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Sample records for climate change france

  1. Possible effects of climate change on wheat and maize crops in France

    SciTech Connect

    Delecolle, R.; Ruget, F.; Ripoche, D.; Gosse, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study evaluates the possible effects of climate modifications induced by increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere, on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water demand in France. CERES-wheat and CERES-maize models are used with two French weather series and soil conditions. Weather variables were varied from present conditions, as simulated by various global climate models (GCMs). This chapter emphasizes the process of model calibration and the consequent uncertainties in final simulated results. Under the simulation conditions: (i) season lengths are shortened under climate change scenarios; (ii) yield decreases under climate change alone, but the decrease can be somewhat counteracted by direct CO{sub 2} effects on the crop, up to a 5 C temperature increase; and (iii) water use decreases under climate changes. Even if the large diversity of French climates and soils prohibits generalization of these results to the entire country, the main conclusions are: (i) under both temperate and Mediterranean climates, winter cereal yields will not be decreased by future conditions, provided that irrigation supply is not limiting under dry conditions and (ii) under temperate climate, maize could take advantage of development phase shrinkage and improve its radiation use efficiency. Changing sowing date produces varying results according to weather scenario, plant, and location. A more precise knowledge of initial soil water or temperature under changing conditions is necessary before optimal agronomic adaptation to future climate can be suggested.

  2. Response of Agriculture and Forests to Climate Change in France: Assessment of Uncertainties and Trend Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laanaia, N.; Carrer, D.

    2014-12-01

    In the framework of the French research project ORACLE we examine the impact of climate change on agriculture and forests in France for two time horizons (2020-2050 and 2070-2100) in reference to the 1970-2000 period. The biophysical variables (leaf area index, equilibrium forest biomass, leaf onset and offset, ...) are produced by ISBA-A-gs forced by the atmospheric variables produced by differents climat models and scenarios. Their trends will be analyzed. The impact of uncertainties at various levels through multi-model and multi-scenario approaches will be assessed

  3. The 2003 heat wave in France: dangerous climate change here and now.

    PubMed

    Poumadère, Marc; Mays, Claire; Le Mer, Sophie; Blong, Russell

    2005-12-01

    In an analysis of the French episode of heat wave in 2003, this article highlights how heat wave dangers result from the intricate association of natural and social factors. Unusually high temperatures, as well as socioeconomic vulnerability, along with social attenuation of hazards, in a general context where the anthropogenic contribution to climate change is becoming more plausible, led to an excess of 14,947 deaths in France, between August 4 and 18, 2003. The greatest increase in mortality was due to causes directly attributable to heat: dehydration, hyperthermia, heat stroke. In addition to age and gender, combinatorial factors included preexisting disease, medication, urban residence, isolation, poverty, and, probably, air pollution. Although diversely impacted or reported, many parts of Europe suffered human and other losses, such as farming and forestry through drought and fires. Summer 2003 was the hottest in Europe since 1500, very likely due in part to anthropogenic climate change. The French experience confirms research establishing that heat waves are a major mortal risk, number one among so-called natural hazards in postindustrial societies. Yet France had no policy in place, as if dangerous climate were restricted to a distant or uncertain future of climate change, or to preindustrial countries. We analyze the heat wave's profile as a strongly attenuated risk in the French context, as well as the causes and the effects of its sudden shift into amplification. Research and preparedness needs are highlighted. PMID:16506977

  4. How many reservoirs should we build in France to maintain water availability under a changing climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andréassian, Vazken; Thirel, Guillaume; Perrin, Charles

    2015-04-01

    Although climatic predictions based on the IPCC scenarios have been made available to policy-makers for several years, the debate on adaptation is still extremely limited. This is natural in a world where short-term preoccupations are overwhelming. But it is true that hydrologists have not spent much effort in translating the scientific message into a message understandable by policy makers. In this presentation, we wish to transform the future climate simulations into a provocative question, better able to raise interest among policy-makers: if we would like to keep the same availability of water resource under a changing climate, how many dams would we have to build until 2050? (Of course, this does not mean that we believe that the only possible adaptation strategy lies in dam building). To this aim, we use climatic simulations based on the last IPCC scenarios, a hydrological model to transform these scenarios into streamflow series, and a water allocation model working under simple hypotheses to compute the efficiency of the flow-to-resource conversion and simulate the impact of reservoir operation. After presenting the method for three French rivers (the Vilaine, the Durance and the Garonne) we apply it to 1000 points all over France and propose a countrywide quantification of reservoir construction needs, in order to adapt to predicted climatic changes.

  5. How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while expected impacts of climate changes on the Thau system were expected to be linked to water balance depletion in the catchment, the main threats are now linked to the impact on water quality of the introduction of the Rhône river waters within the system. This study is conducted in the CLIMB EU-FP7 project (2010-2014).

  6. The study of climate suitability for grapevine cropping using ecoclimatic indicators under climatic change conditions in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Caubel, J.; Cufi, J.; Huard, F.; Launay, M.; deNoblet, N.

    2013-12-01

    Climatic conditions play a fundamental role in the suitability of geographical areas for cropping. In the case of grape, climatic conditions such as water supply and temperatures have an effect of grape quality. In the context of climate change, we could expect changes in overall climatic conditions and so, in grape quality. We proposed to use GETARI (Generic Evaluation Tool of Ecoclimatic Indicators) in order to assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape (Vitis vinifera) regarding its quality. GETARI calculates an overall climate suitability index at the annual scale, from a designed evaluation tree. This aggregation tool proposes the major ecophysiological processes taking place during phenological periods, together with the climatic effects that are known to affect their achievement. The effects of climate on the ecophysiological processes are captured by the ecoclimatic indicators, which are agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. They give information about crop response to climate through ecophysiological or agronomic thresholds. These indicators are normalized and aggregated according to aggregation rules in order to compute an overall climate index. To assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape regarding its quality, we designed an evaluation tree from GETARI, by considering the effect of water deficit between flowering and veraison and the effect of water deficit, water excess, heat stress, temperature ranges between day and night, night temperatures and mean temperatures between veraison and harvest. The two sites are located in Burgundy and Rhone valley which are two of the most important vineyards in the world. Ecoclimatic indicators are calculated using phenological cycle of the crop. For this reason we chose Grenache and Pinot Noir as long and short cycle varieties respectively. Flowering, veraison and harvest dates were simulated (Parker et al., 2011; Yiou et al., 2012). Daily climatic data from 1950 to 2100 were simulated by the global climate model ARPEGE forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario were used (data from CERFACS SCRATCH08 - http://www.drias-climat.fr), using the quantile-quantile downscaling method. The results provide information about the climate suitability for grapevine quality in the future and can be used for anticipating and adapting viticulture. This work is carried out under the research program ORACLE (Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France (and Europe). Parker, A. K., de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G., van Leeuwen, C., Chuine, I., 2011. General phenological model to characterise the timing of flowering and veraison of Vitis vinifera L. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. 17, 206-216. Yiou, P., de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G., Chuine, I., Daux, V., Garnier, E., Viovy, N., van Leeuwen, C., Parker, A. K., Boursiquot, J. M., 2012. Continental atmospheric circulation over Europe during the Little Ice Age inferred from grape harvest dates. Climate of the Past. 8, 577-588.

  7. Using a Statistical Approach to Anticipate Leaf Wetness Duration Under Climate Change in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huard, F.; Imig, A. F.; Perrin, P.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf wetness plays a major role in the development of fungal plant diseases. Leaf wetness duration (LWD) above a threshold value is determinant for infection and can be seen as a good indicator of impact of climate on infection occurrence and risk. As LWD is not widely measured, several methods, based on physics and empirical approach, have been developed to estimate it from weather data. Many LWD statistical models do exist, but the lack of standard for measurements require reassessments. A new empirical LWD model, called MEDHI (Modèle d'Estimation de la Durée d'Humectation à l'Inra) was developed for french configuration for wetness sensors (angle : 90°, height : 50 cm). This deployment is different from what is usually recommended from constructors or authors in other countries (angle from 10 to 60°, height from 10 to 150 cm…). MEDHI is a decision support system based on hourly climatic conditions at time steps n and n-1 taking account relative humidity, rainfall and previously simulated LWD. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, rain and LWD data from several sensors with 2 configurations were measured during 6 months in Toulouse and Avignon (South West and South East of France) to calibrate MEDHI. A comparison of empirical models : NHRH (RH threshold), DPD (dew point depression), CART (classification and regression tree analysis dependant on RH, wind speed and dew point depression) and MEDHI, using meteorological and LWD measurements obtained during 5 months in Toulouse, showed that the development of this new model MEHDI was definitely better adapted to French conditions. In the context of climate change, MEDHI was used for mapping the evolution of leaf wetness duration in France from 1950 to 2100 with the French regional climate model ALADIN under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and using a QM (Quantile-Mapping) statistical downscaling method. Results give information on the spatial distribution of infection risks during the current century. Such approach could be easily combined with thermal response curves of fungal infection for various pathogens.

  8. Climate change and viticulture in Mediterranean climates: the complex response of socio-ecosystems. A comparative case study from France and Australia (1955-2040)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, A.-L.; Beltrando, G.; Bardsley, D. K.

    2012-04-01

    The wine industry is very sensitive to extreme weather events, especially to temperatures above 35°C and drought. In a context of global climate change, Mediterranean climate regions are predicted to experience higher variability in rainfall and temperatures and an increased occurrence of extreme weather events. Some viticultural systems could be particularly at risk in those regions, considering their marginal position in the growth climatic range of Vitis vinifera, the long commercial lifespan of a vineyard, the high added-value of wine and the volatile nature of global markets. The wine industry, like other agricultural systems, is inserted in complex networks of climatic and non-climatic (other physical, economical, social and legislative) components, with constant feedbacks. We use a socio-ecosystem approach to analyse the adaptation of two Mediterranean viticultural systems to recent and future increase of extreme weather events. The present analysis focuses on two wine regions with a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (CSb type in the Köppen classification): Côtes-du-Roussillon in southern France and McLaren Vale in southern Australia. Using climate data from two synoptic weather stations, Perpignan (France) and Adelaide (Australia), with time series running from 1955 to 2010, we highlight changes in rainfall patterns and an increase in the number of days with Tx >35°c since the last three decades in both regions. Climate models (DRIAS project data for France and CSIRO Mk3.5 for Australia) project similar trends in the future. To date, very few projects have focused on an international comparison of the adaptive capacity of viticultural systems to climate change with a holistic approach. Here, the analysis of climate data was complemented by twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews with key actors of the two regional wine industries, in order to analyse adaptation strategies put in place regarding recent climate evolution. This mixed-methods approach allows for a comprehensive assessment of adaptation capacity of the two viticultural systems to future climate change. The strategies of grape growers and wine producers focus on maintaining optimal yields and a constant wine style adapted to markets in a variable and uncertain climate. Their implementation and efficiency depend strongly on non-climatic factors. Thus, adaptation capacity to recent and future climate change depends strongly on adaptation to other non-climatic changes.

  9. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activities in Languedoc (Southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuara, J.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Lebreton, V.; Mazier, F.; Müller, S. D.; Dezileau, L.

    2015-09-01

    Holocene climate fluctuations and human activities since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediterranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to reconstruct Mediterranean paleoenvironments over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High resolution pollen analyses were undertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France). These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamics over the last 4500 years. Results are compared with climatic, historical and archeological archives. A long-term aridification trend is highlighted during the Late Holocene and three superimposed arid events are recorded at 4600-4300, 2800-2400 and 1300-1100 cal BP. These periods of climatic instability coincide in time with the rapid climatic events depicted in the Atlantic Ocean (Bond et al., 2001). From the Bronze Age (4000 cal BP) to the end of the Iron Age (around 2000 cal BP), the spread of evergreen taxa and loss of forest cover result from anthropogenic impact. The Antiquity is characterized by a major reforestation event related to the concentration of rural activities and populations in coastal plains leading to forest recovery in the mountains. A major regional deforestation occurred at the beginning of the High Middle Ages. Around 1000 cal BP, forest cover is minimal while cover of olive, chestnut and walnut expands in relation to increasing human influence. The present day vegetation dominated by Mediterranean shrubland and pines has been in existence since the beginning of the 20th century.

  10. Climate Change impacts in the Drôme department (southeastern France): the GICC-DECLIC Project (2010-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rome, Sandra; Bigot, Sylvain; Dubus, Nathalie; Anquetin, Sandrine

    2010-05-01

    The national DECLIC ("Drôme: Eau, CLimat Impacts liés aux Changements") project, coordinated at LTHE (Grenoble-France) has begun in beginning of 2010 and is financed by the national GICC-2 program. This project deals with the climatic variability and the interactions in the Drôme's low mountain range. The main goal is to initiate an operational partnership between academics (three research laboratories LTHE, PACTE and ESPACE) and the involved Territorial Agencies, to define potential climate changes and future adaptations. Analyses will concern especially the climatic variations observed during the last 50 years at the administrative scale (namely the "Département" in the French organization), and their significant impacts on the current and future water resources, i.e. pluviometric regimes, quality of the snow coverage, flow stream variations, availability of the resources. The express request from the local administrators concerns mainly the variations of plant productivity (forests and agriculture), and mainly those due to isolated or recurrent drought periods (productivity, biomass, phenology, use of water resources). DECLIC project also concerns interactions between climatic variations and departmental tourist activities, in connection with water resources (consumption and quality). The final objective is to write a « green paper » about adaptation strategies on climate change for policies. The whole study will lean at first on a diagnostic study of climatic time-series and to various environmental data. One step will also use regional modelling of the impact of the climate on water resources. Besides geostatistic modelling, another methodology will use a simplified physical model that gives the benefit to take into account explicitly the topography at fine scale.

  11. Climate Change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

  12. Can metric-based approaches really improve multi-model climate projections? The case of summer temperature change in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boé, Julien; Terray, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    The multi-model ensemble mean is generally used as a default approach to estimate climate change signals, based on the implicit hypothesis that all models provide equally credible projections. As this hypothesis is unlikely to be true, it is in theory possible to obtain more realistic projections by giving more weight to more realistic models according to a relevant metric, if such a metric exists. This alternative approach however raises many methodological issues. In this study, a methodological framework based on a perfect model approach is described. It is intended to provide some useful elements of answer to these methodological issues. The basic idea is to take a random climate model and treat it as if it were the truth (or "synthetic observations"). Then, all the other members from the multi-model ensemble are used to derive thanks to a metric-based approach a posterior estimate of the future change, based on the synthetic observation of the metric. This posterior estimate can be compared to the synthetic observation of future change to evaluate the skill of the approach. This general framework is applied to future summer temperature change in France. A process-based metric, related to cloud-temperature interactions is tested, with different simple statistical methods to combine multiple model results (e.g. weighted average, model selection, regression.) Except in presence of large observational errors in the metric, metric-based methods using the metric related to cloud temperature interactions generally lead to large reductions of errors compared to the ensemble mean, but the sensitivity to methodological choices is important.

  13. A method for modeling the effects of climate and land use changes on erosion and sustainability of soil in a Mediterranean watershed (Languedoc, France).

    PubMed

    Paroissien, Jean-Baptiste; Darboux, Frédéric; Couturier, Alain; Devillers, Benoît; Mouillot, Florent; Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Global climate and land use changes could strongly affect soil erosion and the capability of soils to sustain agriculture and in turn impact regional or global food security. The objective of our study was to develop a method to assess soil sustainability to erosion under changes in land use and climate. The method was applied in a typical mixed Mediterranean landscape in a wine-growing watershed (75 km(2)) within the Languedoc region (La Peyne, France) for two periods: a first period with the current climate and land use and a second period with the climate and land use scenarios at the end of the twenty-first century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B future rainfall scenarios from the Météo France General circulation model was coupled with four contrasting land use change scenarios that were designed using a spatially-explicit land use change model. Mean annual erosion rate was estimated with an expert-based soil erosion model. Soil life expectancy was assessed using soil depth. Soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy were combined into a sustainability index. The median simulated soil erosion rate for the current period was 3.5 t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 273 years, showing a low sustainability of soils. For the future period with the same land use distribution, the median simulated soil erosion rate was 4.2 t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 249 years. The results show that soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy are more sensitive to changes in land use than to changes in precipitation. Among the scenarios tested, institution of a mandatory grass cover in vineyards seems to be an efficient means of significantly improving soil sustainability, both in terms of decreased soil erosion rates and increased soil life expectancies. PMID:25460424

  14. Changing Climates 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    ://www.met.tamu.edu/climatechange.php. Katharine Hayhoe, associate professor of geosciences at Texas Tech University, uses global and regional climate model simulations to determine what climate change means to the places where we live. As a current con- tributor to and expert reviewer...

  15. Can metric-based approaches really improve multi-model climate projections? A perfect model framework applied to summer temperature change in France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boé, Julien; Terray, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Ensemble approaches for climate change projections have become ubiquitous. Because of large model-to-model variations and, generally, lack of rationale for the choice of a particular climate model against others, it is widely accepted that future climate change and its impacts should not be estimated based on a single climate model. Generally, as a default approach, the multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM) is considered to provide the best estimate of climate change signals. The MMEM approach is based on the implicit hypothesis that all the models provide equally credible projections of future climate change. This hypothesis is unlikely to be true and ideally one would want to give more weight to more realistic models. A major issue with this alternative approach lies in the assessment of the relative credibility of future climate projections from different climate models, as they can only be evaluated against present-day observations: which present-day metric(s) should be used to decide which models are "good" and which models are "bad" in the future climate? Once a supposedly informative metric has been found, other issues arise. What is the best statistical method to combine multiple models results taking into account their relative credibility measured by a given metric? How to be sure in the end that the metric-based estimate of future climate change is not in fact less realistic than the MMEM? It is impossible to provide strict answers to those questions in the climate change context. Yet, in this presentation, we propose a methodological approach based on a perfect model framework that could bring some useful elements of answer to the questions previously mentioned. The basic idea is to take a random climate model in the ensemble and treat it as if it were the truth (results of this model, in both past and future climate, are called "synthetic observations"). Then, all the other members from the multi-model ensemble are used to derive thanks to a metric-based approach a posterior estimate of climate change, based on the synthetic observation of the metric. Finally, it is possible to compare the posterior estimate to the synthetic observation of future climate change to evaluate the skill of the method. The main objective of this presentation is to describe and apply this perfect model framework to test different methodological issues associated with non-uniform model weighting and similar metric-based approaches. The methodology presented is general, but will be applied to the specific case of summer temperature change in France, for which previous works have suggested potentially useful metrics associated with soil-atmosphere and cloud-temperature interactions. The relative performances of different simple statistical approaches to combine multiple model results based on metrics will be tested. The impact of ensemble size, observational errors, internal variability, and model similarity will be characterized. The potential improvements associated with metric-based approaches compared to the MMEM is terms of errors and uncertainties will be quantified.

  16. CLIMATE RISK AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    CLIMATE RISK AND CLIMATE CHANGE Scenarios of what the climate will be like 50 to 100 years from now associated with climate change demand these efforts continue. However, the long time horizons have led many decision makers to regard climate change as a problem of the distant future. But is it? I n many regions

  17. Historical Overview of Climate Change Science

    E-print Network

    Box, Jason E.

    ............................................... 103 1.4.1 The Earth's Greenhouse Effect............................ 103 1.4.2 Past Climate1 Historical Overview of Climate Change Science Coordinating Lead Authors: Hervé Le Treut (France. Mauritzen, A. Mokssit, T. Peterson and M. Prather, 2007: Historical Overview of Climate Change. In: Climate

  18. Forest plant community changes during 1989-2007 in response to climate warming in the Jura Mountains (France and Switzerland)

    E-print Network

    Bert, Didier

    Mountains (France and Switzerland) J. Lenoir, J.C. Ge´ gout, J.L. Dupouey, D. Bert & J.-C. Svenning Abstract, lenoir.john@gmail. com) & Ge´ gout, J.C. (jcgegout@yahoo.fr): AgroParis- Tech, UMR 1092 Agro

  19. "Managing Department Climate Change"

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    "Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

  20. CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change and climate variability has received considerable attention from the scientific community in recent decades and has led to a better understanding of various climate phenomena and driving mechanisms. This increased understanding of climate has prompted engineers and policy makers to as...

  1. Evaluation of climate change on flood event by using parametric T-test and non-parametric Mann-Kendall test in Barcelonnette basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Azadeh; Glade, Thomas; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2010-09-01

    The existence of a trend in hydrological and meteorological time series is detected by statistical tests. The trend analysis of hydrological and meteorological series is important to consider, because of the effects of global climate change. Parametric or non-parametric statistical tests can be used to decide whether there is a statistically significant trend. In this paper, first a homogeneity analysis was performed by using the non-parametric Bartlett test. Then, trend detection was estimated by using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. The null hypothesis in the Mann-Kendall test is that the data are independent and randomly ordered. The result of Mann-Kendall test was compared with the parametric T-Test for finding the existence of trend. To reach this purpose, the significance of trends was analyzed on monthly data of Ubaye river in Barcelonnette watershed in southeast of France at an elevation of 1132 m (3717 ft) during the period from 1928 to 2009 bases with the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and parametric T-Test for river discharge and for meteorological data. The result shows that a rainfall event does not necessarily have an immediate impact on discharge. Visual inspection suggests that the correlation between observations made at the same time point is not very strong. In the results of the trend tests the p-value of the discharge is slightly smaller than the p-value of the precipitation but it seems that in both there is no statistically significant trend. In statistical hypothesis testing, a test statistic is a numerical summary of a set of data that reduces the data to one or a small number of values that can be used to perform a hypothesis test. Statistical hypothesis testing is determined if there is a significant trend or not. Negative test statistics and MK test in both precipitation and discharge data indicate downward trends. As conclusion we can say extreme flood event during recent years is strongly depending on: 1) location of the city: It is situated in an elongated form extending below mountain slopes and along a river channel. 2) Seasonal Changes: During spring, the melting of snow result in an increase water level in river channels and this will be amplified whenever a warm rainfall occurs. Then it could be conclude that climate change did not has a significant effect on flood in case study area Keywords: Trend, parametric and non parametric test, T-Test, Mann-Kendall test

  2. CLIMATE CHANGE WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE?

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    .) INDUSTRIAL WATER POLLUTION IN RICH NATIONS Year Millions of Tons of Pollution Released 1950 1.36 1960 2 of climate change from burning fossil fuels #12;CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE ¡ The biggest climate polluter of Pollution Released #12;CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS Year Millions of Tons of CO2 1950 4.25 1960 5.68 1970 8

  3. Climate Change Schools Project...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

  4. Changes in planktic and benthic foraminifer assemblages in the Gulf of Lions, off south France: Response to climate and sea level change from MIS 6 to MIS 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Filippelli, Gabriel; Flores, José Abel; Berné, Serge

    2013-04-01

    A multidisciplinary study involving micropaleontological and geochemical tools was carried out in borehole PRGL1 (Promess 1), with the aim of reconstructing the impact of climate change and sea level variation between 133 ka and 406 ka in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions. We used factor analysis to obtain three main benthic assemblages related to eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oxygenated environments; planktic foraminifers were grouped as warm-water and cold-turbulent species. These results were compared with records of CaCO3 and major and trace elements (Al, Ca, K, Sr) as well as the C/N ratio of organic matter. Power and cross-spectral analysis showed a straightforward relationship between precession minima and thermal stratification of the water column as well as the occurrence of eutrophic bottom conditions during lowstand periods and mesotrophic environments at times of highstand. These eutrophic-mesotrophic oscillations, usually driven by global eustatic change, also involved regional variations in CaCO3 source to this environment. During periods of precession maxima, enhancement of northwesterly winds increased primary productivity by mixing, enhancing the percentage of cold-turbulent species in the water column and the proportion of oxygenated benthic species on the bottom. During interglacial stages, these events were recorded by lower biogenic carbonate at the expense of higher silicate-related components most likely due to a higher supply from Pyrenees rivers. The record of oxygenated benthic species can be a good proxy to monitor past changes in Winter Intermediate Water dynamics driven by northwesterly winds.

  5. The Changing Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the global change of climate. Presents the trend of climate change with graphs. Describes mathematical climate models including expressions for the interacting components of the ocean-atmosphere system and equations representing the basic physical laws governing their behavior. Provides three possible responses on the change. (YP)

  6. Forest Research: Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

  7. programs in climate change

    E-print Network

    shows the 1990's average. The white areas show the average ice cover- age for 2010­2019 (top) and 2040 history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change

  8. Our changing climate

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents an overview of the changing climate. Attention is focused on the following: meteorology; weather; climate anomalies; changes in atmospheric composition and global warming; ozone; mathematical models; and climate and politics. In its conclusion, it asks researchers to stay out of a game in which, ultimately, neither science nor politics stands to gain anything.

  9. Autochthonous Chikungunya Transmission and Extreme Climate Events in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Roiz, David; Boussès, Philippe; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe; Fontenille, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Background Extreme precipitation events are increasing as a result of ongoing global warming, but controversy surrounds the relationship between flooding and mosquito-borne diseases. A common view among the scientific community and public health officers is that heavy rainfalls have a flushing effect on breeding sites, which negatively affects vector populations, thereby diminishing disease transmission. During 2014 in Montpellier, France, there were at least 11 autochthonous cases of chikungunya caused by the invasive tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus in the vicinity of an imported case. We show that an extreme rainfall event increased and extended the abundance of the disease vector Ae. albopictus, hence the period of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya. Methodology/Principal Findings We report results from close monitoring of the adult and egg population of the chikungunya vector Ae. albopictus through weekly sampling over the entire mosquito breeding season, which revealed an unexpected pattern. Statistical analysis of the seasonal dynamics of female abundance in relation to climatic factors showed that these relationships changed after the heavy rainfall event. Before the inundations, accumulated temperatures are the most important variable predicting Ae. albopictus seasonal dynamics. However, after the inundations, accumulated rainfall over the 4 weeks prior to capture predicts the seasonal dynamics of this species and extension of the transmission period. Conclusions/Significance Our empirical data suggests that heavy rainfall events did increase the risk of arbovirus transmission in Southern France in 2014 by favouring a rapid rise in abundance of vector mosquitoes. Further studies should now confirm these results in different ecological contexts, so that the impact of global change and extreme climatic events on mosquito population dynamics and the risk of disease transmission can be adequately understood. PMID:26079620

  10. Global Climate Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses recent changes in the Earth's climate. Summarizes reports on changes related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, sea level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the changes. Lists 16 references. (YP)

  11. ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Chauve, Cedric

    ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN CLIMATE CHANGE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CANADIAN CLIMATE POLICY Roundtable Dialogue AND SELECTED THE FOLLOWING CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY AREAS FOR DETAILED DISCUSSION. PARTICIPANTS THEN WORKED Dilemmas in Climate Change roundtable dialogue, convened by Simon Fraser University's Centre for Dialogue

  12. Our Changing Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Kay Berglund

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,…

  13. Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are likely to remain the same until the 2040's, then followed by a second step of warming and drying trend. During the last ten years, local farmers have been experiencing difficulties to combine challenges from an increasing competition in markets and from hotter and drier conditions. Helped by public subsidies, almost one-third of the vineyard was pulled out during that period. Up until the 2040's, with similar conditions, the local viticultural system should continue its transformation, favouring dynamic, proactive and enterprising farmers. Thus the composition of the farming community might change gradually, and count in the 2040's a majority of producers with a higher individual adaptive capacity than now. The timing and intensity of near-future climate change as measured by the climate model, combined to regional economic change, might thus be an asset to prepare and facilitate adaptation in the longer term.

  14. Climate change and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Nibleus, Kerstin; Lundin, Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Planet Earth has experienced repeated changes of its climate throughout time. Periods warmer than today as well as much colder, during glacial episodes, have alternated. In our time, rapid population growth with increased demand for natural resources and energy, has made society increasingly vulnerable to environmental changes, both natural and those caused by man; human activity is clearly affecting the radiation balance of the Earth. In the session "Climate Change and Mitigation" the speakers offered four different views on coal and CO2: the basis for life, but also a major hazard with impact on Earth's climate. A common denominator in the presentations was that more than ever science and technology is required. We need not only understand the mechanisms for climate change and climate variability, we also need to identify means to remedy the anthropogenic influence on Earth's climate. PMID:20873680

  15. Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L.

    2007-07-01

    This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

  16. Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats

    E-print Network

    Gunawardena, Arunika

    Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats B A C K G R O U DN C H E C K ! Habitat, Food, Water the potential to affect plants,animals and humans around the globe. #12;Climate Change Action Pack 158 Habitat out in shapes of hills, waves, leaves, and berries. #12;Climate Change Action Pack 159 PROCEDURE

  17. Facies and climate/environmental changes recorded on a carbonate ramp: A sedimentological and geochemical approach on Middle Jurassic carbonates (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigaud, Benjamin; Durlet, Christophe; Deconinck, Jean-François; Vincent, Benoît; Pucéat, Emmanuelle; Thierry, Jacques; Trouiller, Alain

    2009-12-01

    A detailed sedimentological, geochemical and mineralogical study is carried out on the Early Bajocian to Early Callovian (Middle Jurassic) limestones of the Paris Basin. Objectives are to document and explain the facies changes in the context of the climate/environmental evolution at the NW European scale. Deposits include 18 lithofacies which are stacked into 10 third-order depositional sequences. At a greater time scale, 4 biosedimentary packages are distinguished by their allochems associations. (1) An intracratonic carbonate environment with coral reefs and crinoid-rich facies is typical of the Early Bajocian. (2) A major facies change occurred at the Early/Late Bajocian transition with a shift from crinoid- and coral-rich facies to ooid-rich facies. During the Late Bajocian, a southward-dipping ooid ramp with successive progradational trends was emplaced. (3) A large lagoon protected by ooid shoals developed during the Bathonian in a muddy ramp setting. (4) At the Bathonian/Callovian boundary, a second major change occurred with the lagoonal facies being superseded by an ooid-bioclastic (crinoids, corals) ramp associated with a waning of carbonate productivity (retrogradational trend). Our geochemical study including a compilation of bibliographic data allows us to refine the existing sea surface palaeotemperature pattern. A cooling from the latest Early Bajocian to the Late Bajocian and a subsequent warming from the earliest Callovian to the Early/Middle Callovian transition are described using a proxy of sea surface temperatures. Together with ?13C and mineralogical data, our new ?18O values suggest a palaeo-climatic/palaeo-environmental control of facies in this shallow carbonate ramp environment.

  18. Cuba confronts climate change.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions. PMID:26027581

  19. What Is Climate Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Adele

    2007-01-01

    Weather consists of those meteorological events, such as rain, wind and sunshine, which can change day-by-day or even hour-by-hour. Climate is the average of all these events, taken over a period of time. The climate varies over different parts of the world. Climate is usually defined as the average of the weather over a 30-year period. It is when…

  20. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

  1. Creationism & Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, S.

    2009-12-01

    Although creationists focus on the biological sciences, recently creationists have also expanded their attacks to include the earth sciences, especially on the topic of climate change. The creationist effort to deny climate change, in addition to evolution and radiometric dating, is part of a broader denial of the methodology and validity of science itself. Creationist misinformation can pose a serious problem for science educators, who are further hindered by the poor treatment of the earth sciences and climate change in state science standards. Recent changes to Texas’ science standards, for example, require that students learn “different views on the existence of global warming.” Because of Texas’ large influence on the national textbook market, textbooks presenting non-scientific “different views” about climate change—or simply omitting the subject entirely because of the alleged “controversy”—could become part of K-12 classrooms across the country.

  2. Climate change: Flawed science, or

    E-print Network

    innovation Dilemma... Vicious Circle #12;1. Climate Change - Weather vs. climate - The greenhouse effect controversy #12;Hockey stick controversy explained #12;Natural climate change 1. Earth's orbit 2. Solar climate change #12;CO2 emissions and the Suess-effect fingerprint #12;Big changes ahead! #12;Climate

  3. Climate Change Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

    2007-01-01

    The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.…

  4. Climate Change: An Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Garry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

  5. Understanding climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A.; Dickinson, R.E.; Kidson, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this book are: include volcanism; biogeochemistry; land hydrology; modeling climate; past and present; cryosphere; paleoclimates; land-surface processes; tropical oceans and the global atmosphere; clouds and atmospheric radiation; aeronomy and planetary atmospheres; and modeling future climate changes. The papers presented include uptake by the Atlantic Ocean of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide and radiocarbon.

  6. Global Climatic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Richard A.; Woodwell, George M.

    1989-01-01

    Cites some of the evidence which suggests that the production of carbon dioxide and methane from human activities has begun to change the climate. Describes some measures which should be taken to stop or slow this progression. (RT)

  7. Climate Change and Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is projected to widen significantly the area of China where the snail-borne disease schistosomiasis occurs 3 . ... Impact of Climate Change on Schistosomiasis Transmission in China. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78(2): ...

  8. Global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.

  9. Climate change vulnerability

    E-print Network

    Hilderbrand, Robert H.

    Climate change vulnerability assessment of the Verde Island Passage, Philippines #12;ii Vulnerability Assessment of the Verde Island Passage, Philippines. Technical report. Conservation International information on the Verde Island Passage Vulnerability Assessment Project, contact: Emily Pidgeon, PhD Director

  10. Rapid climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Morantine, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Interactions between insolation changes due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a climate model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the climate system during periods of documented rapid climate change, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid climate shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current climate. 53 refs.

  11. Global climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1989-04-01

    This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

  12. Observed climate change hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Palazzi, E.; Hardenberg, J.; Provenzale, A.

    2015-05-01

    We quantify climate change hotspots from observations, taking into account the differences in precipitation and temperature statistics (mean, variability, and extremes) between 1981-2010 and 1951-1980. Areas in the Amazon, the Sahel, tropical West Africa, Indonesia, and central eastern Asia emerge as primary observed hotspots. The main contributing factors are the global increase in mean temperatures, the intensification of extreme hot-season occurrence in low-latitude regions and the decrease of precipitation over central Africa. Temperature and precipitation variability have been substantially stable over the past decades, with only a few areas showing significant changes against the background climate variability. The regions identified from the observations are remarkably similar to those defined from projections of global climate models under a "business-as-usual" scenario, indicating that climate change hotspots are robust and persistent over time. These results provide a useful background to develop global policy decisions on adaptation and mitigation priorities over near-time horizons.

  13. Current Climate Variability & Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and climate change. The next section guides students through the exploration of temporal changes in global temperature from the surface to the lower stratosphere. Students discover that there has been global warming over the past several decades, and the subsequent section allows them to consider solar radiation and greenhouse gases as possible causes of this warming. Students then zoom in on different latitudinal zones to examine changes in temperature for each zone and hypothesize about why one zone may have warmed more than others. The final section, prior to the answering of the essential questions, is an examination of the following effects of the current change in temperatures: loss of sea ice; rise of sea level; loss of permafrost loss; and moistening of the atmosphere. The lab addresses 14 climate-literacy concepts and all seven climate-literacy principles through data and images that are mainly NASA products. It focuses on the satellite era of climate data; therefore, 1979 is the typical starting year for most datasets used by students. Additionally, all time-series analysis end with the latest year with full-year data availability; thus, the climate variability and trends truly are 'current.'

  14. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  15. Holocene climate variability in south-western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Trigo, R.; Rodrigues, T.; Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation and climate changes in western France/northern Spain are documented for the last c. 9000 cal. yr BP in a well dated shelf core, KS05-10, retrieved in the southwestern margin of the Bay of Biscay (Basque country) (43°22'765N, 2°16'744W). The continuous high resolution pollen record shows orbital and suborbital climate fluctuations similar to those noticed for the North Atlantic region and Greenland. A long-term Pinus, Quercus and Corylus forest reduction follows the cooling trend in Greenland and the general decrease of mid-latitude summer insolation until approximately 350 yr cal. BP. Within the millennial scale variability, the southwestern Bay of Biscay pollen record shows 6 main phases: The first phase, c. 9000 and 6600 cal. yr BP, is marked by a Pinus and deciduous Quercus forest with Corylus, indicating a humid and temperate climate. During the phase, c. 6600 - 4500 cal. yr BP, the pollen record shows a stable period of rich, mixed Quercus forest. During this interval occurred the establishment of Alnus, Ulmus, Tilia, Fraxinus excelsior-type and Fagus trees and the reduction of Pinus forest. This vegetation assemblage probably indicates an increase in moisture in relatively mild conditions. Fagus became continuously present in the region after c. 4500 c. cal. yr BP in agreement with what have been noticed by continental pollen sequences. An important contraction of Pinus, deciduous Quercus and Corylus forest occur after c. 3600 cal. yr BP. This evolution is contemporaneous to the maximum expansion of Fagus and the increase of heaths, which may be linked to a weakening of seasonality and more humid summer conditions. A strong forest reduction, involving all trees except pine, and a marked spread of herbaceous plants took place after c. 1400 cal. years BP. The presence of Juglans, Cerealia type and Castanea after c. 550 cal. yr BP and the re-expansion of Pinus after c. 350 cal. yr BP testify the increasing role played by the human activity in the region.

  16. Debating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-01

    Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

  17. Climate-change scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, F.H.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Baldwin, C.K.; Mearns, L.O.

    2003-01-01

    In 1991, the United States Congress passed the Global Change Research Act directing the Executive Branch of government to assess the potential effects of predicted climate change and variability on the nation. This congressional action followed formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 by the United Nations Environmental Program and World Meteorological Organization. Some 2,000 scientists from more than 150 nations contribute to the efforts of the IPCC. Under coordination of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the congressionally ordered national assessment has divided the country into 19 regions and five socio-economic sectors that cut across the regions: agriculture, coastal and marine systems, forests, human health, and water. Potential climate-change effects are being assessed in each region and sector, and those efforts collectively make up the national assessment. This document reports the assessment of potential climate-change effects on the Rocky Mountain/Great Basin (RMGB) region which encompasses parts of nine western states. The assessment began February 16-18, 1998 with a workshop in Salt Lake City co-convened by Frederic H. Wagner of Utah State University and Jill Baron of the U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (BRD). Invitations were sent to some 300 scientists and stakeholders representing 18 socio-economic sectors in nine statesa?|

  18. Status of Climate Change 

    E-print Network

    North, G.

    2013-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-KT-13-12-56.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3413 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-KT-13-12-56.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Status of Climate Change 2013... CaTee Conference San Antonio 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Menu for Today • IPCC 2013: Assessment Report #5 • Facts about Climate Change • Who will Win, Who will Lose...

  19. Understanding and Attributing Climate Change

    E-print Network

    9 Understanding and Attributing Climate Change Coordinating Lead Authors: Gabriele C. Hegerl (USA. Nicholls, J.E. Penner and P.A. Stott, 2007: Under- standing and Attributing Climate Change. In: Climate of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M

  20. Climate change and amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian life histories are exceedingly sensitive to temperature and precipitation, and there is good evidence that recent climate change has already resulted in a shift to breeding earlier in the year for some species. There are also suggestions that the recent increase in the occurrence of El Niño events has caused declines of anurans in Central America and is linked to elevated mortality of amphibian embryos in the northwestern United States. However, evidence linking amphibian declines in Central America to climate relies solely on correlations, and the mechanisms underlying the declines are not understood. Connections between embryo mortality and declines in abundance have not been demonstrated. Analyses of existing data have generally failed to find a link between climate and amphibian declines. It is likely, however, that future climate change will cause further declines of some amphibian species. Reduced soil moisture could reduce prey species and eliminate habitat. Reduced snowfall and increased summer evaporation could have dramatic effects on the duration or occurrence of seasonal wetlands, which are primary habitat for many species of amphibians. Climate change may be a relatively minor cause of current amphibian declines, but it may be the biggest future challenge to the persistence of many species

  1. Emissions versus climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is likely to offset some of the improvements in air quality expected from reductions in pollutant emissions. A comprehensive analysis of future air quality over North America suggests that, on balance, the air will still be cleaner in coming decades.

  2. CLIMATE CHANGE & THE GREENHOUSE

    E-print Network

    Tobar, Michael

    . Demonstrating the greenhouse effect This experiment demonstrates that an atmosphere high in carbon dioxideCLIMATE CHANGE & THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;This development of these materials was supported under ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is the greenhouse effect? 11 Links to Australian curriculum 12 Teacher notes 13 Student answers 16

  3. CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY #12;At a time when the planet seems to be going through the sixth great extinction crisis of biodiversity, has for years developed expertise on biodiversity which gives it a special place in the study

  4. CONSIDERATIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    was provided by the National Integrated Drought Information System, Western Water Assessment, the Renewable Advocates Chapter 10: Gretchen Fitzgerald, M.S., Forester, San Juan National Forest Chapter 11: Eric GordonCONSIDERATIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY ADAPTATION ON THE NAVAJO NATION March 2014 Julie

  5. Confronting Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage…

  6. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  7. Environmental Sustainability & Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    reduction & carbon· Integrate GHG emission reduction & carbon footprint strategies into Strategic Plan s p Policies Climate Change Smart Growth Bay Restoration #12;Policies Facilitate the effective· Coordination activities #12;Practices: System-widey · USM Strategic Plan ­ Greenhouse gas emissions/carbon

  8. Climate Change? When? Where?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city. The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is…

  9. RICCI Sophie Global Change and Climate Modeling Team

    E-print Network

    RICCI Sophie Global Change and Climate Modeling Team CERFACS - Toulouse, FRANCE Technical Report TR of forced simulations . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.2 The correlations in space for the same model variable ocean model is currently used to initialize seasonal climate fore- casts. The variational assimilation

  10. Hantaviruses and climate change.

    PubMed

    Klempa, B

    2009-06-01

    Most hantaviruses are rodent-borne emerging viruses. They cause two significant human diseases, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe, and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. Very recently, several novel hantaviruses with unknown pathogenic potential have been identified in Africa and in a variety of insectivores (shrews and a mole). Because there is very limited information available on the possible impact of climate change on all of these highly dangerous pathogens, it is timely to review this aspect of their epidemiology. It can reasonably be concluded that climate change should influence hantaviruses through impacts on the hantavirus reservoir host populations. We can anticipate changes in the size and frequency of hantavirus outbreaks, the spectrum of hantavirus species and geographical distribution (mediated by changes in population densities), and species composition and geographical distribution of their reservoir hosts. The early effects of global warming have already been observed in different geographical areas of Europe. Elevated average temperatures in West-Central Europe have been associated with more frequent Puumala hantavirus outbreaks, through high seed production (mast year) and high bank vole densities. On the other hand, warm winters in Scandinavia have led to a decline in vole populations as a result of the missing protective snow cover. Additional effects can be caused by increased intensity and frequency of extreme climatic events, or by changes in human behaviour leading to higher risk of human virus exposure. Regardless of the extent of climate change, it is difficult to predict the impact on hantavirus survival, emergence and epidemiology. Nevertheless, hantaviruses will undoubtedly remain a significant public health threat for several decades to come. PMID:19604276

  11. Climate change and disaster management.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Geoff; O'Keefe, Phil; Rose, Joanne; Wisner, Ben

    2006-03-01

    Climate change, although a natural phenomenon, is accelerated by human activities. Disaster policy response to climate change is dependent on a number of factors, such as readiness to accept the reality of climate change, institutions and capacity, as well as willingness to embed climate change risk assessment and management in development strategies. These conditions do not yet exist universally. A focus that neglects to enhance capacity-building and resilience as a prerequisite for managing climate change risks will, in all likelihood, do little to reduce vulnerability to those risks. Reducing vulnerability is a key aspect of reducing climate change risk. To do so requires a new approach to climate change risk and a change in institutional structures and relationships. A focus on development that neglects to enhance governance and resilience as a prerequisite for managing climate change risks will, in all likelihood, do little to reduce vulnerability to those risks. PMID:16512862

  12. Smithsonian climate change exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

  13. Infilling stratigraphy of macrotidal tide-dominated estuaries. Controlling mechanisms: Sea-level fluctuations, bedrock morphology, sediment supply and climate changes (The examples of the Seine estuary and the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, English Channel, NW France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessier, Bernadette; Billeaud, Isabelle; Sorrel, Philippe; Delsinne, Nicolas; Lesueur, Patrick

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a synthesis of recent works performed on two macrotidal tide-dominated estuaries located along the southern coast of the English Channel, the Seine estuary and the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (NW France). On the basis of very high resolution seismic data combined with sediment cores and AMS dating, these works allow reconstructing the Holocene infill of such singular estuaries, yet rarely documented in the literature. Rate in sea-level rise, bedrock morphology, sediment supply are the main controlling factors of the general infill pattern. Both infills are composed of two units, the transgressive systems tract (TST) and highstand systems tract (HST). The maximum flooding surface (MFS) is dated around 6500 cal BP when the Holocene sea-level rise slowed down, and corresponds to the main architectural change. The TST is poorly preserved compared with the HST that constitutes the main depositional unit, making this incised valley fill deviating from the classical models. The HST is composed above the axis of the incised valley of a highly wandering estuarine channel belt characterized by deep tidal reworking throughout its building. On the margin of this high-energy estuarine system, the HST is made of wave-dominated barriers, tidal flats and offshore tidal banks.. They constitute dominantly aggradational systems, the aggradation rate of which is in accordance with the rate of sea-level rise from 6500 cal BP onwards. Consequently, the impacts of the rapid climate changesthat characterized mid- to late Holocene times can be preserved in these marginal successions. Various sedimentary and geometrical signatures indicate that periodic enhanced storminess episodes, probably related to the Bond Cold Events (~ 1500 years periodicity), are responsible for the most drastic environmental changes in these macrotidal tide-dominated settings. The role of long term tidal cycles as well as the impact of human activities are also considered.

  14. Perception of climate change.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-09-11

    "Climate dice," describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons, have become more and more "loaded" in the past 30 y, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3?) warmer than the climatology of the 1951-1980 base period. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface during the base period, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change. PMID:22869707

  15. Climate change and child health.

    PubMed

    Seal, Arnab; Vasudevan, Chakrapani

    2011-12-01

    Postindustrial human activity has contributed to rising atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases causing global warming and climate change. The adverse effects of climate change affect children disproportionately, especially in the developing world. Urgent action is necessary to mitigate the causes and adapt to the negative effects of climate change. Paediatricians have an important role in managing the effects of climate change on children and promoting sustainable development. PMID:21335625

  16. Outchasing climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Pygmy possums, monarch butterflies, spoon-billed sandpipers, and a number of trees and other plants could be among the species unable to migrate fast enough to new habitat in the face of potential global climate changes, according to an August 30 report by the Switzerland-based World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the U.S. based Clean-Air-Cool Planet (CACP), two conservation organizations.

  17. Climate Change and National Security

    E-print Network

    Alyson, Fleming; Summer, Kelly; Summer, Martin; Lauren, Franck; Jonathan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Climate Change, 2007 • Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (Arctic will mean for the Navy, how international cooperation can help prepare developing nations to cope with climate change,Climate Change Roadmap, 2010 http://www.navy.mil/navydata/documents/CCR.pdf • U.S. Navy Arctic

  18. Climate Change and National Security

    E-print Network

    Alyson, Fleming; Summer, Kelly; Summer, Martin; Lauren, Franck; Jonathan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Climate Change, 2007 • Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (Climate Change Roadmap, 2010 http://www.navy.mil/navydata/documents/CCR.pdf • U.S. Navy ArcticArctic will mean for the Navy, how international cooperation can help prepare developing nations to cope with climate change,

  19. SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: APPLYING CULTURAL THEORY TO PRACTICE by Andrew Jordan and Tim O'Riordan CSERGE Working Paper GEC 97- 15 #12;SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: APPLYING it to adapt. Institutions help to define climate change both as a problem and a context, through

  20. Designing Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

    2012-12-01

    In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

  1. Understanding recent climate change.

    PubMed

    Serreze, Mark C

    2010-02-01

    The Earth's atmosphere has a natural greenhouse effect, without which the global mean surface temperature would be about 33 degrees C lower and life would not be possible. Human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases in trace amounts. This has enhanced the greenhouse effect, resulting in surface warming. Were it not for the partly offsetting effects of increased aerosol concentrations, the increase in global mean surface temperature over the past 100 years would be larger than observed. Continued surface warming through the 21st century is inevitable and will likely have widespread ecological impacts. The magnitude and rate of warming for the global average will be largely dictated by the strength and direction of climate feedbacks, thermal inertia of the oceans, the rate of greenhouse gas emissions, and aerosol concentrations. Because of regional expressions of climate feedbacks, changes in atmospheric circulation, and a suite of other factors, the magnitude and rate of warming and changes in other key climate elements, such as precipitation, will not be uniform across the planet. For example, due to loss of its floating sea-ice cover, the Arctic will warm the most. PMID:20121837

  2. Climatic change on Mars.

    PubMed

    Sagan, C; Toon, O B; Gierasch, P J

    1973-09-14

    The equatorial sinuous channels on Mars detected by Mariner 9 point to a past epoch of higher pressures and abundant liquid water. Advective instability of the martian atmosphere permits two stable climates-one close to present conditions, the other at a pressure of the order of 1 bar depending on the quantity of buried volatiles. Variations in the obliquity of Mars, the luminosity of the sun, and the albedo of the polar caps each appear capable of driving the instability between a current ice age and more clement conditions. Obliquity driving alone implies that epochs of much higher and of much lower pressure must have characterized martian history. Climatic change on Mars may have important meteorological, geological, and biological implications. PMID:17731265

  3. Agriculture and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-07-03

    How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

  4. Population and climate change.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel E

    2010-06-01

    To review, the four broad dimensions of any complex human problem, including climate change, are the human population, economics, culture, and environment. These dimensions interact with one another in all directions and on many time-scales. From 2010 to 2050, the human population is likely to grow bigger, more slowly, older, and more urban. It is projected that by 2050 more than 2.6 billion people (almost 94% of global urban growth) will be added to the urban population in today's developing countries. That works out to 1.26 million additional urban people in today's developing countries every week from 2010 to 2050. Humans alter the climate by emitting greenhouse gases, by altering planetary albedo, and by altering atmospheric components. Between 1900 and 2000, humans' emissions of carbon into the atmosphere increased fifteenfold, while the numbers of people increased less than fourfold. Population growth alone, with constant rates of emissions per person, could not account for the increase in the carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The world economy grew sixteenfold in the twentieth century, accompanied by enormous increases in the burning of gas, oil, and coal. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, population grew much faster in developing countries than in high-income countries, and, compared with population growth, the growth of carbon emissions to the atmosphere was even faster in developing countries than in high-income countries. The ratio of emissions-to-population growth rates was 2.8 in developing countries compared with 1.6 in high-income countries. Emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases are influenced by the sizes and density of settlements, the sizes of households, and the ages of householders. Between 2010 and 2050, these demographic factors are anticipated to change substantially. Therefore demography will play a substantial role in the dynamics of climate changes. Climate changes affect many aspects of the living environment, including human settlements, food production, and diseases. These changes will affect poor people more severely than rich, and poor nations more severely than rich. Yet not enough is known to predict quantitatively many details that will matter enormously to future people and other species. Three kinds of responses are related to demographic issues that affect climate changes: universal secondary education, voluntary contraception and maternal health services, and smarter urban design and construction. These responses may prevent, reduce, or ameliorate the impacts of climate changes. They are as relevant to rich countries as to poor, though in ways that are as different as are rich countries and poor. They are desirable in their own right because they improve the lives of the people they affect directly; and they are desirable for their beneficial effects on the larger society and globe. They are effective responses to the twin challenges of reducing poverty and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:21553595

  5. Historic and Projected Climate Change

    E-print Network

    that the earth's climate is changing (Bates et al., 2008, Clark et al., 2009, and Lawler et al., 2009Historic and Projected Climate Change F A C T S H E E T This evidence strongly indicates records show that earth's climate patterns have undergone rapid shifts from one stable state to another

  6. Climate Change Worksheet Energy Budget

    E-print Network

    Allan, Richard P.

    Climate Change Worksheet Energy Budget For any balanced budget, what comes in must equal what goes and down. Some is lost to space, and some stays in the Earth's climate system. The efficiency at which climate change. [Figure from IPCC 2013]. Figure 3. Shortwave radiation (from the Sun) and longwave

  7. Climate Change: Prospects for Nature

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Lovejoy

    2008-03-12

    Thomas Lovejoy, President of The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, explores the impact of climate change on the natural world. He also discusses the implications of climate change for climate policy and natural resource management.

  8. Climate Variability and Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on climate variability and change and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  9. Ruminants, climate change and climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripple, William J.; Smith, Pete; Haberl, Helmut; Montzka, Stephen A.; McAlpine, Clive; Boucher, Douglas H.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant meat production are significant. Reductions in global ruminant numbers could make a substantial contribution to climate change mitigation goals and yield important social and environmental co-benefits.

  10. Climate change: Cropping system changes and adaptations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change impacts the life of every person; however, there is little comprehensive understanding of the direct and indirect effects of climate change on agriculture. Since our food, feed, fiber, and fruit is derived from agricultural systems, understanding the effects of changing temperature, p...

  11. Communicating Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    I will discuss the various challenges scientists must confront in efforts to communicate the science and implications of climate change to the public. Among these challenges is the stiff headwind we must fight of a concerted disinformation effort designed to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding of the problem and the reality of the underlying societal threat. We also must fight the legacy of the public’s perception of the scientist. That is to say, we must strive to communicate in plainspoken language that neither insults the intelligence of our audience, nor hopelessly loses them in jargon and science-speak. And through all of this, we must maintain our composure and good humor even in the face of what we might consider the vilest of tactics by our opposition. When it comes to how best to get our message out to the broader public, I don’t pretend to have all of the answers. But I will share some insights and anecdotes that I have accumulated over the course of my own efforts to inform the public about the reality of climate change and the potential threat that it represents.

  12. White pine and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, G.L. Jr.; Dieffenbacher-Krall, A.

    1995-07-01

    In the past changing climates have lead to numerous continent-scale reorganizations of biotal. During the Quaternary Period climate has oscillated regularly between glacial and interglacial conditions, causing the ranges of many species to ship hundreds and even thousands of kilometers. On short time scales, clime changes that are less dramatic have influenced the regional distibution and abundance of plant taxa. This paper focus on post glacial changes in the distribution and abundance of white pine during the past 12,000 years in eastern North America; responses of white pine to past climate change, and implications for future responses of northeastern forests to climate change.

  13. Climate and Climate Change COURSE: .............................................................................. EAS B8800

    E-print Network

    Wolberg, George

    Climate and Climate Change COURSE) Description: An introductory survey to the field of Climate Science, with special attention given with a focus on energy transport. Finally, we tackle natural and anthropogenic climate change. This course

  14. Transferability in the future climate of a statistical downscaling method for precipitation in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayon, G.; Boé, J.; Martin, E.

    2015-02-01

    A statistical downscaling approach for precipitation in France based on the analog method and its evaluation for different combinations of predictors is described, with focus on the transferability of the method to the future climate. First, the realism of downscaled present-day precipitation climatology and interannual variability for different combinations of predictors from four reanalyses is assessed. Satisfactory results are obtained, but elaborated predictors do not lead to major and consistent across-reanalyses improvements. The downscaling method is then evaluated on its capacity to capture precipitation trends in the last decades. As uncertainties in downscaled trends due to the choice of the reanalysis are large and observed trends are weak, this analysis does not lead to strong conclusions on the applicability of the method to a changing climate. The temporal transferability is then assessed thanks to a perfect model framework. The statistical downscaling relationship is built using present-day predictors and precipitation simulated by 12 regional climate models. The entire projections are then downscaled, and future downscaled and simulated precipitation changes are compared. A good temporal transferability is obtained only with a specific combination of predictors. Finally, the regional climate models are downscaled, thanks to the relationship built with reanalyses and observations, for the best combination of predictors. Results are similar to the changes simulated by the models, which reinforces our confidence in the realism of the models and of the downscaling method. Uncertainties in precipitation change due to reanalyses are found to be limited compared to those due to regional simulations.

  15. Climate change & street trees project

    E-print Network

    Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values Group as part of the Climate change and street trees project, funded by the Forestry Commission with changing socio-economics and/or demographics, but little evidence exists relating

  16. Cinematic climate change, a promising perspective on climate change communication.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Previous research findings display that after having seen popular climate change films, people became more concerned, more motivated and more aware of climate change, but changes in behaviors were short-term. This article performs a meta-analysis of three popular climate change films, The Day after Tomorrow (2005), An Inconvenient Truth (2006), and The Age of Stupid (2009), drawing on research in social psychology, human agency, and media effect theory in order to formulate a rationale about how mass media communication shapes our everyday life experience. This article highlights the factors with which science blends in the reception of the three climate change films and expands the range of options considered in order to encourage people to engage in climate change mitigation actions. PMID:24916195

  17. Groundwater under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, C.; Schirmer, M.; Hunkeler, D.; Project Of National Research Programme "Sustainable Water Management" (Nrp 61)

    2010-12-01

    Climate change has a large impact on different environmental issues, such as groundwater availability. In Switzerland, springs provide nearly 40 % of the drinking water and are, in many regions, the main water supply. Dry periods show how vulnerable some of these systems are. The response of springs to drought, however, is complex and not readily predictable. While some show a decrease of discharge and low water table values, others do not react, or only slightly, to such extreme weather conditions. The aim of this study is to understand the behavior of springs and to estimate their vulnerability under different climate scenarios. Two different field sites are presented. The first site is located at Wohlenschwil in a relatively flat moraine landscape (400 m a.s.L.) overlying a porous aquifer. Because of the water abstraction scheme, no spring discharge can be observed but the dynamic of this system is typical of spring behavior. The second site is located in the Upper Emme valley, a hilly region where groundwater flows mostly in fractured Molasse before discharging through springs at an altitude of 860 m a.s.L. Tracer tests and isotopes measurements, as well as geophysical and hydraulic methods to quantify recharge processes and estimate buffer capacity of the systems during dry phases, are applied for unsaturated and saturated zones. All field results are used to build up a fully coupled numerical model (HydroGeoSphere), which gives results about the dynamic of the system with given climate scenarios. Preliminary results from tracer tests and numerical modeling show that, only with an integral approach that includes both the saturated and unsaturated zones, a global assessment of transit times and of the buffer capacity is possible. Furthermore, numerical modeling based partly on soil water measurements and a structure analysis of the “Wohlenschwil” catchment shows that recharge processes are only controlled by precipitation and that inflow from borders are of minor role. The dynamic of this area is strongly dependent on the local climate. The next step will be a more detailed investigation of the soil to obtain a better understanding of direct recharge and flow processes in the unsaturated zone. Therefore soil moisture measurements at different location in the catchment will be carried out

  18. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  19. Hydrological changes over France in the next decades and associated uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayon, Gildas; Boé, Julien; Martin, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The uncertainties in climate projections over the next decades generally remain large, with an important contribution of internal climate variability. To correctly quantify the impacts of those uncertainties in hydrological projections, multi-model and multi-member approaches are essential. To have a large ensemble of climate simulations, the study is based on Global Climate Models (GCMs) simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5). For computational cost reasons, GCMs simulations are downscaled with a statistical method developed in a previous study (Dayon et al. 2015) in order to obtain the atmospheric variables on a 8 km grid over France necessary to drive the Isba-Modcou hydrological system. Isba is a land surface model that calculates the energy and water balance and Modcou is a hydrogeological model that routes the surface runoff given by Isba. Based on a large ensemble of simulations on the historical period (28) and multiple simulations from the same model with different initial conditions, a robust evaluation of the internal variability is made. The variability simulated by the hydrological model with dowsncaled climate simulations is compared with observations on the 20th century. Long-term trends in simulated river flows are also compared with observations. Potential changes of the continental hydrological cycle in the last century are also explored. Future impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle of the main French rivers basins are evaluated with downscaled climate simulations driven by the Radiative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5. This large ensemble of simulations (20 for the RCP4.5 scenario and 18 for the RCP 8.5 scenario) allows to evaluate the respective importance of uncertainties from the internal climate variability, climate models and emission scenarios. References : Dayon et al. (2015), Transferability in the future climate of a statistical downscaling method for precipitation in France, Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmosphere, in press.

  20. Preparing for climate change.

    PubMed

    Holdgate, M

    1989-01-01

    There is a distinct probability that humankind is changing the climate and at the same time raising the sea level of the world. The most plausible projections we have now suggest a rise in mean world temperature of between 1 degree Celsius and 2 degrees Celsius by 2030--just 40 years hence. This is a bigger change in a smaller period than we know of in the experience of the earth's ecosystems and human societies. It implies that by 2030 the earth will be warmer than at any time in the past 120,000 years. In the same period, we are likely to see a rise of 15-30 centimeters in sea level, partly due to the melting of mountain glaciers and partly to the expansion of the warmer seas. This may not seem much--but it comes on top of the 12-centimeter rise in the past century and we should recall that over 1/2 the world's population lives in zones on or near coasts. A quarter meter rise in sea level could have drastic consequences for countries like the Maldives or the Netherlands, where much of the land lies below the 2-meter contour. The cause of climate change is known as the 'greenhouse effect'. Greenhouse glass has the property that it is transparent to radiation coming in from the sun, but holds back radiation to space from the warmed surfaces inside the greenhouse. Certain gases affect the atmosphere in the same way. There are 5 'greenhouse gases' and we have been roofing ourselves with them all: carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have increased 25% above preindustrial levels and are likely to double within a century, due to tropical forest clearance and especially to the burning of increasing quantities of coal and other fossil fuels; methane concentrations are now twice their preindustrial levels as a result of releases from agriculture; nitrous oxide has increased due to land clearance for agriculture, use of fertilizers, and fossil fuel combustion; ozone levels near the earth's surface have increased due mainly to pollution from motor vehicles; and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been released in great quantities through their use in aerosol sprays, refrigerator fluids, and insulating foams. We can get rid of CFCs and curb the pollutants generating ozone, but it will be difficult to put the brake on either methane or nitrous oxide. And the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will demand major changes in energy policy as well as action to slow deforestation. It appears that we are already committed to rising temperatures and sea levels. The question is by how much, in which areas? A number of things can be done to prepare for these changes: Governments must recognize that there is a problem; Better models must be worked out, especially to define where the greatest impacts from climate change and sea level rise will hit; Reference scenarios must be developed to see what the impacts are likely to be in ecological, agricultural, social and economic terms; Every country should develop "avoidance strategies" to minimize risk (for example, by not building on land likely to be flooded); We must cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from human activities, by eliminating CFCs and adopting energy conservation programs and other measures to minimize CO2 release; Global agreements to protect the atmosphere are needed. PMID:12285901

  1. Expert credibility in climate change

    PubMed Central

    Anderegg, William R. L.; Prall, James W.; Harold, Jacob; Schneider, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    Although preliminary estimates from published literature and expert surveys suggest striking agreement among climate scientists on the tenets of anthropogenic climate change (ACC), the American public expresses substantial doubt about both the anthropogenic cause and the level of scientific agreement underpinning ACC. A broad analysis of the climate scientist community itself, the distribution of credibility of dissenting researchers relative to agreeing researchers, and the level of agreement among top climate experts has not been conducted and would inform future ACC discussions. Here, we use an extensive dataset of 1,372 climate researchers and their publication and citation data to show that (i) 97–98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field surveyed here support the tenets of ACC outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and (ii) the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of the convinced researchers. PMID:20566872

  2. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 0-0, M 0, 2001 Positive feedback between future climate change

    E-print Network

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    and the control climate from the OAGCM. In the "climate change" simulation, the carbon models are forced climate change and the carbon cycle Pierre Friedlingstein, Laurent Bopp, Philippe Ciais, IPSL/LSCE, CE, France Abstract. Future climate change due to increased atmo- spheric CO2 may affect land and ocean

  3. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 00, M 0, 2001 Positive feedback between future climate change

    E-print Network

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    and the control climate from the OAGCM. In the ``climate change'' simulation, the carbon models are forced climate change and the carbon cycle Pierre Friedlingstein, Laurent Bopp, Philippe Ciais, IPSL/LSCE, CE, France Abstract. Future climate change due to increased atmo­ spheric CO2 may a#ect land and ocean e

  4. Climate Change and National Security

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.

  5. Climate change refugia as a tool for climate adaptation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change refugia, areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change so as to increase persistence of valued physical, ecological, and cultural resources, are considered as potential adaptation options in the face of anthropogenic climate change. In a collaboration ...

  6. Climate change, conflict and health.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil

    2015-10-01

    SummaryFuture climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. PMID:26432813

  7. Schneider lecture: From climate change impacts to climate change risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Steve Schneider was a strong proponent of considering the entire range of possible climate-change outcomes. He wrote and spoke frequently about the importance of low probability/high consequence outcomes as well as most likely outcomes. He worked tirelessly on communicating the risks from overlapping stressors. Technical and conceptual issues have made it difficult for Steve's vision to reach maturity in mainstream climate-change research, but the picture is changing rapidly. The concept of climate-change risk, considering both probability and consequence, is central to the recently completed IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, and the concept frames much of the discussion about future research agendas. Framing climate change as a challenge in managing risks is important for five core reasons. First, conceptualizing the issue as being about probabilities builds a bridge between current climate variability and future climate change. Second, a formulation based on risks highlights the fact that climate impacts occur primarily in extremes. For historical variability and future impacts, the real concern is the conditions under which things break and systems fail, namely, in the extremes. Third, framing the challenge as one of managing risks puts a strong emphasis on exploring the full range of possible outcomes, including low-probability, high/consequence outcomes. Fourth, explaining climate change as a problem in managing risks links climate change to a wide range of sophisticated risk management tools and strategies that underpin much of modern society. Fifth, the concept of climate change as a challenge in managing risks helps cement the understanding that climate change is a threat multiplier, adding new dimensions and complexity to existing and emerging problems. Framing climate change as a challenge in managing risks creates an important but difficult agenda for research. The emphasis needs to shift from most likely outcomes to most risky outcomes, considering the full range of interacting processes, both in the climate system and in human responses. But conceptualizing the challenge of climate change as a challenge in managing risks also opens a path to a wide range of options for solutions. Together, the agenda for research and the options for solutions build toward Steve's vision.

  8. Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Thomas R.

    Whether the characteristics of tropical cyclones have changed or will change in a warming climate — and if so, how — has been the subject of considerable investigation, often with conflicting results. Large amplitude ...

  9. Generating Arguments about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin

    2012-01-01

    This unit is a different and fun way to engage students with an extremely important topic, climate change, which cuts across scientific and nonscientific disciplines. While climate change itself may not be listed in the curriculum of every science class, the authors contend that such a unit is appropriate for virtually any science curriculum.…

  10. Teaching about Global Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

    2011-01-01

    Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

  11. Implications of abrupt climate change.

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Records of past climates contained in ice cores, ocean sediments, and other archives show that large, abrupt, widespread climate changes have occurred repeatedly in the past. These changes were especially prominent during the cooling into and warming out of the last ice age, but persisted into the modern warm interval. Changes have especially affected water availability in warm regions and temperature in cold regions, but have affected almost all climatic variables across much or all of the Earth. Impacts of climate changes are smaller if the changes are slower or more-expected. The rapidity of abrupt climate changes, together with the difficulty of predicting such changes, means that impacts on the health of humans, economies and ecosystems will be larger if abrupt climate changes occur. Most projections of future climate include only gradual changes, whereas paleoclimatic data plus models indicate that abrupt changes remain possible; thus, policy is being made based on a view of the future that may be optimistic. PMID:17060975

  12. Ground water and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  13. Ground Water and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  14. Systemic Change in Vocational Training Institutions in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moallem, Abbas; Moallem, Mahnaz

    1998-01-01

    The Specialized Vocational Training Institutions known as Institut Medico-Professionel (IMPro) in France are faced with increasing demands to provide quality services to adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This article describes the process of organizational changes in IMPro including the model, methods, tools, and techniques used in…

  15. Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate scientists configure computer model parameters through the portal user interface. After model configuration, scientists then launch the computing task. Next, data is atomized and distributed to computing engines that are running on citizen participants' computers. Scientists will receive notifications on the completion of computing tasks, and examine modeling results via visualization modules of the portal. Computing tasks, computing resources, and participants are managed by project managers via portal tools. A portal prototype has been built for proof of concept. Three forums have been setup for different groups of users to share information on science aspect, technology aspect, and educational outreach aspect. A facebook account has been setup to distribute messages via the most popular social networking platform. New treads are synchronized from the forums to facebook. A mapping tool displays geographic locations of the participants and the status of tasks on each client node. A group of users have been invited to test functions such as forums, blogs, and computing resource monitoring.

  16. Chapters 10 & 11 Climate Change and Global Climate Systems

    E-print Network

    Pan, Feifei

    Chapters 10 & 11 Climate Change and Global Climate Systems #12;© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives · Introduce climate change and describe scientific tools used to study paleoclimatology and future climate. · Define climate and climatology, and review the principal components of Earth's climate

  17. Climate change and marine vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira; Reed, Thomas E; Thompson, Sarah Ann

    2015-11-13

    Climate change impacts on vertebrates have consequences for marine ecosystem structures and services. We review marine fish, mammal, turtle, and seabird responses to climate change and discuss their potential for adaptation. Direct and indirect responses are demonstrated from every ocean. Because of variation in research foci, observed responses differ among taxonomic groups (redistributions for fish, phenology for seabirds). Mechanisms of change are (i) direct physiological responses and (ii) climate-mediated predator-prey interactions. Regional-scale variation in climate-demographic functions makes range-wide population dynamics challenging to predict. The nexus of metabolism relative to ecosystem productivity and food webs appears key to predicting future effects on marine vertebrates. Integration of climate, oceanographic, ecosystem, and population models that incorporate evolutionary processes is needed to prioritize the climate-related conservation needs for these species. PMID:26564847

  18. CLIMATE CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY: Possible Roles for the U.N. Security Council in Addressing Climate Change By Dane Warren July 2015 #12;© 2015 Sabin Center for Climate Change Law, Columbia Law School The Sabin Center for Climate Change Law develops legal techniques to fight climate change

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction

    E-print Network

    Allan, Richard P.

    CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction Richard Allan, Department of Meteorology r.p.allan@reading.ac.uk #12;Text Books and References · Henson, B., Rough Guide to Climate Change http://www.amazon.co.uk/Climate-Change-Guides-Reference- Titles/dp/1858281059 · Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007, www

  20. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

  1. Climate Change and Disturbance Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Don; Allen, Craig D.

    2007-05-01

    Workshop on Climate Change and Disturbance Interactions in Western North America, Tucson, Ariz., 12-15 February 2007 Warming temperatures across western North America, coupled with increased drought, are expected to exacerbate disturbance regimes, particularly wildfires, insect outbreaks, and invasions of exotic species. Many ecologists and resource managers expect ecosystems to change more rapidly from disturbance effects than from the effects of a changing climate by itself. A particular challenge is to understand the interactions among disturbance regimes; for example, how will massive outbreaks of bark beetles, which kill drought-stressed trees by feeding on cambial tissues, increase the potential for large severe wildfires in a warming climate?

  2. BTO Research Report 414 Climate Change and

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    BTO Research Report 414 Climate Change and Migratory Species Authors Robert A. Robinson1 , Jennifer ..........................................................................................................38 1.2. Certainty in Climate Change Impacts ..........................................................................39 1.3. Biological Adaptation to Climate Change

  3. Oceans and Human Health (and climate change)

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

    Oceans and Human Health (and climate change) Tracy K. Collier Science Dimensions and Ocean Health in a Changing Climate, USC March 12, 2013 1 #12 use Climate change Closes the loop in understanding connections between ocean health and human health

  4. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  5. Climate Change: Implications for the PNW

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    ;Projected Impacts of Climate Change Source: Stern Review #12;Global Climate Change ­ Questions Is climate#12;#12;Climate Change: Implications for the PNW Nick Bond University of Washington NOAA/PMEL #12 changing? What are greenhouse gases and do we understand their role in climate? What is the impact

  6. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  7. Climate change: Unattributed hurricane damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    In the United States, hurricanes have been causing more and more economic damage. A reanalysis of the disaster database using a statistical method that accounts for improvements in resilience opens the possibility that climate change has played a role.

  8. Climatic change on Mars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Toon, O. B.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that Mars is the only known planet with a major atmospheric constituent condensable at typical surface temperatures. The temperatures range from 290 K at equatorial noon to a temperature at the cold pole of 145 K in polar winter. There may be three different periods of climatic variation on Mars. Aspects of reversible climatic instability might possibly explain the channels and other features suggestive of the extensive occurrence of liquid water on Mars. An aqueous epoch on Mars would have important biological and other geological implications. Putative Martian organisms which flourish in the aqueous epoch may now be in cryptobiotic repose.

  9. ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team

    E-print Network

    ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team : 1995/1996 Scientific Report February 1997 CERFACS ACTIVITY REPORT 1 #12; Contents 1 Climate Modelling) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.2 Anthropogenic climate change studies: scenario experiments (96) : : : : : : : : : 7 2

  10. Climate Change: The Sun's Role

    E-print Network

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2007-06-23

    The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

  11. Briefing and Discussion of Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Briefing and Discussion of Climate Change 7th Power Plan Appendix Council Meeting Vancouver Washington October 13, 2015 #12;Outline Key Findings Climate change data and analysis flowchart to offset climate change Summary of L/R balance changes 2 #12;Key Findings (Climate Change Impacts) 1. Load

  12. IN THIS ISSUE Regional Climate Change..............1

    E-print Network

    Hamann, Andreas

    IN THIS ISSUE · Regional Climate Change..............1 · From the Executive Director...........2 release of new climate change scenarios from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) heralds of the fundamental questions remaining with respect to understanding climate change and even climate variability. And

  13. Climate change and preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Faergeman, Ole

    2007-12-01

    Thermal stress, food poisoning, infectious diseases, malnutrition, psychiatric illness as well as injury and death from floods, storms and fire are all likely to become more common as the earth warms and the climate becomes more variable. In contrast, obesity, type II diabetes and coronary artery disease do not result from climate change, but they do share causes with climate change. Burning fossil fuels, for example, is the major source of greenhouse gases, but it also makes pervasive physical inactivity possible. Similarly, modern agriculture's enormous production of livestock contributes substantially to greenhouse gas emissions, and it is the source of many of our most energy-rich foods. Physicians and societies of medical professionals have a particular responsibility, therefore, to contribute to the public discourse about climate change and what to do about it. PMID:18043291

  14. Ocean Observations of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Don

    2016-01-01

    The ocean influences climate by storing and transporting large amounts of heat, freshwater, and carbon, and exchanging these properties with the atmosphere. About 93% of the excess heat energy stored by the earth over the last 50 years is found in the ocean. More than three quarters of the total exchange of water between the atmosphere and the earth's surface through evaporation and precipitation takes place over the oceans. The ocean contains 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and is at present acting to slow the rate of climate change by absorbing one quarter of human emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, cement production, deforestation and other land use change.Here I summarize the observational evidence of change in the ocean, with an emphasis on basin- and global-scale changes relevant to climate. These include: changes in subsurface ocean temperature and heat content, evidence for regional changes in ocean salinity and their link to changes in evaporation and precipitation over the oceans, evidence of variability and change of ocean current patterns relevant to climate, observations of sea level change and predictions over the next century, and biogeochemical changes in the ocean, including ocean acidification.

  15. 1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate

    E-print Network

    1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate A BrAzil-UK AnAlysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011 Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil, and the Met Office Hadley Centre, UK Dangerous Climate A BrAzil-UK An

  16. Climate change impacts on forestry

    PubMed Central

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Sedjo, Roger A.

    2007-01-01

    Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. Our review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. We concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand. PMID:18077403

  17. Climate change impacts on forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilenko, A.P.; Sedjo, R.A.

    2007-12-11

    Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. The authors' review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. They concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand.

  18. Climate change and food security

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE. Climate change impacts on bumblebees converge across continents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jeremy T; Pindar, Alana; Galpern, Paul; Packer, Laurence; Potts, Simon G; Roberts, Stuart M; Rasmont, Pierre; Schweiger, Oliver; Colla, Sheila R; Richardson, Leif L; Wagner, David L; Gall, Lawrence F; Sikes, Derek S; Pantoja, Alberto

    2015-07-10

    For many species, geographical ranges are expanding toward the poles in response to climate change, while remaining stable along range edges nearest the equator. Using long-term observations across Europe and North America over 110 years, we tested for climate change-related range shifts in bumblebee species across the full extents of their latitudinal and thermal limits and movements along elevation gradients. We found cross-continentally consistent trends in failures to track warming through time at species' northern range limits, range losses from southern range limits, and shifts to higher elevations among southern species. These effects are independent of changing land uses or pesticide applications and underscore the need to test for climate impacts at both leading and trailing latitudinal and thermal limits for species. PMID:26160945

  20. Predictions of avian Plasmodium expansion under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Loiseau, Claire; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Bichet, Coraline; Julliard, Romain; Garnier, Stéphane; Lendvai, Ádám Z.; Chastel, Olivier; Sorci, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are particularly responsive to changing environmental conditions. Diurnal temperature variation has been identified as a particularly important factor for the development of malaria parasites within vectors. Here, we conducted a survey across France, screening populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) for malaria (Plasmodium relictum). We investigated whether variation in remotely-sensed environmental variables accounted for the spatial variation observed in prevalence and parasitemia. While prevalence was highly correlated to diurnal temperature range and other measures of temperature variation, environmental conditions could not predict spatial variation in parasitemia. Based on our empirical data, we mapped malaria distribution under climate change scenarios and predicted that Plasmodium occurrence will spread to regions in northern France, and that prevalence levels are likely to increase in locations where transmission already occurs. Our findings, based on remote sensing tools coupled with empirical data suggest that climatic change will significantly alter transmission of malaria parasites. PMID:23350033

  1. Urban sites in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Früh, B.; Kossmann, M.

    2010-09-01

    For the 21st century a significant rise of near surface air temperature is expected from IPCC global climate model simulations. The additional heat load associated with this warming will especially affect cities since it adds to the well-known urban heat island effect. With already more than half of the world's population living in cities and continuing urbanization highly expected, managing urban heat load will become even more important in future. To support urban planners in their effort to maintain or improve the quality of living in their city, detailed information on future urban climate on the residential scale is required. To pursue this question the 'Umweltamt der Stadt Frankfurt am Main' and the 'Deutscher Wetterdienst' (DWD, German Meteorological Service) built a cooperation. This contribution presents estimates of the impact of climate change on the heat load in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, using the urban scale climate model MUKLIMO3 and climate projections from different regional climate models for the region of Frankfurt. Ten different building structures were considered to realistically represent the spatial variability of the urban environment. The evaluation procedure combines the urban climate model simulations and the regional climate projections to calculate several heat load indices based on the exceedance of a temperature threshold. An evaluation of MUKLIMO3 results is carried out for the time period 1971 - 2000. The range of potential future heat load in Frankfurt is statistically analyzed using an ensemble of four different regional climate projections. Future work will examine the options of urban planning to mitigate the enhanced heat load expected from climate change.

  2. FY 2002 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PRA Goal 6: Reducing Global and Transboundary Environmental Risks

    Objective 6.2: Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Sub-Objective 6.2.3: Global Climate Change Research

    Activity F55 - Assessing the Consequences of Global Change on Ecosystem Health

    NRMRL

    R...

  3. Invasive species and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

  4. Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Paul; Heward, William L.

    2010-01-01

    In "Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge," we conclude the special section by assuming that you have been persuaded by Thompson's paper or other evidence that global warming is real and poses a threat that must be dealt with, and that for now the only way to deal with it is by changing behavior. Then we ask what you, as behavior analysts, can do…

  5. Indigenous Health and Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global–local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

  6. Climatic change on Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Sagan, C.; Gierasch, P. J.; Pollack, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    Work on climatic changes of Mars is reviewed and related to terrestrial problems. In particular the dust storms of Mars are discussed since these represent the only global climatic change which has been scientifically observed. The channels of Mars have provoked studies of climatic change and these are summarized together with polar laminae as a climatic change indicator.

  7. Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers

    E-print Network

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    1 Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers in the US and South Korea Pierre Y. Julien Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng. Colorado State University Seoul, South Korea August 11, 2009 Climate Change and Large Rivers 1. Climatic changes have been on-going for some time; 2. Climate changes usually predict

  8. Greenhouse gas induced climate change.

    PubMed

    Hegerl, G C; Cubasch, U

    1996-06-01

    Simulations using global coupled climate models predict a climate change due to the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. Both are associated with the burning of fossil fuels. There has been considerable debate if this postulated human influence is already evident. This paper gives an overview on some recent material on this question. One particular study using optimal fingerprints (Hegerl et al., 1996) is explained in more detail. In this study, an optimal fingerprint analysis is applied to temperature trend patterns over several decades. The results show the probability being less than 5% that the most recently observed 30 year trend is due to naturally occurring climate fluctuations. This result suggests that the present warming is caused by some external influence on climate, e.g. by the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols. More work is needed to address the uncertainties in the magnitude of naturally occurring climate fluctuations. Also, other external influences on climate need to be investigated to uniquely attribute the present climate change to the human influence. PMID:24234957

  9. Experimenting with Climate Change

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hilda Smith, biological technician with Canyonlands Research Station, monitors changes in biological soil crusts in response to experimental increases in temperature and altered precipitation patterns....

  10. Double Exposure: Photographing Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, D. P.; Wake, C. P.; Romanow, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    Double Exposure, Photographing Climate Change, is a fine-art photography exhibition that examines climate change through the prism of melting glaciers. The photographs are twinned shots of glaciers, taken in the mid-20th century by world-renowned photographer Brad Washburn, and in the past two years by Boston journalist/photographer David Arnold. Arnold flew in Washburn's aerial "footprints", replicating stunning black and white photographs, and documenting one irreversible aspect of climate change. Double Exposure is art with a purpose. It is designed to educate, alarm and inspire its audiences. Its power lies in its beauty and the shocking changes it has captured through a camera lens. The interpretive text, guided by numerous experts in the fields of glaciology, global warming and geology, helps convey the message that climate change has already forced permanent changes on the face of our planet. The traveling exhibit premiered at Boston's Museum of Science in April and is now criss-crossing the nation. The exhibit covers changes in the 15 glaciers that have been photographed as well as related information about global warming's effect on the planet today.

  11. Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

  12. Appendix L: Climate Change and Power Planning

    E-print Network

    Page 1 Appendix L: Climate Change and Power Planning Power Committee Webinar June 3, 2009 June 3, 2009 2 Outline · Climate Change Data · Assessing impacts to the power system · Dealing with climate uncertainty #12;Page 2 June 3, 2009 3 Global Climate Models · Climate Impacts Group ­ University of Washington

  13. ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team

    E-print Network

    ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change of the tropical climate : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.2 Short­term variability studies : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.3 Climate drift sensitivity studies

  14. Climate change and game theory.

    PubMed

    Wood, Peter John

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the problem of achieving global cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Contributions to this problem are reviewed from noncooperative game theory, cooperative game theory, and implementation theory. We examine the solutions to games where players have a continuous choice about how much to pollute, as well as games where players make decisions about treaty participation. The implications of linking cooperation on climate change with cooperation on other issues, such as trade, are also examined. Cooperative and noncooperative approaches to coalition formation are investigated in order to examine the behavior of coalitions cooperating on climate change. One way to achieve cooperation is to design a game, known as a mechanism, whose equilibrium corresponds to an optimal outcome. This paper examines some mechanisms that are based on conditional commitments, and their policy implications. These mechanisms could make cooperation on climate change mitigation more likely. PMID:21332497

  15. Renewable Energy and Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Chum, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued the Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) at http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/ (May 2011 electronic version; printed form ISBN 978-1-107-60710-1, 2012). More than 130 scientists contributed to the report.* The SRREN assessed existing literature on the future potential of renewable energy for the mitigation of climate change within a portfolio of mitigation options including energy conservation and efficiency, fossil fuel switching, RE, nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CCS). It covers the six most important renewable energy technologies - bioenergy, direct solar, geothermal, hydropower, ocean and wind, as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It also takes into consideration the environmental and social consequences associated with these technologies, the cost and strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion.

  16. Changing the intellectual climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castree, Noel; Adams, William M.; Barry, John; Brockington, Daniel; Büscher, Bram; Corbera, Esteve; Demeritt, David; Duffy, Rosaleen; Felt, Ulrike; Neves, Katja; Newell, Peter; Pellizzoni, Luigi; Rigby, Kate; Robbins, Paul; Robin, Libby; Rose, Deborah Bird; Ross, Andrew; Schlosberg, David; Sörlin, Sverker; West, Paige; Whitehead, Mark; Wynne, Brian

    2014-09-01

    Calls for more broad-based, integrated, useful knowledge now abound in the world of global environmental change science. They evidence many scientists' desire to help humanity confront the momentous biophysical implications of its own actions. But they also reveal a limited conception of social science and virtually ignore the humanities. They thereby endorse a stunted conception of 'human dimensions' at a time when the challenges posed by global environmental change are increasing in magnitude, scale and scope. Here, we make the case for a richer conception predicated on broader intellectual engagement and identify some preconditions for its practical fulfilment. Interdisciplinary dialogue, we suggest, should engender plural representations of Earth's present and future that are reflective of divergent human values and aspirations. In turn, this might insure publics and decision-makers against overly narrow conceptions of what is possible and desirable as they consider the profound questions raised by global environmental change.

  17. Public Engagement on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change communication is complicated by complexity of the scientific problem, multiple perspectives on the magnitude of the risk from climate change, often acrimonious disputes between scientists, high stakes policy options, and overall politicization of the issue. Efforts to increase science literacy as a route towards persuasion around the need for a policy like cap and trade have failed, because the difficulty that a scientist has in attempting to make sense of the social and political complexity is very similar to the complexity facing the general public as they try to make sense of climate science itself. In this talk I argue for a shift from scientists and their institutions as information disseminators to that of public engagement and enablers of public participation. The goal of engagement is not just to inform, but to enable, motivate and educate the public regarding the technical, political, and social dimensions of climate change. Engagement is a two-way process where experts and decision-makers seek input and learn from the public about preferences, needs, insights, and ideas relative to climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, solutions and policy options. Effective public engagement requires that scientists detach themselves from trying to control what the public does with the acquired knowledge and motivation. The goal should not be to "sell" the public on particular climate change solutions, since such advocacy threatens public trust in scientists and their institutions. Conduits for public engagement include the civic engagement approach in the context of community meetings, and perhaps more significantly, the blogosphere. Since 2006, I have been an active participant in the climate blogosphere, focused on engaging with people that are skeptical of AGW. A year ago, I started my own blog Climate Etc. at judithcurry.com. The demographic that I have focused my communication/engagement activities are the technically educated and scientifically literate public, many of whom have become increasingly skeptical of climate science the more they investigate the topic. Specific issues that this group has with climate science include concerns that science that cannot easily be separated from risk assessment and value judgments; concern that assessments (e.g. IPCC) have become a Maxwell's daemon for climate research; inadequate assessment of our ignorance of this complex scientific issue; elite scientists and scientific institutions losing credibility with the public; political exploitation of the public's lack of understanding; and concerns about the lack of public accountability of climate science and climate models that are being used as the basis for far reaching decisions and policies. Individuals in this group have the technical ability to understand and examine climate science arguments and are not prepared to cede judgment on this issue to the designated and self-proclaimed experts. This talk will describe my experiences in engaging with this group and what has been learned, both by myself and by participants in the discussion at Climate Etc.

  18. CURRICULUM VITAE Climate Change Research Section (CCR)

    E-print Network

    Hu, Aixue

    CURRICULUM VITAE Aixue Hu Climate Change Research Section (CCR) Climate and Global Dynamics of Meteorology, Beijing, China Ph.D dissertation Changes in the Arctic and their impact on the oceanic Meridional.M. Washington, A. Dai: Changes in Thermohaline Circu- lation in Furture Climate, J. Climate, to be submitted

  19. The origin of climate changes.

    PubMed

    Delecluse, P

    2008-08-01

    Investigation on climate change is coordinated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has the delicate task of collecting recent knowledge on climate change and the related impacts of the observed changes, and then developing a consensus statement from these findings. The IPCC's last review, published at the end of 2007, summarised major findings on the present climate situation. The observations show a clear increase in the temperature of the Earth's surface and the oceans, a reduction in the land snow cover, and melting of the sea ice and glaciers. Numerical modelling combined with statistical analysis has shown that this warming trend is very likely the signature of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases linked with human activities. Given the continuing social and economic development around the world, the IPCC emission scenarios forecast an increasing greenhouse effect, at least until 2050 according to the most optimistic models. The model ensemble predicts a rising temperature that will reach dangerous levels for the biosphere and ecosystems within this century. Hydrological systems and the potential significant impacts of these systems on the environment are also discussed. Facing this challenging future, societies must take measures to reduce emissions and work on adapting to an inexorably changing environment. Present knowledge is sufficientto start taking action, but a stronger foundation is needed to ensure that pertinent long-term choices are made that will meet the demands of an interactive and rapidly evolving world. PMID:18819661

  20. Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Owen, Sandra J.

    2012-11-01

    Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop NASA/Ames Research Center May 15-17, 2012 Climate change on Mars has been a subject of great interest to planetary scientists since the 1970's when orbiting spacecraft first discovered fluvial landforms on its ancient surfaces and layered terrains in its polar regions. By far most of the attention has been directed toward understanding how "Early Mars" (i.e., Mars >~3.5 Gya) could have produced environmental conditions favorable for the flow of liquid water on its surface. Unfortunately, in spite of the considerable body of work performed on this subject, no clear consensus has emerged on the nature of the early Martian climate system because of the difficulty in distinguishing between competing ideas given the ambiguities in the available geological, mineralogical, and isotopic records. For several reasons, however, the situation is more tractable for "Recent Mars" (i.e., Mars during past 20 My or so). First, the geologic record is better preserved and evidence for climate change on this time scale has been building since the rejuvenation of the Mars Exploration Program in the late 1990's. The increasing coverage of the planet from orbit and the surface, coupled with accurate measurements of surface topography, increasing spatial resolution of imaging cameras, improved spectral resolution of infrared sensors, and the ability to probe the subsurface with radar, gamma rays, and neutron spectroscopy, has not only improved the characterization of previously known climate features such as polar layered terrains and glacier-related landforms, but has also revealed the existence of many new features related to recent climate change such as polygons, gullies, concentric crater fill, and a latitude dependent mantle. Second, the likely cause of climate change - spin axis/orbital variations - is more pronounced on Mars compared to Earth. Spin axis/orbital variations alter the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of sunlight, which can mobilize and redistribute volatile reservoirs both on and below the surface. And for Mars, these variations are large. In the past 20 My, for example, the obliquity is believed to have varied from a low of 15° to a high of 45° with a regular oscillation time scale of ~10^5 years. These variations are typically less than two degrees on the Earth. Mars, therefore, offers a natural laboratory for the study of orbitally induced climate change on a terrestrial planet. Finally, general circulation models (GCMs) for Mars have reached a level of sophistication that justifies their application to the study of spin axis/orbitally forced climate change. With recent advances in computer technology the models can run at reasonable spatial resolution for many Mars years with physics packages that include cloud microphysics, radiative transfer in scattering/absorbing atmospheres, surface heat budgets, boundary layer schemes, and a host of other processes. To be sure, the models will undergo continual improvement, but with carefully designed experiments they can now provide insights into mechanisms of climate change in the recent past. Thus, the geologic record is better preserved, the forcing function is large, and GCMs have become useful tools. While research efforts in each of these areas have progressed considerably over the past several decades, they have proceeded mostly on independent paths occasionally leading to conflicting ideas. To remedy this situation and accelerate progress in the area, the NASA/Ames Research Center's Mars General Circulation Modeling Group hosted a 3-day workshop on May 15-17, 2012 that brought together the geological and atmospheric science communities to collectively discuss the evidence for recent climate change on Mars, the nature of the change required, and how that change could be brought about. Over 50 researchers, students, and post-docs from the US, Canada, Europe, and Japan attended the meeting. The program and abstracts from the workshop are presented in this NASA/CP and are available to the public at http://spa

  1. AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWARTZ, S.E.

    2005-09-01

    Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

  2. Solar Changes and Climate Changes. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feynman, J.

    2009-12-01

    During the early decades of the Space Age there was general agreement in the scientific community on two facts: (1) sunspot cycles continued without interruption; (2) decadal timescale variations in the solar output has no effect on Earth’s climate. Then in 1976 Jack Eddy published a paper called ‘The Maunder Minimum” in Science magazine arguing that neither of these two established facts was true. He reviewed the observations from the 17th century that show the Sun did not appear to cycle for several decades and he related that to the cold winters in Northern Europe at that time. The paper has caused three decades of hot discussions. When Jack Eddy died on June 10th of this year the arguments were sill going on, and there were no sunspots that day. The Sun was in the longest and deepest solar minimum since 1900. In this talk I will describe the changes in the solar output that have taken place over the last few decades and put them in their historical context. I will also review recent work on the influence of decadal and century scale solar variations on the Earth’s climate. It is clear that this long, deep “solar minimum” is an opportunity to make fundamental progress on our understanding of the solar dynamo and to separate climate change due to the Sun from anthropogenic climate change.

  3. Stratospheric aerosols and climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, B.; Pollack, J. B.; Summers, A.; Toon, O. B.; Sagan, C.; Van Camp, W.

    1976-01-01

    Generated primarily by volcanic explosions, a layer of submicron silicate particles and particles made of concentrated sulfuric acids solution is present in the stratosphere. Flights through the stratosphere may be a future source of stratospheric aerosols, since the effluent from supersonic transports contains sulfurous gases (which will be converted to H2SO4) while the exhaust from Space Shuttles contains tiny aluminum oxide particles. Global heat balance calculations have shown that the stratospheric aerosols have made important contributions to some climatic changes. In the present paper, accurate radiative transfer calculations of the globally-averaged surface temperature (T) are carried out to estimate the sensitivity of the climate to changes in the number of stratospheric aerosols. The results obtained for a specified model atmosphere, including a vertical profile of the aerosols, indicate that the climate is unlikely to be affected by supersonic transports and Space Shuttles, during the next decades.

  4. The Atlantic Climate Change Program

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, R.L. ); Battisti, D. ); Bryan, K. ); Walsh, J. )

    1994-07-01

    The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Climatic Change and Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garratt, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the history of the Earth over four billion years, and shows how climate has had an important role to play in the evolution of humans. Posits that the world's rapidly growing human population and its increasing use of energy is the cause of present-day changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (Author/JRH)

  6. Conservation practices for climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change presents a major challenge to sustainable land management (USDA NRCS 2010). Several reports have reported that over the last few decades rainfall intensities have also increased in many parts of the world, including in the United States. Without good productive soils and the ecosyste...

  7. Climate change primer for respirologists.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Henderson, Sarah B

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is already affecting the cardiorespiratory health of populations around the world, and these impacts are expected to increase. The present overview serves as a primer for respirologists who are concerned about how these profound environmental changes may affect their patients. The authors consider recent peer-reviewed literature with a focus on climate interactions with air pollution. They do not discuss in detail cardiorespiratory health effects for which the potential link to climate change is poorly understood. For example, pneumonia and influenza, which affect >500 million people per year, are not addressed, although clear seasonal variation suggests climate-related effects. Additionally, large global health impacts in low-resource countries, including migration precipitated by environmental change, are omitted. The major cardiorespiratory health impacts addressed are due to heat, air pollution and wildfires, shifts in allergens and infectious diseases along with respiratory impacts from flooding. Personal and societal choices about carbon use and fossil energy infrastructure should be informed by their impacts on health, and respirologists can play an important role in this discussion. PMID:25664458

  8. Climate change - creating watershed resilience

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is likely to intensify the circulation of water, which will shift spatial and temporal availability of snowmelt and runoff. In addition, drought and floods are likely to be more frequent, severe and widespread. Higher air temperatures will lead to higher ocean temperatures, elevating ...

  9. Climate Change: Evidence and Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The fundamentals of climate change are well established: greenhouse gases warm the planet; their concentrations in the atmosphere are increasing; Earth has warmed, and is going to continue warming with a range of impacts. This article summarises the contents of a recent publication issued by the UK's Royal Society and the US National Academy…

  10. CLIMATE CHANGE AND N DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project investigates the potential influence of climate change on wet deposition of reduced nitrogen across the U.S. The concentration of ammonium-nitrogen in precipitation is known to increase with temperature, owing to temperature dependent ammonia source strengths (natur...

  11. A Lesson on Climate Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jim

    This cooperative learning activity, for grades 7-12, promotes critical thinking skills within the context of learning about the causes and effects of climate change. Objectives include: (1) understanding factors that reduce greenhouse gases; (2) understanding the role of trees in reducing greenhouse gases; (3) identifying foods that produce…

  12. Global Climate Change Interaction Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1998-01-01

    Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)

  13. 60 FR 22078 - Reports; Availability, etc.: Climate Change; Second Assessment by Climate Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-05-04

    ...FOUNDATION Reports; Availability, etc.: Climate Change; Second Assessment by Climate Change Intergovernmental Panel AGENCY: National...Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has prepared a draft Second...

  14. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  15. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  16. Overlooked Issues in theOverlooked Issues in the Climate Change DebateClimate Change Debate

    E-print Network

    the evolution of the earth's atmospheric temperature since 1979. We understand climate change and can introduceOverlooked Issues in theOverlooked Issues in the Climate Change DebateClimate Change Debate, 2004 #12;Policy Statement on Climate Variability and ChangePolicy Statement on Climate Variability

  17. 77 FR 19642 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...A-427-818] Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...order on low enriched uranium (LEU) from France on February 10, 2012,\\1\\ in which...1\\ See Low Enriched Uranium from France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  18. Changing Climates @ Colorado State: 100 (Multidisciplinary) Views of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Changing Climates, Cmmap Education; Diversity Team

    2011-12-01

    We would like to talk about a multidisciplinary education and outreach program we co-direct at Colorado State University, with support from an NSF-funded STC, CMMAP, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes. We are working to raise public literacy about climate change by providing information that is high quality, up to date, thoroughly multidisciplinary, and easy for non-specialists to understand. Our primary audiences are college-level students, their teachers, and the general public. Our motto is Climate Change is Everybody's Business. To encourage and help our faculty infuse climate-change content into their courses, we have organized some 115 talks given by as many different speakers-speakers drawn from 28 academic departments, all 8 colleges at CSU, and numerous other entities from campus, the community, and farther afield. We began with a faculty-teaching-faculty series and then broadened our attentions to the whole campus and surrounding community. Some talks have been for narrowly focused audiences such as extension agents who work on energy, but most are for more eclectic groups of students, staff, faculty, and citizens. We count heads at most events, and our current total is roughly 6,000. We have created a website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) that includes videotapes of many of these talks, short videos we have created, and annotated sources that we judge to be accurate, interesting, clearly written, and aimed at non-specialists, including books, articles and essays, websites, and a few items specifically for college teachers (such as syllabi). Pages of the website focus on such topics as how the climate works / how it changes; what's happening / what might happen; natural ecosystems; agriculture; impacts on people; responses from ethics, art, literature; communication; daily life; policy; energy; and-pulling all the pieces together-the big picture. We have begun working on a new series of very short videos that can be combined in various ways to comprise focused, lively, accurate primers to what we all need to know about climate change. With college classrooms as our intended venue, we are looking at such topics as why the weather in your backyard tells you nothing about global climate change-but a good deal about climate; how tiny molecules warm the planet; how snowpack, drought, bark beetles, fire suppression, and wildfire interact as stress complexes; why (and where) women, children, and the poor are especially vulnerable to harm from climate change; what international policy negotiators argue about; what poets and artists can contribute to understanding and solving the climate problem; and why ecologists are worried about changes in the seasonal timing of natural events. We will describe what we have done and how we did it; offer a few tips to others who might wish to do something similar; and introduce our website.

  19. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem. PMID:12177959

  20. Asia's changing role in global climate change.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Toufiq A

    2008-10-01

    Asia's role in global climate change has evolved significantly from the time when the Kyoto Protocol was being negotiated. Emissions of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas, from energy use in Asian countries now exceed those from the European Union or North America. Three of the top five emitters-China, India, and Japan, are Asian countries. Any meaningful global effort to address global climate change requires the active cooperation of these and other large Asian countries, if it is to succeed. Issues of equity between countries, within countries, and between generations, need to be tackled. Some quantitative current and historic data to illustrate the difficulties involved are provided, and one approach to making progress is suggested. PMID:18991898

  1. The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change

    E-print Network

    1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central · Climate with enhanced cloud absorption Synthesis of models and aerosol observations: · Development

  2. A common-sense climate index: Is climate changing noticeably?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Glascoe, Jay; Ruedy, Reto

    1998-01-01

    We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent already, but in most places climate trends are too small to stand out above year-to-year variability. The climate index is strongly correlated with global surface temperature, which has increased as rapidly as projected by climate models in the 1980s. We argue that the global area with obvious climate change will increase notably in the next few years. But we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has declined in recent years, and thus there is an opportunity to keep climate change in the 21st century less than “business-as-usual” scenarios. PMID:9539699

  3. A common-sense climate index: is climate changing noticeably?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Glascoe, J.; Ruedy, R.

    1998-01-01

    We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent already, but in most places climate trends are too small to stand out above year-to-year variability. The climate index is strongly correlated with global surface temperature, which has increased as rapidly as projected by climate models in the 1980s. We argue that the global area with obvious climate change will increase notably in the next few years. But we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has declined in recent years, and thus there is an opportunity to keep climate change in the 21st century less than "business-as-usual" scenarios.

  4. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

  5. Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level

    E-print Network

    Talley, Lynne D.

    5 Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level Coordinating Lead Authors: Nathaniel L: Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds

  6. Challenges and Possibilities in Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau,, Diane; Khattabi, Abdellatif; Demers, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Educating and communicating about climate change is challenging. Researchers reported that climate change concepts are often misunderstood. Some people do not believe that climate change will have impacts on their own life. Other challenges may include people's difficulty in perceiving small or gradual environmental changes, the fact that…

  7. Surface Ozone and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, K.; Barnes, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Surface ozone pollution will continue to be a concern in the coming decades as the effects of climate change couple with changing emissions to influence air quality. We analyze modeled surface ozone's seasonal cycle variability, long-term variability, and its correlation to atmospheric circulation using output from the GFDL coupled chemistry climate model (CM3) from CMIP5. We analyze the relationship between the jet stream and both ozone variability and mean ozone over the North Pacific. We also determine if ozone's seasonal cycle will shift in the future on a worldwide scale. We focus on surface ozone and 500mb zonal winds in order to analyze the large-scale circulation effects from 2006 to 2100. CMIP5 contains varying representative concentration pathways (RCPs), and we use three-member RCPs 4.5 and 4.5*, which are identical save the fact that 4.5* have fixed amounts of aerosols and ozone precursors at 2005 levels. The use of both 4.5 and 4.5* allows us to see effects due to changing emissions of ozone precursors such as NOx and which are due to climate change. Jet speed is found to correlate well with the maximum amount of decadal mean ozone in both 4.5 and 4.5* in the Pacific region. In addition, ozone's seasonal cycle across the globe peaks earlier in the year due to climate change alone, while decreasing emissions of ozone precursors is found to alter the amplitude of the cycle over industrial continental areas, causing the day of maximum ozone to occur months earlier long-term. The seasonal cycle change in 4.5* appears to be connected to the jet stream over the Pacific.

  8. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    E-print Network

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  9. Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Nina L.; Leopold, A. Carl; Ross, John; Huffaker, Wellington

    1999-01-01

    A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes reflect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was ?0.12 day per year, an overall increase in phenological earliness at this site during the period. Some phenophases have not increased in earliness, as would be expected for phenophases that are regulated by photoperiod or by a physiological signal other than local temperature. PMID:10449757

  10. Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Bradley, N L; Leopold, A C; Ross, J; Huffaker, W

    1999-08-17

    A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes reflect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was -0.12 day per year, an overall increase in phenological earliness at this site during the period. Some phenophases have not increased in earliness, as would be expected for phenophases that are regulated by photoperiod or by a physiological signal other than local temperature. PMID:10449757

  11. Severe thunderstorms and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, H. E.

    2013-04-01

    As the planet warms, it is important to consider possible impacts of climate change on severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. To further that discussion, the current distribution of severe thunderstorms as a function of large-scale environmental conditions is presented. Severe thunderstorms are much more likely to form in environments with large values of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and deep-tropospheric wind shear. Tornadoes and large hail are preferred in high-shear environments and non-tornadic wind events in low shear. Further, the intensity of tornadoes and hail, given that they occur, tends to be almost entirely a function of the shear and only weakly depends on the thermodynamics. Climate model simulations suggest that CAPE will increase in the future and the wind shear will decrease. Detailed analysis has suggested that the CAPE change will lead to more frequent environments favorable for severe thunderstorms, but the strong dependence on shear for tornadoes, particularly the strongest ones, and hail means that the interpretation of how individual hazards will change is open to question. The recent development of techniques to use higher-resolution models to estimate the occurrence of storms of various kinds is discussed. Given the large interannual variability in environments and occurrence of events, caution is urged in interpreting the observational record as evidence of climate change.

  12. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore provides an opportunity for targeted proactive measures to mitigate certain classes of future civil violence events.

  13. Climate change policies and international trade

    SciTech Connect

    Brack, D.

    1998-07-01

    Brack examines the implications of climate change policy measures for international trade: energy efficiency standards for traded goods; carbon/energy taxes, including international taxation of bunker fuels; and the potential use of trade measures in the climate change protocol.

  14. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

  15. The Educational Challenges of Climate Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClaren, Milton; Hammond, William

    2000-01-01

    Explains five concepts that are vital for the design or implementation of programs on global climate change. Discusses different approaches for how global climate change should be taught. (Contains 20 references.) (YDS)

  16. Global Climate Change and the Mitigation Challenge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book edited by Frank Princiotta titled Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Transparent modeling tools and the most recent literature are used, to quantify the challenge posed by climate change and potential technological remedies. The chapter examines forces driving ...

  17. Pediatricians' Group Urges Action on Climate Change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_155358.html Pediatricians' Group Urges Action on Climate Change Natural disasters, diseases and excess heat threaten children's ... other threats to children will increase because of climate change, a leading group of U.S. pediatricians warns. Doctors ...

  18. Essays on climate change, energy, and independence 

    E-print Network

    Comerford, David

    2013-11-27

    This thesis contains three separate papers. A balance of questions: what can we ask of climate change economics? is a critical analysis of the economics of climate change literature. It concludes that much more research ...

  19. RISKS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptation is an important approach for protecting human health, ecosystems, and economic systems from the risks posed by climate variability and change, and to exploit beneficial opportunities provided by a changing climate. This paper presents nine fundamental principles that ...

  20. Road Infrastructure and Climate Change in Vietnam

    E-print Network

    Chinowsky, Paul

    Climate change is a potential threat to Vietnam’s development as current and future infrastructure will be vulnerable to climate change impacts. This paper focuses on the physical asset of road infrastructure in Vietnam ...

  1. Climate change and Arctic parasites.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Andy; Molnár, Péter K; Kutz, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Climate is changing rapidly in the Arctic. This has important implications for parasites of Arctic ungulates, and hence for the welfare of Arctic peoples who depend on caribou, reindeer, and muskoxen for food, income, and a focus for cultural activities. In this Opinion article we briefly review recent work on the development of predictive models for the impacts of climate change on helminth parasites and other pathogens of Arctic wildlife, in the hope that such models may eventually allow proactive mitigation and conservation strategies. We describe models that have been developed using the metabolic theory of ecology. The main strength of these models is that they can be easily parameterized using basic information about the physical size of the parasite. Initial results suggest they provide important new insights that are likely to generalize to a range of host-parasite systems. PMID:25900882

  2. Teaching Climate Change Through Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, P. S.

    2007-12-01

    During 2006, Peter Weiss aka "The Singing Scientist" performed many music assemblies for elementary schools (K-5) in Santa Cruz County, California, USA. These assemblies were an opportunity for him to mix a discussion of climate change with rock n' roll. In one song called "Greenhouse Glasses", Peter and his band the "Earth Rangers" wear over-sized clown glasses with "molecules" hanging off them (made with Styrofoam balls and pipe cleaners). Each molecule is the real molecular structure of a greenhouse gas, and the song explains how when the wearer of these glasses looks up in the sky, he/she can see the "greenhouse gases floating by." "I've seen more of them this year than the last / 'Cuz fossil fuels are burning fast / I wish everyone could see through these frames / Then maybe we could prevent climate change" Students sing, dance and get a visual picture of something that is invisible, yet is part of a very real problem. This performance description is used as an example of an educational style that can reach a wide audience and provide a framework for the audience as learners to assimilate future information on climate change. The hypothesis is that complex socio-environmental issues like climate change that must be taught in order to achieve sustainability are best done so through alternative mediums like music. Students develop awareness which leads to knowledge about chemistry, physics, and biology. These kinds of experiences which connect science learning to fun activities and community building are seriously lacking in primary and secondary schools and are a big reason why science illiteracy is a current social problem. Science education is also paired with community awareness (including the local plant/animal community) and cooperation. The Singing Scientist attempts to create a culture where it is cool to care about the environment. Students end up gardening in school gardens together and think about their "ecological footprint".

  3. How Does The Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. N.

    2011-12-01

    In 1997, maximum temperature in SE Australia shifted up by 0.8°C at pH0<0.01. Rainfall decreased by 13% in 1997-2010 compared to 1900-1996. Statistically significant shifts also occur in impact indicators: baumé levels in winegrapes shift >21 days earlier from 1998, streamflow records decrease by 30-70% from 1997 and annual mean forest fire danger index increased by 38% from 1997. Despite catastrophic fires killing 178 people in early 2009, the public remains unaware of this large change in their exposure. When regional temperature was separated into internally and externally forced components, the latter component was found to warm in two steps, in 1968-73 and 1997. These dates coincide with shifts in zonal mean temperature (24-44S; Figure 1). Climate model output shows similar step and trend behavior. Tests run on zonal, hemispheric and global mean temperature observations found shifts in all regions. 1997 marks a shift in global temperature of 0.3°C at pH0<0.01. Similar shifts occur in long-term tide gauge records around the globe (e.g., Figure 2) and in ocean heat content. The prevailing paradigm for how climate variables change is signal-noise construct combining a smooth signal with variations caused by internal climate variability. There seems to be no sound theoretical basis for this assumption. On the contrary, complex system behavior would suggest non-linear responses to externally forced change, especially at the regional scale. Some of our most basic assumptions about how climate changes may need to be re-examined.

  4. Past and Current Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercedes Rodríguez Ruibal, Ma

    2014-05-01

    In 1837 the Swiss geologist and palaeontologist Louis Agassiz was the first scientist to propose the existence of an ice age in the Earth's past. Nearly two centuries after discussing global glacial periods... while the average global temperature is rising very quickly because of our economic and industrial model. In tribute to these pioneers, we have selected a major climate change of the past as the Snowball Earth and, through various activities in the classroom, compared to the current anthropogenic climate change. First, we include multiple geological processes that led to a global glaciation 750 million years ago as the decrease in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4, the effect of climate variations in solar radiation due to emissions of volcanic dust and orbital changes (Milankovitch cycles), being an essential part of this model the feedback mechanism of the albedo of the ice on a geological scale. Moreover, from simple experiments and studies in the classroom this time we can compare the past with the current anthropogenic global warming we are experiencing and some of its consequences, highlighting that affect sea level rise, increased extreme and effects on health and the biosphere weather.

  5. NASA Nice Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frink, K.; Crocker, S.; Jones, W., III; Marshall, S. S.; Anuradha, D.; Stewart-Gurley, K.; Howard, E. M.; Hill, E.; Merriweather, E.

    2013-12-01

    Authors: 1 Kaiem Frink, 4 Sherry Crocker, 5 Willie Jones, III, 7 Sophia S.L. Marshall, 6 Anuadha Dujari 3 Ervin Howard 1 Kalota Stewart-Gurley 8 Edwinta Merriweathe Affiliation: 1. Mathematics & Computer Science, Virginia Union University, Richmond, VA, United States. 2. Mathematics & Computer Science, Elizabeth City State Univ, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 3. Education, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 4. College of Education, Fort Valley State University , Fort Valley, GA, United States. 5. Education, Tougaloo College, Jackson, MS, United States. 6. Mathematics, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, United States. 7. Education, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, United States. 8. Education, Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University, Huntsville, AL, United States. ABSTRACT: In this research initiative, the 2013-2014 NASA NICE workshop participants will present best educational practices for incorporating climate change pedagogy. The presentation will identify strategies to enhance instruction of pre-service teachers to aligned with K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) standards. The presentation of best practices should serve as a direct indicator to address pedagogical needs to include climate education within a K-12 curriculum Some of the strategies will include inquiry, direct instructions, and cooperative learning . At this particular workshop, we have learned about global climate change in regards to how this is going to impact our life. Participants have been charged to increase the scientific understanding of pre-service teachers education programs nationally to incorporate climate education lessons. These recommended practices will provide feasible instructional strategies that can be easily implemented and used to clarify possible misconceptions and ambiguities in scientific knowledge. Additionally, the presentation will promote an awareness to the many facets in which climate change education can be beneficial to future learners and general public. The main scope is to increase the amount of STEM knowledge throughout the nations scientific literacy as we are using the platform of climate change. Federal entities which may include but not limited to National Security Agency and the Department of Homeland Security and Management will serve as resources partners for this common goal of having a more knowledgeable technological savvy and scientific literate society. The presentation will show that incorporating these best practices into elementary and early childhood education undergraduate programs will assist with increasing a enhance scientific literate society. As a measurable outcome have a positive impact on instructional effectiveness of future teachers. Their successfully preparing students in meeting the standards of the Common Core Initiative will attempt to measure across the curriculum uniformly.

  6. Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes to Ecosystems K. A. Garrett, S. P. Dendy, E. E in the effects of climate change on plant disease contin- ues to be limited, but some striking progress has been of the magnitude of climate change effects. Ecosystem ecologists are now addressing the role of plant disease

  7. FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    Moritz, Max A.

    FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA Changes in the Distribution and Frequency of Fire in Climates of the Future and Recent Past (1911­2099) A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012026 Prepared for: California Energy Commission

  8. Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Poff, N. LeRoy

    Saving Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE Edited by Lee Hannah ISLANDPRESS-in-Publication Data Saving a million species : extinction risk from climate change / edited by LeeHannah. p. cm. ISBN-10: 1-59726-570-5 (paper) 1. Climatic changes. 2. Global warming. 3. Extinction (Biology

  9. An alliance for action on climate change.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anne Marie; Stott, Robin; Watts, Nick

    2015-11-25

    In 1988 the United Nations formed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, charged with documenting the impacts of climate change and formulating realistic strategies for action. Its first report led to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992. PMID:26602654

  10. Inducing Salient Information Structures from Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Bradstock, Burton

    Inducing Salient Information Structures from Climate Change Texts Andrew Salway Uni Research the human side of climate change, e.g.: what views do different actors express? what voices are heard-textual phenomena, e.g.: Assume that the linguistic forms "climate change" , "global warming" and "greenhouse gas

  11. Research Note Impacts of climate change on

    E-print Network

    Research Note Impacts of climate change on forestry in Scotland ­ a synopsis of spatial modelling research Duncan Ray January 2008 Climate change is now one of the greatest global challenges, and research by climate change. This Research Note provides an initial synopsis of the likely impacts, with preliminary

  12. Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change: The Role of NOAA Sea Grant Extension years and generations about how to adapt to a changing climate. Effective preparation for possible effects of climate change includes engagement of resource managers, planners, public works officials

  13. Climate Change Ignorance: An Unacceptable Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change effects will be most acutely felt by future generations. Recent prior research has shown that school students' knowledge of climate change science is very limited in rural Australia. The purpose of this study was to assess the capacity of preservice teachers and parents to transmit climate change information and understanding to…

  14. Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

  15. Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change

  16. ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND FACILITATING ADAPTATION by P. Mick Kelly and W. Neil Adger CSERGE Working Paper GEC 99-07 #12;ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND FACILITATING-economic and Physical Approaches to Vulnerability to Climate Change in Vietnam'(Award No. L320253240) is gratefully

  17. APPROACHES TO VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    APPROACHES TO VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE by W. Neil Adger CSERGE Working Paper GEC 96-05 #12;APPROACHES TO VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE by W. Neil Adger Centre for Social and Economic Research and Physical Approaches to Vulnerability to Climate Change in Vietnam' is also gratefully acknowledged. ISSN

  18. Climate change and beyond: models and uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    , the Earth's temperature will rise by 0.6F within the next 30 years. Yet those who think climate change just1 / 29 Climate change and beyond: models and uncertainty Michael Goldstein Dept. Mathematical makes it harder for them to sink.] " The weight of evidence makes it clear that climate change is a real

  19. USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan #12;2 INTRODUCTIONEXECUTIVE SUMMARY This USACE Adaptation Plan describes activities underway to evaluate the most significant climate change related risks in supporting mainstreaming climate change adaptation has focused on clarifying our adaptation mission and goals

  20. CLIMATE CHANGE AND MANAGED ECOSYSTEMS: BOOK REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July, 2004, an important international climate change conference convened in Edmonton, Canada, “The Science of Changing Climates – Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands”. Leading experts in climate change, mostly from the natural and agricultural sciences, exchanged the latest findings o...

  1. Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic

    E-print Network

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic Tomography, Satellite Altimetry, and Modeling The ATOC to thermal expansion. Interpreting climate change signals from fluctuations in sea level is therefore in the advective heat flux. Changes in oceanic heat storage are a major expected element of future climate shifts

  2. Psychological research and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Stern, Paul C.; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda; Steg, Linda; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2015-07-01

    Human behaviour is integral not only to causing global climate change but also to responding and adapting to it. Here, we argue that psychological research should inform efforts to address climate change, to avoid misunderstandings about human behaviour and motivations that can lead to ineffective or misguided policies. We review three key research areas: describing human perceptions of climate change; understanding and changing individual and household behaviour that drives climate change; and examining the human impacts of climate change and adaptation responses. Although much has been learned in these areas, we suggest important directions for further research.

  3. Insuring climate change? Science, fear, and value in reinsurance markets

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Leigh Taylor

    2011-01-01

    between hurricanes and anthropogenic climate change was farhurricane risk estimates in response to anthropogenic climate change.hurricane science community about the extent to which anthropogenic climate change

  4. Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, AR4) has resulted in a wider acceptance of global climate change, hurricanes and tropical storms) or extreme stresses (e.g., tropical climate in temperate regions or shifting

  5. FAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    FAU CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE PRIORITY THEME: RESEARCH, ENGINEERING, AND ADAPTATION TO A CHANGING CLIMATE "I am persuaded that global climate change is one of the most important issues that we will face climate change, is the most important threat to fisheries worldwide" U.S. National Oceanographic

  6. A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century Miche`le B; accepted 30 November 2006; published 10 January 2007. [1] A Climate Change Index (CCI) is developed to a single index that is a measure for the strength of future climate change relative to today's natural

  7. Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law

    E-print Network

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law Monica Molina, Columbia College '14 Supervisor Meredith Wilensky, J.D. Introduction The Climate Change Laws of the World Project is an ongoing effort at the Center for Climate Change Law (CCCL) to aggregate existing domestic

  8. Conceptualizing Climate Change in the Context of a Climate System: Implications for Climate and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Roychoudhury, Anita; Hirsch, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural…

  9. The science of climate change.

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.

    1999-09-10

    A complex debate is underway on climate change linked to proposals for costly measures that would reshape our power grid. This confronts technical experts outside of the geophysical disciplines with extensive, but unfamiliar, data both supporting and refuting claims that serious action is warranted. For example, evidence is brought to the table from one group of astrophysicists concerned with sunspots--this group believes there is no issue man can manage; while another group of oceanographers concerned with the heat balance in the world's oceans are very alarmed at the loss of arctic ice. What is the evidence? In an effort to put some of these issues in perspective for a technical audience, without a background in geophysics, a brief survey will consider (1) an overview of the 300 years of scientific inquiry on man's relationship to climate; (2) a basic discussion of what is meant by the ''greenhouse'' and why there are concerns which include not only CO{sub 2}, but also CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CFC's; (3) the geological record on CO{sub 2}--which likely was present at 1,000 times current levels when life began; (4) the solar luminosity and sunspot question; and (5) the current evidence for global climate change. We are at a juncture where we are attempting to understand the earth as an integrated dynamic system, rather than a collection of isolated components.

  10. Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

  11. Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

  12. Stratospheric Changes and Climate Coordinating Lead Authors

    E-print Network

    Son, Seok-Woo

    ......................................................................................................14 4.3 SIMuLATIONS OF STRATOSPHERIC CLIMATE CHANGE.........................................................................16 4.3.1 Simulation of Stratospheric Temperature Trends from Chemistry-Climate Models and Climate....................................................................................................................16 4.3.2 Simulation of Brewer-Dobson Circulation Trends in Chemistry-Climate Models

  13. OUR CHANGING CLIMATE Research that matters

    E-print Network

    Hodges, Kevin

    OUR CHANGING CLIMATE Research that matters #12;2 | CLIMATE THE UNIVERSITY OF READING'S WALKER INSTITUTE Helping to increase the impact of climate system research The University is committed Institute for Climate System Research was established to draw together the University's unique breadth

  14. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear

    E-print Network

    Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters Rob Goldston MIT IAP plays a large role in replacing coal red plants. al hydro electricity options penetrate in the climate way across scenarios, showing a slight severe climate targets. In Industry, the climate target has

  15. Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel, W.R. ); Schimel, D.S. . Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

  16. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    1 Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011 J. Hansen, M. Sato, R. Ruedy Abstract. The "climate dice" describing the chance of an unusually warm or cool season, coincident with increased global warming. The most dramatic and important change of the climate dice

  17. Physiological ecology meets climate change.

    PubMed

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we pointed out that understanding the physiology of differential climate change effects on organisms is one of the many urgent challenges faced in ecology and evolutionary biology. We explore how physiological ecology can contribute to a holistic view of climate change impacts on organisms and ecosystems and their evolutionary responses. We suggest that theoretical and experimental efforts not only need to improve our understanding of thermal limits to organisms, but also to consider multiple stressors both on land and in the oceans. As an example, we discuss recent efforts to understand the effects of various global change drivers on aquatic ectotherms in the field that led to the development of the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) as a framework integrating various drivers and linking organisational levels from ecosystem to organism, tissue, cell, and molecules. We suggest seven core objectives of a comprehensive research program comprising the interplay among physiological, ecological, and evolutionary approaches for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. While studies of individual aspects are already underway in many laboratories worldwide, integration of these findings into conceptual frameworks is needed not only within one organism group such as animals but also across organism domains such as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Indeed, development of unifying concepts is relevant for interpreting existing and future findings in a coherent way and for projecting the future ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on functional biodiversity. We also suggest that OCLTT may in the end and from an evolutionary point of view, be able to explain the limited thermal tolerance of metazoans when compared to other organisms. PMID:25798220

  18. Physiological ecology meets climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we pointed out that understanding the physiology of differential climate change effects on organisms is one of the many urgent challenges faced in ecology and evolutionary biology. We explore how physiological ecology can contribute to a holistic view of climate change impacts on organisms and ecosystems and their evolutionary responses. We suggest that theoretical and experimental efforts not only need to improve our understanding of thermal limits to organisms, but also to consider multiple stressors both on land and in the oceans. As an example, we discuss recent efforts to understand the effects of various global change drivers on aquatic ectotherms in the field that led to the development of the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) as a framework integrating various drivers and linking organisational levels from ecosystem to organism, tissue, cell, and molecules. We suggest seven core objectives of a comprehensive research program comprising the interplay among physiological, ecological, and evolutionary approaches for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. While studies of individual aspects are already underway in many laboratories worldwide, integration of these findings into conceptual frameworks is needed not only within one organism group such as animals but also across organism domains such as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Indeed, development of unifying concepts is relevant for interpreting existing and future findings in a coherent way and for projecting the future ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on functional biodiversity. We also suggest that OCLTT may in the end and from an evolutionary point of view, be able to explain the limited thermal tolerance of metazoans when compared to other organisms. PMID:25798220

  19. Using Satellites to Understand Climate and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the measurement of climate with the use of satellites. The basic greenhouse effect, Ice-albedo feedback, climate models and observations, aerosol-cloud interactions, and the Antarctic are discussed, along with the human effect on climate change.

  20. Climate Change: Believing and Seeing Implies Adapting

    PubMed Central

    Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Tomé, Margarida; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of factors that trigger human response to climate change is crucial for effective climate change policy communication. Climate change has been claimed to have low salience as a risk issue because it cannot be directly experienced. Still, personal factors such as strength of belief in local effects of climate change have been shown to correlate strongly with responses to climate change and there is a growing literature on the hypothesis that personal experience of climate change (and/or its effects) explains responses to climate change. Here we provide, using survey data from 845 private forest owners operating in a wide range of bio-climatic as well as economic-social-political structures in a latitudinal gradient across Europe, the first evidence that the personal strength of belief and perception of local effects of climate change, highly significantly explain human responses to climate change. A logistic regression model was fitted to the two variables, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.07 (SD ±0.01) to 0.81 (SD ±0.03) for self-reported adaptive measures taken. Adding socio-demographic variables improved the fit, estimating expected probabilities ranging from 0.022 (SD ±0.008) to 0.91 (SD ±0.02). We conclude that to explain and predict adaptation to climate change, the combination of personal experience and belief must be considered. PMID:23185568

  1. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePLUS

    Home Climate Change Health Effects Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate ... Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change Greenhouse ...

  2. Perceptions of Climate Change 27 March 2011

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    that the perceptive person would notice that climate was changing by the early 21st century. I used colored dice of greenhouse gases used in climate model simulations. The real world (red curve) has closely followed scenarioPerceptions of Climate Change 27 March 2011 This past winter, for the second year in a row, seemed

  3. CLIMATE CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN WILDLIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large and growing body of scientific evidence indicates the Earth’s climate is changing, and the recent International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) declared that “warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean tempera...

  4. Australian Government Department ofClimate Change

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    Australian Government Department ofClimate Change C08/7649 Mr James Hansen Columbia University 4405 act to urgently address climate change and its impacts. The Australian Government considers climate of carbon capture and storage, I will focus herein on actions being taken by the AustrrtliAn Government

  5. INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) HOMEPAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IPCC is divided into three Working Groups. Working Group I assesses the scientific aspects of the climate system and climate change. Working Group II assesses the vulnerability to climate change of, and the negative and positive impacts for, ecological systems, socio-economic...

  6. Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…

  7. Plant Pathogens as Indicators of Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    Chapter 25 Plant Pathogens as Indicators of Climate Change K.A. Garrett, M. Nita, E.D. De Wolf, L. Gomez and A.H. Sparks Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 1. Introduction 2. Climatic Variables and Plant Disease 3. Evidence that Simulated Climate Change Affects Plant

  8. ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF RECENT CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global climate change is frequently considered a major conservation threat. The Earth's climate has already warmed by 0.5 degrees C over the past century, and recent studies show that it is possible to detect the effects of a changing climate on ecological systems.

  9. Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecosystems, and the biodiversity and services they support, are intrinsically dependent on climate. During the twentieth century, climate change has had documented impacts on ecological systems, and impacts are expected to increase as climate change continues and perhaps even accelerates. This techn...

  10. Climate change projections and stratospheretroposphere interaction

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Climate change projections and stratosphere­troposphere interaction Article Accepted Version Scaife, M. P., Gettelman, A., Hardiman, S. C., Michou, M., Rozanov, E. and Shepherd, T. G. (2012) Climate change projections and stratosphere­troposphere interaction. Climate Dynamics, 38 (9-10). pp. 2089

  11. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  12. Climate Change: A Controlled Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Strahl, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are altering temperature, carbon dioxide and precipitation levels across plots of forests, grasses and crops to see how plant life responds. Warmer temperatures and higher CO{sub 2} concentrations generally result in more leaf growth or crop yield, but these factors can also raise insect infestation and weaken plants ability to ward off pests and disease. Future field experiments that can manipulate all three conditions at once will lead to better models of how long-term climate changes will affect ecosystems worldwide.

  13. Landscape and climatic characteristics associated with human alveolar echinococcosis in France, 1982 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Piarroux, M; Gaudart, J; Bresson-Hadni, S; Bardonnet, K; Faucher, B; Grenouillet, F; Knapp, J; Dumortier, J; Watelet, J; Gerard, A; Beytout, J; Abergel, A; Wallon, M; Vuitton, D A; Piarroux, R

    2015-01-01

    Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a severe hepatic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. In France, the definitive and intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis (foxes and rodents, respectively) have a broader geographical distribution than that of human AE. In this two-part study, we describe the link between AE incidence in France between 1982 and 2007 and climatic and landscape characteristics. National-level analysis demonstrated a dramatic increase in AE risk in areas with very cold winters and high annual rainfall levels. Notably, 52% (207/401) of cases resided in French communes (smallest French administrative level) with a mountain climate. The mountain climate communes displayed a 133-fold (95% CI: 95-191) increase in AE risk compared with communes in which the majority of the population resides. A case-control study performed in the most affected areas confirmed the link between AE risk and climatic factors. This arm of the study also revealed that populations residing in forest or pasture areas were at high risk of developing AE. We therefore hypothesised that snow-covered ground may facilitate predators to track their prey, thus increasing E. multilocularis biomass in foxes. Such climatic and landscape conditions could lead to an increased risk of developing AE among humans residing in nearby areas. PMID:25990231

  14. Climate change at local level : let's look around downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Jan, J.; Moisselin, J. M.; Pagé, C.

    2009-09-01

    Weather services and climatologists in research centre are overwhelmed by requests from local authorities about climate change in their regions. Most of the times local authorities want initially a level of precision in terms of time and space scale which far beyond the scientific knowledge we have for the time being. The communication will build upon several experiences of such requests and show the importance of building common language and confidence between the different actors that are to be involved in downscaling exercise. The goal is to bridge the gap between initial requests by decision makers and existing scientific knowledge. UNDP (United Nations Development Program) set up recently a unit called ClimSAT to help regions (sub national authorities) to establish mitigation and adaptation action plans. ClimSAT already initiated such plans in Uruguay, Albania, Uganda, Senegal, Morocco, … Météo-France takes part to ClimSAT for instance by explaining the importance of data rescue, providing with latest information about climate change impacts and stressing the interests to involve national weather services in regional climate change action plans, … In Basse Normandie, Bretagne and Pays de Loire, Météo-France has been involved in several processes aiming ultimately at building local climate change action plans. For the time being, no real dynamical or statistical downscaling exercise have been launched : For impacts on precipitation pattern, IPCC models do not really agree on this zone, so downscaling is not really pertinent. For temperature, the climate change signal is clearer, but downscaling won't give much more information. Of course on other meteorogical parameters or on other variable that are linked to meteorological parameters, downscaling could be of interest and will probably be necessary. With or without downscaling, the stake is to build, at a local level, mechanisms which are similar to IPCC and UNFCCC. In that context, downscaling could either be helpful or create a kind of black box effect which will hamper real dialogues between stakeholders.

  15. RMES-520: Climate Change: Science, Technology and Sustainable Development RMES-520: Climate Change: Science, Technology and

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    RMES-520: Climate Change: Science, Technology and Sustainable Development 1 RMES-520: Climate://blogs.ubc.ca/rmes520 Course Description: Over the past few decades, climate change has emerged as one of the most greenhouse gas emissions may be difficult to achieve. Adapting to climate change will require long

  16. STERN REVIEW: The Economics of Climate Change 1 Climate Change our approach

    E-print Network

    of increases in greenhouse gases caused by human activities. Most climate models show that a doubling of pre an international perspective. Climate change is global in its causes and consequences, and the response requiresSTERN REVIEW: The Economics of Climate Change 1 Part I Climate Change ­ our approach Part I

  17. Abrupt climate change: can society cope?

    PubMed

    Hulme, Mike

    2003-09-15

    Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and those who argue that the unknowns in the Earth system are too large to justify such early action. This paper explores the question of abrupt climate change in terms of its potential implications for society, focusing on the UK and northwest Europe in particular. The nature of abrupt climate change and the different ways in which it has been defined and perceived are examined. Using the example of the collapse of the thermohaline circulation (THC), the suggested implications for society of abrupt climate change are reviewed; previous work has been largely speculative and has generally considered the implications only from economic and ecological perspectives. Some observations about the implications from a more social and behavioural science perspective are made. If abrupt climate change simply implies changes in the occurrence or intensity of extreme weather events, or an accelerated unidirectional change in climate, the design of adaptation to climate change can proceed within the existing paradigm, with appropriate adjustments. Limits to adaptation in some sectors or regions may be reached, and the costs of appropriate adaptive behaviour may be large, but strategy can develop on the basis of a predicted long-term unidirectional change in climate. It would be more challenging, however, if abrupt climate change implied a directional change in climate, as, for example, may well occur in northwest Europe following a collapse of the THC. There are two fundamental problems for society associated with such an outcome: first, the future changes in climate currently being anticipated and prepared for may reverse and, second, the probability of such a scenario occurring remains fundamentally unknown. The implications of both problems for climate policy and for decision making have not been researched. It is premature to argue therefore that abrupt climate change - in the sense referred to here - imposes unacceptable costs on society or the world economy, represents a catastrophic impact of climate change or constitutes a dangerous change in climate that should be avoided at all reasonable cost. We conclude by examining the implications of this contention for future research and policy formation. PMID:14558906

  18. The Velocity of Climate Change: Chris Field

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    of climate · Albedo: fraction of sunlight reflected ­ Grassland: ~20% ­ Deciduous forest: ~ 15% ­ Conifer forest: ~ 10% ­ Snow: ~90% Jackson et al. Env. Res. Let. 2008 #12;Early human climate changes? Doughty et

  19. Responding to the Consequences of Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning climate change, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate climate change and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the changing water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality climate change. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and sea ice; changes in runoff; rising sea level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of climate change is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and changes in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and changes in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of climate-induced changes in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, changes in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of climate change effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale changes in human behavior that affect the climate and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on climate, the many options for mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.

  20. The climate change consensus extends beyond climate scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton, J. S.; Perry-Hill, Rebecca; Huber, Matthew; Prokopy, Linda S.

    2015-09-01

    The existence of anthropogenic climate change remains a public controversy despite the consensus among climate scientists. The controversy may be fed by the existence of scientists from other disciplines publicly casting doubt on the validity of climate science. The extent to which non-climate scientists are skeptical of climate science has not been studied via direct survey. Here we report on a survey of biophysical scientists across disciplines at universities in the Big 10 Conference. Most respondents (93.6%) believe that mean temperatures have risen and most (91.9%) believe in an anthropogenic contribution to rising temperatures. Respondents strongly believe that climate science is credible (mean credibility score 6.67/7). Those who disagree about climate change disagree over basic facts (e.g., the effects of CO2 on climate) and have different cultural and political values. These results suggest that scientists who are climate change skeptics are outliers and that the majority of scientists surveyed believe in anthropogenic climate change and that climate science is credible and mature.

  1. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory data analysis the approaches on climate time series, trend analysis and extreme events analysis are explained. Tools to describe relations within the data sets and significance tests further corroborate this. Within the weekly exercises that have to be prepared at home, the students work with self-selected climate data sets and apply the learned methods. The presentation and discussion of intermediate results by the students is as much part of the exercises as the illustration of possible methodological procedures by the teacher using exemplary data sets. The total time expenditure of the course is 270 hours with 90 attendance hours. The remainder consists of individual studies, e.g., preparation of discussions and presentations, statistical data analysis, and scientific writing. Different forms of examination are applied including written or oral examination, scientific report, presentation and portfolio work.

  2. [Climate change and Kyoto protocol].

    PubMed

    Ergasti, G; Pippia, V; Murzilli, G; De Luca D'Alessandro, E

    2009-01-01

    Due to industrial revolution and the heavy use of fossil fuels, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dramatically during the last hundred years, and this has lead to an increase in mean global temperature. The environmental consequences of this are: the melting of the ice caps, an increase in mean sea-levels, catastrophic events such as floodings, hurricanes and earthquakes, changes to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, a growth in vectors and bacteria in water thus increasing the risk of infectious diseases and damage to agriculture. The toxic effects of the pollution on human health are both acute and chronic. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step in the campaign against climatic changes but it is not sufficient. A possible solution might be for the States which produce the most of pollution to adopt a better political stance for the environment and to use renewable resources for the production of energy. PMID:19798904

  3. Climate Cases: Learning about Student Conceptualizations of Global Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Benjamin P.

    2013-01-01

    The complex topic of global climate change continues to be a challenging yet important topic among science educators and researchers. This mixed methods study adds to the growing research by investigating student conceptions of climate change from a system theory perspective (Von Bertalanffy, 1968) by asking the question, "How do differences…

  4. How Does Drought Change With Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Large disparities among published studies have led to considerable confusion over the question of how drought is changing and how it is expected to change with global warming. As a result the IPCC AR5 assessment has watered down statements, and failed to carry out an adequate assessment of the sources of the discrepancies. Quite aside from the different definitions of drought related to meteorological (absence of precipitation), hydrological (lack of water in lakes and rivers), and agricultural (lack of soil moisture) drought, there are many indices that measure drought. Good homogeneous datasets are essential to assess changes over time, but are often not available. Simpler indices may miss effects of certain physical processes, such as evapotranspiration (ET). The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) has been much maligned but has considerable merit because it can accommodate different ET formulations (e.g., Thornthwaite vs Penman-Monteith), it can be self calibrating to accommodate different regions, and it carries out a crude moisture balance. This is in contrast to simpler indices, such as the Standardized Precipitation Index, which provides only a measure of moisture supply, or the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, which also includes potential (but not actual) ET. The largest source of drought variations is ENSO: during La Niña more rain falls on land while during El Niño most precipitation is over the Pacific Ocean, exposing more land to drought conditions. It is essential to account for interannual and inter-decadal variability in assessing changes in drought with climate change. Yet drought is one time on land when effects accumulate, with huge consequences for wild fire risk. It is important to ask the right questions in dealing with drought.

  5. Educating Local Audiences about Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, H. M.; Satterfield, D.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    This talk will focus on best practices for educating local audiences about climate science and the importance of providing the larger climate context during extreme weather events, when audiences are particularly interested in the climate connection. In their role as Station Scientists, local television meteorologists serve an important function in educating viewers about climate change and its' associated impacts. Through its' Climate Matters program, Climate Central works to support local television meteorologists in their outreach efforts. Launched in 2010 with support from the National Science Foundation, the program has grown into a network that includes more than 150 weathercasters from across the country. Climate Matters delivers information on climate at the regional and local level, providing ready-to-use, broadcast quality graphics and analyses that put climate change into a local context.

  6. Statistical principles for climate change studies

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.A.; Berliner, L.M.

    1999-02-01

    Predictions of climate change due to human-induced increases in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations have been an ongoing arena for debate and discussion. A major difficulty in early detection of changes resulting from anthropogenic forcing of the climate system is that the natural climate variability overwhelms the climate change signal in observed data. Statistical principles underlying fingerprint methods for detecting a climate change signal above natural climate variations and attributing the potential signal to specific anthropogenic forcings are discussed. The climate change problem is introduced through an exposition of statistical issues in modeling the climate signal and natural climate variability. The fingerprint approach is shown to be analogous to optimal hypothesis testing procedures from the classical statistics literature. The statistical formulation of the fingerprint scheme suggests new insights into the implementation of the techniques for climate change studies. In particular, the statistical testing ideas are exploited to introduce alternative procedures within the fingerprint model for attribution of climate change and to shed light on practical issues in applying the fingerprint detection strategies.

  7. Impact of Climate Change on Five Major Crop Fungal Diseases: Building Climatic Indicators of Infection Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launay, M.; Caubel, J.; Bourgeois, G.; Huard, F.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.

    2013-12-01

    The climate change will modify the severity and occurrence of fungal crop diseases, as the bioclimatic niches of pathogens will shift according to temperature and rainfall patterns evolution. Therefore it becomes necessary to integrate fungal disease pressure assessment into evaluation tools of crop suitability at the regional level. The aim of this study was to build two climatic indicators, the Average Infection Efficiency (AIE) and the Number of Infection Days (NID), quantifying the potential effect of climate on infection intensity and occurrence. A simple and continuous function was developed to calculate them, which is easy to parameterize from experimental measurements, usable on large spatial scales and adaptable to various pathogens. The evolution of those climatic indicators was then studied for five major fungal crop diseases in Northern France, the phoma of oilseed rape, the potato late blight, the downy mildew of grape, the leaf rust of wheat and the net blotch of barley. These indicators were applied on a multisite analysis in Northern France. They were calculated during the crop cycle when the host plant is able to be infected, over the period between 1970 and 2100 for the balanced scenario of climate change A1B. In late spring and summer, higher temperatures combined with lower humidity reduced the risk of infection of potato late blight and downy mildew of grape. In autumn and spring the balance between warmer temperatures and lower humidity determined the risk of infection on oilseed rape and cereals: increased risk in late autumn and early spring, and decreased risk in early autumn and mid-spring when low humidity becomes limiting. This statement highlighted the need for using between year scale for a relevant analysis of climate change impact on infection risk. The indicators we developed are thus useful for land management at regional scale and medium term, in particular for stakeholders who need decision support tools through which they could anticipate future trends and associated risks of crop diseases.

  8. Global Climate Change and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Ahdoot, Samantha; Pacheco, Susan E

    2015-11-01

    Rising global temperature is causing major physical, chemical, and ecological changes across the planet. There is wide consensus among scientific organizations and climatologists that these broad effects, known as climate change, are the result of contemporary human activity. Climate change poses threats to human health, safety, and security. Children are uniquely vulnerable to these threats. The effects of climate change on child health include physical and psychological sequelae of weather disasters, increased heat stress, decreased air quality, altered disease patterns of some climate-sensitive infections, and food, water, and nutrient insecurity in vulnerable regions. Prompt implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies will protect children against worsening of the problem and its associated health effects. This technical report reviews the nature of climate change and its associated child health effects and supports the recommendations in the accompanying policy statement on climate change and children's health. PMID:26504134

  9. Global climate change and international security

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, M.

    1991-01-01

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  10. Climate change threatens European conservation areas.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Miguel B; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar; Nogués-Bravo, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2011-05-01

    Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natura 2000 network in conserving a large proportion of European plant and terrestrial vertebrate species under climate change. We found that by 2080, 58?±?2.6% of the species would lose suitable climate in protected areas, whereas losses affected 63?±?2.1% of the species of European concern occurring in Natura 2000 areas. Protected areas are expected to retain climatic suitability for species better than unprotected areas (P?climate suitability for species no better and sometimes less effectively than unprotected areas. The risk is high that ongoing efforts to conserve Europe's biodiversity are jeopardized by climate change. New policies are required to avert this risk. PMID:21447141

  11. Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands

    E-print Network

    Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands The changing climate presents more suitable ­ including some from other continents and current climates more similar to those associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, silviculture and forest operations

  12. Agriculture, Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Bruce A. McCarl

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Change Happen Let's Avoid Climate Change Mitigation Effects Presented at Texas Recycling and Sustainability Summit San Antonio, Sept 29, 2004 #12;Climate Change has in part a human cause Source http Pacific +26 +47 #12;Climate Change Effects In Texas Regions Gainers East Texas Central Blacklands Rolling

  13. Climate Change and Agriculture: Effects and Adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document is a synthesis of science literature on the effects of climate change on agriculture and issues associated with agricultural adaptation to climate change. Information is presented on how long-term changes in air temperatures, precipitation, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide wi...

  14. Climate Change and the Nuclear Wedge Climate change frames the issue

    E-print Network

    Climate Change and the Nuclear Wedge Climate change frames the issue Scales of problem: Energy;Marty Hoffert, NYU Framing the Issue Carbon Climate impact Time scale to act is short ~50 years ~ 1 government can put climate costs on the utilities' balance sheets Energy Information Agency - http

  15. Covering Climate Change in Wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R. W.; Connolley, W.; Ramjohn, I.; Schulz, S.; Wickert, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    The first hit in an internet search for "global warming" using any of the three leading search engines (Google, Bing, or Yahoo) is the article "Global warming" in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The article garners about half a million page views per month. In addition to the site's visibility with the public, Wikipedia's articles on climate-related topics are widely referenced by policymakers, media outlets, and academia. Despite the site's strong influence on public understanding of science, few geoscientists actively participate in Wikipedia, with the result that the community that edits these articles is mostly composed of individuals with little or no expertise in the topic at hand. In this presentation we discuss how geoscientists can help shape public understanding of science by contributing to Wikipedia. Although Wikipedia prides itself on being "the encyclopedia that anyone can edit," the site has policies regarding contributions and behavior that can be pitfalls for newcomers. This presentation is intended as a guide for the geoscience community in contributing to information about climate change in this widely-used reference.

  16. The Struggle against "L'illettrisme" in France (Changes in Literacy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freynet, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the current situation (along with changes and specific developments over the past 13 years) in France regarding illiteracy. Describes the beginnings of the struggle against illiteracy and poverty; the organization of literacy work; the move from literacy to basic education; the future for literacy work in France; and the lack of…

  17. Climate change: the public health response.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

    2008-03-01

    There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18235058

  18. Aging, Climate Change, and Legacy Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Linda; Moody, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is a complex, long-term public health challenge. Older people are especially susceptible to certain climate change impacts, such as heat waves. We suggest that older people may be a resource for addressing climate change because of their concern for legacy—for leaving behind values, attitudes, and an intact world to their children and grandchildren. We review the theoretical basis for “legacy thinking” among older people. We offer suggestions for research on this phenomenon, and for action to strengthen the sense of legacy. At a time when older populations are growing, understanding and promoting legacy thinking may offer an important strategy for addressing climate change. PMID:22698047

  19. Climate Change: The Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18235058

  20. The psychological distance of climate change.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alexa; Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Avoiding dangerous climate change is one of the most urgent social risk issues we face today and understanding related public perceptions is critical to engaging the public with the major societal transformations required to combat climate change. Analyses of public perceptions have indicated that climate change is perceived as distant on a number of different dimensions. However, to date there has been no in-depth exploration of the psychological distance of climate change. This study uses a nationally representative British sample in order to systematically explore and characterize each of the four theorized dimensions of psychological distance--temporal, social, and geographical distance, and uncertainty--in relation to climate change. We examine how each of these different aspects of psychological distance relate to each other as well as to concerns about climate change and sustainable behavior intentions. Results indicate that climate change is both psychologically distant and proximal in relation to different dimensions. Lower psychological distance was generally associated with higher levels of concern, although perceived impacts on developing countries, as an indicator of social distance, was also significantly related to preparedness to act on climate change. Our findings clearly point to the utility of risk communication techniques designed to reduce psychological distance. However, highlighting the potentially very serious distant impacts of climate change may also be useful in promoting sustainable behavior, even among those already concerned. PMID:21992607

  1. Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Under a NASA grant, Mathematical and Geospatial Pathways to Climate Change Education, students at California State University, Northridge integrated Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, satellite data technologies, and climate modelling into the study of global climate change under a Pathway for studying the Mathematics of Climate Change (PMCC). The PMCC, which is an interdisciplinary option within the BS in Applied Mathematical Sciences, consists of courses offered by the departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Geography and is designed to prepare students for careers and Ph.D. programs in technical fields relevant to global climate change. Under this option students are exposed to the science, mathematics, and applications of climate change science through a variety of methods including hands-on experience with computer modeling and image processing software. In the Geography component of the program, ESRI's ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine mapping, spatial analysis and image processing software were used to explore NASA satellite data to examine the earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in areas that are affected by climate change or affect climate. These technology tools were incorporated into climate change and remote sensing courses to enhance students' knowledge and understanding of climate change through hands-on application of image processing techniques to NASA data. Several sets of exercises were developed with specific learning objectives in mind. These were (1) to increase student understanding of climate change and climate change processes; (2) to develop student skills in understanding, downloading and processing satellite data; (3) to teach remote sensing technology and GIS through applications to climate change; (4) to expose students to climate data and methods they can apply to solve real world problems and incorporate in future research projects. In the Math and Physics components of the course, students learned about atmospheric circulation with applications of the Lorenz model, explored the land-sea breeze problem with the Dynamics and Thermodynamics Circulation Model (DTDM), and developed simple radiative transfer models. Class projects explored the effects of varying the content of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere, as well as the properties of paleoclimates in atmospheric simulations using EdGCM. Initial assessment of student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with these activities, particularly about climate change, was measured. Pre- and post-course surveys provided student perspectives about the courses and their learning about remote sensing and climate change concepts. Student performance on the tutorials and course projects evaluated students' ability to learn and apply their knowledge about climate change and skills with remote sensing to assigned problems or proposed projects of their choice. Survey and performance data illustrated that the exercises were successful in meeting their intended learning objectives as well as opportunities for further refinement and expansion.

  2. Climate Change in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swick, R.; Ballagh, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    As a visualization tool for Earth Sciences data and imagery one big advantage of virtual globes is they give the user a tremendous amount of control over how the imagery is viewed. Features like zoom, orientation and tilt provide a great deal of flexibility for looking at the imagery in different ways. For the National Snow and Ice Data Center's entry into the Google Earth outreach gallery we chose data that would benefit from capabilities Google Earth provides. We looked for imagery that showed visually dramatic evidence of climate change. Included in the kmz are repeat photographs of glaciers in Alaska taken several decades apart, an animation of the last 29 years of the Arctic sea ice minimum, and an animation of the 2002 break-up of the Larsen B ice shelf in Antarctica.

  3. Chemistry implications of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, C.S.

    1997-05-01

    Since preindustrial times, the concentrations of a number of key greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and the nitric oxides (N{sub 2}O) have increased. Additionally, the concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols have also increased during the same time period. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are expected to increase temperature, while the aerosols tend to have a net cooling effect. Taking both of these effects into account, the current best scientific estimate is that the global average surface temperature is expected to increase by 2{degrees}C between the years 1990 to 2100. A climate change if this magnitude will both directly and indirectly impact atmospheric chemistry. For example, many important tropospheric reactions have a temperature dependence (either Arrhenius or otherwise). Thus, if temperature increase, reaction rates will also increase.

  4. Climate change: The IPCC scientific assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.T.; Jenkins, G.J.; Ephraums, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Book review of the intergovernmental panel on climate change report on global warming and the greenhouse effect. Covers the scientific basis for knowledge of the future climate. Presents chemistry of greenhouse gases and mathematical modelling of the climate system. The book is primarily for government policy makers.

  5. Fostering Hope in Climate Change Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swim, Janet K.; Fraser, John

    2013-01-01

    Climate Change is a complex set of issues with large social and ecological risks. Addressing it requires an attentive and climate literate population capable of making informed decisions. Informal science educators are well-positioned to teach climate science and motivate engagement, but many have resisted the topic because of self-doubt about…

  6. Climate Change and Coastal Eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    The world's climate has changed and human activities will continue to contribute to the acceleration of greenhouse gases and temperature rise. The major drivers of these changes are increased temperature, altered hydrological cycles and shifts in wind patterns that might alter coastal currents. Increasing temperatures alone have the potential to strengthen pycnoclines in estuarine and coastal waters, but lower surface salinity (e.g., from increased freshwater runoff) would be more of a factor in stratifying the water column. The combination of increased nutrient loads (from human activities) and increased freshwater discharge (from GCC) will aggravate the already high loads of nutrients from the Mississippi River to the northern Gulf of Mexico, strengthen stratification (all other factors remaining the same), and worsen the hypoxia situation. Reduced precipitation, on the other hand, would lower the amount of nutrients and water reaching the coastal zone and, perhaps, lead to oligotrophication and reduced fisheries productivity, or perhaps alleviate hypoxia. The increase or decrease in flow (whichever occurs), flux of nutrients and water temperature are likely to have important, but as yet not clearly identifiable, influences on hypoxia. In anticipation of the negative effects of global change, nutrient loadings to coastal waters need to be reduced now, so that further water quality degradation is prevented.

  7. What can present climate models tell us about climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, R. E.

    2003-04-01

    Climate models are evaluated in terms of their ability to describe the past climatic changes. Past climatic trends are inferred from fitting a truncated Taylor series to the observational record and an ensemble of downscaled results from climate models. Analytical expressions are derived for the warming rates associated with long-term temperature trends using simple calculus. Different trend models are compared, and a third-order polynomial gives the best description of the past winter warming over southwestern Scandinavia. The coefficients from the regression analysis are used in an objective comparison of the past climatic evolution in the models and the observations. Comparisons between the temperature trends from observations and the output from an ensemble of various climate models suggest that single climate model scenarios do not provide a reliable description of the climatic evolution. Ensembles of state-of-the-art climate models, on the other hand, capture the main features of the past climatic evolution. However, there have been an interval with pronounced local winter warming over Scandinavia in the past which is not reproduced by the majority of climate models. It is difficult to say whether this accelerated warming event was part of natural decadal variations or induced by external factors. The climate models may not yet able to predict similar local episodes for the future if they are related to events unaccounted for, such as solar activity or volcanism.

  8. Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

    2006-12-01

    Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

  9. Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R.; Dixon, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

  10. Applied Climate-Change Analysis: The Climate Wizard Tool

    PubMed Central

    Girvetz, Evan H.; Zganjar, Chris; Raber, George T.; Maurer, Edwin P.; Kareiva, Peter; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the message of “global climate change” is catalyzing international action, it is local and regional changes that directly affect people and ecosystems and are of immediate concern to scientists, managers, and policy makers. A major barrier preventing informed climate-change adaptation planning is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting climate-change information. To address this problem, we developed a powerful, yet easy to use, web-based tool called Climate Wizard (http://ClimateWizard.org) that provides non-climate specialists with simple analyses and innovative graphical depictions for conveying how climate has and is projected to change within specific geographic areas throughout the world. Methodology/Principal Findings To demonstrate the Climate Wizard, we explored historic trends and future departures (anomalies) in temperature and precipitation globally, and within specific latitudinal zones and countries. We found the greatest temperature increases during 1951–2002 occurred in northern hemisphere countries (especially during January–April), but the latitude of greatest temperature change varied throughout the year, sinusoidally ranging from approximately 50°N during February-March to 10°N during August-September. Precipitation decreases occurred most commonly in countries between 0–20°N, and increases mostly occurred outside of this latitudinal region. Similarly, a quantile ensemble analysis based on projections from 16 General Circulation Models (GCMs) for 2070–2099 identified the median projected change within countries, which showed both latitudinal and regional patterns in projected temperature and precipitation change. Conclusions/Significance The results of these analyses are consistent with those reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, but at the same time, they provide examples of how Climate Wizard can be used to explore regionally- and temporally-specific analyses of climate change. Moreover, Climate Wizard is not a static product, but rather a data analysis framework designed to be used for climate change impact and adaption planning, which can be expanded to include other information, such as downscaled future projections of hydrology, soil moisture, wildfire, vegetation, marine conditions, disease, and agricultural productivity. PMID:20016827

  11. Using Web GIS "Climate" for Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Shulgina, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    A work is devoted to the application of an information-computational Web GIS "Climate" developed by joint team of the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS and Tomsk State University to raise awareness about current and future climate change as a basis for further adaptation. Web-GIS "Climate» (http://climate.scert.ru/) based on modern concepts of Web 2.0 provides opportunities to study regional climate change and its consequences by providing access to climate and weather models, a large set of geophysical data and means of processing and visualization. Also, the system is used for the joint development of software applications by distributed research teams, research based on these applications and undergraduate and graduate students training. In addition, the system capabilities allow creating information resources to raise public awareness about climate change, its causes and consequences, which is a necessary step for the subsequent adaptation to these changes. Basic information course on climate change is placed in the public domain and is aimed at local population. Basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are set out and illustrated in accessible language. Particular attention is paid to regional climate changes. In addition to the information part, the course also includes a selection of links to popular science network resources on current issues in Earth Sciences and a number of practical tasks to consolidate the material. These tasks are performed for a particular territory. Within the tasks users need to analyze the prepared within the "Climate" map layers and answer questions of direct interest to the public: "How did the minimum value of winter temperatures change in your area?", "What are the dynamics of maximum summer temperatures?", etc. Carrying out the analysis of the dynamics of climate change contributes to a better understanding of climate processes and further adaptation. Passing this course raises awareness of the general public, as well as prepares the user for subsequent registration in the system and work with its tools in conducting independent research. This work is partially supported by SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grants 13-05-12034 and 14-05-00502.

  12. Impacts of climate change on avian populations.

    PubMed

    Jenouvrier, Stephanie

    2013-07-01

    This review focuses on the impacts of climate change on population dynamics. I introduce the MUP (Measuring, Understanding, and Predicting) approach, which provides a general framework where an enhanced understanding of climate-population processes, along with improved long-term data, are merged into coherent projections of future population responses to climate change. This approach can be applied to any species, but this review illustrates its benefit using birds as examples. Birds are one of the best-studied groups and a large number of studies have detected climate impacts on vital rates (i.e., life history traits, such as survival, maturation, or breeding, affecting changes in population size and composition) and population abundance. These studies reveal multifaceted effects of climate with direct, indirect, time-lagged, and nonlinear effects. However, few studies integrate these effects into a climate-dependent population model to understand the respective role of climate variables and their components (mean state, variability, extreme) on population dynamics. To quantify how populations cope with climate change impacts, I introduce a new universal variable: the 'population robustness to climate change.' The comparison of such robustness, along with prospective and retrospective analysis may help to identify the major climate threats and characteristics of threatened avian species. Finally, studies projecting avian population responses to future climate change predicted by IPCC-class climate models are rare. Population projections hinge on selecting a multiclimate model ensemble at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales and integrating both radiative forcing and internal variability in climate with fully specified uncertainties in both demographic and climate processes. PMID:23505016

  13. Low flows in France and their relationship to large scale climate indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntoli, I.; Renard, B.; Vidal, J.-P.; Bard, A.

    2012-04-01

    This study explores the relationship between low flows in France and large scale climate variability. To this aim, a national low flows reference network of near-natural catchments called R2SE was set up. It consists of 220 French gauging stations suited to the monitoring of low flow evolution in France. Daily streamflow records for the period 1968-2008 were used to detect trends in several drought indices: three severity indices (mean annual flow, annual minimum flow and volume deficit) and three timing indices (drought start, center and end). In addition to testing for trend with respect to time, four climate indices were used as covariates: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the frequency of two Weather Patterns corresponding to circulation types associated to wet (WP2) and dry (WP8) conditions over France. Due to their specific dynamics, NAO and WPs were also analyzed seasonally. Results first show a consistent increase of drought severity in southern France with respect to time, NAO and AMO. Additionally, significant relationships with WPs are found throughout France, with the exception of the Mediterranean coast. Timing indices appear to be less related to large scale climate indices, whereas some evidence of a negative association with time is found (i.e. an earlier start of the annual low flow period). Seasonal climate indices appear to have stronger links with low flow indices than their annual counterparts. The summer (JJA) NAO shows a strong link with severity indices in the northern half of France. This link is found again for the winter (DJF) WP2. Lastly, significant links are detected between timing indices and seasonal WP8, while these links could not be detected at the annual scale. In order to assess the robustness of the above relationships, a subset of 28 stations with a longer record period is studied on three different periods: 1948-1988, 1968-2008, and on the whole period 1948-2008. Importantly, trends with respect to time clearly lack robustness: trends of opposite sign are found in the first and second period, and no compelling trends are found in the whole period 1948-2008. Conversely, the relationship between low flow indices and climate indices remain stable across all three time periods. The above result demonstrates that time cannot be used beyond purely descriptive purposes. In particular, this lack of stability precludes the use of time as a covariate for forecasting purposes: extrapolating a temporal trend in the future could lead to misleading predictions. On the other hand, the stability of the relationships between low flow and climate indices provides confidence that these relationships result from physical mechanisms linking atmospheric circulation and surface hydrology. Moreover, it paves the way for useful seasonal forecasting applications. As an illustration, information about drought severity could be inferred several months ahead from either a forecasted summer NAO or more directly from the WP2 frequency observed during the previous winter.

  14. Hybrid zones: windows on climate change.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Scott A; Larson, Erica L; Harrison, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Defining the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on biodiversity and species distributions is currently a high priority. Niche models focus primarily on predicted changes in abiotic factors; however, species interactions and adaptive evolution will impact the ability of species to persist in the face of changing climate. Our review focuses on the use of hybrid zones to monitor responses of species to contemporary climate change. Monitoring hybrid zones provides insight into how range boundaries shift in response to climate change by illuminating the combined effects of species interactions and physiological sensitivity. At the same time, the semipermeable nature of species boundaries allows us to document adaptive introgression of alleles associated with response to climate change. PMID:25982153

  15. Emperor penguins and climate change.

    PubMed

    Barbraud, C; Weimerskirch, H

    2001-05-10

    Variations in ocean-atmosphere coupling over time in the Southern Ocean have dominant effects on sea-ice extent and ecosystem structure, but the ultimate consequences of such environmental changes for large marine predators cannot be accurately predicted because of the absence of long-term data series on key demographic parameters. Here, we use the longest time series available on demographic parameters of an Antarctic large predator breeding on fast ice and relying on food resources from the Southern Ocean. We show that over the past 50 years, the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) in Terre Adélie has declined by 50% because of a decrease in adult survival during the late 1970s. At this time there was a prolonged abnormally warm period with reduced sea-ice extent. Mortality rates increased when warm sea-surface temperatures occurred in the foraging area and when annual sea-ice extent was reduced, and were higher for males than for females. In contrast with survival, emperor penguins hatched fewer eggs when winter sea-ice was extended. These results indicate strong and contrasting effects of large-scale oceanographic processes and sea-ice extent on the demography of emperor penguins, and their potential high susceptibility to climate change. PMID:11346792

  16. The Status of Mars Climate Change Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have reviewed the evidence that the climate of Mars has changed throughout its history. In this paper, the discussion focuses on where we stand in terms of modeling these climate changes. For convenience, three distinct types of climate regimes are considered: very early in the planet's history (more than 3.5 Ga), when warm wet conditions are thought to have prevailed; the bulk of the planet's history (3.5-1 Ga), during which episodic ocean formation has been suggested; and relatively recently in the planet's history (less than 1 Ga), when orbitally induced climate change is thought to have occurred.

  17. Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback.

    PubMed

    Schuur, E A G; McGuire, A D; Schädel, C; Grosse, G; Harden, J W; Hayes, D J; Hugelius, G; Koven, C D; Kuhry, P; Lawrence, D M; Natali, S M; Olefeldt, D; Romanovsky, V E; Schaefer, K; Turetsky, M R; Treat, C C; Vonk, J E

    2015-04-01

    Large quantities of organic carbon are stored in frozen soils (permafrost) within Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. A warming climate can induce environmental changes that accelerate the microbial breakdown of organic carbon and the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. This feedback can accelerate climate change, but the magnitude and timing of greenhouse gas emission from these regions and their impact on climate change remain uncertain. Here we find that current evidence suggests a gradual and prolonged release of greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate and present a research strategy with which to target poorly understood aspects of permafrost carbon dynamics. PMID:25855454

  18. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  19. Extreme climatic events and their evolution under changing climatic conditions

    E-print Network

    that, with the exception of earthquakes, climate-related hazards take the heaviest toll on human life 11. E-mail address: Martin.Beniston@unifr.ch (M. Beniston). Global and Planetary Change 44 (2004) 1Q resulting from earthquakes, but more than 170 events related to climatic extremes, in particular windstorms

  20. Global climate change and US agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

  1. Water Vapor Feedbacks to Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    1999-01-01

    The response of water vapor to climate change is investigated through a series of model studies with varying latitudinal temperature gradients, mean temperatures, and ultimately, actual climate change configurations. Questions to be addressed include: what role does varying convection have in water vapor feedback; do Hadley Circulation differences result in differences in water vapor in the upper troposphere; and, does increased eddy energy result in greater eddy vertical transport of water vapor in varying climate regimes?

  2. Uncertain Outcomes and Climate Change Policy

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Focusing on tail effects, I incorporate distributions for temperature change and its economic impact in an analysis of climate change policy. I estimate the fraction of consumption w_(_ ) that society would be willing to ...

  3. Uncertain outcomes and climate change policy

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    I incorporate distributions for temperature change and its economic impact in an analysis of climate change policy. As a measure of willingness to pay (WTP), I estimate the fraction of consumption w[superscript ?](?) that ...

  4. Uncertain Outcomes and Climate Change Policy

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Focusing on tail effects, I incorporate distributions for temperature change and its economic impact in an analysis of climate change policy. I estimate the fraction of consumption w*(?) that society would be willing to ...

  5. Remarks in the National Assembly of France The European Climate Foundation kindly helped arrange a discussion about global climate

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    Convenient Falsehood: Global Warming Is a Hoax*g James HansenJames Hansen 12 May 2010y Discussion, French a discussion about global climate change at the French National Assembly while I was in Paris last week: Climategate. Matters used in the past year to discredit climate science and reduce concern about global

  6. *Reprinted from Climate change policy in Brazil

    E-print Network

    *Reprinted from Climate change policy in Brazil and Mexico: Results from the MIT EPPA model: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;Climate change policy in Brazil and Mexico School of Economics, Fundacao Getulio Vargas, Sao Paulo, Brazil a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o

  7. SPATIAL CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Earth Institute at Columbia University, throughSPATIAL CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW OF DATA, METHODS, AND ISSUES AUGUST 2014: A Review of Data, Methods, and Issues i SPATIAL CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS: A REVIEW OF DATA

  8. Climate Change Indicators for the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s publishes the Climate Change Indicators for the United States report to communicate information about the science and impacts of climate change, track trends in environmental quality, and inform de¬cision-making. This report presents a set of key indicators to help readers ...

  9. Singapore Students' Misconceptions of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an important theme in the investigation of human-environment interactions in geographic education. This study explored the nature of students' understanding of concepts and processes related to climate change. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 27 Secondary 3 (Grade 9) students from Singapore. The data…

  10. Harnessing Homophily to Improve Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Plate, Richard R.; Adams, Damian C.; Wojcik, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    The Cooperative Extension Service (Extension) in the United States is well positioned to educate the public, particularly farmers and foresters, about climate change and to encourage responsible adoption of adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, the climate change attitudes and perceptions of Extension professionals have limited…

  11. 10 Facts on Climate Change and Health

    MedlinePLUS

    10 facts on climate change and health Next UNEP/Still Pictures Previous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next Over ... more heat in the lower atmosphere. The resulting changes in the global climate bring a range of risks to health, from ...

  12. The Psychological Impacts of Global Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Thomas J.; Clayton, Susan

    2011-01-01

    An appreciation of the psychological impacts of global climate change entails recognizing the complexity and multiple meanings associated with climate change; situating impacts within other social, technological, and ecological transitions; and recognizing mediators and moderators of impacts. This article describes three classes of psychological…

  13. Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services

    E-print Network

    of human impact on our planet has been increasing decade after decade. The worldImpacts of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services June 23, 2015 Venue://www.eventi.polimi.it/#climate_change Humanity is called to cope with unprecedented challenges. The scale

  14. Chloe Adelmann Climate Change VS. Smog

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Chloe Adelmann ATOC 3500 3/13/11 Climate Change VS. Smog The Story California Dairy Farmer, John to generate the electricity contributes to smog. The Federal air quality regulations in California over their limits, making the cut back of smog more important than reduction of climate change. NOx is associated

  15. The physical science behind climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William; Collins, William; Colman, Robert; Haywood, James; Manning, Martin R.; Mote, Philip

    2007-07-01

    For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists, like all good scientists, want to ensure that the highest standards of proof apply to everything they discover. And the evidence of change has mounted as climate records have grown longer, as our understanding of the climate system has improved and as climate models have become ever more reliable. Over the past 20 years, evidence that humans are affecting the climate has accumulated inexorably, and with it has come ever greater certainty across the scientific community in the reality of recent climate change and the potential for much greater change in the future. This increased certainty is starkly reflected in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the fourth in a series of assessments of the state of knowledge on the topic, written and reviewed by hundreds of scientists worldwide. The panel released a condensed version of the first part of the report, on the physical science basis of climate change, in February. Called the 'Summary for Policymakers,' it delivered to policymakers and ordinary people alike an unambiguous message: scientists are more confident than ever that humans have interfered with the climate and that further human-induced climate change is on the way. Although the report finds that some of these further changes are now inevitable, its analysis also confirms that the future, particularly in the longer term, remains largely in our hands--the magnitude of expected change depends on what humans choose to do about greenhouse gas emissions. The physical science assessment focuses on four topics: drivers of climate change, changes observed in the climate system, understanding cause-and-effect relationships, and projection of future changes. Important advances in research into all these areas have occurred since the IPCC assessment in 2001. In the pages that follow, we lay out the key findings that document the extent of change and that point to the unavoidable conclusion that human activity is driving it.

  16. Constraining uncertainties in climate models using climate change detection techniques

    E-print Network

    Forest, Chris Eliot.; Allen, Myles R.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

    Different atmosphere-ocean general circulation models produce significantly different projections of climate change in response to increases in greenhouse gases and aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere. The main reasons ...

  17. Frontiers in climate change-disease research

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Jason R.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Paull, Sara H.; Raffel, Thomas R.; Ruiz-Moreno, Diego; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    The notion that climate change will generally increase human and wildlife diseases has garnered considerable public attention, but remains controversial and seems inconsistent with the expectation that climate change will also cause parasite extinctions. In this review, we highlight the frontiers in climate change–infectious disease research by reviewing knowledge gaps that make this controversy difficult to resolve. We suggest that forecasts of climate-change impacts on disease can be improved by more interdisciplinary collaborations, better linking of data and models, addressing confounding variables and context dependencies, and applying metabolic theory to host–parasite systems with consideration of community-level interactions and functional traits. Finally, although we emphasize host–parasite interactions, we also highlight the applicability of these points to climate-change effects on species interactions in general. PMID:21481487

  18. Mesocosms Reveal Ecological Surprises from Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Fordham, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species’ extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al. provide the first direct evidence that future global warming can increase extinction risk for temperate ectotherms. Using aquatic mesocosms, Yvon-Durocher et al. show that human-induced climate change could, in some cases, actually enhance the diversity of local communities, increasing productivity. Blending these theoretical and empirical results with computational models will improve forecasts of biodiversity loss and altered ecosystem processes due to climate change. PMID:26680131

  19. Mesocosms Reveal Ecological Surprises from Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Fordham, Damien A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al. provide the first direct evidence that future global warming can increase extinction risk for temperate ectotherms. Using aquatic mesocosms, Yvon-Durocher et al. show that human-induced climate change could, in some cases, actually enhance the diversity of local communities, increasing productivity. Blending these theoretical and empirical results with computational models will improve forecasts of biodiversity loss and altered ecosystem processes due to climate change. PMID:26680131

  20. Changes in University Governance in France and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffo, Stefano; Dubois, Pierre; Moscati, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The transformation of higher education systems under the pressure of new needs required by the "society of knowledge" in France and Italy has had a deep effect on the relationship between state and university, and therefore a direct impact on university governance. This article sums up the main results of a research carried out on university…

  1. Human Perceptions of Climate Change Varun Dutt and Cleotilde Gonzalez*

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    Integrated Climate Economy model (DICE)-1992. The interactive tool allows participants to make decisions1 Human Perceptions of Climate Change Varun Dutt and Cleotilde Gonzalez* Dynamic Decision Making. Keywords: Dynamic decision making, climate change, stocks and flows INTRODUCTION Earth's climate

  2. Climate Change: Negotiated Transactions forClimate Change: Negotiated Transactions for WaterWater--Energy ResilienceEnergy Resilience

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Climate Change: Negotiated Transactions forClimate Change: Negotiated Transactions for WaterWater · Predictable access and costs for water & power #12;Climate ChangeClimate Change · Increased temp. ­ effects of climate on water transactionEffect of climate on water transaction prices in western U.S.prices in western

  3. Connectivity planning to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Tristan A; Lawler, Joshua J; McRae, Brad H; Pierce, D John; Krosby, Meade B; Kavanagh, Darren M; Singleton, Peter H; Tewksbury, Joshua J

    2013-04-01

    As the climate changes, human land use may impede species from tracking areas with suitable climates. Maintaining connectivity between areas of different temperatures could allow organisms to move along temperature gradients and allow species to continue to occupy the same temperature space as the climate warms. We used a coarse-filter approach to identify broad corridors for movement between areas where human influence is low while simultaneously routing the corridors along present-day spatial gradients of temperature. We modified a cost-distance algorithm to model these corridors and tested the model with data on current land-use and climate patterns in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The resulting maps identified a network of patches and corridors across which species may move as climates change. The corridors are likely to be robust to uncertainty in the magnitude and direction of future climate change because they are derived from gradients and land-use patterns. The assumptions we applied in our model simplified the stability of temperature gradients and species responses to climate change and land use, but the model is flexible enough to be tailored to specific regions by incorporating other climate variables or movement costs. When used at appropriate resolutions, our approach may be of value to local, regional, and continental conservation initiatives seeking to promote species movements in a changing climate. Planificación de Conectividad para Atender el Cambio Climático. PMID:23410037

  4. Canadian vegetation response to climate and projected climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The response of Canadian vegetation to climate and climatic change was modeled at three organizational levels of the vegetation mosaic. Snowpack, degree-days, minimum temperature, soil moisture deficit, and actual evapotranspiration are components of climate that physiologically constrain distribution of dominant plant life-forms and species. The rule-based Canadian Climate-Vegetation Model (CCVM) predicts the response of vegetation formations to climate. The CCVM simulation for current climatic conditions is more accurate and detailed than those of other equilibrium models. Ecological response surfaces predict the probability of dominance for eight boreal tree species in Canada with success. Variation in the probability of dominance is related to the species' individualistic response to climatic constraints within different airmass regions. A boreal forest-type classification shows a high degree of geographic correspondence with observed forest-types. Under two doubled-CO[sub 2] climatic scenarios, CCVM predicts a reduction in arctic tundra and subarctic woodland, a northward shift in the distribution of boreal evergreen forest, and an expansion of temperate forest, boreal summergreen woodland, and two prairie formations. The response surfaces predict significant changes in species dominance under both climatic scenarios. Species exhibit an individualistic responses to climatic change. Most of the boreal forest-types derived from future probabilities of dominance are analogous to extant forest-types, but fewer types are distinguished. Geographic correspondence in the simulated boreal forest regions under both the current and projected climates provides a link between the results of the two modelling approaches. Even with constraints, the realism of the vegetation scenarios in this study are arguably the most reliable and comprehensive predictions for Canada.

  5. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency Agreements. EPA has provided GLRI funding for a diverse suite of climate change-related projects including Great Lakes climate change research and modeling; adaptation plan development and implementation; ecosystem vulnerability assessments; outreach and education programs; habitat restoration and protection projects that will increase ecosystem resilience; and other projects that address climate change impacts. This presentation will discuss how the GLRI is helping to improve the climate change science needed to support the Action Plan. It will further describe how the GLRI is helping coordinate climate change efforts among Great Lakes states, tribes, Federal agencies, and other stakeholders. Finally, it will discuss how the GLRI is facilitating adaptation planning by our Great Lakes partners. The draft Lake Superior Ecosystem Climate Change Adaptation Plan serves as a case study for an integrated, collaborative, and coordinated climate change effort.

  6. Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.

  7. Global climate change and children's health.

    PubMed

    Shea, Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to this change. PMID:17967923

  8. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  9. Man-Made Climatic Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberg, Helmut E.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews environmental studies which show that national climatic fluctuations vary over a wide range. Solar radiation, earth temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric gases and suspended particulates are discussed in relation to urban and extraurban effects. Local weather modifications and attempts at climate control by man seem to have substantial…

  10. Natural and anthropogenic climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Portman, D.A.; Gutowski, W.J. Jr.; Wang, W.C.; Iacono, M.J.; Yang, S.

    1992-08-31

    This final report provides a broad overview of program accomplishments. Brief descriptions are provided for accomplishments with respect to intercomparisions and improvements in general circulation models, analysis of climatic data and climate model statistics, and accomplishments in the China Meteorology coordination.

  11. Abrupt Climate Change Studies! Introduction

    E-print Network

    Biasutti, Michela

    temperature over most of the Arctic! · Reduced sea ice cover! · Warming of permafrost! · Melting of Greenland with the global climate system! Land ice cover during the Holocene! Reconstructing late Holocene climate or precipitation) that takes place over a few decades or less, persists for at least a few decades, and causes

  12. Same science, differing policies : the saga of global climate change

    E-print Network

    Skolnikoff, Eugene B.

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of the economic and political interests influencing the progress of climate negotiation. The primary focus is on the U.S., France, Germany, U.K., Belgium, Netherlands, and the ...

  13. Ecological response to global climatic change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, G.P.; Butler, D.R.; Walsh, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Climate change and ecological change go hand in hand. Because we value our ecological environment, any change has the potential to be a problem. Geographers have been drawn to this challenge, and have been successful in addressing it, because the primary ecological response to climate changes in the past — the waxing and waning of the great ice sheets over the past 2 million years – was the changing geographic range of the biota. Plants and animals changed their location. Geographers have been deeply involved in documenting the changing biota of the past, and today we are called upon to help assess the possible responses to ongoing and future climatic change and, thus, their impacts. Assessing the potential responses is important for policy makers to judge the outcomes of action or inaction and also sets the stage for preparation for and mitigation of change.

  14. Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate

  15. Lakes as sentinels of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Rita; O’Reilly, Catherine M.; Zagarese, Horacio; Baines, Stephen B.; Hessen, Dag O.; Keller, Wendel; Livingstone, David M.; Sommaruga, Ruben; Straile, Dietmar; Van Donk, Ellen; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Winder, Monika

    2010-01-01

    While there is a general sense that lakes can act as sentinels of climate change, their efficacy has not been thoroughly analyzed. We identified the key response variables within a lake that act as indicators of the effects of climate change on both the lake and the catchment. These variables reflect a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological responses to climate. However, the efficacy of the different indicators is affected by regional response to climate change, characteristics of the catchment, and lake mixing regimes. Thus, particular indicators or combinations of indicators are more effective for different lake types and geographic regions. The extraction of climate signals can be further complicated by the influence of other environmental changes, such as eutrophication or acidification, and the equivalent reverse phenomena, in addition to other land-use influences. In many cases, however, confounding factors can be addressed through analytical tools such as detrending or filtering. Lakes are effective sentinels for climate change because they are sensitive to climate, respond rapidly to change, and integrate information about changes in the catchment. PMID:20396409

  16. How does climate change cause extinction?

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Abigail E.; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E.; Fisher-Reid, M. Caitlin; Hua, Xia; Karanewsky, Caitlin J.; Yeong Ryu, Hae; Sbeglia, Gena C.; Spagnolo, Fabrizio; Waldron, John B.; Warsi, Omar; Wiens, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies. PMID:23075836

  17. Conservation and adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Cassandra

    2008-12-01

    The need to adapt to climate change has become increasingly apparent, and many believe the practice of biodiversity conservation will need to alter to face this challenge. Conservation organizations are eager to determine how they should adapt their practices to climate change. This involves asking the fundamental question of what adaptation to climate change means. Most studies on climate change and conservation, if they consider adaptation at all, assume it is equivalent to the ability of species to adapt naturally to climate change as stated in Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Adaptation, however, can refer to an array of activities that range from natural adaptation, at one end of the spectrum, to sustainability science in coupled human and natural systems at the other. Most conservation organizations deal with complex systems in which adaptation to climate change involves making decisions on priorities for biodiversity conservation in the face of dynamic risks and involving the public in these decisions. Discursive methods such as analytic deliberation are useful for integrating scientific knowledge with public perceptions and values, particularly when large uncertainties and risks are involved. The use of scenarios in conservation planning is a useful way to build shared understanding at the science-policy interface. Similarly, boundary organizations-organizations or institutions that bridge different scales or mediate the relationship between science and policy-could prove useful for managing the transdisciplinary nature of adaptation to climate change, providing communication and brokerage services and helping to build adaptive capacity. The fact that some nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are active across the areas of science, policy, and practice makes them well placed to fulfill this role in integrated assessments of biodiversity conservation and adaptation to climate change. PMID:18759775

  18. Tools for Teaching Climate Change Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maestas, A.M.; Jones, L.A.

    2005-03-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) develops public outreach materials and educational resources for schools. Studies prove that science education in rural and indigenous communities improves when educators integrate regional knowledge of climate and environmental issues into school curriculum and public outreach materials. In order to promote understanding of ACRF climate change studies, ACRF Education and Outreach has developed interactive kiosks about climate change for host communities close to the research sites. A kiosk for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) community was installed at the Iupiat Heritage Center in 2003, and a kiosk for the Tropical Western Pacific locales will be installed in 2005. The kiosks feature interviews with local community elders, regional agency officials, and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program scientists, which highlight both research and local observations of some aspects of environmental and climatic change in the Arctic and Pacific. The kiosks offer viewers a unique opportunity to learn about the environmental concerns and knowledge of respected community elders, and to also understand state-of-the-art climate research. An archive of interviews from the communities will also be distributed with supplemental lessons and activities to encourage teachers and students to compare and contrast climate change studies and oral history observations from two distinct locations. The U.S. Department of Energy's ACRF supports education and outreach efforts for communities and schools located near its sites. ACRF Education and Outreach has developed interactive kiosks at the request of the communities to provide an opportunity for the public to learn about climate change from both scientific and indigenous perspectives. Kiosks include interviews with ARM scientists and provide users with basic information about climate change studies as well as interviews with elders and community leaders discussing the impacts of climate change on land, sea, and other aspects of village life.

  19. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  20. The deep ocean under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems.

  1. In Brief: Action on climate change urged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-06-01

    The science academies of the G8 countries-along with those in China, India, Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa-on 10 June issued a joint statement urging leaders at July's G8 Summit in Japan to take action on climate change. The statement indicates, ``Responding to climate change requires both mitigation and adaptation to achieve a transition to a low carbon society and our global sustainability objectives.'' In the statement, the academies urge all nations, and particularly those participating in the summit, to take a series of actions to deal with climate change. The statement is available at http://www.nationalacademies.org/includes/climatechangestatement.pdf.

  2. Towards predictive understanding of regional climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shang-Ping; Deser, Clara; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Collins, Matthew; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hall, Alex; Hawkins, Ed; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Cassou, Christophe; Giannini, Alessandra; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Regional information on climate change is urgently needed but often deemed unreliable. To achieve credible regional climate projections, it is essential to understand underlying physical processes, reduce model biases and evaluate their impact on projections, and adequately account for internal variability. In the tropics, where atmospheric internal variability is small compared with the forced change, advancing our understanding of the coupling between long-term changes in upper-ocean temperature and the atmospheric circulation will help most to narrow the uncertainty. In the extratropics, relatively large internal variability introduces substantial uncertainty, while exacerbating risks associated with extreme events. Large ensemble simulations are essential to estimate the probabilistic distribution of climate change on regional scales. Regional models inherit atmospheric circulation uncertainty from global models and do not automatically solve the problem of regional climate change. We conclude that the current priority is to understand and reduce uncertainties on scales greater than 100 km to aid assessments at finer scales.

  3. Abrupt climate change and extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    There is a growing body of theoretical and empirical support for the concept of instabilities in the climate system, and indications that abrupt climate change may in some cases contribute to abrupt extinctions. Theoretical indications of instabilities can be found in a broad spectrum of climate models (energy balance models, a thermohaline model of deep-water circulation, atmospheric general circulation models, and coupled ocean-atmosphere models). Abrupt transitions can be of several types and affect the environment in different ways. There is increasing evidence for abrupt climate change in the geologic record and involves both interglacial-glacial scale transitions and the longer-term evolution of climate over the last 100 million years. Records from the Cenozoic clearly show that the long-term trend is characterized by numerous abrupt steps where the system appears to be rapidly moving to a new equilibrium state. The long-term trend probably is due to changes associated with plate tectonic processes, but the abrupt steps most likely reflect instabilities in the climate system as the slowly changing boundary conditions caused the climate to reach some threshold critical point. A more detailed analysis of abrupt steps comes from high-resolution studies of glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the Pleistocene. Comparison of climate transitions with the extinction record indicates that many climate and biotic transitions coincide. The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction is not a candidate for an extinction event due to instabilities in the climate system. It is quite possible that more detailed comparisons and analysis will indicate some flaws in the climate instability-extinction hypothesis, but at present it appears to be a viable candidate as an alternate mechanism for causing abrupt environmental changes and extinctions.

  4. Extreme Weather Events: Lessons for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, William H.

    2001-04-01

    To cope with coming climate change will require that we: (1) assess our future vulnerabilities; (2) mitigate our anthropogenic contributions; and (3) adapt where possible. Since our abilities in these three areas are limited, we must (4) accelerate our research and (5) step up our technology development across the board. Our task is made more daunting because climate and weather impact society largely through extremes, including: cycles of drought and flood, hurricanes, great winter storms, and myriad other hazards. This reality has two profound implications: (a) to forecast societal impacts of climate variability requires a predictive understanding of just how projected climate change will reflect/impact the number, intensity, path, and duration of extreme events. Such capability is not in hand. (b) by studying how societies worldwide build resilience to today's weather extremes, and by adopting best practices locally, everywhere, we can go a long way toward building global resilience with respect to future climate change.

  5. 7 CFR 2.74 - Director, Climate Change Program Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Director, Climate Change Program Office. 2.74 Section...Economist § 2.74 Director, Climate Change Program Office. (a) Delegations...Chief Economist to the Director, Climate Change Program Office: (1)...

  6. Changing feedbacks in the climate-biosphere system

    E-print Network

    Chapin, F Stuart; Randerson, James T; McGuire, A David; Foley, Jonathan A; Field, Christopher B

    2008-01-01

    to mitigate climate change Institute of Arctic Biology,Integrated regional changes in Arctic climate feedbacks:Arctic – latitude changes in plant functional types is uncertain, they presumably in response to climate

  7. The Implications of Global Climate Change for Mountain Gorilla Conservation

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    with the effects of climate change as human populations mayhuman communities will respond to climate change or its effects.human health in the region. For further discussion of the effects of climate change

  8. 68 FR 69430 - United States Climate Change Science Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-12-12

    ...Public Notice 4554] United States Climate Change Science Program ACTION: Request...the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC...basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts,...

  9. 73 FR 1222 - Human Impacts of Climate Change Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-01-07

    ...FRL-8514-3] Human Impacts of Climate Change Advisory Committee AGENCY: U...Protection Agency's Human Impacts of Climate Change Advisory Committee (HICCAC...ordered the interagency U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) to...

  10. 59 FR- Climate Change Action Plan; Regional Roundtables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-04-13

    ...Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office Climate Change Action Plan; Regional Roundtables...other interested parties on the Climate Change Action Plan, the Clinton Administration's...achieving this goal is known as the Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP), a...

  11. 61 FR 30593 - Climate and Global Change Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-06-17

    ...provide reliable predictions of climate change and associated regional implications...instructed otherwise. Atlantic Climate Change/World Ocean Circulation Experiment...levy@ogp.noaa.gov. Climate Change Data and...

  12. 72 FR 28545 - United States Climate Change Science Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-05-21

    ...STATE [Public Notice 5798] United States Climate Change Science Program The United States Climate Change Science Program requests expert review...volume of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment...

  13. 59 FR- NOAA Climate and Global Change Program, Program Announcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-05-13

    ...provide reliable predictions of climate change and associated regional implications...Woodward@omnet.com. Atlantic Climate Change--The goal of this project is...devoted to the early detection of climate change. Under this activity,...

  14. 68 FR 748 - United States Climate Change Science Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-01-07

    ...030102001-3001-01] United States Climate Change Science Program AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: The United States Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is announcing...document ``Strategic Plan for the Climate Change Science Program.'' The...

  15. 71 FR 17942 - United States Climate Change Science Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-04-07

    ...STATE [Public Notice 5369] United States Climate Change Science Program The United States Climate Change Science Program requests expert review of the Working Group I contribution (``Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science...

  16. 70 FR 3577 - United States Climate Change Science Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-01-25

    ...Public Notice 4961] United States Climate Change Science Program ACTION: Request...the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) ``Special Report on...and socio-economic aspects of climate change, the IPCC provides, on...

  17. 3 Nov 2014 Climate Change Science Institute 20142020 Strategic Plan

    E-print Network

    Introduction. The Earth's climate has changed radically over its history. Roughly 103 Nov 2014 1 Climate Change Science Institute 2014­2020 Strategic Plan Advancing the Knowledge of Climate Change and Understanding its Consequences

  18. Megaproject reclamation and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Rebecca C.; Robinson, Derek T.; Petrone, Rich

    2015-11-01

    Megaprojects such as oil sands mining require large-scale and long-term closure and reclamation plans. Yet these plans are created and approved without considering future climate and hydrological conditions, jeopardizing the sustainability of reclaimed landscapes.

  19. Identifying uncertainties in Arctic climate change projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Daniel L. R.; Keeley, Sarah P. E.; West, Alex; Ridley, Jeff; Hawkins, Ed; Hewitt, Helene T.

    2013-06-01

    Wide ranging climate changes are expected in the Arctic by the end of the 21st century, but projections of the size of these changes vary widely across current global climate models. This variation represents a large source of uncertainty in our understanding of the evolution of Arctic climate. Here we systematically quantify and assess the model uncertainty in Arctic climate changes in two CO2 doubling experiments: a multimodel ensemble (CMIP3) and an ensemble constructed using a single model (HadCM3) with multiple parameter perturbations (THC-QUMP). These two ensembles allow us to assess the contribution that both structural and parameter variations across models make to the total uncertainty and to begin to attribute sources of uncertainty in projected changes. We find that parameter uncertainty is an major source of uncertainty in certain aspects of Arctic climate. But also that uncertainties in the mean climate state in the 20th century, most notably in the northward Atlantic ocean heat transport and Arctic sea ice volume, are a significant source of uncertainty for projections of future Arctic change. We suggest that better observational constraints on these quantities will lead to significant improvements in the precision of projections of future Arctic climate change.

  20. Impactsof climate variability and change inthe Pacific Northwest

    E-print Network

    Keeton, William S.

    -term changes in climate? Humans have altered the composition of Earth's atmosphere to such an extentImpactsof climate variability and change inthe Pacific Northwest The JISAO Climate Impacts Group that climate itself appears to be changing. The consequences of a changing climate may be beneficial for some

  1. MSc Climate Change A cross-disciplinary degree

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    MSc Climate Change A cross-disciplinary degree www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/climate LONDON'S GLOBAL of climatic change and to develop adaptation strategies. The UCL MSc Climate Change provides rigorous scientific and vocational training for the next generation of climate change professionals. Students

  2. Advancing Climate Change and Impacts Science Through Climate Informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhardt, W.; Pouchard, L. C.; King, A. W.; Branstetter, M. L.; Kao, S.; Wang, D.

    2010-12-01

    This poster will outline the work to date on developing a climate informatics capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The central proposition of this effort is that the application of informatics and information science to the domain of climate change science is an essential means to bridge the realm of high performance computing (HPC) and domain science. The goal is to facilitate knowledge capture and the creation of new scientific insights. For example, a climate informatics capability will help with the understanding and use of model results in domain sciences that were not originally in the scope. From there, HPC can also benefit from feedback as the new approaches may lead to better parameterization in the models. In this poster we will summarize the challenges associated with climate change science that can benefit from the systematic application of informatics and we will highlight our work to date in creating the climate informatics capability to address these types of challenges. We have identified three areas that are particularly challenging in the context of climate change science: 1) integrating model and observational data across different spatial and temporal scales, 2) model linkages, i.e. climate models linked to other models such as hydrologic models, and 3) model diagnostics. Each of these has a methodological component and an informatics component. Our project under way at ORNL seeks to develop new approaches and tools in the context of linking climate change and water issues. We are basing our work on the following four use cases: 1) Evaluation/test of CCSM4 biases in hydrology (precipitation, soil water, runoff, river discharge) over the Rio Grande Basin. User: climate modeler. 2) Investigation of projected changes in hydrology of Rio Grande Basin using the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity Macroscale) Hydrologic Model. User: watershed hydrologist/modeler. 3) Impact of climate change on agricultural productivity of the Rio Grande Basin. User: climate impact scientist, agricultural economist. 4) Renegotiation of the 1944 “Treaty for the Utilization of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande”. User: A US State Department analyst or their counterpart in Mexico.

  3. Temperature-related mortality in France, a comparison between regions with different climates from the perspective of global warming.

    PubMed

    Laaidi, Mohamed; Laaidi, Karine; Besancenot, Jean-Pierre

    2006-11-01

    This paper aims to explain the results of an observational population study that was carried out between 1991 and 1995 in six regions (departments) in France. The study was to assess the relationship between temperature and mortality in a few areas of France that offer widely varying climatic conditions and lifestyles, to determine their thermal optimum, defined as a 3 degrees C temperature band with the lowest mortality rate in each area, and then to compare the mortality rates from this baseline band with temperatures above and below the baseline. The study period was selected because it did not include extreme cold or hot events such as a heatwave. Data on daily deaths from each department were first used to examine the entire population and then to examine men, women, various age groups and various causes of death (respiratory disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, other disease of the circulatory system, and all other causes excluding violent deaths). Mean temperatures were provided by the National Weather Service. The results depicted an asymmetrical V- or U-shaped relationship between mortality and temperature, with a thermal optimum lower for the elderly, and generally lower for women than for men except in Paris. The relationship was also different depending on the cause of death. In all cases, more evidence was collected showing that cold weather was more deadly than hot weather, and it would now be interesting to enlarge the study to include years with cold spells and heatwaves. Furthermore, the results obtained could be of great use in estimating weather-related mortality as a consequence of future climate-change scenarios. PMID:16847688

  4. Temperature-related mortality in France, a comparison between regions with different climates from the perspective of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laaidi, Mohamed; Laaidi, Karine; Besancenot, Jean-Pierre

    2006-11-01

    This paper aims to explain the results of an observational population study that was carried out between 1991 and 1995 in six regions (departments) in France. The study was to assess the relationship between temperature and mortality in a few areas of France that offer widely varying climatic conditions and lifestyles, to determine their thermal optimum, defined as a 3°C temperature band with the lowest mortality rate in each area, and then to compare the mortality rates from this baseline band with temperatures above and below the baseline. The study period was selected because it did not include extreme cold or hot events such as a heatwave. Data on daily deaths from each department were first used to examine the entire population and then to examine men, women, various age groups and various causes of death (respiratory disease, stroke, ischæmic heart disease, other disease of the circulatory system, and all other causes excluding violent deaths). Mean temperatures were provided by the National Weather Service. The results depicted an asymmetrical V- or U-shaped relationship between mortality and temperature, with a thermal optimum lower for the elderly, and generally lower for women than for men except in Paris. The relationship was also different depending on the cause of death. In all cases, more evidence was collected showing that cold weather was more deadly than hot weather, and it would now be interesting to enlarge the study to include years with cold spells and heatwaves. Furthermore, the results obtained could be of great use in estimating weather-related mortality as a consequence of future climate-change scenarios.

  5. Prediction of climate variability and projection of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Grassl, H.

    1996-12-31

    The years since 1985 have seen rapid progress in climate research. By the implementation of a new observing system in the Tropical Pacific Ocean combined with the development of adapted coupled ocean-atmosphere models the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) led to the breakthrough to physically-based climate predictions. For most of the tropics and partly extending to mid-latitudes, climate anomalies can now be predicted for the next season and in some places even for the next year. On the other hand, global coupled ocean-atmosphere-land models have recently approached natural climate variability on time-scales to several decades to such an extent, that these models, partly validated with data from the past, became useful for answering the following two questions: Has mankind already changed global climate? Is anthropogenic global climate change, in the coming century, surmounting at least all variability observed during the last 10,000 years? Both questions are answered by yes. For the first question, the observed patterns of warming and cooling with respect to geographical, seasonal and vertical dependence can only be explained by a combined action of global greenhouse gas increase, regional sulfate aerosol load and stratospheric ozone depletion. For the second, even low climate sensitivity and low economic growth, will lead, if no measures are taken, to a mean global warming of 1.0 C, thus surmounting the warmest phase of the holocene. Implications of these findings for the implementation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change will also be discussed.

  6. Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lonnie G.

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers serve as early indicators of climate change. Over the last 35 years, our research team has recovered ice-core records of climatic and environmental variations from the polar regions and from low-latitude high-elevation ice fields from 16 countries. The ongoing widespread melting of high-elevation glaciers and ice caps, particularly in low…

  7. A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    E-print Network

    Ford, Andrew

    A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning THE H. JOHN HEINZ III CENTER FOR SCIENCE, ECONOMICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Washington, D.C. 1 #12;Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction A Survey of Adaptation Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative Climate Resilient Communities A Survey of Adaptation Planning

  8. Global climate change in the instrumental period.

    PubMed

    Hulme, M; Jones, P D

    1994-01-01

    The instrumental period of climate history began in the 18th century with the commencement of routine weather observations at fixed sites. Estimates of global-mean climate (e.g. temperature and precipitation) were not possible, however, until the establishment of extensive observing networks midway through the 19th century. This paper reviews our knowledge of global climate change in the instrumental period. Time series of global-mean temperature and precipitation are examined and a comparison is made between two independent 30-year climatologies: 1931-1960 and 1961-1990. Examples are also provided of regional-scale climate changes. Such assessments are important for two reasons. First, they establish the variability of climate on the time-scale of decades, time-scales upon which it is reasonable to plan economic and socio-political activities. Second, and more specifically, they enable us to quantify the magnitude of global-mean climate change which has occurred over this period. Such detailed diagnostic climate information is a necessary, although not sufficient, prerequisite for the detection of global-scale warming which may have occurred due to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Some attention is given to explanations of the observed changes in global-mean climate. PMID:15091747

  9. Diagnosis Earth: The Climate Change Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderegg, William R. L.

    2010-01-01

    In the scrum of popular and political discourse on global warming, the scholarship of climate science is often left sitting on the sideline. Yet understanding the science and the scientists presents the best chance of developing an informed opinion about climate change. Confusion about the science, misunderstanding of risk assessment and…

  10. Climate Change Elementary School Level: K-6

    E-print Network

    Stanier, Charlie

    Roger Braithwaite. #12;Sea level rise with melting ice caps Courtesy of the Center for GlobalTube: Arctic sea ice melt 2007 YouTube: First year sea ice Courtesy of the Center for Global and Regional make it look like climate change may be our fault Melting sea ice impacts ecosystems and climate

  11. A Cooperative Classroom Investigation of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Scientists have a particularly difficult time explaining warming trends in Antarctica--a region with a relatively short history of scientific observation and a highly variable climate (Clarke et al. 2007). Regardless of the mechanism of warming, however, climate change is having a dramatic impact on Antarctic ecosystems. In this article, the…

  12. Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1

    E-print Network

    - tained Earth-surface conditions within the narrow liquid-water window conducive to life for about 4 feedbacks in the climate system have amplified climate pertur- bations. For example, global-mean tempera major exter- nal forcing were in many cases one-third to one-half as large as changes over the 100

  13. GUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    GUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT For the Gunnison Climate Working Group. The goals of this vulnerability assessment are to identify which species and ecosystems of the Gunnison to be vulnerable. This report is intended to help natural resource managers set priorities for conservation

  14. Bahamians and Climate Change: An Analysis of Risk Perception and Climate Change Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, R.; Owens, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is forecasted to be adversely impacted by the effects of climate change. This presentation will present the results of an assessment of the risk perception toward climate change and climate change literacy among Bahamians. 499 Bahamians from the health care and hospitality industries participated in surveys and/or focus groups and three (3) areas of climate change literacy (attitude, behavior and knowledge) were analyzed as well as risk perception. In general, 1) Bahamians demonstrated an elementary understanding of the underlying causes of climate change, 2) possessed positive attitudes toward adopting new climate change policies, and 3) are already adjusting their behaviors in light of the current predictions. This research also resulted in the development of a model of the relationships between the climate literacy subscales (attitude, behavior and knowledge) and risk perception. This study also examined information sources and their impacts on climate change literacy. As the source of information is important in assessing the quality of the information, participants also identified the source(s) of most of their climate change information. The TV news was cited as the most common source for climate change information among Bahamians. As there is limited active research generating specific climate change information in the Bahamas, all the information Bahamians receive as it pertains to climate change is generated abroad. As a result, Bahamians must decipher through to make sense of it on an individual level. From the focus groups, many of the participants have been able to view possible changes through a cultural lens and are willing to make adjustments to maintain the uniqueness and viability of the Bahamas and to preserve it for generations. Continued study of Bahamians' climate change literacy will inform adaption and mitigation policy as well as individual action.

  15. Green cities, smart people and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Harrison, T.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change will require substantial changes to urban environments. Cities are huge sources of greenhouse gases. Further, cities will suffer tremendously under climate change due to heat stresses, urban flooding, energy and water supply and demand changes, transportation problems, resource supply and demand and a host of other trials and tribulations. Cities that evolve most quickly and efficiently to deal with climate change will likely take advantage of the changes to create enjoyable, healthy and safer living spaces for families and communities. Technology will provide much of the capability to both mitigate and adapt our cities BUT education and coordination of citizen and community lifestyle likely offers equal opportunities to make our cities more sustainable and more enjoyable places to live. This work is the first phase of a major project evaluating urban mitigation and adaptation policies, programs and technologies. All options are considered, from changes in engineering, planning and management; and including a range of citizen and population-based lifestyle practices.

  16. Undergraduate Students As Effective Climate Change Communicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.; Mullendore, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. The program is in its third year. More than 75 students participated in a guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Three Colleges were involved in the program: Engineering, Education, and Science.

  17. How does climate change influence Arctic mercury?

    PubMed

    Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Outridge, Peter M; Wilson, Simon; Chételat, John; Cole, Amanda; Hintelmann, Holger; Loseto, Lisa L; Steffen, Alexandra; Wang, Feiyue; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have been shown to promote changes in primary productivity, shift foodweb structures, alter mercury methylation and demethylation rates, and influence mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface (bottom-up processes). In addition, changes in animal social behavior associated with changing sea-ice regimes can affect dietary exposure to mercury (top-down processes). In this review, we address these and other possible ramifications of climate variability on mercury cycling, processes and exposure by applying recent literature to the following nine questions; 1) What impact has climate change had on Arctic physical characteristics and processes? 2) How do rising temperatures affect atmospheric mercury chemistry? 3) Will a decrease in sea-ice coverage have an impact on the amount of atmospheric mercury deposited to or emitted from the Arctic Ocean, and if so, how? 4) Does climate affect air-surface mercury flux, and riverine mercury fluxes, in Arctic freshwater and terrestrial systems, and if so, how? 5) How does climate change affect mercury methylation/demethylation in different compartments in the Arctic Ocean and freshwater systems? 6) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of freshwater food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of mercury? 7) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of marine food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of marine mercury? 8) What are the likely mercury emissions from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost under climate change scenarios? and 9) What can be learned from current mass balance inventories of mercury in the Arctic? The review finishes with several conclusions and recommendations. PMID:22104383

  18. Climate change, uncertainty, and natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Koneff, M.D.; Heglund, P.J.; Knutson, M.G.; Seamans, M.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Morton, J.M.; Jones, M.T.; Boomer, G.S.; Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and its associated uncertainties are of concern to natural resource managers. Although aspects of climate change may be novel (e.g., system change and nonstationarity), natural resource managers have long dealt with uncertainties and have developed corresponding approaches to decision-making. Adaptive resource management is an application of structured decision-making for recurrent decision problems with uncertainty, focusing on management objectives, and the reduction of uncertainty over time. We identified 4 types of uncertainty that characterize problems in natural resource management. We examined ways in which climate change is expected to exacerbate these uncertainties, as well as potential approaches to dealing with them. As a case study, we examined North American waterfowl harvest management and considered problems anticipated to result from climate change and potential solutions. Despite challenges expected to accompany the use of adaptive resource management to address problems associated with climate change, we conclude that adaptive resource management approaches will be the methods of choice for managers trying to deal with the uncertainties of climate change. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  19. Climate change and health in Earth's future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Devin C.; Butler, Colin D.; Friel, Sharon

    2014-02-01

    Threats to health from climate change are increasingly recognized, yet little research into the effects upon health systems is published. However, additional demands on health systems are increasingly documented. Pathways include direct weather impacts, such as amplified heat stress, and altered ecological relationships, including alterations to the distribution and activity of pathogens and vectors. The greatest driver of demand on future health systems from climate change may be the alterations to socioeconomic systems; however, these "tertiary effects" have received less attention in the health literature. Increasing demands on health systems from climate change will impede health system capacity. Changing weather patterns and sea-level rise will reduce food production in many developing countries, thus fostering undernutrition and concomitant disease susceptibility. Associated poverty will impede people's ability to access and support health systems. Climate change will increase migration, potentially exposing migrants to endemic diseases for which they have limited resistance, transporting diseases and fostering conditions conducive to disease transmission. Specific predictions of timing and locations of migration remain elusive, hampering planning and misaligning needs and infrastructure. Food shortages, migration, falling economic activity, and failing government legitimacy following climate change are also "risk multipliers" for conflict. Injuries to combatants, undernutrition, and increased infectious disease will result. Modern conflict often sees health personnel and infrastructure deliberately targeted and disease surveillance and eradication programs obstructed. Climate change will substantially impede economic growth, reducing health system funding and limiting health system adaptation. Modern medical care may be snatched away from millions who recently obtained it.

  20. The global land rush and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Climate change poses a serious global challenge in the face of rapidly increasing human demand for energy and food. A recent phenomenon in which climate change may play an important role is the acquisition of large tracts of land in the developing world by governments and corporations. In the target countries, where land is relatively inexpensive, the potential to increase crop yields is generally high and property rights are often poorly defined. By acquiring land, investors can realize large profits and countries can substantially alter the land and water resources under their control, thereby changing their outlook for meeting future demand. While the drivers, actors, and impacts involved with land deals have received substantial attention in the literature, we propose that climate change plays an important yet underappreciated role, both through its direct effects on agricultural production and through its influence on mitigative or adaptive policy decisions. Drawing from various literature sources as well as a new global database on reported land deals, we trace the evolution of the global land rush and highlight prominent examples in which the role of climate change is evident. We find that climate change—both historical and anticipated—interacts substantially with drivers of land acquisitions, having important implications for the resilience of communities in targeted areas. As a result of this synthesis, we ultimately contend that considerations of climate change should be integrated into future policy decisions relating to the large-scale land acquisitions.

  1. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. 73 FR 75678 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Draft Unified Synthesis Product: Global Climate Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-12-12

    ...Administration RIN 0648-XM13 U.S. Climate Change Science Program Draft Unified Synthesis Product: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States AGENCY...production schedule for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Unified...

  3. Climatic Change--Past, Present & Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm, Roy C.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of studies investigating factors affecting climatic changes in the Earth's atmosphere--past, present, and future. Dating methods, particularly the Oxygen 18/16 method, are discussed. (SL)

  4. CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL ISOPRENE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission of isoprene from vegetation affects tropospheric chemistry at the regional and global scales. rojected global climate change will potentially alter emission rates, with corresponding influences on concentrations of ozone and other radiatively important trace gases. rogre...

  5. Review of Climate Change Geoengineering: Philosophical Perspectives

    E-print Network

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

    This book is an apology for addressing global climate change through the application of geo-engineering (GE) which encompasses injection of reflective sulfate particles into the air and seeding the ocean with iron. The ...

  6. Demographic Approaches to Assessing Climate Change Impact

    E-print Network

    Funk, W. Chris

    ; IUCN et al. 2008), particularly as a result of climate change (Corn 2005; Pounds et al. 2006; Mc of this work except as permitted under U.S. copyright law is illegal and injures the author and publisher. #12

  7. THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AFRICA

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    of determining future climate change in Africa due to human modification of the global atmosphere. Some of our the continent pursues will determine the eventual significance of global warming for Africa. Whether to significantly alter global warming rates

  8. Assessing species vulnerability to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifici, Michela; Foden, Wendy B.; Visconti, Piero; Watson, James E. M.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Scheffers, Brett R.; Hole, David G.; Martin, Tara G.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Corlett, Richard T.; Huntley, Brian; Bickford, David; Carr, Jamie A.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Midgley, Guy F.; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Pearson, Richard G.; Williams, Stephen E.; Willis, Stephen G.; Young, Bruce; Rondinini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    The effects of climate change on biodiversity are increasingly well documented, and many methods have been developed to assess species' vulnerability to climatic changes, both ongoing and projected in the coming decades. To minimize global biodiversity losses, conservationists need to identify those species that are likely to be most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In this Review, we summarize different currencies used for assessing species' climate change vulnerability. We describe three main approaches used to derive these currencies (correlative, mechanistic and trait-based), and their associated data requirements, spatial and temporal scales of application and modelling methods. We identify strengths and weaknesses of the approaches and highlight the sources of uncertainty inherent in each method that limit projection reliability. Finally, we provide guidance for conservation practitioners in selecting the most appropriate approach(es) for their planning needs and highlight priority areas for further assessments.

  9. Climate change: A rewired food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Julia L.

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is causing large fish species to move into arctic marine environments. A network analysis finds that these fishes, with their generalist diets, add links to the existing food web that may alter biodiversity and web stability.

  10. A unified narrative for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushell, Simon; Colley, Thomas; Workman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There is a significant 'action gap' between what scientists argue is necessary to prevent potentially dangerous climate change and what the government and public are doing. A coherent strategic narrative is key to making meaningful progress.

  11. Economics: Higher costs of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    An attempt to reconcile the effects of temperature on economic productivity at the micro and macro levels produces predictions of global economic losses due to climate change that are much higher than previous estimates. See Letter p.235

  12. Towards a sciart prospectus for climate change 

    E-print Network

    Ormston, Andrew

    2011-11-24

    Cross disciplinary collaboration and exchange between scientists and artists has grown rapidly over the last twenty years and is providing material and evidence employed in the understanding of, and responses to climate change. The sciart field...

  13. Psychology: Climate change and group dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postmes, Tom

    2015-03-01

    The characteristics and views of people sceptical about climate change have been analysed extensively. A study now confirms that sceptics in the US have some characteristics of a social movement, but shows that the same group dynamics propel believers.

  14. Ads by Google Climate change? Dont care

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Julian

    more www.carbonbalanced.org Climate Change Solutions Top Solar Company Award. Solar Water Heating ­ as the Danes show by their community investment in wind power. Localisation of action must be the post

  15. Atmospheric Composition Change: Climate-Chemistry Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaksen, I.S.A.; Granier, C.; Myhre, G.; Bernsten, T. K.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Gauss, S.; Klimont, Z.; Benestad, R.; Bousquet, P.; Collins, W.; Cox, T.; Eyring, V.; Fowler, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Jockel, P.; Laj, P.; Lohmann, U.; Maione, M.; Monks, T.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Raes, F.; Richter, A.; Rognerud, B.; Schulz, M.; Shindell, D.; Stevenson, D. S.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, W.-C.; vanWeele, M.; Wild, M.; Wuebbles, D.

    2011-01-01

    Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds such as methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds such as ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds such as O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future changes. Reported results include new estimates of radiative forcing based on extensive model studies of chemically active climate compounds such as O3, and of particles inducing both direct and indirect effects. Through EU projects such as ACCENT, QUANTIFY, and the AEROCOM project, extensive studies on regional and sector-wise differences in the impact on atmospheric distribution are performed. Studies have shown that land-based emissions have a different effect on climate than ship and aircraft emissions, and different measures are needed to reduce the climate impact. Several areas where climate change can affect the tropospheric oxidation process and the chemical composition are identified. This can take place through enhanced stratospheric-tropospheric exchange of ozone, more frequent periods with stable conditions favouring pollution build up over industrial areas, enhanced temperature-induced biogenic emissions, methane releases from permafrost thawing, and enhanced concentration through reduced biospheric uptake. During the last 510 years, new observational data have been made available and used for model validation and the study of atmospheric processes. Although there are significant uncertainties in the modelling of composition changes, access to new observational data has improved modelling capability. Emission scenarios for the coming decades have a large uncertainty range, in particular with respect to regional trends, leading to a significant uncertainty range in estimated regional composition changes and climate impact.

  16. Non-linear response of the Golo River system, Corsica, France, to Late Quaternary climatic and sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzoni, Andrea; Storms, J. E. A.; Reimann, Tony; Moreau, Julien; Jouet, Gwenael

    2015-08-01

    Disentangling the impact of climatic and sea level variations on fluvio-deltaic stratigraphy is still an outstanding question in sedimentary geology and geomorphology. We used the Golo River system, Corsica, France, as a natural laboratory to investigate the impact of Late Quaternary climate and sea level oscillations on sediment flux from a catchment and on fluvio-deltaic stratigraphy. We applied a numerical model, PaCMod, which calculates catchment sediment production and transport and compared modeling output to the sedimentary record of the Golo alluvial-coastal plain, whose chronology was reinterpreted using new optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages on feldspars. Our modeling, OSL ages, and geomorphological results indicate that the two main phases of braidplain development in the Golo alluvial-coastal plain occurred during the cold-dry phases of MIS5 and during the late MIS4-early MIS3, as a consequence of high catchment erosion rates and low water discharge. Incision and sediment reworking occurred during sea level low stand periods (MIS4 and late MIS3-MIS2). High sediment flux pulses from the catchment outlet were generated during the Lateglacial and early Holocene, as a result of the release of sediments previously stored within the catchment and enhanced snowmelt. Our results suggest a non-linear response of the Golo River system to climatic and eustatic changes, caused by sediment storage within the catchment and geomorphological thresholds. This indicates that a direct comparison between palaeo-climate and stratigraphy is not possible without considering catchment sediment storage and sediment transport delays out of the catchment.

  17. polar stratospheric ozone Southern Hemisphere climate change

    E-print Network

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    polar stratospheric ozone & Southern Hemisphere climate change l.m. polvani #12;atmospheric: most of the observed circulation changes could be due to SH polar ozone depletion... Q: can we integrations where we change stratospheric O3 and GHG levels independently goal QUANTIFY the relative

  18. Carbon cycle feedbacks and future climate change.

    PubMed

    Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-11-13

    Climate and carbon cycle are tightly coupled on many timescales, from interannual to multi-millennial timescales. Observations always evidence a positive feedback, warming leading to release of carbon to the atmosphere; however, the processes at play differ depending on the timescales. State-of-the-art Earth System Models now represent these climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, always simulating a positive feedback over the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, although with substantial uncertainty. Recent studies now help to reduce this uncertainty. First, on short timescales, El Niño years record larger than average atmospheric CO2 growth rate, with tropical land ecosystems being the main drivers. These climate-carbon cycle anomalies can be used as emerging constraint on the tropical land carbon response to future climate change. Second, centennial variability found in last millennium records can be used to constrain the overall global carbon cycle response to climatic excursions. These independent methods point to climate-carbon cycle feedback at the low-end of the Earth System Models range, indicating that these models overestimate the carbon cycle sensitivity to climate change. These new findings also help to attribute the historical land and ocean carbon sinks to increase in atmospheric CO2 and climate change. PMID:26438284

  19. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, its mitigation, and adaption to its impacts are among the greatest challenges of our times. Despite the importance of societal decisions in determining climate change outcomes, flawed mental models about climate change remain widespread, are often deeply entrenched, and present significant barriers to understanding and decision-making around climate change. Here, we describe two simulation role-playing games that combine active, affective, and analytical learning to enable shifts of deeply held conceptions about climate change. The games, World Climate and Future Climate, use a state-of-the-art decision support simulation, C-ROADS (Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support) to provide users with immediate feedback on the outcomes of their mitigation strategies at the national level, including global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and concentrations, mean temperature changes, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. C-ROADS outcomes are consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMS), such as those used by the IPCC, but runs in less than one second on ordinary laptops, providing immediate feedback to participants on the consequences of their proposed policies. Both World Climate and Future Climate role-playing games provide immersive, situated learning experiences that motivate active engagement with climate science and policy. In World Climate, participants play the role of United Nations climate treaty negotiators. Participant emissions reductions proposals are continually assessed through interactive exploration of the best available science through C-ROADS. Future Climate focuses on time delays in the climate and energy systems. Participants play the roles of three generations: today's policymakers, today's youth, and 'just born.' The game unfolds in three rounds 25 simulated years apart. In the first round, only today's policymakers make decisions; In the next round, the young become the policymakers and inherit the results of the earlier decisions, as simulated by C-ROADS. Preliminary evaluations show that both exercises have the potential to provide powerful learning experiences. University students who played World Climate in a climate change course cited it as one of the course activities "promoting the most learning." Students' responses on anonymous surveys and open-ended questions revealed that the experience affected them at visceral, as well as intellectual levels. All of the students recommended that the exercise be continued in future years and many felt that it was the most important learning experience of the semester. Similarly, understanding of climate change and the dynamics of the climate improved for the majority of Future Climate participants, and 90% of participants stated that they were more likely to take action to address climate change on a personal level because of their experience.

  20. Mental health effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change. PMID:26023264

  1. Framing Climate Change to Account for Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassol, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Belief, trust and values are important but generally overlooked in efforts to communicate climate change. Because climate change has often been framed too narrowly as an environmental issue, it has failed to engage segments of the public for whom environmentalism is not an important value. Worse, for some of these people, environmentalism and the policies that accompany it may be seen as a threat to their core values, such as the importance of personal freedoms and the free market. Climate science educators can improve this situation by more appropriately framing climate change as an issue affecting the economy and our most basic human needs: food, water, shelter, security, health, jobs, and the safety of our families. Further, because people trust and listen to those with whom they share cultural values, climate change educators can stress the kinds of values their audiences share. They can also enlist the support of opinion leaders known for holding these values. In addition, incorporating messages about solutions to climate change and their many benefits to economic prosperity, human health, and other values is an important component of meeting this challenge. We must also recognize that local impacts are of greater concern to most people than changes that feel distant in place and time. Different audiences have different concerns, and effective educators will learn what their audiences care about and tailor their messages accordingly.

  2. Physical basis for climate change models

    SciTech Connect

    Goody, R.; Gerstell, M.

    1993-10-18

    The objectives for this research were two-fold: To identify means of using measurements of the outgoing radiation stream from earth to identify mechanisms of climate change; and to develop a flexible radiation code based upon the correlated-k method to enable rapid and accurate calculations of the outgoing radiation. The intended products are three papers and a radiation code. The three papers are to be on Entropy fluxes and the dissipation of the climate system, Radiation fingerprints of climate change, and A rapid correlated-k code.

  3. Climate change, cash transfers and health

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Caroline; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Yablonski, Jennifer; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hales, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The forecast consequences of climate change on human health are profound, especially in low- and middle-income countries and among the most disadvantaged populations. Innovative policy tools are needed to address the adverse health effects of climate change. Cash transfers are established policy tools for protecting population health before, during and after climate-related disasters. For example, the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Programme provides cash transfers to reduce food insecurity resulting from droughts. We propose extending cash transfer interventions to more proactive measures to improve health in the context of climate change. We identify promising cash transfer schemes that could be used to prevent the adverse health consequences of climatic hazards. Cash transfers for using emission-free, active modes of transport – e.g. cash for cycling to work – could prevent future adverse health consequences by contributing to climate change mitigation and, at the same time, improving current population health. Another example is cash transfers provided to communities that decide to move to areas in which their lives and health are not threatened by climatic disasters. More research on such interventions is needed to ensure that they are effective, ethical, equitable and cost–effective. PMID:26478613

  4. The climate change and energy security nexus

    SciTech Connect

    King, Marcus Dubois; Gulledge, Jay

    2013-01-01

    The study of the impacts of climate change on national and interna-tional security has grown as a research field, particularly in the last five years. Within this broad field, academic scholarship has concentrated primarily on whether climate change is, or may become, a driver of violent conflict. This relationship remains highly contested. However, national security policy and many non-governmental organizations have identified climate change as a threat multiplier in conflict situations. The U.S. Department of Defense and the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defense have incorporated these findings into strategic planning documents such as the Quadrennial Defense Review and the Strategic Defence and Security Review. In contrast to the climate-conflict nexus, our analysis found that academic scholarship on the climate change and energy security nexus is small and more disciplinarily focused. In fact, a search of social science litera-ture found few sources, with a significant percentage of these works attribut-able to a single journal. Assuming that policymakers are more likely to rely on broader social science literature than technical or scientific journals, this leaves a limited foundation. This then begged the question: what are these sources? We identified a body of grey literature on the nexus of climate change and energy security of a greater size than the body of peer-reviewed social science literature. We reviewed fifty-eight recent reports, issue briefs, and transcripts to better understand the nexus of climate change and energy security, as well as to gain insight about the questions policymakers need answered by those undertaking the research. In this article, we describe the nature of the sources reviewed, highlight possible climate change and energy security linkages found within those sources, identify emerging risks, and offer conclusions that can guide further research.

  5. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Lawrence C; Hartter, Joel; Lemcke-Stampone, Mary; Moore, David W; Safford, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews) yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40%) concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15%) say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire) finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010-2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state's time series-suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus. PMID:26422694

  6. Climate change impacts on food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Food system includes biophysical factors (climate, land and water), human environments (production technologies and food consumption, distribution and marketing), as well as the dynamic interactions within them. Climate change affects agriculture and food systems in various ways. Agricultural production can be influenced directly by climatic factors such as mean temperature rising, change in rainfall patterns, and more frequent extreme events. Eventually, climate change could cause shift of arable land, alteration of water availability, abnormal fluctuation of food prices, and increase of people at risk of malnutrition. This work aims to evaluate how climate change would affect agricultural production biophysically and how these effects would propagate to social factors at the global level. In order to model the complex interactions between the natural and social components, a Global Optimization model of Agricultural Land and Water resources (GOALW) is applied to the analysis. GOALW includes various demands of human society (food, feed, other), explicit production module, and irrigation water availability constraint. The objective of GOALW is to maximize global social welfare (consumers' surplus and producers' surplus).Crop-wise irrigation water use in different regions around the world are determined by the model; marginal value of water (MVW) can be obtained from the model, which implies how much additional welfare benefit could be gained with one unit increase in local water availability. Using GOALW, we will analyze two questions in this presentation: 1) how climate change will alter irrigation requirements and how the social system would buffer that by price/demand adjustment; 2) how will the MVW be affected by climate change and what are the controlling factors. These results facilitate meaningful insights for investment and adaptation strategies in sustaining world's food security under climate change.

  7. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Hartter, Joel; Lemcke-Stampone, Mary; Moore, David W.; Safford, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews) yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40%) concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15%) say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire) finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010–2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state’s time series—suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus. PMID:26422694

  8. CLIMATE CHANGE: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This State of Knowledge document presents an introduction to human effects that during the past 100 years have led to increased atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in global temperatures. The world's leading climate scientists have concluded that Ea...

  9. Soils and climate change (Introduction)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use conversion from natural to agricultural ecosystems and soil cultivation creates a soil C deficit with the attendant emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. The magnitude of deficit, ranging from 30 to 75%, depends on soil, climate, terrain, drainage, land use, and soil and crop management pra...

  10. A Record of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Zach

    2007-01-01

    The hydrologic cycle is a very basic scientific principle. In this article, background information is presented on how the hydrologic cycle provides scientists with clues to understanding the history of Earth's climate. Also detailed is a web-based activity that allows students to learn about how scientists are able to piece together a record of…

  11. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Mitigation and adaptation are therefore complementary actions. In the long term, climate change without mitigation measures will likely exceed the adaptive capacity of natural, managed and human systems. Early adoption of mitigation measures would break the dependence on carbon-intensive infrastructures and reduce adaptation needs to climate change. It also can save on adaptation cost. Therefore mitigation is the key objective of the global warming problem but little is being done in this field. We will present some proposals of "preventive economically efficient" policies at a global and regional level which will constitute the complement to the adaptation aspect.

  12. Explaining Climate Change - a Global Educational Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, B.; Mahaffy, P.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and responding to human caused climate change is one of the defining challenges facing humanity in the early 21st century. The need to both educate our youth and equip them to take decisive and effective action must become a critical focus of education. To this end we present www.explainingclimatechange.ca - a comprehensive learning package that presents the underlying science of climate change to a global student cohort aged 16 - 19 years. The materials within this resource include many interactive components that encourage an active learning approach to understanding the evidential bases for the science of climate change as well as tools enabling students to begin to develop mitigation strategies to reduce human impact on climate. These materials are a joint International Year of Chemistry legacy project of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, UNESCO, the American Chemical Society, the Royal Society of Chemistry and the King's Centre for Visualization in Science.

  13. Solar ultraviolet radiation in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Craig E.; Zepp, Richard G.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Madronich, Sasha; Austin, Amy T.; Ballaré, Carlos L.; Norval, Mary; Sulzberger, Barbara; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; McKenzie, Richard L.; Robinson, Sharon A.; Häder, Donat-P.; Paul, Nigel D.; Bornman, Janet F.

    2014-06-01

    The projected large increases in damaging ultraviolet radiation as a result of global emissions of ozone-depleting substances have been forestalled by the success of the Montreal Protocol. New challenges are now arising in relation to climate change. We highlight the complex interactions between the drivers of climate change and those of stratospheric ozone depletion, and the positive and negative feedbacks among climate, ozone and ultraviolet radiation. These will result in both risks and benefits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the environment and human welfare. This Review synthesizes these new insights and their relevance in a world where changes in climate as well as in stratospheric ozone are altering exposure to ultraviolet radiation with largely unknown consequences for the biosphere.

  14. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  15. Integrated Assessment of Abrupt Climatic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrandrea, M.; Schneider, S.

    One of the most controversial conclusions to emerge from many of the first generation of integrated assessments models (IAMs) of climate policy is a recommendation for negligible near-term abatement of greenhouse gases. . Typically, such studies are con- ducted using smoothly varying climate change scenarios or impact responses. Abrupt changes observed in the climatic record and documented in current models could sub- stantially alter the stringency of IAM policy recommendations. Such abrupt climatic changesUor consequent impacts­would be less foreseeable and provide less time to ° adapt, and thus would have far greater economic or environmental impacts than grad- ual warming. We extend conventional, smooth IAM analysis by coupling a climate model capable of one type of abrupt change to a well-established energy-economy model (DICE). We compare the DICE optimal policy using the standard climate sub- model to our version that allows for abrupt changeUand consequent enhanced climate ° damageUthrough changes in the strength of the North Atlantic thermohaline circula- ° tion (THC). We confirm the potential significance of abrupt climate change in IAM policy recommendations, thus calling into question all previous work neglecting such possibilitiesUat the least for the wide ranges of relevant social and climate system ° parameters we consider. In addition, we obtain an emergent property of our coupled social-natural system model: Soptimal policiesT that do consider abrupt changes may, & cedil;under relatively low discount rates, recommend emission control levels sufficient to avoid significant abrupt change, when Soptimal policiesT disregarding abrupt change & cedil;would not prevent this non-linear event. However, there is a threshold in discount rate above which present value of future damages are so low that control rates drop suf- ficiently to allow THC collapse, even for very large enhanced damages in the 22nd century when such a collapse would be most likely to occur. Thus, any models not accounting for potential abrupt non-linear behavior and its interaction with the dis- counting formulation are likely to miss an important set of possibilities relevant to the climate policy debate.

  16. Enhancing the Communication of Climate Change Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, R. C.; Hassol, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate scientists have an important role to play in the critical task of informing the public, media and policymakers. Scientists can help in publicizing and illuminating climate science. However, this task requires combining climate science expertise with advanced communication skills. For example, it is entirely possible to convey scientific information accurately without using jargon or technical concepts unfamiliar to non-scientists. However, making this translation into everyday language is a job that few scientists have been trained to do. In this talk, we give examples from our recent experience working with scientists to enhance their ability to communicate well. Our work includes providing training, technical assistance, and communications tools to climate scientists and universities, government agencies, and research centers. Our experience ranges from preparing Congressional testimony to writing major climate science reports to appearing on television. We have also aided journalists in gathering reliable scientific information and identifying trustworthy experts. Additionally, we are involved in developing resources freely available online at climatecommunication.org. These include a feature on the links between climate change and extreme weather, a climate science primer, and graphics and video explaining key developments in climate change science.

  17. Energy and global climate change: Why ORNL?

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    Subtle signs of global warming have been detected in studies of the climate record of the past century after figuring in the cooling effects of sulfur emissions from volcanoes and human sources. According to the December 1995 report of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the earth`s surface temperature has increased by about 0.2{degrees}C per decade since 1975. the panel projects about a 2{degrees} increase in global temperature by 2100. The IPCC report states that pollutants-greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and fluorocarbons that warm the globe and sulfur emission that cool it-are responsible for recent patterns of climate change. {open_quotes}The balance of evidence,{close_quotes} states the report, {open_quotes}suggests that there is a discrenible human influence on global climate.{close_quotes} This human influence stems largely from fossil fuel combustion, cement production, and the burning of forests, and could intensify as populations grow and developing countries increase energy production and industrial development. The two facts have caught the attention of the news media and public. First, 1995 was declared the hottest year in the 140-year-long record of reliable global measurements. Second, recent years have been marked by an unusually high number of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, blizzards, and floods. In the 1990`s the world has become more aware of the prospect and possible impacts of global climate change. In the late 1950`s, global climate change was an unknown threat to the world`s environment and social systems. Except for a few ORNL researchers who had just completed their first briefing to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission on the need to understand the global carbon cycle, the connection between rising carbon dioxide concentrations and potential changes in global climate was not common knowledge, nor were the consequences of climate change understood.

  18. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 1; Respective Influences of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Climate Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.

    2005-01-01

    We utilize the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model and 8 different climate change experiments, many of them focused on stratospheric climate forcings, to assess the relative influence of tropospheric and stratospheric climate change on the extratropical circulation indices (Arctic Oscillation, AO; North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). The experiments are run in two different ways: with variable sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to allow for a full tropospheric climate response, and with specified SSTs to minimize the tropospheric change. The results show that tropospheric warming (cooling) experiments and stratospheric cooling (warming) experiments produce more positive (negative) AO/NAO indices. For the typical magnitudes of tropospheric and stratospheric climate changes, the tropospheric response dominates; results are strongest when the tropospheric and stratospheric influences are producing similar phase changes. Both regions produce their effect primarily by altering wave propagation and angular momentum transports, but planetary wave energy changes accompanying tropospheric climate change are also important. Stratospheric forcing has a larger impact on the NAO than on the AO, and the angular momentum transport changes associated with it peak in the upper troposphere, affecting all wavenumbers. Tropospheric climate changes influence both the A0 and NAO with effects that extend throughout the troposphere. For both forcings there is often vertical consistency in the sign of the momentum transport changes, obscuring the difference between direct and indirect mechanisms for influencing the surface circulation.

  19. Causal feedbacks in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten; Brovkin, Victor; Lenton, Timothy M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

    2015-05-01

    The statistical association between temperature and greenhouse gases over glacial cycles is well documented, but causality behind this correlation remains difficult to extract directly from the data. A time lag of CO2 behind Antarctic temperature--originally thought to hint at a driving role for temperature--is absent at the last deglaciation, but recently confirmed at the last ice age inception and the end of the earlier termination II (ref. ). We show that such variable time lags are typical for complex nonlinear systems such as the climate, prohibiting straightforward use of correlation lags to infer causation. However, an insight from dynamical systems theory now allows us to circumvent the classical challenges of unravelling causation from multivariate time series. We build on this insight to demonstrate directly from ice-core data that, over glacial-interglacial timescales, climate dynamics are largely driven by internal Earth system mechanisms, including a marked positive feedback effect from temperature variability on greenhouse-gas concentrations.

  20. Roadmap for the Development of a Climate Change Adaptation Plan

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    Roadmap for the Development of a Climate Change Adaptation Plan Prepared by the Smithsonian Climate ..........................................................................................................................................1 Climate Change Adaptation at the Smithsonian Today........................................................................2 Sustainability at the Smithsonian: Past and Ongoing Activities Directly Impacting Adaptation

  1. Introduction to Federal and EPA Climate Change Web Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation provides an overview of four climate data and tool websites: the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and Climate Resilience Toolkit (interagency websites); the main EPA climate change website; and the internal EPA Adaptation Resource Center website.

  2. Stratospheric aerosols and climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Stratospht1ic sulfuric acid particles scatter and absorb sunlight and they scatter, absorb and emit terrestrial thermal radiation. These interactions play a role in the earth's radiation balance and therefore affect climate. The stratospheric aerosols are perturbed by volcanic injection of SO2 and ash, by aircraft injection of SO2, by rocket exhaust of Al2O3 and by tropospheric mixing of particles and pollutant SO2 and COS. In order to assess the effects of these perturbations on climate, the effects of the aerosols on the radiation balance must be understood and in order to understand the radiation effects the properties of the aerosols must be known. The discussion covers the aerosols' effect on the radiation balance. It is shown that the aerosol size distribution controls whether the aerosols will tend to warm or cool the earth's surface. Calculations of aerosol properties, including size distribution, for various perturbation sources are carried out on the basis of an aerosol model. Calculations are also presented of the climatic impact of perturbed aerosols due to volcanic eruptions and Space Shuttle flights.

  3. Can ice sheets trigger abrupt climatic change?

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.

    1996-11-01

    The discovery in recent years of abrupt climatic changes in climate proxy records from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment cores, and from other sites around the world, has diverted attention from gradual insolation changes caused by Earth`s orbital variations to more rapid processes on Earth`s surface as forcing Quaternary climatic change. In particular, forcing by ice sheets has been quantified for a major ice stream that drained the Laurentide Ice Sheet along Hudson Strait. The history of these recent discoveries leading to an interest in ice sheets is reviewed, and a case is made that ice sheets may drive abrupt climatic change that is virtually synchronous worldwide. Attention is focused on abrupt inception and termination of a Quaternary glaciation cycle, abrupt changes recorded as stadials and interstadials within the cycle, abrupt changes in ice streams that trigger stadials and interstadials, and abrupt changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet linked to effectively simultaneous abrupt changes in its ice streams. Remaining work needed to quantify further these changes is discussed. 90 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Climate Change in Voyageurs National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.

  5. The climate crisis: An introductory guide to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    2011-06-01

    Human-induced climate change, sometimes called “global warming,” has, unfortunately, become a “hot” topic, embroiled in controversy, misinformation, and claims and counterclaims. It should not be this way, because there are many scientific facts that provide solid information on which to base policy. There is a very strong observational, theoretical, and modeling base in physical science that underpins current understanding of what has happened to Earth's climate and why and what the prospects are for the future under certain assumptions. Moreover, these changes have impacts, which are apt to grow, on the environment and human society. To avoid or reduce these impacts and the economic and human effects of undesirable future climate change requires actions that are strongly opposed by those with vested interests in the status quo, some of whom have funded misinformation campaigns that have successfully confused the public and some politicians, leading to paralysis in political action. Without mitigation of climate change, one would suppose that at least society would plan sensibly for the changes already happening and projected, but such future adaptation plans are also largely in limbo. The implication is that we will suffer the consequences. All of these aspects are addressed in this informative and attractive book, which is written for a fairly general but technically informed audience. The book is strongly based upon the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and therefore has a solid scientific basis. Many figures, graphs, and maps come from the three IPCC working group reports, although the captions often do not explain the detail shown. Given that the IPCC reports totaled nearly 3000 pages, to distill the complex material down to 249 pages is no mean task, and the authors have succeeded quite well.

  6. Shifting seasons, climate change and ecosystem consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thackeray, Stephen; Henrys, Peter; Hemming, Deborah; Huntingford, Chris; Bell, James; Leech, David; Wanless, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    In recent decades, the seasonal timing of many biological events (e.g. flowering, breeding, migration) has shifted. These phenological changes are believed to be one of the most conspicuous biological indicators of climate change. Rates and directions of phenological change have differed markedly among species, potentially threatening the seasonal synchrony of key species interactions and ultimately ecosystem functioning. Differences in phenological change among-species at different trophic levels, and with respect to other broad species traits, are likely to be driven by variations in the climatic sensitivity of phenological events. However, as yet, inconsistencies in analytical methods have hampered broad-scale assessments of variation in climate sensitivity among taxonomic and functional groups of organisms. In this presentation, results will be presented from a current collaborative project (http://www.ceh.ac.uk/sci_programmes/shifting-seasons-uk.html) in which many UK long-term data sets are being integrated in order to assess relationships between temperature/precipitation, and the timing of seasonal events for a wide range of plants and animals. Our aim is to assess which organism groups (in which locations/habitats) are most sensitive to climate. Furthermore, the role of anthropogenic climate change as a driver of phenological change is being assessed.

  7. Portfolio conservation of metapopulations under climate change.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sean C; Moore, Jonathan W; McClure, Michelle M; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Cooper, Andrew B

    2015-03-01

    Climate change is likely to lead to increasing population variability and extinction risk. Theoretically, greater population diversity should buffer against rising climate variability, and this theory is often invoked as a reason for greater conservation. However, this has rarely been quantified. Here we show how a portfolio approach to managing population diversity can inform metapopulation conservation priorities in a changing world. We develop a salmon metapopulation model in which productivity is driven by spatially distributed thermal tolerance and patterns of short- and long-term climate change. We then implement spatial conservation scenarios that control population carrying capacities and evaluate the metapopulation portfolios as a financial manager might: along axes of conservation risk and return. We show that preserving a diversity of thermal tolerances minimizes risk, given environmental stochasticity, and ensures persistence, given long-term environmental change. When the thermal tolerances of populations are unknown, doubling the number of populations conserved may nearly halve expected metapopulation variability. However, this reduction in variability can come at the expense of long-term persistence if climate change increasingly restricts available habitat, forcing ecological managers to balance society's desire for short-term stability and long-term viability. Our findings suggest the importance of conserving the processes that promote thermal-tolerance diversity, such as genetic diversity, habitat heterogeneity, and natural disturbance regimes, and demonstrate that diverse natural portfolios may be critical for metapopulation conservation in the face of increasing climate variability and change. PMID:26263675

  8. Global fish production and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Brander, K.M.

    2007-12-11

    Current global fisheries production of {approx}160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but there is low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are giverned by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipiation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the pricipal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change.

  9. Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, Craig R.; Game, Edward T.; Anderson, Mark G.; Cross, Molly; Enquist, Carolyn; Ferdana, Zach; Girvetz, Evan; Gondor, Anne; Hall, Kimberly R.; Higgins, Jonathan; Marshall, Rob; Popper, Ken; Schill, Steve; Shafer, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of systematic conservation planning are now widely used by governments and non-government organizations alike to develop biodiversity conservation plans for countries, states, regions, and ecoregions. Many of the species and ecosystems these plans were designed to conserve are now being affected by climate change, and there is a critical need to incorporate new and complementary approaches into these plans that will aid species and ecosystems in adjusting to potential climate change impacts. We propose five approaches to climate change adaptation that can be integrated into existing or new biodiversity conservation plans: (1) conserving the geophysical stage, (2) protecting climatic refugia, (3) enhancing regional connectivity, (4) sustaining ecosystem process and function, and (5) capitalizing on opportunities emerging in response to climate change. We discuss both key assumptions behind each approach and the trade-offs involved in using the approach for conservation planning. We also summarize additional data beyond those typically used in systematic conservation plans required to implement these approaches. A major strength of these approaches is that they are largely robust to the uncertainty in how climate impacts may manifest in any given region.

  10. Blanket peat biome endangered by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, Angela V.; Colin Prentice, I.

    2013-02-01

    Blanket bog is a highly distinctive biome restricted to disjunct hyperoceanic regions. It is characterized by a landscape covering of peat broken only by the steepest slopes. Plant and microbial life are adapted to anoxia, low pH and low nutrient availability. Plant productivity exceeds soil organic matter decomposition, so carbon is sequestered over time. Unique climatic requirements, including high year-round rainfall and low summer temperatures, make this biome amenable to bioclimatic modelling. However, projections of the fate of peatlands in general, and blanket bogs in particular, under climate change have been contradictory. Here we use a simple, well-founded global bioclimatic model, with climate-change projections from seven climate models, to indicate this biome's fate. We show marked shrinkage of its present bioclimatic space with only a few, restricted areas of persistence. Many blanket bog regions are thus at risk of progressive peat erosion and vegetation changes as a direct consequence of climate change. New areas suitable for blanket bog are also projected, but these are often disjunct from present areas and their location is inconsistently predicted by different climate models.

  11. The changing world of climate change: Oregon leads the states

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, P.H.; Sadler, S.; Kosloff, L.H.; Trexler, M.C.

    1997-05-01

    Following on the heels of recent national and international developments in climate change policy, Oregon`s {open_quote}best-of-batch{close_quote} proceeding has validated the use of CO{sub 2} offsets as a cost-effective means of advancing climate change mitigation goals. The proceeding was a first in several respects and represents a record commitment of funds to CO{sub 2} mitigation by a private entity. In December 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), issued its Second Assessment Report. The IPCC`s conclusion that {open_quotes}[t]he balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate{close_quotes} fundamentally changed the tenor of the policy debate regarding potential threats associated with global climate change. At the Climate Change Convention`s Conference of the Parties (COP) in Geneva in July 1996, most countries, including the United States, advocated adopting the IPCC report as the basis for swift policy movement toward binding international emissions targets. The next COP, in December 1997, is scheduled to be the venue for the signing of a treaty protocol incorporating such targets. Binding targets would have major consequences for power plant operators in the US and around the world. Recent developments in the state of Oregon show the kinds of measures that may become commonplace at the state level in addressing climate change mitigation. First, Oregon recently completed the first administrative proceeding in the US aimed at offsetting the greenhouse gas emissions of a new power plant. Second, a legislatively mandated energy facility siting task force recently recommended that Oregon adopt a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) standard for new power plant construction and drop use of the {open_quotes}need for power{close_quotes} standard. This article reviews these two policy milestones and their implications for climate change mitigation in the United States.

  12. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN

    E-print Network

    Barron-Gafford, Greg

    PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND GLOBAL CHANGE CAN CLIMATE DRIVEN CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS BE USED TO PREDICT in photosynthesis, and thus substrate supply, influence the rate of ecosystem respiration (Re). Further- more in photosynthesis might result in concomitant changes in both the rate, and temperature-sensitivity, of Re. Re

  13. Assessing the effects of ocean diffusivity and climate sensitivity on the rate of global climate change

    E-print Network

    Schmittner, Andreas

    sensitivity and ocean heat uptake on the rate of future climate change. We apply a range of values for climate a significant effect on the rate of transient climate change for high values of climate sensitivity, while values of climate sensitivity and low values of ocean diffusivity. Such high rates of change could

  14. Climate and Climate Change, Professor James Booth PRELIMINARY Spring 2014 Syllabus (subject to refinement/updating)

    E-print Network

    Wolberg, George

    Climate and Climate Change, Professor James Booth PRELIMINARY Spring 2014 Syllabus (subject to refinement/updating) 1 SUS -7300B: Climate and Climate Change Instructor: Prof. James Booth Office: Marshak global warming and climate change. There is a large body of evidence that this is due to humankind

  15. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-15

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  16. Global climate change and international security.

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-11-01

    This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

  17. Effects of climate changes on skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Balato, Nicola; Megna, Matteo; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Napolitano, Maddalena; Patruno, Cataldo

    2014-02-01

    Global climate is changing at an extraordinary rate. Climate change (CC) can be caused by several factors including variations in solar radiation, oceanic processes, and also human activities. The degree of this change and its impact on ecological, social, and economical systems have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing CC as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Moreover, studies based on observations and predictive models show how CC could affect human health. On the other hand, only a few studies focus on how this change may affect human skin. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, it is not surprising that cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. The current review focuses on the effects of CC on skin diseases showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence, clinical pattern and natural course of some dermatoses. PMID:24404995

  18. Effects of climate change on croplands

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will describe likely changes in temperature and precipitation expected in the northwestern US with global climate change, and their potential impacts on Oregon croplands. The focus will be on the effects of temperature and carbon dioxide on crop productivity, weed cont...

  19. CONTINENTAL SCALE BIOME RESPONSES TO CLIMATIC CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current projections of climatic change call for a global average temperature increase of 2.8 to 5.2 degrees C and a 7% to 16% increase in rainfall by about 2030. he potential ecological responses to these changes have been estimated using a variety of techniques, but have general...

  20. *Reprinted from Climate Change and Economic

    E-print Network

    *Reprinted from Climate Change and Economic Growth Prospects for Malawi: An Uncertainty Approach Economies, 23(Suppl 2): ii83­ii107 © 2014 with kind permission from the authors #12;The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change combines cutting-edge scientific research with independent policy

  1. BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change

    E-print Network

    Kraft, Nathan

    BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D to biodiversity, exacerbating existing threats because of land use change, fragmentation, and environmental Biodiversity Informatics, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA, 5 Bay Area Open Space

  2. CLIMATE CHANGE RISK ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK (CCRAF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of a numerical framework that integrates socio-economic and physical drivers of greenhouse gas emissions, related climate changes and risks and benefits of alternative responses to perceived change or risks. The project integrates and extends existing peer-reviewed m...

  3. CLIMATE VARIABILITY, CHANGE, AND CONSEQUENCES IN ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change operates at global, hemispheric, and regional scales, sometimes involving rapid shifts in ocean and atmospheric circulation. Changes of global scope occurred in the transition into the Little Ice Age (1350-1880) and subsequent warming during the 20th century. In th...

  4. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect human rights, promote social justice, and avoid creating new problems or exacerbating existing problems for vulnerable populations. PMID:26615065

  5. Climate Change and the Health Implications of Managed Relocation

    E-print Network

    Smith, Kate

    91 Climate Change and the Health Implications of Managed Relocation Jessica Fields '14 and Tram Bui `14 Other modules in the Climate Change and Health unit that best complement the one presented here include The Science of Climate Change, Climate Change and Health: Lessons from the Past

  6. POLICY PERSPECTIVE Climate change: helping nature survive the human response

    E-print Network

    Bradley, Bethany

    POLICY PERSPECTIVE Climate change: helping nature survive the human response Will R. Turner1 direct assault from climate change, are further threatened by how we respond to climate change. Human attention in policy deliberations and scientific research. Yet the indirect effects of climate change may

  7. Bipolar correlation of volcanism with millennial climate change

    E-print Network

    Price, P. Buford

    Bipolar correlation of volcanism with millennial climate change Ryan C. Bay*, Nathan Bramall, and P). These data are the best evidence yet for a causal connection between volcanism and millennial climate change respond to climate change. If rapid climate change can induce volcanism, this result could be further

  8. Why is climate change so important to the University?

    E-print Network

    Why is climate change so important to the University? Over the centuries Cambridge academics have of environmental challenges. How are we advancing understanding about climate change? Our researchers are working the consequences of climate change. What is Cambridge doing to assess the extent of climate change? Research ranges

  9. European Climate Change Adaptation Conference Hamburg, March 18th 2013

    E-print Network

    Hodges, Kevin

    European Climate Change Adaptation Conference Hamburg, March 18th 2013 The scale of the challenge in 2050 Biodiversity loss 20-35% #12;Three conclusions · The magnitude of the climate change challenge not eliminate ­ the impacts of climate change · The consequences of climate change, and feasibility

  10. Amazon deforestation and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, J.; Nobre, C.; Sellers, P. )

    1990-03-16

    A coupled numerical model of the global atmosphere and biosphere has been used to assess the effects of Amazon deforestation on the regional and global climate. When the tropical forests in the model were replaced by degraded grass (pasture), there was a significant increase in surface temperature and a decrease in evapotranspiration and precipitation over Amazonia. In the simulation, the length of the dry season also increased; such an increase could make reestablishment of the tropical forests after massive deforestation particularly difficult. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Toward economic evaluation of climate change impacts : a review and evaluation of studies of the impact of climate change

    E-print Network

    Reilly, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to access climate change have generally been unsuccessful in describing the economic damages (or benefits) associated with climate change or the functional relationship of damage (or benefits) to climate. Existing ...

  12. Framing a Comprehensive Approach to Climate Change 

    E-print Network

    Boggs, Jay W.; Chellinsky, Andrew; Ege, David; Hodges, Allen; Reynolds, Tripp; Williams, Andy

    2007-01-01

    , Stern Report, the recently published CNA report from retired military leaders, and all of the major media reporting on global climate change – we tasked ourselves with determining the most likely climatic scenarios in 2025 *The wide range of scenarios... close to oil refineries However, this is crude oil which cannot alleviate gasoline shortages without functioning petroleum refineries IPCC and Stern Report predict increase in hurricane intensity which could produce similar scenarios to September of 2005...

  13. Global lightning activity and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.G.

    1993-12-31

    The relationship between global lightning frequencies and global climate change is examined in this thesis. In order to study global impacts of climate change, global climate models or General Circulations Models (GCMs) need to be utilized. Since these models have coarse resolutions many atmospheric phenomena that occur at subgrid scales, such as lightning, need to be parameterized whenever possible. We begin with a simple parameterization used to Simulate total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning frequencies. The parameterization uses convective cloud top height to approximate lightning frequencies. Then we consider a parameterization for simulating cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning around the globe. This parameterization uses the thickness of the cold cloud sector in thunderstorms (0{degrees}C to cloud top) to calculate the proportion of CG flashes in a particular thunderstorm. We model lightning in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. We present two climate change scenarios. One for a climate where the solar constant is reduced by 2% (5.9{degrees}C global cooling), and one for a climate with twice the present concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere (4.2{degrees}C global warming). The results imply a 24%/30% decrease/increase in global lightning frequencies for the cooler/warmer climate. The possibility of using the above findings to monitor future global warming is discussed. The earth`s ionospheric potential, which is regulated by global thunderstorm activity, could supply valuable information regarding global surface temperature fluctuations. Finally, we look at the implications of changes in both lightning frequencies and the hydrological cycle, as a result of global warming, on natural forest fires. In the U.S. the annual mean number of lightning fires could increase by 40% while the area burned may increase by 65% in a 2{times}CO{sub 2} climate. On a global scale the largest increase in lightning fires can be expected in the tropics.

  14. Global Climate Change and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Rising global temperatures are causing major physical, chemical, and ecological changes in the planet. There is wide consensus among scientific organizations and climatologists that these broad effects, known as "climate change," are the result of contemporary human activity. Climate change poses threats to human health, safety, and security, and children are uniquely vulnerable to these threats. The effects of climate change on child health include: physical and psychological sequelae of weather disasters; increased heat stress; decreased air quality; altered disease patterns of some climate-sensitive infections; and food, water, and nutrient insecurity in vulnerable regions. The social foundations of children's mental and physical health are threatened by the specter of far-reaching effects of unchecked climate change, including community and global instability, mass migrations, and increased conflict. Given this knowledge, failure to take prompt, substantive action would be an act of injustice to all children. A paradigm shift in production and consumption of energy is both a necessity and an opportunity for major innovation, job creation, and significant, immediate associated health benefits. Pediatricians have a uniquely valuable role to play in the societal response to this global challenge. PMID:26504130

  15. Global climate changes and the soil cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeyarov, V. N.; Demkin, V. A.; Gilichinskii, D. A.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Rozhkov, V. A.

    2009-09-01

    The relationships between climate changes and the soil cover are analyzed. The greenhouse effect induced by the rising concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, and many other trace gases in the air has been one of the main factors of the global climate warming in the past 30-40 years. The response of soils to climate changes is considered by the example of factual data on soil evolution in the dry steppe zone of Russia. Probable changes in the carbon cycle under the impact of rising CO2 concentrations are discussed. It is argued that this rise may have an effect of an atmospheric fertilizer and lead to a higher productivity of vegetation, additional input of organic residues into the soils, and activation of soil microflora. Soil temperature and water regimes, composition of soil gases, soil biotic parameters, and other dynamic soil characteristics are most sensitive to climate changes. For the territory of Russia, in which permafrost occupies more than 50% of the territory, the response of this highly sensitive natural phenomenon to climate changes is particularly important. Long-term data on soil temperatures at a depth of 40 cm are analyzed for four large regions of Russia. In all of them, except for the eastern sector of Russian Arctic, a stable trend toward the rise in the mean annual soil temperature. In the eastern sector (the Verkhoyansk weather station), the soil temperature remains stable.

  16. Climate Change--Scientific and Political

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-08-01

    On Monday, June 12, the federal government released a "Public Review Draft" of Climate Change Impacts on the United States (1). The report contains peer-reviewed information that should be of interest to the general public and certainly will make excellent summer reading for those of us who teach chemistry or other sciences. The U.S. Global Change Research Project (USGCRP), was initiated in 1990 by the U.S. Congress to provide lawmakers with information about negative and positive impacts of global warming. In 1997, USGCRP began the National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. Five teams, each consisting of experts from government, industry, and academic and public organizations, used sophisticated computer models to analyze regional impacts of climate change and prepare a national synthesis of existing information. They forecast significant changes during the 21st century, including an increase in temperature in the U.S. of 3-6 °C. (This is similar to the difference in temperature between the present and the last ice age.) Many regions of the country are likely to become more like the regions immediately to their south. For example, the climate in New York City is predicted to become more like the 20th-century climate of Atlanta, and Atlanta more like Houston.

  17. Biological invasions, climate change and genomics

    PubMed Central

    Chown, Steven L; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Griffin, Philippa C; Oakeshott, John G; Byrne, Margaret; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    The rate of biological invasions is expected to increase as the effects of climate change on biological communities become widespread. Climate change enhances habitat disturbance which facilitates the establishment of invasive species, which in turn provides opportunities for hybridization and introgression. These effects influence local biodiversity that can be tracked through genetic and genomic approaches. Metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches provide a way of monitoring some types of communities under climate change for the appearance of invasives. Introgression and hybridization can be followed by the analysis of entire genomes so that rapidly changing areas of the genome are identified and instances of genetic pollution monitored. Genomic markers enable accurate tracking of invasive species’ geographic origin well beyond what was previously possible. New genomic tools are promoting fresh insights into classic questions about invading organisms under climate change, such as the role of genetic variation, local adaptation and climate pre-adaptation in successful invasions. These tools are providing managers with often more effective means to identify potential threats, improve surveillance and assess impacts on communities. We provide a framework for the application of genomic techniques within a management context and also indicate some important limitations in what can be achieved. PMID:25667601

  18. Geodynamic contributions to global climatic change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital and rotational variations perturb the latitudinal and seasonal pattern of incident solar radiation, producing major climatic change on time scales of 10(exp 4)-10(exp 6) years. The orbital variations are oblivious to internal structure and processes, but the rotational variations are not. A program of investigation whose objective would be to explore and quantify three aspects of orbital, rotational, and climatic interactions is described. An important premise of this investigation is the synergism between geodynamics and paleoclimate. Better geophysical models of precessional dynamics are needed in order to accurately reconstruct the radiative input to climate models. Some of the paleoclimate proxy records contain information relevant to solid Earth processes, on time scales which are difficult to constrain otherwise. Specific mechanisms which will be addressed include: (1) climatic consequences of deglacial polar motion; and (2) precessional and climatic consequences of glacially induced perturbations in the gravitational oblateness and partial decoupling of the mantle and core. The approach entails constructing theoretical models of the rotational, deformational, radiative, and climatic response of the Earth to known orbital perturbations, and comparing these with extensive records of paleoclimate proxy data. Several of the mechanisms of interest may participate in previously unrecognized feed-back loops in the climate dynamics system. A new algorithm for estimating climatically diagnostic locations and seasons from the paleoclimate time series is proposed.

  19. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  20. Local Response to Global Climate Change: The Role of Local Development Plans in Climate Change Management 

    E-print Network

    Grover, Himanshu

    2011-10-21

    Plan Quality Scores ................ 72 Table 6.2 Land Use and Zoning Policies ....................................................... 75 Table 6.3 Urban Design Policies ................................................................... 77 Table 6... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2010 Major Subject: Urban and Regional Sciences ii Local Response to Global Climate Change: The Role of Local Development Plans in Climate Change...

  1. Potential effects of global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Gucinski, H.; Vance, E.; Reiners, W.A.

    1995-07-01

    The difficulties of detecting climatic changes do not diminish the need to examine the consequences of a changing global radiative energy balance. In part, detecting global changes is difficult (even though many, though by no means all, theoretical climatic processes are well understood) because the potential effects of changes on the unmanaged ecosystems of the globe, especially forests, which may have great human significance, involve tightly woven ecosystems, inextricably linked to global habitat. Coniferous forests are of particular interest because they dominate high-latitude forest systems, and potential effects of global climate change are likely to be greatest at high latitudes. The degree of projected climate change is a function of many likely scenarios of fossil fuel consumption, and the ratios of manmade effects to natural sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}. Because CO{sub 2}, like water vapor, CH{sub 4}, CFCs, and other gases, absorbs infrared energy, it will alter the radiation balance of the global atmosphere. The consequences of this alteration to the radiation balance cannot simply be translated into changing climate because (1) the existence of large energy reservoirs (the oceans) can introduce a lag in responses, (2) feedback loops between atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere can change the net rate of buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, (3) complex interactions in the atmospheric water balance can change the rate of cloud formation with their persistence, in turn, changing the global albedo and the energy balance, and (4) there is intrusion of other global effects, such as periodic volcanic gas injections to the stratosphere.

  2. Making Climate Change Education Place Based and Relevant: Minnesota's Changing Climate Education Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppleton, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is the environmental issue of our time and it has become increasingly important to develop education materials that are accessible to teachers and effective for teaching students. In order to inspire interest and an understanding of the personal relevance of this complex issue, and with funding allocated through Minnesota's Environment and Natural Resource Trust Fund, the Will Steger Foundation developed Minnesota's Changing Climate curriculum, online classroom, and professional development opportunities. Minnesota's Changing Climate is based on the tenants of environmental and place based education- knowing that deep understanding and connection to this issue begins with a local connection and sense of appreciation towards the natural environment. The Grades 3-8 and 9-12 curricula gives students the opportunity to explore and learn about Minnesota's unique biomes and what a changing climate means for the state through 6 hands on and interdisciplinary lessons. The online classroom features opportunities to interact with Minnesota's four biomes through panoramas and short videos featuring the biomes and ongoing climate research there. During the first two years of this project over 300 educators have attending professional development opportunities on Minnesota's Changing Climate. Evaluation results show that over 90% of educators found the curriculum and online classroom useful for teaching climate change, The project was selected as the Environmental Education Award Recipient for 2012 by Minnesota Environmental Initiative an organization that honors innovative projects that have achieved extraordinary environmental results by harnessing the power of partnership.; Screen shot of Minnesota's Changing Climate online classroom. ;

  3. Terrestrial Water Relations & Climate ChangeTerrestrial Water Relations & Climate Change Jeffrey M Warren, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    species interactions #12;6 Terrestrial Water Relations & Climate Change Soil ­ Root Terrestrial Water Physiology #12;8 Impacts of Climate Change on SPA Atmosphere Plant CO2 Temperature Precipitation Soil1 Terrestrial Water Relations & Climate ChangeTerrestrial Water Relations & Climate Change Jeffrey

  4. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical need. There is also a great need for a better understanding of how soil organisms will respond to climate change because those organisms are incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles. All of these questions are important in trying to understand human health impacts. More information on climate change, soils, and human health issues can be found in Brevik (2012). References Brevik, E.C. 2012. Climate change, soils, and human health. In: E.C. Brevik and L. Burgess (Eds). Soils and human health. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. in press. IPCC. 2007. Summary for policymakers. pp. 1-18. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds). Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  5. The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Bintanja, R.; van der Linden, E. C.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing and projected greenhouse warming clearly manifests itself in the Arctic regions, which warm faster than any other part of the world. One of the key features of amplified Arctic warming concerns Arctic winter warming (AWW), which exceeds summer warming by at least a factor of 4. Here we use observation-driven reanalyses and state-of-the-art climate models in a variety of standardised climate change simulations to show that AWW is strongly linked to winter sea ice retreat through the associated release of surplus ocean heat gained in summer through the ice-albedo feedback (~25%), and to infrared radiation feedbacks (~75%). Arctic summer warming is surprisingly modest, even after summer sea ice has completely disappeared. Quantifying the seasonally varying changes in Arctic temperature and sea ice and the associated feedbacks helps to more accurately quantify the likelihood of Arctic's climate changes, and to assess their impact on local ecosystems and socio-economic activities. PMID:23532038

  6. The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Bintanja, R; van der Linden, E C

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing and projected greenhouse warming clearly manifests itself in the Arctic regions, which warm faster than any other part of the world. One of the key features of amplified Arctic warming concerns Arctic winter warming (AWW), which exceeds summer warming by at least a factor of 4. Here we use observation-driven reanalyses and state-of-the-art climate models in a variety of standardised climate change simulations to show that AWW is strongly linked to winter sea ice retreat through the associated release of surplus ocean heat gained in summer through the ice-albedo feedback (~25%), and to infrared radiation feedbacks (~75%). Arctic summer warming is surprisingly modest, even after summer sea ice has completely disappeared. Quantifying the seasonally varying changes in Arctic temperature and sea ice and the associated feedbacks helps to more accurately quantify the likelihood of Arctic's climate changes, and to assess their impact on local ecosystems and socio-economic activities. PMID:23532038

  7. Impact of Climate Change on Elder Health

    PubMed Central

    Staats, David; Willcox, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Demographers predict human life expectancy will continue to increase over the coming century. These forecasts are based on two critical assumptions: advances in medical technology will continue apace and the environment that sustains us will remain unchanged. The consensus of the scientific community is that human activity contributes to global climate change. That change will degrade air and water quality, and global temperature could rise 11.5°F by 2100. If nothing is done to alter this climatic trajectory, humans will be confronted by a broad spectrum of radical environmental challenges. Historically, children and the elderly adults account for most of the death toll during times of severe environmental stress. This article makes an assessment from a geriatric viewpoint of the adverse health consequences that global climate change will bring to the older segments of future populations in the United States. PMID:24158763

  8. Understanding complex biogeographic responses to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra, Rui; Wethey, David S.; Santos, António M.; Lima, Fernando P.

    2015-08-01

    Predicting the extent and direction of species’ range shifts is a major priority for scientists and resource managers. Seminal studies have fostered the notion that biological systems responding to climate change-impacted variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation) should exhibit poleward range shifts but shifts contrary to that expectation have been frequently reported. Understanding whether those shifts are indeed contrary to climate change predictions involves understanding the most basic mechanisms determining the distribution of species. We assessed the patterns of ecologically relevant temperature metrics (e.g., daily range, min, max) along the European Atlantic coast. Temperature metrics have contrasting geographical patterns and latitude or the grand mean are poor predictors for many of them. Our data suggest that unless the appropriate metrics are analysed, the impact of climate change in even a single metric of a single stressor may lead to range shifts in directions that would otherwise be classified as “contrary to prediction”.

  9. The deep ocean under climate change.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa A; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-13

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems. PMID:26564845

  10. Impact of climate change on elder health.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Bruce A; Staats, David; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-09-01

    Demographers predict human life expectancy will continue to increase over the coming century. These forecasts are based on two critical assumptions: advances in medical technology will continue apace and the environment that sustains us will remain unchanged. The consensus of the scientific community is that human activity contributes to global climate change. That change will degrade air and water quality, and global temperature could rise 11.5°F by 2100. If nothing is done to alter this climatic trajectory, humans will be confronted by a broad spectrum of radical environmental challenges. Historically, children and the elderly adults account for most of the death toll during times of severe environmental stress. This article makes an assessment from a geriatric viewpoint of the adverse health consequences that global climate change will bring to the older segments of future populations in the United States. PMID:24158763

  11. Understanding complex biogeographic responses to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Seabra, Rui; Wethey, David S.; Santos, António M.; Lima, Fernando P.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the extent and direction of species’ range shifts is a major priority for scientists and resource managers. Seminal studies have fostered the notion that biological systems responding to climate change-impacted variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation) should exhibit poleward range shifts but shifts contrary to that expectation have been frequently reported. Understanding whether those shifts are indeed contrary to climate change predictions involves understanding the most basic mechanisms determining the distribution of species. We assessed the patterns of ecologically relevant temperature metrics (e.g., daily range, min, max) along the European Atlantic coast. Temperature metrics have contrasting geographical patterns and latitude or the grand mean are poor predictors for many of them. Our data suggest that unless the appropriate metrics are analysed, the impact of climate change in even a single metric of a single stressor may lead to range shifts in directions that would otherwise be classified as “contrary to prediction”. PMID:26245256

  12. Plateau uplift and climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddiman, W.F. ); Kutzbach, J.E. )

    1991-03-01

    The earth of 40 million years ago was a warm, wet place. Forests abounded; grasslands and deserts were rare. Then the planet began to cool. Regional climate extremes developed. Many causes have been postulated, including continental drift and diminishing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The authors offer a new theory: continental uplift created huge plateaus that altered circulation of the atmosphere. The two largest masses of high, rocky terrain in the Northern Hemisphere today are the area encompassing the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya Mountains and the broad region of the American West centered on the Colorado Plateau. Geologic evidence indicates that these regions rose substantially during the past 40 million years. The authors focused their research on these plateaus.

  13. Spatial planning for adapting to climate change.

    PubMed

    van Walsum, P E V; Runhaar, J; Helming, J F M

    2005-01-01

    During the past decades human interference in regional hydrologic systems has intensified. These systems act as an integrating medium. They link climate, human activities and ecologic processes through groundwater and surface water interactions. For simulating these linkages an integrated regional hydrologic model has been coupled to an ecologic evaluation model. The simulated ecologic effects of climate change on mesotrophic riverine grasslands are clearly positive. Simulation results also indicate a high sensitivity of the peak discharges to the precipitation. For modelling the long-term development of land use and water management an integrated 'bio-economic' model has been constructed. It includes a model for the development of agriculture. Results for the autonomous development in reaction to climate change indicate a strong increase of field drainage by agriculture. This development would substantially reduce the predicted positive effects of climate change on riverine grasslands. The challenge is to guide regional developments in such a manner that opportunities for improving nature are not lost, but that at the same time the peak discharges are kept under control. Flow retardation in the 'fine arteries' of the upstream areas appear to be a viable option for the latter. The bio-economic model can provide help in anticipating on climate change through spatial planning. PMID:15918358

  14. Health Effects of Climate Change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... change may be associated with staple food shortages, malnutrition, and food contamination (of seafood from chemical contaminants, ... pathogens and chemicals, resulting in increased human exposure. Malnutrition, particularly during the prenatal period and early childhood ...

  15. Health Effects of Climate Change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... movement and quality by increasing airborne allergens and pollution, thereby expanding or changing patterns of human exposure ... For example, existing investments in research on air pollution and respiratory disease; characteristics of vector range; and ...

  16. Vegetation: A mechanism of climate change?

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, J.F.; Barron, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    Globally averaged surface temperature has decreased over the last 60 million years and has been attributed to continental shifting, decreasing atmospheric CO2, and changing ocean circulations. However, the cooling mechanism has never been fully determined and is most likely a combination of factors. Global climate models (GCMs) of tropical deforestation have shown that vegetation can play a significant role in local, regional and even global climates through changes in surface energy budgets. Other studies have shown significant feedbacks between the Boreal forest and Northern Hemisphere warmth. These studies imply that realistic vegetation distributions in paleoclimate simulations, as opposed to a uniform distribution, may be necessary. A study using the GENESIS GCM shows that differing vegetation distributions can affect the globally averaged surface temperature by up to 1C and regional temperatures by up to 12C. Knowing the above information about globally averaged surface temperature over time, the effect of vegetation on climate, and the sensitivity of the GENESIS global climate model, what could the effect of realistic vegetation character and distribution changes in earth history have been? A model study of the effect of changes in vegetation character and distribution on climate from the early Miocene to the present was conducted. The Miocene time period was chosen because both grasslands and the tundra biome developed during this period. The effect of a reconstructed Miocene vegetation distribution is compared to a present-day vegetation distribution. The globally averaged surface temperature decreased 1.9C between the two simulations. The surface cooling effect is enhanced at high latitudes due to a stronger snow/albedo effect associated with tundra. The study indicates that changes in vegetation distribution and character caused by biological innovation contributed to cooling in the late Cenozoic, and are a mechanism of climate change. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Weather anomalies affect Climate Change microblogging intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodtsova, T.; Kirilenko, A.

    2012-12-01

    There is a huge gap between the scientific consensus and public understanding of climate change. Climate change has become a political issue and a "hot" topic in mass media that only adds the complexity to forming the public opinion. Scientists operate in scientific terms, not necessarily understandable by general public, while it is common for people to perceive the latest weather anomaly as an evidence of climate change. In 1998 Hansen et al. introduced a concept of an objectively measured subjective climate change indicator, which can relate public feeling that the climate is changing to the observed meteorological parameters. We tested this concept in a simple example of a temperature-based index, which we related to microblogging activity. Microblogging is a new form of communication in which the users describe their current status in short Internet messages. Twitter (http://twitter.com), is currently the most popular microblogging platform. There are multiple reasons, why this data is particularly valuable to the researches interested in social dynamics: microblogging is widely used to publicize one's opinion with the public; has broad, diverse audience, represented by users from many countries speaking different languages; finally, Twitter contains an enormous number of data, e.g., there were 1,284,579 messages related to climate change from 585,168 users in the January-May data collection. We collected the textual data entries, containing words "climate change" or "global warming" from the 1st of January, 2012. The data was retrieved from the Internet every 20 minutes using a specially developed Python code. Using geolocational information, blog entries originating from the New York urbanized area were selected. These entries, used as a source of public opinion on climate change, were related to the surface temperature, obtained from La Guardia airport meteorological station. We defined the "significant change" in the temperature index as deviation of the daily temperature from its 30-year mean exceeding one standard deviation of the mean daily temperatures collected for the same date throughout 1971-2000. In the same way, the days with "significant change" in the number of tweets on climate change were defined. Pearson correlation between the anomalies in blogging intensity and temperature index was 0.28 (significance 0.001, N=174); Spearman's ? = 0.27 (significance 0.001, N=174). At the same time, the number of tweets originating from the entire USA, while following closely the New York frequency numbers (Pearson correlation 0.69), did not demonstrate a significant correlation with the New York area weather: Pearson correlation was 0.14 (significance 0.075); Spearman's ? = 0.14 (significance 0.077).The preliminary analysis has confirmed that the weather anomalies experienced at a certain location is perceived by general public as proxy of climate change and is immediately reflected in the intensity of microblogging discussing climate change.

  18. Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities 

    E-print Network

    Crawford, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-HH-08-12-19.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 858 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-HH-08-12-19.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Climate Change: Some... Scientific and Political Realities Jim Crawford Trane jim.crawford@trane.com www.trane.com Abstract Atmospheric scientists tell us that mankind is changing the climate, and is setting in motion forces that can make essentially irreversible...

  19. Will Biofuel Expansion Mitigate Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobell, D.; Campbell, E.; Field, C.

    2007-12-01

    For biofuels to displace a substantial fraction of fossil fuel consumption, production will have to be scaled up at least an order of magnitude over current levels. The net effect of this expansion on climate will depend not only on the energy inputs and outputs of biofuel production, but also on the climate effects of land-use changes associated with the expansion. We distinguish three types of biofuel related land-cover conversions ­ (1) food crop to biofuels, (2) forest to biofuels, and (3) marginal grassland to biofuels ­ and discuss the potential production and net climate impact for each. We argue that the first two of these may contribute to energy supply but are unlikely to produce significant climate benefits over first 50 years of production, with only marginal lands offering a climate benefit. Using historical land-use datasets to define the current extent of marginal or degraded grasslands, and maps of native net primary production and food crop yield trends to estimate their potential yields, we estimate that ~1 Pg C per year can be attained on these lands, which would provide just 3% of current global energy needs. In addition, we discuss other societal and ecosystem impacts of biofuel expansion, and how these impacts compare to those projected for climate change itself.

  20. 78 FR 52905 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Expedited Changed Circumstances Review, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Low Enriched Uranium From France, 67 FR 6680 (February 13, 2002). foreign utility end...: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 77 FR 19642 (April 2, 2012) (Final... earthquake and tsunami in Japan, the Department extended the 18-month period for the re-exportation of...

  1. Climate change and malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, S W; Birley, M H

    1996-12-01

    There is a consensus among climatologists that our planet is experiencing a progressive rise in surface temperature due to the increased production of "greenhouse" gases. Some of the possible consequences of elevated temperature on malaria transmission are examined in the present review. A simple mathematical model is first used to examine the effect of temperature on the ability of Anopheles maculipennis to transmit vivax malaria. This indicates that small increases in temperature at low temperatures may increase the risk of transmission substantially. This is important, since vulnerable communities, poorly protected by health services, in areas of unstable or no malaria are likely to be at increased risk of future outbreaks. In contrast, areas of stable transmission may be little affected by rising temperature. It is thought that global warming will lead to coastal flooding, changes in precipitation and, indirectly, changes in land use. Just how these changes will effect transmission at a regional level requires an understanding of the ecology of local vectors, since environmental changes which favour malaria transmission in one vector species may reduce it in another. Methods for predicting future changes in malaria in different regions are discussed, highlighting the need for further research in this area. Most importantly, there is a need for researchers to validate the accuracy of the models used for predicting malaria and to confirm the assumptions on which the models are based. PMID:9039269

  2. Climate change, keystone predation, and biodiversity loss.

    PubMed

    Harley, Christopher D G

    2011-11-25

    Climate change can affect organisms both directly via physiological stress and indirectly via changing relationships among species. However, we do not fully understand how changing interspecific relationships contribute to community- and ecosystem-level responses to environmental forcing. I used experiments and spatial and temporal comparisons to demonstrate that warming substantially reduces predator-free space on rocky shores. The vertical extent of mussel beds decreased by 51% in 52 years, and reproductive populations of mussels disappeared at several sites. Prey species were able to occupy a hot, extralimital site if predation pressure was experimentally reduced, and local species richness more than doubled as a result. These results suggest that anthropogenic climate change can alter interspecific interactions and produce unexpected changes in species distributions, community structure, and diversity. PMID:22116885

  3. Institutionalizing Dualism: Complementarities and Change in France and Germany

    E-print Network

    Thelen, Kathleen

    The French and German political economies have been significantly reconfigured over the past two decades. Although the changes have often been more piecemeal than revolutionary, their cumulative effects are profound. The ...

  4. Climatic change on the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Observational data related to climatic change on Venus, earth and Mars are reviewed. The channel features on Mars suggest an early to intermediate epoch of warmer and wetter climate, while the layered polar deposits imply more recent periodic variations in climate. A more reducing atmosphere, which would have produced an enhanced greenhouse effect, may have been responsible for warmer periods in the early history of Mars and earth. Detailed calculations relating atmospheric pressure and composition to the temperature state of Mars are presented. The possibility of a runaway greenhouse effect on Venus resulting in the emplacement of volatiles entirely in the atmosphere is also examined. Periodic variations in orbital eccentricity and axial obliquity may have contributed to alternating glacial and interglacial periods on earth. Mechanisms accounting for the laminated terrain of Mars, and the influence of Martian tectonic distortions on the planet's climate also receive attention.

  5. iSeeChange: Crowdsourced Climate Change Reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapkin, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Directly engaging local communities about their climate change experiences has never been more important. As weather and climate become more unpredictable, these experiences provide a baseline for community decisions, developing adaptation strategies, and planning for the future. Typically, climate change is documented in a top-down fashion: a scientist has a question, makes observations, and publishes a study; in the best case scenario, a journalist reports on the results; if there's time, a local anecdote is sought to put the results in a familiar context. iSeeChange, a public media project funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, reports local environmental change in reverse and turns community questions and conversations with scientists into reported stories that promote opportunities to learn about climate change's affects on the environment and daily life. iSeeChange engages residents of the North Fork Valley region of western Colorado in a multiplatform conversation with scientists about how they perceive their environment is changing through the course of a year - season to season. By bringing together public radio, a mobile reporting and cellular engagement strategy, and a custom crowdsourcing multimedia platform, iSeeChange provides a central access point to collect observations (texts, photographs, voice recordings, and video), organize conversations and interviews with scientists, and report stories online and on air. In this way, iSeeChange is building a dynamic crowdsourced reservoir of information that can increase awareness of environmental problems and potentially disseminate useful information about climate change and successful adaptation strategies. Ultimately, by understanding the community's information needs in a localized question-driven context, the iSeeChange platform presents opportunities for the science community to better understand the value of information and develop better ways to tailor information for communities to use in the future.t;

  6. "Climate change is sure to occur in some form." The study of climate impacts notes

    E-print Network

    "Climate change is sure to occur in some form." 1 #12;The study of climate impacts notes how climate, natural resources, and socioeconomic systems affect each other. 2 #12;3 ntroduction Climate scientists generally agree that humans are changing the climate, and that if we continue pumping carbon

  7. Long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change Instructor: Dr. Igor Kamenkovich, associate professor

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    Long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change Instructor: Dr. Igor Kamenkovich, associate students to learn about existing theories of abrupt climate changes and climate variability on time scales of decades to millennia. The focus is on the physical mechanisms controlling these dramatic climate

  8. NIH Portfolio Analysis on Climate Change and Health

    E-print Network

    Madey, Gregory R.

    these mechanisms, Balbus suggested NIH examine direct impacts on health; impacts on physical, chemical and biologicNIH Portfolio Analysis on Climate Change and Health Total studies that in some way relate to climate change 1,357 > Directly relate to climate change 7 > Examine the climate variables on health 85

  9. Observed climate variability and change of relevance to the biosphere

    E-print Network

    Dai, Aiguo

    Observed climate variability and change of relevance to the biosphere David R. Easterling, Thomas R the current instrumental evidence regarding climate variations and change during the 20th century emphasizing are addressed: (1) Is the climate getting warmer, (2) is the hydrologic cycle changing, and (3) is the climate

  10. June 2008June 2008 2323 Climate Change and

    E-print Network

    Archer, Steven R.

    of Arizona assesses the impacts of climate variability and longer-term climate change on human and natural/land cover change effects on climate or important regional phenomena, such as those controlling monsoonalJune 2008June 2008 2323 Climate Change and Ecosystems of the Southwestern United States By Steven R

  11. Consequences of Climate Change on the Ecogeomorphology of Coastal Wetlands

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    interactions. Many coastal wetlands can adjust to predicted climate change, but human impacts, in combina- tion effects. Keywords Climate change . Ecogeomorphology. Coastal wetlands Introduction Climate affectsConsequences of Climate Change on the Ecogeomorphology of Coastal Wetlands John W. Day & Robert R

  12. Unit References Module 1: The Science of Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Smith, Kate

    from: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/kids/basics/past.html 10. United Nations Framework on Climate164 Unit References Module 1: The Science of Climate Change 1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate change 2007: synthesis report. IPCC Plenary XXVII (Valencia, Spain, 12

  13. ITF CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE MEXICO CITY 4 AUGUST 2010

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    ITF CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE MEXICO CITY 4 AUGUST 2010 DISCUSSION DOCUMENT TRANSPORT WORKERS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE, LOW-CARBON MOBILITY ITF CLIMATE CHANGE WORKING GROUP IN COLLABORATION WITH GLOBAL LABOR INSTITUTE (GLI), SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL AND LABOR RELATIONS, CORNELL UNIVERSITY CLIMATE

  14. Uncertainty and global climate change research

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Weiher, R.

    1994-06-01

    The Workshop on Uncertainty and Global Climate Change Research March 22--23, 1994, in Knoxville, Tennessee. This report summarizes the results and recommendations of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to examine in-depth the concept of uncertainty. From an analytical point of view, uncertainty is a central feature of global climate science, economics and decision making. The magnitude and complexity of uncertainty surrounding global climate change has made it quite difficult to answer even the most simple and important of questions-whether potentially costly action is required now to ameliorate adverse consequences of global climate change or whether delay is warranted to gain better information to reduce uncertainties. A major conclusion of the workshop is that multidisciplinary integrated assessments using decision analytic techniques as a foundation is key to addressing global change policy concerns. First, uncertainty must be dealt with explicitly and rigorously since it is and will continue to be a key feature of analysis and recommendations on policy questions for years to come. Second, key policy questions and variables need to be explicitly identified, prioritized, and their uncertainty characterized to guide the entire scientific, modeling, and policy analysis process. Multidisciplinary integrated assessment techniques and value of information methodologies are best suited for this task. In terms of timeliness and relevance of developing and applying decision analytic techniques, the global change research and policy communities are moving rapidly toward integrated approaches to research design and policy analysis.

  15. The land use climate change energy nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Kline, Keith L

    2011-01-01

    Landscape ecology focuses on the spatial patterns and processes of ecological and human interactions. These patterns and processes are being altered both by changing human resource-management practices and changing climate conditions associated, in part, with increases in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Dominant resource extraction and land management activities involve energy, and the use of fossil energy is one of the key drivers behind increasing greenhouse gas emissions as well as land-use changes. Alternative energy sources (such as wind, solar, nuclear, and bioenergy) are being explored to reduce greenhouse gas emission rates. Yet, energy production, including alternative-energy options, can have a wide range of effects on land productivity, surface cover, albedo, and other factors that affect carbon, water and energy fluxes and, in turn, climate. Meanwhile, climate influences the potential output, relative efficiencies and sustainability of alternative energy sources. Thus climate change, energy choices, and land-use change are linked, and any analysis in landscape ecology that considers one of these factors should consider them all. This analysis explores the implications of those linkages and points out ecological patterns and processes that may be affected by these interactions.

  16. Some guidelines for helping natural resources adapt to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Julius, Susan Herrod; West, Jordan M.; Joyce, Linda A.; Blate, Geoffrey; Peterson, Charles H.; Palmer, Margaret; Keller, Brian D.; Kareiva, Peter; Scott, J. Michael; Griffith, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The changes occurring in mountain regions are an epitome of climate change. The dramatic shrinkage of major glaciers over the past century – and especially in the last 30 years – is one of several iconic images that have come to symbolize climate change. Climate creates the context for ecosystems, and climate variables strongly influence the structure, composition, and processes that characterize distinct ecosystems. Climate change, therefore, is having direct and indirect effects on species attributes, ecological interactions, and ecosystem processes. Because changes in the climate system will continue regardless of emissions mitigation, management strategies to enhance the resilience of ecosystems will become increasingly important. It is essential that management responses to climate change proceed using the best available science despite uncertainties associated with the future path of climate change, the response of ecosystems to climate effects, and the effects of management. Given these uncertainties, management adaptation will require flexibility to reflect our growing understanding of climate change impacts and management effectiveness.

  17. Modeling Renewable Water Resources under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Tang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on renewable water resources are usually assessed using hydrological models driven by downscaled climate outputs from global climate models. Most hydrological models do not have explicit parameterization of vegetation and thus are unable to assess the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on stomatal conductance and water loss of leaf. The response of vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO2 would reduce evaporation and affect runoff and renewable water resources. To date, the impacts of elevated CO2 on vegetation transpiration were not well addressed in assessment of water resources under climate change. In this study, the distributed biosphere-hydrological (DBH) model, which incorporates a simple biosphere model into a distributed hydrological scheme, was used to assess the impacts of elevated CO2 on vegetation transpiration and consequent runoff. The DBH model was driven by five General Circulation Models (GCMs) under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). For each climate scenario, two model experiments were conducted. The atmospheric CO2 concentration in one experiment was assumed to remain at the level of 2000 and increased as described by the RCPs in the other experiment. The results showed that the elevated CO2 would result in decrease in evapotranspiration, increase in runoff, and have considerable impacts on water resources. However, CO2 induced runoff change is generally small in dry areas likely because vegetation is usually sparse in the arid area.

  18. Climatic change at high elevation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Henry F. Diaz

    1998-07-23

    A Workshop on climatic change at high elevation sites was held September 11-15, 1995 in Wengen, Switzerland. The meeting was sponsored by both U.S. (Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) and European (Swiss National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) agencies. The goals of the workshop were to (1) focus the attention of the world climate community on the existence of unique high elevation geophysical records around the world, (2) highlight the value of these observing sites for climate change detection efforts and to help insure the continued support of governments and of relevant institutions in the maintenance of these high elevation data gathering efforts, (3) discuss and evaluate climatic trends that may be present in these records, and to compare the information with available paleoenvironmental records of glaciers, tree-rings and varved sediments from the alpine zones, and (4) discuss and evaluate information about elevational differences in current and projected greenhouse-gas induced climatic changes in coupled General Circulation Models.

  19. Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International

    E-print Network

    Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

    global warming scenario. According to the GFDL model, both the Australian and Kalahari basin dunes likely future dune mobility in the coming decades. We concentrate on the future activity of the currently of stabilized dunes in the world, and changes in their mobility have significant economic implications. Global

  20. Cosmic Rays and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlykin, A. D.; Laken, B. A.; Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2010-09-01

    A survey is made of the evidence for and against the hypothesis that cosmic rays affect cloud cover and thereby surface temperature. The analysis is made for the troposphere in the main and it includes correlations of cloud cover with cosmic ray intensity, Forbush decreases, cosmic ray short period increases and eleven year changes; also included are the electrical effects associated with cosmic rays. A complementary study comprises a search for extra cloud cover associated with terrestrial radon emissions, the Chernobyl accident and nuclear bomb tests. It is concluded that the best estimate of the fraction of (low) cloud cover attributable to a 2% change in cosmic ray intensity is about 0.02%. Insofar as the maximum change in average cosmic ray intensity over the last 50 years is about 0.2%, no more than 0.01% of cloud cover change in this period can have been caused by cosmic rays; their contribution to Global Warming is thus considered to be negligible. Not surprisingly, we find that the effect of cosmic rays on stratospheric cloud is bigger, by a factor of at least ten. In both the troposphere and the stratosphere the cosmic ray effects at the Poles are bigger than average.