Sample records for climate change france

  1. Climate change impact, adaptation and associated costs for coastal risks in France

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Climate change impact, adaptation and associated costs for coastal risks in France Gonéri Le.Pons@developpement-durable.gouv.fr Abstract As part of the French climate plan, an inter-ministerial working group called "climate change by climate change and to identify possible mitigation measures. Seven thematic committees were organized

  2. Possible effects of climate change on wheat and maize crops in France

    SciTech Connect

    Delecolle, R.; Ruget, F.; Ripoche, D. [INRA, Avignon (France). Unite de Bioclimatologie; Gosse, G. [INRA, Thiveral-Grignon (France). Unite de Bioclimatologie

    1995-12-31

    This study evaluates the possible effects of climate modifications induced by increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere, on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water demand in France. CERES-wheat and CERES-maize models are used with two French weather series and soil conditions. Weather variables were varied from present conditions, as simulated by various global climate models (GCMs). This chapter emphasizes the process of model calibration and the consequent uncertainties in final simulated results. Under the simulation conditions: (i) season lengths are shortened under climate change scenarios; (ii) yield decreases under climate change alone, but the decrease can be somewhat counteracted by direct CO{sub 2} effects on the crop, up to a 5 C temperature increase; and (iii) water use decreases under climate changes. Even if the large diversity of French climates and soils prohibits generalization of these results to the entire country, the main conclusions are: (i) under both temperate and Mediterranean climates, winter cereal yields will not be decreased by future conditions, provided that irrigation supply is not limiting under dry conditions and (ii) under temperate climate, maize could take advantage of development phase shrinkage and improve its radiation use efficiency. Changing sowing date produces varying results according to weather scenario, plant, and location. A more precise knowledge of initial soil water or temperature under changing conditions is necessary before optimal agronomic adaptation to future climate can be suggested.

  3. Response of Agriculture and Forests to Climate Change in France: Assessment of Uncertainties and Trend Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laanaia, N.; Carrer, D.

    2014-12-01

    In the framework of the French research project ORACLE we examine the impact of climate change on agriculture and forests in France for two time horizons (2020-2050 and 2070-2100) in reference to the 1970-2000 period. The biophysical variables (leaf area index, equilibrium forest biomass, leaf onset and offset, ...) are produced by ISBA-A-gs forced by the atmospheric variables produced by differents climat models and scenarios. Their trends will be analyzed. The impact of uncertainties at various levels through multi-model and multi-scenario approaches will be assessed

  4. How many reservoirs should we build in France to maintain water availability under a changing climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andréassian, Vazken; Thirel, Guillaume; Perrin, Charles

    2015-04-01

    Although climatic predictions based on the IPCC scenarios have been made available to policy-makers for several years, the debate on adaptation is still extremely limited. This is natural in a world where short-term preoccupations are overwhelming. But it is true that hydrologists have not spent much effort in translating the scientific message into a message understandable by policy makers. In this presentation, we wish to transform the future climate simulations into a provocative question, better able to raise interest among policy-makers: if we would like to keep the same availability of water resource under a changing climate, how many dams would we have to build until 2050? (Of course, this does not mean that we believe that the only possible adaptation strategy lies in dam building). To this aim, we use climatic simulations based on the last IPCC scenarios, a hydrological model to transform these scenarios into streamflow series, and a water allocation model working under simple hypotheses to compute the efficiency of the flow-to-resource conversion and simulate the impact of reservoir operation. After presenting the method for three French rivers (the Vilaine, the Durance and the Garonne) we apply it to 1000 points all over France and propose a countrywide quantification of reservoir construction needs, in order to adapt to predicted climatic changes.

  5. How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while expected impacts of climate changes on the Thau system were expected to be linked to water balance depletion in the catchment, the main threats are now linked to the impact on water quality of the introduction of the Rhône river waters within the system. This study is conducted in the CLIMB EU-FP7 project (2010-2014).

  6. The study of climate suitability for grapevine cropping using ecoclimatic indicators under climatic change conditions in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Caubel, J.; Cufi, J.; Huard, F.; Launay, M.; deNoblet, N.

    2013-12-01

    Climatic conditions play a fundamental role in the suitability of geographical areas for cropping. In the case of grape, climatic conditions such as water supply and temperatures have an effect of grape quality. In the context of climate change, we could expect changes in overall climatic conditions and so, in grape quality. We proposed to use GETARI (Generic Evaluation Tool of Ecoclimatic Indicators) in order to assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape (Vitis vinifera) regarding its quality. GETARI calculates an overall climate suitability index at the annual scale, from a designed evaluation tree. This aggregation tool proposes the major ecophysiological processes taking place during phenological periods, together with the climatic effects that are known to affect their achievement. The effects of climate on the ecophysiological processes are captured by the ecoclimatic indicators, which are agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. They give information about crop response to climate through ecophysiological or agronomic thresholds. These indicators are normalized and aggregated according to aggregation rules in order to compute an overall climate index. To assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape regarding its quality, we designed an evaluation tree from GETARI, by considering the effect of water deficit between flowering and veraison and the effect of water deficit, water excess, heat stress, temperature ranges between day and night, night temperatures and mean temperatures between veraison and harvest. The two sites are located in Burgundy and Rhone valley which are two of the most important vineyards in the world. Ecoclimatic indicators are calculated using phenological cycle of the crop. For this reason we chose Grenache and Pinot Noir as long and short cycle varieties respectively. Flowering, veraison and harvest dates were simulated (Parker et al., 2011; Yiou et al., 2012). Daily climatic data from 1950 to 2100 were simulated by the global climate model ARPEGE forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario were used (data from CERFACS SCRATCH08 - http://www.drias-climat.fr), using the quantile-quantile downscaling method. The results provide information about the climate suitability for grapevine quality in the future and can be used for anticipating and adapting viticulture. This work is carried out under the research program ORACLE (Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France (and Europe). Parker, A. K., de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G., van Leeuwen, C., Chuine, I., 2011. General phenological model to characterise the timing of flowering and veraison of Vitis vinifera L. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. 17, 206-216. Yiou, P., de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G., Chuine, I., Daux, V., Garnier, E., Viovy, N., van Leeuwen, C., Parker, A. K., Boursiquot, J. M., 2012. Continental atmospheric circulation over Europe during the Little Ice Age inferred from grape harvest dates. Climate of the Past. 8, 577-588.

  7. Shoreline sandwaves along the Aquitanian Coast (France): influence of climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Idier; A. Falquès; C. Mallet; B. Castelle; J. P. Parisot; G. Le Cozannet; E. Delvallée

    2009-01-01

    1. CONTEXT Climate change induced vulnerability is defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as the combination of sensitivity to climatic variations, probability of adverse climate change, and adaptive capacity. As stated by the IPCC (Watson et al., 1997), the \\

  8. Using a Statistical Approach to Anticipate Leaf Wetness Duration Under Climate Change in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huard, F.; Imig, A. F.; Perrin, P.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf wetness plays a major role in the development of fungal plant diseases. Leaf wetness duration (LWD) above a threshold value is determinant for infection and can be seen as a good indicator of impact of climate on infection occurrence and risk. As LWD is not widely measured, several methods, based on physics and empirical approach, have been developed to estimate it from weather data. Many LWD statistical models do exist, but the lack of standard for measurements require reassessments. A new empirical LWD model, called MEDHI (Modèle d'Estimation de la Durée d'Humectation à l'Inra) was developed for french configuration for wetness sensors (angle : 90°, height : 50 cm). This deployment is different from what is usually recommended from constructors or authors in other countries (angle from 10 to 60°, height from 10 to 150 cm…). MEDHI is a decision support system based on hourly climatic conditions at time steps n and n-1 taking account relative humidity, rainfall and previously simulated LWD. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, rain and LWD data from several sensors with 2 configurations were measured during 6 months in Toulouse and Avignon (South West and South East of France) to calibrate MEDHI. A comparison of empirical models : NHRH (RH threshold), DPD (dew point depression), CART (classification and regression tree analysis dependant on RH, wind speed and dew point depression) and MEDHI, using meteorological and LWD measurements obtained during 5 months in Toulouse, showed that the development of this new model MEHDI was definitely better adapted to French conditions. In the context of climate change, MEDHI was used for mapping the evolution of leaf wetness duration in France from 1950 to 2100 with the French regional climate model ALADIN under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and using a QM (Quantile-Mapping) statistical downscaling method. Results give information on the spatial distribution of infection risks during the current century. Such approach could be easily combined with thermal response curves of fungal infection for various pathogens.

  9. Climate Change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

  10. Climate-driven changes in lake conditions during late MIS 3 and MIS 2: a high-resolution geochemical record from Les Echets, France

    E-print Network

    Wohlfarth, Barbara

    Climate-driven changes in lake conditions during late MIS 3 and MIS 2: a high., Andrieu-Ponel, V. & Ampel, L.: Climate-driven changes in lake conditions during late MIS 3 and MIS 2: a high-resolution geo- chemical record from Les Echets, France. Boreas, 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2008.00066.x

  11. Climate Change impacts in the Drôme department (southeastern France): the GICC-DECLIC Project (2010-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rome, Sandra; Bigot, Sylvain; Dubus, Nathalie; Anquetin, Sandrine

    2010-05-01

    The national DECLIC ("Drôme: Eau, CLimat Impacts liés aux Changements") project, coordinated at LTHE (Grenoble-France) has begun in beginning of 2010 and is financed by the national GICC-2 program. This project deals with the climatic variability and the interactions in the Drôme's low mountain range. The main goal is to initiate an operational partnership between academics (three research laboratories LTHE, PACTE and ESPACE) and the involved Territorial Agencies, to define potential climate changes and future adaptations. Analyses will concern especially the climatic variations observed during the last 50 years at the administrative scale (namely the "Département" in the French organization), and their significant impacts on the current and future water resources, i.e. pluviometric regimes, quality of the snow coverage, flow stream variations, availability of the resources. The express request from the local administrators concerns mainly the variations of plant productivity (forests and agriculture), and mainly those due to isolated or recurrent drought periods (productivity, biomass, phenology, use of water resources). DECLIC project also concerns interactions between climatic variations and departmental tourist activities, in connection with water resources (consumption and quality). The final objective is to write a « green paper » about adaptation strategies on climate change for policies. The whole study will lean at first on a diagnostic study of climatic time-series and to various environmental data. One step will also use regional modelling of the impact of the climate on water resources. Besides geostatistic modelling, another methodology will use a simplified physical model that gives the benefit to take into account explicitly the topography at fine scale.

  12. The 2003 Heat Wave in France: Dangerous Climate Change Here and Now

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Poumadère; Claire Mays; Sophie Le Mer; Russell Blong

    2005-01-01

    In an analysis of the French episode of heat wave in 2003, this article highlights how heat wave dangers result from the intricate association of natural and social factors. Unusually high temperatures, as well as socioeconomic vulnerability, along with social attenuation of hazards, in a general context where the anthropogenic contribution to climate change is becoming more plausible, led to

  13. Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-10-21

    This video segment adapted from NOVA explains the difference between weather and climate and features groundbreaking analysis revealing that Earth's climate has changed much faster than previously believed.

  14. Climate change changing hazards?

    E-print Network

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Climate change ­ changing hazards? Andreas Sterl Geert Lenderink, Sarah Kew KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands Climate system change modelling extremes #12;21.03.2012 Andreas Sterl, Insurance Strategy, Brussels Climate ­ what's that? Climate = statistics of weather Weather = state of atmosphere

  15. Changing Climates 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    tx H2O | pg. 2 Story by Kathy Wythe CHANGING CLIMATES Researchers investigating effects, mitigation | pg. 2 tx H2O | pg. 3 Editor?s note: This story highlights climate change research from only a few scientists in Texas. A more detailed... on the comment section. L ong before climate change and global warming became such a popular topic, scientists were researching the different aspects of the world?s changing climate. In Texas alone, dozens of scientists from different universities...

  16. Assessing the impact of climate change on snow avalanche activity in France over the last 60 winters using hierarchical Bayesian change point models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, N.; Parent, E.; Baya, H.; Deschatres, M.

    2009-04-01

    Snow avalanches are mainly ruled by temperature fluctuations, heavy precipitations and wind regimes, so that climate change is likely to modify the frequency and magnitude of both ordinary and extreme events. However, these possible changes are not taken into account in the current engineering practice: reference scenarios and return periods for avalanche hazard management are always computed under the assumption of a stationary process. On a more phenomenological point of view, contrary to other phenomena such as tropical storms, snow avalanches are very rarely used as proxy indicators that point out signals of climate change. This study focuses on avalanche occurrences and runout altitudes in France over the last 61 winters. A spatio-temporal modelling framework is proposed to quantify the interannual fluctuations of these two critical variables resulting from climate change. The regional annual component is isolated from the total variability using a nonlinear analysis of variance. Moreover, the latent structured time trend is distinguished from the random noise with different time series shifting level sub-models. The hierarchical structure obtained takes into account the uncertainty related to the estimation of the annual component for the quantification of the time trend. Bayesian inference is performed using Monte Carlo simulations. No strong modifications in mean avalanche frequency or in the number of winters of low or high activity could be found over the last 60 years. This suggests that climate change has recently had little impact on the avalanching rhythm in France. Significant temporal patterns have though occurred, including complex combination of abrupt changes and pseudo-periodic cycles of approximately 15 years. On the contrary, a change in runout altitude regime has occurred in France around 1977. Between 1946 and 1977, a decrease of 55 m has affected the mean runout altitude, but the probability of a high magnitude event has remained constant. After the change point, the mean runout altitude has regained its initial state, whereas the probability of a high magnitude avalanche has been divided by two. A retreat of avalanche is therefore engaged in France since nearly 30 years, which may be related to climate worming. This especially concerning high magnitude events, even if winters with many high magnitude events remain possible due to the increase of the interannual variability over the same period.

  17. Forest plant community changes during 1989-2007 in response to climate warming in the Jura Mountains (France and Switzerland)

    E-print Network

    Bert, Didier

    of lowland species. Analyses of ecological indicator values indicated increases in temperature and lightForest plant community changes during 1989-2007 in response to climate warming in the Jura Question: How strong are climate warming-driven changes within mid-elevation forest communities

  18. Climate Change Scoping Plan

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources BoardBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  19. Climate Change Scoping Plan

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change as approved Prepared by the California AirBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  20. "Managing Department Climate Change"

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    "Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

  1. Climate change action plan

    E-print Network

    Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing

  2. CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change and climate variability has received considerable attention from the scientific community in recent decades and has led to a better understanding of various climate phenomena and driving mechanisms. This increased understanding of climate has prompted engineers and policy makers to as...

  3. Assessing the impact of climate change on snow avalanche activity in France over the last 60 winters using hierarchical Bayesian change point models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Eckert; E. Parent; H. Baya; M. Deschatres

    2009-01-01

    Snow avalanches are mainly ruled by temperature fluctuations, heavy precipitations and wind regimes, so that climate change is likely to modify the frequency and magnitude of both ordinary and extreme events. However, these possible changes are not taken into account in the current engineering practice: reference scenarios and return periods for avalanche hazard management are always computed under the assumption

  4. CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE CERTAINTIES AND UNCERTAINTIES

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE CERTAINTIES AND UNCERTAINTIES Stephen E. Schwartz http concentrations of "greenhouse gases" · Radiative forcing of climate change · Climate system response: Observations of temperature change on various time scales · Climate system sensitivity: Models and Observations

  5. Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    Climate Change Adaptation Planning On the Navajo Nation #12;Navajo Nation Climate Change Adaptation of Colorado Law School #12;What is Climate Change Adaptation? "Adjustment in natural or human systems change #12;Examples of Adaptation Activities Seed banks Land restoration #12;What is Climate Change

  6. Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?

    E-print Network

    Pan, Feifei

    Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate

  7. Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on

    E-print Network

    Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on Forests of the Northeastern 2012 Email: nrspubs@fs.fed.us Abstract Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect to climate for thousands of years. However, current human-accelerated climate change is much more rapid

  8. Climate Change Schools Project...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

  9. programs in climate change

    E-print Network

    existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change

  10. Mapping urban climate zones and quantifying climate behaviors--an application on Toulouse urban area (France).

    PubMed

    Houet, Thomas; Pigeon, Grégoire

    2011-01-01

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone?UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the World Meteorological Organization guidelines, first can be automatically determined for sample areas and second is meaningful according to climatic variables. The analysis presented is applied on Toulouse urban area (France). Results show first that UCZ differentiate according to air and surface temperature. It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to an UCZ using landscape descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. It also emphasizes that climate behavior and magnitude of UCZ may vary from winter to summer. Finally we discuss the influence of climate data and scale of observation on UCZ mapping and climate characterization. PMID:21269746

  11. Abrupt Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site serves as a broad introduction to the subject of abrupt climate change. It cites several historical examples of climate change and their impact on human civilization. In addition, some of the current questions about climate are presented including the drying of the Sahel since the 1960s and changes in the El Nino pattern. The site includes links to a question and answer feature, paleoclimate research that focuses on how and why abrupt climate change events occurred in the recent past, and an explanation of a joint observational and modeling approach to climate change. There is also a link to the Climate Kids Corner with on-line activities.

  12. Past environment and climate changes at the last Interglacial\\/Glacial transition (Les Échets, France) inferred from subfossil chironomids (Insecta) Changements environnementaux et climatiques à la dernière transition Interglaciaire\\/Glaciaire (Les Échets, France), reconstruits au moyen des chironomes subfossiles (Insectes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Gandouin; Valérie Andrieu-Ponela; Frédéric Guitera; Élisabeth Lallier-Vergèsc; Didier Keravisd; Daniel Veresfg

    Subfossil chironomid assemblages spanning the last Interglacial\\/Glacial transition at Les Échets (France) highlight the environmental and climatic changes that took place at this crucial period. The Early Eemian warming is marked by increased percentages of warmwater taxa and decreased percentages of coldwater taxa. In the Middle Eemian, a lowering in water level is indicated by a rise of littoral taxa.

  13. Climate Change: Basic Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... now. Learn More What are climate change and global warming? Global warming refers to the recent and ongoing rise in ... increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Global warming is causing climate patterns to change. However, global ...

  14. Climate Change and Biodiverstiy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes climate change due to human activities and natural factors; future scenarios due to global warming; and how climate change will impact ecosystems and biodiversity. It includes information on political activity such as avoidance, mitigation and adaptation as a response to climate change. Current projects of the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre( UNEP-WCMC) involving involving climate change migration and adaptation and impact on the ecosystem services.

  15. International Finance and Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    International Finance and Climate Change Thursday, October 17, 2013 Breakfast ­ 8:30 a Principal Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Group at International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group Vladimir Stenek Senior Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Department of the International

  16. Global Climate Change Exploratorium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    This site, funded by NSF, is the home page for the Global Climate Change research explorer. Multicolor tabs at the top of the page link to further information and visualizations (graphs, charts, pictures, etc.) for climate change resources in each of the Earth's spheres, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and global effects of climate change.

  17. The Mathematics Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Zeeman, Mary Lou

    The Mathematics of Climate Change Graciela Chichilnisky UNESCO Professor of Mathematics January 7 & 8, 2008 #12;Climate Change is a New Phenomenon Notoriously di cult to model mathematically;Evaluating global warming #12;The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) nds that human - induced

  18. Population and climate change

    E-print Network

    Kalnay, Eugenia

    Population and climate change: a proposal Eugenia Kalnay University of Maryland with deep gratitude) Impact of land use and land-use change on climate (Observations minus Reanalysis): over the last 30 years and Mars data assimilation 2) Impact of land use and land-use change on climate (Observations minus

  19. Moving Toward Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Moving Toward Climate Change Adaptation The Promise of the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation CITATION: Graumlich, L. and W.L. Francis (Eds.). 2010. Moving Toward Climate Change Adaptation: The Promise Toward Climate Change Adaptation | 3 Photo:PaulHorsley TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary 5 Preface 11 I

  20. Environment and Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Galles, David

    Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE #12;The opinions expressed;Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE Edited by Frank Laczko and Christine with with the financial support of #12;3 Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence Contents

  1. The Changing Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the global change of climate. Presents the trend of climate change with graphs. Describes mathematical climate models including expressions for the interacting components of the ocean-atmosphere system and equations representing the basic physical laws governing their behavior. Provides three possible responses on the change. (YP)

  2. Forest Research: Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

  3. Abrupt Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Alley; J. Marotzke; W. D. Nordhaus; J. T. Overpeck; D. M. Peteet; R. A. Pielke Jr; R. T. Pierrehumbert; P. B. Rhines; T. F. Stocker; L. D. Talley; J. M. Wallace

    2003-01-01

    Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur for many reasons, it is conceivable that human forcing of climate change is increasing the probability of large, abrupt events. Were such an event to recur, the economic and ecological impacts

  4. Climate Change Workshop 2007

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet

  5. Climate Change Collection (CCC)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Climate Change Collection (CCC) provides access to high quality, digital materials relating to natural and human induced climate change and variability, including scientific, economic and policy issues of climate change. The collection focuses on background resources and learning activities that communicate the principles that underlie climate change and variability, including the differences and links between weather and climate; the basics of the climate system including the greenhouse effect and energy balance; climatic processes that occur at varying time scales, including orbital cycles and forcing; how scientific research is conducted relative to measuring change and variability; and how human activities, including the combustion of fossil fuels and changes of land cover, impact the climate system. The resources have been reviewed for scientific accuracy and currency, and annotated with comments and suggestions relating to their potential value to Earth system science teachers and their students, particularly at the middle school level.

  6. Relative sea-level change, climate, and sequence boundaries: insights from the Kimmeridgian to Berriasian platform carbonates of Mount Salève (E France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bover-Arnal, Telm; Strasser, André

    2013-03-01

    The present study analyses the stratal architecture of the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) to Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) sedimentary succession of Mount Salève (E France), and four Berriasian stratigraphic intervals containing four sequence-boundary zones reflecting lowering trends of the relative sea-level evolution. Massive Kimmeridgian limestones characterized by the presence of colonial corals appear to be stacked in an aggrading pattern. These non-bedded thick deposits, which are interpreted to have formed in balance between relative sea-level rise and carbonate accumulation, suggest a keep-up transgressive system. Above, well-bedded Tithonian-to-Berriasian peritidal carbonates reflect a general loss of accommodation. These strata are interpreted as a highstand normal-regressive unit. During the early phase of this major normal regression, the vertical repetition of upper intertidal/lower supratidal lithofacies indicates an aggrading depositional system. This is in agreement with an early stage of a highstand phase of relative sea level. The Berriasian sequence-boundary zones investigated (up to 4 m thick) developed under different climatic conditions and correspond to higher-frequency, forced- and normal-regressive stages of relative sea-level changes. According to the classical sequence-stratigraphic principles, these sequence-boundary zones comprise more than one candidate surface for a sequence boundary. Three sequence-boundary zones studied in Early Berriasian rocks lack coarse siliciclastic grains, contain a calcrete crust, as well as marly levels with higher abundances of illite with respect to kaolinite, and exhibit fossilized algal-microbial laminites with desiccation polygons. These sedimentary features are consistent with more arid conditions. A sequence-boundary zone interpreted for the Late Berriasian corresponds to a coal horizon. The strata above and below this coal contain abundant quartz and marly intervals with a higher kaolinite content when compared to the illite content. Accordingly, this Late Berriasian sequence-boundary zone was formed under a more humid climate. The major transgressive-regressive cycle of relative sea level identified and the climate change from more arid to more humid conditions recognized during the Late Berriasian have been reported also from other European basins. Therefore, the Kimmeridgian to Berriasian carbonate succession of Mount Salève reflects major oceanographic and climatic changes affecting the northern margin of the Alpine Tethys ocean and thus constitutes a reliable comparative example for the analysis of other coeval sedimentary records. In addition, the stratigraphic intervals including sequence-boundary zones characterized in this study constitute potential outcrop analogues for sequence-boundary reflectors mapped on seismic profiles of subsurface peritidal carbonate successions. The detailed sedimentological analyses provided here highlight that on occasions the classical principles of sequence stratigraphy developed on seismic data are difficult to apply in outcrop. A sequence-boundary reflector when seen in outcrop may present successive subaerial exposure surfaces, which formed due to high-frequency sea-level changes that were superimposed on the longer-term trend of relative sea-level fall.

  7. Is Climate Change Happening?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    King's Centre for Visualization in Science

    For this lesson, the guiding Concept Question is: What is climate change and how does climate relate to greenhouse gas concentrations over time? This activity is the second lesson in a nine-lesson module 'Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change' produced by the International Year of Chemistry project (2011).

  8. IISDnet: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) provides this site to present its knowledge base for climate change and adaptation. The knowledge base includes links to global projects on climate change, policy documents and research reports. The e-newsletter, Climate Canada, is accessible from this site as well.

  9. Global Climatic Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Houghton; George M. Woodwell

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed.

  10. Climate Change Economics and Policy

    E-print Network

    Romano, Daniela

    AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate

  11. Responding to Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    King's Centre for Visualization in Science

    This is the ninth and final lesson in a series of lessons about climate change. This lesson focuses on the various activities that humans can do to mitigate the effects of climate change. This includes information on current and predicted CO2 emission scenarios across the globe, alternative energy sources, and how people are currently responding to climate change. Importantly, this lesson is motivating in showing students that they can make a difference.

  12. Climate Change Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Experts Jason Shogren and Michael Toman wrote this discussion paper (00-22) on the economics of climate change policy, recently posted on the Resources for the Future (RFF) Website. The paper (.pdf format) examines the risks of climate change, the benefits of protection from climate change, and the costs of alternative protection policies. Also included is a summary of key policy lessons and knowledge gaps.

  13. Climate change hastens the turnover of stream fish assemblages

    E-print Network

    Grenouillet, Gael

    Climate change hastens the turnover of stream fish assemblages L A E¨ T I T I A B U I S S O N *w Grenoble Cedex 9, France Abstract Stream fish are expected to be significantly influenced by climate change a deleter- ious effect of climate change, whereas downstream species would expand their range by migrating

  14. Our Changing Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Kay Berglund

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,…

  15. Communicating Urban Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership

    2011-12-01

    While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of climate change. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down climate change. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to climate change requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand climate change and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic climate change. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with climate scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about climate change and its impacts on urban audiences. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about climate change. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused climate education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about climate science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global climate change in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of models for community programming and this session will present early results of these efforts while engaging participants in exploring approaches to connecting urban communities and their local concerns to the issues of global climate change.

  16. Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air ResourcesBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  17. Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Hulme, Mike

    Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

  18. Climate Change and Groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine E. Hughes; Dioni I. Cendón; Mathew P. Johansen; Karina T. Meredith

    \\u000a Human civilisations have for millennia depended on the stability of groundwater resources to survive dry or unreliable climates.\\u000a While groundwater supplies are buffered against short-term effects of climate variability, they can be impacted over longer\\u000a time frames through changes in rainfall, temperature, snowfall, melting of glaciers and permafrost and vegetation and land-use\\u000a changes. Groundwater provides an archive of past climate

  19. Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

  20. Learning and climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C. Oneill; Paul Crutzen; Arnulf Grübler; Minh Ha-Duong; Klaus Keller; Charles Kolstad; Jonathan Koomey; Andreas Lange; Michael Obersteiner; Michael Oppenheimer; William Pepper; Warren Sanderson; Michael Schlesinger; Nicolas Treich; Alistair Ulph; Mort Webster; Chris Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Learning – i.e. the acquisition of new information that leads to changes in our assessment of uncertainty – plays a prominent role in the international climate policy debate. For example, the view that we should postpone actions until we know more continues to be influential. The latest work on learning and climate change includes new theoretical models, better informed simulations

  1. Coastal Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2011-05-31

    As climate changes, dynamic coastal regions are experiencing a wide range of impacts. Sea levels, ocean acidification, sea surface temperatures, ocean heat, and ocean circulation have all been changing in ways unseen for thousands of years. Arctic sea ice melted significantly more during summers in the last 30 years, and storms are intensifying. Coastal ecosystems stand to be damaged, and coasts will likely erode from rising sea levels, intensified storm surges, and flooding that climate change may amplify. Coastal communities will need to prepare adaptation strategies to cope, and many who live or work in coastal regions are wondering what climate change might mean for them. This module provides an overview of the impacts coastal regions are experiencing and may continue to experience as a result of Earth’s changing climate. A video series within the module demonstrates effective strategies for communicating climate science.

  2. Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and

    E-print Network

    1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

  3. Modeling Global Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vanessa Svihla

    Understanding global climate change is challenging, even for adults, yet having an understanding of this topic is consequential for the future. In this activity, middle school students learn about global climate change using models that allow them to make predictions, observations, and then explain mechanisms for climate change. Component ideas include change over time, deep time, and accumulation. Students are asked to act as advisers on how to lower energy use, and refine their understanding of how and why this is important, before testing their ideas and finally revising their advice.

  4. The Biodiversity: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    International Polar Foundation

    This step-by-step slide show animation, from the International Polar Foundation, deals with the topics of biodiversity and climate change. It lays out the main effects of climate change, i.e. the strengthening of the natural greenhouse effect phenomenon that has been caused by our way of life, and the unprecedented speeding up of rises in temperature compared with the natural periods of warming that have occurred in the past. It also looks at the main consequences of these changes.

  5. Climate Change and the Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The King's Centre for Visualization in Science

    This activity covers the role that the oceans may play in climate change and how climate change may affect the oceans. It is lesson 8 in a nine-lesson module Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change.

  6. Climate change risk and response

    E-print Network

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

    2008-01-01

    For marine ecosystems, the net impacts of climate change areClimate change will have fundamental impacts on California’s agricultural, forest, and marine ecosystems,ecosystems, and because of this diversity climate change will have different impacts

  7. MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,

    E-print Network

    MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

  8. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

  9. CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND FOR INFORMED DECISION-MAKING Stephen E. Schwartz in climate change. Global mean surface temperature is higher today than it's been for at least a millennium Climate Research Unit, East Anglia UK #12;INDICATIONS OF SYSTEMATIC WARMING IN RECENT YEARS The 1990s were

  10. Conservation and Global Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

  11. Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises

    E-print Network

    Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

  12. Status of Climate Change 

    E-print Network

    North, G.

    2013-01-01

    Status of Climate Change 2013 CaTee Conference San Antonio 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Menu for Today • IPCC 2013: Assessment Report #5 • Facts about Climate Change... Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Facts about Climate Change ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

  13. Climate Change Education .org

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Climate Change Education .org is a volunteer organization made up primarily of docents and interns at California science centers and museums, along with students, scientists, and staff at the University of California, Berkeley. The organization specializes in hands-on science demonstrations relevant to climate change and other topics, and the encouragement of partnerships in education. The group's two portal web sites, Climate Change Education .org and Global Warming California .net, direct visitors to hundreds of links to great resources on subjects of interest.

  14. Climate Change: An Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Garry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

  15. Population and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Brian C.; Landis MacKellar, F.; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2000-11-01

    Population and Climate Change provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and climate change. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a way that is comprehensible to members of both communities. The book will be of primary interest to researchers in the fields of climate change, demography, and economics. It will also be useful to policy-makers and NGOs dealing with issues of population dynamics and climate change, and to teachers and students in courses such as environmental studies, demography, climatology, economics, earth systems science, and international relations.

  16. Purdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for

    E-print Network

    Purdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for the State of Indiana Prepared for: The Honorable Richard G. Lugar Prepared by: The Purdue Climate Change Research Center February 2008 #12;1 Executive Summary We have analyzed the potential "no-action" impacts of climate change

  17. Observed climate change hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Palazzi, E.; Hardenberg, J.; Provenzale, A.

    2015-05-01

    We quantify climate change hotspots from observations, taking into account the differences in precipitation and temperature statistics (mean, variability, and extremes) between 1981-2010 and 1951-1980. Areas in the Amazon, the Sahel, tropical West Africa, Indonesia, and central eastern Asia emerge as primary observed hotspots. The main contributing factors are the global increase in mean temperatures, the intensification of extreme hot-season occurrence in low-latitude regions and the decrease of precipitation over central Africa. Temperature and precipitation variability have been substantially stable over the past decades, with only a few areas showing significant changes against the background climate variability. The regions identified from the observations are remarkably similar to those defined from projections of global climate models under a "business-as-usual" scenario, indicating that climate change hotspots are robust and persistent over time. These results provide a useful background to develop global policy decisions on adaptation and mitigation priorities over near-time horizons.

  18. Climate Change: Good for Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblak, Jackie

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity with the objective of encouraging students to think about the effects of climate change. Explains background information on dependence to climate and discuses whether climate change is important. Provides information for the activity, extensions, and evaluation. (YDS)

  19. Climate Change and Runoff Management

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate Change and Runoff Management in Wisconsin Fox-Wolf Watershed Alliance May 10, 2011 David S of Engineering #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts of a changing climate J. Magnuson Source: IPCC 2007 Potter, et al. A longer record is better! #12;What about

  20. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  1. Global Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn how the greenhouse effect is related to global warming and how global warming impacts our planet, including global climate change. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and how we react to these changes are the main points of focus of this lesson.

  2. Solar Influence: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Research Council

    This short video, the sixth in the National Academies Climate Change, Lines of Evidence series, explores the hypothesis that changes in solar energy output may be responsible for observed global surface temperature rise. Several lines of evidence, such as direct satellite observations, are reviewed.

  3. Coping with climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Topping, J.C. Jr. (ed.)

    1989-06-01

    The Second North American Conference on Preparing for Climate Change may be the most ambitious assemblage of experts ever to assess impact and response strategies to the twin challenges of greenhouse warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Presentations were made by over 160 scientists, environmental leaders and policy makers from the Western Hemisphere, Europe and Asia in 38 sessions over a three day period. Chapters in this volume correspond to the seven regional panels of the Second North American Conference, with discussions of implications of climate changes for the Caribbean, the Arctic, California, the Southern United States, the Chesapeake Bay, Atlantic Canada and New England, and the Great Lakes. This book also contains a policy overview of the climate challenge with contributions from US, Canadian, British and Caribbean governmental and corporate leaders. A chapter devoted to a scientific overview of climate change includes a skillful overview of the key scientific and policy issues involved in greenhouse warming, a seminal article on regional implications of climate change and the potential impacts of global warming on droughts and floods, and a panel discussion involving four of the world's leading stratospheric scientists. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  4. Climate-change scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, F.H.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Baldwin, C.K.; Mearns, L.O.

    2003-01-01

    In 1991, the United States Congress passed the Global Change Research Act directing the Executive Branch of government to assess the potential effects of predicted climate change and variability on the nation. This congressional action followed formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 by the United Nations Environmental Program and World Meteorological Organization. Some 2,000 scientists from more than 150 nations contribute to the efforts of the IPCC. Under coordination of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the congressionally ordered national assessment has divided the country into 19 regions and five socio-economic sectors that cut across the regions: agriculture, coastal and marine systems, forests, human health, and water. Potential climate-change effects are being assessed in each region and sector, and those efforts collectively make up the national assessment. This document reports the assessment of potential climate-change effects on the Rocky Mountain/Great Basin (RMGB) region which encompasses parts of nine western states. The assessment began February 16-18, 1998 with a workshop in Salt Lake City co-convened by Frederic H. Wagner of Utah State University and Jill Baron of the U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (BRD). Invitations were sent to some 300 scientists and stakeholders representing 18 socio-economic sectors in nine statesa?|

  5. Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are likely to remain the same until the 2040's, then followed by a second step of warming and drying trend. During the last ten years, local farmers have been experiencing difficulties to combine challenges from an increasing competition in markets and from hotter and drier conditions. Helped by public subsidies, almost one-third of the vineyard was pulled out during that period. Up until the 2040's, with similar conditions, the local viticultural system should continue its transformation, favouring dynamic, proactive and enterprising farmers. Thus the composition of the farming community might change gradually, and count in the 2040's a majority of producers with a higher individual adaptive capacity than now. The timing and intensity of near-future climate change as measured by the climate model, combined to regional economic change, might thus be an asset to prepare and facilitate adaptation in the longer term.

  6. Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture

    E-print Network

    7/23/2009 1 Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture Dev Niyogi Indiana State Climatologist it l d f d i li tWebsite: landsurface.org and iclimate.org What is Climate Change? (and...... what generally to large scale weather patterns in time or space, i.e. a tropical climate. Climate Change & Global

  7. Biological Impacts of Climate Change

    E-print Network

    McCarty, John P.

    Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may

  8. Autochthonous Chikungunya Transmission and Extreme Climate Events in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Roiz, David; Boussès, Philippe; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe; Fontenille, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Background Extreme precipitation events are increasing as a result of ongoing global warming, but controversy surrounds the relationship between flooding and mosquito-borne diseases. A common view among the scientific community and public health officers is that heavy rainfalls have a flushing effect on breeding sites, which negatively affects vector populations, thereby diminishing disease transmission. During 2014 in Montpellier, France, there were at least 11 autochthonous cases of chikungunya caused by the invasive tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus in the vicinity of an imported case. We show that an extreme rainfall event increased and extended the abundance of the disease vector Ae. albopictus, hence the period of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya. Methodology/Principal Findings We report results from close monitoring of the adult and egg population of the chikungunya vector Ae. albopictus through weekly sampling over the entire mosquito breeding season, which revealed an unexpected pattern. Statistical analysis of the seasonal dynamics of female abundance in relation to climatic factors showed that these relationships changed after the heavy rainfall event. Before the inundations, accumulated temperatures are the most important variable predicting Ae. albopictus seasonal dynamics. However, after the inundations, accumulated rainfall over the 4 weeks prior to capture predicts the seasonal dynamics of this species and extension of the transmission period. Conclusions/Significance Our empirical data suggests that heavy rainfall events did increase the risk of arbovirus transmission in Southern France in 2014 by favouring a rapid rise in abundance of vector mosquitoes. Further studies should now confirm these results in different ecological contexts, so that the impact of global change and extreme climatic events on mosquito population dynamics and the risk of disease transmission can be adequately understood. PMID:26079620

  9. Climate Change and Ground Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo A. Loáiciga

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the theory of climate change and the relationship of climate-change forcing to hydrologic and aquifer processes. It focuses on regional aquifer systems and on the methods to link large-scale climate-change processes to ground-water recharge and to simulate ground-water flow and solute transport in a warmer, 2xCO2 climate. The article reviews methods currently available to generate climate-change forcing

  10. Global Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides a brief overview of processes and properties associated with global climate change and its rate of change, which is of current concern to scientists. The carbon cycle is discussed including its sources, sinks, and release agents along with the fact that it is critical to the biosphere and must continue cycling to support life on Earth. The information at this site should lead students to an understanding of carbon dioxide and the other major greenhouse gases, which is necessary to identify the current trends in atmospheric concentrations and climate change. Three other concepts addressed at this site include the profound effects living organisms in an ecosystem can have upon the local atmosphere, profound effects changes in vegetation can have upon wind speed, and the link of human activity to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This section serves as a reference for and includes links to seven classroom activities.

  11. Confronting Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage…

  12. What is Climate Change?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is offered by Canada's Natural Resources Department. The main page describes the basics of the phenomenon, while the links tell about the impact of climate change on health and safety, communities, land resources, water resources, and coastal regions. Although specific to Canadian regions, the site will give visitors from all over a good introduction to the potential problems of global warming.

  13. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  14. Climate Change? When? Where?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city. The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is…

  15. Emissions versus climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is likely to offset some of the improvements in air quality expected from reductions in pollutant emissions. A comprehensive analysis of future air quality over North America suggests that, on balance, the air will still be cleaner in coming decades....

  16. Climate Change in Chris Brierley

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Climate Change in HadCM3 Chris Brierley Chapa Club - 21/06/06 #12;Increase in CO2 A climate forcing References Climate Change SRES Scenarios - T. C. Johns, J. M. Gregory,W. J. Ingram, C. E. Johnson, A. Jones leads to a change in the energy balance of earth. Earth responds by changing its characteristics

  17. Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change

  18. Occasional paper Climate Change Policy

    E-print Network

    March 2011 Occasional paper 27 Climate Change Policy and Business in Europe Evidence from and Ulrich J. Wagner #12;Abstract This report presents new evidence relating to the effects of climate policy and Climate Change, the EU Commission (DG Climate), the Environmental Committee of the European Parliament

  19. Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Bruce; Hoesung Lee; Erik F. Haites

    1996-01-01

    Large, irreversible changes in climate may have a major effect on the economies of the world. The social costs of climate change will vary dramatically from country to country. This landmark assessment from Working Group III of the IPCC addresses the costs of climate change, both in terms of society and equity issues, and the economic burden of combating adverse

  20. Climate Change and Human Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-02

    Learn how global climate change affects human health in this interactive activity adapted from A Human Health Perspective: On Climate Change by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

  1. Forests / Climate change persp ctive

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Z Forests / Climate change persp ctive e 18Zoonotic diseases cause 2.2 million deaths and 2: in an interconnected world that is undergo- ing considerable climate and environmental change, human, animal

  2. Climate Change and Citizen Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Citizen Science Central, Cornell Lab of Ornithology

    This animation describes how citizen observations can document the impact of climate change on plants and animals. It introduces the topic of phenology and data collection, the impact of climate change on phenology, and how individuals can become citizen scientists.

  3. Comedy, Economics, and Climate Change!

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    Comedy, Economics, and Climate Change! Tuesday, October 22, 2013 12:00 - 1:30 p.m. University Club for reforming our tax system and tackling climate change with a revenue-neutral carbon tax that places higher

  4. Health Effects of Climate Change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over generations. TODAY It is now established that climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. These ... are becoming alert to the dynamic relationship between climate change and human health. Some of these impacts are ...

  5. Perception of climate change.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-09-11

    "Climate dice," describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons, have become more and more "loaded" in the past 30 y, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3?) warmer than the climatology of the 1951-1980 base period. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface during the base period, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change. PMID:22869707

  6. Climate Change & Mitigation Options

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nummedal, Dag

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation from Dag Nummedal of the Colorado Energy Research Institute on climate change and mitigation options. This presentation is intended for users with a background knowledge on the topic and includes graphical representations of important data. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  7. Climate change? When? Where?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Boon

    2009-01-01

    Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion\\u000a and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is demonstrated by students\\u000a as a result of over 16 years’

  8. Climate Change The Physical Background

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    Climate Change ­ The Physical Background Andreas Sterl KNMI · Basics of the climate system/18) #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11.10.2007 Observed climate change #12;Andreas Sterl · Anthropogenic influence · Projected changes & impact #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11

  9. Surviving climate change in the

    E-print Network

    Surviving climate change in the property & casualty industry by growing customer advocacy Insurance build a sustainable competitive advantage. Surviving climate change in the property & casualty industry by growing customer advocacy By Andrea Eichhorn and Bob Heffernan Surviving climate change in the P

  10. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

  11. 4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 4, 2875­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Climate change impact­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  12. Climate Change Action Plan Report

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Climate Change Action Plan Report Intermountain Region 2013 National Park Service Resource Stewardship and Science Landscape Conservation and Climate Change Division #12;About this Report Each National Park Service is responding to the challenge of climate change; and (2) raise awareness among NPS

  13. RICCI Sophie Global Change and Climate Modeling Team

    E-print Network

    RICCI Sophie Global Change and Climate Modeling Team CERFACS - Toulouse, FRANCE Technical Report TR ocean model is currently used to initialize seasonal climate fore- casts. The variational assimilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5 The ensemble of forced-ocean simulations with OPA 26 2 #12; 5.1 De#28;nition of an ensemble

  14. Designing Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

    2012-12-01

    In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

  15. Activities for Conceptualizing Climate and Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This project is a digitally-based instructional program that contains data-rich case studies and visualization activities, as well as a visual library as a resource for teachers and students. A series of activities is organized to move scientifically from climate, to climate variability, to climate change. The site contains free teacher lesson plans, powerpoints, student activities, a summary of research on student conceptions and a curricular framework/philosopy document.

  16. World Bank Group: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located within the World Bank's Environment Department, the Climate Change team "provides resources and expertise for the World Bank's participation in international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and provides technical advice to the World Bank's Global Environment Facility Program." Understandably, the site contains a brief explication of the key themes surrounding contemporary concerns about climate change, along with offering a detailed discussion of the various programs and research projects with which the Climate Change group is engaged directly or in tandem with other related organizations and institutions. From the main page, visitors can read about the nature of international climate change (and its disproportionate effects on the developing world), peruse a list of relevant online publications, and read press releases from the Climate Change team.

  17. UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National Adaptation Programme Meg Patel Defra #12 change #12;Weather & climate impacts - economic, societal, environmental Water consumption per capita;Legislative Framework Climate Change Act 2008 Adaptation Reporting Power 2011 Climate Change Risk Assessment

  18. Biofuels and Global Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent Sohngen

    This paper reviews literature on the impacts of climate change and climate change policy on agriculture and forests. The review suggests that the range of results in the impact literature is widening rather than narrowing as more studies are added. To a large degree, however, the range of results appears to depend largely on uncertainty in the climate effects themselves.

  19. Insects and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, S.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1991-09-01

    In this article the author describes some of the significant late glacial and Holocene changes that occurred in the Rocky Mountains, including the regional extirpation of certain beetle species. The fossil data presented here summarize what is known about regional insect responses to climate change in terms of species stability and geographic distribution. To minimize potential problems of species interactions (i.e., insect-host plant relationships, host-parasite relationships, and other interactions that tie a particular insect species' distribution to that of another organism), only predators and scavengers are discussed. These insects respond most rapidly to environmental changes, because for the most part they are not tied to any particular type of vegetation.

  20. Climate Variability and Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on climate variability and change and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  1. Contrails and Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-02-25

    In this problem-based learning unit, learners analyze the role of condensation trails from jets, or contrails, and their role in climate change. Contrails are thin ice clouds that form from the burning of jet fuel and release of water vapor. The issue with contrails is that narrow trails can spread and coalesce to form significant banks of cirrus-type clouds. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

  2. Uncertainty in Climate Change Modeling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wisconsin ECB

    2010-11-30

    Learn why trout are important indicators in Wisconsin’s changing climate, and why the uncertainty of global climate models complicates predictions about their survival, in this video produced by the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board.

  3. Climate Kids: Birds and Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Some bird species appear to respond to extreme weather changes in their native habitat by moving to more hospitable environments. This article discusses the role of NASA satellites, along with field and citizen scientists, in studying that movement. The article also includes an activity on constructing a bird feeder. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

  4. Climate ChangeClimate Change Mitigation StrategiesMitigation Strategies----

    E-print Network

    ---- the Dominant Greenhouse Gasthe Dominant Greenhouse Gas U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions weighted by 100-yr Global gas emissions and other human drivers of climate change (such as changes in land use), but also U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change called for "stabilization of greenhouse gas

  5. Permafrost and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnet, S.; Shahroudi, N.

    2012-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of climate change on Permafrost. Climate change has been shown to have a global correlation with decreased snow cover in high latitudes. In the current research station and satellite data were used to detect the location of permafrost. Permafrost is dependent on the temperature of the ground surface. Air temperature and snow cover from Integrated Surface Database (ISD) downloaded from National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) were observed for six consecutive years (1999-2004). The research was carried out over the entire globe to study the trend between fluctuating temperature and snow cover. Number of days with temperature below zero (freezing) and above zero (melting) was counted over a 6-year period. It was observed that each year the area of ice cover decreased by 0.3% in the Northern Hemisphere; a 1% increase in air temperature was also observed. Furthermore, the results from station data for snow cover and air temperature were compared with the snow cover and skin temperature from the satellite data. The skin temperature was retrieved from infrared (IR) radiance at International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and the snow cover is derived from visible satellite data at The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Both dataset projected that the higher latitudes had the highest number of days with temperature below zero degree Celsius and these locations will be able to house permafrost. In order to improve the data quality as well as for more accurate results, in the future ISD data and satellite skin temperature will be analyzed for longer period of time (1979-2011) and (1983-2007) respectively also, two additional station data will be studied. The two datasets for future studies are Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) and International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS). The results outputted by these three stations will be further compared with available permafrost datasets.

  6. California Climate Change Portal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Global warming and climate change have been a top priority for a number of international organizations, and in recent years, a number of states have also become profoundly concerned about these transformations. Not surprisingly, the state of California has been interested in these subjects for some time, and this website is an initiative of the various agencies working in this area of research. On this site, visitors can learn about various initiatives sponsored by different agencies within the state and also peruse a list of FAQâ??s on the subject. First-time visitors will want to start at the â??Backgroundâ? section; they may then proceed to the â??Policy & Programâ? area, where they can learn what the state is doing to combat this situation. Some of these programs include a voluntary greenhouse gas emission registry for California companies and a research program to spur environmentally-friendly energy alternatives. Finally, the site also includes a very nice glossary of terms used in discussing global climate change.

  7. White pine and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, G.L. Jr.; Dieffenbacher-Krall, A. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, MA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In the past changing climates have lead to numerous continent-scale reorganizations of biotal. During the Quaternary Period climate has oscillated regularly between glacial and interglacial conditions, causing the ranges of many species to ship hundreds and even thousands of kilometers. On short time scales, clime changes that are less dramatic have influenced the regional distibution and abundance of plant taxa. This paper focus on post glacial changes in the distribution and abundance of white pine during the past 12,000 years in eastern North America; responses of white pine to past climate change, and implications for future responses of northeastern forests to climate change.

  8. Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Project Activities for Conceptualizing Climate and Climate Change

    In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

  9. TOWARD AN ECOLOGY OF CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    TOWARD AN ECOLOGY OF CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz Upton, Long Island, NY, USA climate change First principles climate modeling Earth's energy balance and perturbations Climate system models Summary and conclusions #12;SOME SIMPLE QUESTIONS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE How much has Global Mean

  10. Cinematic climate change, a promising perspective on climate change communication.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Maria

    2014-06-10

    Previous research findings display that after having seen popular climate change films, people became more concerned, more motivated and more aware of climate change, but changes in behaviors were short-term. This article performs a meta-analysis of three popular climate change films, The Day after Tomorrow (2005), An Inconvenient Truth (2006), and The Age of Stupid (2009), drawing on research in social psychology, human agency, and media effect theory in order to formulate a rationale about how mass media communication shapes our everyday life experience. This article highlights the factors with which science blends in the reception of the three climate change films and expands the range of options considered in order to encourage people to engage in climate change mitigation actions. PMID:24916195

  11. Climate change and moral judgement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowitz, Ezra M.; Shariff, Azim F.

    2012-04-01

    Converging evidence from the behavioural and brain sciences suggests that the human moral judgement system is not well equipped to identify climate change -- a complex, large-scale and unintentionally caused phenomenon -- as an important moral imperative. As climate change fails to generate strong moral intuitions, it does not motivate an urgent need for action in the way that other moral imperatives do. We review six reasons why climate change poses significant challenges to our moral judgement system and describe six strategies that communicators might use to confront these challenges. Enhancing moral intuitions about climate change may motivate greater support for ameliorative actions and policies.

  12. Volcanic activity and climatic changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Bryson; B. M. Goodman

    1980-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates of volcanic activity suggest variations that appear to be related to climatic changes. Historical eruption records also show variations on the scale of years to centuries. These records can be combined with simple climatic models to estimate the impact of various volcanic activity levels. From this analysis it appears that climatic prediction in the range of 2 years

  13. Volcanic Activity and Climatic Changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reid A. Bryson; Brian M. Goodman

    1980-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates of volcanic activity suggest variations that appear to be related to climatic changes. Historical eruption records also show variations on the scale of years to centuries. These records can be combined with simple climatic models to estimate the impact of various volcanic activity levels. From this analysis it appears that climatic prediction in the range of 2 years

  14. Environmental magnetism and climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A. Maher

    2007-01-01

    A major and pressing problem is to understand how, and how fast, the Earth's climate has changed in the past, with and without human influences on the global carbon cycle. Magnetic, remanence-acquiring, minerals, mostly iron oxides and sulphides, occur ubiquitously in sediments. They can act as sensitive recorders of past climates, because as climate has varied (from glacial to interglacial,

  15. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

  16. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

  17. 1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate

    E-print Network

    1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate A BrAzil-UK AnAlysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011Alysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;4 DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE

  18. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  19. Climate change refugia as a tool for climate adaptation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change refugia, areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change so as to increase persistence of valued physical, ecological, and cultural resources, are considered as potential adaptation options in the face of anthropogenic climate change. In a collaboration ...

  20. Climate Change and National Security

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.

  1. Schneider lecture: From climate change impacts to climate change risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Steve Schneider was a strong proponent of considering the entire range of possible climate-change outcomes. He wrote and spoke frequently about the importance of low probability/high consequence outcomes as well as most likely outcomes. He worked tirelessly on communicating the risks from overlapping stressors. Technical and conceptual issues have made it difficult for Steve's vision to reach maturity in mainstream climate-change research, but the picture is changing rapidly. The concept of climate-change risk, considering both probability and consequence, is central to the recently completed IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, and the concept frames much of the discussion about future research agendas. Framing climate change as a challenge in managing risks is important for five core reasons. First, conceptualizing the issue as being about probabilities builds a bridge between current climate variability and future climate change. Second, a formulation based on risks highlights the fact that climate impacts occur primarily in extremes. For historical variability and future impacts, the real concern is the conditions under which things break and systems fail, namely, in the extremes. Third, framing the challenge as one of managing risks puts a strong emphasis on exploring the full range of possible outcomes, including low-probability, high/consequence outcomes. Fourth, explaining climate change as a problem in managing risks links climate change to a wide range of sophisticated risk management tools and strategies that underpin much of modern society. Fifth, the concept of climate change as a challenge in managing risks helps cement the understanding that climate change is a threat multiplier, adding new dimensions and complexity to existing and emerging problems. Framing climate change as a challenge in managing risks creates an important but difficult agenda for research. The emphasis needs to shift from most likely outcomes to most risky outcomes, considering the full range of interacting processes, both in the climate system and in human responses. But conceptualizing the challenge of climate change as a challenge in managing risks also opens a path to a wide range of options for solutions. Together, the agenda for research and the options for solutions build toward Steve's vision.

  2. Geomorphic responses to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    The primary focus of this book is the response of landscapes to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic changes. During the past 40 ky the global climate has varied from full-glacial to interglacial. Global temperatures decreased between 40 and 20 ka culminating in full-glacial climatic conditions at 20 ka. This resulted in a sea level decline of 130 m. Only 8 to 14 ky later the global temperature had reversed itself and the climate was the warmest of the past 120 ky. These dramatic changes in climate imposed significant controls on fluvial systems and impacted land forms and whole landscapes worldwide. Chapter 1, Conceptual Models for Changing landscapes, presents numerous concepts related to erosional and depositional processes controlling landscape development. Each of the next four chapters of the book, 2, 3, 4, and 5, examine different aspects of climatic change on fluvial systems. The conceptual models are used to analyze landscape response in four different climatic and geologic settings. In each setting the present and past climatic conditions, the climatically induced changes in vegetation and soil development, and geochronology are considered in assessing the influence of climatic changes on geomorphic processes. Chapter 2, investigates the influence of climatic change on the geomorphic processes operating in desert watersheds in the southwestern US and northern Mexico. The study sites for Chapter 3, are small desert drainage basins in the southwestern US and near the Sinai Peninsula in the Middle East. Chapter 4, investigates fill terraces in several drainage basins of the San Gabrial Mountains of the central Transverse Ranges of coastal southern California. The study site for Chapter 5 is the Charwell River watershed in the Seaward Kaikoura Range of New Zealand. Chapter 6, Difference Responses of Arid and Humid Fluvial Systems, compares the effects of changing climates in basins that range from extremely arid to humid.

  3. AAAS - Global Climate Change Video

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

    This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

  4. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION: PHYSIOLOGY, LIFE HISTORY, AND ECOSYSTEM CHANGE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center of the uncertainties with climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems is understanding where transitions

  5. Forests / Climate change persp ctive

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    T Forests / Climate change persp ctive e 15The recent food price increases in international markets, is speculation; the second, accepted cause, especially for the The need for change Benoit Daviron Price spikes instruments (price, climate), and social safety nets. These solu- tions were proposed at the time because

  6. Generating Arguments about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin

    2012-01-01

    This unit is a different and fun way to engage students with an extremely important topic, climate change, which cuts across scientific and nonscientific disciplines. While climate change itself may not be listed in the curriculum of every science class, the authors contend that such a unit is appropriate for virtually any science curriculum.…

  7. Generating Arguments About Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-16

    In this article from the NSTA Press Journal, Science Scope, students participate in a unit on global climate change by engaging in the process of scientific argumentation. The lessons presented in this article were created using the generate-an-argument model to help students understand climate change science. The article is free to both NSTA members and nonmembers.

  8. Teaching about Global Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

    2011-01-01

    Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

  9. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme

    This organization was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change. The website contains reports, publications, technical papers, press releases, and official documents related to climate change.

  10. Chapters 10 & 11 Climate Change and Global Climate Systems

    E-print Network

    Pan, Feifei

    Chapters 10 & 11 Climate Change and Global Climate Systems #12;© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives · Introduce climate change and describe scientific tools used to study paleoclimatology and future climate. · Define climate and climatology, and review the principal components of Earth's climate

  11. Climate change and potential natural vegetation

    E-print Network

    Climate change and potential natural vegetation Kuchler 1964 #12;Climate change: An attack Ecological forecasting? #12;Incorporate climate drivers in state & transition models? Briske et al. 2005 #12;Line-up Wolter Climate variability Jackson Paleoecology Miller Paleoecology Knapp Experiments

  12. Climate Change and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Luber, George; Prudent, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    Climate change science points to an increase in sea surface temperature, increases in the severity of extreme weather events, declining air quality, and destabilizing natural systems due to increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The direct and indirect health results of such a global imbalance include excessive heat-related illnesses, vector- and waterborne diseases, increased exposure to environmental toxins, exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases due to declining air quality, and mental health stress among others. Vulnerability to these health effects will increase as elderly and urban populations increase and are less able to adapt to climate change. In addition, the level of vulnerability to certain health impacts will vary by location. As a result, strategies to address climate change must include health as a strategic component on a regional level. The co-benefits of improving health while addressing climate change will improve public health infrastructure today, while mitigating the negative consequences of a changing climate for future generations. PMID:19768168

  13. Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate scientists configure computer model parameters through the portal user interface. After model configuration, scientists then launch the computing task. Next, data is atomized and distributed to computing engines that are running on citizen participants' computers. Scientists will receive notifications on the completion of computing tasks, and examine modeling results via visualization modules of the portal. Computing tasks, computing resources, and participants are managed by project managers via portal tools. A portal prototype has been built for proof of concept. Three forums have been setup for different groups of users to share information on science aspect, technology aspect, and educational outreach aspect. A facebook account has been setup to distribute messages via the most popular social networking platform. New treads are synchronized from the forums to facebook. A mapping tool displays geographic locations of the participants and the status of tasks on each client node. A group of users have been invited to test functions such as forums, blogs, and computing resource monitoring.

  14. Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    E-print Network

    Debinski, Diane M.

    Climate Change Impacts in the United States U.S. National Climate Assessment U.S. Global Change Research Program #12;i CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN THE UNITED STATES Members of the National Guard lay climate change. Climate change is contributing to an increase in wildfires across the U.S. West. Solar

  15. Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local: RESOURCES THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT 3. Past and Future Climate Change and Its Impacts 4

  16. CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction

    E-print Network

    Allan, Richard P.

    CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction Richard Allan, Department of Meteorology r.p.allan@reading.ac.uk #12;Text Books and References · Henson, B., Rough Guide to Climate Change http://www.amazon.co.uk/Climate-Change-Guides-Reference- Titles/dp/1858281059 · Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007, www

  17. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

  18. Adapting agriculture to climate change.

    PubMed

    Howden, S Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

    2007-12-11

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists. PMID:18077402

  19. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Howden, S. Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

    2007-01-01

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists. PMID:18077402

  20. Climate Change Adaptation in the Cariboo-Chilcotin The Stakeholder Series: Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Climate Change Adaptation in the Cariboo-Chilcotin The Stakeholder Series: Climate Change 26 Sept CRD should address climate change adaptation, in advance of Regional Development Strategy Collaborative (RAC) Cariboo Regional District case study ­ deliverables · Climate change adaptation strategy

  1. Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change: Implications for · Wisconsin's changing climate · Stormwater management · Impacts and adaptation #12;WICCI Identifying impacts activities. Develop and recommend adaptation strategies. Mission: Assess and anticipate climate change

  2. Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary,

    E-print Network

    Reale, Marco

    will reverse in the near future. 1 Introduction Since the end of the last ice age the earth's climate has enjoyed a period of relative stability. The earth is now in a period of rising global temperatures millenia, in an effort to estimate the natural variability of the earth's climate. These series often

  3. Volcanic activity and climatic changes

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, R.A.; Goodman, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates of volcanic activity suggest variations that appear to be related to climatic changes. Historical eruption records also show variations on the scale of years to centuries. These records can be combined with simple climatic models to estimate the impact of various volcanic activity levels. From this analysis it appears that climatic prediction in the range of 2 years to many decades requires broad-scale volcanic activity prediction. Statistical analysis of the volcanic record suggests that some predictability is possible.

  4. CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER SYSTEM Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012020 Prepared for: California consideration of climate change effects on highelevation hydropower supply and demand in California. Artificial

  5. Climate Change and Tourism Dr David Viner

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    Climate Change and Tourism éCLAT Dr David Viner Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia d.viner@uea.ac.uk Tourism has a strong international dimension and is sensitive to any changes of climate that alter to attract visitors are likely to be vulnerable to climate change and the implementation of climate change

  6. Earth's Orbit and Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this self-paced tutorial, learners examine data to determine the relative contribution of what we call natural climate cycles and that of human-caused greenhouse gases to contemporary climate change. Changes in the Earth-Sun geometry over time are explored using interactive digital applets. A section supporting pedagogical techniques that begin with student prior conceptions and a list of common Earth science student misconceptions are included. Vocabulary terms are hot linked to a glossary. This is the sixth of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

  7. Climate change, wine, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

    2013-04-23

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  8. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  9. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  10. Climate change and trophic interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Harrington; Ian Woiwod; Tim Sparks

    1999-01-01

    With confirmation of anthropogenically induced climate change, the spotlight is on biologists to predict and detect effects on populations. The complexity of interactions within and between the biotic and abiotic components involved makes this a tough challenge, and most studies have consequently considered effects of only single climate variables on single species. However, some have gone further, and recently published

  11. Extinction risk from climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris D. Thomas; Alison Cameron; Rhys E. Green; Michel Bakkenes; Linda J. Beaumont; Yvonne C. Collingham; Barend F. N. Erasmus; Marinez Ferreira de Siqueira; Alan Grainger; Lee Hannah; Lesley Hughes; Brian Huntley; Albert S. van Jaarsveld; Guy F. Midgley; Lera Miles; Miguel A. Ortega-Huerta; A. Townsend Peterson; Oliver L. Phillips; Stephen E. Williams

    2004-01-01

    Climate change over the past ~30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of

  12. Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication

    E-print Network

    Watson, Andrew

    Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour;1 Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour? Thomas D. Lowe 1 these kinds of messages (which have recently been dubbed `climate porn' (Ereaut and Segnit, 2006)), can

  13. Global Climate Change Key Indicators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

  14. Climate Change is About... Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Democracy Center

    Climate Change Is About...Water tells the story of climate change and impacts on water in Bolivia through a range of voices and multimedia materials. Case studies bring the explanatory analysis of vulnerability and the social, economic and cultural impacts of climate change vividly to life. A Teaching and Activities Guide is available to help educators and learners delve into this material, understand the realities of climate change for affected communities, apply this to their own experiences and encourage citizenship in responding to it. The resources are designed to be flexible and accessible for use with secondary-level students upwards, and can be adapted for self-led or teacher-led exploration in both formal and informal settings.

  15. Taking Action on Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this Government of Canada website, visitors can "learn about the science, impacts and adaptation to climate change and how individuals, governments, businesses, industry and communities take action by reducing greenhouse gas emissions." Through maps, graphs, and clear text, users can learn the basics of climate change and the greenhouse gases. The website details many of the ecological, economic, and global impacts of climate change. Users can find out about the One-Tonne Challenge, which encourages everyone to reduce their emissions. Teachers can find questions and activities to educate their students about climate change. The website also offers a calculator to estimate a user's current emissions, a series of videos instructing individuals how to create an energy efficient home and car, as well as publications and media resources. This site is also reviewed in the March 18, 2005 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

  16. Natural and anthropogenic climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, M.K.W.; Clough, S.A.; Molnar, G.I.; Iacono, M. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Wang, W.C. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States) State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center)

    1992-03-01

    This report consists of two parts: (1) progress for the period 9/1/91--3/31/92 and (2) the plan for the remaining period 4/1/92--8/31/92. The project includes two tasks: atmospheric radiation and improvement of climate models to evaluate the climatic effects of radiation changes. The atmospheric radiation task includes four subtasks: (1) Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM), (2) analysis of the water vapor continuum using line-by-line calculations to develop a parameterization for use in climate models, (3) parameterization of longwave radiation and (4) climate/radiation interactions of desert aerosols. Our effort in this period is focused on the first three subtasks. The improvement of climate models to evaluate the subtasks: (1) general circulation model study and (2) 2- D model development and application.

  17. Climate Change, Energy and Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physicians for Social Responsibility

    This site provides an overview of the causes of climate change and the repercussions it has on our environment and our health. Special focus topics include energy and health (with respect to fossil fuels and nuclear energy), national energy policy and health, how a warming climate affects weather and health, impacts of fuel economy (with respect to emissions of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons on environmental and human health), and air quality and climate change. The site also features links to current news and related resources.

  18. Climate Change: The Sun's Role

    E-print Network

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

  19. Climate Change: Teaching Through Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deb and Chad

    2007-12-06

    Maine Mathematics and Science Alliance Dec. 6, 2007 Agenda 8:00 Welcome Puzzle Intro Overview: The Science of Climate Change Carbon Cycle Activity Data Analysis: Buoy Data Activity Using Technology Effectively 10:00-10:15 Break Links to the 2007 Maine Learning Results Introduction to Afternoon Exploration COSEE (COSEE Ocean-Climate beta website) Giovanni project (Givoanni: Arabian Sea Lesson) (Giovanni Graphing Activity) Earth Exploration Toolkit: Whither Arctic Sea Ice? (Whither Arctic Sea Ice?) Google Earth Climate Change Resources 11:15-12:00 Lunch Afternoon Resource Exploration Exploration Report and Discussion Antarctic Expedition Opportunity WAIS Divide Outreach Blog WAIS Divide Main Science Page Wrap-Up/Evaluation ...

  20. Climate Change: The Sun's Role

    E-print Network

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2007-06-23

    The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

  1. Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Adrian

    Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012 to climate change! May 29­May 31, 2012, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA Conference Web Site: http://www.adaptation.arizona.edu/adaptation2012 (not yet active) Climate change is one of the most important environmental, social and economic

  2. Climate Change: One, or Many? Professor of Climate and Culture

    E-print Network

    Hulme, Mike

    Climate Change: One, or Many? Mike Hulme Professor of Climate and Culture Department of Geography Presidential Session: `Geographies of Climate Change' AAG Annual Conference, Tampa, Florida, 7-11 April 2014 #12;10 Mary Douglas #12;One Resistance? The dominant singular approach to climate change has fuelled

  3. Climate Amenities, Climate Change, and American Quality of Life

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Climate Amenities, Climate Change, and American Quality of Life September, 2011 PRELIMINARY DRAFT "business-as-usual" forecast from the United Nations' International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts assessment that has received comparatively little investigation: the impact of climate change on the amenity

  4. The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change

    E-print Network

    1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley · Changes to surface and atmosphere by aerosols · Climate sensitivity to changes in aerosols and CO2 Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central

  5. The EPA Climate Change Kids Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-29

    This interactive site features games, animations, and teachers' materials intended to introduce younger students to climate change. There is information about what climate change is, the difference between weather and climate, and the greenhouse effect. There are also materials on the climate system, ancient climates, and how scientists investigate climate. Other topics include discussions of whether people can actually change Earth's climate, what the potential effects might be, and what people can do to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

  6. Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NINA L. BRADLEY; A. CARL LEOPOLD; J OHN ROSS; WELLINGTON HUFFAKER

    1999-01-01

    A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes ref lect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was 20.12 day per year, an

  7. Climate change and biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lovejoy

    2008-01-01

    Summary There is already widespread change in the natural calendars (phenology) of plants and animals, as well as change in some species distributions. Now threshold change (sudden, fundamental change) in ecosystems is beginning to be observed in nature. At minimum, the natural world will experience an equal amount of warming to that which has already taken place. This all suggests

  8. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    1 Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011 J. Hansen, M. Sato, coincident with increased global warming. The most dramatic and important change of the climate dice change is the natural variability of climate. How can a person discern long-term climate change, given

  9. Climate change impacts on forestry

    PubMed Central

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Sedjo, Roger A.

    2007-01-01

    Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. Our review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. We concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand. PMID:18077403

  10. Climate change impacts on forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilenko, A.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science and Policy; Sedjo, R.A. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-12-11

    Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. The authors' review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. They concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand.

  11. Climate change and food security.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

    2005-11-29

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

  12. CLIMATE CHANGE. Climate change impacts on bumblebees converge across continents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jeremy T; Pindar, Alana; Galpern, Paul; Packer, Laurence; Potts, Simon G; Roberts, Stuart M; Rasmont, Pierre; Schweiger, Oliver; Colla, Sheila R; Richardson, Leif L; Wagner, David L; Gall, Lawrence F; Sikes, Derek S; Pantoja, Alberto

    2015-07-10

    For many species, geographical ranges are expanding toward the poles in response to climate change, while remaining stable along range edges nearest the equator. Using long-term observations across Europe and North America over 110 years, we tested for climate change-related range shifts in bumblebee species across the full extents of their latitudinal and thermal limits and movements along elevation gradients. We found cross-continentally consistent trends in failures to track warming through time at species' northern range limits, range losses from southern range limits, and shifts to higher elevations among southern species. These effects are independent of changing land uses or pesticide applications and underscore the need to test for climate impacts at both leading and trailing latitudinal and thermal limits for species. PMID:26160945

  13. Can Science Win Over Climate Change Skeptics?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Dougherty (The American Society of Human Genetics; )

    2009-07-25

    Explaining global warming is complex, making it harder to argue against climate change skeptics. Teaching the nature of science may be a better way to help students and the public understand that climate change is real; highlight the benefits from climate change awareness; and provide concise, direct answers to critics of climate change theory.

  14. Linkages between climate change and sustainable development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noreen Beg; Jan Corfee Morlot; Ogunlade Davidson; Yaw Afrane-Okesse; Lwazikazi Tyani; Fatma Denton; Youba Sokona; Jean Philippe Thomas; Emilio Lèbre La Rovere; Jyoti K. Parikh; Kirit Parikh; A. Atiq Rahman

    2002-01-01

    Climate change does not yet feature prominently within the environmental or economic policy agendas of developing countries. Yet evidence shows that some of the most adverse effects of climate change will be in developing countries, where populations are most vulnerable and least likely to easily adapt to climate change, and that climate change will affect the potential for development in

  15. Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co of global climate change­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Projected Climate Change 200-2100 What Global Change Probability Distribution of 14 Global Climate Model Projections D. Vimont, UW-Madison 90% chance

  16. An iconic approach to representing climate change

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    1 An iconic approach to representing climate change Saffron Jessica O'Neill A thesis submitted-experts to be meaningfully engaged with the issue of climate change. This thesis investigates the value of engaging non-experts with climate change at the individual level. Research demonstrates that individuals perceive climate change

  17. Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers

    E-print Network

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    1 Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers in the US and South Korea Pierre Y. Julien Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng. Colorado State University Seoul, South Korea August 11, 2009 Climate Change and Large Rivers 1. Climatic changes have been on-going for some time; 2. Climate changes usually predict

  18. Inuit Observations on Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an overview of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) project at Sachs Harbour on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, an effort to document the problem of Arctic climate change as experienced by the Inuit living there. There is video commentary by Inuit in which they describe changes in daily life for animals and people at Sachs Harbour: banks caving from permafrost melt, seasonal changes and new types of animals appearing as the old familiar animals disappear, ice dangerously opening up, and most importantly, a new unpredictability added to the usual extreme weather conditions in the Arctic region. The video comes in an abbreviated version, 14 minutes in length, as well as the full version, which is 42 minutes in length. There are reports of IISD trips made during different seasons at Sachs Harbour, a teacher guide for the video, and a report on the climate observations discussed in the IISD: Inuit Observations on Climate Change workshop.

  19. Faces of Climate Change: Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Darcy Dugan

    This is the first of three short videos showcasing the dramatic changes in Alaska's marine ecosystems through interviews with scientists and Alaska Natives. This introduction to the impacts of climate change in Alaska includes interviews with Alaska Natives, commentary by scientists, and footage from Alaska's Arctic.

  20. Inuit Observations of Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-17

    In this video adapted from the International Institute for Sustainable Development, an Inuit community collaborates with Western scientists studying climate change. Inuit observations are recorded and included in the data collection process, expanding the scientists' understanding of changes in the area.

  1. Climate Change: Coastal Dead Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald F. Boesch; Victoria J. Coles; David G. Kimmel; W. David Miller

    \\u000a Many of the anticipated changes (increased streamflow, warmer temperatures, calmer summer winds, and increased depth due to\\u000a sea-level rise) associated with global climate change would move the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem in the direction of worsening\\u000a hypoxia (harmful oxygen depletion).

  2. Invasive species and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

  3. Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Paul; Heward, William L.

    2010-01-01

    In "Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge," we conclude the special section by assuming that you have been persuaded by Thompson's paper or other evidence that global warming is real and poses a threat that must be dealt with, and that for now the only way to deal with it is by changing behavior. Then we ask what you, as behavior analysts, can do…

  4. Volcanic activity and climatic changes.

    PubMed

    Bryson, R A; Goodman, B M

    1980-03-01

    Radiocarbon dates of volcanic activity suggest variations that appear to be related to climatic changes. Historical eruption records also show variations on the scale of years to centuries. These records can be combined with simple climatic models to estimate the impact of various volcanic activity levels. From this analysis it appears that climatic prediction in the range of 2 years to many decades requires broad-scale volcanic activity prediction. Statistical analysis of the volcanic record suggests that some predictability is possible. PMID:17759813

  5. Double Exposure: Photographing Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, D. P.; Wake, C. P.; Romanow, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    Double Exposure, Photographing Climate Change, is a fine-art photography exhibition that examines climate change through the prism of melting glaciers. The photographs are twinned shots of glaciers, taken in the mid-20th century by world-renowned photographer Brad Washburn, and in the past two years by Boston journalist/photographer David Arnold. Arnold flew in Washburn's aerial "footprints", replicating stunning black and white photographs, and documenting one irreversible aspect of climate change. Double Exposure is art with a purpose. It is designed to educate, alarm and inspire its audiences. Its power lies in its beauty and the shocking changes it has captured through a camera lens. The interpretive text, guided by numerous experts in the fields of glaciology, global warming and geology, helps convey the message that climate change has already forced permanent changes on the face of our planet. The traveling exhibit premiered at Boston's Museum of Science in April and is now criss-crossing the nation. The exhibit covers changes in the 15 glaciers that have been photographed as well as related information about global warming's effect on the planet today.

  6. Potential impact of climate change on durum wheat cropping in Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Lhomme; R. Mougou; M. Mansour

    2009-01-01

    The potential effect of climate change on durum wheat in Tunisia is assessed using a simple crop simulation model and a climate\\u000a projection for the 2071–2100 period, obtained from the Météo-France ARPEGE-Climate atmospheric model run under the IPCC (International\\u000a Panel on Climate Change) scenario A1B. In the process-oriented crop model, phenology is estimated through thermal time. Water\\u000a balance is calculated

  7. Experimenting with Climate Change

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hilda Smith, biological technician with Canyonlands Research Station, monitors changes in biological soil crusts in response to experimental increases in temperature and altered precipitation patterns....

  8. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation

  9. Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, AR4) has resulted in a wider acceptance of global climate change climate extremes and change impacts. Uncertainties in process studies, climate models, and associated

  10. Climate Wisconsin: Temperature Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Finn Ryan

    This interactive visualization allows users to compare future projections of Wisconsin's average annual temperature with the actual changes of the last five decades. Text on the web page encourages students to think about the challenges Wisconsin could face if these changes occur.

  11. United Nations Environment Programme: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides access to information on the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) initiatives on the issue of climate change. Materials include UNEP's areas of focus on addressing climate change (climate, finance, and business; emissions mitigation; carbon sequestration; vulnerability and adaptation to climate change; and others); links to UNEP Climate Change Centres; links to partner organizations; and links to information and media activities. There are also links to multimedia materials (posters, films, and video), printed publications on climate change, maps and graphics, and links to other organizations working on the issue of climate change.

  12. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 00, M 0, 2001 Positive feedback between future climate change

    E-print Network

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    , France Abstract. Future climate change due to increased atmo­ spheric CO2 may a#ect land and ocean e and the carbon cycle. Climate change reduces land and ocean uptake of CO2 , respectively by 54% and 35% at 4 × CO cycle studies suggest that such climate change may reduce the uptake of CO2 by the ocean [Maier

  13. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 0-0, M 0, 2001 Positive feedback between future climate change

    E-print Network

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    , France Abstract. Future climate change due to increased atmo- spheric CO2 may affect land and ocean system and the carbon cycle. Climate change reduces land and ocean uptake of CO2, respectively by 54 cycle studies suggest that such climate change may reduce the uptake of CO2 by the ocean [Maier

  14. US Climate Change Science Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site offers a portal to the recently held Planning Workshop for Scientists and Stakeholders, convened by the Bush administration to set the research agenda for its US Climate Change Science Program (CCSP). Clicking on Library will call up the draft strategic plan for the CCSP, which may be downloaded in whole or in part. The Web site also provides an overview of the meetings and the program, along with various publications and white papers also available to download. Climate change researchers and other interested parties should find this site a useful resource for keeping tabs on the current administration's stance on the issue.

  15. Aquatic biochronologies and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrongiello, John R.; Thresher, Ronald E.; Smith, David C.

    2012-12-01

    Historical evidence provides essential context for models predicting the biological impacts of climate change. Such long-term data sets are relatively common for terrestrial taxa and environments, but sparse for aquatic systems. Aquatic biochronologies -- generated from information recorded in the hard parts of fish, molluscs and corals that are archived in their millions worldwide -- can provide valuable long-term ecological insights into marine and freshwater environments. These resources are, however, at present under-utilized in the measurement and prediction of ecological responses to climate change, despite their potential to provide unprecedented levels of spatial and temporal detail in aquatic environments.

  16. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE UNITED STATES

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE UNITED STATES The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change Foundation Humanity's influence on the global climate will grow in the 21st century. Increasingly, there will be significant climate-related changes that will affect each one of us. We must begin now to consider our

  17. 4, 289308, 2008 Climate change and

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CPD 4, 289­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title forum of Climate of the Past Recent climate change affecting rainstorm occurrences? A case study in East­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title Page Abstract

  18. Public Engagement on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change communication is complicated by complexity of the scientific problem, multiple perspectives on the magnitude of the risk from climate change, often acrimonious disputes between scientists, high stakes policy options, and overall politicization of the issue. Efforts to increase science literacy as a route towards persuasion around the need for a policy like cap and trade have failed, because the difficulty that a scientist has in attempting to make sense of the social and political complexity is very similar to the complexity facing the general public as they try to make sense of climate science itself. In this talk I argue for a shift from scientists and their institutions as information disseminators to that of public engagement and enablers of public participation. The goal of engagement is not just to inform, but to enable, motivate and educate the public regarding the technical, political, and social dimensions of climate change. Engagement is a two-way process where experts and decision-makers seek input and learn from the public about preferences, needs, insights, and ideas relative to climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, solutions and policy options. Effective public engagement requires that scientists detach themselves from trying to control what the public does with the acquired knowledge and motivation. The goal should not be to "sell" the public on particular climate change solutions, since such advocacy threatens public trust in scientists and their institutions. Conduits for public engagement include the civic engagement approach in the context of community meetings, and perhaps more significantly, the blogosphere. Since 2006, I have been an active participant in the climate blogosphere, focused on engaging with people that are skeptical of AGW. A year ago, I started my own blog Climate Etc. at judithcurry.com. The demographic that I have focused my communication/engagement activities are the technically educated and scientifically literate public, many of whom have become increasingly skeptical of climate science the more they investigate the topic. Specific issues that this group has with climate science include concerns that science that cannot easily be separated from risk assessment and value judgments; concern that assessments (e.g. IPCC) have become a Maxwell's daemon for climate research; inadequate assessment of our ignorance of this complex scientific issue; elite scientists and scientific institutions losing credibility with the public; political exploitation of the public's lack of understanding; and concerns about the lack of public accountability of climate science and climate models that are being used as the basis for far reaching decisions and policies. Individuals in this group have the technical ability to understand and examine climate science arguments and are not prepared to cede judgment on this issue to the designated and self-proclaimed experts. This talk will describe my experiences in engaging with this group and what has been learned, both by myself and by participants in the discussion at Climate Etc.

  19. Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities 

    E-print Network

    Crawford, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric scientists tell us that mankind is changing the climate, and is setting in motion forces that can make essentially irreversible changes in the climate of the future. Naysayers dispute whether mankind is even capable of changing...

  20. Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Owen, Sandra J.

    2012-11-01

    Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop NASA/Ames Research Center May 15-17, 2012 Climate change on Mars has been a subject of great interest to planetary scientists since the 1970's when orbiting spacecraft first discovered fluvial landforms on its ancient surfaces and layered terrains in its polar regions. By far most of the attention has been directed toward understanding how "Early Mars" (i.e., Mars >~3.5 Gya) could have produced environmental conditions favorable for the flow of liquid water on its surface. Unfortunately, in spite of the considerable body of work performed on this subject, no clear consensus has emerged on the nature of the early Martian climate system because of the difficulty in distinguishing between competing ideas given the ambiguities in the available geological, mineralogical, and isotopic records. For several reasons, however, the situation is more tractable for "Recent Mars" (i.e., Mars during past 20 My or so). First, the geologic record is better preserved and evidence for climate change on this time scale has been building since the rejuvenation of the Mars Exploration Program in the late 1990's. The increasing coverage of the planet from orbit and the surface, coupled with accurate measurements of surface topography, increasing spatial resolution of imaging cameras, improved spectral resolution of infrared sensors, and the ability to probe the subsurface with radar, gamma rays, and neutron spectroscopy, has not only improved the characterization of previously known climate features such as polar layered terrains and glacier-related landforms, but has also revealed the existence of many new features related to recent climate change such as polygons, gullies, concentric crater fill, and a latitude dependent mantle. Second, the likely cause of climate change - spin axis/orbital variations - is more pronounced on Mars compared to Earth. Spin axis/orbital variations alter the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of sunlight, which can mobilize and redistribute volatile reservoirs both on and below the surface. And for Mars, these variations are large. In the past 20 My, for example, the obliquity is believed to have varied from a low of 15° to a high of 45° with a regular oscillation time scale of ~10^5 years. These variations are typically less than two degrees on the Earth. Mars, therefore, offers a natural laboratory for the study of orbitally induced climate change on a terrestrial planet. Finally, general circulation models (GCMs) for Mars have reached a level of sophistication that justifies their application to the study of spin axis/orbitally forced climate change. With recent advances in computer technology the models can run at reasonable spatial resolution for many Mars years with physics packages that include cloud microphysics, radiative transfer in scattering/absorbing atmospheres, surface heat budgets, boundary layer schemes, and a host of other processes. To be sure, the models will undergo continual improvement, but with carefully designed experiments they can now provide insights into mechanisms of climate change in the recent past. Thus, the geologic record is better preserved, the forcing function is large, and GCMs have become useful tools. While research efforts in each of these areas have progressed considerably over the past several decades, they have proceeded mostly on independent paths occasionally leading to conflicting ideas. To remedy this situation and accelerate progress in the area, the NASA/Ames Research Center's Mars General Circulation Modeling Group hosted a 3-day workshop on May 15-17, 2012 that brought together the geological and atmospheric science communities to collectively discuss the evidence for recent climate change on Mars, the nature of the change required, and how that change could be brought about. Over 50 researchers, students, and post-docs from the US, Canada, Europe, and Japan attended the meeting. The program and abstracts from the workshop are presented in this NASA/CP and are available to the public at http://spa

  1. Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co changes due to global climate change." ­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Future Climate Change What downscaled to Wisconsin using historic data ("de-biasing") #12;Change in Wisconsin monthly temperature

  2. Simulated Climate Change by the Community Climate System Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Kiehl

    2001-01-01

    Simulations from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) are presented that consider the predicted magnitude and spatial patterns of natural climate variability and anthropogenically forced climate change. These simulations will consider changes from the inter-annual to century time scales for both the 20th and 21st centuries. Special focus will be given to the simulated variability and change in Earth's hydrologic

  3. SPECIAL REVIEW Climate-induced changes in the distribution of freshwater

    E-print Network

    Grenouillet, Gael

    , Toulouse, France § Lake Ecosystems Laboratory, Aix-en-Provence, France SUMMARY 1. Climate change could be one of the main threats faced by aquatic ecosystems and freshwater biodiversity. Improved of the biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems is still very incomplete, but declines in biodiversity are thought

  4. Hydrological changes over France in the next decades and associated uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayon, Gildas; Boé, Julien; Martin, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The uncertainties in climate projections over the next decades generally remain large, with an important contribution of internal climate variability. To correctly quantify the impacts of those uncertainties in hydrological projections, multi-model and multi-member approaches are essential. To have a large ensemble of climate simulations, the study is based on Global Climate Models (GCMs) simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5). For computational cost reasons, GCMs simulations are downscaled with a statistical method developed in a previous study (Dayon et al. 2015) in order to obtain the atmospheric variables on a 8 km grid over France necessary to drive the Isba-Modcou hydrological system. Isba is a land surface model that calculates the energy and water balance and Modcou is a hydrogeological model that routes the surface runoff given by Isba. Based on a large ensemble of simulations on the historical period (28) and multiple simulations from the same model with different initial conditions, a robust evaluation of the internal variability is made. The variability simulated by the hydrological model with dowsncaled climate simulations is compared with observations on the 20th century. Long-term trends in simulated river flows are also compared with observations. Potential changes of the continental hydrological cycle in the last century are also explored. Future impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle of the main French rivers basins are evaluated with downscaled climate simulations driven by the Radiative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5. This large ensemble of simulations (20 for the RCP4.5 scenario and 18 for the RCP 8.5 scenario) allows to evaluate the respective importance of uncertainties from the internal climate variability, climate models and emission scenarios. References : Dayon et al. (2015), Transferability in the future climate of a statistical downscaling method for precipitation in France, Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmosphere, in press.

  5. Predictions of avian Plasmodium expansion under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Loiseau, Claire; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Bichet, Coraline; Julliard, Romain; Garnier, Stéphane; Lendvai, Ádám Z.; Chastel, Olivier; Sorci, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are particularly responsive to changing environmental conditions. Diurnal temperature variation has been identified as a particularly important factor for the development of malaria parasites within vectors. Here, we conducted a survey across France, screening populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) for malaria (Plasmodium relictum). We investigated whether variation in remotely-sensed environmental variables accounted for the spatial variation observed in prevalence and parasitemia. While prevalence was highly correlated to diurnal temperature range and other measures of temperature variation, environmental conditions could not predict spatial variation in parasitemia. Based on our empirical data, we mapped malaria distribution under climate change scenarios and predicted that Plasmodium occurrence will spread to regions in northern France, and that prevalence levels are likely to increase in locations where transmission already occurs. Our findings, based on remote sensing tools coupled with empirical data suggest that climatic change will significantly alter transmission of malaria parasites. PMID:23350033

  6. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. van der Vink; Y. Plancherel; C. Hennet; K. D. Jones; A. Abdullah; J. Bradshaw; S. Dee; A. Deprez; M. Pasenello; E. Plaza-Jennings; D. Roseman; P. Sopher; E. Sung

    2009-01-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events

  7. Global Climate Change Interaction Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1998-01-01

    Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)

  8. Forensic entomology and climatic change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margherita Turchetto; Stefano Vanin

    2004-01-01

    Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate

  9. Climate Change: Evidence and Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The fundamentals of climate change are well established: greenhouse gases warm the planet; their concentrations in the atmosphere are increasing; Earth has warmed, and is going to continue warming with a range of impacts. This article summarises the contents of a recent publication issued by the UK's Royal Society and the US National Academy…

  10. Climate Change Wildlife and Wildlands

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    This video focuses on the science of climate change and its impacts on wildlife on land and in the sea, and their habitats in the U.S. There are short sections on walruses, coral reefs, migrating birds and their breeding grounds, freshwater fish, bees, etc. Video concludes with some discussion about solutions, including reduce/recyle/reuse, energy conservation, backyard habitats, citizen scientists.

  11. CLIMATE CHANGE AND N DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project investigates the potential influence of climate change on wet deposition of reduced nitrogen across the U.S. The concentration of ammonium-nitrogen in precipitation is known to increase with temperature, owing to temperature dependent ammonia source strengths (natur...

  12. Climate Change: Science, Skepticism, Solutions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kutscher, Charles F.

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation on climate change from Chuck Kutscher of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The presentation includes graphics and data. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  13. Media power and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Julia B.

    2015-04-01

    Fingers are often pointed directly at the news media for their powerful influence and ineffective reporting of climate change. But is that the best place to point? And are there more effective ways to conceptualize the power of the media and to consider whom they serve?

  14. A Lesson on Climate Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jim

    This cooperative learning activity, for grades 7-12, promotes critical thinking skills within the context of learning about the causes and effects of climate change. Objectives include: (1) understanding factors that reduce greenhouse gases; (2) understanding the role of trees in reducing greenhouse gases; (3) identifying foods that produce…

  15. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  16. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  17. Climate change and trace gases.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Kharecha, Pushker; Russell, Gary; Lea, David W; Siddall, Mark

    2007-07-15

    Palaeoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the 'albedo flip' property of ice/water, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that 'flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Inertia of ice sheet and ocean provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the largest human-made climate forcing, but other trace constituents are also important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. The most important of the non-CO2 forcings is methane (CH4), as it causes the second largest human-made GHG climate forcing and is the principal cause of increased tropospheric ozone (O3), which is the third largest GHG forcing. Nitrous oxide (N2O) should also be a focus of climate mitigation efforts. Black carbon ('black soot') has a high global warming potential (approx. 2000, 500 and 200 for 20, 100 and 500 years, respectively) and deserves greater attention. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could preserve Arctic ice, while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity and the global environment. PMID:17513270

  18. Evaluacion de los impactos del cambio climatico en los diferentes viñedos de Francia utilizando el modelo STICS-viña Evaluation des impacts du changement climatique dans les différents vignobles de France à l'aide du modèle STICS-vigne Evaluation of the impacts of the climatic change in the various vineyards of France using the crop model STICS-grapevine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Jacquet; Jean-Payan; Marion Claverie; Jean Claude; Bottois Nicolas; Dumot Vincent; Domaine Donadille; Expérimentale Vigne; I. García de Cortázar Atauri

    Climate change will have consequences on the growth and the physiology of the vine and thus on the quality and the output of harvests. The taking into account of the whole of the reactions biophysics of the system soil-climate-variety-technical practices, with the modification of the factors of the climate and the rise in CO2, is thus necessary to characterize the

  19. Climate Science in a Nutshell: Climate Change Around the World?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Planet Nutshell

    This video is part of the Climate Science in a Nutshell video series. This short video looks at the effects of climate change happening right now around the globe, including: more extreme weather events, droughts, forest fires, land use changes, altered ranges of disease-carrying insects, and the loss of some agricultural products. It concludes with a discussion of the differences among weather, climate variability and climate change.

  20. A common-sense climate index: Is climate changing noticeably?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Glascoe, Jay; Ruedy, Reto

    1998-01-01

    We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent already, but in most places climate trends are too small to stand out above year-to-year variability. The climate index is strongly correlated with global surface temperature, which has increased as rapidly as projected by climate models in the 1980s. We argue that the global area with obvious climate change will increase notably in the next few years. But we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has declined in recent years, and thus there is an opportunity to keep climate change in the 21st century less than “business-as-usual” scenarios. PMID:9539699

  1. Ecological Restoration and Global Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Harris; Richard J. Hobbs; Eric Higgs; James Aronson

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing consensus that global climate change occurs and that potential changes in climate are likely to have important regional consequences for biota and ecosystems. Ecological restoration, including (re)- afforestation and rehabilitation of degraded land, is included in the array of potential human responses to cli- mate change. However, the implications of climate change for the broader practice

  2. Challenges and Possibilities in Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau,, Diane; Khattabi, Abdellatif; Demers, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Educating and communicating about climate change is challenging. Researchers reported that climate change concepts are often misunderstood. Some people do not believe that climate change will have impacts on their own life. Other challenges may include people's difficulty in perceiving small or gradual environmental changes, the fact that…

  3. The greenhouse effect and climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. B. Mitchell; J. F. B

    1989-01-01

    The physical basis of the projected changes in climate due to enhancement of the greenhouse effect is outlined. Gases important to the greenhouse effect are discussed as well as the expected changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases, potential climatic effects, and the ways of detecting changes in the climate. The potential warming due to man-made changes over the last

  4. Ecological Consequences of Recent Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. McCarty

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change is frequently considered a major conservation threat. The Earth's climate has already warmed by 0.5 8 C over the past century, and recent studies show that it is possible to detect the ef- fects of a changing climate on ecological systems. This suggests that global change may be a current and fu- ture conservation threat. Changes in

  5. Atmospheric composition change: Climate–Chemistry interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. A. Isaksen; C. Granier; G. Myhre; T. K. Berntsen; S. B. Dalsøren; M. Gauss; Z. Klimont; R. Benestad; P. Bousquet; W. Collins; T. Cox; V. Eyring; D. Fowler; S. Fuzzi; P. Jöckel; P. Laj; U. Lohmann; M. Maione; P. Monks; A. S. H. Prevot; F. Raes; A. Richter; B. Rognerud; M. Schulz; D. Shindell; D. S. Stevenson; T. Storelvmo; W.-C. Wang; M. van Weele; M. Wild; D. Wuebbles

    2009-01-01

    Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds like methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds like ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, both formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate–chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change,

  6. Climate Change Modeling: Computational Opportunities and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dali Wang; Wilfred M. Post; Bruce E. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    High-fidelity climate models are the workhorses of modern climate change sciences. In this article, the authors focus on several computational issues associated with climate change modeling, covering simulation methodologies, temporal and spatial modeling restrictions, the role of high-end computing, as well as the importance of data-driven regional climate impact modeling.

  7. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

  8. Risk management and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunreuther, Howard; Heal, Geoffrey; Allen, Myles; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Field, Christopher B.; Yohe, Gary

    2013-05-01

    The selection of climate policies should be an exercise in risk management reflecting the many relevant sources of uncertainty. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. Hence policy analysis cannot effectively evaluate alternatives using standard approaches, such as expected utility theory and benefit-cost analysis. This Perspective highlights the value of robust decision-making tools designed for situations such as evaluating climate policies, where consensus on probability distributions is not available and stakeholders differ in their degree of risk tolerance. A broader risk-management approach enables a range of possible outcomes to be examined, as well as the uncertainty surrounding their likelihoods.

  9. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    E-print Network

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  10. COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING IN

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING Columbia must adapt to climate change by preparing for expected and unexpected changes in their communities that planners do not have a high level of knowledge of climate change adaptation. Planners feel that the impacts

  11. America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Academies

    This video production is a part of a four-panel report from the National Academies' America's Climate Choices project. The video maps out the realm of our accumulated knowledge regarding climate change and charts a path forward, urging that research on climate change enter a new era focused on the needs of decision makers.

  12. Regional Changes in Extreme Climatic Events: A Future Climate Scenario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason L. Bell; Lisa C. Sloan; Mark A. Snyder

    2004-01-01

    In this study a regional climate model is employed to expand on modeling experiments of future climate change to address issues of 1) the timing and length of the growing season and 2) the frequency and intensity of extreme temperatures and precipitation. The study focuses on California as a climatically complex region that is vulnerable to changes in water supply

  13. A Common-Sense Climate Index: Is Climate Changing Noticeably?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Makiko Sato; Jay Glascoe; Reto Ruedy

    1998-01-01

    We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent

  14. Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Nina L.; Leopold, A. Carl; Ross, John; Huffaker, Wellington

    1999-01-01

    A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes reflect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was ?0.12 day per year, an overall increase in phenological earliness at this site during the period. Some phenophases have not increased in earliness, as would be expected for phenophases that are regulated by photoperiod or by a physiological signal other than local temperature. PMID:10449757

  15. Mitigating Climate Change in China and Ethiopia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2010-11-30

    In this video segment adapted from Hope in a Changing Climate, learn how an environmentally devastated ecosystem has been restored, benefiting both the local economy and global efforts to fight climate change.

  16. What do Squirrels know about Climate Change?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What do Squirrels know about Climate Change? This activity was developed during the Teaching Climate Change from the Geological Record workshop, held in August 2010.Contributed by: Beth Norman, Allan Ashworth, and ...

  17. Climate Change and the Historical Imagination

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Climate Change and the Historical Imagination Thursday, March 28, 2013 4:30 ­ 6:00 p.m. Wrigley on anthropogenic climate change and its implications for historical thinking, on the history of the idea

  18. RISKS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptation is an important approach for protecting human health, ecosystems, and economic systems from the risks posed by climate variability and change, and to exploit beneficial opportunities provided by a changing climate. This paper presents nine fundamental principles that ...

  19. Global Climate Change and the Mitigation Challenge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book edited by Frank Princiotta titled Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Transparent modeling tools and the most recent literature are used, to quantify the challenge posed by climate change and potential technological remedies. The chapter examines forces driving ...

  20. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it’s important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

  1. Climate change and the global harvest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Rosenzweig; Daniel Hillel

    1998-01-01

    This book summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge on the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. The book begins by introducing the nonspecialist to the causes of climate change, and reviews the main climate change drivers and impacts. It then goes on to review all major aspects of climate change impact on agriculture in detail. The scope is very broad indeed--the authors

  2. Climate Change: A Case Study Over India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Sahai

    1998-01-01

    Summary   A brief account of various causes of climate change in recent decades and climate change trends in the Indian region is presented.\\u000a It is of great importance to determine the influence of human activities on the likely climate change during recent decades.\\u000a Local temperature is one of the major climatic elements to record the changes in the atmospheric environment

  3. Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities

    E-print Network

    Crawford, J. G.

    Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities Jim Crawford Trane jim.crawford@trane.com www.trane.com Abstract Atmospheric scientists tell us that mankind is changing the climate, and is setting in motion forces that can... make essentially irreversible changes in the climate of the future. Naysayers dispute whether mankind is even capable of changing the climate. Today we are hearing more from the scientists and less from the naysayers. This presentation will review...

  4. Climate change and Arctic parasites.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Andy; Molnár, Péter K; Kutz, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Climate is changing rapidly in the Arctic. This has important implications for parasites of Arctic ungulates, and hence for the welfare of Arctic peoples who depend on caribou, reindeer, and muskoxen for food, income, and a focus for cultural activities. In this Opinion article we briefly review recent work on the development of predictive models for the impacts of climate change on helminth parasites and other pathogens of Arctic wildlife, in the hope that such models may eventually allow proactive mitigation and conservation strategies. We describe models that have been developed using the metabolic theory of ecology. The main strength of these models is that they can be easily parameterized using basic information about the physical size of the parasite. Initial results suggest they provide important new insights that are likely to generalize to a range of host-parasite systems. PMID:25900882

  5. Applied Climate-Change Analysis: The Climate Wizard Tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan H. Girvetz; Chris Zganjar; George T. Raber; Edwin P. Maurer; Peter Kareiva; Joshua J. Lawler; Anna Traveset

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundAlthough the message of “global climate change” is catalyzing international action, it is local and regional changes that directly affect people and ecosystems and are of immediate concern to scientists, managers, and policy makers. A major barrier preventing informed climate-change adaptation planning is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting climate-change information. To address this problem, we developed a powerful, yet

  6. Climate Change in South Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mannava V. K. Sivakumar; Robert Stefanski

    \\u000a South Asia, is home to over one fifth of the world’s population and is known to be the most disaster prone region in the world.\\u000a The high rates of ­population growth, and natural resource degradation, with continuing high rates of poverty and food insecurity\\u000a make South Asia one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. In

  7. Teaching Climate Change Through Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, P. S.

    2007-12-01

    During 2006, Peter Weiss aka "The Singing Scientist" performed many music assemblies for elementary schools (K-5) in Santa Cruz County, California, USA. These assemblies were an opportunity for him to mix a discussion of climate change with rock n' roll. In one song called "Greenhouse Glasses", Peter and his band the "Earth Rangers" wear over-sized clown glasses with "molecules" hanging off them (made with Styrofoam balls and pipe cleaners). Each molecule is the real molecular structure of a greenhouse gas, and the song explains how when the wearer of these glasses looks up in the sky, he/she can see the "greenhouse gases floating by." "I've seen more of them this year than the last / 'Cuz fossil fuels are burning fast / I wish everyone could see through these frames / Then maybe we could prevent climate change" Students sing, dance and get a visual picture of something that is invisible, yet is part of a very real problem. This performance description is used as an example of an educational style that can reach a wide audience and provide a framework for the audience as learners to assimilate future information on climate change. The hypothesis is that complex socio-environmental issues like climate change that must be taught in order to achieve sustainability are best done so through alternative mediums like music. Students develop awareness which leads to knowledge about chemistry, physics, and biology. These kinds of experiences which connect science learning to fun activities and community building are seriously lacking in primary and secondary schools and are a big reason why science illiteracy is a current social problem. Science education is also paired with community awareness (including the local plant/animal community) and cooperation. The Singing Scientist attempts to create a culture where it is cool to care about the environment. Students end up gardening in school gardens together and think about their "ecological footprint".

  8. Climate change-integrated conservation strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hannah; G. F. Midgley; D. Millar

    2002-01-01

    Aim Conservation strategies currently include little consider- ation of climate change. Insights about the biotic impacts of climate change from biogeography and palaeoecology, there- fore, have the potential to provide significant improvements in the effectiveness of conservation planning. We suggest a collaboration involving biogeography, ecology and applied conservation. The resulting Climate Change-integrated Conservation Strategies (CCS) apply available tools to respond

  9. Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Poff, N. LeRoy

    Saving Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE Edited by Lee Hannah ISLANDPRESS-in-Publication Data Saving a million species : extinction risk from climate change / edited by LeeHannah. p. cm. ISBN-10: 1-59726-570-5 (paper) 1. Climatic changes. 2. Global warming. 3. Extinction (Biology

  10. Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

  11. Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change…

  12. USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan #12;2 INTRODUCTIONEXECUTIVE SUMMARY This USACE Adaptation Plan describes activities underway to evaluate the most significant climate change related risks in supporting mainstreaming climate change adaptation has focused on clarifying our adaptation mission and goals

  13. Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change Climate Change Center to lead this effort. The 2009 Adaptation Strategy prepared by the California Natural Resources Agency also called for a statewide vulnerability and adaptation study. This report summarizes

  14. Demographic Approaches to Assessing Climate Change Impact

    E-print Network

    Funk, W. Chris

    58 4 Demographic Approaches to Assessing Climate Change Impact: An Application to Pond autonomously to climate change-induced shifts as a result of extensive human modifications of these ecosystems, amphibians may be especially vulnerable to climate change impacts in both sets of landscapes, and some

  15. Climate Change and Water Resources in the

    E-print Network

    Vuille, Mathias

    Climate Change and Water Resources in the Tropical Andes Mathias Vuille Inter-American Development Bank Environmental Safeguards Unit TECHNICAL NOTE No. IDB-TN-515 March 2013 #12;Climate Change-American Development Bank Felipe Herrera Library Vuille, Mathias. Climate change and water resources in the tropical

  16. Climate change projections and stratospheretroposphere interaction

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Climate change projections and stratosphere­troposphere interaction 1234567 15578379AB72C4DE F547A1 #12;1 1 Climate Change Projections and Stratosphere-Troposphere Interaction Adam A. Scaife*,1 , Thomas ­ University of Toronto, Canada. #12;2 2 ABSTRACT Climate change is expected to increase winter rainfall

  17. Climate change cripples forests October 1, 2012

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Climate change cripples forests October 1, 2012 Southwestern US trees face rising drought, and several other partner organizations. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change Connection Described in a paper published in Nature Climate Change this week, "Temperature as a potent driver of regional forest

  18. 7, 1114111189, 2007 Climate change and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric ozone G. Zeng et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone and its global budgets G. Zeng, J. A. Pyle, and P. Zeng (guang.zeng@atm.ch.cam.ac.uk) 11141 #12;ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE AND MANAGED ECOSYSTEMS: BOOK REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July, 2004, an important international climate change conference convened in Edmonton, Canada, “The Science of Changing Climates – Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands”. Leading experts in climate change, mostly from the natural and agricultural sciences, exchanged the latest findings o...

  20. Whither the International Climate Change Regime?

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    Whither the International Climate Change Regime? The Road from Cancun Wednesday, January 19, 2011 Bodansky is a preeminent authority on global climate change whose teaching and research focus on international environmental law and public international law. He has served as the climate change coordinator

  1. Food Rights, Food Frugality, and Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Vincentnathan

    2012-01-01

    Climate change-related food issues are key problems affecting the world today and into the future. This paper investigates how climate change is harming and is expected to harm food sources on land and in the sea, and how food production itself, especially industrialized agriculture and meat production, contributes to climate change. This article uses human rights discourse to frame the

  2. Adaptation to climate change in forest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Spittlehouse; Robert B. Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Adaptation in forestry is sustainable forest management that includes a climate change focus. Climate change over the next 100 years is expected to have significant impacts on forest ecosystems. The forestry community needs to evaluate the long-term effects of climate change on forests and determine what the community might do now and in the future to respond to this threat.

  3. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC Climate change will affect both sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff

  4. Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1

    E-print Network

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1 J. Marotzke,2 W. D. Nordhaus,3 J. T. Overpeck,4 D. M. Peteet,5. Wallace8 Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur

  5. Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic

    E-print Network

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic Tomography, Satellite Altimetry, and Modeling The ATOC to thermal expansion. Interpreting climate change signals from fluctuations in sea level is therefore in the advective heat flux. Changes in oceanic heat storage are a major expected element of future climate shifts

  6. BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change

    E-print Network

    Kraft, Nathan

    BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

  7. Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing

    E-print Network

    Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental climate change when relicensing hydropower units, stating that there is a lack of scientific information this project, researchers are conducting an environmental study on climate change for the Yuba River

  8. Stratospheric Changes and Climate Coordinating Lead Authors

    E-print Network

    Son, Seok-Woo

    Chapter 4 Stratospheric Changes and Climate Coordinating Lead Authors: P.M. Forster D.W.J. Thompson.P. Free A.I. Jonsson J. Logan D. Stevenson #12;#12;Chapter 4 StratoSpheric changeS and climate contents............................................................................................................................3 4.1 OBSERVED VARIATIONS IN STRATOSPHERIC CONSTITuENTS THAT RELATE TO CLIMATE.........4 4.1.1 Long

  9. Psychological research and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Stern, Paul C.; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda; Steg, Linda; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2015-07-01

    Human behaviour is integral not only to causing global climate change but also to responding and adapting to it. Here, we argue that psychological research should inform efforts to address climate change, to avoid misunderstandings about human behaviour and motivations that can lead to ineffective or misguided policies. We review three key research areas: describing human perceptions of climate change; understanding and changing individual and household behaviour that drives climate change; and examining the human impacts of climate change and adaptation responses. Although much has been learned in these areas, we suggest important directions for further research.

  10. Climate change, environment and allergy.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

  11. Methodological proposals for estimating the price of climate in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, D.; Brossard, T.; Cardot, H.; Cavailhes, J.; Hilal, M.; Wavresky, P.

    2009-09-01

    A current project linking economists, geographers and mathematicians evaluates the price of climate in France. The economic data are mainly from housing surveys conducted by the INSEE. It consists in a total of 9,640 buyers of single-detached houses, 2,658 buyers of apartments, 3,447 tenants of single-detached houses and 8,615 tenants of apartments. Each transaction is located in space by X-Y geographical coordinates. The climatic data are derived from the Meteo-France data base (normal 1970-2000). They are related to (1) mean annual temperature, (2) mean temperature for January and July, (3) number of days with temperatures of less than -5 °C in January and more than 30 °C in July, (4) mean monthly rainfall, (5) rainfall in January and July, (6) number of days' precipitation in January and July. These data are recorded by a network of scattered weather stations. A raster GIS composed by ten data layers derived from a DEM and remote sensing images at 250 m resolution is used to initiate interpolations. Four types of interpolation techniques were tested. First we used regressions between climatic data (variables to be explained) and explanatory variables stored into the GIS. Second we used ordinary kriging; third a double step method linking regression and then kriging of the regression residuals. Finally we used a local interpolation method. Based on standard deviation values obtained by cross validation and R² values, the comparison between the four methods shows that the last one reduces the residuals to the minimum and explains the maximum of variance. It was retained in our project to compute continuous field of the climatic data. The predicted values are then merged with the housing survey data. We use the hedonic price method (Rosen, 1974) to determine the price of climatic attributes, which are capitalized in land rents. Three econometric methods are used: a fixed-effects model estimated by OLS or PLS method and a mixed model with random intercepts. The identification problem, well-known in hedonic literature, is not a problem here, because climate is a non-produced good. Some explanatory variables may be endogenous; thus, we use the instrumental method. Finally, multicollinearity, detected by the condition number, occurs between climatic variables; thus we use a second estimation procedure, Partial Least Squares. The mean annual temperature has a positive significant effect on the housing price for owner occupiers: a rise of 1 °C entails an increase in housing prices of 5.9-6.2% (according to the equation and estimation method). The sign is also positive for tenants, with values between 2.5 and 3.9%, which are roughly half as much as for owner-occupiers. The effect of warmer summers (mean July temperature minus mean annual temperature) is compounded with the preceding one for single-detached houses: an extra 1 °C entails a price increase of 3.7 to 8.4% (depending on the model). This effect is insignificant for apartments. Hot summer days (more than 30 °C) have a significant effect for owner-occupiers of single-detached houses and renters of apartments. At the median point, an extra day of heat lowers the value of housing by 4.3% (owner-occupiers) or by 1% (tenants). This effect is quadratic, probably due to seaside sites where hot summers are appreciated. French households are insensitive to cold winters, either the January temperature minus the mean annual temperature or the number of coldest days (less than - 5 °C). The number of days' rain in January and July has a significant effect on real-estate values. The January sign is the expected: prices or rents fall by almost 1.2-2.3% for an extra day's rain. The number of days of rainfall in July also exerts a positive effect on the price of apartments (but not on the price of single-detached houses), indicating that households pay more for their housing (1.4 to 4.4%) for an extra summer day's rain. Rosen S., 1974. Hedonic prices and implicit markets: product differentiation in pure competition. J. of Polit. Economy 82: 34-55.

  12. North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Producing Regional Climate Change Projections for Climate Impacts Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Arritt; L. Mearns; C. Anderson; D. Bader; E. Buonomo; D. Caya; P. Duffy; N. Elguindi; F. Giorgi; W. Gutowski; I. Held; A. Nunes; R. Jones; R. Laprise; L. R. Leung; D. Middleton; W. Moufouma-Okia; D. Nychka; Y. Qian; J. Roads; S. Sain; M. Snyder; L. Sloan; E. Takle

    2006-01-01

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is constructing projections of regional climate change over the coterminous United States and Canada in order to provide climate change information at decision relevant scales. A major goal of NARCCAP is to estimate uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate by using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within multiple

  13. Conceptualizing Climate Change in the Context of a Climate System: Implications for Climate and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Roychoudhury, Anita; Hirsch, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural…

  14. Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Anita Roychoudhury; Andrew Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students’ understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural and human influences result in

  15. Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Anita Roychoudhury; Andrew Hirsch

    2012-01-01

    Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students’ understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural and human influences result in

  16. Climate Change or Land Use Dynamics: Do We Know What Climate Change Indicators Indicate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Clavero; Daniel Villero; Lluís Brotons; Stephen G. Willis

    2011-01-01

    Different components of global change can have interacting effects on biodiversity and this may influence our ability to detect the specific consequences of climate change through biodiversity indicators. Here, we analyze whether climate change indicators can be affected by land use dynamics that are not directly determined by climate change. To this aim, we analyzed three community-level indicators of climate

  17. Climate change scenarios for the assessments of the climate change on regional ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Viner; M. Hulme; S. C. B. Raper

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines the different methods which may be used for the construction of regional climate change scenarios. The main focus of the paper is the construction of regional climate change scenarios from climate change experiments carried out using General Circulation Models (GCMs). An introduction to some GCM climate change experiments highlights the difference between model types and experiments (e.g.

  18. Climate change in the Netherlands | 1 Climate change in the Netherlands

    E-print Network

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Climate change in the Netherlands | 1 Climate change in the Netherlands Supplements to the KNMI'06 scenarios #12;2 | Climate change in the Netherlands Abstract 1 Introduction 1.1 Objective and contents 1 of climate simulations 2.6 Observed rapid warming in the Netherlands Probability of extremes in a changing

  19. Learning about Climate Change: Finance Ministries in International Climate Change Politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    In the course of the last four years, finance ministries have increasingly become involved in the international climate change negotiations. Their involvement has to a large degree been an outcome of the framing of climate change as a market failure. This framing calls for an active climate change policy and is at odds with the framing of climate change policy

  20. Ocean Mixing and Climate ChangeOcean Mixing and Climate Change Factors inducing seawater mixing

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    Ocean Mixing and Climate ChangeOcean Mixing and Climate Change #12;Factors inducing seawater mixing than the atmosphere to climate changes; it acts as "buffer" #12;Concepts to bear in mind than the atmosphere to climate changes; it acts as "buffer" 4. Heat, CO2 are stored in the ocean #12

  1. UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

  2. Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law Monica Molina, Columbia College '14 Supervisor Meredith Wilensky, J.D. Introduction The Climate Change Laws of the World Project is an ongoing effort at the Center for Climate Change Law (CCCL) to aggregate existing domestic

  3. A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century Miche`le B; accepted 30 November 2006; published 10 January 2007. [1] A Climate Change Index (CCI) is developed to a single index that is a measure for the strength of future climate change relative to today's natural

  4. Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

  5. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear

    E-print Network

    Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters Rob Goldston MIT IAP plays a large role in replacing coal red plants. al hydro electricity options penetrate in the climate way across scenarios, showing a slight severe climate targets. In Industry, the climate target has

  6. Regional Climate Change Hotspots over Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Anber

    2009-01-01

    Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI), is developed based on regional mean precipitation change, mean surface air temperature change, and change in precipitation and temperature interannual variability. The RCCI is a comparative index designed to identify the most responsive regions to climate change, or Hot- Spots. The RCCI is calculated for Seven land regions over North Africa and Arabian region from

  7. Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-28

    This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:? Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.? Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.? Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.? Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

  8. Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

  9. Climate Change in the Preservice Teacher's Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2013-10-01

    Given the recent media attention on the public’s shift in opinion toward being more skeptical about climate change, 154 preservice teachers’ participated in an intervention in an elementary science methods course. Findings indicated that students developed a deeper level of concern about climate change. Their perceptions on the evidence for climate change, consensus of scientists, impacts of climate change, and influence of politics also changed significantly. The curriculum and instruction appear to be an important factor in increasing understanding of climate change and developing perceptions more aligned to those of climate scientists. More broadly, this study provides preliminary support for the value of providing a careful framing of the topic of climate change within the context of science methods courses.

  10. Physiological ecology meets climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we pointed out that understanding the physiology of differential climate change effects on organisms is one of the many urgent challenges faced in ecology and evolutionary biology. We explore how physiological ecology can contribute to a holistic view of climate change impacts on organisms and ecosystems and their evolutionary responses. We suggest that theoretical and experimental efforts not only need to improve our understanding of thermal limits to organisms, but also to consider multiple stressors both on land and in the oceans. As an example, we discuss recent efforts to understand the effects of various global change drivers on aquatic ectotherms in the field that led to the development of the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) as a framework integrating various drivers and linking organisational levels from ecosystem to organism, tissue, cell, and molecules. We suggest seven core objectives of a comprehensive research program comprising the interplay among physiological, ecological, and evolutionary approaches for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. While studies of individual aspects are already underway in many laboratories worldwide, integration of these findings into conceptual frameworks is needed not only within one organism group such as animals but also across organism domains such as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Indeed, development of unifying concepts is relevant for interpreting existing and future findings in a coherent way and for projecting the future ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on functional biodiversity. We also suggest that OCLTT may in the end and from an evolutionary point of view, be able to explain the limited thermal tolerance of metazoans when compared to other organisms. PMID:25798220

  11. Physiological ecology meets climate change.

    PubMed

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we pointed out that understanding the physiology of differential climate change effects on organisms is one of the many urgent challenges faced in ecology and evolutionary biology. We explore how physiological ecology can contribute to a holistic view of climate change impacts on organisms and ecosystems and their evolutionary responses. We suggest that theoretical and experimental efforts not only need to improve our understanding of thermal limits to organisms, but also to consider multiple stressors both on land and in the oceans. As an example, we discuss recent efforts to understand the effects of various global change drivers on aquatic ectotherms in the field that led to the development of the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) as a framework integrating various drivers and linking organisational levels from ecosystem to organism, tissue, cell, and molecules. We suggest seven core objectives of a comprehensive research program comprising the interplay among physiological, ecological, and evolutionary approaches for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. While studies of individual aspects are already underway in many laboratories worldwide, integration of these findings into conceptual frameworks is needed not only within one organism group such as animals but also across organism domains such as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Indeed, development of unifying concepts is relevant for interpreting existing and future findings in a coherent way and for projecting the future ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on functional biodiversity. We also suggest that OCLTT may in the end and from an evolutionary point of view, be able to explain the limited thermal tolerance of metazoans when compared to other organisms. PMID:25798220

  12. Climate Reel: Global Climate Change - NASA's Eyes on the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website is a collection of NASA's best videos and visualizations of climate change. The Top 10 Climate Movies are featured. Other videos, animated visuals and images are listed by themes: Life on Earth, Water, The Land, The Atmosphere, The Sun, Frozen Places, and Climate Data. Links to complete transcripts are available.

  13. Climate Change and Human Security1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Wisner; Maureen Fordham; Ilan Kelman; Barbara Rose Johnston; David Simon; Allan Lavell; Hans Günter; Gustavo Wilches-Chaux; Marcus Moench

    percent of those living below the poverty line are women 3 for whom climate change represents very specific threats to security. When the impacts of climate change are brought home, then women, in their roles as the primary managers of family, food, water and health, must deal very directly with the impacts. While natural climate variations have existed for millennia,

  14. Effect of climate change on air quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Jacob; Darrell A. Winner

    2009-01-01

    Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results.

  15. The ocean and climate change policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grantly Galland; Ellycia Harrould-Kolieb; Dorothée Herr

    2012-01-01

    The ocean plays a major role in regulating Earth's climate system, and is highly vulnerable to climate change, but continues to receive little attention in the ongoing policymaking designed to mitigate and adapt to global climate change. There are numerous ways to consider the ocean more significantly when developing these policies, several of which offer the co-benefits of biodiversity protection

  16. Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…

  17. Tree rings, carbon dioxide, and climatic change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GORDON C. JACOBY; ROSANNE D. D'ARRIGO

    1997-01-01

    Tree rings have been used in various appli- cations to reconstruct past climates as well as to assess the effects of recent climatic and environmental change on tree growth. In this paper we brief ly review two ways that tree rings provide information about climate change and CO2 :( i )i n determining whether recent warming during the period of

  18. Climate Change, Agriculture, Forests, and Biofuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent Sohngen

    This paper reviews literature on the impacts of climate change and climate change policy on agriculture and forests. The review suggests that the range of results in the impact literature is widening rather than narrowing as more studies are added. To a large degree, however, the range of results appears to depend largely on uncertainty in the climate effects themselves.

  19. Evaluation method for climate change mitigation instruments

    E-print Network

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    Evaluation method for climate change mitigation instruments Popi A. Konidari* National of these instruments is to be effective in mitigating climate change through GHG emissions reductions. The second level@kepa.uoa.gr Abstract. AMS is a specially developed evaluation method for climate policy instruments. The same method

  20. Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change Robert Socolow Princeton University socolow should provide at least one wedge. #12;"The Wedge Model is the iPod of climate change: You fill/yr, 30 miles per gallon b) Fly 10,000 miles/yr c) Heat home Natural gas, average house, average climate d

  1. Comparison of two potato simulation models under climate change. II Application of climate change scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wolf

    2002-01-01

    The effects of climate change (for the year 2050 compared to ambient climate) and change in climatic variability on potato growth and production at 6 sites in Europe were calculated. These calculations were done with both a simple growth model, POTATOS, and a comprehensive model, NPOTATO. Comparison of the results from both models indicated the sort of climate change conditions

  2. PETM: Unearthing Ancient Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Museum Natural History

    In this video, a team of paleontologists, paleobotanists, soil scientists, and other researchers take to the field in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin to document how the climate, plants, and animals there changed during the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) when a sudden, enormous influx of carbon flooded the ocean and atmosphere for reasons that are still unclear to scientists. The PTEM is used as an analog to the current warming occurring. The scientists' research may help inform our understanding of current increases in carbon in the atmosphere and ocean and the resulting impact on ecosystems. Supporting materials include essay and interactive overview of animals that existed in the Basin after the PETM event.

  3. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  4. 10 Facts on Climate Change and Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and other greenhouse gases to affect the global climate. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased ... lower atmosphere. The resulting changes in the global climate bring a range of risks to health, from ...

  5. Climate Change: A simulation with commentary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Global Environmental Research

    This webpage contains two videos that show climate visualizations created by super computers. Both videos show climate changes that may occur during the 21st Century due to human activities based on IPCC science.

  6. Responding to the Consequences of Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning climate change, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate climate change and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the changing water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality climate change. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and sea ice; changes in runoff; rising sea level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of climate change is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and changes in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and changes in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of climate-induced changes in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, changes in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of climate change effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale changes in human behavior that affect the climate and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on climate, the many options for mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.

  7. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory data analysis the approaches on climate time series, trend analysis and extreme events analysis are explained. Tools to describe relations within the data sets and significance tests further corroborate this. Within the weekly exercises that have to be prepared at home, the students work with self-selected climate data sets and apply the learned methods. The presentation and discussion of intermediate results by the students is as much part of the exercises as the illustration of possible methodological procedures by the teacher using exemplary data sets. The total time expenditure of the course is 270 hours with 90 attendance hours. The remainder consists of individual studies, e.g., preparation of discussions and presentations, statistical data analysis, and scientific writing. Different forms of examination are applied including written or oral examination, scientific report, presentation and portfolio work.

  8. Changes in Streamflow Percentiles under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Roobavannan, M.; Kanae, S.

    2013-12-01

    Various studies have shown that the occurrence of floods and droughts will change under global warming. This study uses the bias-corrected runoff outputs of multiple general circulation models (GCMs) participating in the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to analyze the changes in the extreme streamflow percentiles. Under the highest emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5), compared to 20C (1971-2000) multimodel mean, ~77% (19%) of the world shows increase (decrease) in high flow (10th percentile) in 21C (2071-2100). Similarly, ~63% (32%) shows increase (decrease) in low flow (90th percentile). Consistency among GCMs in showing similar sign (increase or decrease) of change of high flow is relatively high with more than 9 out of 11 models showing increase in ~39% of the world and more than 9 out of 11 models showing decrease in 13% of the world. Similar high consistency among models in showing similar change of low flow can be seen in 34% (increase) and 23% (decrease) of the world. Further, in 16% of the world, the high flow will increase and low flow will decrease in future suggesting reduced water availability and elevated risk of flood. As most of these regions are located in South America, Central Africa, and eastern China, which also have large population density, the number of people facing water scarcity and flood events is bound to increase with climate change. Change in multimodel mean and consistency among models for 10th percentile/high flow (a and b, respectively) and 90th percentile/low flow (c and d, respectively). Change is presented in percentage (increase is in blue shades and decrease in red shades) and consistency is presented as number of model (blue shades indicate regions with increase and red shade indicate regions with decrease).

  9. Climate change scenarios for the California region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Cayan; Edwin P. Maurer; Michael D. Dettinger; Mary Tyree; Katharine Hayhoe

    2008-01-01

    To investigate possible future climate changes in California, a set of climate change model simulations was selected and evaluated.\\u000a From the IPCC Fourth Assessment, simulations of twenty-first century climates under a B1 (low emissions) and an A2 (a medium-high\\u000a emissions) emissions scenarios were evaluated, along with occasional comparisons to the A1fi (high emissions) scenario. The\\u000a climate models whose simulations were

  10. Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5

    E-print Network

    Codron, Francis

    Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5 J relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model climate and Earth System Models, both developed in France and contributing to the 5th coupled model

  11. Seasonality and Cenozoic climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Short, D.A.; North, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Previous attempts to model the transition from an ice-free to an ice-covered state have employed annually-averaged insolation to determine whether continental drift may have caused high-latitude cooling. Results have been ambiguous. Resolving the seasonal cycle greatly changes this picture. The authors have modeled the evolution of high-latitude temperatures during the last 100 million years with an energy balance model that resolves geography and has a seasonal cycle. Early Cenozoic summer temperatures were relatively high due to increased continentality over key areas. However, changing land/sea distribution caused a significant reduction in the magnitude of summer warming. Results indicate that summer temperatures decreased by more than 10/sup 0/C over Greenland and about 7/sup 0/C over Antarctica. The transition to near-freezing temperatures occurs during the Oligocene in both hemispheres and suggests that significant ice volume may have developed by that time. An important implication of their model results concerns the nature of presumed ice-free climates. Since warm summers are balanced by cold winters, their results imply that an ice-free earth may not necessarily be a particularly warm earth. Preliminary reevaluation of some paleoecological data either support the authors hypothesis or raise questions about the alternate hypothesis that an ice-free climate implies year-around warmth at all high latitudes.

  12. Forest response to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have examined the likely response of forests to projected climate change. The consensus of these studies, as described in the second IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) assessment and other studies (e.g., Houghton et al. 1996: Smith and Tirpak 1989), is that dieback of forest is likely and could occur on regional scales. Deforestation of certain regions is even predicted by some analyses. If such events are indeed probable, they have significant policy implications. projected dieback of the southern boreal forest, for example, could have major regional economic repercussions. Range shrinkage of certain forest species is projected to be so severe that extinctions may occur. Such projections lend weight to calls for reduction of fossil fuel consumption. Although all models are necessarily only approximations of reality, the fact that so many different models have all predicted similar catastrophic results for different regions tends to lend credence to their dire predictions. Thus, the dominant view is that, in spite of uncertainty, in the models, the general trends they project are probably correct. This paper argues that, as a class, these models exhibit catastrophic effects. That is, they tend to predict forest dieback where none is likely to occur and predict range shrinkages over decades that could actually take centuries or even millennia. 10 refs.

  13. Conceptual Understanding of Climate Change with a Simple Climate Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar Dommenget; Janine Floeter

    2010-01-01

    The future climate change projections are essentially based on coupled general circulation model (CGCM) simulations, which give a distinct global warming pattern with arctic winter amplification, an equilibrium land-sea warming contrast and an inter-hemispheric warming gradient. While these simulations are the most important tool of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predictions, the conceptual understanding of these predicted structures

  14. Global climate change and international security

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, M.

    1991-01-01

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  15. COP4: International Conference on Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nannapaneni, Sujani.

    This week's In The News highlights a critical international conference on climate change, the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, currently being held (November 2-13) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Convention on Climate Change, signed and ratified by over 175 countries, is one of a series of recent international agreements dedicated to reducing anthropogenic (human-induced) climate change. Although the detection of climate change is a complex and contentious issue among scientists (and is generally refuted by industries afraid of the regulatory consequences), the potential impacts to the earth's ecosystems cannot be ignored. Thus, the Convention's "ultimate objective" is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level -- and with enough time -- to prevent "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere." The nine sites discussed provide background information, resources, and information related to COP4 and to climate change.

  16. Climate change at local level : let's look around downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Jan, J.; Moisselin, J. M.; Pagé, C.

    2009-09-01

    Weather services and climatologists in research centre are overwhelmed by requests from local authorities about climate change in their regions. Most of the times local authorities want initially a level of precision in terms of time and space scale which far beyond the scientific knowledge we have for the time being. The communication will build upon several experiences of such requests and show the importance of building common language and confidence between the different actors that are to be involved in downscaling exercise. The goal is to bridge the gap between initial requests by decision makers and existing scientific knowledge. UNDP (United Nations Development Program) set up recently a unit called ClimSAT to help regions (sub national authorities) to establish mitigation and adaptation action plans. ClimSAT already initiated such plans in Uruguay, Albania, Uganda, Senegal, Morocco, … Météo-France takes part to ClimSAT for instance by explaining the importance of data rescue, providing with latest information about climate change impacts and stressing the interests to involve national weather services in regional climate change action plans, … In Basse Normandie, Bretagne and Pays de Loire, Météo-France has been involved in several processes aiming ultimately at building local climate change action plans. For the time being, no real dynamical or statistical downscaling exercise have been launched : For impacts on precipitation pattern, IPCC models do not really agree on this zone, so downscaling is not really pertinent. For temperature, the climate change signal is clearer, but downscaling won't give much more information. Of course on other meteorogical parameters or on other variable that are linked to meteorological parameters, downscaling could be of interest and will probably be necessary. With or without downscaling, the stake is to build, at a local level, mechanisms which are similar to IPCC and UNFCCC. In that context, downscaling could either be helpful or create a kind of black box effect which will hamper real dialogues between stakeholders.

  17. Climate Change: Environmental Literacy and Inquiry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Climate Change is a technology-supported middle school science inquiry curriculum. This curriculum focuses on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change. Students use geospatial information technology tools (Google Earth), Web-based tools (including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline), and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate important climate change topics. Climate Change is aligned to the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy in addition to national science and environmental education standards. The unit takes 21 days which include pretest and post test. Assessments for each learning activity are available using the following login and password: Login: eliteacher Password: 87dja92

  18. AO\\/NAO response to climate change: 1. Respective influences of stratospheric and tropospheric climate changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rind; J. Perlwitz; P. Lonergan

    2005-01-01

    We utilize the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model and eight different climate change experiments, many of them focused on stratospheric climate forcings, to assess the relative influence of tropospheric and stratospheric climate change on the extratropical circulation indices (Arctic Oscillation, AO; North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). The experiments are run in two different ways: with variable sea surface temperatures (SSTs)

  19. Climate Change and the Nuclear Wedge Climate change frames the issue

    E-print Network

    Climate Change and the Nuclear Wedge Climate change frames the issue Scales of problem: Energy;Marty Hoffert, NYU Framing the Issue Carbon Climate impact Time scale to act is short ~50 years ~ 1 government can put climate costs on the utilities' balance sheets Energy Information Agency - http

  20. Climate Change & Water Presented by Douglas Yoder

    E-print Network

    Sukop, Mike

    1 Climate Change & Water Resources Presented by Douglas Yoder Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department · Climate Change Adaptation Plan · Energy Efficient Operations and Buildings #12;10 Conclusions · Beyond/Flooding · Water Supply/Salt Intrusion · More Frequent Drought/Intense Rain · Natural System Changes

  1. Lake Level Changes Under a Constant Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rupper; K. Huybers; G. Roe

    2008-01-01

    Lake-level changes are important indicators of climate change, providing particular insight into the nature of hydrological balances (e.g., Benson et al., 1989; Cross et al., 2000). Indeed, evidence from paleo lake changes is one of the primary reasons the hydrological cycle in the subtropics have come to be seen as potential 'tipping points' of the climate system (Lenton et al.,

  2. The Changing Climate for United States Law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Driesen

    2007-01-01

    Just a few years ago, the subject of American climate change law would not merit an article like this one, let alone the book that the American Bar Association has recently published on the subject. But the United States has changed, at least somewhat. At the moment, most important United States climate change law consists of state and local law,

  3. Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

  4. America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, P. A.; Dietz, T.; Kraucunas, I.

    2010-12-01

    At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies the nation can take to respond to climate change. This suite of activities included a panel report on Advancing the Science of Climate Change. The report concludes that a strong, credible body of scientific evidence shows that climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for a broad range of human and natural systems. As decision makers respond to these risks, the nation's scientific enterprise can contribute both by continuing to improve understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change, and by improving and expanding the options available to limit the magnitude of climate change and adapt to its impacts. To make this possible, the nation needs a comprehensive, integrated, and flexible climate change research enterprise that is closely linked with action-oriented programs at all levels. The report recommends that a single federal entity or program be given the authority and resources to coordinate a national research effort integrated across many disciplines and aimed at improving both understanding and responses to climate change. The U.S. Global Change Research Program, established in 1990, could fulfill this role, but it would need to address weaknesses in the current program and form partnerships with action-oriented programs at all levels. A comprehensive climate observing system, improved climate models and other analytical tools, investment in human capital, and better linkages between research and decision making are also essential for advancing the science of climate change.

  5. Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Under a NASA grant, Mathematical and Geospatial Pathways to Climate Change Education, students at California State University, Northridge integrated Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, satellite data technologies, and climate modelling into the study of global climate change under a Pathway for studying the Mathematics of Climate Change (PMCC). The PMCC, which is an interdisciplinary option within the BS in Applied Mathematical Sciences, consists of courses offered by the departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Geography and is designed to prepare students for careers and Ph.D. programs in technical fields relevant to global climate change. Under this option students are exposed to the science, mathematics, and applications of climate change science through a variety of methods including hands-on experience with computer modeling and image processing software. In the Geography component of the program, ESRI's ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine mapping, spatial analysis and image processing software were used to explore NASA satellite data to examine the earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in areas that are affected by climate change or affect climate. These technology tools were incorporated into climate change and remote sensing courses to enhance students' knowledge and understanding of climate change through hands-on application of image processing techniques to NASA data. Several sets of exercises were developed with specific learning objectives in mind. These were (1) to increase student understanding of climate change and climate change processes; (2) to develop student skills in understanding, downloading and processing satellite data; (3) to teach remote sensing technology and GIS through applications to climate change; (4) to expose students to climate data and methods they can apply to solve real world problems and incorporate in future research projects. In the Math and Physics components of the course, students learned about atmospheric circulation with applications of the Lorenz model, explored the land-sea breeze problem with the Dynamics and Thermodynamics Circulation Model (DTDM), and developed simple radiative transfer models. Class projects explored the effects of varying the content of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere, as well as the properties of paleoclimates in atmospheric simulations using EdGCM. Initial assessment of student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with these activities, particularly about climate change, was measured. Pre- and post-course surveys provided student perspectives about the courses and their learning about remote sensing and climate change concepts. Student performance on the tutorials and course projects evaluated students' ability to learn and apply their knowledge about climate change and skills with remote sensing to assigned problems or proposed projects of their choice. Survey and performance data illustrated that the exercises were successful in meeting their intended learning objectives as well as opportunities for further refinement and expansion.

  6. Fostering Hope in Climate Change Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swim, Janet K.; Fraser, John

    2013-01-01

    Climate Change is a complex set of issues with large social and ecological risks. Addressing it requires an attentive and climate literate population capable of making informed decisions. Informal science educators are well-positioned to teach climate science and motivate engagement, but many have resisted the topic because of self-doubt about…

  7. Advanced Review Greenland climate change: from

    E-print Network

    Bhatt, Uma

    Advanced Review Greenland climate change: from the past to the future Val´erie Masson-Delmotte,1 cores in and around Greenland allow us to place the current trends in regional climate, ice sheet lake sediments in southern Greenland document major environmental and climatic conditions during

  8. A Strategy for Climate Change Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Hibbard; G. A. Meehl; P. Cox; P. Friedlingstein

    2007-01-01

    Climate models used for climate change projections are on the threshold of including much greater biological and chemical detail. Today, standard climate models (referred to generically as atmosphere-ocean general circulation models, or AOGCMs) include components that simulate the coupled atmosphere, ocean, land and sea ice. Some modeling centers are now incorporating carbon cycle models into AOGCMs in a move towards

  9. Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17,

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    and is highest in 1000 years. Human Induced Warming? The globally averaged combined land and ocean surface 1880­2012. IPCC WGI AR5. 2013 #12;Human-Induced Global Warming? Intergovernmental Panel on Climate climate." December 1995. #12;Human-Induced Global Warming? Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  10. Warming asymmetry in climate change simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Flato; G. J. Boer

    2001-01-01

    Climate change simulations made with coupled global climate models typically show a marked hemispheric asymmetry with more warming in the northern high lati- tudes than in the south. This asymmetry is ascribed to heat uptake by the ocean at high southern latitudes. A re- cent version of the CCCma climate model exhibits a much more symmetric warming, compared to an

  11. Climate change: The IPCC scientific assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Houghton; G. J. Jenkins; J. J. Ephraums

    1990-01-01

    Book review of the intergovernmental panel on climate change report on global warming and the greenhouse effect. Covers the scientific basis for knowledge of the future climate. Presents chemistry of greenhouse gases and mathematical modelling of the climate system. The book is primarily for government policy makers.

  12. Climate Change and Coastal Eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    The world's climate has changed and human activities will continue to contribute to the acceleration of greenhouse gases and temperature rise. The major drivers of these changes are increased temperature, altered hydrological cycles and shifts in wind patterns that might alter coastal currents. Increasing temperatures alone have the potential to strengthen pycnoclines in estuarine and coastal waters, but lower surface salinity (e.g., from increased freshwater runoff) would be more of a factor in stratifying the water column. The combination of increased nutrient loads (from human activities) and increased freshwater discharge (from GCC) will aggravate the already high loads of nutrients from the Mississippi River to the northern Gulf of Mexico, strengthen stratification (all other factors remaining the same), and worsen the hypoxia situation. Reduced precipitation, on the other hand, would lower the amount of nutrients and water reaching the coastal zone and, perhaps, lead to oligotrophication and reduced fisheries productivity, or perhaps alleviate hypoxia. The increase or decrease in flow (whichever occurs), flux of nutrients and water temperature are likely to have important, but as yet not clearly identifiable, influences on hypoxia. In anticipation of the negative effects of global change, nutrient loadings to coastal waters need to be reduced now, so that further water quality degradation is prevented.

  13. Applied Climate-Change Analysis: The Climate Wizard Tool

    PubMed Central

    Girvetz, Evan H.; Zganjar, Chris; Raber, George T.; Maurer, Edwin P.; Kareiva, Peter; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the message of “global climate change” is catalyzing international action, it is local and regional changes that directly affect people and ecosystems and are of immediate concern to scientists, managers, and policy makers. A major barrier preventing informed climate-change adaptation planning is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting climate-change information. To address this problem, we developed a powerful, yet easy to use, web-based tool called Climate Wizard (http://ClimateWizard.org) that provides non-climate specialists with simple analyses and innovative graphical depictions for conveying how climate has and is projected to change within specific geographic areas throughout the world. Methodology/Principal Findings To demonstrate the Climate Wizard, we explored historic trends and future departures (anomalies) in temperature and precipitation globally, and within specific latitudinal zones and countries. We found the greatest temperature increases during 1951–2002 occurred in northern hemisphere countries (especially during January–April), but the latitude of greatest temperature change varied throughout the year, sinusoidally ranging from approximately 50°N during February-March to 10°N during August-September. Precipitation decreases occurred most commonly in countries between 0–20°N, and increases mostly occurred outside of this latitudinal region. Similarly, a quantile ensemble analysis based on projections from 16 General Circulation Models (GCMs) for 2070–2099 identified the median projected change within countries, which showed both latitudinal and regional patterns in projected temperature and precipitation change. Conclusions/Significance The results of these analyses are consistent with those reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, but at the same time, they provide examples of how Climate Wizard can be used to explore regionally- and temporally-specific analyses of climate change. Moreover, Climate Wizard is not a static product, but rather a data analysis framework designed to be used for climate change impact and adaption planning, which can be expanded to include other information, such as downscaled future projections of hydrology, soil moisture, wildfire, vegetation, marine conditions, disease, and agricultural productivity. PMID:20016827

  14. Using Web GIS "Climate" for Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Shulgina, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    A work is devoted to the application of an information-computational Web GIS "Climate" developed by joint team of the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS and Tomsk State University to raise awareness about current and future climate change as a basis for further adaptation. Web-GIS "Climate» (http://climate.scert.ru/) based on modern concepts of Web 2.0 provides opportunities to study regional climate change and its consequences by providing access to climate and weather models, a large set of geophysical data and means of processing and visualization. Also, the system is used for the joint development of software applications by distributed research teams, research based on these applications and undergraduate and graduate students training. In addition, the system capabilities allow creating information resources to raise public awareness about climate change, its causes and consequences, which is a necessary step for the subsequent adaptation to these changes. Basic information course on climate change is placed in the public domain and is aimed at local population. Basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are set out and illustrated in accessible language. Particular attention is paid to regional climate changes. In addition to the information part, the course also includes a selection of links to popular science network resources on current issues in Earth Sciences and a number of practical tasks to consolidate the material. These tasks are performed for a particular territory. Within the tasks users need to analyze the prepared within the "Climate" map layers and answer questions of direct interest to the public: "How did the minimum value of winter temperatures change in your area?", "What are the dynamics of maximum summer temperatures?", etc. Carrying out the analysis of the dynamics of climate change contributes to a better understanding of climate processes and further adaptation. Passing this course raises awareness of the general public, as well as prepares the user for subsequent registration in the system and work with its tools in conducting independent research. This work is partially supported by SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grants 13-05-12034 and 14-05-00502.

  15. Impact of Climate Change on Five Major Crop Fungal Diseases: Building Climatic Indicators of Infection Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launay, M.; Caubel, J.; Bourgeois, G.; Huard, F.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.

    2013-12-01

    The climate change will modify the severity and occurrence of fungal crop diseases, as the bioclimatic niches of pathogens will shift according to temperature and rainfall patterns evolution. Therefore it becomes necessary to integrate fungal disease pressure assessment into evaluation tools of crop suitability at the regional level. The aim of this study was to build two climatic indicators, the Average Infection Efficiency (AIE) and the Number of Infection Days (NID), quantifying the potential effect of climate on infection intensity and occurrence. A simple and continuous function was developed to calculate them, which is easy to parameterize from experimental measurements, usable on large spatial scales and adaptable to various pathogens. The evolution of those climatic indicators was then studied for five major fungal crop diseases in Northern France, the phoma of oilseed rape, the potato late blight, the downy mildew of grape, the leaf rust of wheat and the net blotch of barley. These indicators were applied on a multisite analysis in Northern France. They were calculated during the crop cycle when the host plant is able to be infected, over the period between 1970 and 2100 for the balanced scenario of climate change A1B. In late spring and summer, higher temperatures combined with lower humidity reduced the risk of infection of potato late blight and downy mildew of grape. In autumn and spring the balance between warmer temperatures and lower humidity determined the risk of infection on oilseed rape and cereals: increased risk in late autumn and early spring, and decreased risk in early autumn and mid-spring when low humidity becomes limiting. This statement highlighted the need for using between year scale for a relevant analysis of climate change impact on infection risk. The indicators we developed are thus useful for land management at regional scale and medium term, in particular for stakeholders who need decision support tools through which they could anticipate future trends and associated risks of crop diseases.

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on Life Climate change is upon us, and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    oyster farm production ________________________________________________________________________ Species-term observational studies to monitor species' responses to climate change Expand public outreach campaigns

  17. Understanding public complacency about climate change: adults’ mental models of climate change violate conservation of matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Sterman; Linda Booth Sweeney

    2007-01-01

    Public attitudes about climate change reveal a contradiction. Surveys show most Americans believe climate change poses serious\\u000a risks but also that reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions sufficient to stabilize atmospheric GHG concentrations can\\u000a be deferred until there is greater evidence that climate change is harmful. US policymakers likewise argue it is prudent to\\u000a wait and see whether climate change

  18. Climate Change Guidance: A Pragmatic Approach to Client

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    10/21/11 Climate Change Guidance: A Pragmatic Approach to Client Needs Climate, Water and Ecosystems- Shaping the Great Plains October 13, 2011 #12;10/21/11 Climate Change Guidance: A Pragmatic Approach to Client NeedsClimate Science ­ 2011 ·Yes, the climate is changing. ·Climate science is changing

  19. Climate change and trace gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Makiko Sato; Pushker Kharecha; Gary Russell; David W. Lea; Mark Siddall

    2007-01-01

    Palaeoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the 'albedo flip' property of ice\\/water, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that 'flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Inertia

  20. Hybrid zones: windows on climate change.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Scott A; Larson, Erica L; Harrison, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Defining the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on biodiversity and species distributions is currently a high priority. Niche models focus primarily on predicted changes in abiotic factors; however, species interactions and adaptive evolution will impact the ability of species to persist in the face of changing climate. Our review focuses on the use of hybrid zones to monitor responses of species to contemporary climate change. Monitoring hybrid zones provides insight into how range boundaries shift in response to climate change by illuminating the combined effects of species interactions and physiological sensitivity. At the same time, the semipermeable nature of species boundaries allows us to document adaptive introgression of alleles associated with response to climate change. PMID:25982153

  1. Asian Public Opinion on Climate Change and Its Implications for Climate Change Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So Young Kim

    Climate change has been a focal point in recent environmental public debate and policymaking. Latest polls show virtually unanimous consensus among the global public on the significance of the problem. This paper examines Asian public opinion on key issues of climate change policy in a comparative by comparing the level of public awareness and support for climate change policies in

  2. Critical climate change as an approach to assess climate change impacts in Europe: development and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelle G van Minnen; Janina Onigkeit; Joseph Alcamo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology called the “critical climate change” approach for evaluating policies for reducing climate change impacts on natural ecosystems. This method is particularly suited for integrated assessments because of its long-term and large-scale perspective. This is an analogous approach to the “critical loads” concept used for assessing regional air pollution impacts in Europe. Critical climate change

  3. China's National Assessment Report on Climate Change (II): Climate change impacts and adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Erda; Xu Yinlong; Wu Shaohong; Ju Hui; Ma Shiming

    Significant and various impacts of climate change have been observed in China, showing both positive and adverse effects, dominantly the latter, in different sectors and regions. It is very likely that future climate change would cause significant adverse impacts on the ecosystems, agriculture, water resources, and coastal zones in China. Adoption of adaptive measures to climate change can alleviate the

  4. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, National Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Wehner

    2009-01-01

    The second Key Finding from the recent USGRP report ``Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States'' is: 2. Climate changes are underway in the United States and are projected to grow. Climate-related changes are already observed in the United States and its coastal waters. These include increases in heavy downpours, rising temperature and sea level, rapidly retreating glaciers, thawing

  5. Climate Change in an IB PYP Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Students in elementary school are inherently curious, which allows them to explore, experiment and investigate various themes, while also demonstrating the will to preserve the resources that surround them and take action to contribute to a better world. One of the units taught at International School Carinthia is "climate change" and its impacts on life on Earth. During this unit, grade 4 students conduct research to answer their own inquiries related to this topic. They investigate the different climate zones on our planet, examine why climate change happens, and discover how global warming and climate change are connected and its consequences on living beings.

  6. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indur M. Goklany

    2008-01-01

    Summary The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has sponsored several state-of-the-art assessments of future impacts of climate change on various climate-sensitive threats such as malaria, hunger, water shortage, coastal flooding, habitat loss, lowered carbon-sink capacity, and diminished coastal wetlands. The results, based on IPCC emission scenarios, figure prominently in the international debate about climate change, and

  7. Global climate change and US agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

  8. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  9. Climate Change and Public Policy After Copenhagen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew E Kahn; Richard Somerville

    2010-01-01

    Richard Somerville argues that one of the most important factors left out of debates on policies to address climate change is population growth. He asserts that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report of 2007 probably understates the rapid rise of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere and rising temperatures as measured and observed from a wide variety of sources:

  10. The Economic Effects of Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S. J. Tol

    2009-01-01

    I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate change have been published, a research effort that is in sharp contrast to the urgency of the public debate and the proposed expenditure on greenhouse gas emission reduction. These estimates

  11. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Levi D. Brekke; Edwin P. Maurer; Jamie D. Anderson; Michael D. Dettinger; Edwin S. Townsley; Alan Harrison; Tom Pruitt

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts

  12. The Psychological Impacts of Global Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan

    2011-01-01

    An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological…

  13. Mammalian Response to Cenozoic Climatic Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L. Blois; Elizabeth A. Hadly

    2009-01-01

    Multiple episodes of rapid and gradual climatic changes influenced the evo- lution and ecology of mammalian species and communities throughout the Cenozoic. Climatic change influenced the abundance, genetic diversity, mor- phology, and geographic ranges of individual species. Within communities these responses interacted to catalyze immigration, speciation, and extinc- tion. Combined they affected long-term patterns of community stability, functional turnover, biotic

  14. Mammalian Response to Cenozoic Climatic Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L. Blois; Elizabeth A. Hadly

    2009-01-01

    Multiple episodes of rapid and gradual climatic changes influenced the evolution and ecology of mammalian species and communities throughout the Cenozoic. Climatic change influenced the abundance, genetic diversity, morphology, and geographic ranges of individual species. Within communities these responses interacted to catalyze immigration, speciation, and extinction. Combined they affected long-term patterns of community stability, functional turnover, biotic turnover, and diversity.

  15. Climate Change: Perceptions and Discourses of Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Etkin; Elise Ho

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the issues that affect risk awareness with respect to climate change and what their impact has been on people's attitudes. It highlights the large gap between the scientific community and the general public in terms of their understanding, awareness and perception of risks associated with climate change. Awareness is driven both by environmental values or

  16. Renewable Energy - Panacea for Climate Change?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ö. Göl

    2007-01-01

    Within a few short decades, climate change has become a menacing reality rather than a remote possibility, threatening the planet Earth and its inhabitants. There is frantic activity at many fronts to thwart its advance and reverse the trend. Use of renewable energy sources is often hailed as one of the measures in combating climate change. There are action plans

  17. NASA NDATC Global Climate Change Education Initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bennett; E. Wood; D. Meyer; N. Maynard; R. E. Pandya

    2009-01-01

    This project aligns with NASA's Strategic Goal 3A - ``Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs and focuses on funding from the GCCE Funding Category 2: Strengthen the Teaching and Learning About Global Climate Change Within Formal Education Systems. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (2007) those communities with the least amount

  18. Will African Agriculture Survive Climate Change?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Kurukulasuriya; Robert Mendelsohn; Rashid Hassan; James Benhin; Temesgen Deressa; Mbaye Diop; Helmy Mohamed Eid; K. Yerfi Fosu; Glwadys Gbetibouo; Suman Jain; Ali Mahamadou; Renneth Mano; Jane Kabubo-Mariara; Samia El-Marsafawy; Ernest Molua; Samiha Ouda; Mathieu Ouedraogo; Isidor Séne; David Maddison; S. Niggol Seo; Ariel Dinar

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of the likely magnitude of the economic impact of climate change on African agriculture has been a challenge. Using data from a survey of more than 9,000 farmers across 11 African countries, a cross-sectional approach estimates how farm net revenues are affected by climate change compared with current mean temperature. Revenues fall with warming for dryland crops (temperature elasticity

  19. Regional Agreements, Adaptation, and Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    will impact hydropower operations and, in turn, aquatic ecosystems. To date, stakeholders, agencies imposed by regional climate change? · Second, how will climate change impact watershed hydrology and downstream aquatic and riparian ecosystem quality and where in the Sierran bioregion will these impacts

  20. GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

  1. Climate Change and Tourism: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon F. H. Pang; Bob McKercher; Bruce Prideaux

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the relationship between tourism and global climate change. On the one hand, the tourism industry may be one of the greatest economic victims of climate change. Yet, on the other hand, the broader tourism sector is also a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. This study traces the evolution of academic interest in tourism

  2. Law: Environmental Impact Statements and Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn T. Prickett; David A. Wirth

    1989-01-01

    Recent demands by atmospheric scientists and policy makers for immediate, comprehensive, and effective responses to the threat of global climate change have focused political attention on policies and laws that affect the quality of the environment. In January, the Reagan White House blocked the issuance of policy guidance that would have directed federal agencies to consider global climate change in

  3. Harnessing Homophily to Improve Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Plate, Richard R.; Adams, Damian C.; Wojcik, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    The Cooperative Extension Service (Extension) in the United States is well positioned to educate the public, particularly farmers and foresters, about climate change and to encourage responsible adoption of adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, the climate change attitudes and perceptions of Extension professionals have limited…

  4. U.S.ClimateChange Science Program

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    to the Guidelines for Producing Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis and Assessment Products. The prospectus was reviewed and approved by the CCSP Interagency Committee. The document describes the focus-2007), in line with Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Decision Support Goal 1: "Prepare scientific syntheses

  5. SENSITIVITY OF HYDROPOWER PERFORMANCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Harrison; H. W. Whittington; A. R. Wallace

    2006-01-01

    One solution to reduce the extent of climate change is to replace fossil-fuelled electricity generation with renewable sources including hydropower. However, simultaneous changes in climate may alter the available hydropower resource, threatening the financial viability of schemes. To illustrate the potential problem, a sensitivity analysis is presented that considers the impact of altered precipitation and temperature on river flows, energy

  6. Regional Changes in Extreme Climatic Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Bell; L. C. Sloan; M. A. Snyder

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on California as a climatically complex region that is vulnerable to changes in water supply and delivery. A regional climate model is employed to assess changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme temperatures and precipitation. Significant increases in daily minimum and maximum temperatures occur with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Increases in daily temperatures

  7. Climate Change: Health & Policy Implications --Lunch Briefing --

    E-print Network

    Climate Change: Health & Policy Implications -- Lunch Briefing -- Throughout the world States, climate change poses a set of unique challenges to public health. The recently released report & Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health Lynn Goldman, M.D., M.P.H. Professor

  8. A new route toward limiting climate change?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Smith; Tm L. Wigley; James A. Edmonds

    2000-01-01

    The upcoming sixth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) has refocused attention on climate change policy. Recently, debate has been stimulated by the publication of a paper by Hansen et al who have suggested an\\

  9. Climate Change Indicators for the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA?s publishes the Climate Change Indicators for the United States report to communicate information about the science and impacts of climate change, track trends in environmental quality, and inform de¬cision-making. This report presents a set of key indicators to help readers ...

  10. Climate change and global water resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel W. Arnell

    1999-01-01

    By 2025, it is estimated that around 5 billion people, out of a total population of around 8 billion, will be living in countries experiencing water stress (using more than 20% of their available resources). Climate change has the potential to impose additional pressures in some regions. This paper describes an assessment of the implications of climate change for global

  11. African climate change: 1900-2100

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Hulme; R Doherty; T Ngara; M New; D Lister

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews observed (1900-2000) and possible future (2000-2100) continent- wide changes in temperature and rainfall for Africa. For the historic period we draw upon a new observed global climate data set which allows us to explore aspects of regional climate change related to diurnal temperature range and rainfall variability. The latter includes an investigation of regions where seasonal rainfall

  12. The physical science behind climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William; Collins, William; Colman, Robert; Haywood, James; Manning, Martin R.; Mote, Philip

    2007-07-01

    For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists, like all good scientists, want to ensure that the highest standards of proof apply to everything they discover. And the evidence of change has mounted as climate records have grown longer, as our understanding of the climate system has improved and as climate models have become ever more reliable. Over the past 20 years, evidence that humans are affecting the climate has accumulated inexorably, and with it has come ever greater certainty across the scientific community in the reality of recent climate change and the potential for much greater change in the future. This increased certainty is starkly reflected in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the fourth in a series of assessments of the state of knowledge on the topic, written and reviewed by hundreds of scientists worldwide. The panel released a condensed version of the first part of the report, on the physical science basis of climate change, in February. Called the 'Summary for Policymakers,' it delivered to policymakers and ordinary people alike an unambiguous message: scientists are more confident than ever that humans have interfered with the climate and that further human-induced climate change is on the way. Although the report finds that some of these further changes are now inevitable, its analysis also confirms that the future, particularly in the longer term, remains largely in our hands--the magnitude of expected change depends on what humans choose to do about greenhouse gas emissions. The physical science assessment focuses on four topics: drivers of climate change, changes observed in the climate system, understanding cause-and-effect relationships, and projection of future changes. Important advances in research into all these areas have occurred since the IPCC assessment in 2001. In the pages that follow, we lay out the key findings that document the extent of change and that point to the unavoidable conclusion that human activity is driving it.

  13. Climate change is a bioethics problem.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Cheryl Cox

    2013-07-01

    Climate change harms health and damages and diminishes environmental resources. Gradually it will cause health systems to reduce services, standards of care, and opportunities to express patient autonomy. Prominent public health organizations are responding with preparedness, mitigation, and educational programs. The design and effectiveness of these programs, and of similar programs in other sectors, would be enhanced by greater understanding of the values and tradeoffs associated with activities and public policies that drive climate change. Bioethics could generate such understanding by exposing the harms and benefits in different cultural, socioeconomic, and geographic contexts, and through interdisciplinary risk assessments. Climate change is a bioethics problem because it harms everyone and involves health, values, and responsibilities. This article initiates dialog about the responsibility of bioethics to promote transparency and understanding of the social values and conflicts associated with climate change, and the actions and public policies that allow climate change to worsen. PMID:23718702

  14. CLIMATE: A New Route Toward Limiting Climate Change?

    PubMed

    Smith, S J; Wigley, T M; Edmonds, J

    2000-11-10

    Climate change mitigation strategies have focused on reductions in carbon dioxide and other long-lived greenhouse gases. Smith et al., investigate the viability of a different strategy, recently proposed by Hansen et al., which focuses on controlling short-lived pollutants such as soot and tropospheric ozone. They conclude that carbon dioxide must remain the primary focus of climate change mitigation strategies. PMID:17743257

  15. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies.

  16. Adaptation to climate change in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies. PMID:19184576

  17. Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats

    E-print Network

    Gunawardena, Arunika

    Change on habitats,and in particular at the impacts that could result from the warming of global, shelter, water, and space. Write each component on a separate sheet of chart paper and then have the class of animal is presently being favoured in some form of a theme unit. Ask the class what habitat component

  18. Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.

  19. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  20. Global climate change and children's health.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to this change. PMID:17967923

  1. Human-experienced temperature changes exceed global average climate changes for all income groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Hsiang; L. Parshall

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change alters local climates everywhere. Many climate change impacts, such as those affecting health, agriculture and labor productivity, depend on these local climatic changes, not global mean change. Traditional, spatially averaged climate change estimates are strongly influenced by the response of icecaps and oceans, providing limited information on human-experienced climatic changes. If used improperly by decision-makers, these estimates

  2. Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate…

  3. Regional climate change projections over southern Africa: Benefits of a high resolution climate change simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Haensler; S. Hagemann; D. Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The southern African region is known to be a biodiversity hotspot but future climate change is likely to have a major influence on the biodiversity. To estimate the impacts of climate change on the biosphere high resolution climate information is needed for both current and future conditions. In the framework of the BIOTA South project we are therefore applying the

  4. Comparison of two soya bean simulation models under climate change : II Application of climate change scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wolf

    2002-01-01

    The effects of climate change (for 2050 compared to ambient climate) and change in climatic variability on soya bean growth and production at 3 sites in the EU have been calculated. These calculations have been done with both a simple growth model, SOYBEANW, and a comprehensive model, CROPGRO. Comparison of the results from the 2 models indicated the sort of

  5. A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michèle B. Baettig; Martin Wild; Dieter M. Imboden

    2007-01-01

    A Climate Change Index (CCI) is developed that is composed of annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation indicators. These indicators are aggregated to a single index that is a measure for the strength of future climate change relative to today's natural variability. The CCI does not represent climate impacts. Its aim is to comply with the increasing need of policy

  6. How Volcanism Controls Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    Large explosive volcanoes eject megatons of sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere where it spreads around the world within months and is oxidized slowly to form a sulfuric-acid aerosol with particle sizes that grow large enough to reflect and scatter solar radiation, cooling Earth ~0.5C for up to 3 years. Explosive eruptions also deplete total column ozone ~6% causing up to 3C winter warming at mid-latitudes over continents. Global cooling predominates. Extrusive, basaltic volcanoes deplete ozone ~6% but do not eject much sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere, causing net global warming. Anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) deplete ozone ~3% for up to a century while each volcanic eruption, even small ones, depletes ozone twice as much but for less than a decade through eruption of halogens and ensuing photochemical processes. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, the 2011 eruption of Grímsvötn, plus anthropogenic CFCs depleted ozone over Toronto Canada 14% in 2012, causing an unusually warm winter and drought. Total column ozone determines how much solar ultraviolet energy with wavelengths between 290 and 340 nanometers reaches Earth where it is absorbed most efficiently by the ocean. A 25% depletion of ozone increases the amount of this radiation reaching Earth by 1 W m-2 for overhead sun and 0.25 W m-2 for a solar zenith angle of 70 degrees. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere heated from below by a sun-warmed Earth and the stratosphere heated from above by the Sun through photodissociation primarily of oxygen and ozone. The mean annual height of the tropopause increased ~160 m between 1980 and 2004 at the same time that northern mid-latitude total column ozone was depleted by ~4%, the lower stratosphere cooled ~2C, the upper troposphere warmed ~0.1C, and mean surface temperatures in the northern hemisphere rose ~0.5C. Regional total ozone columns are observed to increase as rapidly as 20% within 5 hours with an associated 5 km decrease in tropopause height. Changes in the rates and types of volcanism have been the primary cause of climate change throughout geologic time. Large explosive volcanoes erupting as frequently as once per decade increment the world into ice ages. Extensive, effusive basaltic volcanism warms the world out of ice ages. Twelve of the 13 dated basaltic table mountains in Iceland experienced their final eruptive phase during the last deglaciation when deposits of sulfate and volcanic ash fell over Greenland at their highest rates. Massive flood basalts are typically accompanied by extreme warming, ozone depletion, and major mass extinctions. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum occurred when subaerial extrusion of basalts related to the opening of the Greenland-Norwegian Sea suddenly increased to rates greater than 3000 cubic km per km of rift per million years. Dansgaard-Oeschger sudden warming events are contemporaneous with increased volcanism especially in Iceland and last longer when that volcanism lasts longer. Sudden influxes of fresh water often observed in the North Atlantic during these events are most likely caused by extensive sub-glacial volcanism. The Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age, major droughts, and many sudden changes in human civilization began with substantial increases in volcanism. Extensive submarine volcanism does not affect climate directly but is linked with increases in ocean acidity and anoxic events.

  7. Cenozoic climate change influences mammalian evolutionary dynamics.

    PubMed

    Figueirido, Borja; Janis, Christine M; Pérez-Claros, Juan A; De Renzi, Miquel; Palmqvist, Paul

    2012-01-17

    Global climate change is having profound impacts on the natural world. However, climate influence on faunal dynamics at macroevolutionary scales remains poorly understood. In this paper we investigate the influence of climate over deep time on the diversity patterns of Cenozoic North American mammals. We use factor analysis to identify temporally correlated assemblages of taxa, or major evolutionary faunas that we can then study in relation to climatic change over the past 65 million years. These taxa can be grouped into six consecutive faunal associations that show some correspondence with the qualitative mammalian chronofaunas of previous workers. We also show that the diversity pattern of most of these chronofaunas can be correlated with the stacked deep-sea benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope (?(18)O) curve, which strongly suggests climatic forcing of faunal dynamics over a large macroevolutionary timescale. This study demonstrates the profound influence of climate on the diversity patterns of North American terrestrial mammals over the Cenozoic. PMID:22203974

  8. Climate change and the global harvest

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, C.; Hillel, D.

    1998-12-31

    This book summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge on the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. The book begins by introducing the nonspecialist to the causes of climate change, and reviews the main climate change drivers and impacts. It then goes on to review all major aspects of climate change impact on agriculture in detail. The scope is very broad indeed--the authors consider agricultural greenhouse gas emissions; the effects of raised CO{sub 2} and climate change on crop yield (discussing in some detail the effects on vegetation); possible impacts on pests, weeds, and diseases; impacts on soils; and the effects on water resources and sea level rise. The final four chapters expand the science described in earlier chapters to the global level, providing an analysis of impacts of climate change, then examining in detail the regions at greatest risk from climate change and possible implications for future food security, and finishing with a chapter on adaptation, economics, and policy.

  9. Lakes as sentinels of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Rita; O’Reilly, Catherine M.; Zagarese, Horacio; Baines, Stephen B.; Hessen, Dag O.; Keller, Wendel; Livingstone, David M.; Sommaruga, Ruben; Straile, Dietmar; Van Donk, Ellen; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Winder, Monika

    2010-01-01

    While there is a general sense that lakes can act as sentinels of climate change, their efficacy has not been thoroughly analyzed. We identified the key response variables within a lake that act as indicators of the effects of climate change on both the lake and the catchment. These variables reflect a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological responses to climate. However, the efficacy of the different indicators is affected by regional response to climate change, characteristics of the catchment, and lake mixing regimes. Thus, particular indicators or combinations of indicators are more effective for different lake types and geographic regions. The extraction of climate signals can be further complicated by the influence of other environmental changes, such as eutrophication or acidification, and the equivalent reverse phenomena, in addition to other land-use influences. In many cases, however, confounding factors can be addressed through analytical tools such as detrending or filtering. Lakes are effective sentinels for climate change because they are sensitive to climate, respond rapidly to change, and integrate information about changes in the catchment. PMID:20396409

  10. How does climate change cause extinction?

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Abigail E.; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E.; Fisher-Reid, M. Caitlin; Hua, Xia; Karanewsky, Caitlin J.; Yeong Ryu, Hae; Sbeglia, Gena C.; Spagnolo, Fabrizio; Waldron, John B.; Warsi, Omar; Wiens, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies. PMID:23075836

  11. Climate Change and Food Security in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabansu Chattopadhyay

    \\u000a Indian agriculture is extremely vulnerable to weather and climate. In recent past there was substantial loss of crop in the\\u000a country due to extreme weather and unusual weather conditions. Significant variations in the weather and climatic parameters,\\u000a as projected in different Global Circulation Models Climate Change experiments, are expected to have substantial impact on\\u000a crop production in the country in

  12. 7 CFR 2.74 - Director, Climate Change Program Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Director, Climate Change Program Office. 2.74 Section...Economist § 2.74 Director, Climate Change Program Office. (a) Delegations...Chief Economist to the Director, Climate Change Program Office: (1)...

  13. WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global

  14. Climate change scenarios for Great Lakes Basin ecosystem studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda D. Mortsch; Frank H. Quinn

    1996-01-01

    Significant change in global climate could occur due to human-induced changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere. We provide a basis for the continuing assessment of potential impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems. A series of climate change scenarios have been developed for the Great Lakes Basin using general circulation models (GCMs), climate spatial transpositions, and historical climate analogs.

  15. THE SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE UN SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NIGEL PURVIS; JOSHUA BUSBY

    This memo explores the security implications of climate change. Presented below is a summary of the adverse impacts of climate change, an analysis of their security implications, and policy recommendations for strengthening the United Nations' capacity to respond to climate-related security threats. I. Adverse Impacts of Climate Change While significant uncertainties remain regarding the extent and speed of climate change,

  16. MSc Climate Change A cross-disciplinary degree

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    MSc Climate Change A cross-disciplinary degree www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/climate LONDON'S GLOBAL of climatic change and to develop adaptation strategies. The UCL MSc Climate Change provides rigorous scientific and vocational training for the next generation of climate change professionals. Students

  17. Low flows in France and their relationship to large-scale climate indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, I.; Renard, B.; Vidal, J.-P.; Bard, A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryThis study explores the relationship between low flows and large-scale climate variability in France. To this aim, a national low flow reference network of near-natural catchments, consisting of 236 gauging stations, was set up. A subset of 220 daily streamflow records for the period 1968-2008 was used to detect trends in a number of severity and timing drought indices. In addition to testing temporal trends, correlations with four climate indices were also evaluated: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the frequency of two Weather Patterns corresponding to circulation types associated to wet (WP2) and dry (WP8) conditions over France. Due to their specific dynamics, NAO and WPs were also analyzed seasonally. Results show a consistent increase of drought severity in southern France. Correlations with NAO and AMO show a similar spatial pattern. Additionally, significant relationships with WPs were found throughout France, with the exception of the Mediterranean coast. Timing indices appear to be less related to large-scale climate indices, whereas some evidence of negative temporal trends was found (e.g. earlier drought start). To assess the robustness of the above relationships, a subset of 28 stations with longer records was studied over a 60 year period (1948-2008). The results show that, when shifting the time window of the analysis, the correlations between low flow indices and climate indices remain stable, whereas those with respect to time do not. Seasonal climate indices appear to have stronger links with low flow indices than their annual counterparts. For instance, the summer NAO shows a strong link with severity indices in the northern half of the country. This link is found again for the winter WP2. The above results indicate that temporal trends should only be used for descriptive purposes, whereas seasonally lagged climate indices are potential candidates as predictors of summer low flows.

  18. Framing a Comprehensive Approach to Climate Change 

    E-print Network

    Boggs, Jay W.; Chellinsky, Andrew; Ege, David; Hodges, Allen; Reynolds, Tripp; Williams, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Too Hot to Handle: Climate Change, Geopolitics, and U.S. National Security in 2025 Too Hot To Handle: Climate Change, Geopolitics, and U.S. National Security in 2025 2 PREFACE Members of the Texas A&M University George Bush... in Nashville, TN in May 2005 with a BA in History. He has been at Texas A&M for the last two years, and spent Too Hot To Handle: Climate Change, Geopolitics, and U.S. National Security in 2025 3 last summer studying Spanish in Antigua, Guatemala...

  19. Climate change, human health, and sustainable development.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, W. J.; Slooff, R.; Jackson, E. K.

    1997-01-01

    Human-induced climate change threatens ecosystems and human health on a global scale. In order to withstand the worldwide threats to ecosystems, the concept of sustainable development was introduced during the 1980s. Since then, this concept has been widely applied to guide and focus policy-making. The present article reviews the health consequences of human-induced climate change on sustainable development, particularly the potential impact of such change of food supply, natural disasters, infectious diseases, ecosystems, and sea level rise. Discussed is an integrated model containing the key indicators of sustainable development. The relevance of climate change, human health, and sustainable development for international climate change policy is also examined. PMID:9509631

  20. Mammalian Response to Cenozoic Climatic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blois, Jessica L.; Hadly, Elizabeth A.

    2009-05-01

    Multiple episodes of rapid and gradual climatic changes influenced the evolution and ecology of mammalian species and communities throughout the Cenozoic. Climatic change influenced the abundance, genetic diversity, morphology, and geographic ranges of individual species. Within communities these responses interacted to catalyze immigration, speciation, and extinction. Combined they affected long-term patterns of community stability, functional turnover, biotic turnover, and diversity. Although the relative influence of climate on particular evolutionary processes is oft debated, an understanding of processes at the root of biotic change yields important insights into the complexity of mammalian response. Ultimately, all responses trace to events experienced by populations. However, many such processes emerge as patterns above the species level, where shared life history traits and evolutionary history allow us to generalize about mammalian response to climatic change. These generalizations provide the greatest power to understand and predict mammalian responses to current and future global change.

  1. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  2. Identifying uncertainties in Arctic climate change projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Daniel L. R.; Keeley, Sarah P. E.; West, Alex; Ridley, Jeff; Hawkins, Ed; Hewitt, Helene T.

    2013-06-01

    Wide ranging climate changes are expected in the Arctic by the end of the 21st century, but projections of the size of these changes vary widely across current global climate models. This variation represents a large source of uncertainty in our understanding of the evolution of Arctic climate. Here we systematically quantify and assess the model uncertainty in Arctic climate changes in two CO2 doubling experiments: a multimodel ensemble (CMIP3) and an ensemble constructed using a single model (HadCM3) with multiple parameter perturbations (THC-QUMP). These two ensembles allow us to assess the contribution that both structural and parameter variations across models make to the total uncertainty and to begin to attribute sources of uncertainty in projected changes. We find that parameter uncertainty is an major source of uncertainty in certain aspects of Arctic climate. But also that uncertainties in the mean climate state in the 20th century, most notably in the northward Atlantic ocean heat transport and Arctic sea ice volume, are a significant source of uncertainty for projections of future Arctic change. We suggest that better observational constraints on these quantities will lead to significant improvements in the precision of projections of future Arctic climate change.

  3. Surrogate climate-change scenarios for regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schär, Christoph; Frei, Christoph; Lüthi, Daniel; Davies, Huw C.

    A methodology is presented for generating surrogate climate-change scenarios with a regional climate model. The procedure is simple to implement and dynamically consistent. It entails (i) adopting a realized or simulated atmospheric flow evolution and (ii) prescribing specific thermodynamic modifications of this realization to a regional model's initial fields and externally-specified time-dependent lateral boundaries fields. The resulting scenarios can be used for process and parameterization studies, to calibrate the regional response to a putative global climate change, and to intercompare different models. The approach is illustrated with two month-long regional climate model simulations. The experiment is designed to explore the response within Europe to a pseudo-global warming of 2 K with an accompanying increase in atmospheric water vapor content. Analysis reveals that there is a spatially-differentiated preciptation increase consonant with the domain-averaged increase of about 16% in the water vapor content.

  4. Climatic Change as a Mathematical Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward N. Lorenz

    1970-01-01

    Formulating reasonable hypotheses regarding climatic change requires physical insight and ingenuity, but subsequently testing these hypotheses demands quantitative computation. Many features of today's climate have been reproduced by mathematical models (equations arranged for numerical solution by digital computers), similar to those used in weather prediction. Models currently in use generally predict only the atmosphere, and pre-specify the state of its

  5. Ecology: Fungal feedbacks to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, Susan M.; Mack, Michelle C.

    2011-07-01

    Climate change is known to affect the carbon balance of Arctic tundra ecosystems by influencing plant growth and decomposition. Less predictable climate-driven biotic events, such as disease outbreaks, are now shown to potentially shift these ecosystems from net carbon sinks to sources.

  6. Why sustainable tourism must address climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Scott

    2011-01-01

    This opinion piece examines Weaver's thesis that sustainable tourism's current expanding engagement with climate change may not necessarily be conducive to the interests of tourism sustainability. It critically examines and responds to the seven interrelated issues presented by Weaver to support that opinion. This paper dispels some common climate science myths that continue to hamper scientific progress and obfuscate debate

  7. Perception of climate change James Hansena,1

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Perception of climate change James Hansena,1 , Makiko Satoa , and Reto Ruedyb a National and importance of global warming depends strongly on their perceptions of recent local climate variations. Early/ PerceptionsAndDice/) more extensive results for winter than we have space for in the present paper. Although

  8. Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lonnie G.

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers serve as early indicators of climate change. Over the last 35 years, our research team has recovered ice-core records of climatic and environmental variations from the polar regions and from low-latitude high-elevation ice fields from 16 countries. The ongoing widespread melting of high-elevation glaciers and ice caps, particularly in low…

  9. Climate Change: Tips and Tricks for Teachers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This interactive teacher guide is part of NASA's Eyes on the Earth, which presents the latest climate information from NASA's Earth monitoring missions and research. It provides step-by-step instructions for six ways to use and initiate discussions about the NASA's Global Climate Change website in the classroom.

  10. Diagnosis Earth: The Climate Change Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderegg, William R. L.

    2010-01-01

    In the scrum of popular and political discourse on global warming, the scholarship of climate science is often left sitting on the sideline. Yet understanding the science and the scientists presents the best chance of developing an informed opinion about climate change. Confusion about the science, misunderstanding of risk assessment and…

  11. How Can We Avert Dangerous Climate Change?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen

    2007-01-01

    Recent analyses indicate that the amount of atmospheric CO2 required to cause dangerous climate change is at most 450 ppm, and likely less than that. Reductions of non-CO2 climate forcings can provide only moderate, albeit important, adjustments to the CO2 limit. Realization of how close the planet is to \\

  12. Green cities, smart people and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Harrison, T.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change will require substantial changes to urban environments. Cities are huge sources of greenhouse gases. Further, cities will suffer tremendously under climate change due to heat stresses, urban flooding, energy and water supply and demand changes, transportation problems, resource supply and demand and a host of other trials and tribulations. Cities that evolve most quickly and efficiently to deal with climate change will likely take advantage of the changes to create enjoyable, healthy and safer living spaces for families and communities. Technology will provide much of the capability to both mitigate and adapt our cities BUT education and coordination of citizen and community lifestyle likely offers equal opportunities to make our cities more sustainable and more enjoyable places to live. This work is the first phase of a major project evaluating urban mitigation and adaptation policies, programs and technologies. All options are considered, from changes in engineering, planning and management; and including a range of citizen and population-based lifestyle practices.

  13. How does climate change influence Arctic mercury?

    PubMed

    Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Outridge, Peter M; Wilson, Simon; Chételat, John; Cole, Amanda; Hintelmann, Holger; Loseto, Lisa L; Steffen, Alexandra; Wang, Feiyue; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have been shown to promote changes in primary productivity, shift foodweb structures, alter mercury methylation and demethylation rates, and influence mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface (bottom-up processes). In addition, changes in animal social behavior associated with changing sea-ice regimes can affect dietary exposure to mercury (top-down processes). In this review, we address these and other possible ramifications of climate variability on mercury cycling, processes and exposure by applying recent literature to the following nine questions; 1) What impact has climate change had on Arctic physical characteristics and processes? 2) How do rising temperatures affect atmospheric mercury chemistry? 3) Will a decrease in sea-ice coverage have an impact on the amount of atmospheric mercury deposited to or emitted from the Arctic Ocean, and if so, how? 4) Does climate affect air-surface mercury flux, and riverine mercury fluxes, in Arctic freshwater and terrestrial systems, and if so, how? 5) How does climate change affect mercury methylation/demethylation in different compartments in the Arctic Ocean and freshwater systems? 6) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of freshwater food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of mercury? 7) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of marine food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of marine mercury? 8) What are the likely mercury emissions from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost under climate change scenarios? and 9) What can be learned from current mass balance inventories of mercury in the Arctic? The review finishes with several conclusions and recommendations. PMID:22104383

  14. Global climate change: Implications, challenges and mitigation measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Majumdar; L. S. Kalkstein; B. M. Yarnal; E. W. Miller; L. M. Rosenfeld

    1992-01-01

    The present volume discusses topics in the fields of natural climatic fluctuations, the greenhouse effect, climate modeling, the biophysical and socioeconomic impacts of climate change, climate-change effect mitigation and adaptation strategies, and domestic (US) and international perspectives on regulation of climate-affecting activities. Attention is given to past climates as a guide to the future, the certainty of contemporary global warming,

  15. The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Besenbacher, Flemming; Læssøe, Jeppe; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Lange, Lene

    2009-03-01

    More than 1000 prominent representatives from science, industry, politics and NGOs were gathered in Aarhus on 5-7 March 2009 for the international climate conference 'Beyond Kyoto: Addressing the Challenges of Climate Change'. Thematically, Beyond Kyoto was divided into seven areas of particular interest for understanding the effects of the projected future climate change and how the foreseen negative impacts can be counteracted by mitigation and adaptation measures. The themes were: Climate policy: the role of law and economics; Biodiversity and ecosystems; Agriculture and climate change; Nanotechnology solutions for a sustainable future; Citizens and society, and The Arctic. The main responsible scientists for the seven conference themes and representatives from the think-tank CONCITO delivered 'The 7 Aarhus Statements on Climate Change' as part of the closing session of the conference. The statements were also communicated to the Danish Government as well as to the press. This article is the product of the collective subsequent work of the seven theme responsibles and is a presentation of each theme statement in detail, emphasizing the current state of knowledge and how it may be used to minimize the expected negative impacts of future climate change.

  16. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Connecting Global Climate Change with Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-18

    This self-paced tutorial explores the importance of engineering solutions to the management of climate change by brainstorming ways to remove CO² from the atmosphere and store it in a form that does not promote global warming. The module also provides resources for students to learn about engineering careers related to climate change. Learners compare the design process used in engineering projects with the scientific process, and explore elements of the engineering design process through global climate change. Multimedia educational resources including video clips are included. This is the ninth of 10 self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

  18. Psychology: Climate change and group dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postmes, Tom

    2015-03-01

    The characteristics and views of people sceptical about climate change have been analysed extensively. A study now confirms that sceptics in the US have some characteristics of a social movement, but shows that the same group dynamics propel believers.

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL ISOPRENE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission of isoprene from vegetation affects tropospheric chemistry at the regional and global scales. rojected global climate change will potentially alter emission rates, with corresponding influences on concentrations of ozone and other radiatively important trace gases. rogre...

  20. Towards a sciart prospectus for climate change 

    E-print Network

    Ormston, Andrew

    2011-11-24

    Cross disciplinary collaboration and exchange between scientists and artists has grown rapidly over the last twenty years and is providing material and evidence employed in the understanding of, and responses to climate change. The sciart field...

  1. Atmospheric Composition Change: Climate-Chemistry Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaksen, I.S.A.; Granier, C.; Myhre, G.; Bernsten, T. K.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Gauss, S.; Klimont, Z.; Benestad, R.; Bousquet, P.; Collins, W.; Cox, T.; Eyring, V.; Fowler, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Jockel, P.; Laj, P.; Lohmann, U.; Maione, M.; Monks, T.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Raes, F.; Richter, A.; Rognerud, B.; Schulz, M.; Shindell, D.; Stevenson, D. S.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, W.-C.; vanWeele, M.; Wild, M.; Wuebbles, D.

    2011-01-01

    Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds such as methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds such as ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds such as O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future changes. Reported results include new estimates of radiative forcing based on extensive model studies of chemically active climate compounds such as O3, and of particles inducing both direct and indirect effects. Through EU projects such as ACCENT, QUANTIFY, and the AEROCOM project, extensive studies on regional and sector-wise differences in the impact on atmospheric distribution are performed. Studies have shown that land-based emissions have a different effect on climate than ship and aircraft emissions, and different measures are needed to reduce the climate impact. Several areas where climate change can affect the tropospheric oxidation process and the chemical composition are identified. This can take place through enhanced stratospheric-tropospheric exchange of ozone, more frequent periods with stable conditions favouring pollution build up over industrial areas, enhanced temperature-induced biogenic emissions, methane releases from permafrost thawing, and enhanced concentration through reduced biospheric uptake. During the last 510 years, new observational data have been made available and used for model validation and the study of atmospheric processes. Although there are significant uncertainties in the modelling of composition changes, access to new observational data has improved modelling capability. Emission scenarios for the coming decades have a large uncertainty range, in particular with respect to regional trends, leading to a significant uncertainty range in estimated regional composition changes and climate impact.

  2. Engaging the Public in Climate Change Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Meymaris; S. Henderson; P. Alaback; K. Havens; J. Schwarz Ballard

    2009-01-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, currently finishing its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (life

  3. Climate change and electricity demand in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Franco; Alan H. Sanstad

    2008-01-01

    The potential effect of climate change on California’s electric power system is an issue of growing interest and importance\\u000a to the state’s policy makers. Climate change-induced temperature increases may exacerbate existing stresses on this system.\\u000a Detailed recent data are used to estimate the relationships between temperature and both electricity consumption and peak\\u000a demand at a sample of locations around California.

  4. Dynamic Integrated Climate Change Model (DICE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Betty J. Blecha

    The Dynamic Integrated Climate Change (DICE) model assumes a single world producer must chose levels for three simultaneously determined variables: current consumption, investment, and greenhouse gases reduction. The model is freely available in both a GAMS and Excel version. DICE allows both science and economics instructors to integrate a sophisticated economic model of climate change into their courses. The simulation is for upper-division courses where students have some background in microeconomics. The principle developer is William Nordhaus at Yale University.

  5. Climate Change and Protected Areas in Bolivia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Hoffmann; Imke Oetting

    \\u000a Climate change is probably the main challenge humanity is facing in the twenty-first century, and even though Bolivia belongs\\u000a to the nations least responsible for global greenhouse gas output, the impacts of climate change and global warming (glacier\\u000a retreat in the Cordillera mountain range; droughts in the Altiplano, the inner Andean dry valleys, and the Chaco region; inundations\\u000a in the

  6. Climate Change Impacts on Turkish Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Matthew; Dönmez, Cenk; Çilek, Ahmet; Akif Erdogan, Mehmet; Buontempo, Carlo; Hickler, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean has been identified as a potentially vulnerable hotspot under climate change. In Turkey, climate change projections consistently predict large temperature rises over the 21st century. With 9% of GDP and 25% of employment coming from agriculture, climate change has the potential to significantly affect both the Turkish economy and living standards. Relatively little work has been undertaken to estimate the effects and risks of climate change in Turkey, and many European studies cover do not include the whole of Turkey in their domain and so are of limited use for policy-makers. The Dynamic Global Vegetation Model LPJ-GUESS was parametrised to represent Turkish vegetation. Climate forcings were derived by interpolating meteorological data from over 600 stations from 1975-2010 to a 1km resolution. Soil depth and soil texture data from field measurements were also interpolated to a 1km grid. The model was benchmarked against vegetation type and remotely sensed biomass and tree cover data. Future climate conditions were calculated using the outputs from a set of regional model simulations. In particular the HadRM3P regional climate model was used to downscale five members of a perturbed physics ensemble of global climate projections obtained using HadCM3 general circulation model and the SRES A1B scenario. A delta change factor approach was then used in conjunction with the observed climate data to assess the impact on vegetation structure and ecological processes to the year 2100 using LPJ-GUESS. The resulting changes to productivity, vegetation structure and hydrology are discussed. Eventually these results will be combined with complementary studies concerning wildfire and erosion to produce a risk map for informing policy-makers.

  7. Climate Change on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juanita Constible

    In this activity about climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula, learners investigate environmental changes in the living and nonliving resources of Antarctic peninsula and the impact of these changes on AdÃlie penguin communities. The activity stresses the importance of evidence in the formulation of scientific explanations.

  8. Same science, differing policies : the saga of global climate change

    E-print Network

    Skolnikoff, Eugene B.

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of the economic and political interests influencing the progress of climate negotiation. The primary focus is on the U.S., France, Germany, U.K., Belgium, Netherlands, and the ...

  9. Mental health effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change. PMID:26023264

  10. Mental health effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change. PMID:26023264

  11. (running head) Severe Climate Change Going to Extremes: Propositions on the Social Response to Severe Climate Change (in press, Climatic Change )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Travis

    The growing literature on potentially-dangerous climate change is examined and. research on human response to natural hazards is analyzed to develop propositions on social response pathways likely to emerge in the face of increasingly severe climate change. A typology of climate change severity is proposed and the potential for mal-adaptive responses examined. Elements of a warning system for severe climate

  12. Physical basis for climate change models

    SciTech Connect

    Goody, R.; Gerstell, M.

    1993-10-18

    The objectives for this research were two-fold: To identify means of using measurements of the outgoing radiation stream from earth to identify mechanisms of climate change; and to develop a flexible radiation code based upon the correlated-k method to enable rapid and accurate calculations of the outgoing radiation. The intended products are three papers and a radiation code. The three papers are to be on Entropy fluxes and the dissipation of the climate system, Radiation fingerprints of climate change, and A rapid correlated-k code.

  13. Marine Ecosystem Sensitivity to Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond C. Smith; David Ainley; Karen Baker; Eugene Domack; Steve Emslie; Bill Fraser; James Kennett; Amy Leventer; Ellen Mosley-Thompson; Sharon Stammerjohn; Maria Vernet

    1999-01-01

    that the earth is experienc-ing a period of rapid cli-mate change. Never before has it been so important to understand how environmental change influences the earth's biota and to distinguish an-thropogenic change from natural variability. Long-term studies in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region provide the opportunity to observe how changes in the physical environment are related to changes in

  14. Assessing regional impacts and adaptation strategies for climate change: the Washington Climate Change Impacts Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Miles; Marketa M. Elsner; Jeremy S. Littell; Lara Whitely Binder; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

    2010-01-01

    Climate change in the twenty-first century will strongly affect the processes that define natural and human systems. The Washington\\u000a Climate Change Impacts Assessment (WACCIA) was intended to identify the nature and effects of climate change on natural and\\u000a human resources in Washington State over the next century. The assessment focused on eight sectors that were identified as\\u000a being potentially most

  15. Climate change risk analysis framework (CCRAF) a probabilistic tool for analyzing climate change uncertainties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Legget; W. Pepper; A. Sankovski; J. Smith; R. Tol; T. Wigley

    2003-01-01

    Potential risks of human-induced climate change are subject to a three-fold uncertainty associated with: the extent of future anthropogenic and natural GHG emissions; global and regional climatic responses to emissions; and impacts of climatic changes on economies and the biosphere. Long-term analyses are also subject to uncertainty regarding how humans will respond to actual or perceived changes, through adaptation or

  16. TITLE: Simulated climate and climate change in the GFDL CM2.5 high-resolution coupled climate model

    E-print Network

    TITLE: Simulated climate and climate change in the GFDL CM2.5 high-resolution coupled climate model with outstanding ability to simulate aspects of regional climate variability and change within a global model resolution significantly improves our ability to simulate regional climate, as well as climate variability

  17. Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    #12;JULY 2011 Climate Change and Flood Operations in the Sacramento Basin, California Ann D. Willis operating rules is an important adaptation for climate warming. KEY WORDS Climate change, flood control with changing conditions. A changing climate, along with other changes in floodplain land use and flood warn

  18. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pulwarty

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation measures improve our ability to cope with or avoid harmful climate impacts and take advantage of beneficial ones, now and as climate varies and changes. Adaptation and mitigation are necessary elements of an effective response to climate change. Adaptation options also have the potential to moderate harmful impacts of current and future climate variability and change. The Global Climate

  19. NIH Portfolio Analysis on Climate Change and Health

    E-print Network

    Madey, Gregory R.

    NIH Portfolio Analysis on Climate Change and Health Total studies that in some way relate to climate change 1,357 > Directly relate to climate change 7 > Examine the climate variables on health 85 Valley Fever, according to Dr. Ken Linthicum of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Climate and weather

  20. Climate change – the challenge of translating scientific knowledge into action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Naustdalslid

    2011-01-01

    In spite of solid scientific evidence that anthropogenic climate change will affect the conditions for life on earth, little climate action is taking place. This paper discusses this apparent paradox. The main message is that lack of climate action has to do with the ways in which climate change interlinks with society. Climate change is representative of what in the

  1. How Climate Change is Playing Out in Minnesota: Extreme Weather

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    How Climate Change is Playing Out in Minnesota: Extreme Weather Dr. Mark Seeley Dept of Soil, Water Climate Headlines Data Sources Changing Minnesota Climate Features Climate Consequences Implications for Severe Weather #12;Three Reasons to Accept That Climate Change is Real #12;#12;Stationary (1) Cyclical (2

  2. Climate change impacts on food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Food system includes biophysical factors (climate, land and water), human environments (production technologies and food consumption, distribution and marketing), as well as the dynamic interactions within them. Climate change affects agriculture and food systems in various ways. Agricultural production can be influenced directly by climatic factors such as mean temperature rising, change in rainfall patterns, and more frequent extreme events. Eventually, climate change could cause shift of arable land, alteration of water availability, abnormal fluctuation of food prices, and increase of people at risk of malnutrition. This work aims to evaluate how climate change would affect agricultural production biophysically and how these effects would propagate to social factors at the global level. In order to model the complex interactions between the natural and social components, a Global Optimization model of Agricultural Land and Water resources (GOALW) is applied to the analysis. GOALW includes various demands of human society (food, feed, other), explicit production module, and irrigation water availability constraint. The objective of GOALW is to maximize global social welfare (consumers' surplus and producers' surplus).Crop-wise irrigation water use in different regions around the world are determined by the model; marginal value of water (MVW) can be obtained from the model, which implies how much additional welfare benefit could be gained with one unit increase in local water availability. Using GOALW, we will analyze two questions in this presentation: 1) how climate change will alter irrigation requirements and how the social system would buffer that by price/demand adjustment; 2) how will the MVW be affected by climate change and what are the controlling factors. These results facilitate meaningful insights for investment and adaptation strategies in sustaining world's food security under climate change.

  3. The climate change and energy security nexus

    SciTech Connect

    King, Marcus Dubois [George Washington University; Gulledge, Jay [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The study of the impacts of climate change on national and interna-tional security has grown as a research field, particularly in the last five years. Within this broad field, academic scholarship has concentrated primarily on whether climate change is, or may become, a driver of violent conflict. This relationship remains highly contested. However, national security policy and many non-governmental organizations have identified climate change as a threat multiplier in conflict situations. The U.S. Department of Defense and the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defense have incorporated these findings into strategic planning documents such as the Quadrennial Defense Review and the Strategic Defence and Security Review. In contrast to the climate-conflict nexus, our analysis found that academic scholarship on the climate change and energy security nexus is small and more disciplinarily focused. In fact, a search of social science litera-ture found few sources, with a significant percentage of these works attribut-able to a single journal. Assuming that policymakers are more likely to rely on broader social science literature than technical or scientific journals, this leaves a limited foundation. This then begged the question: what are these sources? We identified a body of grey literature on the nexus of climate change and energy security of a greater size than the body of peer-reviewed social science literature. We reviewed fifty-eight recent reports, issue briefs, and transcripts to better understand the nexus of climate change and energy security, as well as to gain insight about the questions policymakers need answered by those undertaking the research. In this article, we describe the nature of the sources reviewed, highlight possible climate change and energy security linkages found within those sources, identify emerging risks, and offer conclusions that can guide further research.

  4. H usescience and experience in dealing with climate change Holland Climate House

    E-print Network

    Stoffelen, Ad

    H lland Climate H usescience and experience in dealing with climate change #12;Holland Climate House Science and experience in dealing with climate change Dear guest, Welcome to the Holland Climate House at the Copenhagen Climate Conference. We hope you will enjoy your stay with us. During the entire

  5. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Mitigation and adaptation are therefore complementary actions. In the long term, climate change without mitigation measures will likely exceed the adaptive capacity of natural, managed and human systems. Early adoption of mitigation measures would break the dependence on carbon-intensive infrastructures and reduce adaptation needs to climate change. It also can save on adaptation cost. Therefore mitigation is the key objective of the global warming problem but little is being done in this field. We will present some proposals of "preventive economically efficient" policies at a global and regional level which will constitute the complement to the adaptation aspect.

  6. France Geography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Austin

    2008-04-22

    Studying more about the country of France! Follow this link to find information on France\\'s Climate! Here is a great place to learn about the Natural Landmarks of France like rivers and mountains. Use the same site to see more about France\\'s Population! You\\'ll find lots of information on this site, but look very carefully for the Natural Hazards portion. Only ...

  7. Climate change: Flawed science, or

    E-print Network

    - Past climates 2. Impacts - Plants & animals - The seasons 3. Fundamental dilemma - Overpopulation temperature by several oC. #12;2. Impacts - Plants & animals - The seasons #12;Phenology #12; Not one RBGE- standard, eccentric assessments and of invalid procedures) until a success occurs. Create scientific

  8. A Record of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Zach

    2007-01-01

    The hydrologic cycle is a very basic scientific principle. In this article, background information is presented on how the hydrologic cycle provides scientists with clues to understanding the history of Earth's climate. Also detailed is a web-based activity that allows students to learn about how scientists are able to piece together a record of…

  9. CLIMATE CHANGE: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This State of Knowledge document presents an introduction to human effects that during the past 100 years have led to increased atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in global temperatures. The world's leading climate scientists have concluded that Ea...

  10. Soils and climate change (Introduction)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use conversion from natural to agricultural ecosystems and soil cultivation creates a soil C deficit with the attendant emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. The magnitude of deficit, ranging from 30 to 75%, depends on soil, climate, terrain, drainage, land use, and soil and crop management pra...

  11. Polar Bears and Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew E. Derocher (University of Alberta, Canada; )

    2008-05-01

    The issue-focused, peer reviewed article discusses how a warming climate is altering sea ice conditions, which affects polar bears in many ways, including more difficulty in getting to and hunting prey, fewer den areas and lower cub survival, increased interactions between bears and humans, and lower survival rate of the species in general.

  12. Amazon Deforestation and Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shukla; C. Nobre; P. Sellers

    1990-01-01

    A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere and biosphere has been used to assess the effects of Amazon deforestation on the regional and global climate. When the tropical forests in the model were replaced by degraded grass (pasture), there was a significant increase in surface temperature and a decrease in evapotranspiration and precipitation over Amazonia. In the simulation, the

  13. Abrupt climate change: Mechanisms, patterns, and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    In the span of only a few decades, the global temperature can soar by more than a dozen degrees Celsius, a feat that 20 years ago was considered improbable, if not impossible. But recent research in the nascent field of rapid climate change has upended the dominant views of decades past. Focusing primarily on events during and after the most recent glaciation, from 80,000 years ago, the AGU monograph Abrupt Climate Change: Mechanisms, Patterns, and Impacts, edited by Harunur Rashid, Leonid Polyak, and Ellen Mosley-Thompson, explores the transient climate transitions that were only recently uncovered in climate proxies around the world. In this interview, Eos talks to Harunur Rashid about piecing together ancient climes, the effect of abrupt change on historical civilizations, and why younger researchers may be more worried about modern warming than their teachers.

  14. Navigating Negative Conversations in Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandia, S. A.; Abraham, J. P.; Dash, J. W.; Ashley, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Politically charged public discussions of climate change often lead to polarization as a direct result of many societal, economic, religious and other factors which form opinions. For instance, the general public views climate change as a political discussion rather than a scientific matter. Additionally, many media sources such as websites and mainstream venues and persons have served to promote the "controversy". Scientists who engage in a public discourse of climate change often encounter politically charged environments and audiences. Traditional presentations of the science without attention paid to political, social, or economic matters are likely to worsen the existing divide. An international organization, the Climate Science Rapid Response Team (CSRRT) suggests a strategy that can be used to navigate potentially troublesome situations with divided audiences. This approach can be used during live lecture presentations, and radio, print, or television interviews. The strategy involves identifying alternative motivations for taking action on climate change. The alternative motivations are tailored to the audience and can range from national defense, economic prosperity, religious motivation, patriotism, energy independence, or hunting/fishing reasons. Similar messaging modification can be used to faithfully and accurately convey the importance of taking action on climate change but present the motivations in a way that will be received by the audience.

  15. Prospects for future climate: A special US/USSR report on climate and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.; Budyko, M.I.; Hecht, A.D.; Izrael, Y.A.

    1990-01-01

    Starting with the US-USSR Agreement on Protection of the Environment signed in 1972, the two nations have cooperated in joint research on atmospheric and environmental problems. The result of these efforts has been an innovative approach to projecting future climate change based on what has been learned about past warm periods and what can be learned from models. The chapters in this document explore the following: past changes in climate, both paleoclimatology and changes in the recent past; changes in atmospheric composition; estimates of greenhouse-induced change including the use of both empirical methods and climate models; impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in the two countries; and prospects for future climate changes.

  16. Energy and global climate change: Why ORNL?

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    Subtle signs of global warming have been detected in studies of the climate record of the past century after figuring in the cooling effects of sulfur emissions from volcanoes and human sources. According to the December 1995 report of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the earth`s surface temperature has increased by about 0.2{degrees}C per decade since 1975. the panel projects about a 2{degrees} increase in global temperature by 2100. The IPCC report states that pollutants-greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and fluorocarbons that warm the globe and sulfur emission that cool it-are responsible for recent patterns of climate change. {open_quotes}The balance of evidence,{close_quotes} states the report, {open_quotes}suggests that there is a discrenible human influence on global climate.{close_quotes} This human influence stems largely from fossil fuel combustion, cement production, and the burning of forests, and could intensify as populations grow and developing countries increase energy production and industrial development. The two facts have caught the attention of the news media and public. First, 1995 was declared the hottest year in the 140-year-long record of reliable global measurements. Second, recent years have been marked by an unusually high number of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, blizzards, and floods. In the 1990`s the world has become more aware of the prospect and possible impacts of global climate change. In the late 1950`s, global climate change was an unknown threat to the world`s environment and social systems. Except for a few ORNL researchers who had just completed their first briefing to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission on the need to understand the global carbon cycle, the connection between rising carbon dioxide concentrations and potential changes in global climate was not common knowledge, nor were the consequences of climate change understood.

  17. Uncertainty in climate change and drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.; Tasker, Gary D.; Ayers, Mark A.

    1991-01-01

    A series of projections of climate change were applied to a watershed model of the Delaware River basin to identify sources of uncertainty in predicting effects of climate change on drought in the basin as defined by New York City reservoir contents. The watershed model is a calibrated, monthly time-step water-balance model that incorporates the operation of reservoirs and diversion canals, and accounts for all inflows to and outflows from the basin at several key nodes. The model assesses the effects of projected climate change on reservoir contents by calculating the frequency with which the basin enters drought conditions under a range of climate-change conditions. Two primary sources of uncertainty that affect predictions of drought frequency in the Delaware River basin were considered: (1) uncertainty in the amount of change in mean air temperature and precipitation, and (2) uncertainty in the effects of natural climate variability on future temperature and precipitation. Model results indicate that changes in drought frequency in the Delaware River basin are highly sensitive to changes in mean precipitation; therefore, the uncertainty associated with predictions of future precipitation has a large effect on the prediction of future drought frequency in the basin.

  18. Thresholds in conservation effectiveness under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Phillips, L.

    2007-12-01

    We describe a new approach to conservation that derives from the effect of energy on ecosystem properties and then evaluate potential threshold responses of conservation effectiveness under climate change. Many tests of species energy theory provide evidence that species richness varies with measures of energy such as net primary productivity (NPP). Across continents, this relationship is most often unimodal, with species richness peaking in intermediate energy places and decreasing at higher NPP levels. NPP also influences ecosystem response to habitat fragmentation, recovery after disturbance, and trophic relationships. We have developed a topology for conservation whereby conservation priorities and management effectiveness differ among low, intermediate, and high energy ecosystems. We evaluated the projected change in NPP and conservation topology of ecoregions under future climate change scenarios. We found that projected NPP under climate change caused a subset of ecoregions to shift across the peak of the unimodal species energy curve, suggesting dramatic changes in conservation effectiveness are possible.

  19. Climate change projections for the 21st century and climate change commitment in the CCSM3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald A Meehl; Warren M. Washington; Benjamin D. Santer; William D. Collins; Julie M. Arblaster; Aixue Hu; David M. Lawrence; Haiyan Teng; Lawrence E. Buja

    Climate change scenario simulations with the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3), a global coupled climate model, show that if concentrations of all greenhouse gases (GHGs) could have been stabilized at the year 2000, the climate system would already be committed to 0.4°C more warming by the end of the twenty-first century. Committed sea level rise by 2100 is

  20. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 1; Respective Influences of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Climate Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.

    2005-01-01

    We utilize the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model and 8 different climate change experiments, many of them focused on stratospheric climate forcings, to assess the relative influence of tropospheric and stratospheric climate change on the extratropical circulation indices (Arctic Oscillation, AO; North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). The experiments are run in two different ways: with variable sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to allow for a full tropospheric climate response, and with specified SSTs to minimize the tropospheric change. The results show that tropospheric warming (cooling) experiments and stratospheric cooling (warming) experiments produce more positive (negative) AO/NAO indices. For the typical magnitudes of tropospheric and stratospheric climate changes, the tropospheric response dominates; results are strongest when the tropospheric and stratospheric influences are producing similar phase changes. Both regions produce their effect primarily by altering wave propagation and angular momentum transports, but planetary wave energy changes accompanying tropospheric climate change are also important. Stratospheric forcing has a larger impact on the NAO than on the AO, and the angular momentum transport changes associated with it peak in the upper troposphere, affecting all wavenumbers. Tropospheric climate changes influence both the A0 and NAO with effects that extend throughout the troposphere. For both forcings there is often vertical consistency in the sign of the momentum transport changes, obscuring the difference between direct and indirect mechanisms for influencing the surface circulation.

  1. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  2. Climate Change Education for Engineering Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaniyala, S.; Powers, S.

    2011-12-01

    The outreach and educational component of my NSF-CAREER grant focused on the development of a new undergraduate course on climate change for engineering undergraduate students and development of project-based course modules for middle and high-school students. Engineering students have minimal formal education on climate issues, but are increasingly finding themselves in positions where they have to participate and address climate change and mitigation issues. Towards this end, we developed a new three-credit course, entitled Global Climate Change: Science, Engineering, and Policy. With a focus on engineering students, this course was structured as a highly quantitative course, taught through an inquiry-based pedagogical approach. The students used a combination of historical climate data from ground-stations and satellites and model results of future climate conditions for different scenarios to ascertain for themselves the current extent of climate change and likely future impacts. Students also combined mitigation efforts, concentrated on geoengineering and alternate energy choices, with climate modeling to determine the immediacy of such efforts. The impacts of the course on the students were assessed with a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches that used pre-post climate literacy and engineering self-efficacy surveys as well as qualitative focus group discussions at the end of the course. I will discuss our undergraduate course development effort and the primary outcomes of the course. I will also briefly describe our k-12 outreach effort on the development of course modules for project-based learning related to air quality and atmospheric science topics.

  3. Landscape and climatic characteristics associated with human alveolar echinococcosis in France, 1982 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Piarroux, M; Gaudart, J; Bresson-Hadni, S; Bardonnet, K; Faucher, B; Grenouillet, F; Knapp, J; Dumortier, J; Watelet, J; Gerard, A; Beytout, J; Abergel, A; Wallon, M; Vuitton, D A; Piarroux, R

    2015-01-01

    Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a severe hepatic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. In France, the definitive and intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis (foxes and rodents, respectively) have a broader geographical distribution than that of human AE. In this two-part study, we describe the link between AE incidence in France between 1982 and 2007 and climatic and landscape characteristics. National-level analysis demonstrated a dramatic increase in AE risk in areas with very cold winters and high annual rainfall levels. Notably, 52% (207/401) of cases resided in French communes (smallest French administrative level) with a mountain climate. The mountain climate communes displayed a 133-fold (95% CI: 95-191) increase in AE risk compared with communes in which the majority of the population resides. A case-control study performed in the most affected areas confirmed the link between AE risk and climatic factors. This arm of the study also revealed that populations residing in forest or pasture areas were at high risk of developing AE. We therefore hypothesised that snow-covered ground may facilitate predators to track their prey, thus increasing E. multilocularis biomass in foxes. Such climatic and landscape conditions could lead to an increased risk of developing AE among humans residing in nearby areas. PMID:25990231

  4. "Climate change is sure to occur in some form." The study of climate impacts notes

    E-print Network

    "Climate change is sure to occur in some form." 1 #12;The study of climate impacts notes how scientists generally agree that humans are changing the climate, and that if we continue pumping carbon we learn from past climate variations? How can we best adapt to climate change? This report attempts

  5. Can ice sheets trigger abrupt climatic change?

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The discovery in recent years of abrupt climatic changes in climate proxy records from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment cores, and from other sites around the world, has diverted attention from gradual insolation changes caused by Earth`s orbital variations to more rapid processes on Earth`s surface as forcing Quaternary climatic change. In particular, forcing by ice sheets has been quantified for a major ice stream that drained the Laurentide Ice Sheet along Hudson Strait. The history of these recent discoveries leading to an interest in ice sheets is reviewed, and a case is made that ice sheets may drive abrupt climatic change that is virtually synchronous worldwide. Attention is focused on abrupt inception and termination of a Quaternary glaciation cycle, abrupt changes recorded as stadials and interstadials within the cycle, abrupt changes in ice streams that trigger stadials and interstadials, and abrupt changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet linked to effectively simultaneous abrupt changes in its ice streams. Remaining work needed to quantify further these changes is discussed. 90 refs., 14 figs.

  6. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  7. Projected future changes in tropical summer climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Sobel; S. J. Camargo

    2010-01-01

    We analyze changes in the tropical sea surface temperature (SST), surface wind and other fields from the 20th to the 21st century in climate projections using the CMIP3 multimodel ensemble, focusing on the seasons January-March (JFM) and July-September (JAS). When the annual mean change is subtracted, the remaining ``seasonal changes'' have robust, coherent structures. The JFM and JAS changes resemble

  8. Global fish production and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Brander, K.M. [International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-12-11

    Current global fisheries production of {approx}160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but there is low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are giverned by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipiation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the pricipal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change.

  9. Shifting seasons, climate change and ecosystem consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thackeray, Stephen; Henrys, Peter; Hemming, Deborah; Huntingford, Chris; Bell, James; Leech, David; Wanless, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, the seasonal timing of many biological events (e.g. flowering, breeding, migration) has shifted. These phenological changes are believed to be one of the most conspicuous biological indicators of climate change. Rates and directions of phenological change have differed markedly among species, potentially threatening the seasonal synchrony of key species interactions and ultimately ecosystem functioning. Differences in phenological change among-species at different trophic levels, and with respect to other broad species traits, are likely to be driven by variations in the climatic sensitivity of phenological events. However, as yet, inconsistencies in analytical methods have hampered broad-scale assessments of variation in climate sensitivity among taxonomic and functional groups of organisms. In this presentation, results will be presented from a current collaborative project (http://www.ceh.ac.uk/sci_programmes/shifting-seasons-uk.html) in which many UK long-term data sets are being integrated in order to assess relationships between temperature/precipitation, and the timing of seasonal events for a wide range of plants and animals. Our aim is to assess which organism groups (in which locations/habitats) are most sensitive to climate. Furthermore, the role of anthropogenic climate change as a driver of phenological change is being assessed.

  10. America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Academies

    A video that discusses the perspectives and insights necessary to report out about climate change. The video can be used to demonstrate how different perspectives impact different stakeholders and different levels, and that there is a need to have a clear, coordinated national response.

  11. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN

    E-print Network

    Barron-Gafford, Greg

    PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BE USED TO PREDICT in photosynthesis, and thus substrate supply, influence the rate of ecosystem respiration (Re). Further- more in photosynthesis might result in concomitant changes in both the rate, and temperature-sensitivity, of Re. Re

  12. Global change and marine communities: Alien species and climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi

    2007-01-01

    Anthropogenic influences on the biosphere since the advent of the industrial age are increasingly causing global changes. Climatic change and the rising concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are ranking high in scientific and public agendas, and other components of global change are also frequently addressed, among which are the introductions of non indigenous species (NIS) in biogeographic regions

  13. Fisheries Adaptations to Climate Change by Terry Johnson

    E-print Network

    . Alaska School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences #12;Effects of Climate Change on Fisheries Climate changeFisheries Adaptations to Climate Change by Terry Johnson Alaska Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program and livelihoods of people who depend on marine resources. Climate change involves a complex of effects

  14. Climate Change and the Health Implications of Managed Relocation

    E-print Network

    Smith, Kate

    91 Climate Change and the Health Implications of Managed Relocation Jessica Fields '14 and Tram Bui `14 Other modules in the Climate Change and Health unit that best complement the one presented here include The Science of Climate Change, Climate Change and Health: Lessons from the Past

  15. ITF CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE MEXICO CITY 4 AUGUST 2010

    E-print Network

    Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

    ITF CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE MEXICO CITY 4 AUGUST 2010 DISCUSSION DOCUMENT TRANSPORT WORKERS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE, LOW-CARBON MOBILITY ITF CLIMATE CHANGE WORKING GROUP IN COLLABORATION Climate Change Working Group in collaboration with the Global Labor Institute (GLI), School of Industrial

  16. A process for evaluating anticipatory adaptation measures for climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Smith; S. E. Ragland; G. J. Pitts

    1996-01-01

    Many countries are preparing national climate change action plans that describe specific measures they are taking to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the potential effects of climate change. Among the reasons for preparing such plans are that climate change is likely to occur, and many anticipatory measures that would be taken in response to climate change are “no

  17. Taught degrees MSc in Climate Change and Development

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Essentials Taught degrees MSc in Climate Change and Development MSc in Climate Change and Policy requirements, refer to pages 157-158 MSc in Climate Change and Development A first- or upper second by a detailed, two-page personal statement and a full CV MSc in Climate Change and Policy, MSc in Energy Policy

  18. Climate Change Science and Impacts in Northeast Wisconsin

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate Change Science and Impacts in Northeast Wisconsin Green Bay September 13, 2011 David S of Engineering #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Projected impacts of that warming..... ...whatever the cause of it. #12;Indicators of a changing climate J. Magnuson Potter, et al

  19. Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands

    E-print Network

    Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands The changing climate presents associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, silviculture and forest operations that increase resilience whatever climate change brings, or that are likely to reap the greatest rewards

  20. Climate Change: What Are We Arguing About? Professor Mike Hulme

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Climate Change: What Are We Arguing About? Professor Mike Hulme School of Environmental Sciences climate change is serious, it is urgent and it is growing ... we will be judge by history Climate change thing If you could vote for a change of climate, you would always vote for a warmer one The global