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1

Climate change impact, adaptation and associated costs for coastal risks in France  

E-print Network

Climate change impact, adaptation and associated costs for coastal risks in France Gonéri Le.Pons@developpement-durable.gouv.fr Abstract As part of the French climate plan, an inter-ministerial working group called "climate change by climate change and to identify possible mitigation measures. Seven thematic committees were organized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

An estimate of future climate change for western France using a statistical downscaling technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical downscaling procedure based on an analogue technique is used to determine projections for future climate change in western France. Three ocean and atmosphere coupled models are used as the starting point of the regionalization technique. Models' climatology and day to day variability are found to reproduce the broad main characteristics seen in the reanalyses. The response of the

B. Timbal; A. Dufour; B. McAvaney

2003-01-01

3

Quantifying 21st-century France climate change and related uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tackle here the question of past and future climate change at sub-regional or country scale with the example of France. We assess France climate evolution during the 20th and 21st century as simulated by an exhaustive range of global climate simulations. We first show that the large observed warming of the last 30 years can be simulated only if anthropogenic forcings are taken into account. We also suggest that human influence could have made a substantial contribution to the observed 20th century multi-decadal temperature fluctuations. We then show that France averaged annual mean temperature at the end of the 21st century is projected to be on the order of 4.5 K warmer than in the early 20th century under the radiative concentration pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. Summer changes are greater than their winter counterpart (6 K versus 3.7 K). Near-future (2020-2049) changes are on the order of 2.1 K (with 2.6 K in summer and 1.8 K in winter). Model projections also suggest a substantial summer precipitation decrease (-0.6 mm/day), in particular over southern France, and a moderate winter increase, (0.3 mm/day), mostly over the northernmost part of France. Uncertainties about the amplitude of these precipitation changes remain large. We then quantify the various sources of uncertainty and study how their ranking varies with time. We also propose a physically-based metric approach to reduce model uncertainty and illustrate it with the case of summer temperature changes. Finally, timing and amplitude of France climate change in case of a global average 2-K warming are investigated. Aggressive mitigation pathways (such as RCP2.6) are absolutely required to avoid crossing or barely exceeding the 2-K global threshold. However, France climate change requiring adaptation measures is still to be expected even if we achieve to remain below the 2-K global target.

Terray, Laurent; Boé, Julien

2013-03-01

4

Possible effects of climate change on wheat and maize crops in France  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the possible effects of climate modifications induced by increasing trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere, on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water demand in France. CERES-wheat and CERES-maize models are used with two French weather series and soil conditions. Weather variables were varied from present conditions, as simulated by various global climate models (GCMs). This chapter emphasizes the process of model calibration and the consequent uncertainties in final simulated results. Under the simulation conditions: (i) season lengths are shortened under climate change scenarios; (ii) yield decreases under climate change alone, but the decrease can be somewhat counteracted by direct CO{sub 2} effects on the crop, up to a 5 C temperature increase; and (iii) water use decreases under climate changes. Even if the large diversity of French climates and soils prohibits generalization of these results to the entire country, the main conclusions are: (i) under both temperate and Mediterranean climates, winter cereal yields will not be decreased by future conditions, provided that irrigation supply is not limiting under dry conditions and (ii) under temperate climate, maize could take advantage of development phase shrinkage and improve its radiation use efficiency. Changing sowing date produces varying results according to weather scenario, plant, and location. A more precise knowledge of initial soil water or temperature under changing conditions is necessary before optimal agronomic adaptation to future climate can be suggested.

Delecolle, R.; Ruget, F.; Ripoche, D. [INRA, Avignon (France). Unite de Bioclimatologie; Gosse, G. [INRA, Thiveral-Grignon (France). Unite de Bioclimatologie

1995-12-31

5

Holocene climatic changes in the Western Mediterranean, from south-east France to south-east Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holocene climatic changes along coastal regions from south-east France to south-east Spain were studied using pollen ratios. Comparing modern pollen rain, vegetation and climate along selected transects from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean, we obtained threshold values of two different ratios corresponding to the different climatic conditions along the transects. These pollen ratios and threshold values were employed to

Guy Jalut; Augustin Esteban Amat; Louis Bonnet; Thierry Gauquelin; Michel Fontugne

2000-01-01

6

Climate change impact on the management of water resources in the Seine River basin, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is today commonly accepted that adaptation strategies will be needed to cope with the hydrological consequences of projected climate change. The main objective of the IWRM-Net Climaware project is to design adaptation strategies for various socio-economic sectors and evaluate their relevance at the European scale. Within the project, the Seine case study focuses on dam management. The Seine River basin at Paris (43800km²) shows major socio-economic stakes in France. Due to its important and growing demography, the number of industries depending on water resources or located on the river sides, and the developed agricultural sector, the consequences of droughts and floods may be dramatic. To mitigate the extreme hydrological events, a system of four large multi-purpose reservoirs was built in the upstream part of the basin between 1949 and 1990. The IPCC reports indicate modifications of the climate conditions in northern France in the future. An increase of mean temperature is very likely, and the rainfall patterns could be modified: the uncertainty on future trends is still high, but summer periods could experience lower quantities of rainfall. Anticipating these changes are crucial: will the present reservoirs system be adapted to these conditions? Here we propose to evaluate the capacity of the Seine River reservoirs to withstand future projected climate conditions using the current management rules. For this study a modeling chain was designed. We used two hydrological models: GR4J, a lumped model used as a benchmark, and TGR, a semi-distributed model. TGR was tuned to explicitly account for reservoir management rules. Seven climatic models forced by the moderate A1B IPCC scenario and downscaled using a weather-type method (DSCLIM, Pagé et al., 2009), were used. A quantile-quantile type method was applied to correct bias in climate simulations. A model to mimic the way reservoirs are managed was also developed. The evolution of low flows, high flows and annual flows were assessed under natural condition (i.e. without the inclusion of the reservoirs in the models). Then, the impact of reservoirs and their management were accounted for in the modeling chain. Results will be discussed relatively to future hydro-climatic conditions and current mitigation objectives within the basin. Reference: Pagé, C., L. Terray et J. Boé, 2009: dsclim: A software package to downscale climate scenarios at regional scale using a weather-typing based statistical methodology. Technical Report TR/CMGC/09/21, SUC au CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No1875, Toulouse, France. Link : http://www.cerfacs.fr/~page/dsclim/dsclim_doc-latest.pdf

Dorchies, David; Thirel, Guillaume; Chauveau, Mathilde; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Perrin, Charles; Dehay, Florine

2013-04-01

7

Using a stochastic hydrological model to study the sensitivity of flood frequency to climate change (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great interest in climate change during the past 20 years has led to a quasi unanimous conclusion for scientists: the Earth's climate is changing (IPCC 2013). It is important to know if this global change could lead to an increase in extreme events in order to prevent hydrological risks. In this work, the analysis of the climate change impact on flood was studied by a chain formed by projections (provided by climate models under SRES scenarios) and a stochastic hydrological model. The National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture (Irstea) has developed an original method for flood frequency analysis applied on the whole French territory: the SHYREG method (Arnaud et al., 2008). It generates sequentially a lot of rainfall events at an hourly time step for which a rainfall-runoff transformation is performed. The stochastic rainfall generator has three parameters which are estimated by average, not by extreme, values of daily climatic characteristics. Few parameters enable to run the rainfall-runoff model. These parameters have been regionalized on the whole French territory in order to estimate rainfall/flood quantiles at the spatial resolution of 1 km². The rainfall model shows a good skill in reproducing extreme rainfall frequency (Carreau et al., 2013) and has been already used in a climate change context to detect trends in extreme rainfall (Cantet et al., 2011). (Boé at al., 2006) propose climate projections on France at a 8km horizontal spatial resolution with daily rainfall available for two periods: reference period (1981-2000) and the end of the 21th century (2081-2100) under three SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2). The parameters of the rainfall model can be easily estimated for the different periods and scenarios and so, the sensitivity of flood frequency to the climate change can be studied under some hypothesis. First, the performance of the climatic model to reproduce extreme rainfall has been tested throughout the SHYREG method. Then projections were used to estimate flood frequency in a possible future. In the first case, the rainfall-runoff relation is assumed to be stationary -ie- only rainfall parameters change between two periods. This configuration allows focusing only on the impact of a possible rainfall change on the flood frequency. Then different scenarios concerning the parametrisation of the rainfall-runoff model are proposed to underline the consequences of changes in the rainfall-runoff transformation on the flood frequency estimation in the future. Arnaud, P., et al.. : Regionalization of an hourly rainfall generating model over metropolitan France for flood hazard estimation. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 2008, 53 (1), 34-4 Boé, J.; Terray, L.; Habets, F. & Martin, E. : A simple statistical-dynamical downscaling scheme based on weather types and conditional resampling, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, American Geophysical Union, 2006, 111, D23106 Carreau, J.; Neppel L. Neppel, L. P. & Cantet, P. : Extreme Rainfall Frequency Analysis in the South of France : Comparisons of Three Regional Methods, Accepted in Journal de la Société Française de Statistique, 2013 Cantet, P.; Bacro, J. & Arnaud, P. : Using a rainfall stochastic generator to detect trends in extreme rainfall, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 2011, 25(3), 429-441

Cantet, Philippe; Arnaud, Patrick

2014-05-01

8

How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while expected impacts of climate changes on the Thau system were expected to be linked to water balance depletion in the catchment, the main threats are now linked to the impact on water quality of the introduction of the Rhône river waters within the system. This study is conducted in the CLIMB EU-FP7 project (2010-2014).

La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

2014-05-01

9

Climate Climate change change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile pastoralists are amongst those most at risk to climate change, yet they are amongst those with the greatest potential to adapt to climate change, and they may also of- fer one of the greatest hopes for mitigating climate change. The vulnerability that is associated with climate change in some pastoral environments has its roots in the restriction of tried

Jonathan Davies; Michele Nori

2008-01-01

10

The study of climate suitability for grapevine cropping using ecoclimatic indicators under climatic change conditions in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic conditions play a fundamental role in the suitability of geographical areas for cropping. In the case of grape, climatic conditions such as water supply and temperatures have an effect of grape quality. In the context of climate change, we could expect changes in overall climatic conditions and so, in grape quality. We proposed to use GETARI (Generic Evaluation Tool of Ecoclimatic Indicators) in order to assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape (Vitis vinifera) regarding its quality. GETARI calculates an overall climate suitability index at the annual scale, from a designed evaluation tree. This aggregation tool proposes the major ecophysiological processes taking place during phenological periods, together with the climatic effects that are known to affect their achievement. The effects of climate on the ecophysiological processes are captured by the ecoclimatic indicators, which are agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. They give information about crop response to climate through ecophysiological or agronomic thresholds. These indicators are normalized and aggregated according to aggregation rules in order to compute an overall climate index. To assess the future climate suitability of two French sites for grape regarding its quality, we designed an evaluation tree from GETARI, by considering the effect of water deficit between flowering and veraison and the effect of water deficit, water excess, heat stress, temperature ranges between day and night, night temperatures and mean temperatures between veraison and harvest. The two sites are located in Burgundy and Rhone valley which are two of the most important vineyards in the world. Ecoclimatic indicators are calculated using phenological cycle of the crop. For this reason we chose Grenache and Pinot Noir as long and short cycle varieties respectively. Flowering, veraison and harvest dates were simulated (Parker et al., 2011; Yiou et al., 2012). Daily climatic data from 1950 to 2100 were simulated by the global climate model ARPEGE forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario were used (data from CERFACS SCRATCH08 - http://www.drias-climat.fr), using the quantile-quantile downscaling method. The results provide information about the climate suitability for grapevine quality in the future and can be used for anticipating and adapting viticulture. This work is carried out under the research program ORACLE (Opportunities and Risks of Agrosystems & forests in response to CLimate, socio-economic and policy changEs in France (and Europe). Parker, A. K., de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G., van Leeuwen, C., Chuine, I., 2011. General phenological model to characterise the timing of flowering and veraison of Vitis vinifera L. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. 17, 206-216. Yiou, P., de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G., Chuine, I., Daux, V., Garnier, E., Viovy, N., van Leeuwen, C., Parker, A. K., Boursiquot, J. M., 2012. Continental atmospheric circulation over Europe during the Little Ice Age inferred from grape harvest dates. Climate of the Past. 8, 577-588.

Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Caubel, J.; Cufi, J.; Huard, F.; Launay, M.; deNoblet, N.

2013-12-01

11

Climate change and viticulture in Mediterranean climates: the complex response of socio-ecosystems. A comparative case study from France and Australia (1955-2040)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wine industry is very sensitive to extreme weather events, especially to temperatures above 35°C and drought. In a context of global climate change, Mediterranean climate regions are predicted to experience higher variability in rainfall and temperatures and an increased occurrence of extreme weather events. Some viticultural systems could be particularly at risk in those regions, considering their marginal position in the growth climatic range of Vitis vinifera, the long commercial lifespan of a vineyard, the high added-value of wine and the volatile nature of global markets. The wine industry, like other agricultural systems, is inserted in complex networks of climatic and non-climatic (other physical, economical, social and legislative) components, with constant feedbacks. We use a socio-ecosystem approach to analyse the adaptation of two Mediterranean viticultural systems to recent and future increase of extreme weather events. The present analysis focuses on two wine regions with a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (CSb type in the Köppen classification): Côtes-du-Roussillon in southern France and McLaren Vale in southern Australia. Using climate data from two synoptic weather stations, Perpignan (France) and Adelaide (Australia), with time series running from 1955 to 2010, we highlight changes in rainfall patterns and an increase in the number of days with Tx >35°c since the last three decades in both regions. Climate models (DRIAS project data for France and CSIRO Mk3.5 for Australia) project similar trends in the future. To date, very few projects have focused on an international comparison of the adaptive capacity of viticultural systems to climate change with a holistic approach. Here, the analysis of climate data was complemented by twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews with key actors of the two regional wine industries, in order to analyse adaptation strategies put in place regarding recent climate evolution. This mixed-methods approach allows for a comprehensive assessment of adaptation capacity of the two viticultural systems to future climate change. The strategies of grape growers and wine producers focus on maintaining optimal yields and a constant wine style adapted to markets in a variable and uncertain climate. Their implementation and efficiency depend strongly on non-climatic factors. Thus, adaptation capacity to recent and future climate change depends strongly on adaptation to other non-climatic changes.

Lereboullet, A.-L.; Beltrando, G.; Bardsley, D. K.

2012-04-01

12

Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

13

The 2003 Heat Wave in France: Dangerous Climate Change Here and Now  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an analysis of the French episode of heat wave in 2003, this article highlights how heat wave dangers result from the intricate association of natural and social factors. Unusually high temperatures, as well as socioeconomic vulnerability, along with social attenuation of hazards, in a general context where the anthropogenic contribution to climate change is becoming more plausible, led to

Marc Poumadère; Claire Mays; Sophie Le Mer; Russell Blong

2005-01-01

14

Changing Climates  

E-print Network

and vegetation. Climate Change ? EPA?s Climate Change Site http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ Comprehensive information on the issue of climate change, including science, U.S. climate policy, greenhouse emissions, health and environmental effects... on the comment section. L ong before climate change and global warming became such a popular topic, scientists were researching the different aspects of the world?s changing climate. In Texas alone, dozens of scientists from different universities...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

15

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA explains the difference between weather and climate and features groundbreaking analysis revealing that Earth's climate has changed much faster than previously believed.

2005-10-21

16

Potential impact of climate change on fire meteorological danger in France : observed trends and projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire meteo indices provide efficient guidance tools for the prevention, early warning and surveillance of forest fires. These indices are only based on meteorological input data. The underlying approach is to exploit meteorological information as fully as possible to model the soil water content, biomass condition and fire danger. Fire meteorological danger is estimated by Météo-France at national level through

E. Cloppet; M. Regimbeau

2009-01-01

17

Can metric-based approaches really improve multi-model climate projections? The case of summer temperature change in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-model ensemble mean is generally used as a default approach to estimate climate change signals, based on the implicit hypothesis that all models provide equally credible projections. As this hypothesis is unlikely to be true, it is in theory possible to obtain more realistic projections by giving more weight to more realistic models according to a relevant metric, if such a metric exists. This alternative approach however raises many methodological issues. In this study, a methodological framework based on a perfect model approach is described. It is intended to provide some useful elements of answer to these methodological issues. The basic idea is to take a random climate model and treat it as if it were the truth (or "synthetic observations"). Then, all the other members from the multi-model ensemble are used to derive thanks to a metric-based approach a posterior estimate of the future change, based on the synthetic observation of the metric. This posterior estimate can be compared to the synthetic observation of future change to evaluate the skill of the approach. This general framework is applied to future summer temperature change in France. A process-based metric, related to cloud-temperature interactions is tested, with different simple statistical methods to combine multiple model results (e.g. weighted average, model selection, regression.) Except in presence of large observational errors in the metric, metric-based methods using the metric related to cloud temperature interactions generally lead to large reductions of errors compared to the ensemble mean, but the sensitivity to methodological choices is important.

Boé, Julien; Terray, Laurent

2015-01-01

18

A method for modeling the effects of climate and land use changes on erosion and sustainability of soil in a Mediterranean watershed (Languedoc, France).  

PubMed

Global climate and land use changes could strongly affect soil erosion and the capability of soils to sustain agriculture and in turn impact regional or global food security. The objective of our study was to develop a method to assess soil sustainability to erosion under changes in land use and climate. The method was applied in a typical mixed Mediterranean landscape in a wine-growing watershed (75 km(2)) within the Languedoc region (La Peyne, France) for two periods: a first period with the current climate and land use and a second period with the climate and land use scenarios at the end of the twenty-first century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B future rainfall scenarios from the Météo France General circulation model was coupled with four contrasting land use change scenarios that were designed using a spatially-explicit land use change model. Mean annual erosion rate was estimated with an expert-based soil erosion model. Soil life expectancy was assessed using soil depth. Soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy were combined into a sustainability index. The median simulated soil erosion rate for the current period was 3.5 t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 273 years, showing a low sustainability of soils. For the future period with the same land use distribution, the median simulated soil erosion rate was 4.2 t/ha/year and the soil life expectancy was 249 years. The results show that soil erosion rate and soil life expectancy are more sensitive to changes in land use than to changes in precipitation. Among the scenarios tested, institution of a mandatory grass cover in vineyards seems to be an efficient means of significantly improving soil sustainability, both in terms of decreased soil erosion rates and increased soil life expectancies. PMID:25460424

Paroissien, Jean-Baptiste; Darboux, Frédéric; Couturier, Alain; Devillers, Benoît; Mouillot, Florent; Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves

2015-03-01

19

Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather can change many times a day. Climate.the sum of weather.changes slowly, over decades and centuries, but it can change\\u000a abruptly with large volcanic eruptions, instabilities in ocean currents, or meteorite crashes. The dramatic 1815 Tambora eruption\\u000a spewed 100 km3 of ash, causing “a year without a summer” to cool Earth by 4°C. Cooling from volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols must

David Hafemeister

20

A multi-model ensemble approach for assessment of climate change impact on surface winds in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical downscaling of 14 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCM) is presented to assess potential\\u000a changes of the 10 m wind speeds in France. First, a statistical downscaling method is introduced to estimate daily mean 10 m\\u000a wind speed at specific sites using general circulation model output. Daily 850 hPa wind field has been selected as the large\\u000a scale circulation predictor. The method

Julien Najac; Julien Boé; Laurent Terray

2009-01-01

21

Climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

But there are many reasons to question the wisdom of the Kyoto Protocol's approach to climate change policy, including questions about the scientific grounding of the protocol; questions about the feasibility of the proposed implementation mechanisms; questions about the efficacy of those measures; questions about the adverse consequences of diverting resources to address highly uncertain risks using tools with uncertain

Staffordshire County Council; Anthony J. Richardson; RICHARD MCCANN; HOWARD AYLESWORTH; MARY L. VIGILANTE

1974-01-01

22

Can metric-based approaches really improve multi-model climate projections? A perfect model framework applied to summer temperature change in France.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble approaches for climate change projections have become ubiquitous. Because of large model-to-model variations and, generally, lack of rationale for the choice of a particular climate model against others, it is widely accepted that future climate change and its impacts should not be estimated based on a single climate model. Generally, as a default approach, the multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM) is considered to provide the best estimate of climate change signals. The MMEM approach is based on the implicit hypothesis that all the models provide equally credible projections of future climate change. This hypothesis is unlikely to be true and ideally one would want to give more weight to more realistic models. A major issue with this alternative approach lies in the assessment of the relative credibility of future climate projections from different climate models, as they can only be evaluated against present-day observations: which present-day metric(s) should be used to decide which models are "good" and which models are "bad" in the future climate? Once a supposedly informative metric has been found, other issues arise. What is the best statistical method to combine multiple models results taking into account their relative credibility measured by a given metric? How to be sure in the end that the metric-based estimate of future climate change is not in fact less realistic than the MMEM? It is impossible to provide strict answers to those questions in the climate change context. Yet, in this presentation, we propose a methodological approach based on a perfect model framework that could bring some useful elements of answer to the questions previously mentioned. The basic idea is to take a random climate model in the ensemble and treat it as if it were the truth (results of this model, in both past and future climate, are called "synthetic observations"). Then, all the other members from the multi-model ensemble are used to derive thanks to a metric-based approach a posterior estimate of climate change, based on the synthetic observation of the metric. Finally, it is possible to compare the posterior estimate to the synthetic observation of future climate change to evaluate the skill of the method. The main objective of this presentation is to describe and apply this perfect model framework to test different methodological issues associated with non-uniform model weighting and similar metric-based approaches. The methodology presented is general, but will be applied to the specific case of summer temperature change in France, for which previous works have suggested potentially useful metrics associated with soil-atmosphere and cloud-temperature interactions. The relative performances of different simple statistical approaches to combine multiple model results based on metrics will be tested. The impact of ensemble size, observational errors, internal variability, and model similarity will be characterized. The potential improvements associated with metric-based approaches compared to the MMEM is terms of errors and uncertainties will be quantified.

Boé, Julien; Terray, Laurent

2014-05-01

23

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new report from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Marine Conservation Biology Institute argues that rising temperatures have impacted the world's oceans to a far greater extent than previously acknowledged. Addressing topics such as sea-level rise, ocean circulation, coral reefs, sea birds and invertebrates, as well as the increasing threats to Salmon, the report predicts a dangerous chain reaction in marine ecosystems if global warming continues unabated. On the positive side, it also argues that decisive actions now to reduce pollution can slow the warming and preserve the world's oceans. Accessible from the WWF Climate Change page, the full text of the report is available in .pdf, Word 6.0, and HTML versions. A summary is also provided.

24

Climate Change Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources BoardBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

25

Climate Change Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change as approved Prepared by the California AirBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

26

Plant improvement Winter climatic comparison between France  

E-print Network

Plant improvement Winter climatic comparison between France and New Zealand: effects of frost in the field before the 1987/1988 winter at all sites and also in spring 1988 at Angers. Plant death to have been derived from plants collected at lower latitude and low altitude sites. Popula- tions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change and climate variability has received considerable attention from the scientific community in recent decades and has led to a better understanding of various climate phenomena and driving mechanisms. This increased understanding of climate has prompted engineers and policy makers to as...

28

Climate change action plan  

E-print Network

Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing

29

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather is notoriously unpredictable; however, climate descriptions, which identify average and normal temperatures and precipitation levels, tend to be perceived as stable, at least over time scales that humans can easily relate to. New evidence suggests that hasn't always been the case. This video segment describes climate data, obtained from ice cores drilled into the Greenland Ice Sheet, that suggest the Earth has undergone dramatic climate shifts in relatively short spans of time. The segment is five minutes forty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

30

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is intended to describe the differences between weather and climate. It includes sections about sky, sea, ice, land, life, and people. Each section has a discussion of the human impact on that part of the environment.

2009-05-04

31

CONSIDERATIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

CONSIDERATIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY ADAPTATION ON THE NAVAJO NATION March 2014 Julie Nania & Karen Cozzetto, et. al #12;Considerations for Climate Change and Variability Adaptation provided information for and authored the Framework Tribal Climate Change Adaptation Report

Neff, Jason

32

Forest plant community changes during 1989-2007 in response to climate warming in the Jura Mountains (France and Switzerland)  

E-print Network

Mountains (France and Switzerland) J. Lenoir, J.C. Ge´ gout, J.L. Dupouey, D. Bert & J.-C. Svenning Abstract, lenoir.john@gmail. com) & Ge´ gout, J.C. (jcgegout@yahoo.fr): AgroParis- Tech, UMR 1092 Agro

Bert, Didier

33

Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?  

E-print Network

Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate

Pan, Feifei

34

Climate Change and Transportation  

E-print Network

1 Climate Change and Transportation Addressing Climate Change in the Absence of Federal Guidelines;6 WSDOT Efforts · Climate Change Team · Project Level GHG Approach · Planning Level GHG Approach · Alternative Fuels Corridor · Recent legislation and research #12;7 WSDOT Efforts: Climate Change Team

Minnesota, University of

35

Climate Change Schools Project...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

McKinzey, Krista

2010-01-01

36

Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994 that will address climate change. Scientists tell us that the climate of the earth is warming, and that the warmingCampus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CAMPUS Southwestern Pennsylvania Program

Attari, Shahzeen Z.

37

programs in climate change  

E-print Network

existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change

38

"Managing Department Climate Change"  

E-print Network

"Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

Sheridan, Jennifer

39

Climate-driven changes in lake conditions during late MIS 3 and MIS 2: a high-resolution geochemical record from Les Echets, France  

E-print Network

Climate-driven changes in lake conditions during late MIS 3 and MIS 2: a high., Andrieu-Ponel, V. & Ampel, L.: Climate-driven changes in lake conditions during late MIS 3 and MIS 2, University of Victoria, Department of Geography, Victoria, BC, V8W 3R4 Canada; Svante Bj ¨orck, Lund

Wohlfarth, Barbara

40

Abrupt Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a broad introduction to the subject of abrupt climate change. It cites several historical examples of climate change and their impact on human civilization. In addition, some of the current questions about climate are presented including the drying of the Sahel since the 1960s and changes in the El Nino pattern. The site includes links to a question and answer feature, paleoclimate research that focuses on how and why abrupt climate change events occurred in the recent past, and an explanation of a joint observational and modeling approach to climate change. There is also a link to the Climate Kids Corner with on-line activities.

41

Climate Change and Biodiverstiy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes climate change due to human activities and natural factors; future scenarios due to global warming; and how climate change will impact ecosystems and biodiversity. It includes information on political activity such as avoidance, mitigation and adaptation as a response to climate change. Current projects of the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre( UNEP-WCMC) involving involving climate change migration and adaptation and impact on the ecosystem services.

42

Global Climate Change Exploratorium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, funded by NSF, is the home page for the Global Climate Change research explorer. Multicolor tabs at the top of the page link to further information and visualizations (graphs, charts, pictures, etc.) for climate change resources in each of the Earth's spheres, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and global effects of climate change.

The Exploratorium

43

The Changing Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the global change of climate. Presents the trend of climate change with graphs. Describes mathematical climate models including expressions for the interacting components of the ocean-atmosphere system and equations representing the basic physical laws governing their behavior. Provides three possible responses on the change. (YP)

Schneider, Stephen H.

1989-01-01

44

The Mathematics Climate Change  

E-print Network

;Evaluating global warming #12;The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) nds that human - inducedThe Mathematics of Climate Change Graciela Chichilnisky UNESCO Professor of Mathematics January 7 & 8, 2008 #12;Climate Change is a New Phenomenon Notoriously di cult to model mathematically

Zeeman, Mary Lou

45

Environment and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE #12;The opinions expressed;Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE Edited by Frank Laczko and Christine with with the financial support of #12;3 Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence Contents

Galles, David

46

Forest Research: Climate Change  

E-print Network

Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

47

Abrupt Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur for many reasons, it is conceivable that human forcing of climate change is increasing the probability of large, abrupt events. Were such an event to recur, the economic and ecological impacts

R. B. Alley; J. Marotzke; W. D. Nordhaus; J. T. Overpeck; D. M. Peteet; R. A. Pielke Jr; R. T. Pierrehumbert; P. B. Rhines; T. F. Stocker; L. D. Talley; J. M. Wallace

2003-01-01

48

Climate Change Workshop 2007  

E-print Network

1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

49

International Finance and Climate Change  

E-print Network

International Finance and Climate Change Thursday, October 17, 2013 Breakfast ­ 8:30 a Principal Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Group at International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group Vladimir Stenek Senior Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Department of the International

Zhang, Junshan

50

Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry,

B. Metz; O. Davidson; P. Bosch; R. Dave; L. Meyer

2007-01-01

51

Is Climate Change Happening?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this lesson, the guiding Concept Question is: What is climate change and how does climate relate to greenhouse gas concentrations over time? This activity is the second lesson in a nine-lesson module 'Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change' produced by the International Year of Chemistry project (2011).

King's Centre for Visualization in Science

52

Atmospheric circulation climate changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the atmospheric circulation in climate change is examined. A review is given of the information available in the past record on the atmosheric circulation and its role in climate change, firstly at the surface via sea level pressure in both the northern and southern hemispheres and secondly for the free atmosphere. As with most climate information, the

Kevin E. Trenberth

1995-01-01

53

IISDnet: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) provides this site to present its knowledge base for climate change and adaptation. The knowledge base includes links to global projects on climate change, policy documents and research reports. The e-newsletter, Climate Canada, is accessible from this site as well.

54

Global Climatic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed.

Richard A. Houghton; George M. Woodwell

1989-01-01

55

Changes in planktic and benthic foraminifer assemblages in the Gulf of Lions, off south France: Response to climate and sea level change from MIS 6 to MIS 11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary study involving micropaleontological and geochemical tools was carried out in borehole PRGL1 (Promess 1), with the aim of reconstructing the impact of climate change and sea level variation between 133 ka and 406 ka in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions. We used factor analysis to obtain three main benthic assemblages related to eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oxygenated environments; planktic foraminifers were grouped as warm-water and cold-turbulent species. These results were compared with records of CaCO3 and major and trace elements (Al, Ca, K, Sr) as well as the C/N ratio of organic matter. Power and cross-spectral analysis showed a straightforward relationship between precession minima and thermal stratification of the water column as well as the occurrence of eutrophic bottom conditions during lowstand periods and mesotrophic environments at times of highstand. These eutrophic-mesotrophic oscillations, usually driven by global eustatic change, also involved regional variations in CaCO3 source to this environment. During periods of precession maxima, enhancement of northwesterly winds increased primary productivity by mixing, enhancing the percentage of cold-turbulent species in the water column and the proportion of oxygenated benthic species on the bottom. During interglacial stages, these events were recorded by lower biogenic carbonate at the expense of higher silicate-related components most likely due to a higher supply from Pyrenees rivers. The record of oxygenated benthic species can be a good proxy to monitor past changes in Winter Intermediate Water dynamics driven by northwesterly winds.

Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Filippelli, Gabriel; Flores, José Abel; Berné, Serge

2013-04-01

56

Messaging climate change uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is full of uncertainty and the messengers of climate science are not getting the uncertainty narrative right. To communicate uncertainty one must first understand it, and then avoid repeating the mistakes of the past.

Cooke, Roger M.

2015-01-01

57

11 CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

Information collected over many years at northern climate stations, suggests that the climate in the Mackenzie Delta and the Mackenzie Valley region might be changing. Communities and other stakeholders are concerned about the potential

unknown authors

58

Climate change changing hazards?  

E-print Network

, Brussels How does the climate system work? sun heats surface (land + ocean), mainly in tropics atmosphere = -15°C surface heats atmosphere warm atmosphere gives extra heating => Tglob = +15°C "Greenhouse effect" #12;21.03.2012 Andreas Sterl, Insurance Strategy, Brussels Greenhouse gases only 1

Stoffelen, Ad

59

Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent changes in the Earth's climate. Summarizes reports on changes related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, sea level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the changes. Lists 16 references. (YP)

Hall, Dorothy K.

1989-01-01

60

Responding to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the ninth and final lesson in a series of lessons about climate change. This lesson focuses on the various activities that humans can do to mitigate the effects of climate change. This includes information on current and predicted CO2 emission scenarios across the globe, alternative energy sources, and how people are currently responding to climate change. Importantly, this lesson is motivating in showing students that they can make a difference.

King's Centre for Visualization in Science

61

Climate Change Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experts Jason Shogren and Michael Toman wrote this discussion paper (00-22) on the economics of climate change policy, recently posted on the Resources for the Future (RFF) Website. The paper (.pdf format) examines the risks of climate change, the benefits of protection from climate change, and the costs of alternative protection policies. Also included is a summary of key policy lessons and knowledge gaps.

62

Our Changing Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,…

Newhouse, Kay Berglund

2007-01-01

63

Communicating Urban Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of climate change. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down climate change. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to climate change requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand climate change and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic climate change. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with climate scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about climate change and its impacts on urban audiences. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about climate change. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused climate education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about climate science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global climate change in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of models for community programming and this session will present early results of these efforts while engaging participants in exploring approaches to connecting urban communities and their local concerns to the issues of global climate change.

Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership

2011-12-01

64

Climate change. Uncertainty and climate change assessments.  

PubMed

Clear and quantitative discussion of uncertainties is critical for public policy making on climate change. The recently completed report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessed the uncertainty in its findings and forecasts. The uncertainty assessment process of the IPCC should be improved in the future by using a consistent approach to quantifying uncertainty, focusing the quantification on the few key results most important for policy making. The uncertainty quantification procedure should be fully documented, and if expert judgment is used, a specific list of the experts consulted should be included. PMID:11463897

Reilly, J; Stone, P H; Forest, C E; Webster, M D; Jacoby, H D; Prinn, R G

2001-07-20

65

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air ResourcesBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

66

Climate Change and Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human civilisations have for millennia depended on the stability of groundwater resources to survive dry or unreliable climates.\\u000a While groundwater supplies are buffered against short-term effects of climate variability, they can be impacted over longer\\u000a time frames through changes in rainfall, temperature, snowfall, melting of glaciers and permafrost and vegetation and land-use\\u000a changes. Groundwater provides an archive of past climate

Catherine E. Hughes; Dioni I. Cendón; Mathew P. Johansen; Karina T. Meredith

67

Alleviating climate change Alleviating climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing climate change will require dramatic policy shifts in the fields of energy, livestock production and forest management. The following paper summarises where we are now and what we need to do, with an emphasis on how multilateral organisations like The World Bank can help to address the challenges ahead.

Robert Goodland; Simon Counsell

2008-01-01

68

Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L. (eds.)

2007-07-01

69

Climate Change Review of Muller's chapter on Climate Change from  

E-print Network

Climate Change · Review of Muller's chapter on Climate Change from Physics for Future Society) controversy on climate change (e.g. resignation of Hal Lewis, Ivar Giaever and other notable. #12;Some climate changes basics · IPCC = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change · The IPCC

Browder, Tom

70

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

Hulme, Mike

71

Coastal Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As climate changes, dynamic coastal regions are experiencing a wide range of impacts. Sea levels, ocean acidification, sea surface temperatures, ocean heat, and ocean circulation have all been changing in ways unseen for thousands of years. Arctic sea ice melted significantly more during summers in the last 30 years, and storms are intensifying. Coastal ecosystems stand to be damaged, and coasts will likely erode from rising sea levels, intensified storm surges, and flooding that climate change may amplify. Coastal communities will need to prepare adaptation strategies to cope, and many who live or work in coastal regions are wondering what climate change might mean for them. This module provides an overview of the impacts coastal regions are experiencing and may continue to experience as a result of Earth’s changing climate. A video series within the module demonstrates effective strategies for communicating climate science.

2014-09-14

72

Geochemical risk assessment of a case study of climate change adaptation policy: the managed realignment of an island in the Gironde Estuary (SW France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last millennium, poldering had consisted to reclaim land from the sea by pumping and creating dike to develop, for example, agricultural lands (e.g. tidal marshes, estuarine island). During 1980's, gain land from the sea stopped in Europe because of the concern of rising sea level and for better controlling flood events. This study aims at evaluating the impact of an accidental realignment due to a dam-break on the "Ile Nouvelle" in the Gironde Estuary (France) during the "Xynthia" storm (27-28 February 2010). After this accident, the General Council of Gironde and the national office for coastal territory preservation ("Conservatoire du Littoral"), which own this island, have adopted a new policy of managed realignment allowing soil submersion by estuarine water during each high tide in order to promote rehabilitation of a wetland ecosystem. This management policy has resulted in the re-inundation of formerly agricultural embanked soils. The regular tidal re-inundation of formerly agricultural embanked soils has induced strong biological and morphological changes (mechanical erosion, siltation). Based on 50 soils samples, spatial distribution of priority metal contaminants (Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Cd, Pb and Hg) was conducted using GIS (Arcview®). Metal concentrations were compared to local geochemical background measured at the bottom of a sediment core in the Gironde Estuary. Only a moderate Cd enrichment was observed (~2 to 7 times) and attributed to former deliberate submersion of vineyard soils on the island to fight off the damage caused by Phylloxera. Leaching experiments simulating episodic immersion during winter (salinity 0) and summer (salinity 12) were performed for investigating metal reactivity during soil suspension. Part of Cu and As were released from the soils at whatever salinity, whereas Cd release occurred only for salinity 12. Such desorption processes present potential geochemical risk to the Gironde Estuary. In contrast, during winter submersion events the studied soils would act as Cd sinks, adsorption being the dominating process. Coupling Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and 2 multi-parameters probes (OBS and SMATCH) during 2 spring-tide cycles allowed estimating residual metal fluxes, suggesting that under these conditions the Ile Nouvelle acts as a metal sink receiving ~5 kg of Cd, 440 kg of Cu et 480 kg of As. A bathymetry mapping of the corridor (mechanical erosion of the de-poldering area) was used to estimate the annual sedimentary and metals fluxes exported due to its erosion. Annual fluxes related to corridor erosion, compared to fluxes into the Gironde Estuary are significant for Cu and As. With climate change adaptation policies, managed realignment is becoming more common in the future. Consequently, it will be necessary before this management policy to assess the geochemical risk of the re-inundation of formerly embanked soils.

Ivanovsky, Anastasia; Coynel, Alexandra; Kessaci, Kahina; Kervella, Stéphane; Curti, Cécile; Sottolichio, Aldo; Blanc, Gérard

2014-05-01

73

Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

74

Modeling Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding global climate change is challenging, even for adults, yet having an understanding of this topic is consequential for the future. In this activity, middle school students learn about global climate change using models that allow them to make predictions, observations, and then explain mechanisms for climate change. Component ideas include change over time, deep time, and accumulation. Students are asked to act as advisers on how to lower energy use, and refine their understanding of how and why this is important, before testing their ideas and finally revising their advice.

Vanessa Svihla

75

Modern global climate change.  

PubMed

Modern climate change is dominated by human influences, which are now large enough to exceed the bounds of natural variability. The main source of global climate change is human-induced changes in atmospheric composition. These perturbations primarily result from emissions associated with energy use, but on local and regional scales, urbanization and land use changes are also important. Although there has been progress in monitoring and understanding climate change, there remain many scientific, technical, and institutional impediments to precisely planning for, adapting to, and mitigating the effects of climate change. There is still considerable uncertainty about the rates of change that can be expected, but it is clear that these changes will be increasingly manifested in important and tangible ways, such as changes in extremes of temperature and precipitation, decreases in seasonal and perennial snow and ice extent, and sea level rise. Anthropogenic climate change is now likely to continue for many centuries. We are venturing into the unknown with climate, and its associated impacts could be quite disruptive. PMID:14657489

Karl, Thomas R; Trenberth, Kevin E

2003-12-01

76

The Biodiversity: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step-by-step slide show animation, from the International Polar Foundation, deals with the topics of biodiversity and climate change. It lays out the main effects of climate change, i.e. the strengthening of the natural greenhouse effect phenomenon that has been caused by our way of life, and the unprecedented speeding up of rises in temperature compared with the natural periods of warming that have occurred in the past. It also looks at the main consequences of these changes.

International Polar Foundation

77

What Is Climate Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weather consists of those meteorological events, such as rain, wind and sunshine, which can change day-by-day or even hour-by-hour. Climate is the average of all these events, taken over a period of time. The climate varies over different parts of the world. Climate is usually defined as the average of the weather over a 30-year period. It is when…

Beswick, Adele

2007-01-01

78

Climate change and skin.  

PubMed

Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

2013-02-01

79

Status of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Status of Climate Change 2013 CaTee Conference San Antonio 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Menu for Today • IPCC 2013: Assessment Report #5 • Facts about Climate Change... Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Facts about Climate Change ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

North, G.

2013-01-01

80

Climate Change and the Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity covers the role that the oceans may play in climate change and how climate change may affect the oceans. It is lesson 8 in a nine-lesson module Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change.

The King's Centre for Visualization in Science

81

Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION . THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE .INTRODUCTION The earth has entered a new period of significant climate change.introductions to the concepts of adaptation and adaptive capacity, including how the concepts are used in the climate change

Cole, Daniel H.

2008-01-01

82

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,  

E-print Network

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

83

Detailed chronology of mid-altitude fluvial system response to changing climate and societies at the end of the Little Ice Age (Southwestern Alps and Cévennes, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over a historical timescale, landscapes have been strongly affected by fluctuations in climate and by the impact of human societies. This study examines the historical evolution of mid-altitude fluvial systems in the Western Alps and Cévennes (SE Massif Central) in the context of marked climate and anthropogenic change at the end of the Little Ice Age (late 19th century). This work contributes to the reconstruction of river paleodynamics by investigating the nature and chronology of geomorphological changes in upper river basins. In order to produce a detailed reconstruction of hydromorphological changes, we combined two approaches: the study of historical archives and the use of bioindicators (the dating of terraces using dendrochronology and of silt benches using lichenometry in order to reconstruct the evolution of the river channels). The 19th century is a particularly propitious period for the study of surface dynamics because archives have preserved a wealth of qualitative and quantitative data concerning rivers (economic statistics, meteorological and hydrological observations, illustrative documents, descriptions by contemporary observers). It is also a period for which reliable dating methods are available for detrital deposits in rivers. The period provides new information on how the transition between the Little Ice Age and current climate conditions affected the evolution of drainage basins and stream channels by highlighting a succession of phases in the erosive process (e.g., the preparatory role of the drought of 1830-1838 in the erosion crisis of 1855-1870) and refining the chronology of events (very early onset of riverbed incision). The results highlight the effect of climate (small hydroclimatic fluctuations), amplified by strong anthropization, on the rhythm of landscape change and on the relative stabilization of the landscape at the end of the 19th century. In addition, the synchronization of phenomena on the two sides of the Rhone Valley shows that these changes took place on a regional scale.

Astrade, Laurent; Jacob-Rousseau, Nicolas; Bravard, Jean-Paul; Allignol, Françoise; Simac, L.

2011-10-01

84

Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises  

E-print Network

Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

85

Conservation and Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

Landweber, Laura

86

Climate change and drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Climate change is likely to increase drought risk during the 21st century in many parts of the world. Climate model projections, under a range of emissions scenarios, consistently show that seasonal rainfall is likely to decrease across large parts of southern Europe, north Africa, central Asia and southern Africa, and reductions are also possible in other dry parts

N. W. Arnell

87

Climate Change Made Simple  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.…

Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

2007-01-01

88

Mitigating Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Navajo Technical College, meet a chemistry professor who explains some of the core concepts connected to climate change: carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and emissions from energy use.

2012-03-16

89

Climate change and jobs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development expert Barbara Harriss-White leads a team of specialists from agriculture to economics, environmental science and policy to investigate neglected aspects of the climate change response in India.

2012-05-01

90

Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

1989-04-01

91

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site students can explore scientific data on climate change relating to the atmosphere, the oceans, the areas covered by ice and snow, and the living organisms in all these domains. They will get a sense of how scientists study natural phenomena, how researchers gather evidence, test theories, and come to conclusions. Though climate change is not new, the study of how human activity affects the earth's climate is. Links lead to five major sections: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and global effects. Each section is a separate lesson consisting of visual thumbnails with supporting text. All sections are supported by a glossary.

92

Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats  

E-print Network

Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats B A C K G R O U DN C H E C K ! Habitat, Food, Water Change on habitats,and in particular at the impacts that could result from the warming of global the potential to affect plants,animals and humans around the globe. #12;Climate Change Action Pack 158 Habitat

Gunawardena, Arunika

93

Framework to analyze Risk of Climate Change on Water  

E-print Network

of 2003 & 2006 european heat waves impact in France Purchase 0 10000 30000 40000 50000 National Load to translate the uncertainty of climate change predictions to long-term physical or regulatory water shortage

Keller, Arturo A.

94

Climate Change: Good for Us?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity with the objective of encouraging students to think about the effects of climate change. Explains background information on dependence to climate and discuses whether climate change is important. Provides information for the activity, extensions, and evaluation. (YDS)

Oblak, Jackie

2000-01-01

95

Energy and climate change  

SciTech Connect

Models that simulate present and past climatic behavior suggest that an increase in carbon dioxide concentration to double the preindustrial level would commit us to an increase in global average temperatures of up to a few degrees Celsius. This warming would be accompanied by many other related changes of climate. An increase in annual average temperature by such an amount, while not unprecedented on a local basis, would elevate global temperatures to levels not experienced in historical times. This climate change could occur before the carbon dioxide concentration doubled because of the similar radiative effects of other gases, necessitating coupled consideration of the climatic and chemical effects of carbon dioxide and other trace gases, including especially methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and nitrous oxide. Consideration of this issue in the development of the National Energy Strategy will require addressing a series of very difficult and interconnected questions concerning: projection of future energy use and the mix of technologies, estimation of the consequent level of chemical, climate, and environmental change, selection of the acceptable rate of chemical, climate, and environmental change, estimation of the probably rate of conservation and of technological and efficiency developments, and determination of the appropriate level of national and international commitment for addressing this global issue. This report attempts to summarize the technical basis for addressing these issues, even while recognizing the many complex societal aspects underlying each of them. 310 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-01

96

Hotter and drier conditions in the near future (2010-2035) might paradoxically improve the general adaptive capacity of a viticultural social-ecological system in Roussillon, southern France, exposed to long-term climatic and economic changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Wine production in Roussillon, southern France, has been subjected to deep structural changes in cultural practices since the 1970's, due to changes in demand and market organization. In this Mediterranean region, temperature and rainfall parameters have long been adapted to fortified wine production, but might be less suited to dry wine production, which is nowadays prevailing. The wine industry in Roussillon can be studied as a social-ecological system where local economical and social characteristics are strongly linked to physical inputs. Thus changes in climate, especially warming and drying trends that have been detected and projected by the IPCC in the Mediterranean basin, may disrupt the local economy and social organization in the long term. The aim of our study is to assess the role played by recent (1956-2010) and near-future (2010-2035) changes in temperature and rainfall inputs in the evolution of the system's adaptive capacity to combined long term climatic and economic changes. Methods: Our study combined quantitative and qualitative data. We first assessed recent exposure to climate change by analysing change in daily data of temperature and rainfall observed in Perpignan weather station from 1956 to 2010. Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with local producers and key stakeholders of the local wine industry helped us understand the impacts of recent climatic conditions in the system's adaptive capacity. Then, we measured future changes in temperature and rainfall based on daily data simulated by ARPEGE-Climat (SCRATCH10 dataset) at an 8-km spatial scale, for emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, up to 2060. Based on the impacts of recent changes in the system, we inferred the possible impacts of future climate change on the system's equilibrium. Results and discussion: Climate data analyses show that changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns have occurred in Perpignan since the mid-1980's, and that current (2001-2010) conditions are likely to remain the same until the 2040's, then followed by a second step of warming and drying trend. During the last ten years, local farmers have been experiencing difficulties to combine challenges from an increasing competition in markets and from hotter and drier conditions. Helped by public subsidies, almost one-third of the vineyard was pulled out during that period. Up until the 2040's, with similar conditions, the local viticultural system should continue its transformation, favouring dynamic, proactive and enterprising farmers. Thus the composition of the farming community might change gradually, and count in the 2040's a majority of producers with a higher individual adaptive capacity than now. The timing and intensity of near-future climate change as measured by the climate model, combined to regional economic change, might thus be an asset to prepare and facilitate adaptation in the longer term.

Lereboullet, Anne-Laure; Beltrando, Gérard

2014-05-01

97

Current Climate Variability & Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and climate change. The next section guides students through the exploration of temporal changes in global temperature from the surface to the lower stratosphere. Students discover that there has been global warming over the past several decades, and the subsequent section allows them to consider solar radiation and greenhouse gases as possible causes of this warming. Students then zoom in on different latitudinal zones to examine changes in temperature for each zone and hypothesize about why one zone may have warmed more than others. The final section, prior to the answering of the essential questions, is an examination of the following effects of the current change in temperatures: loss of sea ice; rise of sea level; loss of permafrost loss; and moistening of the atmosphere. The lab addresses 14 climate-literacy concepts and all seven climate-literacy principles through data and images that are mainly NASA products. It focuses on the satellite era of climate data; therefore, 1979 is the typical starting year for most datasets used by students. Additionally, all time-series analysis end with the latest year with full-year data availability; thus, the climate variability and trends truly are 'current.'

Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

2013-12-01

98

Avoiding dangerous climate change  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

2006-02-15

99

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the greenhouse effect is related to global warming and how global warming impacts our planet, including global climate change. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and how we react to these changes are the main points of focus of this lesson.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

100

Solar Influence: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video, the sixth in the National Academies Climate Change, Lines of Evidence series, explores the hypothesis that changes in solar energy output may be responsible for observed global surface temperature rise. Several lines of evidence, such as direct satellite observations, are reviewed.

National Research Council

101

Past and future changes in water and carbon fluxes in temperate managed Pine forests from Southern France : attribution to climate, management and biophysical drivers (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensification of forest management concerns an increasing fraction of temperate and tropical forests. The managed Pine forests in south-western Europe are submitted to increased soil preparation, fertilisation, drainage, thinning, clearcutting, whole tree - harvesting and rotation shortening and therefore provide a good example of such management changes. For the last 15 years, these forests were hit by a series of extreme climate events: two unprecedented storms in 1999 and 2009, severe soil droughts in 2002, 2005 and 2006 and heatwaves in 2003 and 2005. At flux tower sites located in a young stand following clearcut and mature stands respectively, the half-hourly fluxes of CO2, H2O vapour and energy as well as vegetation and soil carbon and water contents have been monitored during this period. Using data collected from flux tower sites and forest and soil inventories together with a process based model of forest growth, GO+, and geographic information, we analysed the impact of these events on the time series of forest canopy exchanges of water and CO2 and its interaction with management. The Bowen ratio of the forest was strongly enhanced and evapotranspiration decreased leading to a dramatic increase in water runoff and peak flows from the watersheds damaged by windstorms. Clearcutting following wind storms reversed the ecosystem from a net sink into a source of C-CO2 and that was not offset ten years later. Soil drought impacted mature forests through stomatal closure and leaf shedding, making their annual carbon balance almost neutral. Tree growth was however not affected to the same extent. Drought affected also dramatically the net carbon and water balances of young forest stands. However, at this stage, the effects of successive management operations (ploughing, vegetation burial, thinning) overtook climate impacts. Independent of stand age, the canopy photosynthesis was more sensitive to climate and management than the ecosystem respiration. A direct projection of these data allowed to assess the impact of the successive storms and droughts on the regional CO2, heat and water vapour fluxes at the sub-regional scale. The GO+ model applications to the prediction and analysis of climate scenarios impacts on southwestern European forests allowed to attributing the role of management alternatives, precipitation regime, CO2 concentration and atmospheric humidity in forest-atmosphere exchanges at larger spatial and temporal scales. Frequency of soil preparation operations and vegetation management at the juvenile stage and climate and rotation duration at the adult phase were the major drivers of the carbon and water balances, respectively. The model predicts that a drier and warmer climate will reduce productivity and deplete soil carbon stocks in forest from Southwestern Europe within decades, such effects being amplified by intensive management alternatives.

Loustau, D.; Moreaux, V.

2013-12-01

102

Climate change and marine plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how climate change will affect the planet is a key issue worldwide. Questions concerning the pace and impacts of climate change are thus central to many ecological and biogeochemical studies, and addressing the consequences of climate change is now high on the list of priorities for funding agencies. Here, we review the interactions between climate change and plankton communities,

Graeme C. Hays; Anthony J. Richardson; Carol Robinson

2005-01-01

103

Climate change and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change, although a natural phenomenon, is accelerated by human activities. Disaster policy response to climate change is dependent on a number of factors, such as readiness to accept the reality of climate change, institutions and capacity, as well as willingness to embed climate change risk assessment and management in development strategies. These conditions do not yet exist universally. A

Geoff O'Brien; Phil O'Keefe; Joanne Rose; Ben Wisner

2006-01-01

104

Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

. Climatic changes--Government policy--United States. 4. Global warming-- Environmental aspects. I. NationalPotential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD SPECIAL REPORT 290 #12;#12;Committee on Climate Change and U

Sheridan, Jennifer

105

Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International  

E-print Network

climate change in the Kalahari and Australian deserts Y. Ashkenazy & H. Yizhaq & Haim Tsoar Received: 241 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes and Implications of Climatic Change ISSN 0165-0009 Volume 112 Combined 3-4 Climatic Change (2012) 112:901-923 DOI

Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

106

Climate Change and Runoff Management  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Runoff Management in Wisconsin Fox-Wolf Watershed Alliance May 10, 2011 David S of Engineering #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts of a changing climate J. Magnuson Source: IPCC 2007 Potter, et al. A longer record is better! #12;What about

Sheridan, Jennifer

107

Debating Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

Malone, Elizabeth L.

2009-11-01

108

Predicting climate change  

SciTech Connect

Few scientific topics evoke such general interests and public discussion as climate change. It is a subject that has been highly politicized. New results enter the environmental debate as evidence supporting a position. Usually the qualifiers, the background, and perspective needed to understand the result have been stripped away to form an appropriate sound bite. The attention is understandable given the importance of climate to agriculture and energy use. Fear of global warming and the greenhouse effect has been justification for reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing use of nuclear energy and alternative energy sources. It has been suggested to avoid climate change, a return to a preindustrial level of emissions is necessary. The subject of this article is not the policy implications of greenhouse warming, or even the validity of the premise that global warming caused by the greenhouse effect is occurring. The subject is the current array of concepts and tools available to understand and predict the earth`s climate based on mathematical models of physical processes. These tools for climate simulations include some of the world`s most powerful computers, including the Intel Paragon XP/S 150 at ORNL. With these tools, the authors are attempting to predict the climate changes that may occur 100 years from now for different temperatures of the earth`s surface that will likely result from rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Drake, J.B.

1995-12-31

109

Climate change matters.  

PubMed

One manifestation of climate change is the increasingly severe extreme weather that causes injury, illness and death through heat stress, air pollution, infectious disease and other means. Leading health organisations around the world are responding to the related water and food shortages and volatility of energy and agriculture prices that threaten health and health economics. Environmental and climate ethics highlight the associated challenges to human rights and distributive justice but rarely address health or encompass bioethical methods or analyses. Public health ethics and its broader umbrella, bioethics, remain relatively silent on climate change. Meanwhile global population growth creates more people who aspire to Western lifestyles and unrestrained socioeconomic growth. Fulfilling these aspirations generates more emissions; worsens climate change; and undermines virtues and values that engender appreciation of, and protections for, natural resources. Greater understanding of how virtues and values are evolving in different contexts, and the associated consequences, might nudge the individual and collective priorities that inform public policy toward embracing stewardship and responsibility for environmental resources necessary to health. Instead of neglecting climate change and related policy, public health ethics and bioethics should explore these issues; bring transparency to the tradeoffs that permit emissions to continue at current rates; and offer deeper understanding about what is at stake and what it means to live a good life in today's world. PMID:23665996

Macpherson, Cheryl Cox

2014-04-01

110

EPA's Climate Change Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this site in order to present or direct users to accurate and timely social, scientific, and logistic information on the very broad issue of climate change and global warming in a way that is accessible and meaningful to all parts of society. The subtopics covered are climate - which includes information on global warming or The Greenhouse Effect -, emissions - with information on the Greenhouse Gases -, impacts, and actions, including what you can do to help with the problem of global warming. Specific information is presented for Concerned Citizens, Kids and Educators, Small Business and Industry and how they can help with the issue of global warming, Public Decision makers, International, Coastal Residents, Health Professionals, Meteorologists, and Wildlife Advocates. Some features are News, Calendar, Publications, Presentations (slide shows), Online tools (including software, calculators, case studies, and document searches), Science Frequently Asked Questions, Uncertainties, Glossary, and Links. The United States has based its climate change policies on the conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has provided an authoritative international consensus on the science of climate change.

111

Climate-change scenarios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the United States Congress passed the Global Change Research Act directing the Executive Branch of government to assess the potential effects of predicted climate change and variability on the nation. This congressional action followed formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 by the United Nations Environmental Program and World Meteorological Organization. Some 2,000 scientists from more than 150 nations contribute to the efforts of the IPCC. Under coordination of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the congressionally ordered national assessment has divided the country into 19 regions and five socio-economic sectors that cut across the regions: agriculture, coastal and marine systems, forests, human health, and water. Potential climate-change effects are being assessed in each region and sector, and those efforts collectively make up the national assessment. This document reports the assessment of potential climate-change effects on the Rocky Mountain/Great Basin (RMGB) region which encompasses parts of nine western states. The assessment began February 16-18, 1998 with a workshop in Salt Lake City co-convened by Frederic H. Wagner of Utah State University and Jill Baron of the U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (BRD). Invitations were sent to some 300 scientists and stakeholders representing 18 socio-economic sectors in nine statesa?|

Wagner, F.H.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Baldwin, C.K.; Mearns, L.O.

2003-01-01

112

SIDS and Climate Change Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that the climate is changing. Climate change is also affecting our natural world, society and economy. Our climate has been evolving continuously since centuries. But the last two millennia have witnessed an unprecedented change in the climate. The clear message from the scientific community is that this warming is due, at least in part, to the

Soonil D. Rughooputh

113

Software research and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop explored the contributions that software research can make to the challenge of climate change. Climate change is likely to be the defining issue of the 21st Century. Recent studies indicate that climate change is accelerating, confirming the most pessimistic of scenarios identified by climate scientists. Our past use of fossil fuels commit the world to around 2°C average

Steve M. Easterbrook; Michael Glenn; Jorge Aranda; Jon Pipitone

2009-01-01

114

Understanding and Attributing Climate Change  

E-print Network

9 Understanding and Attributing Climate Change Coordinating Lead Authors: Gabriele C. Hegerl (USA. Nicholls, J.E. Penner and P.A. Stott, 2007: Under- standing and Attributing Climate Change. In: Climate of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M

Box, Jason E.

115

Biological Impacts of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may

McCarty, John P.

116

Biological Effects of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How important is climate change--something that has occurred throughout Earth's history? Can ecosystems tolerate the magnitude and rate of future change? How will other conservation threats interact with climate change? How likely are widespread extinction

Juanita Constible

2008-10-01

117

Climate change and plant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities are altering greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and causing global climate change. In the near future, there will certainly be changes in the Brazilian phytosanitary scenario attributed to global climate change. The impacts of climate change can be positive, negative or neutral, since these changes can decrease, increase or have no impact on diseases, depending on each

Raquel Ghini; Emília Hamada; Wagner Bettiol

2008-01-01

118

Climate Change and Ground Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the theory of climate change and the relationship of climate-change forcing to hydrologic and aquifer processes. It focuses on regional aquifer systems and on the methods to link large-scale climate-change processes to ground-water recharge and to simulate ground-water flow and solute transport in a warmer, 2xCO2 climate. The article reviews methods currently available to generate climate-change forcing

Hugo A. Loáiciga

2003-01-01

119

CHANGING OUR WAYS SCOTLAND'S CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME  

E-print Network

;Foreword Climate change is one of the most serious threats facing the world today. Scientific evidence in light of sound scientific evidence that Scotland's climate will change significantly over the comingCHANGING OUR WAYS SCOTLAND'S CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME #12;Cover based on diagram below. Hadley

120

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a brief overview of processes and properties associated with global climate change and its rate of change, which is of current concern to scientists. The carbon cycle is discussed including its sources, sinks, and release agents along with the fact that it is critical to the biosphere and must continue cycling to support life on Earth. The information at this site should lead students to an understanding of carbon dioxide and the other major greenhouse gases, which is necessary to identify the current trends in atmospheric concentrations and climate change. Three other concepts addressed at this site include the profound effects living organisms in an ecosystem can have upon the local atmosphere, profound effects changes in vegetation can have upon wind speed, and the link of human activity to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This section serves as a reference for and includes links to seven classroom activities.

121

What is Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is offered by Canada's Natural Resources Department. The main page describes the basics of the phenomenon, while the links tell about the impact of climate change on health and safety, communities, land resources, water resources, and coastal regions. Although specific to Canadian regions, the site will give visitors from all over a good introduction to the potential problems of global warming.

122

Environmental Sustainability & Climate Change  

E-print Network

s p Policies Climate Change Smart Growth Bay Restoration #12;Policies Facilitate the effective and working groups­ Statewide goals and working groups · Chesapeake Bay Restoration · Maryland Smart Growth· Coordination activities #12;Practices: System-widey · USM Strategic Plan ­ Greenhouse gas emissions

123

Adapting to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the optimal time to adapt to climate change. We take the perspective of a farmer growing a crop in a stochastic environment. The farmer faces stochastic seasonal growth, which makes harvest at the end of any season a random variable. Within a season, crop biomass is assumed to grow according to a continuous- time Itô process. The

Jon M. Conrad; Koji Kotani

124

Climate Change? When? Where?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city. The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is…

Boon, Helen

2009-01-01

125

Confronting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage…

Roach, Ronald

2009-01-01

126

Volcanoes and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Major volcanic eruptions alter the Earth's radiative balance, as volcanic ash and gas clouds absorb terrestrial radiation and scatter a significant amount of the incoming solar radiation, an effect known as "radiative forcing" that can last from two to three years following a volcanic eruption. This results in reduced temperatures in the troposphere, and changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. This site uses text, photographs, and links to related sites to describe volcano-induced climate change.

127

Climate Kids: What is Global Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A question and answer format is used to differentiate between weather and climate, and to provide a brief overview of global warming. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

2013-11-07

128

Bayesian Climate Change Assessment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Bayesian fingerprinting methodology for assessing anthropogenic impacts on climate was developed. This analysis considers the effect of increased CO2 on near-surface temperatures. A spatial CO2 fingerprint based on control and forced model output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Climate System Model was developed. The Bayesian approach is distinguished by several new facets. First, the prior model for the amplitude of the fingerprint is a mixture of two distributions: one reflects prior uncertainty in the anticipated value of the amplitude under the hypothesis of `no climate change.' The second reflects behavior assuming`climate change forced by CO2.' Second, within the Bayesian framework, a new formulation of detection and attribution analyses based on practical significance of impacts rather than traditional statistical significance was presented. Third, since Bayesian analyses can be very sensitive to prior inputs, a robust Bayesian approach, which investigates the ranges of posterior inferences as prior inputs are varied, was used. Following presentation of numerical results that enforce the claim of changes in temperature patterns due to anthropogenic CO2 forcing, the article concludes with a comparative analysis for another CO2 fingerprint and selected discussion.

Berliner, L. Mark; Levine, Richard A.; Shea, Dennis J.

2000-11-01

129

The origin of climate changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Investigation on climate change is coordinated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has the delicate task of collecting recent knowledge on climate change and the related impacts of the observed changes, and then developing a consensus statement from these findings. The IPCC's last review, published at the end of 2007, summarised major findings on the present

P. Delecluse

2008-01-01

130

Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture  

E-print Network

Warming Climate Change: Any systematic change in the state of the atmosphere (temperature, humidity7/23/2009 1 Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture Dev Niyogi Indiana State Climatologist it l d f d i li tWebsite: landsurface.org and iclimate.org What is Climate Change? (and...... what

131

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change

132

Climate change: Flawed science, or  

E-print Network

Climate change: Fraud, Flawed science, or Fundamental dilemma? Prof Roy Thompson, FRSE #12;Fraud innovation Dilemma... Vicious Circle #12;1. Climate Change - Weather vs. climate - The greenhouse effect - Past climates 2. Impacts - Plants & animals - The seasons 3. Fundamental dilemma - Overpopulation

133

Climate Change and Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A senior researcher discusses extinction due to global warming in this two-minute sound segment. He says that as climate warms, species will probably move upslope and towards the poles but in many cases, that may put species that are found on mountain tops at risk. Species with small ranges or lowland species that may not be able to get to mountain slopes and find equitable climate will die out. His study suggests that as many as one million species of plants and animals worldwide could be facing extinction as a result of climate change. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

2004-07-12

134

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

Polz, Martin

135

Climate, climatic change, and water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth's climate is changing, and associated predictions of future floods and droughts reverberate throughout the news media. Coupled with forecasts of climatic change one can often find associated predictions of social unrest, wars, and famines, but these possible derivative issues have not been addressed. We considered only the simpler problems of water shortages, which may or may not be

James R. Wallis

1977-01-01

136

Climate Change and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how global climate change affects human health in this interactive activity adapted from A Human Health Perspective: On Climate Change by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

2011-05-02

137

Climate Change and Citizen Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how citizen observations can document the impact of climate change on plants and animals. It introduces the topic of phenology and data collection, the impact of climate change on phenology, and how individuals can become citizen scientists.

Citizen Science Central, Cornell Lab of Ornithology

138

Health Effects of Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

... over generations. TODAY It is now established that climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. These ... are becoming alert to the dynamic relationship between climate change and human health. Some of these impacts are ...

139

Perception of climate change.  

PubMed

"Climate dice," describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons, have become more and more "loaded" in the past 30 y, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3?) warmer than the climatology of the 1951-1980 base period. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface during the base period, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change. PMID:22869707

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto

2012-09-11

140

Outchasing climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pygmy possums, monarch butterflies, spoon-billed sandpipers, and a number of trees and other plants could be among the species unable to migrate fast enough to new habitat in the face of potential global climate changes, according to an August 30 report by the Switzerland-based World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the U.S. based Clean-Air-Cool Planet (CACP), two conservation organizations.

Showstack, Randy

141

CLIMATE CHANGE: A POLITICAL INTRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syllabus Summary Climate change has now grown from a scientific concern to one of the most pressing issues of our time. This seminar aims to look at the topic from a political viewpoint, and analyze the different mechanisms of cooperation in the fight against climate change. The first part provides an appraisal of climate change as a political issue: it

François Gemenne

142

The Politics of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains the ways in which climate change is a geopolitical problem. It discusses the potential ramifications of the impacts of climate change on security, and argues that predictions of international conflicts arising from climate change are premature. It explains the spatial politics of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through an overview of the positions of the main actors in

L. Robert

2010-01-01

143

4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 2875­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Climate change impact­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Climate Change Action Plan Report  

E-print Network

Climate Change Action Plan Report Intermountain Region 2013 National Park Service Resource Stewardship and Science Landscape Conservation and Climate Change Division #12;About this Report Each National Park Service is responding to the challenge of climate change; and (2) raise awareness among NPS

Hansen, Andrew J.

145

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

146

[Keynote address: Climate change  

SciTech Connect

Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

Forrister, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

147

RICCI Sophie Global Change and Climate Modeling Team  

E-print Network

RICCI Sophie Global Change and Climate Modeling Team CERFACS - Toulouse, FRANCE Technical Report TR ocean model is currently used to initialize seasonal climate fore- casts. The variational assimilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5 The ensemble of forced-ocean simulations with OPA 26 2 #12; 5.1 De#28;nition of an ensemble

148

Designing Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

2012-12-01

149

Agriculture and climate change  

SciTech Connect

How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

Abelson, P.H.

1992-07-03

150

Population and climate change.  

PubMed

To review, the four broad dimensions of any complex human problem, including climate change, are the human population, economics, culture, and environment. These dimensions interact with one another in all directions and on many time-scales. From 2010 to 2050, the human population is likely to grow bigger, more slowly, older, and more urban. It is projected that by 2050 more than 2.6 billion people (almost 94% of global urban growth) will be added to the urban population in today's developing countries. That works out to 1.26 million additional urban people in today's developing countries every week from 2010 to 2050. Humans alter the climate by emitting greenhouse gases, by altering planetary albedo, and by altering atmospheric components. Between 1900 and 2000, humans' emissions of carbon into the atmosphere increased fifteenfold, while the numbers of people increased less than fourfold. Population growth alone, with constant rates of emissions per person, could not account for the increase in the carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The world economy grew sixteenfold in the twentieth century, accompanied by enormous increases in the burning of gas, oil, and coal. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, population grew much faster in developing countries than in high-income countries, and, compared with population growth, the growth of carbon emissions to the atmosphere was even faster in developing countries than in high-income countries. The ratio of emissions-to-population growth rates was 2.8 in developing countries compared with 1.6 in high-income countries. Emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases are influenced by the sizes and density of settlements, the sizes of households, and the ages of householders. Between 2010 and 2050, these demographic factors are anticipated to change substantially. Therefore demography will play a substantial role in the dynamics of climate changes. Climate changes affect many aspects of the living environment, including human settlements, food production, and diseases. These changes will affect poor people more severely than rich, and poor nations more severely than rich. Yet not enough is known to predict quantitatively many details that will matter enormously to future people and other species. Three kinds of responses are related to demographic issues that affect climate changes: universal secondary education, voluntary contraception and maternal health services, and smarter urban design and construction. These responses may prevent, reduce, or ameliorate the impacts of climate changes. They are as relevant to rich countries as to poor, though in ways that are as different as are rich countries and poor. They are desirable in their own right because they improve the lives of the people they affect directly; and they are desirable for their beneficial effects on the larger society and globe. They are effective responses to the twin challenges of reducing poverty and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:21553595

Cohen, Joel E

2010-06-01

151

Enviropedia: Introduction to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the concept of climate change and discusses past climate changes, as evidenced by sea sediments and sedimentary rock studied by paleoclimatologists. More recently, ice cores, tree rings, and historical records tell of changes such as interglacial periods and the little ice age. Other factors like volcanoes, changes in the Earth's orbit, comets, and meteorites that may alter the energy balance, change the greenhouse effect, or cause climate forcing are also explored in these pages.

152

Climate Change and Extreme Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module discusses how a changing climate can also lead to changes in extreme weather events on the local scale. The role of natural variability is also explained. The module describes how climate change can have both positive and negative effects, depending on the situation, location, and the vulnerability of the population. While research on climate change and extreme events is still relatively new, the module discusses what changes scientists think are likely if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise.

2014-09-14

153

World Bank Group: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the World Bank's Environment Department, the Climate Change team "provides resources and expertise for the World Bank's participation in international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and provides technical advice to the World Bank's Global Environment Facility Program." Understandably, the site contains a brief explication of the key themes surrounding contemporary concerns about climate change, along with offering a detailed discussion of the various programs and research projects with which the Climate Change group is engaged directly or in tandem with other related organizations and institutions. From the main page, visitors can read about the nature of international climate change (and its disproportionate effects on the developing world), peruse a list of relevant online publications, and read press releases from the Climate Change team.

154

Free Podcasts on Climate and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In partnership with the National Science Digital Library and Apple, NCAR and UCAR offer podcasts that provide a brief and accessible overview on climate and climate change. These podcasts, short 5-8 minute videos you can download on your computer or iPod, are a part of the NSDL on iTunes U collection.

Robert Payo

155

Climate Change Economics and Policy  

E-print Network

AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE-SMART DEVELOPMENT 11 - 13 September 2013 #12;According to the International Energy Agency, greenhouse gas emissions.2 Agricultural land is also an important source of greenhouse gas emissions ­ the US Environmental

Romano, Daniela

156

Human Engineering and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate change is arguably one of the biggest problems that confront us today. There is ample evidence that climate change is likely to affect adversely many aspects of life for all people around the world, and that existing solutions such as geoengineering might be too risky and ordinary behavioural and market solutions might not be sufficient to mitigate climate

S. Matthew Liao; Anders Sandberg; Rebecca Roache

2012-01-01

157

Climate Change: Prospects for Nature  

SciTech Connect

Thomas Lovejoy, President of The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, explores the impact of climate change on the natural world. He also discusses the implications of climate change for climate policy and natural resource management.

Thomas Lovejoy

2008-03-12

158

Climate Change and Regional Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short module is an overview of the different effects climate change produces in different regions of the United States. In addition to discussing impacts already being experienced, the module presents information on how climate scientists use specialized models and statistical techniques to estimate how regional climates are likely to change in the future.

COMET

2012-08-14

159

Climate Change Workshop Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is a collection of useful Web links to climate change resources. Only a few resources here right now, but you get the idea... NIERRS Water quality monitoring data page NERRS - Water quality monitoring data This is a great site for water stuff. GOMOOS Site -- buoy monitoring data GOMOOS - Weather and water data (real-time) from Gulf of Maine buoys This is a great site for ocean temperatures and wind speed, etc. Coastal Ocean Observing Center Here\\'s another: The COOLroom ...

Deb and Chad

2007-11-20

160

Contrails and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, learners analyze the role of condensation trails from jets, or contrails, and their role in climate change. Contrails are thin ice clouds that form from the burning of jet fuel and release of water vapor. The issue with contrails is that narrow trails can spread and coalesce to form significant banks of cirrus-type clouds. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

161

Climate Variability and Change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on climate variability and change and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

162

Climate change and ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What does it matter if the climate changes? This kind of question does not admit of a scientific answer. Natural science can tell us what some of its biophysical effects are likely to be; social scientists can estimate what consequences such effects could have for human lives and livelihoods. But how should we respond? The question is, at root, about how we think we should live--and different people have myriad different ideas about this. The distinctive task of ethics is to bring some clarity and order to these ideas.

Hayward, Tim

2012-12-01

163

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National  

E-print Network

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National Adaptation Programme Meg Patel Defra #12 change #12;Weather & climate impacts - economic, societal, environmental Water consumption per capita;Legislative Framework Climate Change Act 2008 Adaptation Reporting Power 2011 Climate Change Risk Assessment

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

164

Ruminants, climate change and climate policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant meat production are significant. Reductions in global ruminant numbers could make a substantial contribution to climate change mitigation goals and yield important social and environmental co-benefits.

Ripple, William J.; Smith, Pete; Haberl, Helmut; Montzka, Stephen A.; McAlpine, Clive; Boucher, Douglas H.

2014-01-01

165

Climate Change on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today, Mars is cold and dry. With a 7 mbar mean surface pressure, its thin predominantly CO2 atmosphere is not capable of raising global mean surface temperatures significantly above its 217K effective radiating temperature, and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is equivalent to a global ocean only 10 microns deep. Has Mars always been in such a deep freeze? There are several lines of evidence that suggest it has not. First, there are the valley networks which are found throughout the heavily cratered terrains. These features are old (3.8 Gyr) and appear to require liquid water to form. A warm climate early in Mars' history has often been invoked to explain them, but the precise conditions required to achieve this have yet to be determined. Second, some of the features seen in orbiter images of the surface have been interpreted in terms of glacial activity associated with an active hydrological cycle some several billion years ago. This interpretation is controversial as it requires the release of enormous quantities of ground water and enough greenhouse warming to raise temperatures to the melting point. Finally, there are the layered terrains that characterize both polar regions. These terrains are geologically young (10 Myr) and are believed to have formed by the slow and steady deposition of dust and water ice from the atmosphere. The individual layers result from the modulation of the deposition rate which is driven by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. The ongoing research into each of these areas of Martian climate change will be reviewed, and similarities to the Earth's climate system will be noted.

Haberle, R. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

166

California Climate Change Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global warming and climate change have been a top priority for a number of international organizations, and in recent years, a number of states have also become profoundly concerned about these transformations. Not surprisingly, the state of California has been interested in these subjects for some time, and this website is an initiative of the various agencies working in this area of research. On this site, visitors can learn about various initiatives sponsored by different agencies within the state and also peruse a list of FAQâ??s on the subject. First-time visitors will want to start at the â??Backgroundâ? section; they may then proceed to the â??Policy & Programâ? area, where they can learn what the state is doing to combat this situation. Some of these programs include a voluntary greenhouse gas emission registry for California companies and a research program to spur environmentally-friendly energy alternatives. Finally, the site also includes a very nice glossary of terms used in discussing global climate change.

167

Communicating Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss the various challenges scientists must confront in efforts to communicate the science and implications of climate change to the public. Among these challenges is the stiff headwind we must fight of a concerted disinformation effort designed to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding of the problem and the reality of the underlying societal threat. We also must fight the legacy of the public’s perception of the scientist. That is to say, we must strive to communicate in plainspoken language that neither insults the intelligence of our audience, nor hopelessly loses them in jargon and science-speak. And through all of this, we must maintain our composure and good humor even in the face of what we might consider the vilest of tactics by our opposition. When it comes to how best to get our message out to the broader public, I don’t pretend to have all of the answers. But I will share some insights and anecdotes that I have accumulated over the course of my own efforts to inform the public about the reality of climate change and the potential threat that it represents.

Mann, M. E.

2009-12-01

168

Climate change and marine life  

PubMed Central

A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F.; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V.; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J.; O'Connor, Mary I.; Pandolfi, John M.; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S.; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.

2012-01-01

169

Climate change and marine life.  

PubMed

A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

Richardson, Anthony J; Brown, Christopher J; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T; Duarte, Carlos M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J; O'Connor, Mary I; Pandolfi, John M; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

2012-12-23

170

Earth's Climate and Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the way climate affects our world. Global climate, regional climate, and climate change are all explained. There is an important section on what controls climate change, like the sun, volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, snow, and ice. there is a module called Energy Choices and Climate Change that provides a new way to look at issues related to energy and climate change. In the scenarios within this module, you will be able to make decisions about the types and amount of energy used and see what effect your decisions have on the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere. Your goal is to reduce the amount of warming greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere from fossil fuel emissions while keeping costs within reason.

2004-05-11

171

Competitive Cities and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities are part of the climate change problem, but they are also a key part of the solution. This report offers a comprehensive analysis of how cities and metropolitan regions can change the way we think about responding to climate change. Cities consume the vast majority of global energy and are therefore major contributors of greenhouse gas emissions. At the

Lamia Kamal-Chaoui; Alexis Robert

2009-01-01

172

Forests, climate change and tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests are an important store of carbon within the global carbon cycle and increasingly play a role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The review illustrates that the cultural, economic and environmental services of forests that are utilized for tourism and recreation are being affected by climate change. In addition to the changes to the distribution and composition of forests

C. Michael Hall; Daniel Scott; Stefan Gössling

2011-01-01

173

Hurricanes-Climate Change Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page focuses on recent natural disasters and the latest climate change research to engage students with topical issues and help them understand the larger issue of climate change. Includes resources and visualizations of recent storms such as Katrina and changing coastlines worldwide.

174

Cadastres and Climate Change1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the role of land registers and cadastre in supporting measures that aim at adapting to and mitigating climate change. To that end, the paper provides a brief introduction to climate change in general. The paper then continues by analyzing the role of housing, land use, land-use change and forestry with respect to carbon storage and emission reduction.

Paul VAN DER MOLEN

175

Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

Project Activities for Conceptualizing Climate and Climate Change

176

Cinematic climate change, a promising perspective on climate change communication.  

PubMed

Previous research findings display that after having seen popular climate change films, people became more concerned, more motivated and more aware of climate change, but changes in behaviors were short-term. This article performs a meta-analysis of three popular climate change films, The Day after Tomorrow (2005), An Inconvenient Truth (2006), and The Age of Stupid (2009), drawing on research in social psychology, human agency, and media effect theory in order to formulate a rationale about how mass media communication shapes our everyday life experience. This article highlights the factors with which science blends in the reception of the three climate change films and expands the range of options considered in order to encourage people to engage in climate change mitigation actions. PMID:24916195

Sakellari, Maria

2014-06-10

177

Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.

178

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

179

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

180

Environmental magnetism and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major and pressing problem is to understand how, and how fast, the Earth's climate has changed in the past, with and without human influences on the global carbon cycle. Magnetic, remanence-acquiring, minerals, mostly iron oxides and sulphides, occur ubiquitously in sediments. They can act as sensitive recorders of past climates, because as climate has varied (from glacial to interglacial,

Barbara A. Maher

2007-01-01

181

Geomorphic responses to climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of this book is the response of landscapes to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic changes. During the past 40 ky the global climate has varied from full-glacial to interglacial. Global temperatures decreased between 40 and 20 ka culminating in full-glacial climatic conditions at 20 ka. This resulted in a sea level decline of 130 m. Only 8 to

W. B. Bull

1991-01-01

182

Preparing for climate change.  

PubMed

There is a distinct probability that humankind is changing the climate and at the same time raising the sea level of the world. The most plausible projections we have now suggest a rise in mean world temperature of between 1 degree Celsius and 2 degrees Celsius by 2030--just 40 years hence. This is a bigger change in a smaller period than we know of in the experience of the earth's ecosystems and human societies. It implies that by 2030 the earth will be warmer than at any time in the past 120,000 years. In the same period, we are likely to see a rise of 15-30 centimeters in sea level, partly due to the melting of mountain glaciers and partly to the expansion of the warmer seas. This may not seem much--but it comes on top of the 12-centimeter rise in the past century and we should recall that over 1/2 the world's population lives in zones on or near coasts. A quarter meter rise in sea level could have drastic consequences for countries like the Maldives or the Netherlands, where much of the land lies below the 2-meter contour. The cause of climate change is known as the 'greenhouse effect'. Greenhouse glass has the property that it is transparent to radiation coming in from the sun, but holds back radiation to space from the warmed surfaces inside the greenhouse. Certain gases affect the atmosphere in the same way. There are 5 'greenhouse gases' and we have been roofing ourselves with them all: carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have increased 25% above preindustrial levels and are likely to double within a century, due to tropical forest clearance and especially to the burning of increasing quantities of coal and other fossil fuels; methane concentrations are now twice their preindustrial levels as a result of releases from agriculture; nitrous oxide has increased due to land clearance for agriculture, use of fertilizers, and fossil fuel combustion; ozone levels near the earth's surface have increased due mainly to pollution from motor vehicles; and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been released in great quantities through their use in aerosol sprays, refrigerator fluids, and insulating foams. We can get rid of CFCs and curb the pollutants generating ozone, but it will be difficult to put the brake on either methane or nitrous oxide. And the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will demand major changes in energy policy as well as action to slow deforestation. It appears that we are already committed to rising temperatures and sea levels. The question is by how much, in which areas? A number of things can be done to prepare for these changes: Governments must recognize that there is a problem; Better models must be worked out, especially to define where the greatest impacts from climate change and sea level rise will hit; Reference scenarios must be developed to see what the impacts are likely to be in ecological, agricultural, social and economic terms; Every country should develop "avoidance strategies" to minimize risk (for example, by not building on land likely to be flooded); We must cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from human activities, by eliminating CFCs and adopting energy conservation programs and other measures to minimize CO2 release; Global agreements to protect the atmosphere are needed. PMID:12285901

Holdgate, M

1989-01-01

183

1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate  

E-print Network

1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate A BrAzil-UK AnAlysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011Alysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;4 DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE

184

Climate Change and National Security  

SciTech Connect

Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.

Malone, Elizabeth L.

2013-02-01

185

Climate change refugia as a tool for climate adaptation  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change refugia, areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change so as to increase persistence of valued physical, ecological, and cultural resources, are considered as potential adaptation options in the face of anthropogenic climate change. In a collaboration ...

186

Geomorphic responses to climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The primary focus of this book is the response of landscapes to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic changes. During the past 40 ky the global climate has varied from full-glacial to interglacial. Global temperatures decreased between 40 and 20 ka culminating in full-glacial climatic conditions at 20 ka. This resulted in a sea level decline of 130 m. Only 8 to 14 ky later the global temperature had reversed itself and the climate was the warmest of the past 120 ky. These dramatic changes in climate imposed significant controls on fluvial systems and impacted land forms and whole landscapes worldwide. Chapter 1, Conceptual Models for Changing landscapes, presents numerous concepts related to erosional and depositional processes controlling landscape development. Each of the next four chapters of the book, 2, 3, 4, and 5, examine different aspects of climatic change on fluvial systems. The conceptual models are used to analyze landscape response in four different climatic and geologic settings. In each setting the present and past climatic conditions, the climatically induced changes in vegetation and soil development, and geochronology are considered in assessing the influence of climatic changes on geomorphic processes. Chapter 2, investigates the influence of climatic change on the geomorphic processes operating in desert watersheds in the southwestern US and northern Mexico. The study sites for Chapter 3, are small desert drainage basins in the southwestern US and near the Sinai Peninsula in the Middle East. Chapter 4, investigates fill terraces in several drainage basins of the San Gabrial Mountains of the central Transverse Ranges of coastal southern California. The study site for Chapter 5 is the Charwell River watershed in the Seaward Kaikoura Range of New Zealand. Chapter 6, Difference Responses of Arid and Humid Fluvial Systems, compares the effects of changing climates in basins that range from extremely arid to humid.

Bull, W.B.

1991-01-01

187

Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Whether the characteristics of tropical cyclones have changed or will change in a warming climate — and if so, how — has been the subject of considerable investigation, often with conflicting results. Large amplitude ...

Knutson, Thomas R.

188

Urban Growth and Climate Change  

E-print Network

The best models of future temperature and rainfall indicatemodels yield county level predictions over average temperature and rainfallmodels of climate change’s predicted effects for future temperature and rainfall

Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01

189

AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

190

Narratives of climate change: introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a special feature on narratives of climate change, containing papers by Richard Hamblyn, Sverker Sörlin, Michael Bravo and Diana Liverman. The feature reflects the rising cultural profile of climate change in the public sphere, as represented, for example, by Al Gore's documentary film, An Inconvenient Truth, and art exhibitions devoted to the subject.

Stephen Daniels; Georgina H. Endfield

2009-01-01

191

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This organization was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change. The website contains reports, publications, technical papers, press releases, and official documents related to climate change.

World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme

192

Idea Bank: Climate Change Inquiries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can students engage in authentic inquiry on global climate change if they are not able to do the actual experiments? Many questions about climate change emerge over large areas and long periods of time. The good news is that much of the data from thes

Ryan Bowman

2010-02-01

193

Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the signing the Kyoto Protocol, the international community has focused a great deal of attention on measures designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Much less attention has been paid to climate change adaption. This is unfortunate because, even if the Kyoto Protocol is fully implemented, climate change will generate substantial costs requiring substantial adaptation efforts, especially in the

Daniel H. Cole

2007-01-01

194

Historic and Projected Climate Change  

E-print Network

Historic and Projected Climate Change F A C T S H E E T This evidence strongly indicates and Projected Climate Change PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert M. Roseen, Ph.D. P.E., D.WRE · Director, The UNH is largely the result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels. · A warming trend of about 1

195

Take Aim At Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This music video features a rap song about some of the causes and effects of climate change with the goal of increasing awareness of climate change and how it will impact nature and humans. The website also includes links to short fact sheets with lyrics to the song that are annotated with the sources of the information in the lyrics.

Polar Palooza.com

196

Generating Arguments About Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article from the NSTA Press Journal, Science Scope, students participate in a unit on global climate change by engaging in the process of scientific argumentation. The lessons presented in this article were created using the generate-an-argument model to help students understand climate change science. The article is free to both NSTA members and nonmembers.

Barry Golden

197

Implications of Climate Change for  

E-print Network

Implications of Climate Change for Northern Ireland: Informing Strategy Development #12;Further expressed in this document are not necessarily those of SNIFFER, any Northern Ireland Government Department and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER) to improve understanding of climate change

198

Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

2011-01-01

199

Generating Arguments about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is a different and fun way to engage students with an extremely important topic, climate change, which cuts across scientific and nonscientific disciplines. While climate change itself may not be listed in the curriculum of every science class, the authors contend that such a unit is appropriate for virtually any science curriculum.…

Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin

2012-01-01

200

Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International  

E-print Network

1 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes that the most genetically diverse populations are the ones most at risk from climate change, so that global warming will erode the species' genetic variability faster than it curtails the species' geographic

Alvarez, Nadir

201

Climate change and avian influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net

M. Gilbert; J. Slingenbergh; X. Xiao

2008-01-01

202

BIRD MIGRATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explain and forecast the dependency of different migratory processes: spring arrival dates, migratory take-off, transit autumnal and spring migrations, migration abruption, and their characteristics upon different climatic parameters. We tried to explain the change in migratory-resident state of birds, and defined the effect of climate change upon species specificity of bird migration, mechanisms

Mecislovas ŽALAKEVI?IUS

1997-01-01

203

Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate scientists configure computer model parameters through the portal user interface. After model configuration, scientists then launch the computing task. Next, data is atomized and distributed to computing engines that are running on citizen participants' computers. Scientists will receive notifications on the completion of computing tasks, and examine modeling results via visualization modules of the portal. Computing tasks, computing resources, and participants are managed by project managers via portal tools. A portal prototype has been built for proof of concept. Three forums have been setup for different groups of users to share information on science aspect, technology aspect, and educational outreach aspect. A facebook account has been setup to distribute messages via the most popular social networking platform. New treads are synchronized from the forums to facebook. A mapping tool displays geographic locations of the participants and the status of tasks on each client node. A group of users have been invited to test functions such as forums, blogs, and computing resource monitoring.

Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

2011-12-01

204

Ground Water and Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

2013-01-01

205

Ground water and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

2012-01-01

206

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION: PHYSIOLOGY, LIFE HISTORY, AND ECOSYSTEM CHANGE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center of the uncertainties with climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems is understanding where transitions

207

CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction Richard Allan, Department of Meteorology r.p.allan@reading.ac.uk #12;Text Books and References · Henson, B., Rough Guide to Climate Change http://www.amazon.co.uk/Climate-Change-Guides-Reference- Titles/dp/1858281059 · Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007, www

Allan, Richard P.

208

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government  

E-print Network

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local: RESOURCES THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT 3. Past and Future Climate Change and Its Impacts 4

Pedersen, Tom

209

Changing patterns in climate-driven landslide hazard: an alpine test site Audrey Baills(1)  

E-print Network

Changing patterns in climate-driven landslide hazard: an alpine test site Audrey Baills(1 will be different depending on both the location of the site and the type of landslide considered. Indeed, mass valley (France) using present and past climate conditions. Keywords: hazard, landslide, climate change

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

Paleoceanography and Climate Change  

E-print Network

;IPCC 2007 #12;Paleoclimate Proxy Records · Historical Documents (~1000 years) · Tree Rings (~10) #12;Tree Rings · Temperature · Precipitation · Drought #12;IPCC 2007 #12;The Climate System #12;The in Earth's orbit around the sun · Climate and CO2 tightly coupled #12;

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

211

Climate change and dead zones.  

PubMed

Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

2015-04-01

212

Adapting agriculture to climate change  

PubMed Central

The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists. PMID:18077402

Howden, S. Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

2007-01-01

213

Earth's Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1896, Svante Arrhenius published the first model of the effects of industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on Earth's climate. Since the days of Arrhenius, scientists have moved from pencils to supercomputers. Calculations take hours or days instead

Juanita Constible

2008-10-01

214

Earth's Orbit and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced tutorial, learners examine data to determine the relative contribution of what we call natural climate cycles and that of human-caused greenhouse gases to contemporary climate change. Changes in the Earth-Sun geometry over time are explored using interactive digital applets. A section supporting pedagogical techniques that begin with student prior conceptions and a list of common Earth science student misconceptions are included. Vocabulary terms are hot linked to a glossary. This is the sixth of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

2012-10-18

215

Dictionary of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book represents a revision of the climate change lexicon that was prepared for the Second World Climate Conference in 1990. The conference had 1400 participants and consisted of a scientific component followed by a ministerial meeting. To foster communication among the different constituencies, a lexicon of climate and climate change was prepared for the participants. The dictionary includes definitions and descriptions of most of the scientific terms, organizations, and programs related to the physical aspects of climate change. Nearly 40% of the material describes organized projects, experiments, or programs, mostly international. Some information on biological topics, such as the difference between C3 and C4 plants, is also included. The length of definitions and descriptions ranges from one line to one or more pages, with the longer descriptions usually related to programs.

Maunder, W.J. (ed.)

1992-01-01

216

Climate change, wine, and conservation  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

2013-01-01

217

Ecological Networks in a Changing Climate  

E-print Network

to the Components of Climate Change: Impacts of Warming on Aqueous Media and Surveys at Different Scales and Examples . . . . 78 III. Network Responses to Climate Change Components to the Components of Climate Change: Atmospheric Composition and Ecological Stoichiometry . . . . . . . . . . 100 VI

Benstead, Jon

218

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Outline of talk: A. What causes climate change B. Possible changes in the world's and the Pacific Northwest's climate C. Possible impacts of climate change I. The world and U.S. II. Oregon D. Possible solutions E. Discussion ...

219

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER SYSTEM Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012020 Prepared for: California consideration of climate change effects on highelevation hydropower supply and demand in California. Artificial

220

The Arctic Tree Line and Climate Change  

E-print Network

quicker Overall Feedbacks to Climate Change Advance in Treeline . Global Warming Decrease in Albedo Models). Arctic climate change with a 2 C global warming: Timing, climate patterns and vegetation change. ClimaticThe Arctic Tree Line and Climate Change By Amanda Reinwald 1 IntroductionIntroduction · What

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

221

Climate Change and Tourism Dr David Viner  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Tourism éCLAT Dr David Viner Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia d.viner@uea.ac.uk Tourism has a strong international dimension and is sensitive to any changes of climate that alter to attract visitors are likely to be vulnerable to climate change and the implementation of climate change

Feigon, Brooke

222

Ground water and climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

223

Extinction risk from climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change over the past ~30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of

Chris D. Thomas; Alison Cameron; Rhys E. Green; Michel Bakkenes; Linda J. Beaumont; Yvonne C. Collingham; Barend F. N. Erasmus; Marinez Ferreira de Siqueira; Alan Grainger; Lee Hannah; Lesley Hughes; Brian Huntley; Albert S. van Jaarsveld; Guy F. Midgley; Lera Miles; Miguel A. Ortega-Huerta; A. Townsend Peterson; Oliver L. Phillips; Stephen E. Williams

2004-01-01

224

Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication  

E-print Network

Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour;1 Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour? Thomas D. Lowe 1 these kinds of messages (which have recently been dubbed `climate porn' (Ereaut and Segnit, 2006)), can

Watson, Andrew

225

Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

226

Taking Action on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this Government of Canada website, visitors can "learn about the science, impacts and adaptation to climate change and how individuals, governments, businesses, industry and communities take action by reducing greenhouse gas emissions." Through maps, graphs, and clear text, users can learn the basics of climate change and the greenhouse gases. The website details many of the ecological, economic, and global impacts of climate change. Users can find out about the One-Tonne Challenge, which encourages everyone to reduce their emissions. Teachers can find questions and activities to educate their students about climate change. The website also offers a calculator to estimate a user's current emissions, a series of videos instructing individuals how to create an energy efficient home and car, as well as publications and media resources. This site is also reviewed in the March 18, 2005 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

227

Climate change & street trees project  

E-print Network

Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values, and governance, of street trees Norman Dandy March 2010 #12;Contents Summary .................................................................................................4 1.1 What is a `street tree

228

Climate Change is About... Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change Is About...Water tells the story of climate change and impacts on water in Bolivia through a range of voices and multimedia materials. Case studies bring the explanatory analysis of vulnerability and the social, economic and cultural impacts of climate change vividly to life. A Teaching and Activities Guide is available to help educators and learners delve into this material, understand the realities of climate change for affected communities, apply this to their own experiences and encourage citizenship in responding to it. The resources are designed to be flexible and accessible for use with secondary-level students upwards, and can be adapted for self-led or teacher-led exploration in both formal and informal settings.

The Democracy Center

229

NASA Climate Change Resource Reel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of resources from NASA includes animations and still shots covering a wide range of topics in climate, including the cryosphere, ocean sciences, changes on land, the atmosphere, and satellite images.

NASA

230

LAY REPRESENTATIONS ON CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Lay representations on climate change were mapped via the free-word association method,in two pilot studies. Participants were asked to generate words associated to “the big problems faced by humankind nowadays” (1,study). Climate change was not spontaneously evoked by the participants in the first study: pollution was among the top 10 problems, but references to other environmental issues were very

Rosa Cabecinhas; Alexandra Lázaro; Anabela Carvalho

231

Climate Change, MFA on Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This MFA Thesis exhibition by Christy Roberts, entitled Climate Change, MFA on Ice consisted of a synthetic ice skating rink in the gallery, with a video-projected changing climate and a soundtrack comprised of music made from nature samples. Visitors were able to check out skates at the concession stand and skate for as long as they liked.\\u000aWithin the confines

Christy Roberts

2011-01-01

232

Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Congressional Research Service

233

Risk analysis and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing emphasis on risk-based approaches in the scientific and economic assessment of climate change, exemplified by the Stern Report and IPPC 4th Assessment. In the United Kingdom, risk discourse also increasingly dominates environmental policy-making and governance. The use of risk assessment, management and communication practices in climate change governance and policy is critically examined, utilising an interpretation

Nick Pidgeon; Catherine Butler

2009-01-01

234

Understanding and Communicating Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is designed for a four week elective class on the local impacts of climate change. The lessons incorporate current data and information from a variety of sources, are designed to keep student engagement high, and include a variety of instructional approaches, from jigsaw readings to online interactives to hands-on simulated ice core analysis. The unit is themed around countering skeptics' statements, and the final product emphasizes clear written communication around climate change and its impacts.

2012-01-01

235

Climate Change, Energy and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of the causes of climate change and the repercussions it has on our environment and our health. Special focus topics include energy and health (with respect to fossil fuels and nuclear energy), national energy policy and health, how a warming climate affects weather and health, impacts of fuel economy (with respect to emissions of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons on environmental and human health), and air quality and climate change. The site also features links to current news and related resources.

Physicians for Social Responsibility

236

Climate Change and Forest Disturbances  

E-print Network

is an assistant professor in the Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755. Michael D. Flannigan is a re- search scientist in Forest Fires and Climate Change, Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, AB T6H 3S5, Canada. Lloyd C. Irland... points to a large anthropogenic component to current global climate changes (Houghton et al. 1996). Analyses of the last 100 years of climate data for the coterminous United States suggest that the average temperature has risen by 0.5°C...

Dale, Virginia H.; Joyce, Linda A.; McNulty, Steve; Neilson, Ronald P.; Ayres, Matthew P.; Flannigan, Michael D.; Hanson, Paul J.; Irland, Lloyd C.; Lugo, Ariel E.; Peterson, Chris J.; Simberloff, Daniel; Swanson, Frederick J.; Stocks, Brian J.; Wotton, B. Michael; Peterson, A. Townsend

2001-01-01

237

Climate Change: The Sun's Role  

E-print Network

The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

Gerald E. Marsh

2007-06-23

238

Global Climate Change Policy Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website summarizes the current administration's approach to global climate change, including the President's Program of Domestic and International Initiatives. These include a national goal to reduce emissions growth by 18 percent in the next ten years, substantially improve the emission reduction registry, protect and provide transferable credits for emissions reduction, increase funding for America's commitment to climate change, take action on the Science and Technology Review and a range of international climate initiatives. Descriptions of these programs, as well as their costs, are included.

The White House

239

Climate Change: The Sun's Role  

E-print Network

The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

Marsh, Gerald E

2007-01-01

240

Climate Change: Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... change includes major changes in temperature, precipitation, or wind patterns, among other effects, that occur over several ... changes that can affect our water supplies, agriculture, power and transportation systems, the natural environment, and even ...

241

Paleoceanography and Climate Change  

E-print Network

· Historical Documents (~1000 years) · Tree Rings (~10,000 years) · Corral Reefs (~100,000 years) · Ice Cores (~800,000 years) · Ocean Sediments (>3,000,000 years) Wednesday, April 13, 2011 #12;Tree Rings around the sun · Climate and CO2 tightly coupled Wednesday, April 13, 2011 #12;

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

242

Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary,  

E-print Network

& Jennifer Brown #12;1 23 Your article is protected by copyright and all rights are held exclusively of a system has a temporal dependence on all past states. The alternative to these genuine long memory models will reverse in the near future. 1 Introduction Since the end of the last ice age the earth's climate has

Reale, Marco

243

Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

Armstrong, Jennifer

2014-05-01

244

Abrupt climate change: can society cope?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and

Mike Hulme

2003-01-01

245

IN THIS ISSUE Regional Climate Change..............1  

E-print Network

IN THIS ISSUE · Regional Climate Change..............1 · From the Executive Director...........2 release of new climate change scenarios from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) heralds of the fundamental questions remaining with respect to understanding climate change and even climate variability. And

Hamann, Andreas

246

Transferability in the future climate of a statistical downscaling method for precipitation in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical downscaling approach for precipitation in France based on the analog method and its evaluation for different combinations of predictors is described, with focus on the transferability of the method to the future climate. First, the realism of downscaled present-day precipitation climatology and interannual variability for different combinations of predictors from four reanalyses is assessed. Satisfactory results are obtained, but elaborated predictors do not lead to major and consistent across-reanalyses improvements. The downscaling method is then evaluated on its capacity to capture precipitation trends in the last decades. As uncertainties in downscaled trends due to the choice of the reanalysis are large and observed trends are weak, this analysis does not lead to strong conclusions on the applicability of the method to a changing climate. The temporal transferability is then assessed thanks to a perfect model framework. The statistical downscaling relationship is built using present-day predictors and precipitation simulated by 12 regional climate models. The entire projections are then downscaled, and future downscaled and simulated precipitation changes are compared. A good temporal transferability is obtained only with a specific combination of predictors. Finally, the regional climate models are downscaled, thanks to the relationship built with reanalyses and observations, for the best combination of predictors. Results are similar to the changes simulated by the models, which reinforces our confidence in the realism of the models and of the downscaling method. Uncertainties in precipitation change due to reanalyses are found to be limited compared to those due to regional simulations.

Dayon, G.; Boé, J.; Martin, E.

2015-02-01

247

The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change  

E-print Network

1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley · Changes to surface and atmosphere by aerosols · Climate sensitivity to changes in aerosols and CO2 Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central

248

Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes ref lect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was 20.12 day per year, an

NINA L. BRADLEY; A. CARL LEOPOLD; J OHN ROSS; WELLINGTON HUFFAKER

1999-01-01

249

The EPA Climate Change Kids Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive site features games, animations, and teachers' materials intended to introduce younger students to climate change. There is information about what climate change is, the difference between weather and climate, and the greenhouse effect. There are also materials on the climate system, ancient climates, and how scientists investigate climate. Other topics include discussions of whether people can actually change Earth's climate, what the potential effects might be, and what people can do to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

2003-01-29

250

Climate change and avian influenza.  

PubMed

This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in water bird populations will continue with endless adaptation and evolution. In domestic poultry, too little is known about the direct effect of environmental factors on highly pathogenic avian influenza transmission and persistence to allow inference about the possible effect of climate change. However, possible indirect links through changes in the distribution of duck-crop farming are discussed. PMID:18819672

Gilbert, M; Slingenbergh, J; Xiao, X

2008-08-01

251

Climate change and food security.  

PubMed

Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

2005-11-29

252

Climate change and food security  

PubMed Central

Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

2005-01-01

253

Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011  

E-print Network

1 Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011 J. Hansen, M. Sato, coincident with increased global warming. The most dramatic and important change of the climate dice change is the natural variability of climate. How can a person discern long-term climate change, given

Hansen, James E.

254

Inuit Observations on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an overview of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) project at Sachs Harbour on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, an effort to document the problem of Arctic climate change as experienced by the Inuit living there. There is video commentary by Inuit in which they describe changes in daily life for animals and people at Sachs Harbour: banks caving from permafrost melt, seasonal changes and new types of animals appearing as the old familiar animals disappear, ice dangerously opening up, and most importantly, a new unpredictability added to the usual extreme weather conditions in the Arctic region. The video comes in an abbreviated version, 14 minutes in length, as well as the full version, which is 42 minutes in length. There are reports of IISD trips made during different seasons at Sachs Harbour, a teacher guide for the video, and a report on the climate observations discussed in the IISD: Inuit Observations on Climate Change workshop.

255

Indigenous Health and Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global–local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

2012-01-01

256

Invasive species and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

Middleton, Beth A.

2006-01-01

257

Faces of Climate Change: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of three short videos showcasing the dramatic changes in Alaska's marine ecosystems through interviews with scientists and Alaska Natives. This introduction to the impacts of climate change in Alaska includes interviews with Alaska Natives, commentary by scientists, and footage from Alaska's Arctic.

Darcy Dugan

258

Overview-Climate Change and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses a grave threat to sustainability. The first section of Sustainability2009: The Next Horizon, therefore, is devoted to Climate Change and Adaptation. Contributions focus on the historical consequences of climate change for human societies, as well as the effects of current climate change on sea level, lightning intensity, fire, the El Nin~o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and hurricane intensity. Chapters

Richard B. Aronson

2009-01-01

259

Overview—Climate Change and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses a grave threat to sustainability. The first section of Sustainability2009: The Next Horizon, therefore, is devoted to Climate Change and Adaptation. Contributions focus on the historical consequences of climate change for human societies, as well as the effects of current climate change on sea level, lightning intensity, fire, the El Nin˜o—Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and hurricane intensity. Chapters

Richard B. Aronson

2009-01-01

260

Can Science Win Over Climate Change Skeptics?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explaining global warming is complex, making it harder to argue against climate change skeptics. Teaching the nature of science may be a better way to help students and the public understand that climate change is real; highlight the benefits from climate change awareness; and provide concise, direct answers to critics of climate change theory.

Michael Dougherty (The American Society of Human Genetics; )

2009-07-25

261

The Science and Politics of Climate Change  

E-print Network

;#12;#12;Climate Change Natural Vs. Anthropogenic #12;Is the global warming in the 20th century due to the increaseThe Science and Politics of Climate Change J.Srinivasan Divecha Centre for Climate Change Indian has been induced by human beings? What is the impact of aerosols on climate change? #12;U

262

Plant Pathogens as Indicators of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Chapter 25 Plant Pathogens as Indicators of Climate Change K.A. Garrett, M. Nita, E.D. De Wolf, L. Introduction 2. Climatic Variables and Plant Disease 3. Evidence that Simulated Climate Change Affects Plant Disease in Experiments 4. Evidence that Plant Disease Patterns have Changed due to Climate Change

Garrett, Karen A.

263

Climate Change and Trout in Wisconsin Streams  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Trout in Wisconsin Streams Photo Matt Mitro W John J. Magnuson Center Climate Change Fishes and Climate Change Adaptation Magnuson Photo #12;The Invisible Present The Invisible in Weather versus Climate Change Magnuson 2009 #12;Magnuson 2006 The Invisible Present The Invisible Place

Sheridan, Jennifer

264

An iconic approach to representing climate change  

E-print Network

1 An iconic approach to representing climate change Saffron Jessica O'Neill A thesis submitted-experts to be meaningfully engaged with the issue of climate change. This thesis investigates the value of engaging non-experts with climate change at the individual level. Research demonstrates that individuals perceive climate change

Feigon, Brooke

265

Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers  

E-print Network

1 Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers in the US and South Korea Pierre Y. Julien Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng. Colorado State University Seoul, South Korea August 11, 2009 Climate Change and Large Rivers 1. Climatic changes have been on-going for some time; 2. Climate changes usually predict

Julien, Pierre Y.

266

Linkages between climate change and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change does not yet feature prominently within the environmental or economic policy agendas of developing countries. Yet evidence shows that some of the most adverse effects of climate change will be in developing countries, where populations are most vulnerable and least likely to easily adapt to climate change, and that climate change will affect the potential for development in

Noreen Beg; Jan Corfee Morlot; Ogunlade Davidson; Yaw Afrane-Okesse; Lwazikazi Tyani; Fatma Denton; Youba Sokona; Jean Philippe Thomas; Emilio Lèbre La Rovere; Jyoti K. Parikh; Kirit Parikh; A. Atiq Rahman

2002-01-01

267

Accounting for Climate Change: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The assessment of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted to and removed from the atmosphere is high on both political and scientific\\u000a agendas internationally. As increasing international concern and cooperation aim at policy-oriented solutions to the climate\\u000a change problem, several issues have begun to arise regarding verification and compliance under both proposed and legislated\\u000a schemes meant to reduce the human-induced global climate

Daniel Lieberman; Matthias Jonas; Wilfried Winiwarter; Zbigniew Nahorski; Sten Nilsson

268

Accounting for Climate Change: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted to and removed from the atmosphere is high on both political and scientific\\u000a agendas internationally. As increasing international concern and cooperation aim at policy-oriented solutions to the climate\\u000a change problem, several issues have begun to arise regarding verification and compliance under both proposed and legislated\\u000a schemes meant to reduce the human-induced global climate

Daniel Lieberman; Matthias Jonas; Wilfried Winiwarter; Zbigniew Nahorski; Sten Nilsson

2007-01-01

269

Experimenting with Climate Change  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hilda Smith, biological technician with Canyonlands Research Station, monitors changes in biological soil crusts in response to experimental increases in temperature and altered precipitation patterns....

270

Climate Wisconsin: Temperature Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive visualization allows users to compare future projections of Wisconsin's average annual temperature with the actual changes of the last five decades. Text on the web page encourages students to think about the challenges Wisconsin could face if these changes occur.

Finn Ryan

271

Terrestrial ecosystem feedbacks to global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic greenhouse gases are expected to induce changes in global climate that can alter ecosystems in ways that, in turn, may further affect climate. Such climate-ecosystem interactions can generate either positive or negative feedbacks to the climate system, thereby either enhancing or diminishing the magnitude of global climate change. Important terrestrial feedback mechanisms include COâ fertilization (negative feedbacks), carbon storage

Daniel A. Lashof; Benjamin J. DeAngelo; Scott R. Saleska; John Harte

1997-01-01

272

Climate Kids: How Do We Know the Climate Is Changing?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This question is addressed through a series of questions and answers, each providing related introductory information such as how climate change is studied, the history of Earth’s climate, and the effects of climate change on Earth’s geology and biology. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

273

``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team  

E-print Network

``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change of the tropical climate : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.2 Short­term variability studies : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.3 Climate drift sensitivity studies

274

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

275

Interactive Quizzes on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website allows you to test your knowledge on 5 topics. Warm Up: Test your knowledge about global temperature change and its impact on Earth's climate; Freeze Frames: How much do you know about glaciers and ice caps?; Sea Change: Test your knowledge of sea level rise and its effect on global populations; It's A Gas: Test your knowledge of carbon dioxide and why it's so important to climate stability and our quality of life; Each test consists of 10 questions and are immediately scored. The final module, 10 Things You Never Knew About Earth: Discover some amazing and little-known facts about our home planet, allows you to learn facts about the Earth and Climate Change.

276

Fisheries and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When populations of harvestable fish start to decline, managers look for explanations of the changes throughout the Earth system. In this activity, the impact of global climate change on marine and Great Lakes fish is considered. First, decline in the striped bass population of the North Atlantic, noted in the Downeaster Alexa song by Billy Joel, is examined with spreadsheet analysis and on-line searches of National Marine Fisheries Service databases. In a second investigation, ArcView generates a model of the Lake Erie depths that could be associated with global climate change (shallower water). Students identify fish species that use nearshore shallows for spawning and nursery areas, and speculate on the impact of the lower water. In both activities, the thermal niche of the species is considered as a factor in where fish populations may migrate with new climate regimes.

Rosanne Fortner

2002-07-31

277

Renewable Energy and Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued the Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) at http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/ (May 2011 electronic version; printed form ISBN 978-1-107-60710-1, 2012). More than 130 scientists contributed to the report.* The SRREN assessed existing literature on the future potential of renewable energy for the mitigation of climate change within a portfolio of mitigation options including energy conservation and efficiency, fossil fuel switching, RE, nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CCS). It covers the six most important renewable energy technologies - bioenergy, direct solar, geothermal, hydropower, ocean and wind, as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It also takes into consideration the environmental and social consequences associated with these technologies, the cost and strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion.

Chum, H. L.

2012-01-01

278

Preparing for climate change in Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is expected to bring potentially significant changes to Washington State’s natural, institutional, cultural,\\u000a and economic landscape. Addressing climate change impacts will require a sustained commitment to integrating climate information\\u000a into the day-to-day governance and management of infrastructure, programs, and services that may be affected by climate change.\\u000a This paper discusses fundamental concepts for planning for climate change and

Lara C. Whitely Binder; Jennifer Krencicki Barcelos; Derek B. Booth; Meriel Darzen; Marketa McGuire Elsner; Richard Fenske; Thomas F. Graham; Alan F. Hamlet; John Hodges-Howell; J. Elizabeth Jackson; Catherine Karr; Patrick W. Keys; Jeremy S. Littell; Nathan Mantua; Jennifer Marlow; Don McKenzie; Michael Robinson-Dorn; Eric A. Rosenberg; Claudio O. Stöckle; Julie A. Vano

2010-01-01

279

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 00, M 0, 2001 Positive feedback between future climate change  

E-print Network

, France Abstract. Future climate change due to increased atmo­ spheric CO2 may a#ect land and ocean e and the carbon cycle. Climate change reduces land and ocean uptake of CO2 , respectively by 54% and 35% at 4 × CO cycle studies suggest that such climate change may reduce the uptake of CO2 by the ocean [Maier

Dufresne, Jean-Louis

280

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 0-0, M 0, 2001 Positive feedback between future climate change  

E-print Network

, France Abstract. Future climate change due to increased atmo- spheric CO2 may affect land and ocean system and the carbon cycle. Climate change reduces land and ocean uptake of CO2, respectively by 54 cycle studies suggest that such climate change may reduce the uptake of CO2 by the ocean [Maier

Dufresne, Jean-Louis

281

Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, AR4) has resulted in a wider acceptance of global climate change climate extremes and change impacts. Uncertainties in process studies, climate models, and associated

282

US Climate Change Science Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site offers a portal to the recently held Planning Workshop for Scientists and Stakeholders, convened by the Bush administration to set the research agenda for its US Climate Change Science Program (CCSP). Clicking on Library will call up the draft strategic plan for the CCSP, which may be downloaded in whole or in part. The Web site also provides an overview of the meetings and the program, along with various publications and white papers also available to download. Climate change researchers and other interested parties should find this site a useful resource for keeping tabs on the current administration's stance on the issue.

283

Plate Movements and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use maps of the positions of the continents over the past 180 million years, and, with some basic concepts about climate zones, hypothesize what climate changes may have occurred due to plate movements. They will discover that even though climate zones are oriented roughly parallel to lines of latitude about the Earth, according to the theory of plate tectonics, the continents "ride" on dynamic plates which make up the Earth's surface. Although the resulting movement of the continents is very slow, over millions of years it is enough to get a continent from one place to another, and that movement may take the landmass through several latitudes and climate zones.

Karen Bice

284

Changing the intellectual climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calls for more broad-based, integrated, useful knowledge now abound in the world of global environmental change science. They evidence many scientists' desire to help humanity confront the momentous biophysical implications of its own actions. But they also reveal a limited conception of social science and virtually ignore the humanities. They thereby endorse a stunted conception of 'human dimensions' at a time when the challenges posed by global environmental change are increasing in magnitude, scale and scope. Here, we make the case for a richer conception predicated on broader intellectual engagement and identify some preconditions for its practical fulfilment. Interdisciplinary dialogue, we suggest, should engender plural representations of Earth's present and future that are reflective of divergent human values and aspirations. In turn, this might insure publics and decision-makers against overly narrow conceptions of what is possible and desirable as they consider the profound questions raised by global environmental change.

Castree, Noel; Adams, William M.; Barry, John; Brockington, Daniel; Büscher, Bram; Corbera, Esteve; Demeritt, David; Duffy, Rosaleen; Felt, Ulrike; Neves, Katja; Newell, Peter; Pellizzoni, Luigi; Rigby, Kate; Robbins, Paul; Robin, Libby; Rose, Deborah Bird; Ross, Andrew; Schlosberg, David; Sörlin, Sverker; West, Paige; Whitehead, Mark; Wynne, Brian

2014-09-01

285

Appendix L: Climate Change and Power Planning  

E-print Network

Page 1 Appendix L: Climate Change and Power Planning Power Committee Webinar June 3, 2009 June 3, 2009 2 Outline · Climate Change Data · Assessing impacts to the power system · Dealing with climate;Page 5 June 3, 2009 9 Outline · Climate Change Data · Assessing impacts to the power system · Dealing

286

GUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

of climate change on land and water resources to help inform management and conservation activities Basin, Colorado, are likely to be most at risk to projected climatic changes and why they are likelyGUNNISON BASIN CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT For the Gunnison Climate Working Group

Neff, Jason

287

Stormwater, Climate Change and Wisconsin's Coastal Communities  

E-print Network

source of risk from changing climate. City of Green Bay watershed - #12;Predicted climate includes climate change impacts on specific Wisconsin natural resources, ecosystems and regions. WICCI was createdStormwater, Climate Change and Wisconsin's Coastal Communities Johnson Foundation at Wingspread

Sheridan, Jennifer

288

APPROACHES TO VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Vulnerability to the impacts of future climate change remains a critical issue in the interaction of society with global environmental change. While adaptation to evolving climate patterns can and does occur, sections of society already vulnerable to present climate variability could find this vulnerability exacerbated by the changing incidence of extreme climate events such as droughts and floods. Present

W. Neil Adger

289

USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan  

E-print Network

of Climate Change 5 2013-2014 Highlights 6 ADAPTATION POLICY STATEMENT 7 MAINSTREAM ADAPTATION 9 GOVERNANCE Science Working Group 19 National Climate Assessment 20 Climate Change and Water Working Group 20USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan #12;2 INTRODUCTIONEXECUTIVE SUMMARY This USACE

US Army Corps of Engineers

290

4, 289308, 2008 Climate change and  

E-print Network

CPD 4, 289­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title forum of Climate of the Past Recent climate change affecting rainstorm occurrences? A case study in East­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title Page Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

291

Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17,  

E-print Network

climate." December 1995. #12;Human-Induced Global Warming? Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeGlobal Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17, 29,000 km into space. #12;Natural Variation of the earth. Global Change Impacts 2009. #12;Human Impacts on Climate Greenhouse effect easily tested

Hansen, Andrew J.

292

Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop NASA/Ames Research Center May 15-17, 2012 Climate change on Mars has been a subject of great interest to planetary scientists since the 1970's when orbiting spacecraft first discovered fluvial landforms on its ancient surfaces and layered terrains in its polar regions. By far most of the attention has been directed toward understanding how "Early Mars" (i.e., Mars >~3.5 Gya) could have produced environmental conditions favorable for the flow of liquid water on its surface. Unfortunately, in spite of the considerable body of work performed on this subject, no clear consensus has emerged on the nature of the early Martian climate system because of the difficulty in distinguishing between competing ideas given the ambiguities in the available geological, mineralogical, and isotopic records. For several reasons, however, the situation is more tractable for "Recent Mars" (i.e., Mars during past 20 My or so). First, the geologic record is better preserved and evidence for climate change on this time scale has been building since the rejuvenation of the Mars Exploration Program in the late 1990's. The increasing coverage of the planet from orbit and the surface, coupled with accurate measurements of surface topography, increasing spatial resolution of imaging cameras, improved spectral resolution of infrared sensors, and the ability to probe the subsurface with radar, gamma rays, and neutron spectroscopy, has not only improved the characterization of previously known climate features such as polar layered terrains and glacier-related landforms, but has also revealed the existence of many new features related to recent climate change such as polygons, gullies, concentric crater fill, and a latitude dependent mantle. Second, the likely cause of climate change - spin axis/orbital variations - is more pronounced on Mars compared to Earth. Spin axis/orbital variations alter the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of sunlight, which can mobilize and redistribute volatile reservoirs both on and below the surface. And for Mars, these variations are large. In the past 20 My, for example, the obliquity is believed to have varied from a low of 15° to a high of 45° with a regular oscillation time scale of ~10^5 years. These variations are typically less than two degrees on the Earth. Mars, therefore, offers a natural laboratory for the study of orbitally induced climate change on a terrestrial planet. Finally, general circulation models (GCMs) for Mars have reached a level of sophistication that justifies their application to the study of spin axis/orbitally forced climate change. With recent advances in computer technology the models can run at reasonable spatial resolution for many Mars years with physics packages that include cloud microphysics, radiative transfer in scattering/absorbing atmospheres, surface heat budgets, boundary layer schemes, and a host of other processes. To be sure, the models will undergo continual improvement, but with carefully designed experiments they can now provide insights into mechanisms of climate change in the recent past. Thus, the geologic record is better preserved, the forcing function is large, and GCMs have become useful tools. While research efforts in each of these areas have progressed considerably over the past several decades, they have proceeded mostly on independent paths occasionally leading to conflicting ideas. To remedy this situation and accelerate progress in the area, the NASA/Ames Research Center's Mars General Circulation Modeling Group hosted a 3-day workshop on May 15-17, 2012 that brought together the geological and atmospheric science communities to collectively discuss the evidence for recent climate change on Mars, the nature of the change required, and how that change could be brought about. Over 50 researchers, students, and post-docs from the US, Canada, Europe, and Japan attended the meeting. The program and abstracts from the workshop are presented in this NASA/CP and are available to the public at http://spa

Haberle, Robert M.; Owen, Sandra J.

2012-11-01

293

CLIMATIC CHANGE SINCE 1950  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean temperature for the Northern Hemisphere had a warming trend from 1890 to 1950 and a cooling trend since 1950. The eastern and central United States had colder temperatures in 1961–1970 than in 1931–1960. The temperature changes were associated with an adjustment of hemispheric circulation from more frequent zonal flow between 1900 and 1950 to more frequent meridional flow

RICHARD A. KALNICKY

1974-01-01

294

About sponsorship Climate change  

E-print Network

-climatologist at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, is passionate about the alligators and palm trees he sees dotting was one of a panel of experts on emissions of ancient greenhouse gases that gathered at the American. The main body of this evidence is changes in the chemical properties of the fossilised remains of ancient

Bice, Karen L.

295

AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

SciTech Connect

Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

SCHWARTZ, S.E.

2005-09-01

296

Solar Changes and Climate Changes. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the early decades of the Space Age there was general agreement in the scientific community on two facts: (1) sunspot cycles continued without interruption; (2) decadal timescale variations in the solar output has no effect on Earth’s climate. Then in 1976 Jack Eddy published a paper called ‘The Maunder Minimum” in Science magazine arguing that neither of these two established facts was true. He reviewed the observations from the 17th century that show the Sun did not appear to cycle for several decades and he related that to the cold winters in Northern Europe at that time. The paper has caused three decades of hot discussions. When Jack Eddy died on June 10th of this year the arguments were sill going on, and there were no sunspots that day. The Sun was in the longest and deepest solar minimum since 1900. In this talk I will describe the changes in the solar output that have taken place over the last few decades and put them in their historical context. I will also review recent work on the influence of decadal and century scale solar variations on the Earth’s climate. It is clear that this long, deep “solar minimum” is an opportunity to make fundamental progress on our understanding of the solar dynamo and to separate climate change due to the Sun from anthropogenic climate change.

Feynman, J.

2009-12-01

297

Stratospheric aerosols and climatic change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generated primarily by volcanic explosions, a layer of submicron silicate particles and particles made of concentrated sulfuric acids solution is present in the stratosphere. Flights through the stratosphere may be a future source of stratospheric aerosols, since the effluent from supersonic transports contains sulfurous gases (which will be converted to H2SO4) while the exhaust from Space Shuttles contains tiny aluminum oxide particles. Global heat balance calculations have shown that the stratospheric aerosols have made important contributions to some climatic changes. In the present paper, accurate radiative transfer calculations of the globally-averaged surface temperature (T) are carried out to estimate the sensitivity of the climate to changes in the number of stratospheric aerosols. The results obtained for a specified model atmosphere, including a vertical profile of the aerosols, indicate that the climate is unlikely to be affected by supersonic transports and Space Shuttles, during the next decades.

Baldwin, B.; Pollack, J. B.; Summers, A.; Toon, O. B.; Sagan, C.; Van Camp, W.

1976-01-01

298

Responding to Climate Change Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to Climate Change was the topic for the 2011 Big Issues Forum recently hosted by The University of Notre Dame Australia (UNDA). Panellists included Senator Scott Ludlam, Federal Greens Senator for WA; Melissa Parke MP, Federal Labor Member for Fremantle; Dr Dennis Jensen MP, Federal Liberal Member for Tangney and Dr Michael O’Leary, UNDA Lecturer in the School of

Leigh Dawson

2011-01-01

299

Global Climate Change Interaction Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

300

Media power and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fingers are often pointed directly at the news media for their powerful influence and ineffective reporting of climate change. But is that the best place to point? And are there more effective ways to conceptualize the power of the media and to consider whom they serve?

Corbett, Julia B.

2015-04-01

301

Climate change primer for respirologists.  

PubMed

Climate change is already affecting the cardiorespiratory health of populations around the world, and these impacts are expected to increase. The present overview serves as a primer for respirologists who are concerned about how these profound environmental changes may affect their patients. The authors consider recent peer-reviewed literature with a focus on climate interactions with air pollution. They do not discuss in detail cardiorespiratory health effects for which the potential link to climate change is poorly understood. For example, pneumonia and influenza, which affect >500 million people per year, are not addressed, although clear seasonal variation suggests climate-related effects. Additionally, large global health impacts in low-resource countries, including migration precipitated by environmental change, are omitted. The major cardiorespiratory health impacts addressed are due to heat, air pollution and wildfires, shifts in allergens and infectious diseases along with respiratory impacts from flooding. Personal and societal choices about carbon use and fossil energy infrastructure should be informed by their impacts on health, and respirologists can play an important role in this discussion. PMID:25664458

Takaro, Tim K; Henderson, Sarah B

2015-01-01

302

CLIMATE CHANGE AND N DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

This project investigates the potential influence of climate change on wet deposition of reduced nitrogen across the U.S. The concentration of ammonium-nitrogen in precipitation is known to increase with temperature, owing to temperature dependent ammonia source strengths (natur...

303

Climate Change: Science, Skepticism, Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation on climate change from Chuck Kutscher of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The presentation includes graphics and data. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Kutscher, Charles F.

304

Climate change - creating watershed resilience  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change is likely to intensify the circulation of water, which will shift spatial and temporal availability of snowmelt and runoff. In addition, drought and floods are likely to be more frequent, severe and widespread. Higher air temperatures will lead to higher ocean temperatures, elevating ...

305

Climate Change: Evidence and Causes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamentals of climate change are well established: greenhouse gases warm the planet; their concentrations in the atmosphere are increasing; Earth has warmed, and is going to continue warming with a range of impacts. This article summarises the contents of a recent publication issued by the UK's Royal Society and the US National Academy…

Wolff, Eric

2014-01-01

306

Climate Change Wildlife and Wildlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video focuses on the science of climate change and its impacts on wildlife on land and in the sea, and their habitats in the U.S. There are short sections on walruses, coral reefs, migrating birds and their breeding grounds, freshwater fish, bees, etc. Video concludes with some discussion about solutions, including reduce/recyle/reuse, energy conservation, backyard habitats, citizen scientists.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

307

Conservation, Development and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in Latin America, especially in the A mazon Basin, is a major source of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 which contribute to global warming. Protected area s play a vital role in minimizing forest loss and in supplyi ng key environmental services, including carbon sequestration and rainfall regulat ion, which mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change amidst

Anthony Hall

308

Leishmaniasis emergence and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Spatio-temporal modelling of the distributions of the leishmaniases and their sandfly vectors is reviewed in relation to climate change. Many leishmaniases are rural zoonoses, and so there is a foundation of descriptive ecology and qualitative risk assessment. Dogs are widespread reservoir hosts of veterinary importance. Recent statistical modelling has not always produced novel general conclusions, exemplifying the difficulty of

P. D. Ready

2008-01-01

309

Climate changes and food supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hotter and drier weather in North America, caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases and the thinning of the ozone layer, could cut crop production by as much as 27 percent, calculates David Pimentel of Cornell University. At the same time, however, climate changes in eastern and central Africa could be beneficial-increasing yields from 10 to 30 percent he says.

Pimentel

2009-01-01

310

Climatic Change and Human Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of the Earth over four billion years, and shows how climate has had an important role to play in the evolution of humans. Posits that the world's rapidly growing human population and its increasing use of energy is the cause of present-day changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (Author/JRH)

Garratt, John R.

1995-01-01

311

A Lesson on Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cooperative learning activity, for grades 7-12, promotes critical thinking skills within the context of learning about the causes and effects of climate change. Objectives include: (1) understanding factors that reduce greenhouse gases; (2) understanding the role of trees in reducing greenhouse gases; (3) identifying foods that produce…

Lewis, Jim

312

Inuit Observations of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features changes in the land, sea, and animals that are being observed by the residents of Sachs Harbour, Northwest Territories, Canada â many of whom hunt, trap, and fishâbecause of their long-standing and intimate connection with their ecosystem. Scientists interview the residents and record their observations in order to deepen our understanding of climate change in the polar region. Background essay and discussion questions are included.

WGBH/Boston

313

Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands  

PubMed Central

Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

2013-01-01

314

Climate change and intertidal wetlands.  

PubMed

Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

2013-01-01

315

Environment and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended to convey a broad understanding of the nature of climate change and its potential impacts. Students will come to understand the effects of radiation imbalance in the Arctic, fluctuations in albedo, and ecological consequences of decreasing albedo in the Arctic. Upon completion of the module, they will be able to explain: the consequences of decreasing stratospheric ozone, potential hazards of POP's entering Arctic food chains, and the possible impacts of environmental changes on traditional lifestyles in the Arctic.

316

Changing Climates @ Colorado State: 100 (Multidisciplinary) Views of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We would like to talk about a multidisciplinary education and outreach program we co-direct at Colorado State University, with support from an NSF-funded STC, CMMAP, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes. We are working to raise public literacy about climate change by providing information that is high quality, up to date, thoroughly multidisciplinary, and easy for non-specialists to understand. Our primary audiences are college-level students, their teachers, and the general public. Our motto is Climate Change is Everybody's Business. To encourage and help our faculty infuse climate-change content into their courses, we have organized some 115 talks given by as many different speakers-speakers drawn from 28 academic departments, all 8 colleges at CSU, and numerous other entities from campus, the community, and farther afield. We began with a faculty-teaching-faculty series and then broadened our attentions to the whole campus and surrounding community. Some talks have been for narrowly focused audiences such as extension agents who work on energy, but most are for more eclectic groups of students, staff, faculty, and citizens. We count heads at most events, and our current total is roughly 6,000. We have created a website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) that includes videotapes of many of these talks, short videos we have created, and annotated sources that we judge to be accurate, interesting, clearly written, and aimed at non-specialists, including books, articles and essays, websites, and a few items specifically for college teachers (such as syllabi). Pages of the website focus on such topics as how the climate works / how it changes; what's happening / what might happen; natural ecosystems; agriculture; impacts on people; responses from ethics, art, literature; communication; daily life; policy; energy; and-pulling all the pieces together-the big picture. We have begun working on a new series of very short videos that can be combined in various ways to comprise focused, lively, accurate primers to what we all need to know about climate change. With college classrooms as our intended venue, we are looking at such topics as why the weather in your backyard tells you nothing about global climate change-but a good deal about climate; how tiny molecules warm the planet; how snowpack, drought, bark beetles, fire suppression, and wildfire interact as stress complexes; why (and where) women, children, and the poor are especially vulnerable to harm from climate change; what international policy negotiators argue about; what poets and artists can contribute to understanding and solving the climate problem; and why ecologists are worried about changes in the seasonal timing of natural events. We will describe what we have done and how we did it; offer a few tips to others who might wish to do something similar; and introduce our website.

Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Changing Climates, Cmmap Education; Diversity Team

2011-12-01

317

Trees: Recorders of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to tree rings by examining a cross section of a tree, also known as a “tree cookie.” They discover how tree age can be determined by studying the rings and how ring thickness can be used to deduce times of optimal growing conditions. Next they investigate simulated tree rings by applying the scientific method to explore how climatic conditions varied during the Little Ice Age. Use this activity to begin discussions on global warming and climate change. This lesson guide includes background information and handouts. Note: cost of materials does not include cost of purchasing "tree cookies."

2012-03-30

318

A common-sense climate index: Is climate changing noticeably?  

PubMed Central

We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent already, but in most places climate trends are too small to stand out above year-to-year variability. The climate index is strongly correlated with global surface temperature, which has increased as rapidly as projected by climate models in the 1980s. We argue that the global area with obvious climate change will increase notably in the next few years. But we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has declined in recent years, and thus there is an opportunity to keep climate change in the 21st century less than “business-as-usual” scenarios. PMID:9539699

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Glascoe, Jay; Ruedy, Reto

1998-01-01

319

A common-sense climate index: is climate changing noticeably?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent already, but in most places climate trends are too small to stand out above year-to-year variability. The climate index is strongly correlated with global surface temperature, which has increased as rapidly as projected by climate models in the 1980s. We argue that the global area with obvious climate change will increase notably in the next few years. But we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has declined in recent years, and thus there is an opportunity to keep climate change in the 21st century less than "business-as-usual" scenarios.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Glascoe, J.; Ruedy, R.

1998-01-01

320

Climate Science in a Nutshell: Climate Change Around the World?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is part of the Climate Science in a Nutshell video series. This short video looks at the effects of climate change happening right now around the globe, including: more extreme weather events, droughts, forest fires, land use changes, altered ranges of disease-carrying insects, and the loss of some agricultural products. It concludes with a discussion of the differences among weather, climate variability and climate change.

Planet Nutshell

321

Global Climate Change and Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2009-01-01

322

Ecological Restoration and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing consensus that global climate change occurs and that potential changes in climate are likely to have important regional consequences for biota and ecosystems. Ecological restoration, including (re)- afforestation and rehabilitation of degraded land, is included in the array of potential human responses to cli- mate change. However, the implications of climate change for the broader practice

James A. Harris; Richard J. Hobbs; Eric Higgs; James Aronson

2006-01-01

323

Behavioral dimensions of climate change: drivers, responses,  

E-print Network

to cite this article: WIREs Clim Change 2011. doi: 10.1002/wcc.143 INTRODUCTION Climate changeOverview Behavioral dimensions of climate change: drivers, responses, barriers, and interventions of global climate change, reviews the behavioral and psychological responses to its impacts (including

Pedersen, Tom

324

The greenhouse effect and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical basis of the projected changes in climate due to enhancement of the greenhouse effect is outlined. Gases important to the greenhouse effect are discussed as well as the expected changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases, potential climatic effects, and the ways of detecting changes in the climate. The potential warming due to man-made changes over the last

John F. B. Mitchell; J. F. B

1989-01-01

325

TV Weathercasters as Climate Change Communicators  

E-print Network

climate change "Early Adopter" Mike Nelson Chief Meteorologist, KMGH-TV Denver Global Warming and ColoradoTV Weathercasters as Climate Change Communicators Kris Wilson Ph.D. School of Journalism University Change: General Public Source: Leiserowitz, A., Maibach, E., & Roser-Renouf, C. (2010) Climate change

326

Australian Government Department ofClimate Change  

E-print Network

and carbon capture and storage, has been passed to the Minister for Climate Change and Water, Senator the Hon change one of its highest priorities. Australia's climate change policy is built on three pillarsAustralian Government Department ofClimate Change C08/7649 Mr James Hansen Columbia University 4405

Hansen, James E.

327

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co Development John Ramsden, Natural Resources Conservation Service Jon Schellpfeffer, Madison Metropolitan changes due to global climate change." ­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Future Climate Change What

Sheridan, Jennifer

328

FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA Changes in the Distribution and Frequency of Fire's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012026 Prepared for: California Energy Commission to climate change has the potential to induce alteration of future fire activity. This research presents just

329

Challenges and Possibilities in Climate Change Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating and communicating about climate change is challenging. Researchers reported that climate change concepts are often misunderstood. Some people do not believe that climate change will have impacts on their own life. Other challenges may include people's difficulty in perceiving small or gradual environmental changes, the fact that…

Pruneau,, Diane; Khattabi, Abdellatif; Demers, Melanie

2010-01-01

330

Ecological Consequences of Recent Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is frequently considered a major conservation threat. The Earth's climate has already warmed by 0.5 8 C over the past century, and recent studies show that it is possible to detect the ef- fects of a changing climate on ecological systems. This suggests that global change may be a current and fu- ture conservation threat. Changes in

John P. McCarty

2001-01-01

331

Global Climate Change Earth, 1972, Apollo 17,  

E-print Network

frequent, and longer-lasting heat waves. #12;Projected Future Precipitation · Increase in global average the paleo record of the earth. Global Change Impacts 2009. #12;Has Climate Changed as Predicted? #12;McCarthy 2009. Has Climate Changed as Predicted? #12;Mann et al. 2008 Has Climate Changed as Predicted? #12

Hansen, Andrew J.

332

Public Perceptions of Climate Change: A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine for a sample of Los Angeles residents their willingness to pay to prevent significant climate change. We employ a frac- tional factorial design in which various climate change sce narios differing in ways consistent with existing variation in climate are pres ented to respon- dents. These are contrasted to respondents' current climat e before willing-

Richard A. Berk; Robert G. Fovell

1998-01-01

333

Surface Ozone and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface ozone pollution will continue to be a concern in the coming decades as the effects of climate change couple with changing emissions to influence air quality. We analyze modeled surface ozone's seasonal cycle variability, long-term variability, and its correlation to atmospheric circulation using output from the GFDL coupled chemistry climate model (CM3) from CMIP5. We analyze the relationship between the jet stream and both ozone variability and mean ozone over the North Pacific. We also determine if ozone's seasonal cycle will shift in the future on a worldwide scale. We focus on surface ozone and 500mb zonal winds in order to analyze the large-scale circulation effects from 2006 to 2100. CMIP5 contains varying representative concentration pathways (RCPs), and we use three-member RCPs 4.5 and 4.5*, which are identical save the fact that 4.5* have fixed amounts of aerosols and ozone precursors at 2005 levels. The use of both 4.5 and 4.5* allows us to see effects due to changing emissions of ozone precursors such as NOx and which are due to climate change. Jet speed is found to correlate well with the maximum amount of decadal mean ozone in both 4.5 and 4.5* in the Pacific region. In addition, ozone's seasonal cycle across the globe peaks earlier in the year due to climate change alone, while decreasing emissions of ozone precursors is found to alter the amplitude of the cycle over industrial continental areas, causing the day of maximum ozone to occur months earlier long-term. The seasonal cycle change in 4.5* appears to be connected to the jet stream over the Pacific.

Gonzales, K.; Barnes, E. A.

2013-12-01

334

Precipitation extremes under climate change  

E-print Network

The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

O'Gorman, Paul A

2015-01-01

335

Risk management and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection of climate policies should be an exercise in risk management reflecting the many relevant sources of uncertainty. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. Hence policy analysis cannot effectively evaluate alternatives using standard approaches, such as expected utility theory and benefit-cost analysis. This Perspective highlights the value of robust decision-making tools designed for situations such as evaluating climate policies, where consensus on probability distributions is not available and stakeholders differ in their degree of risk tolerance. A broader risk-management approach enables a range of possible outcomes to be examined, as well as the uncertainty surrounding their likelihoods.

Kunreuther, Howard; Heal, Geoffrey; Allen, Myles; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Field, Christopher B.; Yohe, Gary

2013-05-01

336

America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video production is a part of a four-panel report from the National Academies' America's Climate Choices project. The video maps out the realm of our accumulated knowledge regarding climate change and charts a path forward, urging that research on climate change enter a new era focused on the needs of decision makers.

National Academies

337

Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin  

PubMed Central

A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes reflect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was ?0.12 day per year, an overall increase in phenological earliness at this site during the period. Some phenophases have not increased in earliness, as would be expected for phenophases that are regulated by photoperiod or by a physiological signal other than local temperature. PMID:10449757

Bradley, Nina L.; Leopold, A. Carl; Ross, John; Huffaker, Wellington

1999-01-01

338

Overview—Climate Change and Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses a grave threat to sustainability. The first section of Sustainability2009: The Next Horizon, therefore, is devoted to Climate Change and Adaptation. Contributions focus on the historical consequences of climate change for human societies, as well as the effects of current climate change on sea level, lightning intensity, fire, the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and hurricane intensity. Chapters on fisheries and coral reefs highlight the cascading effects climatic warming, rising sea level, and ocean acidification. Adaptation to climate change and its consequences will be necessary to buy time for mitigation and reversal of the effects of greenhouse-gas emissions.

Aronson, Richard B.

2009-07-01

339

Severe thunderstorms and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the planet warms, it is important to consider possible impacts of climate change on severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. To further that discussion, the current distribution of severe thunderstorms as a function of large-scale environmental conditions is presented. Severe thunderstorms are much more likely to form in environments with large values of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and deep-tropospheric wind shear. Tornadoes and large hail are preferred in high-shear environments and non-tornadic wind events in low shear. Further, the intensity of tornadoes and hail, given that they occur, tends to be almost entirely a function of the shear and only weakly depends on the thermodynamics. Climate model simulations suggest that CAPE will increase in the future and the wind shear will decrease. Detailed analysis has suggested that the CAPE change will lead to more frequent environments favorable for severe thunderstorms, but the strong dependence on shear for tornadoes, particularly the strongest ones, and hail means that the interpretation of how individual hazards will change is open to question. The recent development of techniques to use higher-resolution models to estimate the occurrence of storms of various kinds is discussed. Given the large interannual variability in environments and occurrence of events, caution is urged in interpreting the observational record as evidence of climate change.

Brooks, H. E.

2013-04-01

340

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education  

E-print Network

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate 1 September 2011) Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize

Niyogi, Dev

341

Climate Change and Civil Violence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore provides an opportunity for targeted proactive measures to mitigate certain classes of future civil violence events.

van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

2009-05-01

342

Novel communities from climate change  

PubMed Central

Climate change is generating novel communities composed of new combinations of species. These result from different degrees of species adaptations to changing biotic and abiotic conditions, and from differential range shifts of species. To determine whether the responses of organisms are determined by particular species traits and how species interactions and community dynamics are likely to be disrupted is a challenge. Here, we focus on two key traits: body size and ecological specialization. We present theoretical expectations and empirical evidence on how climate change affects these traits within communities. We then explore how these traits predispose species to shift or expand their distribution ranges, and associated changes on community size structure, food web organization and dynamics. We identify three major broad changes: (i) Shift in the distribution of body sizes towards smaller sizes, (ii) dominance of generalized interactions and the loss of specialized interactions, and (iii) changes in the balance of strong and weak interaction strengths in the short term. We finally identify two major uncertainties: (i) whether large-bodied species tend to preferentially shift their ranges more than small-bodied ones, and (ii) how interaction strengths will change in the long term and in the case of newly interacting species. PMID:23007079

Lurgi, Miguel; López, Bernat C.; Montoya, José M.

2012-01-01

343

Why does the climate change? The Earth's climate has changed throughout history and  

E-print Network

to change in the future. Global climate change can be attributed to one of two causes, natural can also influence climate. The human influence that is most responsible for recent changes in global is projected to be at the higher end of the range. Global Climate Change Climate Change on the Prairie: A Basic

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

344

Agriculture, Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Bruce A. McCarl  

E-print Network

Agriculture, Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor Change Happen Let's Avoid Climate Change Mitigation Effects Presented at Texas Recycling and Sustainability Summit San Antonio, Sept 29, 2004 #12;Climate Change has in part a human cause Source http

McCarl, Bruce A.

345

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING IN  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING Columbia must adapt to climate change by preparing for expected and unexpected changes in their communities that planners do not have a high level of knowledge of climate change adaptation. Planners feel that the impacts

Pedersen, Tom

346

The Educational Challenges of Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains five concepts that are vital for the design or implementation of programs on global climate change. Discusses different approaches for how global climate change should be taught. (Contains 20 references.) (YDS)

McClaren, Milton; Hammond, William

2000-01-01

347

Essays on climate change, energy, and independence   

E-print Network

This thesis contains three separate papers. A balance of questions: what can we ask of climate change economics? is a critical analysis of the economics of climate change literature. It concludes that much more research ...

Comerford, David

2013-11-27

348

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

349

Characterizing loss and damage from climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policymakers are creating mechanisms to help developing countries cope with loss and damage from climate change, but the negotiations are largely neglecting scientific questions about what the impacts of climate change actually are.

James, Rachel; Otto, Friederike; Parker, Hannah; Boyd, Emily; Cornforth, Rosalind; Mitchell, Daniel; Allen, Myles

2014-11-01

350

What do Squirrels know about Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do Squirrels know about Climate Change? This activity was developed during the Teaching Climate Change from the Geological Record workshop, held in August 2010.Contributed by: Beth Norman, Allan Ashworth, and ...

351

Mitigating Climate Change in China and Ethiopia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Hope in a Changing Climate, learn how an environmentally devastated ecosystem has been restored, benefiting both the local economy and global efforts to fight climate change.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2010-11-30

352

HOW WILL GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AFFECT PARASITES?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Parasites are integral components of complex biotic assemblages that comprise the biosphere. Host switching correlated with episodic climate-change events are common in evolutionary and ecological time. Global climate change produces ecological perturbation, manifested in major geographical/pheno...

353

Climate change and urban development in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the relationship between climate change and urban development in Africa, especially in sub?Saharan Africa, and discusses potential adaptation policies for moderating the consequences of climatic changes on urban development in the region.

Kempe Ronald Hope Sr

2009-01-01

354

RISKS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Adaptation is an important approach for protecting human health, ecosystems, and economic systems from the risks posed by climate variability and change, and to exploit beneficial opportunities provided by a changing climate. This paper presents nine fundamental principles that ...

355

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it’s important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

356

Teaching Climate Change Through Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2006, Peter Weiss aka "The Singing Scientist" performed many music assemblies for elementary schools (K-5) in Santa Cruz County, California, USA. These assemblies were an opportunity for him to mix a discussion of climate change with rock n' roll. In one song called "Greenhouse Glasses", Peter and his band the "Earth Rangers" wear over-sized clown glasses with "molecules" hanging off them (made with Styrofoam balls and pipe cleaners). Each molecule is the real molecular structure of a greenhouse gas, and the song explains how when the wearer of these glasses looks up in the sky, he/she can see the "greenhouse gases floating by." "I've seen more of them this year than the last / 'Cuz fossil fuels are burning fast / I wish everyone could see through these frames / Then maybe we could prevent climate change" Students sing, dance and get a visual picture of something that is invisible, yet is part of a very real problem. This performance description is used as an example of an educational style that can reach a wide audience and provide a framework for the audience as learners to assimilate future information on climate change. The hypothesis is that complex socio-environmental issues like climate change that must be taught in order to achieve sustainability are best done so through alternative mediums like music. Students develop awareness which leads to knowledge about chemistry, physics, and biology. These kinds of experiences which connect science learning to fun activities and community building are seriously lacking in primary and secondary schools and are a big reason why science illiteracy is a current social problem. Science education is also paired with community awareness (including the local plant/animal community) and cooperation. The Singing Scientist attempts to create a culture where it is cool to care about the environment. Students end up gardening in school gardens together and think about their "ecological footprint".

Weiss, P. S.

2007-12-01

357

Climate Change in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a South Asia, is home to over one fifth of the world’s population and is known to be the most disaster prone region in the world.\\u000a The high rates of ­population growth, and natural resource degradation, with continuing high rates of poverty and food insecurity\\u000a make South Asia one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. In

Mannava V. K. Sivakumar; Robert Stefanski

358

The Amazon Rain Forest and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module discusses global climate change that is occurring largely because of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities, and in particular the impact that tropical deforestation plays in the climate system. It also covers signs of climate change, the current thinking on future changes, and international agreements that are attempting to minimize the effects of climate change. The United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD Programme) is also discussed.

2014-09-14

359

Climate Change Impact on Forestry in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate change represents a significant threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. Climate change is expected\\u000a to have also impacts on forest ecology. It is thus important to make assessments of possible impacts of climate change on\\u000a forests in different regions to allow respective governments and communities to adapt. Climate change is projected to affect\\u000a individual organisms, populations, species distributions

Geetanjali Kaushik; M. A. Khalid

360

Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities Jim Crawford Trane jim.crawford@trane.com www.trane.com Abstract Atmospheric scientists tell us that mankind is changing the climate, and is setting in motion forces that can... make essentially irreversible changes in the climate of the future. Naysayers dispute whether mankind is even capable of changing the climate. Today we are hearing more from the scientists and less from the naysayers. This presentation will review...

Crawford, J. G.

361

Climate change, environment and allergy.  

PubMed

Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

2012-01-01

362

Past and Current Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1837 the Swiss geologist and palaeontologist Louis Agassiz was the first scientist to propose the existence of an ice age in the Earth's past. Nearly two centuries after discussing global glacial periods... while the average global temperature is rising very quickly because of our economic and industrial model. In tribute to these pioneers, we have selected a major climate change of the past as the Snowball Earth and, through various activities in the classroom, compared to the current anthropogenic climate change. First, we include multiple geological processes that led to a global glaciation 750 million years ago as the decrease in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4, the effect of climate variations in solar radiation due to emissions of volcanic dust and orbital changes (Milankovitch cycles), being an essential part of this model the feedback mechanism of the albedo of the ice on a geological scale. Moreover, from simple experiments and studies in the classroom this time we can compare the past with the current anthropogenic global warming we are experiencing and some of its consequences, highlighting that affect sea level rise, increased extreme and effects on health and the biosphere weather.

Mercedes Rodríguez Ruibal, Ma

2014-05-01

363

NASA Nice Climate Change Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors: 1 Kaiem Frink, 4 Sherry Crocker, 5 Willie Jones, III, 7 Sophia S.L. Marshall, 6 Anuadha Dujari 3 Ervin Howard 1 Kalota Stewart-Gurley 8 Edwinta Merriweathe Affiliation: 1. Mathematics & Computer Science, Virginia Union University, Richmond, VA, United States. 2. Mathematics & Computer Science, Elizabeth City State Univ, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 3. Education, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 4. College of Education, Fort Valley State University , Fort Valley, GA, United States. 5. Education, Tougaloo College, Jackson, MS, United States. 6. Mathematics, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, United States. 7. Education, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, United States. 8. Education, Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University, Huntsville, AL, United States. ABSTRACT: In this research initiative, the 2013-2014 NASA NICE workshop participants will present best educational practices for incorporating climate change pedagogy. The presentation will identify strategies to enhance instruction of pre-service teachers to aligned with K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) standards. The presentation of best practices should serve as a direct indicator to address pedagogical needs to include climate education within a K-12 curriculum Some of the strategies will include inquiry, direct instructions, and cooperative learning . At this particular workshop, we have learned about global climate change in regards to how this is going to impact our life. Participants have been charged to increase the scientific understanding of pre-service teachers education programs nationally to incorporate climate education lessons. These recommended practices will provide feasible instructional strategies that can be easily implemented and used to clarify possible misconceptions and ambiguities in scientific knowledge. Additionally, the presentation will promote an awareness to the many facets in which climate change education can be beneficial to future learners and general public. The main scope is to increase the amount of STEM knowledge throughout the nations scientific literacy as we are using the platform of climate change. Federal entities which may include but not limited to National Security Agency and the Department of Homeland Security and Management will serve as resources partners for this common goal of having a more knowledgeable technological savvy and scientific literate society. The presentation will show that incorporating these best practices into elementary and early childhood education undergraduate programs will assist with increasing a enhance scientific literate society. As a measurable outcome have a positive impact on instructional effectiveness of future teachers. Their successfully preparing students in meeting the standards of the Common Core Initiative will attempt to measure across the curriculum uniformly.

Frink, K.; Crocker, S.; Jones, W., III; Marshall, S. S.; Anuradha, D.; Stewart-Gurley, K.; Howard, E. M.; Hill, E.; Merriweather, E.

2013-12-01

364

Whither the International Climate Change Regime?  

E-print Network

Bodansky is a preeminent authority on global climate change whose teaching and research focusWhither the International Climate Change Regime? The Road from Cancun Wednesday, January 19, 2011 on international environmental law and public international law. He has served as the climate change coordinator

Zhang, Junshan

365

CLIMATE CHANGE AND MANAGED ECOSYSTEMS: BOOK REVIEW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In July, 2004, an important international climate change conference convened in Edmonton, Canada, “The Science of Changing Climates – Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands”. Leading experts in climate change, mostly from the natural and agricultural sciences, exchanged the latest findings o...

366

Climate Change and U.S. Interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public policy debate on the appropriate American response to climate change is now in full swing. There are no longer significant voices disputing that climate change is real or that it is primarily the result of human activity. The issue today is what the United States should do about climate change given the risks the country faces and the

Andrew T Guzman; Jody Freeman

2009-01-01

367

Integrating climate change adaptation into forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change will affect society's ability to use forest resources. We take account of climate in forest management and this will help us adapt to the effects of climate change on forests. However, society will have to adjust to how forests adapt by changing expectations for the use of forest resources because management can only influence the timing and

David L. Spittlehouse

2005-01-01

368

Research Note Impacts of climate change on  

E-print Network

Research Note Impacts of climate change on forestry in Scotland ­ a synopsis of spatial modelling research Duncan Ray January 2008 Climate change is now one of the greatest global challenges, and research by climate change. This Research Note provides an initial synopsis of the likely impacts, with preliminary

369

Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

Saving Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE Edited by Lee Hannah ISLANDPRESS-in-Publication Data Saving a million species : extinction risk from climate change / edited by LeeHannah. p. cm. ISBN-10: 1-59726-570-5 (paper) 1. Climatic changes. 2. Global warming. 3. Extinction (Biology

Poff, N. LeRoy

370

International business and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has become an important topic on the business agenda with strong pressure being placed on companies to respond and contribute to finding solutions to this urgent problem. This text provides a comprehensive analysis of international business responses to global climate change and climate change policy. Embedded in relevant management literature, this book gives a concise treatment of developments

J. Pinkse; A. Kolk

2008-01-01

371

Adaptation to climate change in forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in forestry is sustainable forest management that includes a climate change focus. Climate change over the next 100 years is expected to have significant impacts on forest ecosystems. The forestry community needs to evaluate the long-term effects of climate change on forests and determine what the community might do now and in the future to respond to this threat.

David L. Spittlehouse; Robert B. Stewart

2003-01-01

372

Mars - Epochal climate change and volatile history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epochal climate change and volatile history of Mars are examined, with special attention given to evidence for and mechanisms of long-term climate change. Long-term climate change on Mars is indicated most directly by the presence, age, and distribution of the valley networks. They were almost certainly formed by running water, but it seems more likely that they were formed

Fraser P. Fanale; Susan E. Postawko; James B. Pollack; Michael H. Carr; Robert O. Pepin

1992-01-01

373

Getting to the Core of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lab about evidence for past climate change as captured in ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. Students investigate climate changes going back thousands of years by graphing and analyzing ice core data from both Greenland and Antarctica. They use information about natural and human-caused changes in the atmosphere to formulate predictions about the Earth's climate.

2005-01-01

374

Climate Change: Fitting the Pieces Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module discusses climate change, particularly as it is currently being affected by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities. It also covers signs of climate change, how scientists study climate, the current thinking on future changes, and what can be done to minimize the effects. Updated in 2012.

COMET

2009-05-11

375

Food Rights, Food Frugality, and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change-related food issues are key problems affecting the world today and into the future. This paper investigates how climate change is harming and is expected to harm food sources on land and in the sea, and how food production itself, especially industrialized agriculture and meat production, contributes to climate change. This article uses human rights discourse to frame the

Lynn Vincentnathan

2012-01-01

376

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes to Ecosystems K. A. Garrett, S. P. Dendy, E. E in the effects of climate change on plant disease contin- ues to be limited, but some striking progress has been of the magnitude of climate change effects. Ecosystem ecologists are now addressing the role of plant disease

Garrett, Karen A.

377

A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning  

E-print Network

A Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Planning THE H. JOHN HEINZ III CENTER FOR SCIENCE, ECONOMICS, Uncertainty and Decision-Making" "Handbook on Methods for Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation of climate change worldwide. Concerns about causes and effects have moved beyond the realm of scientific

Ford, Andrew

378

Climate Change and Water Resources in the  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Water Resources in the Tropical Andes Mathias Vuille Inter-American Development Bank Environmental Safeguards Unit TECHNICAL NOTE No. IDB-TN-515 March 2013 #12;Climate Change-American Development Bank Felipe Herrera Library Vuille, Mathias. Climate change and water resources in the tropical

Vuille, Mathias

379

7, 1114111189, 2007 Climate change and  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric ozone G. Zeng et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone and its global budgets G. Zeng, J. A. Pyle, and P. Zeng (guang.zeng@atm.ch.cam.ac.uk) 11141 #12;ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation  

E-print Network

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change Climate Change Center to lead this effort. The 2009 Adaptation Strategy prepared by the California Natural Resources Agency also called for a statewide vulnerability and adaptation study. This report summarizes

381

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change  

E-print Network

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change: Opportunities and Challenges for Data A Climate change is the defining environmental challenge facing our planet, yet there is considerable.Anew and transformative approach is required to understand the potential impact of climate change. Data driven approaches

California at Davis, University of

382

Addressing Climate Change in Environmental Impact Analysis  

E-print Network

Addressing Climate Change in Environmental Impact Analysis 2010 CTS Research Conference Carissa impact analysis (EIA) as a tool to address climate change ·! Consider approaches to measuring and addressing climate change at the project scale #12;Purpose ·! Funded by U of M Institute on the Environment

Minnesota, University of

383

Arnold Schwarzenegger DATA SOURCES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor DATA SOURCES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH WITH A COMPUTABLE GENERAL-Holst, University of California, Berkeley PIERPROJECTREPORT June 2007 CEC-500-2006-080 #12;California Climate Change for Climate Change Research with a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model of the California Economy

384

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC Climate change will affect both sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff

385

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FLOODING IN WISCONSIN Ken Potter and Zach Schuster flood scenarios in Wisconsin · Potential impact of climate change on Wisconsin flooding · Ongoing #12;WISCONSIN INITIATIVE ON CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS · Partnership between the University of Wisconsin

Sheridan, Jennifer

386

Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change…

Dawson, Vaille

2012-01-01

387

Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing  

E-print Network

Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental climate change when relicensing hydropower units, stating that there is a lack of scientific information this project, researchers are conducting an environmental study on climate change for the Yuba River

388

Simulation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change  

E-print Network

Simulation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change Nathan P. Gillett1 * and David W. J. Thompson2 Recent observations indicate that climate change over the high latitudes of the Southern's surface as well. Recent climate change in the Southern Hemi- sphere (SH) is marked by a strengthening

389

BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change  

E-print Network

BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

Kraft, Nathan

390

Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1  

E-print Network

Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1 J. Marotzke,2 W. D. Nordhaus,3 J. T. Overpeck,4 D. M. Peteet,5. Wallace8 Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

391

The Environmental Justice Dimensions of Climate Change  

E-print Network

The Environmental Justice Dimensions of Climate Change Marie Lynn Miranda, Douglas A. Hastings to mitigate the severe impacts of climate change predicted to occur in the twenty-first century. Many with climate change. This study investigates the varying degrees to which developing and developed nations

392

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change  

E-print Network

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change: The Role of NOAA Sea Grant Extension years and generations about how to adapt to a changing climate. Effective preparation for possible effects of climate change includes engagement of resource managers, planners, public works officials

393

Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

Anderson, Allison

2012-01-01

394

Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic  

E-print Network

Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic Tomography, Satellite Altimetry, and Modeling The ATOC to thermal expansion. Interpreting climate change signals from fluctuations in sea level is therefore in the advective heat flux. Changes in oceanic heat storage are a major expected element of future climate shifts

Frandsen, Jannette B.

395

Online Courses: Mississippi State University: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our Climate Change course will provide you with an understanding of climate change over the entire history of Earth - not just the past few decades. Students will learn about the complexity of climate change and how it results from anthropogenic and natu

1900-01-01

396

Economic impacts of climate change in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to develop scenarios of the economic impacts of climate change in Brazil, articulating the projected impacts of climate change on agricultural and energy sectors to macroeconomic scenarios, these related to climate change scenarios developed by IPCC (A2 and B2).

Edson Paulo Domingues; Eduardo Amaral Haddad; Fernando Salgueiro Perobelli; Eduardo Simões de Almeida; José Martins Guilhoto Guilhoto; Fabio Kanczuk

2010-01-01

397

Climate change-integrated conservation strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Conservation strategies currently include little consider- ation of climate change. Insights about the biotic impacts of climate change from biogeography and palaeoecology, there- fore, have the potential to provide significant improvements in the effectiveness of conservation planning. We suggest a collaboration involving biogeography, ecology and applied conservation. The resulting Climate Change-integrated Conservation Strategies (CCS) apply available tools to respond

L. Hannah; G. F. Midgley; D. Millar

2002-01-01

398

Water resources planning under climate change and variability  

E-print Network

Climate Change……………….1 Introduction………………………………………………………..1Impacts of Climate Change 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 BackgroundClimate Change Under Incomplete Information………………..…36 Introduction………………………………………………………

O'Hara, Jeffrey Keith

2007-01-01

399

Ocean Circulation and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the mainstream media has provided extensive coverage of El Nino and La Nina -- the warmer and colder phases of a perpetual oscillation in the surface temperature of the tropical Pacific Ocean -- little attention has been paid to deep-water phases. Several recent publications in leading scientific journals (Science and Nature) are adding new dimensions to the link between large-scale ocean circulation patterns and climate. Researchers Dr. Wallace Broecker and researchers at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (see the November 5, 1999 issue of Science and the November 9, 1999 issue of The New York Times) found that deep ocean currents, operating as an oceanic "conveyor belt," may hold clues to climate change. The conveyor belt works by transporting warm, increasingly salty, ocean water from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean; eventually, the warm water current runs into a cold water current, causing the warm water to cool quickly and sink, due to greater density. In turn, this creates a "sub-surface countercurrent which carries the cool water back to the Indian and Pacific oceans" (2). In this week's issue of Nature (December 2, 1999), German scientist Carsten Ruhlemann and colleagues provide new evidence that the thermohaline circulation has triggered rapid climate change events in the past, including the last deglaciation. In addition, the current issue of Science Times (December 7, 1999) highlights the connection between thawing Arctic ice sheets and oceanic currents. This week's In The News focuses on ocean circulation patterns and climate change. The seven resources provide background information and specific links to related resources.

Payne, Laura X.

400

North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Producing Regional Climate Change Projections for Climate Impacts Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is constructing projections of regional climate change over the coterminous United States and Canada in order to provide climate change information at decision relevant scales. A major goal of NARCCAP is to estimate uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate by using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within multiple

R. W. Arritt; L. Mearns; C. Anderson; D. Bader; E. Buonomo; D. Caya; P. Duffy; N. Elguindi; F. Giorgi; W. Gutowski; I. Held; A. Nunes; R. Jones; R. Laprise; L. R. Leung; D. Middleton; W. Moufouma-Okia; D. Nychka; Y. Qian; J. Roads; S. Sain; M. Snyder; L. Sloan; E. Takle

2006-01-01

401

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students’ understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural and human influences result in

Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Anita Roychoudhury; Andrew Hirsch

2012-01-01

402

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students’ understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural and human influences result in

Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Anita Roychoudhury; Andrew Hirsch

2011-01-01

403

Conceptualizing Climate Change in the Context of a Climate System: Implications for Climate and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural…

Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Roychoudhury, Anita; Hirsch, Andrew

2012-01-01

404

Learning about Climate Change: Finance Ministries in International Climate Change Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the last four years, finance ministries have increasingly become involved in the international climate change negotiations. Their involvement has to a large degree been an outcome of the framing of climate change as a market failure. This framing calls for an active climate change policy and is at odds with the framing of climate change policy

Jakob Skovgaard

2012-01-01

405

Climate change scenarios for the assessments of the climate change on regional ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the different methods which may be used for the construction of regional climate change scenarios. The main focus of the paper is the construction of regional climate change scenarios from climate change experiments carried out using General Circulation Models (GCMs). An introduction to some GCM climate change experiments highlights the difference between model types and experiments (e.g.

D. Viner; M. Hulme; S. C. B. Raper

1995-01-01

406

Climate Change and Fisheries:Climate Change and Fisheries: A Socioeconomic PerspectiveA Socioeconomic Perspective  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Fisheries:Climate Change and Fisheries: A Socioeconomic Perspective and Fisheries to ClimateImpact and Adaptation Responses of Fish and Fisheries to Climate ChangeChange"" Canadian Priorities Assess what can be said now about impacts on fisheriesAssess what can be said now about impacts

Charles, Anthony

407

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

Saldin, Dilano

408

Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change: Implications for · Wisconsin's changing climate · Stormwater management · Impacts and adaptation #12;WICCI Identifying impacts activities. Develop and recommend adaptation strategies. Mission: Assess and anticipate climate change

Sheridan, Jennifer

409

A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century  

E-print Network

A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century Miche`le B; accepted 30 November 2006; published 10 January 2007. [1] A Climate Change Index (CCI) is developed to a single index that is a measure for the strength of future climate change relative to today's natural

Fischlin, Andreas

410

Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law  

E-print Network

Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law Monica Molina, Columbia College '14 Supervisor Meredith Wilensky, J.D. Introduction The Climate Change Laws of the World Project is an ongoing effort at the Center for Climate Change Law (CCCL) to aggregate existing domestic

411

Climate Change or Land Use Dynamics: Do We Know What Climate Change Indicators Indicate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different components of global change can have interacting effects on biodiversity and this may influence our ability to detect the specific consequences of climate change through biodiversity indicators. Here, we analyze whether climate change indicators can be affected by land use dynamics that are not directly determined by climate change. To this aim, we analyzed three community-level indicators of climate

Miguel Clavero; Daniel Villero; Lluís Brotons; Stephen G. Willis

2011-01-01

412

The science of climate change.  

SciTech Connect

A complex debate is underway on climate change linked to proposals for costly measures that would reshape our power grid. This confronts technical experts outside of the geophysical disciplines with extensive, but unfamiliar, data both supporting and refuting claims that serious action is warranted. For example, evidence is brought to the table from one group of astrophysicists concerned with sunspots--this group believes there is no issue man can manage; while another group of oceanographers concerned with the heat balance in the world's oceans are very alarmed at the loss of arctic ice. What is the evidence? In an effort to put some of these issues in perspective for a technical audience, without a background in geophysics, a brief survey will consider (1) an overview of the 300 years of scientific inquiry on man's relationship to climate; (2) a basic discussion of what is meant by the ''greenhouse'' and why there are concerns which include not only CO{sub 2}, but also CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CFC's; (3) the geological record on CO{sub 2}--which likely was present at 1,000 times current levels when life began; (4) the solar luminosity and sunspot question; and (5) the current evidence for global climate change. We are at a juncture where we are attempting to understand the earth as an integrated dynamic system, rather than a collection of isolated components.

Doctor, R. D.

1999-09-10

413

Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review  

PubMed Central

The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

2014-01-01

414

Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review.  

PubMed

The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

2014-11-01

415

Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and  

E-print Network

. Photo by Maria K. Janowiak, U.S. Forest Service and Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science with the Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science, U.S. Forest Service, 410 MacInnes Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 is a climate change specialist with the Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science, U.S. Forest Service

416

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear  

E-print Network

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters Rob Goldston MIT IAP plays a large role in replacing coal red plants. al hydro electricity options penetrate in the climate way across scenarios, showing a slight severe climate targets. In Industry, the climate target has

417

Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

1990-01-01

418

Regional Climate Change Hotspots over Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI), is developed based on regional mean precipitation change, mean surface air temperature change, and change in precipitation and temperature interannual variability. The RCCI is a comparative index designed to identify the most responsive regions to climate change, or Hot- Spots. The RCCI is calculated for Seven land regions over North Africa and Arabian region from

U. Anber

2009-01-01

419

Towards a Psychology of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper gives a structured overview about possible contributions of psychology to the climate change debate. As a starting\\u000a point, it assumes that understanding people’s behaviour related to climate change (mitigation and adaptation) is crucial for\\u000a successfully dealing with the future challenges. Climate change-related behaviour includes voting, support for climate lobbyists,\\u000a individual consumption, adapting new technology, and taking adaptive actions.

Christian A. Kloeckner

420

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:? Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.? Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.? Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.? Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

421

Physiological ecology meets climate change  

PubMed Central

In this article, we pointed out that understanding the physiology of differential climate change effects on organisms is one of the many urgent challenges faced in ecology and evolutionary biology. We explore how physiological ecology can contribute to a holistic view of climate change impacts on organisms and ecosystems and their evolutionary responses. We suggest that theoretical and experimental efforts not only need to improve our understanding of thermal limits to organisms, but also to consider multiple stressors both on land and in the oceans. As an example, we discuss recent efforts to understand the effects of various global change drivers on aquatic ectotherms in the field that led to the development of the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) as a framework integrating various drivers and linking organisational levels from ecosystem to organism, tissue, cell, and molecules. We suggest seven core objectives of a comprehensive research program comprising the interplay among physiological, ecological, and evolutionary approaches for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. While studies of individual aspects are already underway in many laboratories worldwide, integration of these findings into conceptual frameworks is needed not only within one organism group such as animals but also across organism domains such as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Indeed, development of unifying concepts is relevant for interpreting existing and future findings in a coherent way and for projecting the future ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on functional biodiversity. We also suggest that OCLTT may in the end and from an evolutionary point of view, be able to explain the limited thermal tolerance of metazoans when compared to other organisms.

Bozinovic, Francisco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

2015-01-01

422

Physiological ecology meets climate change.  

PubMed

In this article, we pointed out that understanding the physiology of differential climate change effects on organisms is one of the many urgent challenges faced in ecology and evolutionary biology. We explore how physiological ecology can contribute to a holistic view of climate change impacts on organisms and ecosystems and their evolutionary responses. We suggest that theoretical and experimental efforts not only need to improve our understanding of thermal limits to organisms, but also to consider multiple stressors both on land and in the oceans. As an example, we discuss recent efforts to understand the effects of various global change drivers on aquatic ectotherms in the field that led to the development of the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) as a framework integrating various drivers and linking organisational levels from ecosystem to organism, tissue, cell, and molecules. We suggest seven core objectives of a comprehensive research program comprising the interplay among physiological, ecological, and evolutionary approaches for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. While studies of individual aspects are already underway in many laboratories worldwide, integration of these findings into conceptual frameworks is needed not only within one organism group such as animals but also across organism domains such as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Indeed, development of unifying concepts is relevant for interpreting existing and future findings in a coherent way and for projecting the future ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on functional biodiversity. We also suggest that OCLTT may in the end and from an evolutionary point of view, be able to explain the limited thermal tolerance of metazoans when compared to other organisms. PMID:25798220

Bozinovic, Francisco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

2015-03-01

423

Climate Change in Small Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated islands are especially vulnerable to climate change. But their climate is generally not well reproduced in GCMs, due to their small size and complex topography. Here, results from a new generation of climate models, forced by scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, established by the IPCC for its fifth report, are used to characterize the climate of the islands of Azores and Madeira, and its response to the ongoing global warming. The methodology developed here uses the new global model EC-Earth, data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and results from an extensive set of simulations with the WRF research model, using, for the first time, a dynamic approach for the regionalization of global fields at sufficiently fine resolutions, in which the effect of topographical complexity is explicitly represented. The results reviewed here suggest increases in temperature above 1C in the middle of the XXI century in Azores and Madeira, reaching values higher than 2.5C at the end of the century, accompanied by a reduction in the annual rainfall of around 10% in the Azores, which could reach 30% in Madeira. These changes are large enough to justify much broader impacts on island ecosystems and the human population. The results show the advantage of using the proposed methodology, in particular for an adequate representation of the precipitation regime in islands with complex topography, even suggesting the need for higher resolutions in future work. The WRF results are also compared against two different downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and a modified version of the upslope precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005).

Tomé, Ricardo; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Brito de Azevedo, Eduardo; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.

2014-05-01

424

Climate Reel: Global Climate Change - NASA's Eyes on the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collection of NASA's best videos and visualizations of climate change. The Top 10 Climate Movies are featured. Other videos, animated visuals and images are listed by themes: Life on Earth, Water, The Land, The Atmosphere, The Sun, Frozen Places, and Climate Data. Links to complete transcripts are available.

425

Using Satellites to Understand Climate and Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the measurement of climate with the use of satellites. The basic greenhouse effect, Ice-albedo feedback, climate models and observations, aerosol-cloud interactions, and the Antarctic are discussed, along with the human effect on climate change.

Fetzer, Eric

2007-01-01

426

Change in cardiovascular risk factors in France, 1985–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change in the main cardiovascular risk factors in France was assessed using the MONICA population surveys conducted in the Urban Community of Lille, Bas-Rhin and Haute-Garonne. Trends in obesity, tobacco smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and self-reported diabetes were established for the first (1985–1988) and the last (1995–1997) survey. The results indicate that the prevalence of overweight and obesity remained stable

P. Marques-Vidal; J.-B. Ruidavets; P. Amouyel; P. Ducimetière; D. Arveiler; M. Montaye; B. Haas; A. Bingham; J. Ferrières

2004-01-01

427

Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

1992-01-01

428

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012031 Commissioner), Chuck Dudley (President of the Yolo County Farm Bureau), John MottSmith (Yolo County Climate

429

OUR CHANGING CLIMATE Research that matters  

E-print Network

of industrial gases WATER 7 Assessing London's flood risk up to 2100 FOOD 8 Heat tolerant rice for a warmer the global scale impacts of climate change on water resources, flooding and food security ­ serious to climate change 5 Identifying and tracking damaging storms 6 Assessing the potential climate impacts

Lucarini, Valerio

430

The physical science behind climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists,

William Collins; Robert Colman; James Haywood; Martin R. Manning; Philip Mote

2007-01-01

431

Climate Change Vulnerability and Policy Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate scientists note that the effects of climate change vary regionally. Citizen willingness to absorb the costs of adaptation and mitigation policies may correspond with these place-specific effects. Geographic information systems (GIS) analytic techniques are used to map and measure survey respondents' climate change risk at various levels of spatial resolution and precision. Spatial data are used to analyze multiple

Sammy Zahran; Samuel D. Brody; Himanshu Grover; Arnold Vedlitz

2006-01-01

432

Understanding Climate Change Patterns with Multivariate Geovisualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has been a challenging and urgent research problem for many related research fields. Climate change trends and patterns are complex, which may involve many factors and vary across space and time. However, most existing visualization and mapping approaches for climate data analysis are limited to one variable or one perspective at a time. For example, it is common

Hai Jin; Diansheng Guo

2009-01-01

433

Combining Multimodel Numerical Experiments for Climate Change  

E-print Network

Combining Multimodel Numerical Experiments for Climate Change Douglas Nychka, Reinhard Furrer for Climate Change Douglas Nychka, Reinhard Furrer, Claudia Tebaldi, Jerry Meehl and Richard Smith (UNC + +++ +++ + + + + ++++++++ +++++ + + + ++ ++ ++++ + + +++ ++ + ++ +++++ + + ++ ++ + + + + ++ 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 Years Obs PCMp PCMf Climate is estimated by simulating weather and averaging

Nychka, Douglas

434

Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecosystems, and the biodiversity and services they support, are intrinsically dependent on climate. During the twentieth century, climate change has had documented impacts on ecological systems, and impacts are expected to increase as climate change continues and perhaps even accelerates. This techn...

435

Tree rings, carbon dioxide, and climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree rings have been used in various appli- cations to reconstruct past climates as well as to assess the effects of recent climatic and environmental change on tree growth. In this paper we brief ly review two ways that tree rings provide information about climate change and CO2 :( i )i n determining whether recent warming during the period of

GORDON C. JACOBY; ROSANNE D. D'ARRIGO

1997-01-01

436

Tree Rings, Carbon Dioxide, and Climatic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree rings have been used in various applications to reconstruct past climates as well as to assess the effects of recent climatic and environmental change on tree growth. In this paper we briefly review two ways that tree rings provide information about climate change and CO2: (i) in determining whether recent warming during the period of instrumental observations is unusual

Gordon C. Jacoby; Rosanne D. D'Arrigo

1997-01-01

437

Climate change cripples forests October 1, 2012  

E-print Network

- 1 - Climate change cripples forests October 1, 2012 Southwestern US trees face rising drought stress and mortality as climate warms LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Oct. 1, 2012--Combine the tree-ring growth record, and several other partner organizations. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change Connection Described

438

CLIMATE CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN WILDLIFE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A large and growing body of scientific evidence indicates the Earth’s climate is changing, and the recent International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) declared that “warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean tempera...

439

The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda  

E-print Network

The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda CEPS Working Document No. 295/June 2008 Thomas L. Brewer Abstract Climate change, international trade, investment and technology transfer are all issues that have............................................................................ 6 3.2 Coverage of the Multilateral Climate and Trade Regimes

440

Climate change: Can wheat beat the heat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change could strongly affect the wheat crop that accounts for 21% of food and 200 million hectares of farmland worldwide. This article reviews some of the approaches for addressing the expected effects that climate change may likely inflict on wheat in some of the most important wheat growing areas, namely germplasm adaptation, system management, and mitigation. Future climate scenarios

Rodomiro Ortiz; Kenneth D. Sayre; Bram Govaerts; Raj Gupta; G. V. Subbarao; Tomohiro Ban; David Hodson; John M. Dixon; J. Iván Ortiz-Monasterio; Matthew Reynolds

2008-01-01

441

Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation is a process by which individuals, communities and countries seek to cope with the consequences of climate change. The process of adaptation is not new; the idea of incorporating future climate risk into policy-making is. While our understanding of climate change and its potential impacts has become clearer, the availability of practical guidance on adaptation has not kept pace.

Bo Lim; Erika Spanger-Siegfried; Ian Burton; Eizabeth Malone; Saleemul Huq

2004-01-01

442

Climate change, parasites and shifting boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Around the world the three major components of climate change already evident and escalating in magnitude and significance are; 1) warming; 2) altered patterns of precipitation; and 3) an increased incidence of extreme climatic events [1]. For the structure and function of ecosystems, impacts of climate change vary with place and with time, and among the key outcomes are

Lydden Polley; Eric Hoberg; Susan Kutz

2010-01-01

443

Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…

Stern, Paul C.

2011-01-01

444

Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change Robert Socolow Princeton University socolow should provide at least one wedge. #12;"The Wedge Model is the iPod of climate change: You fill/yr, 30 miles per gallon b) Fly 10,000 miles/yr c) Heat home Natural gas, average house, average climate d

445

Climate Change and Human Security1  

Microsoft Academic Search

percent of those living below the poverty line are women 3 for whom climate change represents very specific threats to security. When the impacts of climate change are brought home, then women, in their roles as the primary managers of family, food, water and health, must deal very directly with the impacts. While natural climate variations have existed for millennia,

Ben Wisner; Maureen Fordham; Ilan Kelman; Barbara Rose Johnston; David Simon; Allan Lavell; Hans Günter; Gustavo Wilches-Chaux; Marcus Moench

446

Effect of climate change on air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results.

Daniel J. Jacob; Darrell A. Winner

2009-01-01

447

Integrated assessment of abrupt climatic changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most controversial conclusions to emerge from many of the first generation of integrated assessment models (IAMs) of climate policy was the perceived economic optimality of negligible near-term abatement of greenhouse gases. Typically, such studies were conducted using smoothly varying climate change scenarios or impact responses. Abrupt changes observed in the climatic record and documented in current models

Michael D. Mastrandrea; Stephen H. Schneider

2001-01-01

448

Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

1999-01-01

449

PETM: Unearthing Ancient Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, a team of paleontologists, paleobotanists, soil scientists, and other researchers take to the field in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin to document how the climate, plants, and animals there changed during the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) when a sudden, enormous influx of carbon flooded the ocean and atmosphere for reasons that are still unclear to scientists. The PTEM is used as an analog to the current warming occurring. The scientists' research may help inform our understanding of current increases in carbon in the atmosphere and ocean and the resulting impact on ecosystems. Supporting materials include essay and interactive overview of animals that existed in the Basin after the PETM event.

American Museum Natural History

450

Understanding Climate Change: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Woods Hole Research Center, The Warming of the Earth introduces the concept of global warming through the following topics: the greenhouse effect, scientific evidence, the culprits, potential outcomes, what the skeptics don't tell you, and the Kyoto Protocol. The text relies heavily on reports published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Throughout the website, additional, but intimately related resources can be accessed through linked material. Examples include a link to the IPCC and a letter written by 2400 scientists to President Clinton. Several diagrams exist depicting the rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and related atmospheric warming over the past several decades.

451

What Is Climate Change? (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

MedlinePLUS

... greenhouse effect, sea levels, and future climate change. Games and Activities Take the Climate Change Challenge (U.S. ... of climate change around the world. Climate Change Game (British Broadcasting Corporation) - Online game where you are ...

452

The United Kingdom Environmental Change Network: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource briefly discusses the facts about climate change, and what effects a change in climate will have on humans. This includes a look at how the climate has already changed in recent times, and changes that will occur such as a rise in sea level, changes in vegetation, increases in disease, and changes in ecosystems. There is also a section discussing what can be done to stop this process.

453

EOS-EarthData: Climate Change Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides a compendium of current climate change information, including scientific evidence for climate change, policy documents (including the Kyoto Protocol and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports), summaries of specific climate change issues, and links to additional resources. These data holdings can be searched spatially, temporally, or by keyword, freetext, or collection name. There are also links to climate model projections from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), satellite and land use modeling data, and case studies. Registration and log-in are required to obtain some materials.

2005-12-02

454

Comparison of two potato simulation models under climate change. II Application of climate change scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of climate change (for the year 2050 compared to ambient climate) and change in climatic variability on potato growth and production at 6 sites in Europe were calculated. These calculations were done with both a simple growth model, POTATOS, and a comprehensive model, NPOTATO. Comparison of the results from both models indicated the sort of climate change conditions

J. Wolf

2002-01-01

455

Changes in Streamflow Percentiles under Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various studies have shown that the occurrence of floods and droughts will change under global warming. This study uses the bias-corrected runoff outputs of multiple general circulation models (GCMs) participating in the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to analyze the changes in the extreme streamflow percentiles. Under the highest emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5), compared to 20C (1971-2000) multimodel mean, ~77% (19%) of the world shows increase (decrease) in high flow (10th percentile) in 21C (2071-2100). Similarly, ~63% (32%) shows increase (decrease) in low flow (90th percentile). Consistency among GCMs in showing similar sign (increase or decrease) of change of high flow is relatively high with more than 9 out of 11 models showing increase in ~39% of the world and more than 9 out of 11 models showing decrease in 13% of the world. Similar high consistency among models in showing similar change of low flow can be seen in 34% (increase) and 23% (decrease) of the world. Further, in 16% of the world, the high flow will increase and low flow will decrease in future suggesting reduced water availability and elevated risk of flood. As most of these regions are located in South America, Central Africa, and eastern China, which also have large population density, the number of people facing water scarcity and flood events is bound to increase with climate change. Change in multimodel mean and consistency among models for 10th percentile/high flow (a and b, respectively) and 90th percentile/low flow (c and d, respectively). Change is presented in percentage (increase is in blue shades and decrease in red shades) and consistency is presented as number of model (blue shades indicate regions with increase and red shade indicate regions with decrease).

Koirala, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Roobavannan, M.; Kanae, S.

2013-12-01

456

The Velocity of Climate Change: Chris Field  

E-print Network

of climate · Albedo: fraction of sunlight reflected ­ Grassland: ~20% ­ Deciduous forest: ~ 15% ­ Conifer forest: ~ 10% ­ Snow: ~90% Jackson et al. Env. Res. Let. 2008 #12;Early human climate changes? Doughty et

Subramanian, Venkat

457

Climate Change: A simulation with commentary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains two videos that show climate visualizations created by super computers. Both videos show climate changes that may occur during the 21st Century due to human activities based on IPCC science.

Center for Global Environmental Research

458

Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5  

E-print Network

Climate change projections using the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model: from CMIP3 to CMIP5 J relevant to the climate system, it may be referred to as an Earth System Model. However, the IPSL-CM5 model climate and Earth System Models, both developed in France and contributing to the 5th coupled model

Codron, Francis

459

Responding to the Consequences of Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning climate change, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate climate change and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the changing water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality climate change. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and sea ice; changes in runoff; rising sea level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of climate change is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and changes in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and changes in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of climate-induced changes in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, changes in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of climate change effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale changes in human behavior that affect the climate and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on climate, the many options for mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.

Hildebrand, Peter H.

2011-01-01

460

Climate Change Education in Earth System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory data analysis the approaches on climate time series, trend analysis and extreme events analysis are explained. Tools to describe relations within the data sets and significance tests further corroborate this. Within the weekly exercises that have to be prepared at home, the students work with self-selected climate data sets and apply the learned methods. The presentation and discussion of intermediate results by the students is as much part of the exercises as the illustration of possible methodological procedures by the teacher using exemplary data sets. The total time expenditure of the course is 270 hours with 90 attendance hours. The remainder consists of individual studies, e.g., preparation of discussions and presentations, statistical data analysis, and scientific writing. Different forms of examination are applied including written or oral examination, scientific report, presentation and portfolio work.

Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

2013-04-01

461

Climate Change Effects on Marine Ecological Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is no secret that our climate is changing – rapidly – and together with it, oceans change as well. The Intergovernmental\\u000a Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), consisting of hundreds of scientists worldwide, have shown that changes in global climate\\u000a have accelerated since the 1750s, causing an overall increase in temperature both on land and in the sea. The IPCC

Gil Rilov; Haim Treves

462

COMMITTE REPORT: Climate change and water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climatic change—the greenhouse effect—is here to stay. Although uncertainties remain about the nature and extent of climatic changes that will occur, most among the scientific community believe changes in the hydrologic cycle and to water resource management systems will be significant. Water managers, policy-makers, and the public should begin to consider the implications of climatic change for long-term water

1997-01-01

463

Climate change and mining in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate is an important component of the operating environment for the Canadian mining sector. However, in recent years mines\\u000a across Canada have been affected by significant climatic hazards, several which are regarded to be symptomatic of climate\\u000a change. For the mining sector, climate change is a pressing environmental threat and a significant business risk. The extent\\u000a to which the mining

Tristan D. Pearce; James David Ford; Jason Prno; Frank Duerden; Jeremy Pittman; Maude Beaumier; Lea Berrang-Ford; Barry Smit

2011-01-01

464

[Climate change and Kyoto protocol].  

PubMed

Due to industrial revolution and the heavy use of fossil fuels, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dramatically during the last hundred years, and this has lead to an increase in mean global temperature. The environmental consequences of this are: the melting of the ice caps, an increase in mean sea-levels, catastrophic events such as floodings, hurricanes and earthquakes, changes to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, a growth in vectors and bacteria in water thus increasing the risk of infectious diseases and damage to agriculture. The toxic effects of the pollution on human health are both acute and chronic. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step in the campaign against climatic changes but it is not sufficient. A possible solution might be for the States which produce the most of pollution to adopt a better political stance for the environment and to use renewable resources for the production of energy. PMID:19798904

Ergasti, G; Pippia, V; Murzilli, G; De Luca D'Alessandro, E

2009-01-01

465

CLIMATE VARIABILITY, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND WESTERN  

E-print Network

. To establish these linkages we review previous research and draw inferences from our own retrospective work over the 20th century have influenced wildfire activity based on our analysis. Similar trends have been, at the same or greater magnitude as experienced during past climate variability. If extreme drought conditions

Vermont, University of

466

Introduction to Earth's Dynamically Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced tutorial, examine evidence of climate change from different parts of the Earth’s system and consider what it means to live on a planet with a dynamically changing climate. The resource includes multimedia resources such as video clips of local impacts of climate change in the Arctic and Samoa, data visualization exercise featuring digital resources on climate.nasa.gov, and an interview with NASA climate scientist Dr. Gavin Schmidt, a discussion on teaching using data, and an interactive quiz. Introduction to the Earth's Dynamically Changing Climate is the first of a series of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration. Activities and resources that can be employed in the classroom are featured.

467

CLIMATE CHANGE AND CLIMATE-TOURISM RELATIONSHIPS IN GERMANY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change, mitigation and adaptation are highly discussed research topics. Global warming, sea level rise and extreme weather events, e.g., heat waves and storms, are closely related to climate change. That results in both negative and positive consequences for tourism. The project CAST (\\

C. Endler; A. Matzarakis

2007-01-01

468

Are abrupt climate changes predictable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is taken for granted that the limited predictability in the initial value problem, the weather prediction, and the predictability of the statistics are two distinct problems. Lorenz (1975) dubbed this predictability of the first and the second kind respectively. Predictability of the first kind in a chaotic dynamical system is limited due to the well-known critical dependence on initial conditions. Predictability of the second kind is possible in an ergodic system, where either the dynamics is known and the phase space attractor can be characterized by simulation or the system can be observed for such long times that the statistics can be obtained from temporal averaging, assuming that the attractor does not change in time. For the climate system the distinction between predictability of the first and the second kind is fuzzy. This difficulty in distinction between predictability of the first and of the second kind is related to the lack of scale separation between fast and slow components of the climate system. The non-linear nature of the problem furthermore opens the possibility of multiple attractors, or multiple quasi-steady states. As the ice-core records show, the climate has been jumping between different quasi-stationary climates, stadials and interstadials through the Dansgaard-Oechger events. Such a jump happens very fast when a critical tipping point has been reached. The question is: Can such a tipping point be predicted? This is a new kind of predictability: the third kind. If the tipping point is reached through a bifurcation, where the stability of the system is governed by some control parameter, changing in a predictable way to a critical value, the tipping is predictable. If the sudden jump occurs because internal chaotic fluctuations, noise, push the system across a barrier, the tipping is as unpredictable as the triggering noise. In order to hint at an answer to this question, a careful analysis of the high temporal resolution NGRIP isotope record is presented. The result of the analysis points to a fundamental limitation in predictability of the third kind. Reference: P. D. Ditlevsen and S. Johnsen, "Tipping points: Early warning and wishful thinking", Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, 2010

Ditlevsen, Peter

2013-04-01

469

Statistical principles for climate change studies  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of climate change due to human-induced increases in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations have been an ongoing arena for debate and discussion. A major difficulty in early detection of changes resulting from anthropogenic forcing of the climate system is that the natural climate variability overwhelms the climate change signal in observed data. Statistical principles underlying fingerprint methods for detecting a climate change signal above natural climate variations and attributing the potential signal to specific anthropogenic forcings are discussed. The climate change problem is introduced through an exposition of statistical issues in modeling the climate signal and natural climate variability. The fingerprint approach is shown to be analogous to optimal hypothesis testing procedures from the classical statistics literature. The statistical formulation of the fingerprint scheme suggests new insights into the implementation of the techniques for climate change studies. In particular, the statistical testing ideas are exploited to introduce alternative procedures within the fingerprint model for attribution of climate change and to shed light on practical issues in applying the fingerprint detection strategies.

Levine, R.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Statistics] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Statistics; Berliner, L.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); [National Inst. of Statistical Sciences, Columbus, OH (United States)

1999-02-01

470

The Mto-France NWP system: description, recent changes and plans Franois Bouttier, updated Apr 2010  

E-print Network

The Météo-France NWP system: description, recent changes and plans François Bouttier, updated Apr...................................................................................................................................15 1. Formulation 1.a. System overview The atmospheric models used in Météo-France for NWP in the following table. When a significant change is imminent or recent, it is mentioned in italics. ARPEGE-France

Ribes, Aurélien

471

78 FR 66898 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-427-818] Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Changed...of one specified entry of low enriched uranium (LEU) that entered under a narrow provision...1\\ See Low Enriched Uranium from France: Initiation of...

2013-11-07

472

Economic Consequences Of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the climate conflict resulting from green houses gases (GHG) emissions was evident by the Nineties and the well-known agreements made, their enforcement is more difficult than that of other environmental agreements. That is because measures to reduce GHG emissions interfere with the heart of the economy and the market: energy (in a broader sense than the energy sector as defined by statistics) and economical growth. Analyzing the environmental policy responses to climate change the conclusion is that GHG emission reduction can only be achieved through intensive environmental policy. While extensive environmental protection complements production horizontally, intensive environmental protection integrates into production and the environment vertically. The latter eliminates the source of the pollution, preventing damage. It utilizes the biochemical processes and self-purification of the natural environment as well as technical development which not only aims to produce state-of-the-art goods, but to make production more environmentally friendly, securing a desired environmental state. While in extensive environmental protection the intervention comes from the outside for creating environmental balance, in intensive environmental protection the system recreates this balance itself. Instead of dealing with the consequences and the polluter pays principle, the emphasis is on prevention. It is important to emphasize that climate strategy decisions have complex effects regarding the aspects of sustainability (economical, social, ecological). Therefore, all decisions are political. At present, and in the near future, market economy decisions have little to do with sustainability values under normal circumstances. Taking social and ecological interests into consideration can only be successful through strategic political aims.

Szlávik, János; Füle, Miklós

2009-07-01

473

COP4: International Conference on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News highlights a critical international conference on climate change, the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, currently being held (November 2-13) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Convention on Climate Change, signed and ratified by over 175 countries, is one of a series of recent international agreements dedicated to reducing anthropogenic (human-induced) climate change. Although the detection of climate change is a complex and contentious issue among scientists (and is generally refuted by industries afraid of the regulatory consequences), the potential impacts to the earth's ecosystems cannot be ignored. Thus, the Convention's "ultimate objective" is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level -- and with enough time -- to prevent "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere." The nine sites discussed provide background information, resources, and information related to COP4 and to climate change.

Nannapaneni, Sujani.

474

Global climate change and international security  

SciTech Connect

On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

Rice, M.

1991-01-01

475

Climate Change: Environmental Literacy and Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change is a technology-supported middle school science inquiry curriculum. This curriculum focuses on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change. Students use geospatial information technology tools (Google Earth), Web-based tools (including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline), and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate important climate change topics. Climate Change is aligned to the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy in addition to national science and environmental education standards. The unit takes 21 days which include pretest and post test. Assessments for each learning activity are available using the following login and password: Login: eliteacher Password: 87dja92

476

Climate change threatens European conservation areas  

PubMed Central

Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natura 2000 network in conserving a large proportion of European plant and terrestrial vertebrate species under climate change. We found that by 2080, 58 ± 2.6% of the species would lose suitable climate in protected areas, whereas losses affected 63 ± 2.1% of the species of European concern occurring in Natura 2000 areas. Protected areas are expected to retain climatic suitability for species better than unprotected areas (P<0.001), but Natura 2000 areas retain climate suitability for species no better and sometimes less effectively than unprotected areas. The risk is high that ongoing efforts to conserve Europe's biodiversity are jeopardized by climate change. New policies are required to avert this risk. PMID:21447141

Araújo, Miguel B; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar; Nogués-Bravo, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

2011-01-01

477

Climate Variability and Change Lectures, July 2013  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson presents 13 recorded presentations from the 29 July–2 August, 2013 offering of the Climate Variability and Change Virtual Course (CVCVC). This five-day live facilitated online course provided an extensive background on a range of climate variability and change topics with an emphasis on developing communication skills for challenging climate topics. The topics covered in this course, while aimed primarily at NOAA operational climate services delivery staff will also be helpful for others who already possess a basic level of understanding of climate science. Presentations include: Weather vs. Climate — Derek Arndt, National Climatic Data Center, NOAA Climate Variability — Matt Newman, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Climate Science Communication — Derek Arndt, National Climatic Data Center, NOAA The El Niño/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Cycle — Michelle L'Heureux, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service NOAA's Atlantic Hurricane Season Outlooks — Gerry Bell, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service The Madden-Julian Oscillation — Jon Gottschalk, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service Drought: Science, Monitoring and Early Warning — Roger Pulwarty, National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), Earth System Research Laboratory/NOAA Climate Prediction Center Outlooks — Mike Halpert, Climate Prediction Center, NOAA/National Weather Service Climate.gov: Information, Products, and Tools — David Herring, Climate Program Office, NOAA/National Weather Service Climate Communication Skills for Decision-support Audiences — Susan Buhr, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado Climate Change Science — Wayne Higgins, Climate Program Office, NOAA Climate Change Impacts — Peter Backlund, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Managing Marine and Coastal Resources in a Changing Climate — Kenric Osgood, Marine Ecosystems Division, NOAA, NMFS Please Note: There are no quizzes available on MetEd for these materials. However, National Weather Service users may complete a quiz for each lecture and receive credit in the NWS Learning Center. The quizzes may be found in the NWS Learning Center by searching for "Climate Variability and Change Lecture". Alternatively, a learning plan containing quizzes for all 13 lectures is available on the NWS Learning Center's COMET Page.

COMET

2014-04-08

478

America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies the nation can take to respond to climate change. This suite of activities included a panel report on Advancing the Science of Climate Change. The report concludes that a strong, credible body of scientific evidence shows that climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for a broad range of human and natural systems. As decision makers respond to these risks, the nation's scientific enterprise can contribute both by continuing to improve understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change, and by improving and expanding the options available to limit the magnitude of climate change and adapt to its impacts. To make this possible, the nation needs a comprehensive, integrated, and flexible climate change research enterprise that is closely linked with action-oriented programs at all levels. The report recommends that a single federal entity or program be given the authority and resources to coordinate a national research effort integrated across many disciplines and aimed at improving both understanding and responses to climate change. The U.S. Global Change Research Program, established in 1990, could fulfill this role, but it would need to address weaknesses in the current program and form partnerships with action-oriented programs at all levels. A comprehensive climate observing system, improved climate models and other analytical tools, investment in human capital, and better linkages between research and decision making are also essential for advancing the science of climate change.

Matson, P. A.; Dietz, T.; Kraucunas, I.

2010-12-01

479

``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team  

E-print Network

``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team following its creation, the ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' team had to make its proofs in order & Global Change 3 1 INTRODUCTION 4 1.1 Overview of the team activities

480

Covering Climate Change in Wikipedia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first hit in an internet search for "global warming" using any of the three leading search engines (Google, Bing, or Yahoo) is the article "Global warming" in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The article garners about half a million page views per month. In addition to the site's visibility with the public, Wikipedia's articles on climate-related topics are widely referenced by policymakers, media outlets, and academia. Despite the site's strong influence on public understanding of science, few geoscientists actively participate in Wikipedia, with the result that the community that edits these articles is mostly composed of individuals with little or no expertise in the topic at hand. In this presentation we discuss how geoscientists can help shape public understanding of science by contributing to Wikipedia. Although Wikipedia prides itself on being "the encyclopedia that anyone can edit," the site has policies regarding contributions and behavior that can be pitfalls for newcomers. This presentation is intended as a guide for the geoscience community in contributing to information about climate change in this widely-used reference.

Arritt, R. W.; Connolley, W.; Ramjohn, I.; Schulz, S.; Wickert, A. D.

2010-12-01

481

Rustproofing wheat for a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers projections of potential effects of climate change on rusts of wheat and how we should factor in a changing\\u000a climate when planning for the future management of these diseases. Even though the rusts of wheat have been extensively studied\\u000a internationally, there is a paucity of information on the likely effects of a changing climate on the rusts

Sukumar Chakraborty; Jo Luck; Grant Hollaway; Glenn Fitzgerald; Neil White

2011-01-01

482

Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is\\u000a getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this\\u000a way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations\\u000a are mainly the responsibility of industrialized

Ole Mertz; Kirsten Halsnæs; Jørgen E. Olesen; Kjeld Rasmussen

2009-01-01

483

Climate change adaptation in the ski industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the success of climate change mitigation efforts, the international community has concluded that societies around\\u000a the world will need to adapt to some magnitude of climate change in the 21st century. While some economic sectors (e.g., agriculture,\\u000a water resources and construction) have been actively engaged in climate change adaptation research for years, adaptation has\\u000a received scant consideration within

Daniel Scott; Geoff McBoyle

2007-01-01

484

Hot Topics: Globalization and Climate Change  

E-print Network

denominators. … Here are no Greeks, no Jews; no women, no men: we are all one in Coca-Cola.” Agreeing, Stuart Hall (1997) proclaims that the new globalization is American. The manifestations of globalization are world organization, global environmental problems... to mitigate and to adapt to more fully characterized climate changes, or to lose its hubris and make space for local knowledges and for moral and ethical approaches to the issues raised by global climate change. Climate change, as the limit case...

Malone, Elizabeth L.

2002-04-01

485

Australian agriculture: coping with dangerous climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian agriculture has operated successfully in one of the world’s most hostile environments for two centuries. However,\\u000a climate change is posing serious challenges to its ongoing success. Determining what might constitute dangerous climate change\\u000a for Australian agriculture is not an easy task, as most climate-related risks are associated with changes in the highly uncertain\\u000a hydrological cycle rather than directly to

Will Steffen; John Sims; James Walcott; Greg Laughlin

2011-01-01

486

Climate Change Studies Using Space Based Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is associated with earth radiation budget that depends upon incoming solar radiation, surface albedo and radiative\\u000a forcing by greenhouse gases. Human activities are contributing to climate change by causing changes in Earth’s atmosphere\\u000a (greenhouse gases, aerosols) and biosphere (deforestation, urbanization, irrigation). Long term and precise measurements from\\u000a calibrated global observation constellation is a vital component in climate system

Ranganath R. Navalgund; Raghavendra P. Singh

487

Managing for Multiple Resources Under Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,This study explores potential adaptation approa- ches in planning and management,that the United States Forest Service might adopt to help achieve its goals and objectives in the face of climate change. Availability of information, vul- nerability of ecological and socio-economic systems, and uncertainties associated with climate change, as well as the interacting non-climatic changes, influence selection of the adaptation approach.

David L. Peterson

488

Climate change and Australia: key vulnerable regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural ecosystems are generally considered to be one of the most vulnerable sectors to negative impacts from rapid climate\\u000a change. Australia’s rich biodiversity is already under considerable threat from multiple human impacts, and climate change\\u000a will impose additional stress. Opportunities for most Australian species to adapt to climate change by altering their distribution\\u000a will be limited due to a number

Lesley Hughes

2011-01-01

489

Plural Methodologies in Climate Change Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The proposed paper explores plural methodological strategies in climate change. The paper investigates the possibilities and difficulties associated with bridging the gap between model- based approaches in climate change science and climate-change economics, which need validation or 'ground-truthing', and qualitative and case-study based approaches of other social sciences, which from an instrumental viewpoint would need to be more generalisable.

J. Paavola

490

Will climate change affect ectoparasite species ranges?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Over the next 100 years, human-driven climate change and resulting changes in species occurrences will have global impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human health. Here we examine how climate change may affect the occurrences of tick species in Africa and alter the suitability of habitat outside Africa for African ticks. Location Africa and the world. Methods We predicted

Graeme S. Cumming; Detlef P. Van Vuuren

2006-01-01

491

Implementing the Climate Change Policy Revolution in  

E-print Network

Implementing the Climate Change Policy Revolution in British Columbia (BC) The Tansley Lecture Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy #12;Implementing the Climate Change Policy Revolution change agenda. It is really about implementation of any broad policy shift, and the elements that are key

Peak, Derek

492

Jessalyn Toldo Will climate change influence  

E-print Network

, responses to climate change, such as earlier flowering time, may expose plants to different environmentalJessalyn Toldo Will climate change influence disease susceptibility? A study of natural polyploids change will be on native plants and their diseases. Erysiphe cichoracearum is a powdery mildew

Weiblen, George D

493

Natural resources: the climate change challenge  

E-print Network

Natural resources: the climate change challenge Policy Message Countries in the South have a potential both to mitigate climate change and to adapt to its effects through good natural resource change by sustaining dry season flows downstream. n Good water management is of increasing importance

Richner, Heinz

494

Adapting California's Water Management to Climate Change  

E-print Network

Adapting California's Water Management to Climate Change Ellen Hanak and Jay Lund Supported. ADAPTATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE: OPTIONS AND COSTS 10 Available Adaptation Options 10 Water Supply 10 Flood Water Transfer Mechanisms 20 Changing Reservoir Operation Policy 21 New Policies for the Sacramento

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

495

Climate Change and Agriculture: Effects and Adaptation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document is a synthesis of science literature on the effects of climate change on agriculture and issues associated with agricultural adaptation to climate change. Information is presented on how long-term changes in air temperatures, precipitation, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide wi...

496

Climate Change and Biodiversity in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is already affecting European biodiversity, as de m- onstrated by changes in species' ranges and ecosystem boundaries, shifts in reproductive cycles and growing seasons, and cha nges to the complex ways in which species interact (predation, pollination, competition and disease). These effects vary between regions and ecosystems. Strategies adopted to mitigate or adapt to climate change also impact

Hannah Reid

497

Climate Change and the Nuclear Wedge Climate change frames the issue  

E-print Network

Climate Change and the Nuclear Wedge Climate change frames the issue Scales of problem: Energy;Marty Hoffert, NYU Framing the Issue Carbon Climate impact Time scale to act is short ~50 years ~ 1 government can put climate costs on the utilities' balance sheets Energy Information Agency - http

498

AO\\/NAO response to climate change: 1. Respective influences of stratospheric and tropospheric climate changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We utilize the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model and eight different climate change experiments, many of them focused on stratospheric climate forcings, to assess the relative influence of tropospheric and stratospheric climate change on the extratropical circulation indices (Arctic Oscillation, AO; North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). The experiments are run in two different ways: with variable sea surface temperatures (SSTs)

D. Rind; J. Perlwitz; P. Lonergan

2005-01-01

499

Climate Change in Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a visualization tool for Earth Sciences data and imagery one big advantage of virtual globes is they give the user a tremendous amount of control over how the imagery is viewed. Features like zoom, orientation and tilt provide a great deal of flexibility for looking at the imagery in different ways. For the National Snow and Ice Data Center's entry into the Google Earth outreach gallery we chose data that would benefit from capabilities Google Earth provides. We looked for imagery that showed visually dramatic evidence of climate change. Included in the kmz are repeat photographs of glaciers in Alaska taken several decades apart, an animation of the last 29 years of the Arctic sea ice minimum, and an animation of the 2002 break-up of the Larsen B ice shelf in Antarctica.

Swick, R.; Ballagh, L. M.

2007-12-01

500

Atmospheric Composition and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment has student teams comparing a sample of room air with one of the greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, or methane - and observing the relative effectiveness of the gases in trapping infrared (IR) radiation. The activity requires an IR heat source, such as a heat lamp, two 2-liter beverage bottles, #4 one hole rubber stoppers, and a thermometer or temperature probes. Nitrous oxide can be obtained from a dentist, methane from gas jets in a chemistry lab, and CO² can be generated using vinegar and baking soda. Students compare the heating and cooling curves in data they collect. The investigation is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

2012-09-28