First, there are the valley networks which are found throughout the heavily cratered terrains. These features are old (3.8 Gyr) and appear to require liquid water to form. A warm climate early in Mars' history has often been invoked to explain them, but the precise conditions required to achieve this have yet to be determined. Second, some of the features seen in orbiter images of the surface have been interpreted in terms of glacial activity associated with an active hydrological cycle some several billion years ago. This interpretation is controversial as it requires the release of enormous quantities of ground water and enough greenhouse warming to raise temperatures to the melting point. Finally, there are the layered terrains that characterize both polar regions. These terrains are geologically young (10 Myr) and are believed to have formed by the slow and steady deposition of dust and water ice from the atmosphere. The individual layers result from the modulation of the deposition rate which is driven by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. The ongoing research into each of these areas of Martian climate change will be reviewed, and similarities to the Earth's climate system will be noted.

Haberle, R. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)



Abrupt climate change revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taken together, evidence from east Greenland's mountain moraines and results from atmospheric models appear to provide the answer to a question which has long dogged abrupt climate change research: namely, how were impacts of the Younger Dryas (YD), Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) and Heinrich (H) events transmitted so quickly and efficiently throughout the northern hemisphere and tropics? The answer appears to lie in extensive winter sea ice formation which created Siberian-like conditions in the regions surrounding the northern Atlantic. Not only would this account for the ultra cold conditions in the north, but, as suggested by models, it would have pushed the tropical rain belt southward and weakened the monsoons. The requisite abrupt changes in the extent of sea ice cover are of course best explained by the turning on and turning off of the Atlantic's conveyor circulation.

Broecker, Wallace S.



Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

Change, Project A.; University, Purdue


Climate change & street trees project  

E-print Network

Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values Group as part of the Climate change and street trees project, funded by the Forestry Commission with changing socio-economics and/or demographics, but little evidence exists relating


Hurricanes-Climate Change Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page focuses on recent natural disasters and the latest climate change research to engage students with topical issues and help them understand the larger issue of climate change. Includes resources and visualizations of recent storms such as Katrina and changing coastlines worldwide.



E-print Network

TOWARD AN ECOLOGY OF CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz Upton, Long Island, NY, USA climate change First principles climate modeling Earth's energy balance and perturbations Climate system models Summary and conclusions #12;SOME SIMPLE QUESTIONS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE How much has Global Mean

Schwartz, Stephen E.


BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom


BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom


Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.


Potential global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Global economic integration and growth contribute much to the construction of energy plants, vehicles and other industrial products that produces carbon emission and in effect cause the destruction of the environment. A coordinated policy and response worldwide to curb emissions and to effect global climate change must be introduced. Improvement in scientific understanding is required to monitor how much emission reduction is necessary. In the near term, especially in the next seven years, sustained research and development for low carbon or carbon-free energy is necessary. Other measures must also be introduced, such as limiting the use of vehicles, closing down inefficient power plants, etc. In the long term, the use of the electric car, use solar energy, etc. is required. Reforestation must also be considered to absorb large amounts of carbon in the atmosphere.




Hearing Examines Climate Change Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has released its summary report on the science of climate change and will release subsequent reports on impacts and response strategies in coming months (see Eos 88(7), 2007). With this as backdrop, attention to issues related to climate change policy has been growing, particularly within the U.S. government where House and Senate committees continue to hold hearings each week on various aspects of climate change. One of these hearings, held 28 February by the House Ways and Means Committee, focused on the economic issues related to strategies for reducing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.



Climate Change and National Security  

SciTech Connect

Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.

Malone, Elizabeth L.



The Atlantic Climate Change Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include 1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the

Robert L. Molinari; David Battisti; Kirk Bryan; John Walsh




E-print Network

Ange And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011Alysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;4 DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE. Deforestation, land use change and climate...................................................... 43 4. Summary


Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra



Generating Arguments about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is a different and fun way to engage students with an extremely important topic, climate change, which cuts across scientific and nonscientific disciplines. While climate change itself may not be listed in the curriculum of every science class, the authors contend that such a unit is appropriate for virtually any science curriculum.

Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin



Generating Arguments About Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article from the NSTA Press Journal, Science Scope, students participate in a unit on global climate change by engaging in the process of scientific argumentation. The lessons presented in this article were created using the generate-an-argument model to help students understand climate change science. The article is free to both NSTA members and nonmembers.

Barry Golden


Idea Bank: Climate Change Inquiries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can students engage in authentic inquiry on global climate change if they are not able to do the actual experiments? Many questions about climate change emerge over large areas and long periods of time. The good news is that much of the data from thes

Ryan Bowman



Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This organization was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change. The website contains reports, publications, technical papers, press releases, and official documents related to climate change.

World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme


Take Aim At Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This music video features a rap song about some of the causes and effects of climate change with the goal of increasing awareness of climate change and how it will impact nature and humans. The website also includes links to short fact sheets with lyrics to the song that are annotated with the sources of the information in the lyrics.



Ground Water and Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger



AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Aaas


Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Whether the characteristics of tropical cyclones have changed or will change in a warming climate and if so, how has been the subject of considerable investigation, often with conflicting results. Large amplitude ...

Knutson, Thomas R.


Implications of abrupt climate change.  

PubMed Central

Records of past climates contained in ice cores, ocean sediments, and other archives show that large, abrupt, widespread climate changes have occurred repeatedly in the past. These changes were especially prominent during the cooling into and warming out of the last ice age, but persisted into the modern warm interval. Changes have especially affected water availability in warm regions and temperature in cold regions, but have affected almost all climatic variables across much or all of the Earth. Impacts of climate changes are smaller if the changes are slower or more-expected. The rapidity of abrupt climate changes, together with the difficulty of predicting such changes, means that impacts on the health of humans, economies and ecosystems will be larger if abrupt climate changes occur. Most projections of future climate include only gradual changes, whereas paleoclimatic data plus models indicate that abrupt changes remain possible; thus, policy is being made based on a view of the future that may be optimistic. PMID:17060975

Alley, Richard B.



Climate change and potential natural vegetation  

E-print Network

Climate change and potential natural vegetation Kuchler 1964 #12;Climate change: An attack Ecological forecasting? #12;Incorporate climate drivers in state & transition models? Briske et al. 2005 #12;Line-up Wolter Climate variability Jackson Paleoecology Miller Paleoecology Knapp Experiments



E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION: PHYSIOLOGY, LIFE HISTORY, AND ECOSYSTEM CHANGE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center of the uncertainties with climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems is understanding where transitions


Climate Kids: How Do We Know the Climate Is Changing?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This question is addressed through a series of questions and answers, each providing related introductory information such as how climate change is studied, the history of Earths climate, and the effects of climate change on Earths geology and biology. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.


Infilling stratigraphy of macrotidal tide-dominated estuaries. Controlling mechanisms: Sea-level fluctuations, bedrock morphology, sediment supply and climate changes (The examples of the Seine estuary and the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, English Channel, NW France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a synthesis of recent works performed on two macrotidal tide-dominated estuaries located along the southern coast of the English Channel, the Seine estuary and the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (NW France). On the basis of very high resolution seismic data combined with sediment cores and AMS dating, these works allow reconstructing the Holocene infill of such singular estuaries, yet rarely documented in the literature. Rate in sea-level rise, bedrock morphology, sediment supply are the main controlling factors of the general infill pattern. Both infills are composed of two units, the transgressive systems tract (TST) and highstand systems tract (HST). The maximum flooding surface (MFS) is dated around 6500 cal BP when the Holocene sea-level rise slowed down, and corresponds to the main architectural change. The TST is poorly preserved compared with the HST that constitutes the main depositional unit, making this incised valley fill deviating from the classical models. The HST is composed above the axis of the incised valley of a highly wandering estuarine channel belt characterized by deep tidal reworking throughout its building. On the margin of this high-energy estuarine system, the HST is made of wave-dominated barriers, tidal flats and offshore tidal banks.. They constitute dominantly aggradational systems, the aggradation rate of which is in accordance with the rate of sea-level rise from 6500 cal BP onwards. Consequently, the impacts of the rapid climate changesthat characterized mid- to late Holocene times can be preserved in these marginal successions. Various sedimentary and geometrical signatures indicate that periodic enhanced storminess episodes, probably related to the Bond Cold Events (~ 1500 years periodicity), are responsible for the most drastic environmental changes in these macrotidal tide-dominated settings. The role of long term tidal cycles as well as the impact of human activities are also considered.

Tessier, Bernadette; Billeaud, Isabelle; Sorrel, Philippe; Delsinne, Nicolas; Lesueur, Patrick



CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction Richard Allan, Department of Meteorology #12;Text Books and References · Henson, B., Rough Guide to Climate Change Titles/dp/1858281059 · Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007, www

Allan, Richard P.


Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government  

E-print Network

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local: RESOURCES THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT 3. Past and Future Climate Change and Its Impacts 4

Pedersen, Tom


Climate Change Impacts in the United States  

E-print Network

Climate Change Impacts in the United States U.S. National Climate Assessment U.S. Global Change Research Program #12;i CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN THE UNITED STATES Members of the National Guard lay climate change. Climate change is contributing to an increase in wildfires across the U.S. West. Solar

Debinski, Diane M.


Climate change Physics, dynamics and some misconceptions  

E-print Network

the tropical Atlantic to the polar areas Climate change ­ p.9 #12;Climate change drivers - Green House Gasses Climate change ­ p.10 #12;Climate change drivers - Green House Gasses GHG warm our planet and act like volcanic eruptions emit vast amounts of dust in the atmosphere, cooling the planet Climate change ­ p.13

Schrier, Gerard van der


Climate change and dead zones.  


Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B



Changing patterns in climate-driven landslide hazard: an alpine test site Audrey Baills(1)  

E-print Network

Changing patterns in climate-driven landslide hazard: an alpine test site Audrey Baills(1 will be different depending on both the location of the site and the type of landslide considered. Indeed, mass valley (France) using present and past climate conditions. Keywords: hazard, landslide, climate change

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Earth's Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1896, Svante Arrhenius published the first model of the effects of industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on Earth's climate. Since the days of Arrhenius, scientists have moved from pencils to supercomputers. Calculations take hours or days instead

Juanita Constible



Earth's Orbit and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced tutorial, learners examine data to determine the relative contribution of what we call natural climate cycles and that of human-caused greenhouse gases to contemporary climate change. Changes in the Earth-Sun geometry over time are explored using interactive digital applets. A section supporting pedagogical techniques that begin with student prior conceptions and a list of common Earth science student misconceptions are included. Vocabulary terms are hot linked to a glossary. This is the sixth of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.


Climate change, wine, and conservation  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.



Climate change, wine, and conservation.  


Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J



Regional Agreements, Adaptation, and Climate Change  

E-print Network

1 Regional Agreements, Adaptation, and Climate Change: New Approaches to FERC Licensing...................................28 Sierra's highelevation hydropower and climate change: Temperature simulation..................88 Alteration and susceptibility of stream physical habitat to climate change

Schladow, S. Geoffrey


BTO Research Report 414 Climate Change and  

E-print Network

..........................................................................39 1.3. Biological Adaptation to Climate ChangeBTO Research Report 414 Climate Change and Migratory Species Authors Robert A. Robinson1 , Jennifer ..........................................................................................................38 1.2. Certainty in Climate Change Impacts

Pierce, Graham


Oceans and Human Health (and climate change)  

E-print Network

Oceans and Human Health (and climate change) Tracy K. Collier Science Dimensions and Ocean Health in a Changing Climate, USC March 12, 2013 1 #12 use Climate change Closes the loop in understanding connections between ocean health and human health

Rohs, Remo



E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER SYSTEM Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012020 Prepared for: California consideration of climate change effects on highelevation hydropower supply and demand in California. Artificial


Climate Change and Tourism Dr David Viner  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Tourism éCLAT Dr David Viner Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia Tourism has a strong international dimension and is sensitive to any changes of climate that alter to attract visitors are likely to be vulnerable to climate change and the implementation of climate change

Feigon, Brooke


Ground water and climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the worlds largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate chan...


Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. NOTICE. 1. Transportation--Climatic factors--United States. 2. Transportation engineering--United States. 3. Climatic changes--Government policy--United States. 4. Global warming-- Environmental aspects. I. National

Sheridan, Jennifer


Extinction risk from climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change over the past ~30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of

Chris D. Thomas; Alison Cameron; Rhys E. Green; Michel Bakkenes; Linda J. Beaumont; Yvonne C. Collingham; Barend F. N. Erasmus; Marinez Ferreira de Siqueira; Alan Grainger; Lee Hannah; Lesley Hughes; Brian Huntley; Albert S. van Jaarsveld; Guy F. Midgley; Lera Miles; Miguel A. Ortega-Huerta; A. Townsend Peterson; Oliver L. Phillips; Stephen E. Williams



CERFACS/CNRS Climate Modelling and Global Change team  

E-print Network

France A multimodel ensemble approach to assessment of climate change impacts on the wind energy winds 1. Introduction I. Statistical downscaling · Wind energy resources local information;1. Introduction 2. Method 3. Validation 4. Multimodel impact study 5. Conclusion Outline 1. Introduction #12


Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication  

E-print Network

Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour;1 Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour? Thomas D. Lowe 1 these kinds of messages (which have recently been dubbed `climate porn' (Ereaut and Segnit, 2006)), can

Watson, Andrew


Climate Change and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, students explore, at their own pace, how global climate change may affect health issues. Issues include airborne diseases, developmental disorders, mental health disorders, vector-borne diseases and waterborne diseases.

Sciences, National I.; Domain, Teachers'


Taking Action on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this Government of Canada website, visitors can "learn about the science, impacts and adaptation to climate change and how individuals, governments, businesses, industry and communities take action by reducing greenhouse gas emissions." Through maps, graphs, and clear text, users can learn the basics of climate change and the greenhouse gases. The website details many of the ecological, economic, and global impacts of climate change. Users can find out about the One-Tonne Challenge, which encourages everyone to reduce their emissions. Teachers can find questions and activities to educate their students about climate change. The website also offers a calculator to estimate a user's current emissions, a series of videos instructing individuals how to create an energy efficient home and car, as well as publications and media resources. This site is also reviewed in the March 18, 2005 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.


NASA Climate Change Resource Reel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of resources from NASA includes animations and still shots covering a wide range of topics in climate, including the cryosphere, ocean sciences, changes on land, the atmosphere, and satellite images.



Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.


Understanding and Communicating Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is designed for a four week elective class on the local impacts of climate change. The lessons incorporate current data and information from a variety of sources, are designed to keep student engagement high, and include a variety of instructional approaches, from jigsaw readings to online interactives to hands-on simulated ice core analysis. The unit is themed around countering skeptics' statements, and the final product emphasizes clear written communication around climate change and its impacts.



Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Congressional Research Service


Climate Change: The Sun's Role  

E-print Network

The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

Gerald E. Marsh



Climate Change: The Sun's Role  

E-print Network

The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

Marsh, Gerald E



Global Climate Change Policy Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website summarizes the current administration's approach to global climate change, including the President's Program of Domestic and International Initiatives. These include a national goal to reduce emissions growth by 18 percent in the next ten years, substantially improve the emission reduction registry, protect and provide transferable credits for emissions reduction, increase funding for America's commitment to climate change, take action on the Science and Technology Review and a range of international climate initiatives. Descriptions of these programs, as well as their costs, are included.

House, The W.


Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

Armstrong, Jennifer



IN THIS ISSUE Regional Climate Change..............1  

E-print Network

IN THIS ISSUE · Regional Climate Change..............1 · From the Executive Director...........2 release of new climate change scenarios from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) heralds of the fundamental questions remaining with respect to understanding climate change and even climate variability. And

Hamann, Andreas


Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012  

E-print Network

Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012 to climate change! May 29­May 31, 2012, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA Conference Web Site:, and by UNEP's Programme of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA

Matthews, Adrian


The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change  

E-print Network

1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley · Changes to surface and atmosphere by aerosols · Climate sensitivity to changes in aerosols and CO2 Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central


Climate Change: One, or Many? Professor of Climate and Culture  

E-print Network

Climate Change: One, or Many? Mike Hulme Professor of Climate and Culture Department of Geography Presidential Session: `Geographies of Climate Change' AAG Annual Conference, Tampa, Florida, 7-11 April 2014 #12;10 Mary Douglas #12;One Resistance? The dominant singular approach to climate change has fuelled

Hulme, Mike


Climate Amenities, Climate Change, and American Quality of Life  

E-print Network

Climate Amenities, Climate Change, and American Quality of Life September, 2011 PRELIMINARY DRAFT "business-as-usual" forecast from the United Nations' International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts assessment that has received comparatively little investigation: the impact of climate change on the amenity

Weiblen, George D


Climate change and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is already widespread change in the natural calendars (phenology) of plants and animals, as well as change in some species distributions. Now threshold change (sudden, fundamental change) in ecosystems is beginning to be observed in nature. At minimum, the natural world will experience an equal amount of warming to that which has already taken place. This all suggests

T. Lovejoy



Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes ref lect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was 20.12 day per year, an




Climate change and food security  

PubMed Central

Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M



Climate change impacts on forestry  

SciTech Connect

Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. The authors' review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. They concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand.

Kirilenko, A.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science and Policy; Sedjo, R.A. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)



Urban sites in climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the 21st century a significant rise of near surface air temperature is expected from IPCC global climate model simulations. The additional heat load associated with this warming will especially affect cities since it adds to the well-known urban heat island effect. With already more than half of the world's population living in cities and continuing urbanization highly expected, managing urban heat load will become even more important in future. To support urban planners in their effort to maintain or improve the quality of living in their city, detailed information on future urban climate on the residential scale is required. To pursue this question the 'Umweltamt der Stadt Frankfurt am Main' and the 'Deutscher Wetterdienst' (DWD, German Meteorological Service) built a cooperation. This contribution presents estimates of the impact of climate change on the heat load in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, using the urban scale climate model MUKLIMO3 and climate projections from different regional climate models for the region of Frankfurt. Ten different building structures were considered to realistically represent the spatial variability of the urban environment. The evaluation procedure combines the urban climate model simulations and the regional climate projections to calculate several heat load indices based on the exceedance of a temperature threshold. An evaluation of MUKLIMO3 results is carried out for the time period 1971 - 2000. The range of potential future heat load in Frankfurt is statistically analyzed using an ensemble of four different regional climate projections. Future work will examine the options of urban planning to mitigate the enhanced heat load expected from climate change.

Frh, B.; Kossmann, M.



The United States And France Partner In CALIPSO Satellite Education: Providing Students And Teachers With An Opportunity To Collect Sun Photometer Data And Improve Their Understanding Of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CALIPSO satellite based research mission was successfully launched, with the CloudSat mission, on a Delta II rocket on April 28, 2006. CALIPSO, an acronym for Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations, is a joint mission between NASA in the United States and CNES in France. CALIPSO uses Lidar to detect the size and distribution of clouds and aerosols. In addition to providing scientists with improved atmospheric data, the launch of CALIPSO is also promoting an international partnership between students and teachers in France and the United States. Under the direction of Dianne Q. Robinson, Hampton University leads the CALIPSO U.S. education and public outreach (EPO) program, while Danielle DeStaerke manages the EPO efforts in France, known as Calisph"Air. The data being collected by CALIPSO is helping scientists, teachers and students to better understand the role aerosols and clouds play in Earth's climate system. Paul Adams, a professor at Fort Hays State University in Kansas, works directly with CALIPSO and Calisph"Air, providing instruction for teachers and unique science education opportunities for students. Since 2004, live events such as web chats and videoconferences have been conducted for students in both countries, allowing them a connection to the mission scientists. In addition, the programs have implemented several teacher workshops in France and the U.S. providing educators with an opportunity to develop a greater understanding of the science of CALIPSO. Key to the success of this international partnership has been the opportunity for both programs to continue to work through GLOBE to involve students in taking measurements of aerosols with a hand-held sun photometer. All data is collected using a precise GLOBE protocol and reported online. The activities developed by the CALIPSO and Calisph"Air education programs, as well as the data collected by students internationally, allows teachers, students and the public to better understand the worldwide impacts made by humans on Earth's atmosphere.

Robinson, D. Q.; Adams, P.



Simulating Climate Change in Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Meteorology & Climate Centre at University College Dublin, we are using the CLM-Community's COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model (RCM) and the WRF RCM (developed at NCAR) to simulate the climate of Ireland at high spatial resolution. To address the issue of model uncertainty, a Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) approach is used. The ensemble method uses different RCMs, driven by several Global Climate Models (GCMs), to simulate climate change. Through the MME approach, the uncertainty in the RCM projections is quantified, enabling us to estimate the probability density function of predicted changes, and providing a measure of confidence in the predictions. The RCMs were validated by performing a 20-year simulation of the Irish climate (1981-2000), driven by ECMWF ERA-40 global re-analysis data, and comparing the output to observations. Results confirm that the output of the RCMs exhibit reasonable and realistic features as documented in the historical data record. Projections for the future Irish climate were generated by downscaling the Max Planck Institute's ECHAM5 GCM, the UK Met Office HadGEM2-ES GCM and the CGCM3.1 GCM from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling. Simulations were run for a reference period 1961-2000 and future period 2021-2060. The future climate was simulated using the A1B, A2, B1, RCP 4.5 & RCP 8.5 greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Results for the downscaled simulations show a substantial overall increase in precipitation and wind speed for the future winter months and a decrease during the summer months. The predicted annual change in temperature is approximately 1.1C over Ireland. To date, all RCM projections are in general agreement, thus increasing our confidence in the robustness of the results.

Nolan, P.; Lynch, P.



Indigenous health and climate change.  


Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

Ford, James D



Indigenous Health and Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of globallocal interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718



Inuit Observations on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an overview of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) project at Sachs Harbour on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, an effort to document the problem of Arctic climate change as experienced by the Inuit living there. There is video commentary by Inuit in which they describe changes in daily life for animals and people at Sachs Harbour: banks caving from permafrost melt, seasonal changes and new types of animals appearing as the old familiar animals disappear, ice dangerously opening up, and most importantly, a new unpredictability added to the usual extreme weather conditions in the Arctic region. The video comes in an abbreviated version, 14 minutes in length, as well as the full version, which is 42 minutes in length. There are reports of IISD trips made during different seasons at Sachs Harbour, a teacher guide for the video, and a report on the climate observations discussed in the IISD: Inuit Observations on Climate Change workshop.


Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge," we conclude the special section by assuming that you have been persuaded by Thompson's paper or other evidence that global warming is real and poses a threat that must be dealt with, and that for now the only way to deal with it is by changing behavior. Then we ask what you, as behavior analysts, can do

Chance, Paul; Heward, William L.




EPA Science Inventory

PRA Goal 6: Reducing Global and Transboundary Environmental Risks Objective 6.2: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Sub-Objective 6.2.3: Global Climate Change Research Activity F55 - Assessing the Consequences of Global Change on Ecosystem Health NRMRL R...


Invasive species and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

Middleton, Beth A.



Faces of Climate Change: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of three short videos showcasing the dramatic changes in Alaska's marine ecosystems through interviews with scientists and Alaska Natives. This introduction to the impacts of climate change in Alaska includes interviews with Alaska Natives, commentary by scientists, and footage from Alaska's Arctic.

Dugan, Darcy; Noaa Sea Grant, Alaska C.


Climate Change: Coastal Dead Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many of the anticipated changes (increased streamflow, warmer temperatures, calmer summer winds, and increased depth due to\\u000a sea-level rise) associated with global climate change would move the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem in the direction of worsening\\u000a hypoxia (harmful oxygen depletion).

Donald F. Boesch; Victoria J. Coles; David G. Kimmel; W. David Miller


Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation  

E-print Network

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change Climate Change Center to lead this effort. The 2009 Adaptation Strategy prepared by the California Natural for taking concrete actions to reduce climate-change impacts. This assessment examines adaptation options


Can Science Win Over Climate Change Skeptics?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explaining global warming is complex, making it harder to argue against climate change skeptics. Teaching the nature of science may be a better way to help students and the public understand that climate change is real; highlight the benefits from climate change awareness; and provide concise, direct answers to critics of climate change theory.

Michael Dougherty (The American Society of Human Genetics;)



Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers  

E-print Network

1 Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers in the US and South Korea Pierre Y. Julien Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng. Colorado State University Seoul, South Korea August 11, 2009 Climate Change and Large Rivers 1. Climatic changes have been on-going for some time; 2. Climate changes usually predict

Julien, Pierre Y.


An iconic approach to representing climate change  

E-print Network

1 An iconic approach to representing climate change Saffron Jessica O'Neill A thesis submitted-experts to be meaningfully engaged with the issue of climate change. This thesis investigates the value of engaging non-experts with climate change at the individual level. Research demonstrates that individuals perceive climate change

Feigon, Brooke


Climate Change and Trout in Wisconsin Streams  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Trout in Wisconsin Streams Photo Matt Mitro W John J. Magnuson Center Climate Change Fishes and Climate Change Adaptation Magnuson Photo #12;The Invisible Present The Invisible in Weather versus Climate Change Magnuson 2009 #12;Magnuson 2006 The Invisible Present The Invisible Place

Sheridan, Jennifer


Experimenting with Climate Change  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hilda Smith, biological technician with Canyonlands Research Station, monitors changes in biological soil crusts in response to experimental increases in temperature and altered precipitation patterns....


Double Exposure: Photographing Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double Exposure, Photographing Climate Change, is a fine-art photography exhibition that examines climate change through the prism of melting glaciers. The photographs are twinned shots of glaciers, taken in the mid-20th century by world-renowned photographer Brad Washburn, and in the past two years by Boston journalist/photographer David Arnold. Arnold flew in Washburn's aerial "footprints", replicating stunning black and white photographs, and documenting one irreversible aspect of climate change. Double Exposure is art with a purpose. It is designed to educate, alarm and inspire its audiences. Its power lies in its beauty and the shocking changes it has captured through a camera lens. The interpretive text, guided by numerous experts in the fields of glaciology, global warming and geology, helps convey the message that climate change has already forced permanent changes on the face of our planet. The traveling exhibit premiered at Boston's Museum of Science in April and is now criss-crossing the nation. The exhibit covers changes in the 15 glaciers that have been photographed as well as related information about global warming's effect on the planet today.

Arnold, D. P.; Wake, C. P.; Romanow, G. B.



Climate Wisconsin: Temperature Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive visualization allows users to compare future projections of Wisconsin's average annual temperature with the actual changes of the last five decades. Text on the web page encourages students to think about the challenges Wisconsin could face if these changes occur.

Ryan, Finn; Pauli, Scott; Interactive, Pitch; Board, Wisconsin E.


Climate Change and Fisheries:Climate Change and Fisheries: A Socioeconomic PerspectiveA Socioeconomic Perspective  

E-print Network

, habitat, and ecosystem boundariesries Retrospectively link biological/fishery data to climateRetrospectively link biological/fishery data to climate--driven parametersdriven parameters Adaptations ResearchClimate Change and Fisheries:Climate Change and Fisheries: A Socioeconomic Perspective

Charles, Anthony


Renewable Energy and Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued the Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) at (May 2011 electronic version; printed form ISBN 978-1-107-60710-1, 2012). More than 130 scientists contributed to the report.* The SRREN assessed existing literature on the future potential of renewable energy for the mitigation of climate change within a portfolio of mitigation options including energy conservation and efficiency, fossil fuel switching, RE, nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CCS). It covers the six most important renewable energy technologies - bioenergy, direct solar, geothermal, hydropower, ocean and wind, as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It also takes into consideration the environmental and social consequences associated with these technologies, the cost and strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion.

Chum, H. L.



Fisheries and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When populations of harvestable fish start to decline, managers look for explanations of the changes throughout the Earth system. In this activity, the impact of global climate change on marine and Great Lakes fish is considered. First, decline in the striped bass population of the North Atlantic, noted in the Downeaster Alexa song by Billy Joel, is examined with spreadsheet analysis and on-line searches of National Marine Fisheries Service databases. In a second investigation, ArcView generates a model of the Lake Erie depths that could be associated with global climate change (shallower water). Students identify fish species that use nearshore shallows for spawning and nursery areas, and speculate on the impact of the lower water. In both activities, the thermal niche of the species is considered as a factor in where fish populations may migrate with new climate regimes.

Rosanne Fortner



Interactive Quizzes on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website allows you to test your knowledge on 5 topics. Warm Up: Test your knowledge about global temperature change and its impact on Earth's climate; Freeze Frames: How much do you know about glaciers and ice caps?; Sea Change: Test your knowledge of sea level rise and its effect on global populations; It's A Gas: Test your knowledge of carbon dioxide and why it's so important to climate stability and our quality of life; Each test consists of 10 questions and are immediately scored. The final module, 10 Things You Never Knew About Earth: Discover some amazing and little-known facts about our home planet, allows you to learn facts about the Earth and Climate Change.


Preparing for climate change in Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is expected to bring potentially significant changes to Washington States natural, institutional, cultural,\\u000a and economic landscape. Addressing climate change impacts will require a sustained commitment to integrating climate information\\u000a into the day-to-day governance and management of infrastructure, programs, and services that may be affected by climate change.\\u000a This paper discusses fundamental concepts for planning for climate change and

Lara C. Whitely Binder; Jennifer Krencicki Barcelos; Derek B. Booth; Meriel Darzen; Marketa McGuire Elsner; Richard Fenske; Thomas F. Graham; Alan F. Hamlet; John Hodges-Howell; J. Elizabeth Jackson; Catherine Karr; Patrick W. Keys; Jeremy S. Littell; Nathan Mantua; Jennifer Marlow; Don McKenzie; Michael Robinson-Dorn; Eric A. Rosenberg; Claudio O. Stckle; Julie A. Vano



Climate Change and Speciation of Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing and informative interview highlights the keypoints in the climate change/ speciation debate. Whether climate change is a major factor in speciation, the author explains that new species of mammals evolve when significant climate change persists over very long periods of time, when mammals cant move to habitats that provide favorable climate, climate change leads to evolutionary changes or extinction, and fossils provide clues that can help predict effects on species in the current warming trend.

Anthony Barnosky (University of California¢Berkeley;)



Urban Runoff Response due to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change may produce a significant modification in the hydrological response that requires a change in overall water resources planning and management. Climate change particularly the projected change in extreme precipitation is likely to affect the runoff characteristics both regionally and temporally. The research presented here will focus on the changes in flood potential due to climate change, specifically event

A. Acharya; T. C. Piechota



Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, AR4) has resulted in a wider acceptance of global climate change climate extremes and change impacts. Uncertainties in process studies, climate models, and associated


United Nations Environment Programme: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to information on the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) initiatives on the issue of climate change. Materials include UNEP's areas of focus on addressing climate change (climate, finance, and business; emissions mitigation; carbon sequestration; vulnerability and adaptation to climate change; and others); links to UNEP Climate Change Centres; links to partner organizations; and links to information and media activities. There are also links to multimedia materials (posters, films, and video), printed publications on climate change, maps and graphics, and links to other organizations working on the issue of climate change.


Public Engagement on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change communication is complicated by complexity of the scientific problem, multiple perspectives on the magnitude of the risk from climate change, often acrimonious disputes between scientists, high stakes policy options, and overall politicization of the issue. Efforts to increase science literacy as a route towards persuasion around the need for a policy like cap and trade have failed, because the difficulty that a scientist has in attempting to make sense of the social and political complexity is very similar to the complexity facing the general public as they try to make sense of climate science itself. In this talk I argue for a shift from scientists and their institutions as information disseminators to that of public engagement and enablers of public participation. The goal of engagement is not just to inform, but to enable, motivate and educate the public regarding the technical, political, and social dimensions of climate change. Engagement is a two-way process where experts and decision-makers seek input and learn from the public about preferences, needs, insights, and ideas relative to climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, solutions and policy options. Effective public engagement requires that scientists detach themselves from trying to control what the public does with the acquired knowledge and motivation. The goal should not be to "sell" the public on particular climate change solutions, since such advocacy threatens public trust in scientists and their institutions. Conduits for public engagement include the civic engagement approach in the context of community meetings, and perhaps more significantly, the blogosphere. Since 2006, I have been an active participant in the climate blogosphere, focused on engaging with people that are skeptical of AGW. A year ago, I started my own blog Climate Etc. at The demographic that I have focused my communication/engagement activities are the technically educated and scientifically literate public, many of whom have become increasingly skeptical of climate science the more they investigate the topic. Specific issues that this group has with climate science include concerns that science that cannot easily be separated from risk assessment and value judgments; concern that assessments (e.g. IPCC) have become a Maxwell's daemon for climate research; inadequate assessment of our ignorance of this complex scientific issue; elite scientists and scientific institutions losing credibility with the public; political exploitation of the public's lack of understanding; and concerns about the lack of public accountability of climate science and climate models that are being used as the basis for far reaching decisions and policies. Individuals in this group have the technical ability to understand and examine climate science arguments and are not prepared to cede judgment on this issue to the designated and self-proclaimed experts. This talk will describe my experiences in engaging with this group and what has been learned, both by myself and by participants in the discussion at Climate Etc.

Curry, J.



Changing the intellectual climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calls for more broad-based, integrated, useful knowledge now abound in the world of global environmental change science. They evidence many scientists' desire to help humanity confront the momentous biophysical implications of its own actions. But they also reveal a limited conception of social science and virtually ignore the humanities. They thereby endorse a stunted conception of 'human dimensions' at a time when the challenges posed by global environmental change are increasing in magnitude, scale and scope. Here, we make the case for a richer conception predicated on broader intellectual engagement and identify some preconditions for its practical fulfilment. Interdisciplinary dialogue, we suggest, should engender plural representations of Earth's present and future that are reflective of divergent human values and aspirations. In turn, this might insure publics and decision-makers against overly narrow conceptions of what is possible and desirable as they consider the profound questions raised by global environmental change.

Castree, Noel; Adams, William M.; Barry, John; Brockington, Daniel; Bscher, Bram; Corbera, Esteve; Demeritt, David; Duffy, Rosaleen; Felt, Ulrike; Neves, Katja; Newell, Peter; Pellizzoni, Luigi; Rigby, Kate; Robbins, Paul; Robin, Libby; Rose, Deborah Bird; Ross, Andrew; Schlosberg, David; Srlin, Sverker; West, Paige; Whitehead, Mark; Wynne, Brian




E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE UNITED STATES The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change Foundation Humanity's influence on the global climate will grow in the 21st century. Increasingly, there will be significant climate-related changes that will affect each one of us. We must begin now to consider our

McCarl, Bruce A.


4, 289308, 2008 Climate change and  

E-print Network

CPD 4, 289­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title forum of Climate of the Past Recent climate change affecting rainstorm occurrences? A case study in East­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title Page Abstract

Boyer, Edmond


The Atlantic Climate Change Program  

SciTech Connect

The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Molinari, R.L. (Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., Miami, FL (United States)); Battisti, D. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)); Bryan, K. (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Walsh, J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))



Orbital changes and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 41,000-period of orbital tilt, summer insolation forces a lagged response in northern ice sheets. This delayed ice signal is rapidly transferred to nearby northern oceans and landmasses by atmospheric dynamics. These ice-driven responses lead to late-phased changes in atmospheric CO2 that provide positive feedback to the ice sheets and also project late 41-K forcing across the tropics and

William F. Ruddiman




E-print Network #12;CO , Carbon Dioxide2 #12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Global average temperature -19°C or -2 °F Global (2007) 3210-1-2 Forcing, W m-2 CO2 CH4 CFCs N2O Long Lived Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse gas forcing Studies 0.8°C 1.4°F #12;HOW MUCH WARMING IS EXPECTED? Equilibrium change in global mean surface

Schwartz, Stephen E.


Predictions of avian Plasmodium expansion under climate change.  


Vector-borne diseases are particularly responsive to changing environmental conditions. Diurnal temperature variation has been identified as a particularly important factor for the development of malaria parasites within vectors. Here, we conducted a survey across France, screening populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) for malaria (Plasmodium relictum). We investigated whether variation in remotely-sensed environmental variables accounted for the spatial variation observed in prevalence and parasitemia. While prevalence was highly correlated to diurnal temperature range and other measures of temperature variation, environmental conditions could not predict spatial variation in parasitemia. Based on our empirical data, we mapped malaria distribution under climate change scenarios and predicted that Plasmodium occurrence will spread to regions in northern France, and that prevalence levels are likely to increase in locations where transmission already occurs. Our findings, based on remote sensing tools coupled with empirical data suggest that climatic change will significantly alter transmission of malaria parasites. PMID:23350033

Loiseau, Claire; Harrigan, Ryan J; Bichet, Coraline; Julliard, Romain; Garnier, Stphane; Lendvai, Adm Z; Chastel, Olivier; Sorci, Gabriele




EPA Science Inventory

This project investigates the potential influence of climate change on wet deposition of reduced nitrogen across the U.S. The concentration of ammonium-nitrogen in precipitation is known to increase with temperature, owing to temperature dependent ammonia source strengths (natur...


Impacts of Climate Change Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents one of three animated films for schoolchildren, commissioned by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. An emotive and visual animation conveys the effects climate change will have on marine ecosystems and suggests ways to minimize our impact.



Forensic entomology and climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate

Margherita Turchetto; Stefano Vanin



Climate change - creating watershed resilience  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change is likely to intensify the circulation of water, which will shift spatial and temporal availability of snowmelt and runoff. In addition, drought and floods are likely to be more frequent, severe and widespread. Higher air temperatures will lead to higher ocean temperatures, elevating ...


Climate Change Wildlife and Wildlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video focuses on the science of climate change and its impacts on wildlife on land and in the sea, and their habitats in the U.S. There are short sections on walruses, coral reefs, migrating birds and their breeding grounds, freshwater fish, bees, etc. Video concludes with some discussion about solutions, including reduce/recyle/reuse, energy conservation, backyard habitats, citizen scientists.

Service, U. S.; Program, U. S.


Global Climate Change Interaction Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)

Fortner, Rosanne W.



Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands  

PubMed Central

Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving causethe increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the squeeze experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul



Changing Climates @ Colorado State: 100 (Multidisciplinary) Views of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We would like to talk about a multidisciplinary education and outreach program we co-direct at Colorado State University, with support from an NSF-funded STC, CMMAP, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes. We are working to raise public literacy about climate change by providing information that is high quality, up to date, thoroughly multidisciplinary, and easy for non-specialists to understand. Our primary audiences are college-level students, their teachers, and the general public. Our motto is Climate Change is Everybody's Business. To encourage and help our faculty infuse climate-change content into their courses, we have organized some 115 talks given by as many different speakers-speakers drawn from 28 academic departments, all 8 colleges at CSU, and numerous other entities from campus, the community, and farther afield. We began with a faculty-teaching-faculty series and then broadened our attentions to the whole campus and surrounding community. Some talks have been for narrowly focused audiences such as extension agents who work on energy, but most are for more eclectic groups of students, staff, faculty, and citizens. We count heads at most events, and our current total is roughly 6,000. We have created a website ( that includes videotapes of many of these talks, short videos we have created, and annotated sources that we judge to be accurate, interesting, clearly written, and aimed at non-specialists, including books, articles and essays, websites, and a few items specifically for college teachers (such as syllabi). Pages of the website focus on such topics as how the climate works / how it changes; what's happening / what might happen; natural ecosystems; agriculture; impacts on people; responses from ethics, art, literature; communication; daily life; policy; energy; and-pulling all the pieces together-the big picture. We have begun working on a new series of very short videos that can be combined in various ways to comprise focused, lively, accurate primers to what we all need to know about climate change. With college classrooms as our intended venue, we are looking at such topics as why the weather in your backyard tells you nothing about global climate change-but a good deal about climate; how tiny molecules warm the planet; how snowpack, drought, bark beetles, fire suppression, and wildfire interact as stress complexes; why (and where) women, children, and the poor are especially vulnerable to harm from climate change; what international policy negotiators argue about; what poets and artists can contribute to understanding and solving the climate problem; and why ecologists are worried about changes in the seasonal timing of natural events. We will describe what we have done and how we did it; offer a few tips to others who might wish to do something similar; and introduce our website.

Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Changing Climates, Cmmap Education; Diversity Team



A common-sense climate index: is climate changing noticeably?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent already, but in most places climate trends are too small to stand out above year-to-year variability. The climate index is strongly correlated with global surface temperature, which has increased as rapidly as projected by climate models in the 1980s. We argue that the global area with obvious climate change will increase notably in the next few years. But we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has declined in recent years, and thus there is an opportunity to keep climate change in the 21st century less than "business-as-usual" scenarios.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Glascoe, J.; Ruedy, R.



Trees: Recorders of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to tree rings by examining a cross section of a tree, also known as a tree cookie. They discover how tree age can be determined by studying the rings and how ring thickness can be used to deduce times of optimal growing conditions. Next they investigate simulated tree rings by applying the scientific method to explore how climatic conditions varied during the Little Ice Age. Use this activity to begin discussions on global warming and climate change. This lesson guide includes background information and handouts. Note: cost of materials does not include cost of purchasing "tree cookies."



Climate Science in a Nutshell: Climate Change Around the World?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is part of the Climate Science in a Nutshell video series. This short video looks at the effects of climate change happening right now around the globe, including: more extreme weather events, droughts, forest fires, land use changes, altered ranges of disease-carrying insects, and the loss of some agricultural products. It concludes with a discussion of the differences among weather, climate variability and climate change.

Nutshell, Planet; Network, Utah E.


Global Climate Change and Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 C by the end of the 21st century.

Izaurralde, Roberto C.



Global Climate Change and Demand for Energy  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change and Demand for Energy Tyson Research Center and International Center et al. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice http of air and water temperatures Losses of ice from Greenland and Antarctica Sea-level rise Energy demands

Subramanian, Venkat


Changing feedbacks in the climate- biosphere system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems influence climate through multiple pathways, primarily by changing the energy, water, and green- house-gas balance of the atmosphere. Consequently, efforts to mitigate climate change through modification of one pathway, as with carbon in the Kyoto Protocol, only partially address the issue of ecosystem-climate interactions. For example, the cooling of climate that results from carbon sequestration by plants may be

F F SSttuuaarrtt; CChhaappiinn IIIIII


Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co of precipitation High water impacts Adaptation strategies #12;1930 2008WI Cooperative Weather Stations We've been changes due to global climate change." ­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Future Climate Change What

Sheridan, Jennifer


Challenges and Possibilities in Climate Change Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating and communicating about climate change is challenging. Researchers reported that climate change concepts are often misunderstood. Some people do not believe that climate change will have impacts on their own life. Other challenges may include people's difficulty in perceiving small or gradual environmental changes, the fact that

Pruneau,, Diane; Khattabi, Abdellatif; Demers, Melanie



Ecological Consequences of Recent Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is frequently considered a major conservation threat. The Earth's climate has already warmed by 0.5 8 C over the past century, and recent studies show that it is possible to detect the ef- fects of a changing climate on ecological systems. This suggests that global change may be a current and fu- ture conservation threat. Changes in

John P. McCarty



Ecological Restoration and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing consensus that global climate change occurs and that potential changes in climate are likely to have important regional consequences for biota and ecosystems. Ecological restoration, including (re)- afforestation and rehabilitation of degraded land, is included in the array of potential human responses to cli- mate change. However, the implications of climate change for the broader practice

James A. Harris; Richard J. Hobbs; Eric Higgs; James Aronson



Methodological proposals for estimating the price of climate in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current project linking economists, geographers and mathematicians evaluates the price of climate in France. The economic data are mainly from housing surveys conducted by the INSEE. It consists in a total of 9,640 buyers of single-detached houses, 2,658 buyers of apartments, 3,447 tenants of single-detached houses and 8,615 tenants of apartments. Each transaction is located in space by X-Y geographical coordinates. The climatic data are derived from the Meteo-France data base (normal 1970-2000). They are related to (1) mean annual temperature, (2) mean temperature for January and July, (3) number of days with temperatures of less than -5 C in January and more than 30 C in July, (4) mean monthly rainfall, (5) rainfall in January and July, (6) number of days' precipitation in January and July. These data are recorded by a network of scattered weather stations. A raster GIS composed by ten data layers derived from a DEM and remote sensing images at 250 m resolution is used to initiate interpolations. Four types of interpolation techniques were tested. First we used regressions between climatic data (variables to be explained) and explanatory variables stored into the GIS. Second we used ordinary kriging; third a double step method linking regression and then kriging of the regression residuals. Finally we used a local interpolation method. Based on standard deviation values obtained by cross validation and R values, the comparison between the four methods shows that the last one reduces the residuals to the minimum and explains the maximum of variance. It was retained in our project to compute continuous field of the climatic data. The predicted values are then merged with the housing survey data. We use the hedonic price method (Rosen, 1974) to determine the price of climatic attributes, which are capitalized in land rents. Three econometric methods are used: a fixed-effects model estimated by OLS or PLS method and a mixed model with random intercepts. The identification problem, well-known in hedonic literature, is not a problem here, because climate is a non-produced good. Some explanatory variables may be endogenous; thus, we use the instrumental method. Finally, multicollinearity, detected by the condition number, occurs between climatic variables; thus we use a second estimation procedure, Partial Least Squares. The mean annual temperature has a positive significant effect on the housing price for owner occupiers: a rise of 1 C entails an increase in housing prices of 5.9-6.2% (according to the equation and estimation method). The sign is also positive for tenants, with values between 2.5 and 3.9%, which are roughly half as much as for owner-occupiers. The effect of warmer summers (mean July temperature minus mean annual temperature) is compounded with the preceding one for single-detached houses: an extra 1 C entails a price increase of 3.7 to 8.4% (depending on the model). This effect is insignificant for apartments. Hot summer days (more than 30 C) have a significant effect for owner-occupiers of single-detached houses and renters of apartments. At the median point, an extra day of heat lowers the value of housing by 4.3% (owner-occupiers) or by 1% (tenants). This effect is quadratic, probably due to seaside sites where hot summers are appreciated. French households are insensitive to cold winters, either the January temperature minus the mean annual temperature or the number of coldest days (less than - 5 C). The number of days' rain in January and July has a significant effect on real-estate values. The January sign is the expected: prices or rents fall by almost 1.2-2.3% for an extra day's rain. The number of days of rainfall in July also exerts a positive effect on the price of apartments (but not on the price of single-detached houses), indicating that households pay more for their housing (1.4 to 4.4%) for an extra summer day's rain. Rosen S., 1974. Hedonic prices and implicit markets: product differentiation in pure competition. J. of Polit. Economy 82: 34-55.

Joly, D.; Brossard, T.; Cardot, H.; Cavailhes, J.; Hilal, M.; Wavresky, P.



America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video production is a part of a four-panel report from the National Academies' America's Climate Choices project. The video maps out the realm of our accumulated knowledge regarding climate change and charts a path forward, urging that research on climate change enter a new era focused on the needs of decision makers.

Academies, National


Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education  

E-print Network

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate 1 September 2011) Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize

Niyogi, Dev


Climate Change and Civil Violence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore provides an opportunity for targeted proactive measures to mitigate certain classes of future civil violence events.

van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.




E-print Network

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING Columbia must adapt to climate change by preparing for expected and unexpected changes in their communities that planners do not have a high level of knowledge of climate change adaptation. Planners feel that the impacts

Pedersen, Tom


Agriculture, Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Bruce A. McCarl  

E-print Network

Agriculture, Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor Change Happen Let's Avoid Climate Change Mitigation Effects Presented at Texas Recycling and Sustainability Summit San Antonio, Sept 29, 2004 #12;Climate Change has in part a human cause Source http

McCarl, Bruce A.


Breaking the climate change communication deadlock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change communication is trapped between the norms that govern scientific practice and the need to engage the public. Overcoming this tension requires new societal institutions where the science and politics of climate change can co-exist.

Corner, Adam; Groves, Christopher



Global Climate Change and the Mitigation Challenge  

EPA Science Inventory

Book edited by Frank Princiotta titled Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Transparent modeling tools and the most recent literature are used, to quantify the challenge posed by climate change and potential technological remedies. The chapter examines forces driving ...



EPA Science Inventory

Adaptation is an important approach for protecting human health, ecosystems, and economic systems from the risks posed by climate variability and change, and to exploit beneficial opportunities provided by a changing climate. This paper presents nine fundamental principles that ...


Climate Change and the Historical Imagination  

E-print Network

Climate Change and the Historical Imagination Thursday, March 28, 2013 4:30 ­ 6:00 p.m. Wrigley on anthropogenic climate change and its implications for historical thinking, on the history of the idea

Hall, Sharon J.


Mitigating Climate Change in China and Ethiopia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Hope in a Changing Climate, learn how an environmentally devastated ecosystem has been restored, benefiting both the local economy and global efforts to fight climate change.




EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...


Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and its important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz



Teaching Climate Change Through Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2006, Peter Weiss aka "The Singing Scientist" performed many music assemblies for elementary schools (K-5) in Santa Cruz County, California, USA. These assemblies were an opportunity for him to mix a discussion of climate change with rock n' roll. In one song called "Greenhouse Glasses", Peter and his band the "Earth Rangers" wear over-sized clown glasses with "molecules" hanging off them (made with Styrofoam balls and pipe cleaners). Each molecule is the real molecular structure of a greenhouse gas, and the song explains how when the wearer of these glasses looks up in the sky, he/she can see the "greenhouse gases floating by." "I've seen more of them this year than the last / 'Cuz fossil fuels are burning fast / I wish everyone could see through these frames / Then maybe we could prevent climate change" Students sing, dance and get a visual picture of something that is invisible, yet is part of a very real problem. This performance description is used as an example of an educational style that can reach a wide audience and provide a framework for the audience as learners to assimilate future information on climate change. The hypothesis is that complex socio-environmental issues like climate change that must be taught in order to achieve sustainability are best done so through alternative mediums like music. Students develop awareness which leads to knowledge about chemistry, physics, and biology. These kinds of experiences which connect science learning to fun activities and community building are seriously lacking in primary and secondary schools and are a big reason why science illiteracy is a current social problem. Science education is also paired with community awareness (including the local plant/animal community) and cooperation. The Singing Scientist attempts to create a culture where it is cool to care about the environment. Students end up gardening in school gardens together and think about their "ecological footprint".

Weiss, P. S.



Climate Change in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a South Asia, is home to over one fifth of the worlds population and is known to be the most disaster prone region in the world.\\u000a The high rates of population growth, and natural resource degradation, with continuing high rates of poverty and food insecurity\\u000a make South Asia one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. In

Mannava V. K. Sivakumar; Robert Stefanski


Climate Change Impact on Forestry in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate change represents a significant threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. Climate change is expected\\u000a to have also impacts on forest ecology. It is thus important to make assessments of possible impacts of climate change on\\u000a forests in different regions to allow respective governments and communities to adapt. Climate change is projected to affect\\u000a individual organisms, populations, species distributions

Geetanjali Kaushik; M. A. Khalid


Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities Jim Crawford Trane Abstract Atmospheric scientists tell us that mankind is changing the climate, and is setting in motion forces that can... make essentially irreversible changes in the climate of the future. Naysayers dispute whether mankind is even capable of changing the climate. Today we are hearing more from the scientists and less from the naysayers. This presentation will review...

Crawford, J. G.


Climate change, environment and allergy.  


Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes



Past and Current Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1837 the Swiss geologist and palaeontologist Louis Agassiz was the first scientist to propose the existence of an ice age in the Earth's past. Nearly two centuries after discussing global glacial periods... while the average global temperature is rising very quickly because of our economic and industrial model. In tribute to these pioneers, we have selected a major climate change of the past as the Snowball Earth and, through various activities in the classroom, compared to the current anthropogenic climate change. First, we include multiple geological processes that led to a global glaciation 750 million years ago as the decrease in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4, the effect of climate variations in solar radiation due to emissions of volcanic dust and orbital changes (Milankovitch cycles), being an essential part of this model the feedback mechanism of the albedo of the ice on a geological scale. Moreover, from simple experiments and studies in the classroom this time we can compare the past with the current anthropogenic global warming we are experiencing and some of its consequences, highlighting that affect sea level rise, increased extreme and effects on health and the biosphere weather.

Mercedes Rodrguez Ruibal, Ma



Communicating Uncertainties on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term of uncertainty in common language is confusing since it is related in one of its most usual sense to what cannot be known in advance or what is subject to doubt. Its definition in mathematics is unambiguous but not widely shared. It is thus difficult to communicate on this notion through media to a wide public. From its scientific basis to the impact assessment, climate change issue is subject to a large number of sources of uncertainties. In this case, the definition of the term is close to its mathematical sense, but the diversity of disciplines involved in the analysis process implies a great diversity of approaches of the notion. Faced to this diversity of approaches, the issue of communicating uncertainties on climate change is thus a great challenge. It is also complicated by the diversity of the targets of the communication on climate change, from stakeholders and policy makers to a wide public. We will present the process chosen by the IPCC in order to communicate uncertainties in its assessment reports taking the example of the guidance note to lead authors of the fourth assessment report. Concerning the communication of uncertainties to a wide public, we will give some examples aiming at illustrating how to avoid the above-mentioned ambiguity when dealing with this kind of communication.

Planton, S.



NASA Nice Climate Change Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors: 1 Kaiem Frink, 4 Sherry Crocker, 5 Willie Jones, III, 7 Sophia S.L. Marshall, 6 Anuadha Dujari 3 Ervin Howard 1 Kalota Stewart-Gurley 8 Edwinta Merriweathe Affiliation: 1. Mathematics & Computer Science, Virginia Union University, Richmond, VA, United States. 2. Mathematics & Computer Science, Elizabeth City State Univ, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 3. Education, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 4. College of Education, Fort Valley State University , Fort Valley, GA, United States. 5. Education, Tougaloo College, Jackson, MS, United States. 6. Mathematics, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, United States. 7. Education, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, United States. 8. Education, Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University, Huntsville, AL, United States. ABSTRACT: In this research initiative, the 2013-2014 NASA NICE workshop participants will present best educational practices for incorporating climate change pedagogy. The presentation will identify strategies to enhance instruction of pre-service teachers to aligned with K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) standards. The presentation of best practices should serve as a direct indicator to address pedagogical needs to include climate education within a K-12 curriculum Some of the strategies will include inquiry, direct instructions, and cooperative learning . At this particular workshop, we have learned about global climate change in regards to how this is going to impact our life. Participants have been charged to increase the scientific understanding of pre-service teachers education programs nationally to incorporate climate education lessons. These recommended practices will provide feasible instructional strategies that can be easily implemented and used to clarify possible misconceptions and ambiguities in scientific knowledge. Additionally, the presentation will promote an awareness to the many facets in which climate change education can be beneficial to future learners and general public. The main scope is to increase the amount of STEM knowledge throughout the nations scientific literacy as we are using the platform of climate change. Federal entities which may include but not limited to National Security Agency and the Department of Homeland Security and Management will serve as resources partners for this common goal of having a more knowledgeable technological savvy and scientific literate society. The presentation will show that incorporating these best practices into elementary and early childhood education undergraduate programs will assist with increasing a enhance scientific literate society. As a measurable outcome have a positive impact on instructional effectiveness of future teachers. Their successfully preparing students in meeting the standards of the Common Core Initiative will attempt to measure across the curriculum uniformly.

Frink, K.; Crocker, S.; Jones, W., III; Marshall, S. S.; Anuradha, D.; Stewart-Gurley, K.; Howard, E. M.; Hill, E.; Merriweather, E.



Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change  

E-print Network

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change: Opportunities and Challenges for Data A Climate change is the defining environmental challenge facing our planet, yet there is considerable.Anew and transformative approach is required to understand the potential impact of climate change. Data driven approaches

California at Davis, University of



E-print Network

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FLOODING IN WISCONSIN Ken Potter and Zach Schuster flood scenarios in Wisconsin · Potential impact of climate change on Wisconsin flooding · Ongoing #12;WISCONSIN INITIATIVE ON CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS · Partnership between the University of Wisconsin

Sheridan, Jennifer



E-print Network

FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA Changes in the Distribution and Frequency of Fire in Climates of the Future and Recent Past (1911­2099) A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012026 Prepared for: California Energy Commission


Climate change and poverty in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa is most vulnerable to climate change, although it makes the least contribution to factors that result in global and regional climatic changes. High levels of vulnerability and low adaptive capacity across the continent have been linked to, among other things, poverty. This paper discusses and analyses the relationship between climate change and poverty in Africa. It investigates the relationship

Kempe Ronald Hope Sr



Getting to the Core of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lab about evidence for past climate change as captured in ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. Students investigate climate changes going back thousands of years by graphing and analyzing ice core data from both Greenland and Antarctica. They use information about natural and human-caused changes in the atmosphere to formulate predictions about the Earth's climate.



Can ice sheets trigger abrupt climatic change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery in recent years of abrupt climatic changes in climate proxy records from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment cores, and from other sites around the world, has diverted attention from gradual insolation changes caused by Earth`s orbital variations to more rapid processes on Earth`s surface as forcing Quaternary climatic change. In particular, forcing by ice sheets has



Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co scenarios for temperature and precipitation Part 2 High water impacts Adaptation strategies #12;1930 2008WI of global climate change­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Projected Climate Change 200-2100 What Global

Sheridan, Jennifer


USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan  

E-print Network

USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan #12;2 INTRODUCTIONEXECUTIVE SUMMARY This USACE Adaptation Plan describes activities underway to evaluate the most significant climate change related risks in supporting mainstreaming climate change adaptation has focused on clarifying our adaptation mission and goals

US Army Corps of Engineers


Integrating climate change adaptation into forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change will affect society's ability to use forest resources. We take account of climate in forest management and this will help us adapt to the effects of climate change on forests. However, society will have to adjust to how forests adapt by changing expectations for the use of forest resources because management can only influence the timing and

David L. Spittlehouse



Climate change-integrated conservation strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Conservation strategies currently include little consider- ation of climate change. Insights about the biotic impacts of climate change from biogeography and palaeoecology, there- fore, have the potential to provide significant improvements in the effectiveness of conservation planning. We suggest a collaboration involving biogeography, ecology and applied conservation. The resulting Climate Change-integrated Conservation Strategies (CCS) apply available tools to respond

L. Hannah; G. F. Midgley; D. Millar



Addressing Climate Change in Environmental Impact Analysis  

E-print Network

Addressing Climate Change in Environmental Impact Analysis 2010 CTS Research Conference Carissa impact analysis (EIA) as a tool to address climate change ·! Consider approaches to measuring and addressing climate change at the project scale #12;Purpose ·! Funded by U of M Institute on the Environment

Minnesota, University of


Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing  

E-print Network

Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental climate change when relicensing hydropower units, stating that there is a lack of scientific information this project, researchers are conducting an environmental study on climate change for the Yuba River


The Environmental Justice Dimensions of Climate Change  

E-print Network

The Environmental Justice Dimensions of Climate Change Marie Lynn Miranda, Douglas A. Hastings to mitigate the severe impacts of climate change predicted to occur in the twenty-first century. Many with climate change. This study investigates the varying degrees to which developing and developed nations


Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change  

E-print Network

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change: The Role of NOAA Sea Grant Extension years and generations about how to adapt to a changing climate. Effective preparation for possible effects of climate change includes engagement of resource managers, planners, public works officials


Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social

Anderson, Allison



BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change  

E-print Network

BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

Kraft, Nathan


Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change

Dawson, Vaille



Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic  

E-print Network

Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic Tomography, Satellite Altimetry, and Modeling The ATOC to thermal expansion. Interpreting climate change signals from fluctuations in sea level is therefore in the advective heat flux. Changes in oceanic heat storage are a major expected element of future climate shifts

Frandsen, Jannette B.



E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC Climate change will affect both sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff



E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor DATA SOURCES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH WITH A COMPUTABLE GENERAL-Holst, University of California, Berkeley PIERPROJECTREPORT June 2007 CEC-500-2006-080 #12;California Climate Change for Climate Change Research with a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model of the California Economy


Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1  

E-print Network

Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1 J. Marotzke,2 W. D. Nordhaus,3 J. T. Overpeck,4 D. M. Peteet,5. Wallace8 Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur

Pierrehumbert, Raymond


Simulation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change  

E-print Network

Simulation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change Nathan P. Gillett1 * and David W. J. Thompson2 Recent observations indicate that climate change over the high latitudes of the Southern's surface as well. Recent climate change in the Southern Hemi- sphere (SH) is marked by a strengthening


Climate change cripples forests October 1, 2012  

E-print Network

- 1 - Climate change cripples forests October 1, 2012 Southwestern US trees face rising drought, and several other partner organizations. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change Connection Described in a paper published in Nature Climate Change this week, "Temperature as a potent driver of regional forest


Climate change projections and stratospheretroposphere interaction  

E-print Network

Climate change projections and stratosphere­troposphere interaction 1234567 15578379AB72C4DE F547A1 #12;1 1 Climate Change Projections and Stratosphere-Troposphere Interaction Adam A. Scaife*,1 , Thomas ­ University of Toronto, Canada. #12;2 2 ABSTRACT Climate change is expected to increase winter rainfall

Wirosoetisno, Djoko



E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE - POPULATION INTERACTIONS: A SPATIAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE Susana B. Adamo CIESIN Conference Marrakech, 27 September ­ 2 October 2009 Plenary Session on Population and Climate Change #12, and demographic processes. ­ implications of the regional/local variability for vulnerability to climate changes

Columbia University


As climate changes, so do glaciers  

PubMed Central

Understanding abrupt climate changes requires detailed spatial/temporal records of such changes, and to make these records, we need rapidly responding, geographically widespread climate trackers. Glacial systems are such trackers, and recent additions to the stratigraphic record show overall synchronous response of glacial systems to climate change reflecting global atmosphere conditions. PMID:10677465

Lowell, Thomas V.



7, 1114111189, 2007 Climate change and  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric ozone G. Zeng et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone and its global budgets G. Zeng, J. A. Pyle, and P. Zeng ( 11141 #12;ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Climate Change and Water Resources in the  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Water Resources in the Tropical Andes Mathias Vuille Inter-American Development Bank Environmental Safeguards Unit TECHNICAL NOTE No. IDB-TN-515 March 2013 #12;Climate Change-American Development Bank Felipe Herrera Library Vuille, Mathias. Climate change and water resources in the tropical

Vuille, Mathias


Research Note Impacts of climate change on  

E-print Network

Research Note Impacts of climate change on forestry in Scotland ­ a synopsis of spatial modelling research Duncan Ray January 2008 Climate change is now one of the greatest global challenges, and research by climate change. This Research Note provides an initial synopsis of the likely impacts, with preliminary



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In July, 2004, an important international climate change conference convened in Edmonton, Canada, The Science of Changing Climates Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands. Leading experts in climate change, mostly from the natural and agricultural sciences, exchanged the latest findings o...


Probabilistic Integrated Assessment of "Dangerous" Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in projections of future climate change due to natural and social parameters of the climate system are often used as a basis for decisions to delay climate policy. However, if we wish to influence the trajectory of future climate change and avoid potentially "dangerous" climate impacts, we must make decisions under uncertainty, an accepted practice in many other sectors. This talk will present a probabilistic conceptual framework for defining "dangerous" climate change, a policy-relevant impact threshold which the US and over 190 other signatories to the UNFCCC have committed to preventing. It will also present an example of application of this metric to projections of future climate change, to demonstrate the linkage of climate policy decisions to risk management of "dangerous" climate change.

Mastrandrea, M. D.



North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Producing Regional Climate Change Projections for Climate Impacts Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is constructing projections of regional climate change over the coterminous United States and Canada in order to provide climate change information at decision relevant scales. A major goal of NARCCAP is to estimate uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate by using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within multiple

R. W. Arritt; L. Mearns; C. Anderson; D. Bader; E. Buonomo; D. Caya; P. Duffy; N. Elguindi; F. Giorgi; W. Gutowski; I. Held; A. Nunes; R. Jones; R. Laprise; L. R. Leung; D. Middleton; W. Moufouma-Okia; D. Nychka; Y. Qian; J. Roads; S. Sain; M. Snyder; L. Sloan; E. Takle



Ocean Circulation and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the mainstream media has provided extensive coverage of El Nino and La Nina -- the warmer and colder phases of a perpetual oscillation in the surface temperature of the tropical Pacific Ocean -- little attention has been paid to deep-water phases. Several recent publications in leading scientific journals (Science and Nature) are adding new dimensions to the link between large-scale ocean circulation patterns and climate. Researchers Dr. Wallace Broecker and researchers at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (see the November 5, 1999 issue of Science and the November 9, 1999 issue of The New York Times) found that deep ocean currents, operating as an oceanic "conveyor belt," may hold clues to climate change. The conveyor belt works by transporting warm, increasingly salty, ocean water from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean; eventually, the warm water current runs into a cold water current, causing the warm water to cool quickly and sink, due to greater density. In turn, this creates a "sub-surface countercurrent which carries the cool water back to the Indian and Pacific oceans" (2). In this week's issue of Nature (December 2, 1999), German scientist Carsten Ruhlemann and colleagues provide new evidence that the thermohaline circulation has triggered rapid climate change events in the past, including the last deglaciation. In addition, the current issue of Science Times (December 7, 1999) highlights the connection between thawing Arctic ice sheets and oceanic currents. This week's In The News focuses on ocean circulation patterns and climate change. The seven resources provide background information and specific links to related resources.

Payne, Laura X.


Conceptualizing Climate Change in the Context of a Climate System: Implications for Climate and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural

Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Roychoudhury, Anita; Hirsch, Andrew



Taught degrees MSc in Climate Change and Development  

E-print Network

with sustainable energy, climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. · Our climate change and energy policy and adaptation and/or energy policy. · For the MSc in Climate Change and Development and the MSc Climate ChangeEssentials Taught degrees MSc in Climate Change and Development MSc in Climate Change and Policy

Sussex, University of


STERN REVIEW: The Economics of Climate Change 1 Climate Change our approach  

E-print Network

that societies can adapt to the consequences of climate change that can no longer be avoided. The Review takesSTERN REVIEW: The Economics of Climate Change 1 Part I Climate Change ­ our approach Part I of the Review considers the nature of the scientific evidence for climate change, and the nature of the economic


Ocean Mixing and Climate ChangeOcean Mixing and Climate Change Factors inducing seawater mixing  

E-print Network

Ocean Mixing and Climate ChangeOcean Mixing and Climate Change #12;Factors inducing seawater mixing than the atmosphere to climate changes; it acts as "buffer" 4. Heat, CO2 are stored in the ocean #12. The ocean responds much slower than the atmosphere to climate changes; it acts as a"buffer" 4. Heat, and CO2

Russell, Lynn


Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law  

E-print Network

Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law Monica Molina, Columbia College '14 Supervisor Meredith Wilensky, J.D. Introduction The Climate Change Laws of the World Project is an ongoing effort at the Center for Climate Change Law (CCCL) to aggregate existing domestic


UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

Saldin, Dilano


Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change: Implications for · Wisconsin's changing climate · Stormwater management · Impacts and adaptation #12;WICCI Identifying impacts activities. Develop and recommend adaptation strategies. Mission: Assess and anticipate climate change

Sheridan, Jennifer


A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century  

E-print Network

A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century Miche`le B; accepted 30 November 2006; published 10 January 2007. [1] A Climate Change Index (CCI) is developed to a single index that is a measure for the strength of future climate change relative to today's natural

Fischlin, Andreas


Climate change in the Netherlands | 1 Climate change in the Netherlands  

E-print Network

Climate change in the Netherlands | 1 Climate change in the Netherlands Supplements to the KNMI'06 scenarios #12;2 | Climate change in the Netherlands Abstract 1 Introduction 1.1 Objective and contents 1 of climate simulations 2.6 Observed rapid warming in the Netherlands Probability of extremes in a changing

Stoffelen, Ad


Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review.  


The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J



The science of climate change.  

SciTech Connect

A complex debate is underway on climate change linked to proposals for costly measures that would reshape our power grid. This confronts technical experts outside of the geophysical disciplines with extensive, but unfamiliar, data both supporting and refuting claims that serious action is warranted. For example, evidence is brought to the table from one group of astrophysicists concerned with sunspots--this group believes there is no issue man can manage; while another group of oceanographers concerned with the heat balance in the world's oceans are very alarmed at the loss of arctic ice. What is the evidence? In an effort to put some of these issues in perspective for a technical audience, without a background in geophysics, a brief survey will consider (1) an overview of the 300 years of scientific inquiry on man's relationship to climate; (2) a basic discussion of what is meant by the ''greenhouse'' and why there are concerns which include not only CO{sub 2}, but also CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CFC's; (3) the geological record on CO{sub 2}--which likely was present at 1,000 times current levels when life began; (4) the solar luminosity and sunspot question; and (5) the current evidence for global climate change. We are at a juncture where we are attempting to understand the earth as an integrated dynamic system, rather than a collection of isolated components.

Doctor, R. D.



Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear  

E-print Network

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters Rob Goldston MIT IAP plays a large role in replacing coal red plants. al hydro electricity options penetrate in the climate way across scenarios, showing a slight severe climate targets. In Industry, the climate target has


Climate Change: NASA's Eyes on the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive website features many great tools that are designed to keep your students informed and up to date on whats going on with our planet and its climate. There is a brief history on our climate, and the recent changes that the planet has been experiencing. The effects of global climate change are introduced, and the different indicators of climate change, such as rising sea levels, global surface temperature, and the ozone hole, are discussed and explained.

Conway, Erik; Jackson, Randal; Jenkins, Amber; Sullivant, Rosemary



Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:? Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.? Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.? Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.? Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)



Climate Change in Small Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated islands are especially vulnerable to climate change. But their climate is generally not well reproduced in GCMs, due to their small size and complex topography. Here, results from a new generation of climate models, forced by scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, established by the IPCC for its fifth report, are used to characterize the climate of the islands of Azores and Madeira, and its response to the ongoing global warming. The methodology developed here uses the new global model EC-Earth, data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and results from an extensive set of simulations with the WRF research model, using, for the first time, a dynamic approach for the regionalization of global fields at sufficiently fine resolutions, in which the effect of topographical complexity is explicitly represented. The results reviewed here suggest increases in temperature above 1C in the middle of the XXI century in Azores and Madeira, reaching values higher than 2.5C at the end of the century, accompanied by a reduction in the annual rainfall of around 10% in the Azores, which could reach 30% in Madeira. These changes are large enough to justify much broader impacts on island ecosystems and the human population. The results show the advantage of using the proposed methodology, in particular for an adequate representation of the precipitation regime in islands with complex topography, even suggesting the need for higher resolutions in future work. The WRF results are also compared against two different downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and a modified version of the upslope precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005).

Tom, Ricardo; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Brito de Azevedo, Eduardo; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.



Using Satellites to Understand Climate and Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the measurement of climate with the use of satellites. The basic greenhouse effect, Ice-albedo feedback, climate models and observations, aerosol-cloud interactions, and the Antarctic are discussed, along with the human effect on climate change.

Fetzer, Eric



Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change  

E-print Network

Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change Term paper in Biogeochemistry of climate change. Recent publications indicate that the oceanic oxygen outgassing is substaintially larger about oceanic oxygen outgassing as a consequence of the climate perturbation of anthropogenic carbon

Fischlin, Andreas


The physical science behind climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists,

William Collins; Robert Colman; James Haywood; Martin R. Manning; Philip Mote



The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda  

E-print Network

The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda CEPS Working Document No. 295/June 2008 Thomas L. Brewer Abstract Climate change, international trade, investment and technology transfer are all issues that have............................................................................ 6 3.2 Coverage of the Multilateral Climate and Trade Regimes



E-print Network

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012031 Commissioner), Chuck Dudley (President of the Yolo County Farm Bureau), John MottSmith (Yolo County Climate


Australian Government Department ofClimate Change  

E-print Network

Australian Government Department ofClimate Change C08/7649 Mr James Hansen Columbia University 4405 act to urgently address climate change and its impacts. The Australian Government considers climate of carbon capture and storage, I will focus herein on actions being taken by the AustrrtliAn Government

Hansen, James E.



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A large and growing body of scientific evidence indicates the Earths climate is changing, and the recent International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) declared that warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean tempera...


Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological

Stern, Paul C.



Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change Robert Socolow Princeton University socolow should provide at least one wedge. #12;"The Wedge Model is the iPod of climate change: You fill/yr, 30 miles per gallon b) Fly 10,000 miles/yr c) Heat home Natural gas, average house, average climate d


Climate Change: A Controlled Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Researchers are altering temperature, carbon dioxide and precipitation levels across plots of forests, grasses and crops to see how plant life responds. Warmer temperatures and higher CO{sub 2} concentrations generally result in more leaf growth or crop yield, but these factors can also raise insect infestation and weaken plants ability to ward off pests and disease. Future field experiments that can manipulate all three conditions at once will lead to better models of how long-term climate changes will affect ecosystems worldwide.

Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Strahl, Maya [ORNL



World Wildlife Fund: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about the World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) position on climate change and its efforts to address the issue. There are links to information about the causes and potential risks of global warming, to some suggested solutions for energy, business and industry, and public policy solutions. There are also suggestions for actions that individuals can take themselves to conserve energy, as well as links to news articles on the issue. Other links provide access to press materials, to a blog, and to conference reports and a brochure describing WWF's activities on behalf of the issue.


PETM: Unearthing Ancient Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, a team of paleontologists, paleobotanists, soil scientists, and other researchers take to the field in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin to document how the climate, plants, and animals there changed during the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) when a sudden, enormous influx of carbon flooded the ocean and atmosphere for reasons that are still unclear to scientists. The PTEM is used as an analog to the current warming occurring. The scientists' research may help inform our understanding of current increases in carbon in the atmosphere and ocean and the resulting impact on ecosystems. Supporting materials include essay and interactive overview of animals that existed in the Basin after the PETM event.

History, American M.


Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy



Understanding Climate Change: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Woods Hole Research Center, The Warming of the Earth introduces the concept of global warming through the following topics: the greenhouse effect, scientific evidence, the culprits, potential outcomes, what the skeptics don't tell you, and the Kyoto Protocol. The text relies heavily on reports published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Throughout the website, additional, but intimately related resources can be accessed through linked material. Examples include a link to the IPCC and a letter written by 2400 scientists to President Clinton. Several diagrams exist depicting the rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and related atmospheric warming over the past several decades.


EOS-EarthData: Climate Change Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides a compendium of current climate change information, including scientific evidence for climate change, policy documents (including the Kyoto Protocol and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports), summaries of specific climate change issues, and links to additional resources. These data holdings can be searched spatially, temporally, or by keyword, freetext, or collection name. There are also links to climate model projections from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), satellite and land use modeling data, and case studies. Registration and log-in are required to obtain some materials.



Abrupt climate change: can society cope?  


Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and those who argue that the unknowns in the Earth system are too large to justify such early action. This paper explores the question of abrupt climate change in terms of its potential implications for society, focusing on the UK and northwest Europe in particular. The nature of abrupt climate change and the different ways in which it has been defined and perceived are examined. Using the example of the collapse of the thermohaline circulation (THC), the suggested implications for society of abrupt climate change are reviewed; previous work has been largely speculative and has generally considered the implications only from economic and ecological perspectives. Some observations about the implications from a more social and behavioural science perspective are made. If abrupt climate change simply implies changes in the occurrence or intensity of extreme weather events, or an accelerated unidirectional change in climate, the design of adaptation to climate change can proceed within the existing paradigm, with appropriate adjustments. Limits to adaptation in some sectors or regions may be reached, and the costs of appropriate adaptive behaviour may be large, but strategy can develop on the basis of a predicted long-term unidirectional change in climate. It would be more challenging, however, if abrupt climate change implied a directional change in climate, as, for example, may well occur in northwest Europe following a collapse of the THC. There are two fundamental problems for society associated with such an outcome: first, the future changes in climate currently being anticipated and prepared for may reverse and, second, the probability of such a scenario occurring remains fundamentally unknown. The implications of both problems for climate policy and for decision making have not been researched. It is premature to argue therefore that abrupt climate change - in the sense referred to here - imposes unacceptable costs on society or the world economy, represents a catastrophic impact of climate change or constitutes a dangerous change in climate that should be avoided at all reasonable cost. We conclude by examining the implications of this contention for future research and policy formation. PMID:14558906

Hulme, Mike



The Velocity of Climate Change: Chris Field  

E-print Network

of climate · Albedo: fraction of sunlight reflected ­ Grassland: ~20% ­ Deciduous forest: ~ 15% ­ Conifer forest: ~ 10% ­ Snow: ~90% Jackson et al. Env. Res. Let. 2008 #12;Early human climate changes? Doughty et

Subramanian, Venkat


Climate Change: A simulation with commentary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains two videos that show climate visualizations created by super computers. Both videos show climate changes that may occur during the 21st Century due to human activities based on IPCC science.

Research, Center F.; Ministry Of The Environment, Japan


10 Facts on Climate Change and Health  


... and other greenhouse gases to affect the global climate. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased ... lower atmosphere. The resulting changes in the global climate bring a range of risks to health, from ...


Changes in Streamflow Percentiles under Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various studies have shown that the occurrence of floods and droughts will change under global warming. This study uses the bias-corrected runoff outputs of multiple general circulation models (GCMs) participating in the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to analyze the changes in the extreme streamflow percentiles. Under the highest emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5), compared to 20C (1971-2000) multimodel mean, ~77% (19%) of the world shows increase (decrease) in high flow (10th percentile) in 21C (2071-2100). Similarly, ~63% (32%) shows increase (decrease) in low flow (90th percentile). Consistency among GCMs in showing similar sign (increase or decrease) of change of high flow is relatively high with more than 9 out of 11 models showing increase in ~39% of the world and more than 9 out of 11 models showing decrease in 13% of the world. Similar high consistency among models in showing similar change of low flow can be seen in 34% (increase) and 23% (decrease) of the world. Further, in 16% of the world, the high flow will increase and low flow will decrease in future suggesting reduced water availability and elevated risk of flood. As most of these regions are located in South America, Central Africa, and eastern China, which also have large population density, the number of people facing water scarcity and flood events is bound to increase with climate change. Change in multimodel mean and consistency among models for 10th percentile/high flow (a and b, respectively) and 90th percentile/low flow (c and d, respectively). Change is presented in percentage (increase is in blue shades and decrease in red shades) and consistency is presented as number of model (blue shades indicate regions with increase and red shade indicate regions with decrease).

Koirala, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Roobavannan, M.; Kanae, S.



Responding to the Consequences of Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning climate change, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate climate change and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the changing water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality climate change. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and sea ice; changes in runoff; rising sea level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of climate change is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and changes in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and changes in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of climate-induced changes in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, changes in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of climate change effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale changes in human behavior that affect the climate and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on climate, the many options for mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.

Hildebrand, Peter H.



Statistical principles for climate change studies  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of climate change due to human-induced increases in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations have been an ongoing arena for debate and discussion. A major difficulty in early detection of changes resulting from anthropogenic forcing of the climate system is that the natural climate variability overwhelms the climate change signal in observed data. Statistical principles underlying fingerprint methods for detecting a climate change signal above natural climate variations and attributing the potential signal to specific anthropogenic forcings are discussed. The climate change problem is introduced through an exposition of statistical issues in modeling the climate signal and natural climate variability. The fingerprint approach is shown to be analogous to optimal hypothesis testing procedures from the classical statistics literature. The statistical formulation of the fingerprint scheme suggests new insights into the implementation of the techniques for climate change studies. In particular, the statistical testing ideas are exploited to introduce alternative procedures within the fingerprint model for attribution of climate change and to shed light on practical issues in applying the fingerprint detection strategies.

Levine, R.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Statistics] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Statistics; Berliner, L.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); [National Inst. of Statistical Sciences, Columbus, OH (United States)



Economic Consequences Of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the climate conflict resulting from green houses gases (GHG) emissions was evident by the Nineties and the well-known agreements made, their enforcement is more difficult than that of other environmental agreements. That is because measures to reduce GHG emissions interfere with the heart of the economy and the market: energy (in a broader sense than the energy sector as defined by statistics) and economical growth. Analyzing the environmental policy responses to climate change the conclusion is that GHG emission reduction can only be achieved through intensive environmental policy. While extensive environmental protection complements production horizontally, intensive environmental protection integrates into production and the environment vertically. The latter eliminates the source of the pollution, preventing damage. It utilizes the biochemical processes and self-purification of the natural environment as well as technical development which not only aims to produce state-of-the-art goods, but to make production more environmentally friendly, securing a desired environmental state. While in extensive environmental protection the intervention comes from the outside for creating environmental balance, in intensive environmental protection the system recreates this balance itself. Instead of dealing with the consequences and the polluter pays principle, the emphasis is on prevention. It is important to emphasize that climate strategy decisions have complex effects regarding the aspects of sustainability (economical, social, ecological). Therefore, all decisions are political. At present, and in the near future, market economy decisions have little to do with sustainability values under normal circumstances. Taking social and ecological interests into consideration can only be successful through strategic political aims.

Szlvik, Jnos; Fle, Mikls



Tropical cyclones and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether the characteristics of tropical cyclones have changed or will change in a warming climate - and if so, how - has been the subject of considerable investigation, often with conflicting results. Large amplitude fluctuations in the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones greatly complicate both the detection of long-term trends and their attribution to rising levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Trend detection is further impeded by substantial limitations in the availability and quality of global historical records of tropical cyclones. Therefore, it remains uncertain whether past changes in tropical cyclone activity have exceeded the variability expected from natural causes. However, future projections based on theory and high-resolution dynamical models consistently indicate that greenhouse warming will cause the globally averaged intensity of tropical cyclones to shift towards stronger storms, with intensity increases of 2-11% by 2100. Existing modelling studies also consistently project decreases in the globally averaged frequency of tropical cyclones, by 6-34%. Balanced against this, higher resolution modelling studies typically project substantial increases in the frequency of the most intense cyclones, and increases of the order of 20% in the precipitation rate within 100 km of the storm centre. For all cyclone parameters, projected changes for individual basins show large variations between different modelling studies.

Knutson, Thomas R.; McBride, John L.; Chan, Johnny; Emanuel, Kerry; Holland, Greg; Landsea, Chris; Held, Isaac; Kossin, James P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Sugi, Masato



COP4: International Conference on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News highlights a critical international conference on climate change, the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, currently being held (November 2-13) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Convention on Climate Change, signed and ratified by over 175 countries, is one of a series of recent international agreements dedicated to reducing anthropogenic (human-induced) climate change. Although the detection of climate change is a complex and contentious issue among scientists (and is generally refuted by industries afraid of the regulatory consequences), the potential impacts to the earth's ecosystems cannot be ignored. Thus, the Convention's "ultimate objective" is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level -- and with enough time -- to prevent "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere." The nine sites discussed provide background information, resources, and information related to COP4 and to climate change.

Nannapaneni, Sujani.


India's National Action Plan on Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Climate change is one of the most critical global challenges of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to climate change. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture further endangering food security to sea-level rise and the accelerated erosion of coastal zones, increasing intensity of natural disasters, species extinction, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. India released its much-awaited National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) to mitigate and adapt to climate change on June 30, 2008, almost a year after it was announced. The NAPCC runs through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change by December 2008. This article briefly reviews the plan and opinion about it from different experts and organizations. PMID:20165607

Pandve, Harshal T.



Climate Change: Environmental Literacy and Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change is a technology-supported middle school science inquiry curriculum. This curriculum focuses on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change. Students use geospatial information technology tools (Google Earth), Web-based tools (including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline), and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate important climate change topics. Climate Change is aligned to the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy in addition to national science and environmental education standards. The unit takes 21 days which include pretest and post test. Assessments for each learning activity are available using the following login and password: Login: eliteacher Password: 87dja92


Climate change adaptation in the ski industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the success of climate change mitigation efforts, the international community has concluded that societies around\\u000a the world will need to adapt to some magnitude of climate change in the 21st century. While some economic sectors (e.g., agriculture,\\u000a water resources and construction) have been actively engaged in climate change adaptation research for years, adaptation has\\u000a received scant consideration within

Daniel Scott; Geoff McBoyle



Climate change and ecological public health.  


Climate change has been identified as a serious threat to human health, associated with the sustainability of current practices and lifestyles. Nurses should expand their health promotion role to address current and emerging threats to health from climate change and to address ecological public health. This article briefly outlines climate change and the concept of ecological public health, and discusses a 2012 review of the role of the nurse in health promotion. PMID:25669818

Goodman, Benny



Climate Change and Agriculture: Effects and Adaptation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document is a synthesis of science literature on the effects of climate change on agriculture and issues associated with agricultural adaptation to climate change. Information is presented on how long-term changes in air temperatures, precipitation, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide wi...


Marine viruses and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-surface warming, sea-ice melting and related freshening, changes in circulation and mixing regimes, and ocean acidification induced by the present climate changes are modifying marine ecosystem structure and function and have the potential to alter the cycling of carbon and nutrients in surface oceans. Changing climate has direct and indirect consequences on marine viruses, including cascading effects on biogeochemical cycles,

R. Danovaro; C. Corinaldesi; A. Dell'Anno; J. A. Fuhrman; J. J. Middelburg; R. T. Noble; C. A. Suttle



Plant phenotypic plasticity in a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is altering the availability of resources and the conditions that are crucial to plant performance. One way plants will respond to these changes is through environmentally induced shifts in phenotype (phenotypic plasticity). Understanding plastic responses is crucial for predicting and managing the effects of climate change on native species as well as crop plants. Here, we provide a

A. B. Nicotra; O. K. Atkin; S. P. Bonser; A. M. Davidson; E. J. Finnegan; U. Mathesius; P. Poot; M. D. Purugganan; C. L. Richards; F. Valladares; M. van Kleunen



Implementing the Climate Change Policy Revolution in  

E-print Network

Implementing the Climate Change Policy Revolution in British Columbia (BC) The Tansley Lecture Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy #12;Implementing the Climate Change Policy Revolution Change Policy Revolution in British Columbia Jessica L. McDonald Introduction I am very pleased

Peak, Derek


Farming in an uncertain and changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change already appears to be affecting Australia's climate, with recent changes in temperature and rainfall consistent with those projected in the future. The likelihood of further, significant changes occurring in response to sustained growth in greenhouse gas emissions increases the need for a more coherent and urgent approach to the development of effective adaptive responses. Given the sensitivity of

Mark Howden; Steven Crimp


Advanced Review Greenland climate change: from  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Greenland climate change: from the past to the future Val´erie Masson-Delmotte,1 cores in and around Greenland allow us to place the current trends in regional climate, ice sheet lake sediments in southern Greenland document major environmental and climatic conditions during

Bhatt, Uma


Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and  

E-print Network

Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers Northern and devise adaptation tactics. It was developed in northern Wisconsin as part of the Northwoods Climate in developing ground-level climate adaptation tactics for forest ecosystems; and (4) two illustrations


Warming asymmetry in climate change simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change simulations made with coupled global climate models typically show a marked hemispheric asymmetry with more warming in the northern high lati- tudes than in the south. This asymmetry is ascribed to heat uptake by the ocean at high southern latitudes. A re- cent version of the CCCma climate model exhibits a much more symmetric warming, compared to an

G. M. Flato; G. J. Boer



Climate change: The IPCC scientific assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Book review of the intergovernmental panel on climate change report on global warming and the greenhouse effect. Covers the scientific basis for knowledge of the future climate. Presents chemistry of greenhouse gases and mathematical modelling of the climate system. The book is primarily for government policy makers.

J. T. Houghton; G. J. Jenkins; J. J. Ephraums



Chemistry implications of climate change  

SciTech Connect

Since preindustrial times, the concentrations of a number of key greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and the nitric oxides (N{sub 2}O) have increased. Additionally, the concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols have also increased during the same time period. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are expected to increase temperature, while the aerosols tend to have a net cooling effect. Taking both of these effects into account, the current best scientific estimate is that the global average surface temperature is expected to increase by 2{degrees}C between the years 1990 to 2100. A climate change if this magnitude will both directly and indirectly impact atmospheric chemistry. For example, many important tropospheric reactions have a temperature dependence (either Arrhenius or otherwise). Thus, if temperature increase, reaction rates will also increase.

Atherton, C.S.



Aging, Climate Change, and Legacy Thinking  

PubMed Central

Climate change is a complex, long-term public health challenge. Older people are especially susceptible to certain climate change impacts, such as heat waves. We suggest that older people may be a resource for addressing climate change because of their concern for legacyfor leaving behind values, attitudes, and an intact world to their children and grandchildren. We review the theoretical basis for legacy thinking among older people. We offer suggestions for research on this phenomenon, and for action to strengthen the sense of legacy. At a time when older populations are growing, understanding and promoting legacy thinking may offer an important strategy for addressing climate change. PMID:22698047

Fried, Linda; Moody, Rick



Climate change impacts on global food security.  


Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a "climate-smart food system" that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security. PMID:23908229

Wheeler, Tim; von Braun, Joachim



Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others



When climate science became climate politics: British media representations of climate change in 1988.  


Climate change has become a pressing environmental concern for scientists, social commentators and politicians. Previous social science research has explored media representations of climate change in various temporal and geographical contexts. Through the lens of Social Representations Theory, this article provides a detailed qualitative thematic analysis of media representations of climate change in the 1988 British broadsheet press, given that this year constitutes an important juncture in this transition of climate change from the domain of science to that of the socio-political sphere. The following themes are outlined: (i) "Climate change: a multi-faceted threat"; (ii) "Collectivisation of threat"; (iii) "Climate change and the attribution of blame"; and (iv) "Speculative solutions to a complex socio-environmental problem." The article provides detailed empirical insights into the "starting-point" for present-day disputes concerning climate change and lays the theoretical foundations for tracking the continuities and discontinuities characterising social representations of climate change in the future. PMID:23825236

Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte



Earth's Climate Changes: Virtual Bookshelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of carefully selected books for grades K-5 highlights nonfiction about climate proxies, those preserved physical characteristics, such as fossils, that scientists use to reconstruct past climates. Also highlighted are a few books that provide information about two past climatic events -- the last ice age and the Dust Bowl. In each issue of the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, the virtual bookshelf recommends books that accurately portray the theme drawn from the principles of climate sciences.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica



Impact of Climate Change on Five Major Crop Fungal Diseases: Building Climatic Indicators of Infection Risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate change will modify the severity and occurrence of fungal crop diseases, as the bioclimatic niches of pathogens will shift according to temperature and rainfall patterns evolution. Therefore it becomes necessary to integrate fungal disease pressure assessment into evaluation tools of crop suitability at the regional level. The aim of this study was to build two climatic indicators, the Average Infection Efficiency (AIE) and the Number of Infection Days (NID), quantifying the potential effect of climate on infection intensity and occurrence. A simple and continuous function was developed to calculate them, which is easy to parameterize from experimental measurements, usable on large spatial scales and adaptable to various pathogens. The evolution of those climatic indicators was then studied for five major fungal crop diseases in Northern France, the phoma of oilseed rape, the potato late blight, the downy mildew of grape, the leaf rust of wheat and the net blotch of barley. These indicators were applied on a multisite analysis in Northern France. They were calculated during the crop cycle when the host plant is able to be infected, over the period between 1970 and 2100 for the balanced scenario of climate change A1B. In late spring and summer, higher temperatures combined with lower humidity reduced the risk of infection of potato late blight and downy mildew of grape. In autumn and spring the balance between warmer temperatures and lower humidity determined the risk of infection on oilseed rape and cereals: increased risk in late autumn and early spring, and decreased risk in early autumn and mid-spring when low humidity becomes limiting. This statement highlighted the need for using between year scale for a relevant analysis of climate change impact on infection risk. The indicators we developed are thus useful for land management at regional scale and medium term, in particular for stakeholders who need decision support tools through which they could anticipate future trends and associated risks of crop diseases.

Launay, M.; Caubel, J.; Bourgeois, G.; Huard, F.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.



Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations 3 because the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing



Climate change and trace gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the 'albedo flip' property of ice\\/water, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that 'flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Inertia

James Hansen; Makiko Sato; Pushker Kharecha; Gary Russell; David W. Lea; Mark Siddall



Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are exceeding levels recorded in the past millions of years, and thus climate is being forced beyond the range of the recent geological era. Lacking concerted action by the world's nations, it is clear that the future climate will be warmer, sea levels will rise, global rainfall patterns will change, and ecosystems will be altered. However, there is still uncertainty about how we will arrive at that future climate state. Although many projections of future climatic conditions have predicted steadily changing conditions giving the impression that communities have time to gradually adapt, the scientific community has been paying increasing attention to the possibility that at least some changes will be abrupt, perhaps crossing a threshold or "tipping point" to change so quickly that there will be little time to react. This presentation will synopsize the new US National Research Council Report, Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises, highlighting areas of increased and decreased concern, as well as areas of new concern. Emphasis is placed on not only abrupt change in physical climate, but on abrupt changes in human and natural systems that can occur as a result of a slowly changing climate. The report calls for action now on an abrupt change early warning system (ACEWS) if societies are to be resilient to climate change.

White, James W. C.; Alley, Richard B.; Archer, David E.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Dunlea, Edward; Foley, Jonathan; Fu, Rong; Holland, Marika M.; Lozier, M. Susan; Schmitt, Johanna; Smith, Laurence C.; Sugihara, George; Thompson, David W. J.; Weaver, Andrew J.; Wofsy, Steven C.



Links between multidecadal and interdecadal climatic oscillations in the North Atlantic and regional climate variability of northern France and England since the 17th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the variability of climate in the past is essential for understanding current climatic changes. Therefore, we investigated two temperature indices and seven rainfall time series of northwestern Europe since the 17th century. Trends and multidecadal to interdecadal variability are similar in England and northern France for temperature, whereas a strong regional contrast is evident between the two regions for rainfall. Multidecadal and interdecadal variability displays several periods of enhanced amplitude for both temperature and rainfall that may be related to large-scale climate control. On these scales, temperatures in both England and France display phase opposition with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) before 1800, while they are in-phase afterward, as determined by wavelet coherence. On the other hand, the relationships between temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are weak across multidecadal and interdecadal scales for the whole period under study. For rainfall, coherence with the AMO is observed for scales at around 30-60 years, whereas coherence with the NAO is detected on 50-80 year scales and interdecadal 16-23 year scales. However, relationships between rainfall variability and North Atlantic climate indices are highly contrasted depending on the region considered. Finally, the results of a mixed spectral/empirical orthogonal function analysis of mean sea level pressure on these co-oscillation time scales highlight not only NAO regimes but also other patterns, explaining a nonnegligible amount of variance during certain time periods.

Dieppois, Bastien; Durand, Alain; Fournier, Matthieu; Massei, Nicolas



EMS adaptation for climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.



The Status of Mars Climate Change Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers have reviewed the evidence that the climate of Mars has changed throughout its history. In this paper, the discussion focuses on where we stand in terms of modeling these climate changes. For convenience, three distinct types of climate regimes are considered: very early in the planet's history (more than 3.5 Ga), when warm wet conditions are thought to have prevailed; the bulk of the planet's history (3.5-1 Ga), during which episodic ocean formation has been suggested; and relatively recently in the planet's history (less than 1 Ga), when orbitally induced climate change is thought to have occurred.

Haberle, Robert M.



Climate Change Guidance: A Pragmatic Approach to Client  

E-print Network

10/21/11 Climate Change Guidance: A Pragmatic Approach to Client Needs Climate, Water and Ecosystems- Shaping the Great Plains October 13, 2011 #12;10/21/11 Climate Change Guidance: A Pragmatic Approach to Client NeedsClimate Science ­ 2011 ·Yes, the climate is changing. ·Climate science is changing

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of


Critical climate change as an approach to assess climate change impacts in Europe: development and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new methodology called the critical climate change approach for evaluating policies for reducing climate change impacts on natural ecosystems. This method is particularly suited for integrated assessments because of its long-term and large-scale perspective. This is an analogous approach to the critical loads concept used for assessing regional air pollution impacts in Europe. Critical climate change

Jelle G van Minnen; Janina Onigkeit; Joseph Alcamo



The LASP Climate Change Compendium: Looking at Climate Change at the Poles for IPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding our climate, how it's changing, and how it is impacting the poles is an important gateway to understanding global warming. The International Polar Year (2007-2008) allows us an opportunity to focus on climate change at the poles and look at how it may impact the rest of the globe. The Climate Change Compendium compiles 40 outstanding inquiry-based lessons and

E. Wood; N. Marks; E. Cobabe-Ammann; L. Harvey




E-print Network

FAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE "I am persuaded that global climate change is one of the most important issues that we will face.S. Secretary of Energy Dr. Steven Chu "Ocean acidification, along with thermal heating of the oceans from

Fernandez, Eduardo



Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has sponsored several state-of-the-art assessments of future impacts of climate change on various climate-sensitive threats such as malaria, hunger, water shortage, coastal flooding, habitat loss, lowered carbon-sink capacity, and diminished coastal wetlands. The results, based on IPCC emission scenarios, figure prominently in the international debate about climate change, and

Indur M. Goklany



Climate change or land use dynamics: do we know what climate change indicators indicate?  


Different components of global change can have interacting effects on biodiversity and this may influence our ability to detect the specific consequences of climate change through biodiversity indicators. Here, we analyze whether climate change indicators can be affected by land use dynamics that are not directly determined by climate change. To this aim, we analyzed three community-level indicators of climate change impacts that are based on the optimal thermal environment and average latitude of the distribution of bird species present at local communities. We used multiple regression models to relate the variation in climate change indicators to: i) environmental temperature; and ii) three landscape gradients reflecting important current land use change processes (land abandonment, fire impacts and urbanization), all of them having forest areas at their positive extremes. We found that, with few exceptions, landscape gradients determined the figures of climate change indicators as strongly as temperature. Bird communities in forest habitats had colder-dwelling bird species with more northern distributions than farmland, burnt or urban areas. Our results show that land use changes can reverse, hide or exacerbate our perception of climate change impacts when measured through community-level climate change indicators. We stress the need of an explicit incorporation of the interactions between climate change and land use dynamics to understand what are current climate change indicators indicating and be able to isolate real climate change impacts. PMID:21533025

Clavero, Miguel; Villero, Daniel; Brotons, Llus



Climate Change Indicators for the United States  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA?s publishes the Climate Change Indicators for the United States report to communicate information about the science and impacts of climate change, track trends in environmental quality, and inform decision-making. This report presents a set of key indicators to help readers ...


Road transport technology and climate change mitigation  

E-print Network

Road transport technology and climate change mitigation DR DAVID HOWEY, DR ROBIN NORTH AND DR and 2050 will strongly influence the extent of climate change by the end of this century1 . transport alone was responsible for around 23% of global energy-related Co2 emissions in 20072 . transport emissions could become


A commentary on the climate change issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climate is changing and the balance of scientific evidence indicates a human contribution through increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, continued emissions of which will lead to further climate change. Hence, there is an issue to manage through both reducing net greenhouse gas emissions and implementing adaptation strategies. This is not about scientific certainty but probability and risk management. Timely

G. I. Pearman



Anthropogenic albedo changes and the earth's climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators have long discounted the possibility that anthropogenic environmental changes not involving sophisticated modern technology could significantly influence climate. However, physical models suggest a causal connection between several such changes and significant climatic variation experienced in many regions of the world. In the Rajasthan Desert, parts of the Sahara, and Lebanon, overgrazing and lack of vegetation have led to desertification

C. Sagan; O. B. Toole; J. B. Pollack




EPA Science Inventory

The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...


Harnessing Homophily to Improve Climate Change Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Cooperative Extension Service (Extension) in the United States is well positioned to educate the public, particularly farmers and foresters, about climate change and to encourage responsible adoption of adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, the climate change attitudes and perceptions of Extension professionals have limited

Monroe, Martha C.; Plate, Richard R.; Adams, Damian C.; Wojcik, Deborah J.



Ocean Conditions, Salmon, and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Ocean Conditions, Salmon, and Climate Change John Ferguson1 NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries;Today's talk · Past (why study the ocean?) · Present (how we study the ocean) · Future (what we're finding - adult forecasts and climate change) #12;1. Past (for context) · The coastal pelagic ecosystem


African climate change: 1900-2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews observed (1900-2000) and possible future (2000-2100) continent- wide changes in temperature and rainfall for Africa. For the historic period we draw upon a new observed global climate data set which allows us to explore aspects of regional climate change related to diurnal temperature range and rainfall variability. The latter includes an investigation of regions where seasonal rainfall

M Hulme; R Doherty; T Ngara; M New; D Lister



Climate change and global water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2025, it is estimated that around 5 billion people, out of a total population of around 8 billion, will be living in countries experiencing water stress (using more than 20% of their available resources). Climate change has the potential to impose additional pressures in some regions. This paper describes an assessment of the implications of climate change for global

Nigel W. Arnell



The Psychological Impacts of Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological

Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan



Climate Change and Agriculture in Vermont INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Agriculture in Vermont INTRODUCTION Climate change is impacting Northeastern trends in Vermont, 2) the most up-to-date modeled projections available, and 3) potential impacts on Vermont agriculture. OBSERVED It is getting wetter. There has been a 9" increase in average annual

Hayden, Nancy J.


Half the Sky: Climate Change, Population, and  

E-print Network

Half the Sky: Climate Change, Population, and the Lives of Women Gaylord Nelson Lecture Madison, Wisconsin April 14, 2009 Half the Sky: Climate Change, Population, and the Lives of Women Gaylord Nelson? Global mean warming oC 2o or 450ppm CO2 2o or 450ppm CO2 #12;Lake Chad, northern Africa, before (1973

Sheridan, Jennifer



Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses uncertainties to the supply and management of water resources. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.6 0.2 o C since 1861, and predicts an increase of 2 to 4 o C over the next 100 years. Temperature increases also affect the hydrologic cycle by directly increasing

R. D. Singh; C. P. Kumar



Chloe Adelmann Climate Change VS. Smog  

E-print Network

Chloe Adelmann ATOC 3500 3/13/11 Climate Change VS. Smog The Story California Dairy Farmer, John to generate the electricity contributes to smog. The Federal air quality regulations in California over their limits, making the cut back of smog more important than reduction of climate change. NOx is associated

Toohey, Darin W.


TV Weathercasters as Climate Change Communicators  

E-print Network

on Climate Change"--Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (Oct. 2009) "Ideology Trumps Meteorology is a scam." SA Agree Neutral Disagree SD 9% 17% 29% 25% 20% #12;Ideology Trumps Meteorology RQ1: Who do TV University. Fairfax, VA: Center for Climate Change Communication. #12;Ideology Trumps Meteorology Table 1


ORIGINAL ARTICLE Synergisms between climate change mitigation  

E-print Network

in the buildings and energy sectors, agriculture, forestry, and land use. Although insurance is far from a ``silver sustainable development. However, climate change promises to erode the insurability of many risks Energy efficiency Á Climate change Á Insurance Á Risk management Á Economic development Special Issue


78 FR 66898 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-427-818] Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Changed...of one specified entry of low enriched uranium (LEU) that entered under a narrow provision...1\\ See Low Enriched Uranium from France: Initiation of...



Drought, Climate Change and Potential Agricultural Productivity  

E-print Network

for sorghum in Zimbabwe Sorghum Harvested Area (%) · How do climate variability and change translate into changes in production? · We use a simple crop production model · Examples shown for sorghum across Africa


Uncertain Outcomes and Climate Change Policy  

E-print Network

Focusing on tail effects, I incorporate distributions for temperature change and its economic impact in an analysis of climate change policy. I estimate the fraction of consumption w_(_ ) that society would be willing to ...

Pindyck, Robert S.


Uncertain Outcomes and Climate Change Policy  

E-print Network

Focusing on tail effects, I incorporate distributions for temperature change and its economic impact in an analysis of climate change policy. I estimate the fraction of consumption w*(?) that society would be willing to ...

Pindyck, Robert S.


Regional Climate Tutorial: Assessing Regional Climate Change and Its Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent scientific progress now enables credible projections of global changes in climate over long time periods. But people will experience global climate change where they live and work, and have difficulty thinking of a future beyond their grandchildren's lifetime. Although the task of projecting climate change and its impacts is far more challenging for regional and relatively near-term time scales, these are the scales at which actions most easily can be taken to moderate negative impacts. This tutorial will summarize what is known about projecting changes in regional climate, and about assessing the impacts for sectors such as forests, agriculture, fresh water quantity and quality, coastal zones, human health, and ecosystems. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA) is used to provide context and illustrate how adaptation within the region and feedback from other regions influence the impacts that might be experienced.

Barron, E.; Fisher, A.



The physical science behind climate change  

SciTech Connect

For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists, like all good scientists, want to ensure that the highest standards of proof apply to everything they discover. And the evidence of change has mounted as climate records have grown longer, as our understanding of the climate system has improved and as climate models have become ever more reliable. Over the past 20 years, evidence that humans are affecting the climate has accumulated inexorably, and with it has come ever greater certainty across the scientific community in the reality of recent climate change and the potential for much greater change in the future. This increased certainty is starkly reflected in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the fourth in a series of assessments of the state of knowledge on the topic, written and reviewed by hundreds of scientists worldwide. The panel released a condensed version of the first part of the report, on the physical science basis of climate change, in February. Called the 'Summary for Policymakers,' it delivered to policymakers and ordinary people alike an unambiguous message: scientists are more confident than ever that humans have interfered with the climate and that further human-induced climate change is on the way. Although the report finds that some of these further changes are now inevitable, its analysis also confirms that the future, particularly in the longer term, remains largely in our hands--the magnitude of expected change depends on what humans choose to do about greenhouse gas emissions. The physical science assessment focuses on four topics: drivers of climate change, changes observed in the climate system, understanding cause-and-effect relationships, and projection of future changes. Important advances in research into all these areas have occurred since the IPCC assessment in 2001. In the pages that follow, we lay out the key findings that document the extent of change and that point to the unavoidable conclusion that human activity is driving it.

Collins, William; Collins, William; Colman, Robert; Haywood, James; Manning, Martin R.; Mote, Philip



Does belief matter in climate change action?  


We studied environmental action and its predictors in a multi-scalar context of climate change politics. We asked how belief in climate change, post-materialist values, trust and knowledge predict people's engagement in environmental action by testing two alternative structural equation models (SEM). In one of these models all these factors directly predicted climate-friendly action, and in the other the effect of political trust, post-materialist values and climate change knowledge on climate-friendly action was mediated by belief in climate change. The models were tested with Eurobarometer 69.2 survey data of adult people living in Finland (N = 1,004). The SEM revealed that belief in climate change mediates the effect of post-material values, trust and knowledge on climate-friendly action. It is therefore important to recognize the role of belief in the public understanding of large-scale environmental problems. These results help political authorities to develop policies to encourage people's engagement in climate-friendly action. PMID:23833105

Vainio, Annukka; Paloniemi, Riikka



Higher Education's Role in Adapting to a Changing Climate  

E-print Network

Higher Education's Role in Adapting to a Changing Climate PRE S IDENTS'CLI MATE COMMITMENT AMERICAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 What Is Climate Adaptation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Climate Adaptation Efforts Across Sectors

Linsley, Braddock K.


Climate change in the northeastern US: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high resolution regional climate model (RCM) is used to simulate climate of the recent past and to project future climate change across the northeastern US. Different types of uncertainties in climate simulations are examined by driving the RCM with different boundary data, applying different emissions scenarios, and running an ensemble of simulations with different initial conditions. Empirical orthogonal functions analysis and K-means clustering analysis are applied to divide the northeastern US region into four climatologically different zones based on the surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation variability. The RCM simulations tend to overestimate SAT, especially over the northern part of the domain in winter and over the western part in summer. Statistically significant increases in seasonal SAT under both higher and lower emissions scenarios over the whole RCM domain suggest the robustness of future warming. Most parts of the northeastern US region will experience increasing winter precipitation and decreasing summer precipitation, though the changes are not statistically significant. The greater magnitude of the projected temperature increase by the end of the twenty-first century under the higher emissions scenario emphasizes the essential role of emissions choices in determining the potential future climate change.

Fan, Fangxing; Bradley, Raymond S.; Rawlins, Michael A.



Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency Agreements. EPA has provided GLRI funding for a diverse suite of climate change-related projects including Great Lakes climate change research and modeling; adaptation plan development and implementation; ecosystem vulnerability assessments; outreach and education programs; habitat restoration and protection projects that will increase ecosystem resilience; and other projects that address climate change impacts. This presentation will discuss how the GLRI is helping to improve the climate change science needed to support the Action Plan. It will further describe how the GLRI is helping coordinate climate change efforts among Great Lakes states, tribes, Federal agencies, and other stakeholders. Finally, it will discuss how the GLRI is facilitating adaptation planning by our Great Lakes partners. The draft Lake Superior Ecosystem Climate Change Adaptation Plan serves as a case study for an integrated, collaborative, and coordinated climate change effort.

Hedman, S.



Global Climate Change: Resources for Environmental Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most scientists believe that Earth's climate is changing and in fact heating up. However, they don't all agree about the rate of change, the extent of the impact on our environment, or what can or should be done about it. This module is based on the premise that understanding what influences Earth's energy balance is necessary (though not sufficient) to make sound decisions about climate change. Among the key concepts: how weather and climate relate to transfer of energy in and out of Earth's atmosphere, and how human activities have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere.

Council, Environmental L.; National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)



Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Systme Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.



Low flows in France and their relationship to large-scale climate indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis study explores the relationship between low flows and large-scale climate variability in France. To this aim, a national low flow reference network of near-natural catchments, consisting of 236 gauging stations, was set up. A subset of 220 daily streamflow records for the period 1968-2008 was used to detect trends in a number of severity and timing drought indices. In addition to testing temporal trends, correlations with four climate indices were also evaluated: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the frequency of two Weather Patterns corresponding to circulation types associated to wet (WP2) and dry (WP8) conditions over France. Due to their specific dynamics, NAO and WPs were also analyzed seasonally. Results show a consistent increase of drought severity in southern France. Correlations with NAO and AMO show a similar spatial pattern. Additionally, significant relationships with WPs were found throughout France, with the exception of the Mediterranean coast. Timing indices appear to be less related to large-scale climate indices, whereas some evidence of negative temporal trends was found (e.g. earlier drought start). To assess the robustness of the above relationships, a subset of 28 stations with longer records was studied over a 60 year period (1948-2008). The results show that, when shifting the time window of the analysis, the correlations between low flow indices and climate indices remain stable, whereas those with respect to time do not. Seasonal climate indices appear to have stronger links with low flow indices than their annual counterparts. For instance, the summer NAO shows a strong link with severity indices in the northern half of the country. This link is found again for the winter WP2. The above results indicate that temporal trends should only be used for descriptive purposes, whereas seasonally lagged climate indices are potential candidates as predictors of summer low flows.

Giuntoli, I.; Renard, B.; Vidal, J.-P.; Bard, A.



Climate Variability, Climate Change and Fisheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we approach the end of the twentieth century, public and scientific attention is focusing increasingly on the detection and assessment of changes in our environment. This unique volume addresses the potential implications of global warming for fisheries and the societies which depend on them. Using a æforecasting by analogy' approach, which draws upon experiences from the recent past in coping with regional fluctuations in the abundance or availability of living marine resources, it is shown how we might be able to assess our ability to respond to the consequences of future environmental changes induced by a potential global warming. The book takes the form of a series of integrated case studies from around the globe, which are presented by an interdisciplinary group of leading researchers. This important and thought-provoking volume will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working in the fields of biology, marine and environmental science, climatology, economics and anthropology, as well as resource managers and policy makers concerned with the health and future of living marine resources.

Glantz, Michael H.



Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.

Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.



How Volcanism Controls Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large explosive volcanoes eject megatons of sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere where it spreads around the world within months and is oxidized slowly to form a sulfuric-acid aerosol with particle sizes that grow large enough to reflect and scatter solar radiation, cooling Earth ~0.5C for up to 3 years. Explosive eruptions also deplete total column ozone ~6% causing up to 3C winter warming at mid-latitudes over continents. Global cooling predominates. Extrusive, basaltic volcanoes deplete ozone ~6% but do not eject much sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere, causing net global warming. Anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) deplete ozone ~3% for up to a century while each volcanic eruption, even small ones, depletes ozone twice as much but for less than a decade through eruption of halogens and ensuing photochemical processes. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajkull, the 2011 eruption of Grmsvtn, plus anthropogenic CFCs depleted ozone over Toronto Canada 14% in 2012, causing an unusually warm winter and drought. Total column ozone determines how much solar ultraviolet energy with wavelengths between 290 and 340 nanometers reaches Earth where it is absorbed most efficiently by the ocean. A 25% depletion of ozone increases the amount of this radiation reaching Earth by 1 W m-2 for overhead sun and 0.25 W m-2 for a solar zenith angle of 70 degrees. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere heated from below by a sun-warmed Earth and the stratosphere heated from above by the Sun through photodissociation primarily of oxygen and ozone. The mean annual height of the tropopause increased ~160 m between 1980 and 2004 at the same time that northern mid-latitude total column ozone was depleted by ~4%, the lower stratosphere cooled ~2C, the upper troposphere warmed ~0.1C, and mean surface temperatures in the northern hemisphere rose ~0.5C. Regional total ozone columns are observed to increase as rapidly as 20% within 5 hours with an associated 5 km decrease in tropopause height. Changes in the rates and types of volcanism have been the primary cause of climate change throughout geologic time. Large explosive volcanoes erupting as frequently as once per decade increment the world into ice ages. Extensive, effusive basaltic volcanism warms the world out of ice ages. Twelve of the 13 dated basaltic table mountains in Iceland experienced their final eruptive phase during the last deglaciation when deposits of sulfate and volcanic ash fell over Greenland at their highest rates. Massive flood basalts are typically accompanied by extreme warming, ozone depletion, and major mass extinctions. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum occurred when subaerial extrusion of basalts related to the opening of the Greenland-Norwegian Sea suddenly increased to rates greater than 3000 cubic km per km of rift per million years. Dansgaard-Oeschger sudden warming events are contemporaneous with increased volcanism especially in Iceland and last longer when that volcanism lasts longer. Sudden influxes of fresh water often observed in the North Atlantic during these events are most likely caused by extensive sub-glacial volcanism. The Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age, major droughts, and many sudden changes in human civilization began with substantial increases in volcanism. Extensive submarine volcanism does not affect climate directly but is linked with increases in ocean acidity and anoxic events.

Ward, P. L.



The United States And France Partner In CALIPSO Satellite Education: Providing Students And Teachers With An Opportunity To Collect Sun Photometer Data And Improve Their Understanding Of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CALIPSO satellite based research mission was successfully launched, with the CloudSat mission, on a Delta II rocket on April 28, 2006. CALIPSO, an acronym for Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations, is a joint mission between NASA in the United States and CNES in France. CALIPSO uses Lidar to detect the size and distribution of clouds and

D. Q. Robinson; P. Adams



``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team  

E-print Network

expertise and software developments have led to the first climate experiments in which a global oceanic``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 2 Coupled modelling of the Tropical Pacific Ocean 6 2.1 A 10­year coupled simulation


Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate

Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012



An Astronomer's View of Climate Change  

E-print Network

This paper describes some of the astronomical effects that could be important for understanding the ice ages, historic climate changes and the recent temperature increase. These include changes in the sun's luminosity, periodic changes in the earth's orbital parameters, the sun's orbit around our galaxy, the variability of solar activity and the anticorrelation of cosmic ray flux with that activity. Finally recent trends in solar activity and global temperatures are compared with the predictions of climate models.

Morton, Donald C



Lakes as sentinels of climate change  

PubMed Central

While there is a general sense that lakes can act as sentinels of climate change, their efficacy has not been thoroughly analyzed. We identified the key response variables within a lake that act as indicators of the effects of climate change on both the lake and the catchment. These variables reflect a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological responses to climate. However, the efficacy of the different indicators is affected by regional response to climate change, characteristics of the catchment, and lake mixing regimes. Thus, particular indicators or combinations of indicators are more effective for different lake types and geographic regions. The extraction of climate signals can be further complicated by the influence of other environmental changes, such as eutrophication or acidification, and the equivalent reverse phenomena, in addition to other land-use influences. In many cases, however, confounding factors can be addressed through analytical tools such as detrending or filtering. Lakes are effective sentinels for climate change because they are sensitive to climate, respond rapidly to change, and integrate information about changes in the catchment. PMID:20396409

Adrian, Rita; OReilly, Catherine M.; Zagarese, Horacio; Baines, Stephen B.; Hessen, Dag O.; Keller, Wendel; Livingstone, David M.; Sommaruga, Ruben; Straile, Dietmar; Van Donk, Ellen; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Winder, Monika



Climate change and the global harvest  

SciTech Connect

This book summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge on the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. The book begins by introducing the nonspecialist to the causes of climate change, and reviews the main climate change drivers and impacts. It then goes on to review all major aspects of climate change impact on agriculture in detail. The scope is very broad indeed--the authors consider agricultural greenhouse gas emissions; the effects of raised CO{sub 2} and climate change on crop yield (discussing in some detail the effects on vegetation); possible impacts on pests, weeds, and diseases; impacts on soils; and the effects on water resources and sea level rise. The final four chapters expand the science described in earlier chapters to the global level, providing an analysis of impacts of climate change, then examining in detail the regions at greatest risk from climate change and possible implications for future food security, and finishing with a chapter on adaptation, economics, and policy.

Rosenzweig, C.; Hillel, D.



How does climate change cause extinction?  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies. PMID:23075836

Cahill, Abigail E.; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E.; Fisher-Reid, M. Caitlin; Hua, Xia; Karanewsky, Caitlin J.; Yeong Ryu, Hae; Sbeglia, Gena C.; Spagnolo, Fabrizio; Waldron, John B.; Warsi, Omar; Wiens, John J.



Invertebrates, ecosystem services and climate change.  


The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. Unquestionably a dominant feature of most ecosystems, invertebrates affect many ecosystem services and are also highly responsive to climate change. However, there is still a basic lack of understanding of the direct and indirect paths by which invertebrates influence ecosystem services, as well as how climate change will affect those ecosystem services by altering invertebrate populations. This indicates a lack of communication and collaboration among scientists researching ecosystem services and climate change effects on invertebrates, and land managers and researchers from other disciplines, which becomes obvious when systematically reviewing the literature relevant to invertebrates, ecosystem services, and climate change. To address this issue, we review how invertebrates respond to climate change. We then review how invertebrates both positively and negatively influence ecosystem services. Lastly, we provide some critical future directions for research needs, and suggest ways in which managers, scientists and other researchers may collaborate to tackle the complex issue of sustaining invertebrate-mediated services under a changing climate. PMID:23217156

Prather, Chelse M; Pelini, Shannon L; Laws, Angela; Rivest, Emily; Woltz, Megan; Bloch, Christopher P; Del Toro, Israel; Ho, Chuan-Kai; Kominoski, John; Newbold, T A Scott; Parsons, Sheena; Joern, A



Incorporating anthropogenic land cover changes into studies of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently developed reconstruction of historical landuse data based on HYDE in combination with a set of 4 land use scenarios enables the analysis of transient land cover change impacts on regional and global climate. In this study, the impact of land cover changes on selected climate parameters for the period 1850 to 2100 is analyzed with the earth system

Martina Wei; Martijn Brandt; Bart van den Hurk



Adapting agriculture to climate change: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agricultural sector is highly vulnerable to future climate changes and climate variability, including increases in the incidence of extreme climate events. Changes in temperature and precipitation will result in changes in land and water regimes that will subsequently affect agricultural productivity. Given the gradual change of climate in the past, historically, farmers have adapted in an autonomous manner. However, with large and discrete climate change anticipated by the end of this century, planned and transformational changes will be needed. In light of these, the focus of this review is on farm-level and farmers responses to the challenges of climate change both spatially and over time. In this review of adapting agriculture to climate change, the nature, extent, and causes of climate change are analyzed and assessed. These provide the context for adapting agriculture to climate change. The review identifies the binding constraints to adaptation at the farm level. Four major priority areas are identified to relax these constraints, where new initiatives would be required, i.e., information generation and dissemination to enhance farm-level awareness, research and development (R&D) in agricultural technology, policy formulation that facilitates appropriate adaptation at the farm level, and strengthening partnerships among the relevant stakeholders. Forging partnerships among R&D providers, policy makers, extension agencies, and farmers would be at the heart of transformational adaptation to climate change at the farm level. In effecting this transformational change, sustained efforts would be needed for the attendant requirements of climate and weather forecasting and innovation, farmer's training, and further research to improve the quality of information, invention, and application in agriculture. The investment required for these would be highly significant. The review suggests a sequenced approach through grouping research initiatives into short-term, medium-term, and long-term initiatives, with each initiative in one stage contributing to initiatives in a subsequent stage. The learning by doing inherent in such a process-oriented approach is a requirement owing to the many uncertainties associated with climate change.

Anwar, Muhuddin Rajin; Liu, De Li; Macadam, Ian; Kelly, Georgina



Unearthing deep-time biodiversity changes: The Palaeogene mammalian metacommunity of the Quercy and Limagne area (Massif Central, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term changes of the mammalian diversity of the Quercy and Limagne area (Massif Central, France) is quantitatively investigated through a ?16-Myr time span running from the late Middle Eocene (?38Myr) to the Early Miocene (?22Myr). Within the specific context of ecosystem response to extreme climatic events, the goal of such a deep-time approach to local community and regional metacommunity

Gilles Escarguel; Serge Legendre; Bernard Sig



Coal in a changing climate  

SciTech Connect

The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J. (and others)



Tools for Teaching Climate Change Studies  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) develops public outreach materials and educational resources for schools. Studies prove that science education in rural and indigenous communities improves when educators integrate regional knowledge of climate and environmental issues into school curriculum and public outreach materials. In order to promote understanding of ACRF climate change studies, ACRF Education and Outreach has developed interactive kiosks about climate change for host communities close to the research sites. A kiosk for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) community was installed at the Iupiat Heritage Center in 2003, and a kiosk for the Tropical Western Pacific locales will be installed in 2005. The kiosks feature interviews with local community elders, regional agency officials, and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program scientists, which highlight both research and local observations of some aspects of environmental and climatic change in the Arctic and Pacific. The kiosks offer viewers a unique opportunity to learn about the environmental concerns and knowledge of respected community elders, and to also understand state-of-the-art climate research. An archive of interviews from the communities will also be distributed with supplemental lessons and activities to encourage teachers and students to compare and contrast climate change studies and oral history observations from two distinct locations. The U.S. Department of Energy's ACRF supports education and outreach efforts for communities and schools located near its sites. ACRF Education and Outreach has developed interactive kiosks at the request of the communities to provide an opportunity for the public to learn about climate change from both scientific and indigenous perspectives. Kiosks include interviews with ARM scientists and provide users with basic information about climate change studies as well as interviews with elders and community leaders discussing the impacts of climate change on land, sea, and other aspects of village life.

Maestas, A.M.; Jones, L.A.



Abrupt climate change and extinction events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a growing body of theoretical and empirical support for the concept of instabilities in the climate system, and indications that abrupt climate change may in some cases contribute to abrupt extinctions. Theoretical indications of instabilities can be found in a broad spectrum of climate models (energy balance models, a thermohaline model of deep-water circulation, atmospheric general circulation models, and coupled ocean-atmosphere models). Abrupt transitions can be of several types and affect the environment in different ways. There is increasing evidence for abrupt climate change in the geologic record and involves both interglacial-glacial scale transitions and the longer-term evolution of climate over the last 100 million years. Records from the Cenozoic clearly show that the long-term trend is characterized by numerous abrupt steps where the system appears to be rapidly moving to a new equilibrium state. The long-term trend probably is due to changes associated with plate tectonic processes, but the abrupt steps most likely reflect instabilities in the climate system as the slowly changing boundary conditions caused the climate to reach some threshold critical point. A more detailed analysis of abrupt steps comes from high-resolution studies of glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the Pleistocene. Comparison of climate transitions with the extinction record indicates that many climate and biotic transitions coincide. The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction is not a candidate for an extinction event due to instabilities in the climate system. It is quite possible that more detailed comparisons and analysis will indicate some flaws in the climate instability-extinction hypothesis, but at present it appears to be a viable candidate as an alternate mechanism for causing abrupt environmental changes and extinctions.

Crowley, Thomas J.



Bedrock displacements in Greenland manifest ice mass variations, climate cycles and climate change  

E-print Network

Bedrock displacements in Greenland manifest ice mass variations, climate cycles and climate change anomaly. climate change climate cycles elasticity crustal motion geodesy The Greenland GPS Network a new means to measure the impact of climate cycles and climate change on ice mass balance in the world

Howat, Ian M.


Long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change Instructor: Dr. Igor Kamenkovich, associate professor  

E-print Network

Long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change Instructor: Dr. Igor Kamenkovich, associate students to learn about existing theories of abrupt climate changes and climate variability on time scales of long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change. This course compliments current MPO courses

Miami, University of


Advancing Climate Change and Impacts Science Through Climate Informatics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster will outline the work to date on developing a climate informatics capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The central proposition of this effort is that the application of informatics and information science to the domain of climate change science is an essential means to bridge the realm of high performance computing (HPC) and domain science. The goal is to facilitate knowledge capture and the creation of new scientific insights. For example, a climate informatics capability will help with the understanding and use of model results in domain sciences that were not originally in the scope. From there, HPC can also benefit from feedback as the new approaches may lead to better parameterization in the models. In this poster we will summarize the challenges associated with climate change science that can benefit from the systematic application of informatics and we will highlight our work to date in creating the climate informatics capability to address these types of challenges. We have identified three areas that are particularly challenging in the context of climate change science: 1) integrating model and observational data across different spatial and temporal scales, 2) model linkages, i.e. climate models linked to other models such as hydrologic models, and 3) model diagnostics. Each of these has a methodological component and an informatics component. Our project under way at ORNL seeks to develop new approaches and tools in the context of linking climate change and water issues. We are basing our work on the following four use cases: 1) Evaluation/test of CCSM4 biases in hydrology (precipitation, soil water, runoff, river discharge) over the Rio Grande Basin. User: climate modeler. 2) Investigation of projected changes in hydrology of Rio Grande Basin using the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity Macroscale) Hydrologic Model. User: watershed hydrologist/modeler. 3) Impact of climate change on agricultural productivity of the Rio Grande Basin. User: climate impact scientist, agricultural economist. 4) Renegotiation of the 1944 Treaty for the Utilization of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande. User: A US State Department analyst or their counterpart in Mexico.

Lenhardt, W.; Pouchard, L. C.; King, A. W.; Branstetter, M. L.; Kao, S.; Wang, D.



Climate Change: Biological and Human Aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several months ago a young economist asked me if I could recommend a good book explaining global climate change. At the time, I couldn't think of anything appropriate for a nonscientist. Jonathan Cowie's new book can now meet this need and is especially appropriate for someone interested in human systems. As Cowie explains in his introduction, Climate Change: Biological and Human Aspects is written to be accessible to undergraduates, scientists outside of the life sciences, specialists reading outside of their field, and policy makers and analysts interested in climate change and its relevance to society. In this regard, he succeeds very well.

Wickland, Diane E.



Island Bellwether: Climate Change and Energy Policy Strategy  

E-print Network

sustainable development planning to incorporate adaptation to climate change, sought greater scientifica) Island Bellwether: Climate Change and Energy Policy Strategy for Small Island Developing States #12;Island Bellwether: Climate Change and Energy Policy Strategy for Small Island Developing States

Delaware, University of


7 CFR 2.74 - Director, Climate Change Program Office.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Director, Climate Change Program Office. 2.74 Section...Economist 2.74 Director, Climate Change Program Office. (a) Delegations...Chief Economist to the Director, Climate Change Program Office: (1)...



Climate Change Science Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-print Network

Climate Change Science Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory A multidisciplinary research fields. The Climate Change Science Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory routinely partners and economies? Research at the Climate Change Science Institute at Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides


Climate change scenarios for Great Lakes Basin ecosystem studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant change in global climate could occur due to human-induced changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere. We provide a basis for the continuing assessment of potential impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems. A series of climate change scenarios have been developed for the Great Lakes Basin using general circulation models (GCMs), climate spatial transpositions, and historical climate analogs.

Linda D. Mortsch; Frank H. Quinn



Taught degrees MSc in Climate Change and Development  

E-print Network

mitigation and climate adaptation. · Our climate change and energy policy degrees are designed to provide-governmental organisations (NGOs) on climate change mitigation and adaptation. · You will be taught by faculty fromEssentials Taught degrees MSc in Climate Change and Development MSc in Climate Change and Policy

Sussex, University of


Adapting to Climate Change in Wisconsin Strategies for Conservation Professionals  

E-print Network

Adapting to Climate Change in Wisconsin ­ Strategies for Conservation Professionals Wisconsin · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts · Adaptation strategies #12;Visible Light Energy in = Energy on climate change in Wisconsin Climate Adaptation 2011 - Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts

Sheridan, Jennifer


MSc Climate Change A cross-disciplinary degree  

E-print Network

MSc Climate Change A cross-disciplinary degree LONDON'S GLOBAL of climatic change and to develop adaptation strategies. The UCL MSc Climate Change provides rigorous scientific and vocational training for the next generation of climate change professionals. Students

Jones, Peter JS


Perception of climate change James Hansena,1  

E-print Network

Perception of climate change James Hansena,1 , Makiko Satoa , and Reto Ruedyb a National and importance of global warming depends strongly on their perceptions of recent local climate variations. Early/ PerceptionsAndDice/) more extensive results for winter than we have space for in the present paper. Although

Kammen, Daniel M.


Diagnosis Earth: The Climate Change Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the scrum of popular and political discourse on global warming, the scholarship of climate science is often left sitting on the sideline. Yet understanding the science and the scientists presents the best chance of developing an informed opinion about climate change. Confusion about the science, misunderstanding of risk assessment and

Anderegg, William R. L.



Climate change: the global public good  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is the exemplary global public good, because each countrys emissions of greenhouse gases contribute cumulatively to the increase of the overall concentration, and each countrys abatements entail higher cost than benefit, unless effective concerted collective actions take place. Unfortunately there are weak political and economic instruments for entering a climate agreement and for attaining and maintaining its goals.

Marco Grasso



A Cooperative Classroom Investigation of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists have a particularly difficult time explaining warming trends in Antarctica--a region with a relatively short history of scientific observation and a highly variable climate (Clarke et al. 2007). Regardless of the mechanism of warming, however, climate change is having a dramatic impact on Antarctic ecosystems. In this article, the

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee, Richard E., Jr.



Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Glaciers serve as early indicators of climate change. Over the last 35 years, our research team has recovered ice-core records of climatic and environmental variations from the polar regions and from low-latitude high-elevation ice fields from 16 countries. The ongoing widespread melting of high-elevation glaciers and ice caps, particularly in low

Thompson, Lonnie G.



Climate change and groundwater: a short review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: There is a general consensus that climate change is an ongoing phenomenon. This will inevitably bring about numerous environmental problems, including alterations to the hydrolo- gical cycle, which is already heavily influenced by anthropogenic activity. The available climate scenarios indicate areas where rainfall may increase or diminish, but the final outcome with respect to man and environment will, generally,

W. Dragoni; B. S. Sukhija



Spatial planning for adapting to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decades human interference in regional hydrologic systems has intensified. These systems act as an integrating medium. They link climate, human activities and ecologic processes through groundwater and surface water interactions. For simulating these linkages an integrated regional hydrologic model has been coupled to an ecologic evaluation model. The simulated ecologic effects of climate change on mesotrophic riverine

Walsum van P. E. V; J. Runhaar; J. F. M. Helming



How Can We Avert Dangerous Climate Change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent analyses indicate that the amount of atmospheric CO2 required to cause dangerous climate change is at most 450 ppm, and likely less than that. Reductions of non-CO2 climate forcings can provide only moderate, albeit important, adjustments to the CO2 limit. Realization of how close the planet is to \\

James Hansen



Bahamians and Climate Change: An Analysis of Risk Perception and Climate Change Literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is forecasted to be adversely impacted by the effects of climate change. This presentation will present the results of an assessment of the risk perception toward climate change and climate change literacy among Bahamians. 499 Bahamians from the health care and hospitality industries participated in surveys and/or focus groups and three (3) areas of climate change literacy (attitude, behavior and knowledge) were analyzed as well as risk perception. In general, 1) Bahamians demonstrated an elementary understanding of the underlying causes of climate change, 2) possessed positive attitudes toward adopting new climate change policies, and 3) are already adjusting their behaviors in light of the current predictions. This research also resulted in the development of a model of the relationships between the climate literacy subscales (attitude, behavior and knowledge) and risk perception. This study also examined information sources and their impacts on climate change literacy. As the source of information is important in assessing the quality of the information, participants also identified the source(s) of most of their climate change information. The TV news was cited as the most common source for climate change information among Bahamians. As there is limited active research generating specific climate change information in the Bahamas, all the information Bahamians receive as it pertains to climate change is generated abroad. As a result, Bahamians must decipher through to make sense of it on an individual level. From the focus groups, many of the participants have been able to view possible changes through a cultural lens and are willing to make adjustments to maintain the uniqueness and viability of the Bahamas and to preserve it for generations. Continued study of Bahamians' climate change literacy will inform adaption and mitigation policy as well as individual action.

Neely, R.; Owens, M. A.



Conservation planning with uncertain climate change projections.  


Climate change is affecting biodiversity worldwide, but conservation responses are constrained by considerable uncertainty regarding the magnitude, rate and ecological consequences of expected climate change. Here we propose a framework to account for several sources of uncertainty in conservation prioritization. Within this framework we account for uncertainties arising from (i) species distributions that shift following climate change, (ii) basic connectivity requirements of species, (iii) alternative climate change scenarios and their impacts, (iv) in the modelling of species distributions, and (v) different levels of confidence about present and future. When future impacts of climate change are uncertain, robustness of decision-making can be improved by quantifying the risks and trade-offs associated with climate scenarios. Sensible prioritization that accounts simultaneously for the present and potential future distributions of species is achievable without overly jeopardising present-day conservation values. Doing so requires systematic treatment of uncertainties and testing of the sensitivity of results to assumptions about climate. We illustrate the proposed framework by identifying priority areas for amphibians and reptiles in Europe. PMID:23405068

Kujala, Heini; Moilanen, Atte; Arajo, Miguel B; Cabeza, Mar



Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.



Climate change and health in Earth's future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Threats to health from climate change are increasingly recognized, yet little research into the effects upon health systems is published. However, additional demands on health systems are increasingly documented. Pathways include direct weather impacts, such as amplified heat stress, and altered ecological relationships, including alterations to the distribution and activity of pathogens and vectors. The greatest driver of demand on future health systems from climate change may be the alterations to socioeconomic systems; however, these "tertiary effects" have received less attention in the health literature. Increasing demands on health systems from climate change will impede health system capacity. Changing weather patterns and sea-level rise will reduce food production in many developing countries, thus fostering undernutrition and concomitant disease susceptibility. Associated poverty will impede people's ability to access and support health systems. Climate change will increase migration, potentially exposing migrants to endemic diseases for which they have limited resistance, transporting diseases and fostering conditions conducive to disease transmission. Specific predictions of timing and locations of migration remain elusive, hampering planning and misaligning needs and infrastructure. Food shortages, migration, falling economic activity, and failing government legitimacy following climate change are also "risk multipliers" for conflict. Injuries to combatants, undernutrition, and increased infectious disease will result. Modern conflict often sees health personnel and infrastructure deliberately targeted and disease surveillance and eradication programs obstructed. Climate change will substantially impede economic growth, reducing health system funding and limiting health system adaptation. Modern medical care may be snatched away from millions who recently obtained it.

Bowles, Devin C.; Butler, Colin D.; Friel, Sharon



Forests / Climate changeStandards persp ctive  

E-print Network

H Forests / Climate changeStandards persp ctive e 11How can the social and environmental impact standardisation mechanisms have developed in several sectors of activity ­ extractive industries, apparel, finance

Boyer, Edmond


Climate Change and Variability Lake Ice, Fishes  

E-print Network

Recreation and Economies Fish and Fisheries, Water Levels and Flows Adaptation, a Required Component Magnuson#12;Climate Change and Variability Lake Ice, Fishes and Water Levels John J. Magnuson Center

Sheridan, Jennifer


Perspective Climate change and the tropical Pacific  

E-print Network

Perspective Climate change and the tropical Pacific: The sleeping dragon wakes R. T. Pierrehumbert is unsettling in a world seem- ingly committed to substantial warming from anthropogenic CO2 increases

Pierrehumbert, Raymond


Pastoral Institutions, Organizations & Resilience to Climate Change  

E-print Network

organizations · Results of preliminary research on CBREM in Mongolia Institution · Formal and informal lawsPastoral Institutions, Organizations & Resilience to Climate Change: State of the Science University Overview · Defining institution & organization · Sustainability framework & strategies · Pastoral


Connecting Global Climate Change with Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced tutorial explores the importance of engineering solutions to the management of climate change by brainstorming ways to remove CO from the atmosphere and store it in a form that does not promote global warming. The module also provides resources for students to learn about engineering careers related to climate change. Learners compare the design process used in engineering projects with the scientific process, and explore elements of the engineering design process through global climate change. Multimedia educational resources including video clips are included. This is the ninth of 10 self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.



Welfare distortions of climate change policies  

E-print Network

The economic cost of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is an important policy consideration. As public awareness of climate change consequences increase, there is increased political support for greenhouse gas emission ...

Tay, Kok Hou, 1978-



Preventing species extinctions resulting from climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies show that current IUCN Red List assessment methods can identify species vulnerable to extinction because of climate change. But species must be assessed more completely and more regularly, and adaptation actions initiated swiftly once threatened species are identified.

Akakaya, H. Resit; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Watson, James E. M.; Pearson, Richard G.



Economics: Welfare impacts of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change can affect well-being in poor economies more than previously shown if its effect on economic growth, and not only on current production, is considered. But this result does not necessarily suggest greater mitigation efforts are required.

Hof, Andries F.




EPA Science Inventory

Emission of isoprene from vegetation affects tropospheric chemistry at the regional and global scales. rojected global climate change will potentially alter emission rates, with corresponding influences on concentrations of ozone and other radiatively important trace gases. rogre...


Hitting Home: Climate Change in Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students examine and interpret varied observational datasets and are asked to determine whether the data supports or does not support the statement: climate change is occurring in Colorado.

Laura Bicknell


Towards a sciart prospectus for climate change  

E-print Network

Cross disciplinary collaboration and exchange between scientists and artists has grown rapidly over the last twenty years and is providing material and evidence employed in the understanding of, and responses to climate change. The sciart field...

Ormston, Andrew



Same science, differing policies : the saga of global climate change  

E-print Network

This paper provides a comparative analysis of the economic and political interests influencing the progress of climate negotiation. The primary focus is on the U.S., France, Germany, U.K., Belgium, Netherlands, and the ...

Skolnikoff, Eugene B.


Atmospheric Composition Change: Climate-Chemistry Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds such as methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds such as ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds such as O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future changes. Reported results include new estimates of radiative forcing based on extensive model studies of chemically active climate compounds such as O3, and of particles inducing both direct and indirect effects. Through EU projects such as ACCENT, QUANTIFY, and the AEROCOM project, extensive studies on regional and sector-wise differences in the impact on atmospheric distribution are performed. Studies have shown that land-based emissions have a different effect on climate than ship and aircraft emissions, and different measures are needed to reduce the climate impact. Several areas where climate change can affect the tropospheric oxidation process and the chemical composition are identified. This can take place through enhanced stratospheric-tropospheric exchange of ozone, more frequent periods with stable conditions favouring pollution build up over industrial areas, enhanced temperature-induced biogenic emissions, methane releases from permafrost thawing, and enhanced concentration through reduced biospheric uptake. During the last 510 years, new observational data have been made available and used for model validation and the study of atmospheric processes. Although there are significant uncertainties in the modelling of composition changes, access to new observational data has improved modelling capability. Emission scenarios for the coming decades have a large uncertainty range, in particular with respect to regional trends, leading to a significant uncertainty range in estimated regional composition changes and climate impact.

Isaksen, I.S.A.; Granier, C.; Myhre, G.; Bernsten, T. K.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Gauss, S.; Klimont, Z.; Benestad, R.; Bousquet, P.; Collins, W.; Cox, T.; Eyring, V.; Fowler, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Jockel, P.; Laj, P.; Lohmann, U.; Maione, M.; Monks, T.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Raes, F.; Richter, A.; Rognerud, B.; Schulz, M.; Shindell, D.; Stevenson, D. S.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, W.-C.; vanWeele, M.; Wild, M.; Wuebbles, D.



International equity in climate change policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equity discussions in climate change policy focus on mitigation. Climate change impacts, adaptation and decision making are\\u000a also important. General equity principles can be related to specific proposals for equitable sharing of mitigation but no\\u000a objective preference for any principle exists. Most promising are mixed approaches, that combine various equity principles\\u000a in a process oriented setting.

Bert Metz



The international conference on climate change  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 International Conference on Climate Change was held May 22-23, 1995 in Washington, DC. Papers were presented on a variety of topics concerning climate change policy. They were grouped into the following sessions: Results of the Conference of Parties to the Convention (COP 1); Trends in Future Growth of Greenhouse Gas Emissions I & II; Scientific Issues; The Analytical Process; Consultative Mechanisms/Technology Assessment; Industry Trends and Outlooks I & II; Financial Mechanism; and, Joint Implementation - the Pilot Phase and Beyond.




Dynamic Integrated Climate Change Model (DICE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Dynamic Integrated Climate Change (DICE) model assumes a single world producer must chose levels for three simultaneously determined variables: current consumption, investment, and greenhouse gases reduction. The model is freely available in both a GAMS and Excel version. DICE allows both science and economics instructors to integrate a sophisticated economic model of climate change into their courses. The simulation is for upper-division courses where students have some background in microeconomics. The principle developer is William Nordhaus at Yale University.

Blecha, Betty J.


Climate Change Mitigation with Renewable Energy: Geothermal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a On a global scale, there is increasing evidence that climate is changing and of a discernible human influence. Many of scientists\\u000a are confident that if current emissions of greenhouse gases continue, the world will be warmer, sea levels will rise and regional\\u000a climate patterns will change. According to some scientist, global temperatures are expected to rise faster over the next

Alper Baba


Climate Change Impacts on Turkish Vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean has been identified as a potentially vulnerable hotspot under climate change. In Turkey, climate change projections consistently predict large temperature rises over the 21st century. With 9% of GDP and 25% of employment coming from agriculture, climate change has the potential to significantly affect both the Turkish economy and living standards. Relatively little work has been undertaken to estimate the effects and risks of climate change in Turkey, and many European studies cover do not include the whole of Turkey in their domain and so are of limited use for policy-makers. The Dynamic Global Vegetation Model LPJ-GUESS was parametrised to represent Turkish vegetation. Climate forcings were derived by interpolating meteorological data from over 600 stations from 1975-2010 to a 1km resolution. Soil depth and soil texture data from field measurements were also interpolated to a 1km grid. The model was benchmarked against vegetation type and remotely sensed biomass and tree cover data. Future climate conditions were calculated using the outputs from a set of regional model simulations. In particular the HadRM3P regional climate model was used to downscale five members of a perturbed physics ensemble of global climate projections obtained using HadCM3 general circulation model and the SRES A1B scenario. A delta change factor approach was then used in conjunction with the observed climate data to assess the impact on vegetation structure and ecological processes to the year 2100 using LPJ-GUESS. The resulting changes to productivity, vegetation structure and hydrology are discussed. Eventually these results will be combined with complementary studies concerning wildfire and erosion to produce a risk map for informing policy-makers.

Forrest, Matthew; Dnmez, Cenk; ilek, Ahmet; Akif Erdogan, Mehmet; Buontempo, Carlo; Hickler, Thomas



Climate Change on the Antarctic Peninsula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula, learners investigate environmental changes in the living and nonliving resources of Antarctic peninsula and the impact of these changes on Adlie penguin communities. The activity stresses the importance of evidence in the formulation of scientific explanations.

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Jr., Richard E.; Magazine, M. U.


Historical Landcover changes and global climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent modelling studies have shown a significant effect on global climate due to human alterations of surface vegetation characteristics. Because observed vegetation changes appear to alter large scale circulations such as the Hadley and Walker cells, the effects of vegetation changes are non-localized and global in extent. Circulation changes are responsible for a large portion of the observed surface

T. Chase




NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC



Exploring Regional Differences in Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teaching activity addresses regional variability as predicted in climate change models for the next century. Using real climatological data from climate models, students will obtain annual predictions for minimum temperature, maximum temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation for Minnesota and California to explore this regional variability. Students import the data into a spreadsheet application and analyze it to interpret regional differences. Finally, students download data for their state and compare them with other states to answer a series of questions about regional differences in climate change.

Denise Blaha


Polar Bears and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer reviewed article discusses how a warming climate is altering sea ice conditions, which affects polar bears in many ways, including more difficulty in getting to and hunting prey, fewer den areas and lower cub survival, increased interactions between bears and humans, and lower survival rate of the species in general.

Andrew E. Derocher (University of Alberta, Canada;)



A Record of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hydrologic cycle is a very basic scientific principle. In this article, background information is presented on how the hydrologic cycle provides scientists with clues to understanding the history of Earth's climate. Also detailed is a web-based activity that allows students to learn about how scientists are able to piece together a record of

Smith, Zach



Amazon Deforestation and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere and biosphere has been used to assess the effects of Amazon deforestation on the regional and global climate. When the tropical forests in the model were replaced by degraded grass (pasture), there was a significant increase in surface temperature and a decrease in evapotranspiration and precipitation over Amazonia. In the simulation, the

J. Shukla; C. Nobre; P. Sellers




EPA Science Inventory

This State of Knowledge document presents an introduction to human effects that during the past 100 years have led to increased atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in global temperatures. The world's leading climate scientists have concluded that Ea...


Evaluating Global Climate Change Education Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Climate Change Education initiative (GCCE) is a multi-site effort funded by the National Science Foundation to develop web resources. The objective of curricular modules is to improve content knowledge and change attitudes about climate change among undergraduate science students. The two-year evaluation of the project was conducted by Tim Weston from the University of Colorado. The small-scale evaluation first developed measures for attitude and content about climate change, and then administered the measures online. Analysis of results is ongoing. The evaluator wanted to know the attitudes and content knowledge of students after completing the modules, and if attitudes and content knowledge shifted from pre to post. An additional component of the evaluation focused on student understanding of specific global warming topics after completing the modules. Developing the test and survey involved reviewing existing measures, soliciting content from stakeholders in the grant, and then establishing a content framework that covered the important topics in climate change linked to project curricula. The pilot attitude measure contained fourteen agree/disagree items (I believe people should change their lifestyles to help minimize climate change), five self-assessment questions (How informed are you about the different causes of climate change? ), and wo previous experience questions about previous science courses taken, and actions related to climate change. The content measure contained 10 multiple-choice items asking about changes in global average temperature, the scientific methods of climate change, and the primary countries and human activities responsible for climate change. Questions were designed to reflect a mixture of general science literacy about climate change and more specific content related knowledge taught in the curricula. Both content and attitude measures were piloted with students, who answered questions using a think-aloud" interview protocol meant to clarify any ambiguous wording or over-specialized vocabulary in the items. Corrected versions of the measures were then given to small groups of students to check for instrument and sub-scale reliability and to learn if any items had ceiling or floor effects. Results from administration of the post attitude survey showed a majority of students in multiple courses agreed with attitude items across the range of topics. For instance, 72 - 90% or students in 8 courses using the modules agreed or strongly agreed with the statement "I believe people should change their lifestyles to help minimize climate change." A majority of students also agreed with statements such as "Human actions are causing climate change, " and "there is sufficient scientific evidence that climate change is taking place." Where pre/post data was available, average scores across items increased after students used the curricula by an average of .5 on a scale of 1 - 5. Students also scored high on the climate change content measure. Average percentage correct scores per item ranged from 32% to 90%. Average scores also gained by 2 -4 points depending on course.

Weston, T. J.



Marine Ecosystem Sensitivity to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

that the earth is experienc-ing a period of rapid cli-mate change. Never before has it been so important to understand how environmental change influences the earth's biota and to distinguish an-thropogenic change from natural variability. Long-term studies in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region provide the opportunity to observe how changes in the physical environment are related to changes in

Raymond C. Smith; David Ainley; Karen Baker; Eugene Domack; Steve Emslie; Bill Fraser; James Kennett; Amy Leventer; Ellen Mosley-Thompson; Sharon Stammerjohn; Maria Vernet



The climate change and energy security nexus  

SciTech Connect

The study of the impacts of climate change on national and interna-tional security has grown as a research field, particularly in the last five years. Within this broad field, academic scholarship has concentrated primarily on whether climate change is, or may become, a driver of violent conflict. This relationship remains highly contested. However, national security policy and many non-governmental organizations have identified climate change as a threat multiplier in conflict situations. The U.S. Department of Defense and the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defense have incorporated these findings into strategic planning documents such as the Quadrennial Defense Review and the Strategic Defence and Security Review. In contrast to the climate-conflict nexus, our analysis found that academic scholarship on the climate change and energy security nexus is small and more disciplinarily focused. In fact, a search of social science litera-ture found few sources, with a significant percentage of these works attribut-able to a single journal. Assuming that policymakers are more likely to rely on broader social science literature than technical or scientific journals, this leaves a limited foundation. This then begged the question: what are these sources? We identified a body of grey literature on the nexus of climate change and energy security of a greater size than the body of peer-reviewed social science literature. We reviewed fifty-eight recent reports, issue briefs, and transcripts to better understand the nexus of climate change and energy security, as well as to gain insight about the questions policymakers need answered by those undertaking the research. In this article, we describe the nature of the sources reviewed, highlight possible climate change and energy security linkages found within those sources, identify emerging risks, and offer conclusions that can guide further research.

King, Marcus Dubois [George Washington University; Gulledge, Jay [ORNL



Individualistic vs community modelling of species distributions under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies investigating the consequences of future climate changes on species distributions usually start with the assumption that species respond to climate changes in an individualistic fashion. This assumption has led researchers to use bioclimate envelope models that use present climate-range relationships to characterize species' limits of tolerance to climate, and then apply climate-change scenarios to enable projections of altered species

Andrs Baselga; Miguel B. Arajo



How Climate Change is Playing Out in Minnesota: Extreme Weather  

E-print Network

How Climate Change is Playing Out in Minnesota: Extreme Weather Dr. Mark Seeley Dept of Soil, Water Climate Headlines Data Sources Changing Minnesota Climate Features Climate Consequences Implications for Severe Weather #12;Three Reasons to Accept That Climate Change is Real #12;#12;Stationary (1) Cyclical (2

Minnesota, University of


Climate Change Mitigation: Climate, Health, and Equity Implications of the Visible and the Hidden  

E-print Network

Climate Change Public Health Impacts Assessment and Responseet al. (2008). "Health impact assessment of global climatehealth impacts of climate change in California: community vulnerability assessments

Shonkoff, Seth Berrin



Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California  

E-print Network

#12;JULY 2011 Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California Ann D. Willis operating rules is an important adaptation for climate warming. KEY WORDS Climate change, flood control with changing conditions. A changing climate, along with other changes in floodplain land use and flood warn

Schladow, S. Geoffrey


Sila: Clue in to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding climate change can be examined through a number of lenses, including both rigorous scientific inquiry and through the perspective of persons living in various areas which happen to be undergoing significant climatic transitions. This website, sponsored by the Canadian Museum of Nature, examines climate change in the Arctic, and takes its inspiration from the Inuktitut word "sila", which means "climate and all things that surround us". Designed in particular for young people, the site includes interactive activities, first-hand narratives from those who live in the Arctic region, and an area where people can learn how to increase awareness of the rapidly changing situation in the region. Another key component of the site is the thorough glossary, which will prove to be quite useful as visitors may look up unfamiliar terms. Finally, after browsing through the site's offerings, visitors may want to take their online quiz.


Examination of change factor methodologies for climate change impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of methods are available to estimate values of meteorological variables at future times and at spatial scales that are appropriate for local climate change impact assessment. One commonly used method is Change Factor Methodology (CFM), sometimes referred to as delta change factor methodology. Although more sophisticated methods exist, CFM is still widely applicable and used in impact analysis studies. While there are a number of different ways by which change factors (CFs) can be calculated and used to estimate future climate scenarios, there are no clear guidelines available in the literature to decide which methodologies are most suitable for different applications. In this study several categories of CFM (additive versus multiplicative and single versus multiple) for a number of climate variables are compared and contrasted. The study employs several theoretical case studies, as well as a real example from Cannonsville watershed, which supplies water to New York City, USA. Results show that in cases when the frequency distribution of Global Climate Model (GCM) baseline climate is close to the frequency distribution of observed climate, or when the frequency distribution of GCM future climate is close to the frequency distribution of GCM baseline climate, additive and multiplicative single CFMs provide comparable results. Two options to guide the choice of CFM are suggested. The first option is a detailed methodological analysis for choosing the most appropriate CFM. The second option is a default method for use under circumstances in which a detailed methodological analysis is too cumbersome.

Anandhi, Aavudai; Frei, Allan; Pierson, Donald C.; Schneiderman, Elliot M.; Zion, Mark S.; Lounsbury, David; Matonse, Adao H.



Historical Landcover changes and global climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent modelling studies have shown a significant effect on global climate due to human alterations of surface vegetation characteristics. Because observed vegetation changes appear to alter large scale circulations such as the Hadley and Walker cells, the effects of vegetation changes are non-localized and global in extent. Circulation changes are responsible for a large portion of the observed surface warming in recent decades suggesting that landcover changes may be responsible for part of that warming. Changes in surface tempearture due to landcover changes can be of the same size as those due to present day levels of atmospheric CO2 and so represent a significant and confounding influence on attribution of anthropogenic climate change. Climate change predictions made by state of the art general circulation models for several key variables have not been confirmed in observational data. For example, accelerated warming in the free troposphere relative to the surface predicted in simulations of increasing CO2 has not occurred. Tropical monsoon circulations appear to have diminished in intensity over the last 50 years despite predictions of a more intense hydrological cycle. It is possible that the effect of landcover changes may explain some part of the discrepancy between climate change simulations and observations.

Chase, T.



Energy policy and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The problem,of massive emissions of carbon,dioxide (CO2) from the burning of fossil fuels and their climatic impact,have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric,CO2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO2 emissions worldwide. Energy savings and carbon sequestration, including CO2 capture\\/storage and enhancement of natural carbon sinks, can be highly beneficial, although it is suggested

P. Jean-baptiste; R. Ducroux



AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 1; Respective Influences of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Climate Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We utilize the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model and 8 different climate change experiments, many of them focused on stratospheric climate forcings, to assess the relative influence of tropospheric and stratospheric climate change on the extratropical circulation indices (Arctic Oscillation, AO; North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). The experiments are run in two different ways: with variable sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to allow for a full tropospheric climate response, and with specified SSTs to minimize the tropospheric change. The results show that tropospheric warming (cooling) experiments and stratospheric cooling (warming) experiments produce more positive (negative) AO/NAO indices. For the typical magnitudes of tropospheric and stratospheric climate changes, the tropospheric response dominates; results are strongest when the tropospheric and stratospheric influences are producing similar phase changes. Both regions produce their effect primarily by altering wave propagation and angular momentum transports, but planetary wave energy changes accompanying tropospheric climate change are also important. Stratospheric forcing has a larger impact on the NAO than on the AO, and the angular momentum transport changes associated with it peak in the upper troposphere, affecting all wavenumbers. Tropospheric climate changes influence both the A0 and NAO with effects that extend throughout the troposphere. For both forcings there is often vertical consistency in the sign of the momentum transport changes, obscuring the difference between direct and indirect mechanisms for influencing the surface circulation.

Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.



NASA's Role in Understanding Climate Change - Duration: 2:40.  

NASA Video Gallery

Earth's climate is changing because of human activity. Learn about NASA's role in understanding climate and climate change with Gilberto Coln, special assistant to the deputy director of NASA's Go...


The Scatterometer Climate Record Pathfinder: Tools for Climate Change Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While originally designed for wind measurement over the ocean, scatterometers have proven to be very effective in monitoring land cover and ice conditions as well. Scatterometer data is being operationally used for iceberg tracking and sea ice extent mapping. The frequent, global measurements make the instrument particularly well suited for global monitoring and the long-time series of scatterometer measurements dating back to SASS provide a valuable baseline for studies of climate change. For this reason the NASA Scatterometer Climate Record Pathfinder (SCP) project is generating a climate data record from the series of historic and ongoing, and approved scatterometer missions. Selected data is currently available from the SCP at URL in the form of resolution-enhanced backscatter image time series. A variety of tools for analyzing the image time series have been developed. The application of QuikSCAT data to climate change in Greenland and sea ice motion in the Arctic is illustrated. By comparing QuikSCAT with NSCAT and SASS data, long-term scatterometer-observed changes in Greenland are related to annual variations in melt extent and snow accumulation. Qu ikSCAT sampling enables high spatial resolution evaluation of the diurnal melt cycle. We demonstrate the value of the scatterometer data to augment passive microwave measurements by using PCA. The scatterometer data plays a key role in helping to discriminate physical changes in the Greenland firn from surface temperature effects.

Long, D. G.; Jensen, M. A.



America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A video that discusses the perspectives and insights necessary to report out about climate change. The video can be used to demonstrate how different perspectives impact different stakeholders and different levels, and that there is a need to have a clear, coordinated national response.

Academies, The N.


Changes in future fire regimes under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are expected to change under future climate change, climatic fire is is increasing due to increase in droughts and heat waves affecting vegetation productivity and ecosystem function. Vegetation productivity influences fuel production, but can also limit fire spread. Vegetation-fire models allow investigating the interaction between wildfires and vegetation dynamics, thus non-linear effects between changes in fuel composition and production on fire as well as changes in fire regimes on fire-related plant mortality and fuel combustion. Here we present results from simulation experiments, where the vegetation-fire models LPJmL-SPITFIRE and LPJ-GUESS are applied to future climate change scenarios from regional climate models in Europe and Northern Africa. Climate change impacts on fire regimes, vegetation dynamics and carbon fluxes are quantified and presented. New fire-prone regions are mapped and changes in fire regimes of ecosystems with a long-fire history are analyzed. Fuel limitation is likely to increase in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, indicating non-linear connection between increasing fire risk and fuel production. Increased warming in temperate ecosystems in Eastern Europe and continued fuel production leads to increases not only in climatic fire risk, but also area burnt and biomass burnt. This has implications for fire management, where adaptive capacity to this new vulnerability might be limited.

Thonicke, Kirsten; von Bloh, Werner; Lutz, Julia; Knorr, Wolfgang; Wu, Minchao; Arneth, Almut



Can ice sheets trigger abrupt climatic change?  

SciTech Connect

The discovery in recent years of abrupt climatic changes in climate proxy records from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment cores, and from other sites around the world, has diverted attention from gradual insolation changes caused by Earth`s orbital variations to more rapid processes on Earth`s surface as forcing Quaternary climatic change. In particular, forcing by ice sheets has been quantified for a major ice stream that drained the Laurentide Ice Sheet along Hudson Strait. The history of these recent discoveries leading to an interest in ice sheets is reviewed, and a case is made that ice sheets may drive abrupt climatic change that is virtually synchronous worldwide. Attention is focused on abrupt inception and termination of a Quaternary glaciation cycle, abrupt changes recorded as stadials and interstadials within the cycle, abrupt changes in ice streams that trigger stadials and interstadials, and abrupt changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet linked to effectively simultaneous abrupt changes in its ice streams. Remaining work needed to quantify further these changes is discussed. 90 refs., 14 figs.

Hughes, T. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)



"Climate change is sure to occur in some form." The study of climate impacts notes  

E-print Network

"Climate change is sure to occur in some form." 1 #12;The study of climate impacts notes how scientists generally agree that humans are changing the climate, and that if we continue pumping carbon we learn from past climate variations? How can we best adapt to climate change? This report attempts


CHINA CLIMATE CHANGE US The climate breakthrough in Beijing gives the world a  

E-print Network

CHINA · CLIMATE CHANGE · US The climate breakthrough in Beijing gives the world a fighting chance/AFP/Getty Images) Today's US-China joint announcement on climate change and energy is the most important advance on the climate change agenda in many years. While the full ramifications will only be known at the climate summit


Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The principles of systematic conservation planning are now widely used by governments and non-government organizations alike to develop biodiversity conservation plans for countries, states, regions, and ecoregions. Many of the species and ecosystems these plans were designed to conserve are now being affected by climate change, and there is a critical need to incorporate new and complementary approaches into these plans that will aid species and ecosystems in adjusting to potential climate change impacts. We propose five approaches to climate change adaptation that can be integrated into existing or new biodiversity conservation plans: (1) conserving the geophysical stage, (2) protecting climatic refugia, (3) enhancing regional connectivity, (4) sustaining ecosystem process and function, and (5) capitalizing on opportunities emerging in response to climate change. We discuss both key assumptions behind each approach and the trade-offs involved in using the approach for conservation planning. We also summarize additional data beyond those typically used in systematic conservation plans required to implement these approaches. A major strength of these approaches is that they are largely robust to the uncertainty in how climate impacts may manifest in any given region.

Groves, Craig R.; Game, Edward T.; Anderson, Mark G.; Cross, Molly; Enquist, Carolyn; Ferdana, Zach; Girvetz, Evan; Gondor, Anne; Hall, Kimberly R.; Higgins, Jonathan; Marshall, Rob; Popper, Ken; Schill, Steve; Shafer, Sarah L.



Shifting seasons, climate change and ecosystem consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, the seasonal timing of many biological events (e.g. flowering, breeding, migration) has shifted. These phenological changes are believed to be one of the most conspicuous biological indicators of climate change. Rates and directions of phenological change have differed markedly among species, potentially threatening the seasonal synchrony of key species interactions and ultimately ecosystem functioning. Differences in phenological change among-species at different trophic levels, and with respect to other broad species traits, are likely to be driven by variations in the climatic sensitivity of phenological events. However, as yet, inconsistencies in analytical methods have hampered broad-scale assessments of variation in climate sensitivity among taxonomic and functional groups of organisms. In this presentation, results will be presented from a current collaborative project ( in which many UK long-term data sets are being integrated in order to assess relationships between temperature/precipitation, and the timing of seasonal events for a wide range of plants and animals. Our aim is to assess which organism groups (in which locations/habitats) are most sensitive to climate. Furthermore, the role of anthropogenic climate change as a driver of phenological change is being assessed.

Thackeray, Stephen; Henrys, Peter; Hemming, Deborah; Huntingford, Chris; Bell, James; Leech, David; Wanless, Sarah



Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature  

SciTech Connect

The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.




Mass-balance gradients and climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally assumed that the\\u000amass-balance gradient on glaciers is more or less conserved\\u000aunder climatic change. In studies of the dynamic response\\u000aof glaciers to climatic change, one of the following\\u000aassumptions is normally made: (i) the mass-balance\\u000aperturbation is independent of altitude or (ii) the\\u000amass-balance profile does not change - it simply shifts up\\u000aand down.

J. Oerlemans; N. C. Hoogendoorn



Mars - Epochal climate change and volatile history  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The epochal climate change and volatile history of Mars are examined, with special attention given to evidence for and mechanisms of long-term climate change. Long-term climate change on Mars is indicated most directly by the presence, age, and distribution of the valley networks. They were almost certainly formed by running water, but it seems more likely that they were formed by groundwater sapping than by rainfall. It is argued to be physically plausible that a higher early intensity of surface insolation caused by a CO2 greenhouse effect could have overcompensated for an early weak sun and raised temperatures to the freezing point near the equator under favorable conditions of obliquity and eccentricity. This could account for the morphological changes.

Fanale, Fraser P.; Postawko, Susan E.; Pollack, James B.; Carr, Michael H.; Pepin, Robert O.



Global climate change and international security.  

SciTech Connect

This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

Karas, Thomas H.



Amazon deforestation and climate change  

SciTech Connect

A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere and biosphere has been used to assess the effects of Amazon deforestation on the regional and global climate. When the tropical forests in the model were replaced by degraded grass (pasture), there was a significant increase in surface temperature and a decrease in evapotranspiration and precipitation over Amazonia. In the simulation, the length of the dry season also increased; such an increase could make reestablishment of the tropical forests after massive deforestation particularly difficult. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Shukla, J.; Nobre, C.; Sellers, P. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))



Unit Plans: Earth's Climate Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit plans for Grades K-2 and 3-5 are a regular feature of the magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle. The plans draw on articles and resources in a themed issue and are aligned with national science and language arts standards. This unit is designed to provide elementary students with the opportunity to investigate how the annual rings in trees help scientists learn about past climates. It uses hands-on experiences and nonfiction text to answer the unit question: How do trees help scientists learn about the past?

Jessica Fries-Gaither



E-print Network

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BE USED TO PREDICT in photosynthesis, and thus substrate supply, influence the rate of ecosystem respiration (Re). Further- more in photosynthesis might result in concomitant changes in both the rate, and temperature-sensitivity, of Re. Re

Barron-Gafford, Greg


Influence of solar activity on climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The questions of primary importance for understanding the nature of climate changes in the XX century and main physical processes responsible for these changes are discussed. A physical model of the influence of solar activity on climate characteristics is presented. A key concept of this model is the influence of heliogeophysical disturbances on the Earth's climate system parameters controlling the long-wave radiation flux going out into space in high-latitude regions. A change in the Earth's radiation balance of high-latitude regions induces restructuring of the tropospheric thermobaric field, changes in the meridional temperature gradient responsible for meridional heat transfer. This causes changes in the heat content of the Earth's climate system and global climate. We present and discuss results of analysis of regularities and peculiarities of tropospheric and sea surface temperature (SST) responses both to separate heliogeophysical disturbances and to long-term