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1

Global Climate Change, Stress and Plant Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global climate change, rated as the most serious threat to the environment, has been the center of debate among environmentalists\\u000a and policy makers as it has become not only an environmental, a political and an economic issue, but also a global problem,\\u000a of which agriculture is the major target. At the plant or field scale, climate change is likely to

Altaf Ahmad; Hema Diwan; Yash P. Abrol

2

Book Review: Plant Growth and Climate Change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The technical book "Plant Growth and climate Change" (2006. James I.L. Morison and M.D. Morecroft, Eds. Blackwell Publishing. 213 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed journal HortScience. The text is well organized into nine independently-authored chapters each of whi...

3

Potential vulnerability of Namaqualand plant diversity to anthropogenic climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a position paper, using a brief literature review and some new modelling results for a subset of succulent plant species, which explores why Namaqualand plant diversity might be particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change despite presumed species resilience under arid conditions, and therefore a globally important test-bed for adaptive conservation strategies. The Pleistocene climate-related evolutionary history of this

G. F. Midgley; W. Thuiller

2007-01-01

4

Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions.  

PubMed

It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change. PMID:20528987

Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela

2010-05-04

5

Will plant movements keep up with climate change?  

PubMed

In the face of anthropogenic climate change, species must acclimate, adapt, move, or die. Although some species are moving already, their ability to keep up with the faster changes expected in the future is unclear. 'Migration lag' is a particular concern with plants, because it could threaten both biodiversity and carbon storage. Plant movements are not realistically represented in models currently used to predict future vegetation and carbon-cycle feedbacks, so there is an urgent need to understand how much of a problem failure to track climate change is likely to be. Therefore, in this review, we compare how fast plants need to move with how fast they can move; that is, the velocity of climate change with the velocity of plant movement. PMID:23721732

Corlett, Richard T; Westcott, David A

2013-05-28

6

Climate Change Shifts Frost Seasons and Plant Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This month's issue of Ecology Letters adds new evidence to the effect of climate change on ecosystems. In a paper by Professor of Biology Dr. David Inouye of the University of Maryland, global climate change appears to influence early and late frost events, which in turn, "inhibit growth and possibly damage many plants." This news brief from ScienceDaily.com describes the recent finding and comments on its wider significance.

7

Dynamics of alpine plant litter decomposition in a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic changes resulting from anthropogenic activities over the passed century are repeatedly reported to alter the functioning\\u000a of pristine ecosystems worldwide, and especially those in cold biomes. Available literature on the process of plant leaf litter\\u000a decomposition in the temperate Alpine zone is reviewed here, with emphasis on both direct and indirect effects of climate\\u000a change phenomena on rates of

Konstantin S. Gavazov

2010-01-01

8

Changes in alpine plant growth under future climate conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine shrub- and grasslands are shaped by extreme climatic conditions such as a long-lasting snow cover and a short vegetation period. Such ecosystems are expected to be highly sensitive to global environmental change. Prolonged growing seasons and shifts in temperature and precipitation are likely to affect plant phenology and growth. In a unique experiment, climatology and plant growth was monitored

A. Rammig; T. Jonas; N. E. Zimmermann; C. Rixen

2009-01-01

9

Changes in alpine plant growth under future climate conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine shrub- and grasslands are shaped by extreme climatic conditions such as a long-lasting snow cover and a short vegetation period. Such ecosystems are expected to be highly sensitive to global environmental change. Prolonged growing seasons and shifts in temperature and precipitation are likely to affect plant phenology and growth. In a unique experiment, climatology and plant growth was monitored

A. Rammig; T. Jonas; N. E. Zimmermann; C. Rixen

2010-01-01

10

A plant's perspective of extremes: terrestrial plant responses to changing climatic variability.  

PubMed

We review observational, experimental, and model results on how plants respond to extreme climatic conditions induced by changing climatic variability. Distinguishing between impacts of changing mean climatic conditions and changing climatic variability on terrestrial ecosystems is generally underrated in current studies. The goals of our review are thus (1) to identify plant processes that are vulnerable to changes in the variability of climatic variables rather than to changes in their mean, and (2) to depict/evaluate available study designs to quantify responses of plants to changing climatic variability. We find that phenology is largely affected by changing mean climate but also that impacts of climatic variability are much less studied, although potentially damaging. We note that plant water relations seem to be very vulnerable to extremes driven by changes in temperature and precipitation and that heat-waves and flooding have stronger impacts on physiological processes than changing mean climate. Moreover, interacting phenological and physiological processes are likely to further complicate plant responses to changing climatic variability. Phenological and physiological processes and their interactions culminate in even more sophisticated responses to changing mean climate and climatic variability at the species and community level. Generally, observational studies are well suited to study plant responses to changing mean climate, but less suitable to gain a mechanistic understanding of plant responses to climatic variability. Experiments seem best suited to simulate extreme events. In models, temporal resolution and model structure are crucial to capture plant responses to changing climatic variability. We highlight that a combination of experimental, observational, and/or modeling studies have the potential to overcome important caveats of the respective individual approaches. PMID:23504722

Reyer, Christopher P O; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Rammig, Anja; Wolf, Annett; Bartholomeus, Ruud P; Bonfante, Antonello; de Lorenzi, Francesca; Dury, Marie; Gloning, Philipp; Abou Jaoudé, Renée; Klein, Tamir; Kuster, Thomas M; Martins, Monica; Niedrist, Georg; Riccardi, Maria; Wohlfahrt, Georg; de Angelis, Paolo; de Dato, Giovanbattista; François, Louis; Menzel, Annette; Pereira, Marízia

2012-10-09

11

Climate Change and the Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the next decades, agricultural production practices will change significantly and become more sustainable while they also respond to the need to contribute to reducing malnutrition and hunger and meeting the challenges of climate change. The enhanced use of agricultural biodiversity will play an essential role in this process, providing improved adaptability and resilience in agro-ecosystems. Plant genetic resources, a

Toby Hodgkin; Paul Bordoni

2012-01-01

12

Investigating habitat-specific plant species pools under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 474 European plant species to analyse the impacts of climate and land-use change on the composition of habitat-specific species pools in Germany. We quantified changes in the probability of occurrence of species in a grid cell using an ensemble of three statistical modelling techniques, namely generalized linear models (GLMs), generalized additive models (GAMs) and random forests (RFs), under

Sven Pompe; Jan Hanspach; Franz-W. Badeck; Stefan Klotz; Helge Bruelheide; Ingolf Kühn

2010-01-01

13

Rapid shifts in plant distribution with recent climate change  

PubMed Central

A change in climate would be expected to shift plant distribution as species expand in newly favorable areas and decline in increasingly hostile locations. We compared surveys of plant cover that were made in 1977 and 2006–2007 along a 2,314-m elevation gradient in Southern California's Santa Rosa Mountains. Southern California's climate warmed at the surface, the precipitation variability increased, and the amount of snow decreased during the 30-year period preceding the second survey. We found that the average elevation of the dominant plant species rose by ?65 m between the surveys. This shift cannot be attributed to changes in air pollution or fire frequency and appears to be a consequence of changes in regional climate.

Kelly, Anne E.; Goulden, Michael L.

2008-01-01

14

The effects of climate change on plant phenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available data on climate change over the past century indicate that the Earth is warming. Important biological events,\\u000a including changes in plant phenology, have been reported in many parts of the world. We have explored some of these phenological\\u000a changes in more than 650 temperate species, which have indicated the average advancement of 1.9 days per decade in spring

V. P. Khanduri; C. M. Sharma; S. P. Singh

2008-01-01

15

Phosphorus, Plant Biodiversity and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus (P) is a major plant nutrient. Its increasing use as a fertilizer has helped to raise crop and fodder production.\\u000a However, the global reserves and resources of P are finite, demanding an efficient use of P. Under natural conditions, it\\u000a is often in limited supply. Plants have developed adaptations to small soil P concentrations. Increased P levels can have

Nicole Wrage; Lydie Chapuis-Lardy; Johannes Isselstein

16

Biodiversity ensures plant-pollinator phenological synchrony against climate change.  

PubMed

Climate change has the potential to alter the phenological synchrony between interacting mutualists, such as plants and their pollinators. However, high levels of biodiversity might buffer the negative effects of species-specific phenological shifts and maintain synchrony at the community level, as predicted by the biodiversity insurance hypothesis. Here, we explore how biodiversity might enhance and stabilise phenological synchrony between a valuable crop, apple and its native pollinators. We combine 46 years of data on apple flowering phenology with historical records of bee pollinators over the same period. When the key apple pollinators are considered altogether, we found extensive synchrony between bee activity and apple peak bloom due to complementarity among bee species' activity periods, and also a stable trend over time due to differential responses to warming climate among bee species. A simulation model confirms that high biodiversity levels can ensure plant-pollinator phenological synchrony and thus pollination function. PMID:23968538

Bartomeus, Ignasi; Park, Mia G; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan N; Lakso, Alan N; Winfree, Rachael

2013-08-22

17

Changing Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following questions are discussed: (1) Is global climate changing. (2) What is the pattern of global climatic change. (3) What causes global climate to change. (4) Is man's activity inadvertently influencing global climate. (5) What are the possibilit...

J. O. Fletcher

1968-01-01

18

Genetic consequences of climate change for northern plants.  

PubMed

Climate change will lead to loss of range for many species, and thus to loss of genetic diversity crucial for their long-term persistence. We analysed range-wide genetic diversity (amplified fragment length polymorphisms) in 9581 samples from 1200 populations of 27 northern plant species, to assess genetic consequences of range reduction and potential association with species traits. We used species distribution modelling (SDM, eight techniques, two global circulation models and two emission scenarios) to predict loss of range and genetic diversity by 2080. Loss of genetic diversity varied considerably among species, and this variation could be explained by dispersal adaptation (up to 57%) and by genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST); up to 61%). Herbs lacking adaptations for long-distance dispersal were estimated to lose genetic diversity at higher rate than dwarf shrubs adapted to long-distance dispersal. The expected range reduction in these 27 northern species was larger than reported for temperate plants, and all were predicted to lose genetic diversity according to at least one scenario. SDM combined with F(ST) estimates and/or with species trait information thus allows the prediction of species' vulnerability to climate change, aiding rational prioritization of conservation efforts. PMID:22217725

Alsos, Inger Greve; Ehrich, Dorothee; Thuiller, Wilfried; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Tribsch, Andreas; Schönswetter, Peter; Lagaye, Claire; Taberlet, Pierre; Brochmann, Christian

2012-01-04

19

Project BudBurst: People, Plants, and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2009 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2010 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst co managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago botanic Garden. Financial support has been received from the National Science Foundation, UCLA Center for Embedded network Sensors U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Geological Survey , National Geographic Education Foundation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and NASA.

Henderson, S.; Ward, D.; Havens, K.; Gardiner, L. S.; Alaback, P.

2010-12-01

20

Soil ecosystem functioning under climate change: plant species and community effects.  

PubMed

Feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to atmospheric and climate change depend on soil ecosystem dynamics. Soil ecosystems can directly and indirectly respond to climate change. For example, warming directly alters microbial communities by increasing their activity. Climate change may also alter plant community composition, thus indirectly altering the soil communities that depend on their inputs. To better understand how climate change may directly and indirectly alter soil ecosystem functioning, we investigated old-field plant community and soil ecosystem responses to single and combined effects of elevated [CO2], warming, and precipitation in Tennessee (USA). Specifically, we collected soils at the plot level (plant community soils) and beneath dominant plant species (plant-specific soils). We used microbial enzyme activities and soil nematodes as indicators for soil ecosystem functioning. Our study resulted in two main findings: (1) Overall, while there were some interactions, water, relative to increases in [CO2] and warming, had the largest impact on plant community composition, soil enzyme activity, and soil nematodes. Multiple climate-change factors can interact to shape ecosystems, but in our study, those interactions were largely driven by changes in water. (2) Indirect effects of climate change, via changes in plant communities, had a significant impact on soil ecosystem functioning, and this impact was not obvious when looking at plant community soils. Climate-change effects on enzyme activities and soil nematode abundance and community structure strongly differed between plant community soils and plant-specific soils, but also within plant-specific soils. These results indicate that accurate assessments of climate-change impacts on soil ecosystem functioning require incorporating the concurrent changes in plant function and plant community composition. Climate-change-induced shifts in plant community composition will likely modify or counteract the direct impact of atmospheric and climate change on soil ecosystem functioning, and hence, these indirect effects should be taken into account when predicting the manner in which global change will alter ecosystem functioning. PMID:20426335

Kardol, Paul; Cregger, Melissa A; Campany, Courtney E; Classen, Aimee T

2010-03-01

21

Emerging Landscapes: Using Ecological Theory to Guide Urban Planting Design: An adaptation strategy for climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change threatens the structure and function of ecological communities in urban areas, including public and private gardens. An adaptation strategy was developed to accommodate the challenges of urban greenspace design under a changing climate. The strategy offers a protocol for planting design that focuses on adding resilience to plantings rather than matching specific plant species to specific predictions

MaryCarol Hunter

2011-01-01

22

Climate change increases risk of plant invasion in the Eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive plant species threaten native ecosystems, natural resources, and managed lands worldwide. Climate change may increase\\u000a risk from invasive plant species as favorable climate conditions allow invaders to expand into new ranges. Here, we use bioclimatic\\u000a envelope modeling to assess current climatic habitat, or lands climatically suitable for invasion, for three of the most dominant\\u000a and aggressive invasive plants in

Bethany A. BradleyDavid; David S. Wilcove; Michael Oppenheimer

2010-01-01

23

Warming experiments underpredict plant phenological responses to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming experiments are relied on increasingly to estimate plant responses to global change. For experiments to provide meaningful predictions of future responses, they should reflect the empirical record of responses to temperature variability and recent warming, including advances in timing of flowering and leafout. We compared observational phenology studies with warming experiments spanning four continents and 1,634 species. Using a common measure of temperature sensitivity (change in days per degree C), we show that experiments underpredict advances in timing of flowering and leafing by 8.5X and 4.0X, respectively, compared to long-term observations. For species common to both study types, experimental results did not match observational data in sign or magnitude. The observational data also show highest sensitivity for species that flower earliest in the spring, but this trend was not reflected in the experiments. These significant mismatches appear unrelated to study length or to the degree of manipulated warming in experiments. The discrepancy between experiments and observations, however, could arise from complex interactions among multiple drivers in observational data or from remediable artifacts in the experiments that reduce irradiance, dry soils, and thus dampen phenological responses to manipulated warming. Our results introduce uncertainty in ecosystem models informed solely by experiments, and suggest predicted responses to climate change from such models should be re-evaluated.

Wolkovich, E.; Cook, B.; Forecasting Phenology Working Group

2012-04-01

24

Plant community dynamics in a calcareous grassland under climate change manipulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of field manipulations of local climate to determine the potential impact of climate change on plant community dynamics in a calcareous grassland. The experimental site is located in a grassland at the Wytham estate, Oxfordshire, UK. The one hectare study area is within a 10 ha abandoned arable field on Jurassic corallian limestone. Two climate change

Marcelo Sternberg; Valerie K. Brown; Gregory J. Masters; Ian P. Clarke

1999-01-01

25

Seed banking of endangered plants: are we conserving the right species to address climate change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing awareness of the effects of climate change on plant distributions in situ has made the appropriate application\\u000a of ex situ techniques more crucial. These ex situ conservation techniques need to be targeted to priority species identified\\u000a at risk from climate change. The present paper assesses the sensitivity of plant species to climate change in Belgium and\\u000a explores the

Sandrine Godefroid; Thierry Vanderborght

2010-01-01

26

Woody plants and the prediction of climate-change impacts on bird diversity  

PubMed Central

Current methods of assessing climate-induced shifts of species distributions rarely account for species interactions and usually ignore potential differences in response times of interacting taxa to climate change. Here, we used species-richness data from 1005 breeding bird and 1417 woody plant species in Kenya and employed model-averaged coefficients from regression models and median climatic forecasts assembled across 15 climate-change scenarios to predict bird species richness under climate change. Forecasts assuming an instantaneous response of woody plants and birds to climate change suggested increases in future bird species richness across most of Kenya whereas forecasts assuming strongly lagged woody plant responses to climate change indicated a reversed trend, i.e. reduced bird species richness. Uncertainties in predictions of future bird species richness were geographically structured, mainly owing to uncertainties in projected precipitation changes. We conclude that assessments of future species responses to climate change are very sensitive to current uncertainties in regional climate-change projections, and to the inclusion or not of time-lagged interacting taxa. We expect even stronger effects for more specialized plant–animal associations. Given the slow response time of woody plant distributions to climate change, current estimates of future biodiversity of many animal taxa may be both biased and too optimistic.

Kissling, W. D.; Field, R.; Korntheuer, H.; Heyder, U.; Bohning-Gaese, K.

2010-01-01

27

More time tells a different story about plants and climate change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ecologists studying the effects of climate change on a California grassland, found that observing the interactions between plants and insects over five years, provides better information than one- or two-year-long studies on a single plant or insect.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2007-02-01

28

Plant community dynamics in a calcareous grassland under climate change manipulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of field manipulations of local climate to determine the potential impact of climate change on plant community dynamics in a calcareous grassland. The experimental site is located in a grassland at the Wytham estate, Oxfordshire, UK. The one hectare study area is within a 10 ha abandoned arable field on Jurassic corallian limestone. Two climate

Marcelo Sternberg; Valerie K. Brown; Gregory J. Masters; Ian P. Clarke

1999-01-01

29

Climate Change and Extreme Weather Impacts on Salt Marsh Plants  

EPA Science Inventory

Regional assessments of climate change impacts on New England demonstrate a clear rise in rainfall over the past century. The number of extreme precipitation events (i.e., two or more inches of rain falling during a 48-hour period) has also increased over the past few decades. ...

30

Germination behaviour of annual plants under changing climatic conditions: separating local and regional environmental effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of local adaptation and factors other than climate in determining extinction probabilities of species under climate\\u000a change has not been yet explicitly studied. Here we performed a field experiment with annual plants growing along a steep\\u000a climatic gradient in Israel to isolate climatic effects for local trait expression. The focus trait was seed dormancy, for\\u000a which many theoretical

Martina Petr?; Katja Tielbörger

2008-01-01

31

CLIMATE CHANGE AS AN ECOSYSTEM ARCHITECT: IMPLICATIONS TO RARE PLANT ECOLOGY, CONSERVATION, AND RESTORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in earth system sciences have revealed significant new information relevant to rare plant ecology and conservation. Analysis of climate change at high resolution with new and precise proxies of paleotemperatures reveals a picture over the past two million years of oscillatory climate change operating simultaneously at multiple timescales. Low-frequency oscillations are paced by cycles of the earth's orbit

Constance I. Millar

32

Phenological responses of plants to climate change in an urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is likely to alter the phenological patterns of plants due to the controlling effects of climate on\\u000a plant ontogeny, especially in an urbanized environment. We studied relationships between various phenophases (i.e., seasonal\\u000a biological events) and interannual variations of air temperature in three woody plant species (Prunus davidiana, Hibiscus syriacus, and Cercis chinensis) in the Beijing Metropolis, China,

Zhongkui Luo; Osbert J. Sun; Quansheng Ge; Wenting Xu; Jingyun Zheng

2007-01-01

33

Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to elevated CO sub 2 and climate change  

SciTech Connect

While the exact effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on global climate are unknown, there is a growing consensus among climate modelers that global temperature and precipitation will increase, but that these changes will be non-uniform over the Earth's surface. In addition to these potential climatic changes, CO{sub 2} also directly affects plants via photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal closure. Global climate change, in concert with these direct effects of CO{sub 2} on plants, could have a significant impact on both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Society's ability to prepare for, and respond to, such changes depends largely on the ability of climate and ecosystem researchers to provide predictions of regional level ecosystem responses with sufficient confidence and adequate lead time.

Reynolds, J.F.; Hilbert, D.W.; Chen, Jia-lin; Harley, P.C.; Kemp, P.R.; Leadley, P.W.

1992-03-01

34

Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change  

SciTech Connect

While the exact effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on global climate are unknown, there is a growing consensus among climate modelers that global temperature and precipitation will increase, but that these changes will be non-uniform over the Earth`s surface. In addition to these potential climatic changes, CO{sub 2} also directly affects plants via photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal closure. Global climate change, in concert with these direct effects of CO{sub 2} on plants, could have a significant impact on both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Society`s ability to prepare for, and respond to, such changes depends largely on the ability of climate and ecosystem researchers to provide predictions of regional level ecosystem responses with sufficient confidence and adequate lead time.

Reynolds, J.F.; Hilbert, D.W.; Chen, Jia-lin; Harley, P.C.; Kemp, P.R.; Leadley, P.W.

1992-03-01

35

The role of plant functional trade-offs for biodiversity changes and biome shifts under scenarios of global climatic change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global geographic distribution of biodiversity and biomes is determined by species-specific physiological tolerances to climatic constraints. Current vegetation models employ empirical bioclimatic relationships to predict present-day vegetation patterns and to forecast biodiversity changes and biome shifts under climatic change. In this paper, we consider trade-offs in plant functioning and their responses under climatic changes to forecast and explain changes in plant functional richness and shifts in biome geographic distributions. The Jena Diversity model (JeDi) simulates plant survival according to essential plant functional trade-offs, including ecophysiological processes such as water uptake, photosynthesis, allocation, reproduction and phenology. We use JeDi to quantify changes in plant functional richness and biome shifts between present-day and a range of possible future climates from two SRES emission scenarios (A2 and B1) and seven global climate models using metrics of plant functional richness and functional identity. Our results show (i) a significant loss of plant functional richness in the tropics, (ii) an increase in plant functional richness at mid and high latitudes, and (iii) a pole-ward shift of biomes. While these results are consistent with the findings of empirical approaches, we are able to explain them in terms of the plant functional trade-offs involved in the allocation, metabolic and reproduction strategies of plants. We conclude that general aspects of plant physiological tolerances can be derived from functional trade-offs, which may provide a useful process- and trait-based alternative to bioclimatic relationships. Such a mechanistic approach may be particularly relevant when addressing vegetation responses to climatic changes that encounter novel combinations of climate parameters that do not exist under contemporary climate.

Reu, B.; Zaehle, S.; Proulx, R.; Bohn, K.; Kleidon, A.; Pavlick, R.; Schmidtlein, S.

2011-05-01

36

Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian Plant Communities to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Carboniferous and Early Permian strata record the transition from a cold interval in Earth history, characterized by the repeated periods of glaciation and deglaciation of the southern pole, to a warm-climate interval. Consequently, this time period is the best available analogue to the Recent in which to study patterns of vegetational response, both to glacial-interglacial oscillation and to the appearance of warm climate. Carboniferous wetland ecosystems were dominated by spore-producing plants and early gymnospermous seed plants. Global climate changes, largely drying, forced vegetational changes, resulting in a change to a seed plant-dominated world, beginning first at high latitudes during the Carboniferous, reaching the tropics near the Permo-Carboniferous boundary. For most of this time plant assemblages were very conservative in their composition. Change in the dominant vegetation was generally a rapid process, which suggests that environmental thresholds were crossed, and involved little mixing of elements from the wet and dry floras.

Dimichele, William A.; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W.; Gastaldo, Robert A.

37

Insect herbivory, plant defense, and early Cenozoic climate change  

PubMed Central

Insect damage on fossil leaves from the Central Rocky Mountains, United States, documents the response of herbivores to changing regional climates and vegetation during the late Paleocene (humid, warm temperate to subtropical, predominantly deciduous), early Eocene (humid subtropical, mixed deciduous and evergreen), and middle Eocene (seasonally dry, subtropical, mixed deciduous and thick-leaved evergreen). During all three time periods, greater herbivory occurred on taxa considered to have short rather than long leaf life spans, consistent with studies in living forests that demonstrate the insect resistance of long-lived, thick leaves. Variance in herbivory frequency and diversity was highest during the middle Eocene, indicating the increased representation of two distinct herbivory syndromes: one for taxa with deciduous, palatable foliage, and the other for hosts with evergreen, thick-textured, small leaves characterized by elevated insect resistance. Leaf galling, which is negatively correlated with moisture today, apparently increased during the middle Eocene, whereas leaf mining decreased.

Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Johnson, Kirk R.; Coley, Phyllis D.; Cutter, Asher D.

2001-01-01

38

The role of plant functional trade-offs for biodiversity changes and biome shifts under scenarios of global climatic change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global geographic distribution of biodiversity and biomes is determined by species-specific physiological tolerances to climatic constraints. Current models implement empirical bioclimatic relationships to predict present-day vegetation patterns and to forecast biodiversity changes and biome shifts under climatic change. In this paper, we consider plant functional trade-offs and their interactions with climatic changes to forecast and explain biodiversity changes and biome shifts. The Jena Diversity model (JeDi) simulates plant survival according to essential plant functional trade-offs, including eco-physiological processes such as water uptake, photosynthesis, allocation, reproduction and phenology. We apply JeDi to quantify biodiversity changes and biome shifts between present-day and a range of possible future climates from two scenarios (A2 and B1) and seven global climate models using metrics of plant functional richness and functional identity. Our results show (i) a significant biodiversity loss in the tropics, (ii) an increase in biodiversity at mid and high latitudes, and (iii) a poleward shift of biomes. While these results are consistent with the findings of empirical approaches, we are able to explain them in terms of the plant functional trade-offs involved in the allocation, metabolic and reproduction strategies of plants. We conclude that general aspects of plant physiological tolerances can be derived from plant functional trade-offs, which may provide a useful process- and trait-based alternative to bioclimatic relationships in order to address questions about the causes of biodiversity changes and biome shifts.

Reu, B.; Zaehle, S.; Proulx, R.; Bohn, K.; Kleidon, A.; Pavlick, R.; Schmidtlein, S.

2010-10-01

39

Functional consequences of climate change-induced plant species loss in a tallgrass prairie.  

PubMed

Future climate change is likely to reduce the floristic diversity of grasslands. Yet the potential consequences of climate-induced plant species losses for the functioning of these ecosystems are poorly understood. We investigated how climate change might alter the functional composition of grasslands for Konza Prairie, a diverse tallgrass prairie in central North America. With species-specific climate envelopes, we show that a reduction in mean annual precipitation would preferentially remove species that are more abundant in the more productive lowland positions at Konza. As such, decreases in precipitation could reduce productivity not only by reducing water availability but by also removing species that inhabit the most productive areas and respond the most to climate variability. In support of this prediction, data on species abundance at Konza over 16 years show that species that are more abundant in lowlands than uplands are preferentially reduced in years with low precipitation. Climate change is likely to also preferentially remove species from particular functional groups and clades. For example, warming is forecast to preferentially remove perennials over annuals as well as Cyperaceae species. Despite these predictions, climate change is unlikely to unilaterally alter the functional composition of the tallgrass prairie flora, as many functional traits such as physiological drought tolerance and maximum photosynthetic rates showed little relationship with climate envelope parameters. In all, although climatic drying would indirectly alter grassland productivity through species loss patterns, the insurance afforded by biodiversity to ecosystem function is likely to be sustained in the face of climate change. PMID:21328008

Craine, Joseph M; Nippert, Jesse B; Towne, E Gene; Tucker, Sally; Kembel, Steven W; Skibbe, Adam; McLauchlan, Kendra K

2011-02-17

40

FORECASTING REGIONAL TO GLOBAL PLANT MIGRATION IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The rate of future climate change is likely to exceed the migration rates of most plant species. The replacement of dominant species by locally rare species may require decades, and extinctions may occur when plant species cannot migrate fast enough to escape the consequences of...

41

Climate change and plant dispersal along corridors in fragmented landscapes of Mesoamerica  

PubMed Central

Climate change is a threat to biodiversity, and adaptation measures should be considered in biodiversity conservation planning. Protected areas (PA) are expected to be impacted by climate change and improving their connectivity with biological corridors (BC) has been proposed as a potential adaptation measure, although assessing its effectiveness remains a challenge. In Mesoamerica, efforts to preserve the biodiversity have led to the creation of a regional network of PA and, more recently, BC. This study evaluates the role of BC for facilitating plant dispersal between PA under climate change in Mesoamerica. A spatially explicit dynamic model (cellular automaton) was developed to simulate species dispersal under different climate and conservation policy scenarios. Plant functional types (PFT) were defined based on a range of dispersal rates and vegetation types to represent the diversity of species in the region. The impacts of climate change on PA and the role of BC for dispersal were assessed spatially. Results show that most impacted PA are those with low altitudinal range in hot, dry, or high latitude areas. PA with low altitudinal range in high cool areas benefit the most from corridors. The most important corridors cover larger areas and have high altitude gradients. Only the fastest PFT can keep up with the expected change in climate and benefit from corridors for dispersal. We conclude that the spatial assessment of the vulnerability of PA and the role of corridors in facilitating dispersal can help conservation planning under a changing climate.

Imbach, Pablo A; Locatelli, Bruno; Molina, Luis G; Ciais, Philippe; Leadley, Paul W

2013-01-01

42

Climate change and plant dispersal along corridors in fragmented landscapes of Mesoamerica.  

PubMed

Climate change is a threat to biodiversity, and adaptation measures should be considered in biodiversity conservation planning. Protected areas (PA) are expected to be impacted by climate change and improving their connectivity with biological corridors (BC) has been proposed as a potential adaptation measure, although assessing its effectiveness remains a challenge. In Mesoamerica, efforts to preserve the biodiversity have led to the creation of a regional network of PA and, more recently, BC. This study evaluates the role of BC for facilitating plant dispersal between PA under climate change in Mesoamerica. A spatially explicit dynamic model (cellular automaton) was developed to simulate species dispersal under different climate and conservation policy scenarios. Plant functional types (PFT) were defined based on a range of dispersal rates and vegetation types to represent the diversity of species in the region. The impacts of climate change on PA and the role of BC for dispersal were assessed spatially. Results show that most impacted PA are those with low altitudinal range in hot, dry, or high latitude areas. PA with low altitudinal range in high cool areas benefit the most from corridors. The most important corridors cover larger areas and have high altitude gradients. Only the fastest PFT can keep up with the expected change in climate and benefit from corridors for dispersal. We conclude that the spatial assessment of the vulnerability of PA and the role of corridors in facilitating dispersal can help conservation planning under a changing climate. PMID:24101983

Imbach, Pablo A; Locatelli, Bruno; Molina, Luis G; Ciais, Philippe; Leadley, Paul W

2013-07-30

43

Plant phenology, resource seasonality and climate change in a Brazilian cerrado savanna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant phenology, the study of recurring events and its relationship to climate, contributes with key information for the understanding of forest dynamics and plant resource availability to the fauna. Plant reproduction and growth are affected by proximate factors such as precipitation, temperature and photoperiod, ecological factors such as plant-animal interaction, for instance pollination and seed dispersal, and by phylogeny. Therefore, phenological changes may have enormous consequences for both, plants and animals depending upon the periodical availability of plant resources. The Brazilian tropical savannas, the cerrado, is a highly diverse vegetation with around 70% of the woody flora relaying on animal vectors for pollination and seed dispersal. We consider the cerrado savanna a good model to investigate shifts on tropical phenology and climate change. This vegetation presents a very seasonal phenology shaped by the climate characterized by the alternation of a hot, wet season and a dry, cooler one. The onset of leafing, flowering and fruiting is defined by the duration and intensity of the dry season, and changes on precipitation patterns and dryness may likely affect the plant species reproductive pattern as well as the resource availability to the fauna. In that context, we are carrying out a long-term project to investigate the phenology of growth and reproduction of a cerrado savanna woody community in Southeastern Brazil. Our aim is to understand the cerrado savanna long-term phenological patterns, its relationship to local climate, and whether phenological shifts over time may occur due to variations on climate. We are collecting data on crop size, species abundance and fruit consumption by birds to understand the fruit-frugivore network. Additionally, analyses are underway to explore the relationship among fruit season, fruit production, color and nutritional contents, and the activity of frugivores. Our final goal is to verify at which extension climate change may induce shifts on plant community phenology, affecting the availability of resource, plant-frugivore interactions and the mutualism network.

Gutierrez de Camargo, Maria Gabriela; de Camargo Guaraldo, André; Reys, Paula; Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Leonor

2010-05-01

44

Projected population dynamics for a federally endangered plant under different climate change emission scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land managers primarily collect population counts to track rare plant population trends. These count-based data sets are often used to develop population viability analysis (PVA) to project future status of these populations. Additionally, practitioners can use this count-based data to project population size changes under different climate change scenarios at both local and regional levels. In this study we developed

Brenda Molano-Flores; Timothy J. Bell

45

Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about forecasting plant migration due to climate change. The rate of future climate change is likely to exceed the migration rates of most plant species. The replacement of dominant species by locally rare species may require decades, and extinctions may occur when plant species cannot migrate fast enough to escape the consequences of climate change. Such lags may impair ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and clean water production. Thus, to assess global change, simulation of plant migration and local vegetation change by dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) is critical, yet fraught with challenges. Global vegetation models cannot simulate all species, necessitating their aggregation into plant functional types (PFTs). Yet most PFTs encompass the full spectrum of migration rates. Migration processes span scales of time and space far beyond what can be confidently simulated in DGVMs. Theories about climate change and migration are limited by inadequate data for key processes at short and long time scales and at small and large spatial scales. These theories must be enhanced to incorporate species-level migration and succession processes into a more comprehensive definition of PFTs.

Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change (;)

2005-09-01

46

Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather can change many times a day. Climate.the sum of weather.changes slowly, over decades and centuries, but it can change\\u000a abruptly with large volcanic eruptions, instabilities in ocean currents, or meteorite crashes. The dramatic 1815 Tambora eruption\\u000a spewed 100 km3 of ash, causing “a year without a summer” to cool Earth by 4°C. Cooling from volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols must

David Hafemeister

47

Evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms in response to climate change  

PubMed Central

Climate change has the potential to desynchronize the phenologies of interdependent species, with potentially catastrophic effects on mutualist populations. Phenologies can evolve, but the role of evolution in the response of mutualisms to climate change is poorly understood. We developed a model that explicitly considers both the evolution and the population dynamics of a plant–pollinator mutualism under climate change. How the populations evolve, and thus whether the populations and the mutualism persist, depends not only on the rate of climate change but also on the densities and phenologies of other species in the community. Abundant alternative mutualist partners with broad temporal distributions can make a mutualism more robust to climate change, while abundant alternative partners with narrow temporal distributions can make a mutualism less robust. How community composition and the rate of climate change affect the persistence of mutualisms is mediated by two-species Allee thresholds. Understanding these thresholds will help researchers to identify those mutualisms at highest risk owing to climate change.

Gilman, R Tucker; Fabina, Nicholas S; Abbott, Karen C; Rafferty, Nicole E

2012-01-01

48

Small-scale plant species distribution in snowbeds and its sensitivity to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine snowbeds are characterized by a long-lasting snow cover and low soil temperature during the growing season. Both these\\u000a key abiotic factors controlling plant life in snowbeds are sensitive to anthropogenic climate change and will alter the environmental\\u000a conditions in snowbeds to a considerable extent until the end of this century. In order to name winners and losers of climate

Christian Schöb; Peter M. Kammer; Philippe Choler; Heinz Veit

2009-01-01

49

Agroecology: Implications for plant response to climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural ecosystems (agroecosystems) represent the balance between the physiological responses of plants and plant canopies and the energy exchanges. Rising temperature and increasing CO2 coupled with an increase in variability of precipitation will create a complex set of interactions on plant ...

50

Climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

But there are many reasons to question the wisdom of the Kyoto Protocol's approach to climate change policy, including questions about the scientific grounding of the protocol; questions about the feasibility of the proposed implementation mechanisms; questions about the efficacy of those measures; questions about the adverse consequences of diverting resources to address highly uncertain risks using tools with uncertain

Staffordshire County Council; Anthony J. Richardson; RICHARD MCCANN; HOWARD AYLESWORTH; MARY L. VIGILANTE

1974-01-01

51

On the brink of change: plant responses to climate on the Colorado Plateau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The intensification of aridity due to anthropogenic climate change in the southwestern U.S. is likely to have a large impact on the growth and survival of plant species that may already be vulnerable to water stress. To make accurate predictions of plant responses to climate change, it is essential to determine the long-term dynamics of plant species associated with past climate conditions. Here we show how the plant species and functional types across a wide range of environmental conditions in Colorado Plateau national parks have changed with climate variability over the last twenty years. During this time, regional mean annual temperature increased by 0.18°C per year from 1989–1995, 0.06°C per year from 1995–2003, declined by 0.14°C from 2003–2008, and there was high interannual variability in precipitation. Non-metric multidimensional scaling of plant species at long-term monitoring sites indicated five distinct plant communities. In many of the communities, canopy cover of perennial plants was sensitive to mean annual temperature occurring in the previous year, whereas canopy cover of annual plants responded to cool season precipitation. In the perennial grasslands, there was an overall decline of C3 perennial grasses, no change of C4 perennial grasses, and an increase of shrubs with increasing temperature. In the shrublands, shrubs generally showed no change or slightly increased with increasing temperature. However, certain shrub species declined where soil and physical characteristics of a site limited water availability. In the higher elevation woodlands, Juniperus osteosperma and shrub canopy cover increased with increasing temperature, while Pinus edulis at the highest elevation sites was unresponsive to interannual temperature variability. These results from well-protected national parks highlight the importance of temperature to plant responses in a water-limited region and suggest that projected increases in aridity are likely to promote grass loss and shrub expansion on the Colorado Plateau.

Munson, Seth M.; Belnap, Jayne; Schelz, Charles D.; Moran, Mary; Carolin, Tara W.

2011-01-01

52

Robustness of plant-flower visitor webs to simulated climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change threatens the integrity of pollination webs by decoupling plants and flower visitors both phenologically and ecologically. We simulated a range shift of flower-visitor species along a steep east-west rainfall gradient to explore resulting patterns of extinction. The systems studied seemed to be rather robust to range shifts. This results from (a) the positive correlation between the geographic range

MARIANO DEVOTO; DIEGO MEDAN

53

Extreme climatic events change the dynamics and invasibility of semi-arid annual plant communities.  

PubMed

Extreme climatic events represent disturbances that change the availability of resources. We studied their effects on annual plant assemblages in a semi-arid ecosystem in north-central Chile. We analysed 130 years of precipitation data using generalised extreme-value distribution to determine extreme events, and multivariate techniques to analyse 20 years of plant cover data of 34 native and 11 exotic species. Extreme drought resets the dynamics of the system and renders it susceptible to invasion. On the other hand, by favouring native annuals, moderately wet events change species composition and allow the community to be resilient to extreme drought. The probability of extreme drought has doubled over the last 50 years. Therefore, investigations on the interaction of climate change and biological invasions are relevant to determine the potential for future effects on the dynamics of semi-arid annual plant communities. PMID:21988736

Jiménez, Milagros A; Jaksic, Fabian M; Armesto, Juan J; Gaxiola, Aurora; Meserve, Peter L; Kelt, Douglas A; Gutiérrez, Julio R

2011-10-12

54

Birds, Plants, and Climate: Impacts of Climatic Change on the Phenology of Spring Bird Migration in the Great Lakes, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is likely to emerge as a significant, if not dominant force, in ecosystem change over the next several decades. While the potential impacts of discordant range shifts have received considerable attention, asynchronies in phenology have received less attention. Migrating birds are of particular concern given their need of multiple habitats, which often involve large spatial scales. Time is of the essence for migrating birds: it is critical for departures with favorable weather conditions, intersecting adequate resources to fuel further flight, and for spring migrants, arrival on the breeding grounds in concert with the flush of food to feed offspring. We assess changes in the spring phenology of migrant birds in the Great Lakes region using observations in Germfask, MI, USA (49° 17'N, 85° 57'W) from 1965-1994 and Fairfield Township, WI,USA (43° 30'N, 89° 30'W) from 1976-1999. We correlate the species temporal changes with abiotic and biotic variables to understand how migrants' behaviour is associated with spring green-up (plant phenology) and multi-scalar climate/weather variables, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, and local and regional temperature. We assess the observed changes and correlations in light of migrant life history factors (wintering grounds, diet, residency) to understand which species, or groups of species, are particularly at risk from climatic-change-induced disruptions to the migratory and breeding schedule. The implications of potential ecosystem asynchronies between climate/weather, migratory schedules, and the arrival of spring are discussed.

Macmynowski, D. P.; Root, T. L.

2004-12-01

55

Climate Change and Citizen Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how citizen observations can document the impact of climate change on plants and animals. It introduces the topic of phenology and data collection, the impact of climate change on phenology, and how individuals can become citizen scientists.

Citizen Science Central, Cornell L.

56

A dynamic modelling approach for estimating critical loads of nitrogen based on plant community changes under a changing climate.  

PubMed

A dynamic model of forest ecosystems was used to investigate the effects of climate change, atmospheric deposition and harvest intensity on 48 forest sites in Sweden (n = 16) and Switzerland (n = 32). The model was used to investigate the feasibility of deriving critical loads for nitrogen (N) deposition based on changes in plant community composition. The simulations show that climate and atmospheric deposition have comparably important effects on N mobilization in the soil, as climate triggers the release of organically bound nitrogen stored in the soil during the elevated deposition period. Climate has the most important effect on plant community composition, underlining the fact that this cannot be ignored in future simulations of vegetation dynamics. Harvest intensity has comparatively little effect on the plant community in the long term, while it may be detrimental in the short term following cutting. This study shows: that critical loads of N deposition can be estimated using the plant community as an indicator; that future climatic changes must be taken into account; and that the definition of the reference deposition is critical for the outcome of this estimate. PMID:21145634

Belyazid, Salim; Kurz, Dani; Braun, Sabine; Sverdrup, Harald; Rihm, Beat; Hettelingh, Jean-Paul

2010-12-10

57

Forecasting climate change impacts to plant community composition in the Sonoran Desert region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hotter and drier conditions projected for the southwestern United States can have a large impact on the abundance and composition of long-lived desert plant species. We used long-term vegetation monitoring results from 39 large plots across four protected sites in the Sonoran Desert region to determine how plant species have responded to past climate variability. This cross-site analysis identified the plant species and functional types susceptible to climate change, the magnitude of their responses, and potential climate thresholds. In the relatively mesic mesquite savanna communities, perennial grasses declined with a decrease in annual precipitation, cacti increased, and there was a reversal of the Prosopis velutina expansion experienced in the 20th century in response to increasing mean annual temperature (MAT). In the more xeric Arizona Upland communities, the dominant leguminous tree, Cercidium microphyllum, declined on hillslopes, and the shrub Fouquieria splendens decreased, especially on south- and west-facing slopes in response to increasing MAT. In the most xeric shrublands, the codominant species Larrea tridentata and its hemiparasite Krameria grayi decreased with a decrease in cool season precipitation and increased aridity, respectively. This regional-scale assessment of plant species response to recent climate variability is critical for forecasting future shifts in plant community composition, structure, and productivity.

Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Belnap, Jayne; Hubbard, J. Andrew; Swann, Don E.; Rutman, Sue

2012-01-01

58

Climate Change Terms  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Climate ChangeClimate change refers to any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of time. In other words, climate change includes major changes in temperature, precipitation, or wind patterns, among others, that occur over several decades or longer.   From Climate Change Terms  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing "climate change"

2011-04-20

59

Effects of plant species, organic matter quality, and microbial activity on peatland ecosystem function and resiliance to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainties in peatland responses to climate change are due to our poor understanding of interactions between soil climate, plant community structure, organic matter quality, and microbial activity that operate on timeframes ranging from seconds to decades or longer. These uncertainties restrict our understanding of C cycling in peatlands under current and future climate regimes, and inhibit our ability to accurately

R. Chimner; T. Pypker; M. M. Turetsky; J. Hribljan; M. Waddington

2008-01-01

60

Extinction debt of high-mountain plants under twenty-first-century climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative estimates of the range loss of mountain plants under climate change have so far mostly relied on static geographical projections of species' habitat shifts. Here, we use a hybrid model that combines such projections with simulations of demography and seed dispersal to forecast the climate-driven spatio-temporal dynamics of 150 high-mountain plant species across the European Alps. This model predicts average range size reductions of 44-50% by the end of the twenty-first century, which is similar to projections from the most `optimistic' static model (49%). However, the hybrid model also indicates that population dynamics will lag behind climatic trends and that an average of 40% of the range still occupied at the end of the twenty-first century will have become climatically unsuitable for the respective species, creating an extinction debt. Alarmingly, species endemic to the Alps seem to face the highest range losses. These results caution against optimistic conclusions from moderate range size reductions observed during the twenty-first century as they are likely to belie more severe longer-term effects of climate warming on mountain plants.

Dullinger, Stefan; Gattringer, Andreas; Thuiller, Wilfried; Moser, Dietmar; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Guisan, Antoine; Willner, Wolfgang; Plutzar, Christoph; Leitner, Michael; Mang, Thomas; Caccianiga, Marco; Dirnböck, Thomas; Ertl, Siegrun; Fischer, Anton; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Psomas, Achilleas; Schmatz, Dirk R.; Silc, Urban; Vittoz, Pascal; Hülber, Karl

2012-08-01

61

Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the warmer conditions as far as competition is low However, in subalpine grasslands, competition of already present species is probably important and limit establishment of newly arrived species. Results from future simulations also showed that heavy extinctions of alpine plants may start already in 2040, but the latest in 2080. Our study also highlighted the importance of fine scale and regional assessments of climate change impact on mountain vegetation, using more direct predictor variables. Indeed, predictions at the continental scale may fail to predict local refugees or local extinctions, as well as loss of connectivity between local populations. On the other hand, migrations of low-elevation species to higher altitude may be difficult to predict at the local scale.

Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

2007-12-01

62

Isolating plant physiological responses to a changing climate of elevated temperatures and more variable water availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semiarid southwest has and is predicted to continue to experience multiple concomitant changes in the coming decades. Climatic warming and more variable precipitation with long periods of drought are projected for the region. Vegetative change, through the widespread expansion of woody plants into grasslands, is also expected to continue. Due to differences in plant physiological responses to varying conditions of temperature and moisture availability, these climatic and vegetative shifts could mean big changes in how ecosystems sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from or respire CO2 to our atmosphere. In this study, we compared photosynthetic rates of CO2 assimilation (A) in C3 woody mesquites and C4 grasses in response to a large rainfall event after a prolonged drought. Paired treatments were maintained at two temperatures differing by 4°C to provide insight into responses under current and expected future climate conditions. Preliminary results indicate greater A within grasses than mesquites at both dry and post-rainfall time points, suggesting a possible movement toward less carbon sequestration in the future under the influence of woody plant encroachment. Time to reach peak A after an initial rainfall event was greater in grasses demonstrating a difference in growth strategies for precipitation response. Furthermore, grasses tended to have higher optimum temperatures, but mesquites were able to maintain A across a broader range of temperatures under dry, drought conditions. The effects of deeper rooting and groundwater access in woody plants during longer drought periods could complicate these results and would warrant future study.

Sykora, K.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.

2011-12-01

63

Pollen and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students study the relationship between changing climate conditions and the distribution of plants across North America, using a unique tool called the Pollen Viewer. This tool allows the user to animate the retreat of the North American glacier and the migration of plant species during the waning period of the most recent Ice Age.

Pickle, John; Kranz, Becca; Frazier, Katharina; Terc

64

Winter climate change in alpine tundra: plant responses to changes in snow depth and snowmelt timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow is an important environmental factor in alpine ecosystems, which influences plant phenology, growth and species composition\\u000a in various ways. With current climate warming, the snow-to-rain ratio is decreasing, and the timing of snowmelt advancing.\\u000a In a 2-year field experiment above treeline in the Swiss Alps, we investigated how a substantial decrease in snow depth and\\u000a an earlier snowmelt affect

Sonja Wipf; Veronika Stoeckli; Peter Bebi

2009-01-01

65

Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing head values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

Swift, P.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baker, B.L. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Economy, K. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Rudeen, D.K. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-09-18

66

Multiple phenological responses to climate change among 42 plant species in Xi'an, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenological data of 42 woody plants in a temperate deciduous forest from the Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) and the corresponding meteorological data from 1963 to 2011 in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China were collected and analyzed. The first leaf date (FLD), leaf coloring date (LCD) and first flower date (FFD) are revealed as strong biological signals of climatic change. The FLD, LCD and FFD of most species are sensitive to average temperature during a certain period before phenophase onset. Regional precipitation also has a significant impact on phenophases of about half of the species investigated. Affected by climate change, the FLD and FFD of these species have advanced by 5.54 days and 10.20 days on average during 2003-2011 compared with the period 1963-1996, respectively. Meanwhile, the LCD has delayed by 10.59 days, and growing season length has extended 16.13 days. Diverse responses of phenology commonly exist among different species and functional groups during the study period. Especially for FFD, the deviations between the above two periods ranged from -20.68 to -2.79 days; biotic pollination species showed a significantly greater advance than abiotic pollination species. These results were conducive to the understanding of possible changes in both the structure of plant communities and interspecific relationships in the context of climate change.

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2012-11-01

67

Multiple phenological responses to climate change among 42 plant species in Xi'an, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenological data of 42 woody plants in a temperate deciduous forest from the Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) and the corresponding meteorological data from 1963 to 2011 in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China were collected and analyzed. The first leaf date (FLD), leaf coloring date (LCD) and first flower date (FFD) are revealed as strong biological signals of climatic change. The FLD, LCD and FFD of most species are sensitive to average temperature during a certain period before phenophase onset. Regional precipitation also has a significant impact on phenophases of about half of the species investigated. Affected by climate change, the FLD and FFD of these species have advanced by 5.54 days and 10.20 days on average during 2003-2011 compared with the period 1963-1996, respectively. Meanwhile, the LCD has delayed by 10.59 days, and growing season length has extended 16.13 days. Diverse responses of phenology commonly exist among different species and functional groups during the study period. Especially for FFD, the deviations between the above two periods ranged from -20.68 to -2.79 days; biotic pollination species showed a significantly greater advance than abiotic pollination species. These results were conducive to the understanding of possible changes in both the structure of plant communities and interspecific relationships in the context of climate change.

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2013-09-01

68

Multiple phenological responses to climate change among 42 plant species in Xi'an, China.  

PubMed

Phenological data of 42 woody plants in a temperate deciduous forest from the Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) and the corresponding meteorological data from 1963 to 2011 in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China were collected and analyzed. The first leaf date (FLD), leaf coloring date (LCD) and first flower date (FFD) are revealed as strong biological signals of climatic change. The FLD, LCD and FFD of most species are sensitive to average temperature during a certain period before phenophase onset. Regional precipitation also has a significant impact on phenophases of about half of the species investigated. Affected by climate change, the FLD and FFD of these species have advanced by 5.54 days and 10.20 days on average during 2003-2011 compared with the period 1963-1996, respectively. Meanwhile, the LCD has delayed by 10.59 days, and growing season length has extended 16.13 days. Diverse responses of phenology commonly exist among different species and functional groups during the study period. Especially for FFD, the deviations between the above two periods ranged from -20.68 to -2.79 days; biotic pollination species showed a significantly greater advance than abiotic pollination species. These results were conducive to the understanding of possible changes in both the structure of plant communities and interspecific relationships in the context of climate change. PMID:23114575

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2012-11-01

69

Plant response to climate change along the forest-tundra ecotone in northeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

Russia's boreal (taiga) biome will likely contract sharply and shift northward in response to 21st century climatic change, yet few studies have examined plant response to climatic variability along the northern margin. We quantified climate dynamics, trends in plant growth, and growth-climate relationships across the tundra shrublands and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma river basin (657 000 km(2) ) in northeastern Siberia using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring-width measurements, and climate data. Mean summer temperatures (Ts ) increased 1.0 °C from 1938 to 2009, though there was no trend (P > 0.05) in growing year precipitation or climate moisture index (CMIgy ). Mean summer NDVI (NDVIs ) increased significantly from 1982 to 2010 across 20% of the watershed, primarily in cold, shrub-dominated areas. NDVIs positively correlated (P < 0.05) with Ts across 56% of the watershed (r = 0.52 ± 0.09, mean ± SD), principally in cold areas, and with CMIgy across 9% of the watershed (r = 0.45 ± 0.06), largely in warm areas. Larch ring-width measurements from nine sites revealed that year-to-year (i.e., high-frequency) variation in growth positively correlated (P < 0.05) with June temperature (r = 0.40) and prior summer CMI (r = 0.40) from 1938 to 2007. An unexplained multi-decadal (i.e., low-frequency) decline in annual basal area increment (BAI) occurred following the mid-20th century, but over the NDVI record there was no trend in mean BAI (P > 0.05), which significantly correlated with NDVIs (r = 0.44, P < 0.05, 1982-2007). Both satellite and tree-ring analyses indicated that plant growth was constrained by both low temperatures and limited moisture availability and, furthermore, that warming enhanced growth. Impacts of future climatic change on forests near treeline in Arctic Russia will likely be influenced by shifts in both temperature and moisture, which implies that projections of future forest distribution and productivity in this area should take into account the interactions of energy and moisture limitations. PMID:23813896

Berner, Logan T; Beck, Pieter S A; Bunn, Andrew G; Goetz, Scott J

2013-09-11

70

Anthropogenic climate change and allergen exposure: The role of plant biology.  

PubMed

Accumulation of anthropogenic gases, particularly CO(2), is likely to have 2 fundamental effects on plant biology. The first is an indirect effect through Earth's increasing average surface temperatures, with subsequent effects on other aspects of climate, such as rainfall and extreme weather events. The second is a direct effect caused by CO(2)-induced stimulation of photosynthesis and plant growth. Both effects are likely to alter a number of fundamental aspects of plant biology and human health, including aerobiology and allergic diseases, respectively. This review highlights the current and projected effect of increasing CO(2) and climate change in the context of plants and allergen exposure, emphasizing direct effects on plant physiologic parameters (eg, pollen production) and indirect effects (eg, fungal sporulation) related to diverse biotic and abiotic interactions. Overall, the review assumes that future global mitigation efforts will be limited and suggests a number of key research areas that will assist in adapting to the ongoing challenges to public health associated with increased allergen exposure. PMID:22104602

Ziska, Lewis H; Beggs, Paul J

2011-11-21

71

Effects of climate change on agricultural-plant pests. Volume II, Part 10 of environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change  

SciTech Connect

Plant pests and their community of biotic cohorts respond to climatic changes, whether temporal aberrations or long term shifts. How they respond depends on the magnitude of the change and the ability of the species to tolerate or adapt to the new environment. Scientists see several climatological scenarios concerning the increase of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ and ambient temperature. Those who foresee a slow incremental raising of temperatures base their predictions mainly on the available empirical evidence and the notion that long term weather is basically a cyclical phenomena that continually adjusts and readjusts through time. The other scenario interprets the available empirical data as a gradual buildup that pushes the climatic picture towards a threshold or a trigger point that, once arrived at, is irreversible and dramatic. This paper explores the possible climatic scenarios as they relate to the ecological principles that affect pest abundance and the distribution and impact on domestic and international agriculture.

Haynes, D.L.

1982-10-01

72

The effects of climate change on the phenology of selected Estonian plant, bird and fish populations.  

PubMed

This paper summarises the trends of 943 phenological time-series of plants, fishes and birds gathered from 1948 to 1999 in Estonia. More than 80% of the studied phenological phases have advanced during springtime, whereas changes are smaller during summer and autumn. Significant values of plant and bird phases have advanced 5-20 days, and fish phases have advanced 10-30 days in the spring period. Estonia's average air temperature has become significantly warmer in spring, while at the same time a slight decrease in air temperature has been detected in autumn. The growing season has become significantly longer in the maritime climate area of Western Estonia. The investigated phenological and climate trends are related primarily to changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) during the winter months. Although the impact of the winter NAOI on the phases decreases towards summer, the trends of the investigated phases remain high. The trends of phenophases at the end of spring and the beginning of summer may be caused by the temperature inertia of the changing winter, changes in the radiation balance or the direct consequences of human impacts such as land use, heat islands or air pollution. PMID:16738902

Ahas, Rein; Aasa, Anto

2006-09-01

73

Specialization in Plant-Hummingbird Networks Is Associated with Species Richness, Contemporary Precipitation and Quaternary Climate-Change Velocity  

PubMed Central

Large-scale geographical patterns of biotic specialization and the underlying drivers are poorly understood, but it is widely believed that climate plays an important role in determining specialization. As climate-driven range dynamics should diminish local adaptations and favor generalization, one hypothesis is that contemporary biotic specialization is determined by the degree of past climatic instability, primarily Quaternary climate-change velocity. Other prominent hypotheses predict that either contemporary climate or species richness affect biotic specialization. To gain insight into geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization and its drivers, we use network analysis to determine the degree of specialization in plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks sampled at 31 localities, spanning a wide range of climate regimes across the Americas. We found greater biotic specialization at lower latitudes, with latitude explaining 20–22% of the spatial variation in plant-hummingbird specialization. Potential drivers of specialization - contemporary climate, Quaternary climate-change velocity, and species richness - had superior explanatory power, together explaining 53–64% of the variation in specialization. Notably, our data provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized roles of species richness, contemporary precipitation and Quaternary climate-change velocity as key predictors of biotic specialization, whereas contemporary temperature and seasonality seem unimportant in determining specialization. These results suggest that both ecological and evolutionary processes at Quaternary time scales can be important in driving large-scale geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization, at least for co-evolved systems such as plant-hummingbird networks.

Dalsgaard, Bo; Magard, Else; Fjeldsa, Jon; Martin Gonzalez, Ana M.; Rahbek, Carsten; Olesen, Jens M.; Ollerton, Jeff; Alarcon, Ruben; Cardoso Araujo, Andrea; Cotton, Peter A.; Lara, Carlos; Machado, Caio Graco; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies; Timmermann, Allan; Watts, Stella; Sandel, Brody; Sutherland, William J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

2011-01-01

74

Optimality Versus Resilience In Patterns Of Carbon Allocation Within Plants Under Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting the allocation of assimilated carbon among different parts within a plant under current and future climates is a challenging task that is of significant interest. Several empirical and mechanistic models have been developed over the years to solve for the carbon allocation within a plant and these have demonstrated limited success. This challenge is further exacerbated when we need to consider the issue of plant acclimation due to climate change. Optimality based carbon allocation models have the ability to provide a general framework and have been proposed to be a strong alternative to empirical and mechanistic models. While several optimality functions have been proposed, more recently the idea of optimizing end of life cycle reproductive biomass has been demonstrated to have significant success (Iwasa 2000). This optimality function unlike others is more fundamental as it is directly based on the concept of evolutionary fitness of each individual. We apply an optimality based carbon allocation model to the soybean ecosystem and other ecosystems and analyze the predictions. Our analysis demonstrates that plants have the capability to achieve a given end state using different allocation strategies during a growing season. More importantly, the soybean ecosystem exhibits significant suboptimal behavior, where the end of life cycle reproductive biomass realized through field measurements, is lower than the model predicted optimum. From these one can infer that in reality, plants allocate a relatively larger fraction of its carbon to leaf and root biomass and a relatively smaller fraction to reproductive biomass when compared to the model predicted optimal allocation pathway. This trend is also obtained while simulating acclimation behavior under elevated CO2 conditions simulating future climate scenarios. We hypothesize that plants in nature exhibit a significant degree of resilience that prevents them from following an optimal pathway resulting in a natural suboptimal behavior. Resilience in this context is defined as the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and still retain its basic structure and function (Walker and Salt 2006). For the example of plant ecosystems, disturbance can be a drought, leaf damage (hail or herbivory) etc. By including the competitive interplay between optimality and resilience we propose a modified multi-objective framework for analyzing carbon allocation patterns within plants. This improved multi-objective framework will provide more realistic estimates of plant carbon allocation patterns compared to the earlier single-objective optimality framework. We use data from fluxnet and SoyFACE to run and validate our models.

Srinivasan, V.; Kumar, P.; Sivapalan, M.

2010-12-01

75

EXAMINING PLANNED U.S. POWER PLANT CAPACITY ADDITIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE  

SciTech Connect

This paper seeks to assess the degree to which the 471 planned fossil fired power plants announced to be built within the next decade in the continental U.S. are amenable to significant carbon dioxide emissions mitigation via carbon dioxide capture and disposal in geologic reservoirs. The combined generating capacity of these 471 planned plants is 320 GW. In particular, we seek to assess the looming ''carbon liability'' (i.e., the nearly 1 billion tons of CO2 these plants are likely to emit annually) that these power plants represent for their owners and for the nation as the U.S. begins to address climate change. Significant emission reductions will likely be brought about through the use of advanced technologies such as carbon capture and disposal. We find that less than half of these plants are located in the immediate vicinity of potentially suitable geologic carbon dioxide disposal reservoirs. The authors discuss the implications of this potential carbon liability that these plants may come to represent.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Gale, J.; Kaya, Y.

2003-01-01

76

Climatic Change and Climate Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The heat balance method together with certain other methods of theoretical climatology for investigating the laws of natural climatic changes and for determining the possibility of controlling such changes is discussed.

M. I. Budyko

1964-01-01

77

EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATERSHED RUNOFF FLOW - UPPER COOSA RIVER BASIN UPSTREAM FROM PLANT HAMMOND  

SciTech Connect

The ability of water managers to maintain adequate supplies in the coming decades depends on future weather conditions, as climate change has the potential to reduce stream flows from their current values due to potentially less precipitation and higher temperatures, and possibly rendering them unable to meet demand. The upper Coosa River basin, located in northwest Georgia, plays an important role in supplying water for industry and domestic use in northern Georgia, and has been involved in water disputes in recent times. The seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) is the lowest average flow for seven consecutive days that has an average recurrence interval of 10 years. The 7Q10 flow is statistically derived from the observed historical flow data, and represents the low flow (drought) condition for a basin. The upper Coosa River basin also supplies cooling water for the 935MW coal-fired Hammond plant, which draws about 65% of the 7Q10 flow of the upper Coosa River to dissipate waste heat. The water is drawn through once and returned to the river directly from the generator (i.e., no cooling tower is used). Record low flows in 2007 led to use of portable cooling towers to meet temperature limits. Disruption of the Plant Hammond operation may trigger closure of area industrial facilities (e.g. paper mill). The population in Georgia is expected to double from 9 million to 18 million residents in the next 25 years, mostly in the metropolitan Atlanta area. Therefore, there will be an even greater demand for potable water and for waste assimilation. Climate change in the form of persistent droughts (causing low flows) and high ambient temperatures create regulatory compliance challenges for Plant Hammond operating with a once-through cooling system. Therefore, the Upper Coosa River basin was selected to study the effect of potential future weather change on the watershed runoff flow.

Chen, K.

2011-10-24

78

Spatial scale affects bioclimate model projections of climate change impacts on mountain plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species have responded to recent increases in global temperatures by shifting their geographical ranges poleward and to higher altitudes. Bioclimate models project future range contractions of montane species as suitable climate space shifts uphill. The species-climate relationships underlying such models are calibrated using data at either 'macro' scales (coarse resolution, e.g. 50 km ? 50 km, and large spatial

MANDAR R. T RIVEDI; MELA M. B ERRY; M I C H A E L D. M O R E C R O F Tz; TERENCE P. D A W

79

Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent climate change, extremes in meteorological conditions are forecast and observed to increase globally, and to affect vegetation composition. More prolonged dry periods will alternate with more intensive rainfall events, both within and between years, which will change soil moisture dynamics. In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental

2010-01-01

80

Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent climate change, extremes in meteorological conditions are forecast and observed to increase globally, and to affect vegetation composition. More prolonged dry periods will alternate with more intensive rainfall events, both within and between years, which will change soil moisture dynamics. In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental

R. Bartholomeus; J. Witte; P. van Bodegom; J. V. Dam; R. Aerts

2010-01-01

81

Late Ordovician land plant spore 13C fractionation records atmospheric CO2 and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular systematics and spore wall ultrastructure studies indicate that late Ordovician diad and triad fossil spores were likely produced by plants most closely related to liverworts. Here, we report the first ?13C estimates of Ordovician fossil land plant spores, which were obtained using a spooling wire micro-combustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (Sessions et al., 2005, Analytical Chemistry, 77, 6519). The spores all originate from Saudi Arabia on the west of Gondwana and date to before (Cardadoc, ca. 460 Ma), during (443Ma) and after (Llandovery, ca. 440Ma) the Hirnantian glaciation. We use these numbers along with marine carbonate ?13C records to estimate atmospheric CO2 by implementing a theoretical model that captures the strong CO2-dependency of 13C fractionation in non-vascular land plants (Fletcher et al., 2008, Nature Geoscience, 1, 43). Although provisional at this stage, reconstructed CO2 changes are consistent with the Kump et al. (2008) (Paleo. Paleo. Paleo. 152, 173) 'weathering hypothesis' whereby pre-Hirnantian cooling is caused by relatively low CO2 (ca. 700ppm) related to enhanced weathering of young basaltic rocks during the early phase of the Taconic uplift, with background values subsequently rising to around double this value by the earliest Silurian. Further analyses will better constrain atmospheric CO2 change during the late Ordovician climatic perturbation and address controversial hypotheses concerning the causes and timing of the Earth system transition into an icehouse state.

Beerling, D. J.; Nelson, D. M.; Pearson, A.; Wellman, C.

2008-12-01

82

Outchasing climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pygmy possums, monarch butterflies, spoon-billed sandpipers, and a number of trees and other plants could be among the species unable to migrate fast enough to new habitat in the face of potential global climate changes, according to an August 30 report by the Switzerland-based World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the U.S. based Clean-Air-Cool Planet (CACP), two conservation organizations.

Showstack, Randy

83

Climate Change: Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... change is happening now. Learn More What are climate change and global warming? Global warming refers to the ... effects, that occur over several decades or longer. Climate change is happening Our Earth is warming. Earth's average ...

84

Smithsonian climate change exhibits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

Kumar, Mohi

2006-05-01

85

Climate Change and Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A senior researcher discusses extinction due to global warming in this two-minute sound segment. He says that as climate warms, species will probably move upslope and towards the poles but in many cases, that may put species that are found on mountain tops at risk. Species with small ranges or lowland species that may not be able to get to mountain slopes and find equitable climate will die out. His study suggests that as many as one million species of plants and animals worldwide could be facing extinction as a result of climate change. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

2004-07-12

86

Alpine Plant Monitoring for Global Climate Change; Analysis of the Four California GLORIA Target Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research project with the goal to assess climate-change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. Standardized protocols direct selection of each node in the network, called a Target Region (TR), which consists of a set of four geographically proximal mountain summits at elevations extending from treeline to the nival zone. For each summit, GLORIA specifies a rigorous mapping and sampling design for data collection, with re-measurement intervals of five years. Whereas TRs have been installed in six continents, prior to 2004 none was completed in North America. In cooperation with the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT), California Native Plant Society, and the White Mountain Research Station, four TRs have been installed in California: two in the Sierra Nevada and two in the White Mountains. We present comparative results from analyses of baseline data across these four TRs. The number of species occurring in the northern Sierra (Tahoe) TR was 35 (16 not found in other TRs); in the central Sierra (Dunderberg) TR 65 species were found. In the White Mountains, 54 species were found on the granitic/volcanic soils TR and 46 (19 not found in other TRs) on the dolomitic soils TR. In all, we observed 83 species in the Sierra Nevada range TRs and 75 in the White Mountain TRs. Using a mixed model ANOVA of percent cover from summit-area-sections and quadrat data, we found primary differences to be among mountain ranges. Major soil differences (dolomite versus non-dolomite) also contribute to floristic differentiation. Aspect did not seem to contribute significantly to diversity either among or within target regions. Summit floras in each target region comprised groups of two distinct types of species: those with notably broad elevational ranges and those with narrow elevational ranges. The former we propose to be species that retain importance in vegetation structure across elevation and the latter to be more sensitive to climate change. In general, we find common species in the Sierra Nevada to be rare in the White Mountains, that the northern Sierra Nevada TR (Tahoe area) to be distinct in many vegetation features, and that distinct substrate differences in the White Mountains delineate significant species diversities. With four target regions, we document patterns of species composition, distribution, and diversity with respect to elevation, aspect, and geographic distance. This provides new information about summit floras in the White Mountains and Sierra Nevada, and documents baseline conditions against which we will measure response to climate change.

Dennis, A.; Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.

2007-12-01

87

Experimental Investigation of climate change effects on plant available water on rocky desert slopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deserts and semi-deserts cover more than one-third of the global land surface, affecting about 49 million km2 with aridity. In many arid regions, slopes are characterized by sparse and patchy soil and vegetation cover, forming so called 'fertility islands'. The mosaic of soil and vegetation is dynamically interdependent, controlled by adaption of the ecosystem to limited and spatially as well as temporarily variable precipitation. Commonly, the role of the pattern of rocks and soil is considered to act as a natural water harvesting system. In an ideal system, the rocky area supplying water matches the soil's infiltration capacity for the given rainfall magnitude. This approach limits the assessment of plant water supply to the amount and intensity of rainfall events, i.e. the supply of water. In reality, the demand of water by the plants also requires consideration. Therefore, the volume of soil storing water is equally important to the ration of soil to rock. Soil volume determines the absolute amount of water stored in the soil and is thus indicative of the time period during which plants do not experience drought related stress between rainfall events. With climate change likely affecting the temporal pattern of rainfall events, a detailed understanding of soil-water interaction, including the storage capacity of patchy soils on rocky slopes, is required. The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between climate change and plant available water on patchy soils in the Negev desert. Thirteen micro-catchments near Sede Boqer were examined. For each micro-catchment, soil volume and distribution was estimated by laser scanning before and after soil excavation. Porosity was estimated by weighing the excavated soil. Before excavation, sprinkling experiments were conducted. Rainfall of 18mm/h was applied to an area of 1m2 each. The experiments lasted 25 to 40 minutes, until equilibrium runoff rates were achieved. Based on these data, rainfall required for soil saturation and soil water storage was calculated. The results of the sprinkling indicate that the minimum rainfall amount to saturate a median soil patch with water is only 2.5 mm. Such low rainfall event magnitudes have a high frequency in the Negev, indicating that the soil storage space is filled frequently. Consequently, the storage capacity of the soil is of great relevance for plant water supply during periods without rain. Rainfall records for the period of 1976-2008 show a significant variability of the average duration of periods without rainfall during the wet winter season. Depending on the size of a soil patch, serious drought stress can develop, indicating that only an understanding of soil and rainfall interaction enables a full understanding of the impacts of climate change on hillslope ecohydrology. The study also illustrates how rainfall simulation experiments and the analysis of meteorological records can be combined as a tool for the assessment of environmental change.

Kuhn, Nikolaus; Hikel, H.; Schwanghart, W.; Yair, Aaron

2010-05-01

88

Climate Change Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing scientific evidence to suggest that humans are gradually but certainly changing the Earth's climate. In an effort to prevent further damage to the fragile atmosphere, and with the belief that action is required now, the scientific community has been prolific in its dissemination of information on climate change. Inspired by the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Second Assessment Report, Jepma and Munasinghe set out to create a concise, practical and compelling approach to climate change issues. They deftly explain the implications of global warming, and the risks involved in attempting to mitigate climate change. They look at how and where to start action, and what organization is needed to be able to implement the changes. This book represents a much needed synopsis of climate change and its real impacts on society. It will be an essential text for climate change researchers, policy analysts, university students studying the environment, and anyone with an interest in climate change issues.

Jepma, Catrinus J.; Munasinghe, Mohan

1997-11-01

89

Fiddling with climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composer and string musician, turned award-winning environmentalist, Aubrey Meyer tells Nature Climate Change why he is campaigning for countries to adopt his 'contraction and convergence' model of global development to avoid dangerous climate change.

2012-01-01

90

Modeling dynamics of tundra plant communities on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, in response to climate change and grazing pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the responses of the arctic tundra biome to a changing climate requires knowledge of the complex interactions among the climate, soils and biological system. This study investigates the individual and interaction effects of climate change and reindeer grazing across a variety of climate zones and soil texture types on tundra vegetation community dynamics using an arctic vegetation model that incorporates the reindeer diet, where grazing is a function of both foliar nitrogen concentration and reindeer forage preference. We found that grazing is important, in addition to the latitudinal climate gradient, in controlling tundra plant community composition, explaining about 13% of the total variance in model simulations for all arctic tundra subzones. The decrease in biomass of lichen, deciduous shrub and graminoid plant functional types caused by grazing is potentially dampened by climate warming. Moss biomass had a nonlinear response to increased grazing intensity, and such responses were stronger when warming was present. Our results suggest that evergreen shrubs may benefit from increased grazing intensity due to their low palatability, yet a growth rate sensitivity analysis suggests that changes in nutrient uptake rates may result in different shrub responses to grazing pressure. Heavy grazing caused plant communities to shift from shrub tundra toward moss, graminoid-dominated tundra in subzones C and D when evergreen shrub growth rates were decreased in the model. The response of moss, lichen and forbs to warming varied across the different subzones. Initial vegetation responses to climate change during transient warming are different from the long term equilibrium responses due to shifts in the controlling mechanisms (nutrient limitation versus competition) within tundra plant communities.

Yu, Q.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Frost, G. V.; Forbes, B. C.

2011-10-01

91

Global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book places the scientific debate over global climate change into a useful policymaking framework. It presents scientific evidence in support of global warming, and describes the uncertainties surrounding predictions of climate change. Addresses potential regional impacts of global warming. It also discusses state policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change.

Not Available

1990-01-01

92

Effects of climate change on water demand and water availability for power plants - examples for the German capital Berlin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of climate change on water demand and water availability for power plants - examples for the German capital Berlin Stefan Vögelea, Hagen Kochb&c, Uwe Grünewaldb a Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy Research - Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation, D-52425 Jülich, Germany b Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Chair Hydrology and Water Resources Management, P.O. Box. 101 344, D-03013 Cottbus,

Stefan Voegele; Hagen Koch; Uwe Grünewald

2010-01-01

93

Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms  

EPA Science Inventory

A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of sea level rise and climate change on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...

94

USE OF A RURAL-URBAN GRADIENT TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON PLANT PRODUCTIVITY.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments testing the effects of climate change on plant productivity in a natural setting use open top chambers or Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) to elevate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. These experimental facilities are expensive to operate and rarely investigate temperature, an important com...

95

Tidal wetland plant and algal assemblages in Oregon: spatial patterns of composition and vulnerability to climate change  

EPA Science Inventory

Tidal wetlands support important ecosystem functions along the coast of the Pacific Northwest such as primary production and nutrient transformation. Sea-level rise (SLR) and elevated salinity due to climate change may affect the abundance, distribution, and diversity of plants a...

96

Climate Change Collection (CCC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Climate Change Collection (CCC) provides access to high quality, digital materials relating to natural and human induced climate change and variability, including scientific, economic and policy issues of climate change. The collection focuses on background resources and learning activities that communicate the principles that underlie climate change and variability, including the differences and links between weather and climate; the basics of the climate system including the greenhouse effect and energy balance; climatic processes that occur at varying time scales, including orbital cycles and forcing; how scientific research is conducted relative to measuring change and variability; and how human activities, including the combustion of fossil fuels and changes of land cover, impact the climate system. The resources have been reviewed for scientific accuracy and currency, and annotated with comments and suggestions relating to their potential value to Earth system science teachers and their students, particularly at the middle school level.

97

Changing feedbacks in the climate- biosphere system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems influence climate through multiple pathways, primarily by changing the energy, water, and green- house-gas balance of the atmosphere. Consequently, efforts to mitigate climate change through modification of one pathway, as with carbon in the Kyoto Protocol, only partially address the issue of ecosystem-climate interactions. For example, the cooling of climate that results from carbon sequestration by plants may be

F F SSttuuaarrtt; CChhaappiinn IIIIII

98

Climate Change Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing scientific evidence to suggest that humans are gradually but certainly changing the Earth's climate. In an effort to prevent further damage to the fragile atmosphere, and with the belief that action is required now, the scientific community has been prolific in its dissemination of information on climate change. Inspired by the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Second Assessment Report, Jepma and Munasinghe set out to create a concise, practical, and compelling approach to climate change issues. They deftly explain the implications of global warming, and the risks involved in attempting to mitigate climate change. They look at how and where to start action, and what organization is needed to be able to implement the changes. This book represents a much needed synopsis of climate change and its real impacts on society. It will be an essential text for climate change researchers, policy analysts, university students studying the environment, and anyone with an interest in climate change issues. A digestible version of the IPCC 1995 Economics Report - written by two of IPCC contributors with a Foreword by two of the editors of Climate Change 1995: Economics of Climate Change: i.e. has unofficial IPCC approval Focusses on policy and economics - important but of marginal interest to scientists, who are more likely to buy this summary than the full IPCC report itself Has case-studies to get the points across Separate study guide workbook will be available, mode of presentation (Web or book) not yet finalized

Jepma, Catrinus J.; Munasinghe, Mohan; Bolin, Foreword By Bert; Watson, Robert; Bruce, James P.

1998-03-01

99

Increased fitness of rice plants to abiotic stress via habitat adapted symbiosis: A strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands.

Redman, R. S.; Kim, Y. O.; Woodward, C. J. D. A.; Greer, C.; Espino, L.; Doty, S. L.; Rodriguez, R. J.

2011-01-01

100

"Dangerous" Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current climate change mitigation policy decisions must be made despite layers of uncertainty. Modeling of future climate, projections for future economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions, and characterizations of the interactions and feedbacks within the coupled social-natural system all contain uncertain components. Researchers communicating with policymakers have learned that, instead of presenting "best guesses" or other point estimates, uncertainty assignments require such techniques as probability distributions of outcomes and quantitatively defined descriptions of subjective confidence. We present a quantification of "dangerous" climate change, a term important in policy discussions. Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change expresses the opinion of the signing Parties that steps be taken to "prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system," but the Convention did not specify what constitutes the value judgment of being "dangerous." We present one possible definition. A threshold for "dangerous" climate change is a clear tool for evaluating the need for and impact of proposed climate policy. Monte Carlo analyses with a simple integrated assessment model demonstrate that endogenously calculated climate policy controls appreciably reduce the probability of "dangerous" climate change. Under mid-range assumptions, climate policy reduces the probability of "dangerous" climate change by 30-50%.

Mastrandrea, M. D.

2003-12-01

101

Our Changing Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,…

Newhouse, Kay Berglund

2007-01-01

102

Our Changing Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,…

Newhouse, Kay Berglund

2007-01-01

103

Sahel Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workshop on Sahel Climate Change, Columbia University, New York, 19-21 March 2007 The Sahel transition to persistent drought in the early 1970s is an archetypal example of recent abrupt climate change. This workshop assessed the mechanisms for variability at interannual and interdecadal timescales, and discussed mechanisms of future climate change and sources of model disagreement. Participating scientists brought a diverse range of expertise: mesoscale and paleo observationalists; atmospheric dynamicists; dust and vegetation modelers.

Biasutti, Michela; Giannini, Alessandra; Sobel, Adam H.; Held, Isaac M.; Chiang, John C. H.

2007-07-01

104

The climate change caused by the land plant invasion in the Devonian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land plants invaded continents during the Mid-Paleozoic. Their spreading and diversification have been compared to the Cambrian explosion in terms of intensity and impact on the diversification of life on Earth. Whereas prior studies were focused on the evolution of the root system and its weathering contribution, here we used a coupled climate\\/carbon\\/vegetation model to investigate the biophysical impacts of

Guillaume Le Hir; Yannick Donnadieu; Yves Goddéris; Brigitte Meyer-Berthaud; Gilles Ramstein; Ronald C. Blakey

2011-01-01

105

Security and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite it being the most studied and arguably most profound of global environmental change problems, there is relatively little research that explores climate change as a security issue. This paper systematically explores the range of possible connections between climate change and security, including national security considerations, human security concerns, military roles, and a discussion of the widely held assumption that

Jon Barnett; Macmillan Brown

2003-01-01

106

Plant defenses and climate change: doom or destiny for the lodgepole pine?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lodgepole pine is a species of great importance to the forestry industry of British Columbia. However, recent climate-change associated outbreaks of insect pests (i.e. the mountain pine beetle) and diseases (Dothistroma needle blight) have limited productivity of stands throughout its northern range...

107

Potential climate change impacts on tidal wetland plant and algal assemblages in the Pacific Northwest  

EPA Science Inventory

Tidal wetlands along the coast of the Pacific Northwest provide wildlife habitat and support important ecosystem functions such as primary productivity. The future structure and function of these ecosystems may be altered by sea-level rise (SLR) or other climate change effects. W...

108

Communicating Urban Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of climate change. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down climate change. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to climate change requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand climate change and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic climate change. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with climate scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about climate change and its impacts on urban audiences. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about climate change. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused climate education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about climate science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global climate change in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of models for community programming and this session will present early results of these efforts while engaging participants in exploring approaches to connecting urban communities and their local concerns to the issues of global climate change.

Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership

2011-12-01

109

Climate change and children.  

PubMed

Climate change is increasing the burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes worldwide. Acting through increasing temperature, changes in the hydrologic cycle, and sea level rise, climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of heat events and extreme events (floods and droughts), change the geographic range and incidence of climate-sensitive vector-, food-, and waterborne diseases, and increase diseases associated with air pollution and aeroallergens. Children are particularly vulnerable to these health outcomes because of their potentially greater exposures, greater sensitivity to certain exposures, and their dependence on caregivers. PMID:17448357

Ebi, Kristie L; Paulson, Jerome A

2007-04-01

110

Dictionary of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book represents a revision of the climate change lexicon that was prepared for the Second World Climate Conference in 1990. The conference had 1400 participants and consisted of a scientific component followed by a ministerial meeting. To foster communication among the different constituencies, a lexicon of climate and climate change was prepared for the participants. The dictionary includes definitions and descriptions of most of the scientific terms, organizations, and programs related to the physical aspects of climate change. Nearly 40% of the material describes organized projects, experiments, or programs, mostly international. Some information on biological topics, such as the difference between C3 and C4 plants, is also included. The length of definitions and descriptions ranges from one line to one or more pages, with the longer descriptions usually related to programs.

Maunder, W.J. (ed.)

1992-01-01

111

Climate Change in Prehistory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How did humankind deal with the extreme challenges of the last Ice Age? How have the relatively benign post-Ice Age conditions affected the evolution and spread of humanity across the globe? By setting our genetic history in the context of climate change during prehistory, the origin of many features of our modern world are identified and presented in this illuminating book. It reviews the aspects of our physiology and intellectual development that have been influenced by climatic factors, and how features of our lives - diet, language and the domestication of animals - are also the product of the climate in which we evolved. In short: climate change in prehistory has in many ways made us what we are today. Climate Change in Prehistory weaves together studies of the climate with anthropological, archaeological and historical studies, and will fascinate all those interested in the effects of climate on human development and history.

Burroughs, William James

2005-06-01

112

Non-linear feedbacks between climate change, hydrologic partitioning, plant available water, and carbon cycling in montane forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in both temperature and the amount and timing of precipitation have the potential to profoundly impact water balance in mountain ecosystems. Although changes in the amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are widely considered in climate change scenarios, less attention has been given to how changes in climate or land cover may affect hydrologic partitioning and plant available water. The focus of this presentation is on how spatial transitions in ecosystem structure and temporal transitions in climate affect the fraction of precipitation potentially available to vegetation. In most temperate mountain environments winter snows are a significant fraction of annual precipitation and understanding the partitioning of snow and snow melt is critical for predicting both ecosystem water availability and stream flow under future climate scenarios. Spatial variability in net snow water input is a function of the interaction of snowfall, wind, and solar radiation with topography and vegetation structure. Integrated over larger scales these interactions may result in between 0% and 40% sublimation of winter snowfall before melt, effectively excluding this water from growing season water balance. Once melt begins, variability in the partitioning of snowmelt is driven by the rate of melt, and somewhat less intuitively, by the timing of snow accumulation the previous fall. Early accumulating snowpacks insulate soils and minimize soil frost increasing infiltration of melt the following spring. In contrast, later snowfall results in colder soils, more soil frost, reduced infiltration, increased runoff during melt, and reduced plant available water during the following growing season. This change in hydrologic partitioning, mediated by the timing of snowpack accumulation, results in lower evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) the following spring. These findings suggest that abiotic controls on the partitioning of precipitation may exacerbate or attenuate the effects of climate change on mountain water balance.

Brooks, P. D.; Litvak, M. E.; Harpold, A. A.; Molotch, N. P.; McIntosh, J. C.; Troch, P. A.; Zapata, X.

2011-12-01

113

Climate Change and Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human civilisations have for millennia depended on the stability of groundwater resources to survive dry or unreliable climates.\\u000a While groundwater supplies are buffered against short-term effects of climate variability, they can be impacted over longer\\u000a time frames through changes in rainfall, temperature, snowfall, melting of glaciers and permafrost and vegetation and land-use\\u000a changes. Groundwater provides an archive of past climate

Catherine E. Hughes; Dioni I. Cendón; Mathew P. Johansen; Karina T. Meredith

114

Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L. (eds.)

2007-07-01

115

Alleviating climate change Alleviating climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing climate change will require dramatic policy shifts in the fields of energy, livestock production and forest management. The following paper summarises where we are now and what we need to do, with an emphasis on how multilateral organisations like The World Bank can help to address the challenges ahead.

Robert Goodland; Simon Counsell

2008-01-01

116

Learning and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning – i.e. the acquisition of new information that leads to changes in our assessment of uncertainty – plays a prominent role in the international climate policy debate. For example, the view that we should postpone actions until we know more continues to be influential. The latest work on learning and climate change includes new theoretical models, better informed simulations

Brian C. Oneill; Paul Crutzen; Arnulf Grübler; Minh Ha-Duong; Klaus Keller; Charles Kolstad; Jonathan Koomey; Andreas Lange; Michael Obersteiner; Michael Oppenheimer; William Pepper; Warren Sanderson; Michael Schlesinger; Nicolas Treich; Alistair Ulph; Mort Webster; Chris Wilson

2006-01-01

117

Terrestrial Plant Biomarkers Preserved in Cariaco Basin Sediments: Records of Abrupt Tropical Vegetation Response to Rapid Climate Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic-rich sediments from the anoxic Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, preserve high concentrations of biomarkers for reconstruction of terrestrial environmental conditions. Molecular-level investigations of organic compounds provide a valuable tool for extracting terrestrial signals from these annually laminated marine sediments. Differences in hydrogen isotopic fractionation between C16-18 and C24-30 n-alkanoic acids suggest a marine source for the shorter chain lengths and a terrestrial source for the longer chains. Records of carbon and hydrogen isotopes, as well as average carbon chain length (ACL), from long-chain n-alkanoic acids parallel millennial-scale changes in vegetation and climate between the late Glacial and Preboreal periods, 15,000 to 10,000 years ago. Data from all terrestrial chain lengths were combined to produce single ? D and ? 13C indices through deglaciation, exhibiting enrichment during the late Glacial and Younger Dryas and depletion during the Bolling-Allerod and Preboreal periods. ? D reflects the hydrogen isotopic composition of environmental water used for plant growth, combined with evaporative enrichment within leaf spaces, and as such may act as a proxy for local aridity. Leaf wax ? 13C, which is a proxy for C3 versus C4 metabolic pathways, indicates that C3 plants predominated in the Cariaco watershed during warm/wet Bolling-Allerod and Holocene periods, and C4 plant biomass proliferated during cool/dry Glacial and Younger Dryas intervals. Coupled carbon and hydrogen isotopic measurements together clearly distinguish deglacial climatic periods as wetter with C3 vegetation versus drier with C4 vegetation. High resolution biomarker records reveal the rapidity of vegetation changes in northern South America during the last deglaciation. The leaf wax data reveal that local vegetation biomass, although not necessarily entire assemblages, shifted between arid grassland and wetter forest taxa on timescales of decades. Comparison of ACL versus ? 13C for Cariaco Basin and NW African leaf waxes indicate that biomarkers reflect real changes in local South American vegetation and not contamination from long-distance transport during cold windy climates. The precise temporal relationship between tropical vegetation shifts and climate changes is measured by direct comparison of terrestrial vegetation and climate proxies from the same core. Abrupt deglacial climate shifts in tropical and high-latitude North Atlantic regions were synchronous, whereas changes in tropical vegetation consistently lagged climate shifts by several decades.

Hughen, K. A.; Eglinton, T. I.; Makou, M.; Xu, L.; Sylva, S.

2004-12-01

118

Modeling Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding global climate change is challenging, even for adults, yet having an understanding of this topic is consequential for the future. In this activity, middle school students learn about global climate change using models that allow them to make predictions, observations, and then explain mechanisms for climate change. Component ideas include change over time, deep time, and accumulation. Students are asked to act as advisers on how to lower energy use, and refine their understanding of how and why this is important, before testing their ideas and finally revising their advice.

Svihla, Vanessa

119

Physiological and growth responses of arctic plants to a field experiment simulating climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field manipulations of light, temperature, nutrients, and length of growing season in directions simulating global environmental change altered biomass of the four most abundant vascular plant species in tussock tundra of northern Alaska. These species are Betula nana, Ledum palustre, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, and Eriophorum vaginatum. Biomass response reflected changes in both growth and mortality, with growth being stimulated by treatments

F. S. Chapin; G. R. Shaver

1996-01-01

120

What Is Climate Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weather consists of those meteorological events, such as rain, wind and sunshine, which can change day-by-day or even hour-by-hour. Climate is the average of all these events, taken over a period of time. The climate varies over different parts of the world. Climate is usually defined as the average of the weather over a 30-year period. It is when…

Beswick, Adele

2007-01-01

121

Climate Change Education .org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change Education .org is a volunteer organization made up primarily of docents and interns at California science centers and museums, along with students, scientists, and staff at the University of California, Berkeley. The organization specializes in hands-on science demonstrations relevant to climate change and other topics, and the encouragement of partnerships in education. The group's two portal web sites, Climate Change Education .org and Global Warming California .net, direct visitors to hundreds of links to great resources on subjects of interest.

122

Climate Change and California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Climate change represents a significant risk to California as a result of a warming and increasingly variable climate. The signs of a global warming trend continue to become more evident and much of the scientific debate is now focused on expected rates a...

2003-01-01

123

Climate Change Made Simple  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.…

Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

2007-01-01

124

Climate Change: An Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

Lewis, Garry

1995-01-01

125

Climate Processes and Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1997 Kyoto summit on climate change demonstrates the world community's desire to protect future generations from harmful effects induced by the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. On the other hand, the worldwide impacts of the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event serve as a reminder of how natural variability can strongly influence weather. In this book, Bryant provides a bird's-eye view of natural climate change over the last 2 million years, rather than the fish's-eye view of the more recent possible anthropogenic global warming.The key feature that sets this text apart is the perspective of climate change on a larger timescale. The author recognizes that climate is not constant, and that only small perturbations are necessary to shift climate into an extreme state. If this is the case, however, anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing may also produce extreme climate change. Climate Processes and Change also differs from other texts by raising the awareness of uncertainties in historical observations, trends, and the complex and nonlinear relationships between observations and theory.

Jenkins, Gregory S.

126

A change in climate causes rapid evolution of multiple life-history traits and their interactions in an annual plant.  

PubMed

Climate change is likely to spur rapid evolution, potentially altering integrated suites of life-history traits. We examined evolutionary change in multiple life-history traits of the annual plant Brassica rapa collected before and after a recent 5-year drought in southern California. We used a direct approach to examining evolutionary change by comparing ancestors and descendants. Collections were made from two populations varying in average soil moisture levels, and lines propagated from the collected seeds were grown in a greenhouse and experimentally subjected to conditions simulating either drought (short growing season) or high precipitation (long growing season) years. Comparing ancestors and descendants, we found that the drought caused many changes in life-history traits, including a shift to earlier flowering, longer duration of flowering, reduced peak flowering and greater skew of the flowering schedule. Descendants had thinner stems and fewer leaf nodes at the time of flowering than ancestors, indicating that the drought selected for plants that flowered at a smaller size and earlier ontogenetic stage rather than selecting for plants to develop more rapidly. Thus, there was not evidence for absolute developmental constraints to flowering time evolution. Common principal component analyses showed substantial differences in the matrix of trait covariances both between short and long growing season treatments and between populations. Although the covariances matrices were generally similar between ancestors and descendants, there was evidence for complex evolutionary changes in the relationships among the traits, and these changes depended on the population and treatment. These results show that a full appreciation of the impacts of global change on phenotypic evolution will entail an understanding of how changes in climatic conditions affect trait values and the structure of relationships among traits. PMID:18557796

Franks, S J; Weis, A E

2008-06-28

127

Cost of energy analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with respect to CO2 capture ratio under climate change scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of cost of energy (COE) analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with respect to CO2 capture ratio under climate change scenarios. In order to obtain process data for COE analysis, IGCC power plant and IGCC with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) power plant have been simulated and modeled using Aspen Plus, and

Kyungtae Park; Ikhyun Kim; Namjin Jang; Moongoo Jeong; Yukyung Lim; En Sup Yoon

2011-01-01

128

Mitigating Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Navajo Technical College, meet a chemistry professor who explains some of the core concepts connected to climate change: carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and emissions from energy use.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-03-23

129

Climate change and jobs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development expert Barbara Harriss-White leads a team of specialists from agriculture to economics, environmental science and policy to investigate neglected aspects of the climate change response in India.

2012-05-01

130

Climate Change and Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1998-01-01

131

Climate Change and Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1998-01-01

132

Climate Change and Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1997-01-01

133

Climate Change and Arkansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1998-01-01

134

Climate Change and Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1997-01-01

135

Population and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Population and Climate Change provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and climate change. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a way that is comprehensible to members of both communities. The book will be of primary interest to researchers in the fields of climate change, demography, and economics. It will also be useful to policy-makers and NGOs dealing with issues of population dynamics and climate change, and to teachers and students in courses such as environmental studies, demography, climatology, economics, earth systems science, and international relations.

O'Neill, Brian C.; Landis MacKellar, F.; Lutz, Wolfgang

2000-11-01

136

Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

1989-04-01

137

Climate Change 1994  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations Environment Program and the World Meterological Organization set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 to provide an authoritative international consensus of scientific opinion on climate change. This report, prepared by IPCC Working Groups I and II, reviews the latest scientific evidence on the following key topics: radiative forcing of climate change; the latest values of global warming potential (used to compare the potential effect on future climate of different anthropogenic factors); the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere; and an evaluation of scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers in climatology and environmental science, as well as environmental and science policy, will benefit from this book.

Houghton, John T.; Meira Filho, L. G.; Bruce, James P.; Lee, Hoesung; Callander, Bruce A.; Haites, E. F.

1995-06-01

138

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IMPACT ON CANOLA CULTURAL PLANT GROWING IN TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative effect of climate conditions affecting many sectors ahead being agriculture on agricultural activities is felt in our country as well where global climate change is experienced. This situation needs breeding of alternative plants stronger than other products against to climate conditions, having multiple usage areas. By this aim; relation between special climate conditions of canola plant and climate conditions

Beyza KAYMAZ

139

Avoiding dangerous climate change  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

2006-02-15

140

Poverty and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The poor are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental change because they have the least amount of resources with which to adapt, and they live in areas (e.g. flood plains, low-lying coastal areas, and marginal drylands) that are particularly vulnerable to the manifestations of climate change. By quantifying the various environmental, economic, and social factors that can contribute to poverty, we identify populations that are most vulnerable to poverty and poverty traps due to environmental change. We define vulnerability as consisting of risk (probability of event and exposed elements), resiliency, and capacity to respond. Resiliency captures the social system's ability to absorb a natural disaster while retaining the same basic structure, organization, and ways of functioning, as well as its general capacity to adapt to stress and change. Capacity to respond is a surrogate for technical skills, institutional capabilities, and efficacy within countries and their economies. We use a "climate change multiplier" to account for possible increases in the frequency and severity of natural events due to climate change. Through various analytical methods, we quantify the social, political, economic, and environmental factors that contribute to poverty or poverty traps. These data sets are then used to determine vulnerability through raster multiplication in geospatial analysis. The vulnerability of a particular location to climate change is then mapped, with areas of high vulnerability clearly delineated. The success of this methodology indicates that it is indeed possible to quantify the effects of climate change on global vulnerability to natural disasters, and can be used as a mechanism to identify areas where proactive measures, such as improving adaptation or capacity to respond, can reduce the humanitarian and economic impacts of climate change.

van der Vink, G.; Franco, E.; Fuckar, N. S.; Kalmbach, E. R.; Kayatta, E.; Lankester, K.; Rothschild, R. E.; Sarma, A.; Wall, M. L.

2008-05-01

141

Poverty and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental change because they have the least amount of resources with which to adapt, and they live in areas (e.g. flood plains, low-lying coastal areas, and marginal drylands) that are particularly vulnerable to the manifestations of climate change. By quantifying the various environmental, economic, and social factors that can contribute to poverty, we identify

G. van der Vink; E. Franco; N. S. Fuckar; E. R. Kalmbach; E. Kayatta; K. Lankester; R. E. Rothschild; A. Sarma; M. L. Wall

2008-01-01

142

Adaptation to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Even if significant reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions are achieved, some amount of climate change appears to be inevitable. Local, regional, state, and federal planning and regulation should begin to address how to adapt to these changes.Purpose: This article presents a policy synthesis of adaptation planning issues, using California as a case study. We examine the institutional and

Louise W. Bedsworth; Ellen Hanak

2010-01-01

143

Solar Influence: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video, the sixth in the National Academies Climate Change, Lines of Evidence series, explores the hypothesis that changes in solar energy output may be responsible for observed global surface temperature rise. Several lines of evidence, such as direct satellite observations, are reviewed.

Council, National R.; Academies, The N.

144

Climate change and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change, although a natural phenomenon, is accelerated by human activities. Disaster policy response to climate change is dependent on a number of factors, such as readiness to accept the reality of climate change, institutions and capacity, as well as willingness to embed climate change risk assessment and management in development strategies. These conditions do not yet exist universally. A

Geoff O'Brien; Phil O'Keefe; Joanne Rose; Ben Wisner

2006-01-01

145

Coping with climate change  

SciTech Connect

The Second North American Conference on Preparing for Climate Change may be the most ambitious assemblage of experts ever to assess impact and response strategies to the twin challenges of greenhouse warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Presentations were made by over 160 scientists, environmental leaders and policy makers from the Western Hemisphere, Europe and Asia in 38 sessions over a three day period. Chapters in this volume correspond to the seven regional panels of the Second North American Conference, with discussions of implications of climate changes for the Caribbean, the Arctic, California, the Southern United States, the Chesapeake Bay, Atlantic Canada and New England, and the Great Lakes. This book also contains a policy overview of the climate challenge with contributions from US, Canadian, British and Caribbean governmental and corporate leaders. A chapter devoted to a scientific overview of climate change includes a skillful overview of the key scientific and policy issues involved in greenhouse warming, a seminal article on regional implications of climate change and the potential impacts of global warming on droughts and floods, and a panel discussion involving four of the world's leading stratospheric scientists. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

Topping, J.C. Jr. (ed.)

1989-06-01

146

Northern Hemisphere Plant Disjunctions: A Window on Tertiary Land Bridges and Climate Change?  

PubMed Central

• Aims This botanical briefing examines how molecular systematics has contributed to progress in understanding the history of Tertiary relict genera, i.e. those that that now occur disjunctly in parts of Eurasia and N America, and how progress in understanding Southern Hemisphere biogeography paradoxically makes unravelling Northern Hemisphere biogeography more complex. • Scope Tertiary relict floras comprise genera of warm wet climates that were once circumboreal in distribution but are now confined to E Asia, south-eastern and western N America, and SW Eurasia. The intercontinental disjunctions among these genera have long been believed to result from land connections between Eurasia and N America, across Beringia and the N Atlantic. This view is reassessed in the light of new evidence for long dispersal of propagules across oceans being responsible for many plant disjunctions involving southern continents. The impact of molecular dating, which has been very different in Southern and Northern Hemisphere biogeography, is discussed. • Conclusions For N America–Eurasia disjunctions involving Tertiary relict floras, land connections remain the more likely cause of disjunctions but data from fossils or infraspecific variation will be required to exclude long-dispersal explanations for disjunctions in any individual genus. Molecular dating of divergence between disjunctly distributed Tertiary relict floras can tell us which palaeoclimatic or palaeogeographic events impacted on them, and how, but only if migration over land and vicariance can be proved and molecular dating is sufficiently accurate.

IAN MILNE, RICHARD

2006-01-01

147

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global Climate Change is one of the Exploring the Environment series of online modules. Emphasizing an integrated approach to environmental earth science through problem-based learning, this module asks students to predict how increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide is changing the climate, and the possible effects this may have on Kansas wheat crops. Students access remote sensing data via links to both current and historical data and work through a sequence of hyperlinked background resources to investigate this problem. The site also offers a glossary, teacher resources, and a general description of the problem-based learning model.

2000-01-01

148

Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to CO{sub 2} and climate change. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Objectives can be divided into those for plant modeling and those for ecosystem modeling and experimental work in support of both. The author worked in a variety of ecosystem types, including pine, arctic, desert, and grasslands. Plant modeling objectives are: (1) to construct generic models of leaf, canopy, and whole-plant response to elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (2) to validate predictions of whole-plant response against various field studies of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (3) to use these models to test specific hypotheses and to make predictions about primary, secondary and tertiary effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on individual plants for conditions and time frames beyond those used to calibrate the model; and (4) to provide information to higher-level models, such as community models and ecosystem models. Ecosystem level modeling objectives are: (1) to incorporate models of plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2} into a generic ecosystem model in order to predict the direct and indirect effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on ecosystems; (2) to validate model predictions of total system-level response (including decomposition) against various ecosystem field studies of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (3) to use the ecosystem model to test specific hypotheses and to make predictions about primary, secondary and tertiary effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on ecosystems for conditions and time frames beyond those used to calibrate the model; and (4) to use the ecosystem model to study effects of change in CO{sub 2} and climate at regional and global scales. Occasionally the author conducted some experimental work that was deemed important to the development of the models. This work was mainly physiological work that could be performed in the Duke University Phytotron, using existing facilities.

Reynolds, J.F.

1998-04-10

149

Plant sexual reproduction during climate change: gene function in natura studied by ecological and evolutionary systems biology  

PubMed Central

Background It is essential to understand and predict the effects of changing environments on plants. This review focuses on the sexual reproduction of plants, as previous studies have suggested that this trait is particularly vulnerable to climate change, and because a number of ecologically and evolutionarily relevant genes have been identified. Scope It is proposed that studying gene functions in naturally fluctuating conditions, or gene functions in natura, is important to predict responses to changing environments. First, we discuss flowering time, an extensively studied example of phenotypic plasticity. The quantitative approaches of ecological and evolutionary systems biology have been used to analyse the expression of a key flowering gene, FLC, of Arabidopsis halleri in naturally fluctuating environments. Modelling showed that FLC acts as a quantitative tracer of the temperature over the preceding 6 weeks. The predictions of this model were verified experimentally, confirming its applicability to future climate changes. Second, the evolution of self-compatibility as exemplifying an evolutionary response is discussed. Evolutionary genomic and functional analyses have indicated that A. thaliana became self-compatible via a loss-of-function mutation in the male specificity gene, SCR/SP11. Self-compatibility evolved during glacial–interglacial cycles, suggesting its association with mate limitation during migration. Although the evolution of self-compatibility may confer short-term advantages, it is predicted to increase the risk of extinction in the long term because loss-of-function mutations are virtually irreversible. Conclusions Recent studies of FLC and SCR have identified gene functions in natura that are unlikely to be found in laboratory experiments. The significance of epigenetic changes and the study of non-model species with next-generation DNA sequencers is also discussed.

Shimizu, Kentaro K.; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masaki J.

2011-01-01

150

EVOLUTIONARY RESPONSES TO CHANGING CLIMATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until now, Quaternary paleoecologists have regarded evolution as a slow process relative to climate change, predicting that the primary biotic response to changing climate is not adaptation, but instead (1) persistence in situ if changing climate remains within the species' tolerance limits, (2) range shifts (migration) to regions where climate is currently within the species' tolerance limits, or (3) extinction.

Margaret B. Davis; Ruth G. Shaw; Julie R. Etterson

2005-01-01

151

On predicting climate under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can today’s global climate model ensembles characterize the 21st century climate in their own ‘model-worlds’? This question is at the heart of how we design and interpret climate model experiments for both science and policy support. Using a low-dimensional nonlinear system that exhibits behaviour similar to that of the atmosphere and ocean, we explore the implications of ensemble size and two methods of constructing climatic distributions, for the quantification of a model’s climate. Small ensembles are shown to be misleading in non-stationary conditions analogous to externally forced climate change, and sometimes also in stationary conditions which reflect the case of an unforced climate. These results show that ensembles of several hundred members may be required to characterize a model’s climate and inform robust statements about the relative roles of different sources of climate prediction uncertainty.

Daron, Joseph D.; Stainforth, David A.

2013-09-01

152

Extinction and climate change.  

PubMed

Arising from F. He & S. P. Hubbell 473, 368-371 (2011). Statistical relationships between habitat area and the number of species observed (species-area relationships, SARs) are sometimes used to assess extinction risks following habitat destruction or loss of climatic suitability. He and Hubbell argue that the numbers of species confined to-rather than observed in-different areas (endemics-area relationships, EARs) should be used instead of SARs, and that SAR-based extinction estimates in the literature are too high. We suggest that He and Hubbell's SAR estimates are biased, that the empirical data they use are not appropriate to calculate extinction risks, and that their statements about extinction risks from climate change do not take into account non-SAR-based estimates or recent observations. Species have already responded to climate change in a manner consistent with high future extinction risks. PMID:22358847

Thomas, Chris D; Williamson, Mark

2012-02-22

153

Climate for Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume provides a challenging explanation of the forces that have shaped the international global warming debate. It takes a novel approach to the subject by concentrating on the ways non-state actors--such as scientific, environmental and industry groups, as opposed to governmental organizations--affect political outcomes in global fora on climate change. It also provides insights into the role of the media in influencing the agenda. The book draws on a range of analytical approaches to assess and explain the influence of these nongovernmental organizations on the course of global climate politics. The book will be of interest to all researchers and policy makers associated with climate change, and will be used in university courses in international relations, politics, and environmental studies.

Newell, Peter

2000-09-01

154

Addressing climate change in the forest vegetation simulator to ...  

Treesearch

US Forest Service ... Description: To simulate stand-level impacts of climate change, predictors in the widely used ... While additional work is needed on fundamental plant-climate relationships, this work incorporates climatic effects into FVS to ...

155

Climate change and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is already widespread change in the natural calendars (phenology) of plants and animals, as well as change in some species distributions. Now threshold change (sudden, fundamental change) in ecosystems is beginning to be observed in nature. At minimum, the natural world will experience an equal amount of warming to that which has already taken place. This all suggests

T. Lovejoy

2008-01-01

156

Changing climate, changing forests: The impacts of climate change ...  

Treesearch

Description: Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect effects ... over the past 100 years and that there are more extreme precipitation events. ... northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS -99.

157

Addressing the climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

While calls are being made to deal with the linkages between climate change and sustainable development to arrive at an integrated policy, concrete steps in this direction have been very limited so far. One of the possible instruments through which both issues may be approached simultaneously is a multi-stakeholder partnership, a form of governance with the potential to address existing

Jonatan Pinkse; Ans Kolk

2012-01-01

158

Communicating Climate Change (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

I will discuss the various challenges scientists must confront in efforts to communicate the science and implications of climate change to the public. Among these challenges is the stiff headwind we must fight of a concerted disinformation effort designed to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding of the problem and the reality of the underlying societal

M. E. Mann

2009-01-01

159

Dating martian climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological evidence indicates that low-latitude polygonally-patterned grounds on Mars, generally thought to be the product of flood volcanism, are periglacial in nature and record a complex signal of changing climate. By studying the martian surface stratigraphically (in terms of the geometrical relations between surface landforms and the substrate) rather than genetically (by form analogy with Earth), we have identified dynamic

David P. Page; Matthew R. Balme; Monica M. Grady

2009-01-01

160

Wetlands and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This instructional guide is designed to provide instructors with lecture materials and resources that examine the relationship between wetlands and global climate change. Student objectives, a general lecture outline and a more detailed PowerPoint presentation with instructor notes are provided. The role of wetlands in global carbon budgets and as sources and sinks of greenhouse gases is discussed. Anticipated impacts of climate change on both coastal and inland wetlands are also presented.Instructors who are looking for videos or additional print and web-based resources on the topics covered here should consult the resources list provided at the end of this module where these resources are summarized and cited.Upon successful completion of this module students should be able to:* Describe the importance of wetlands as sources and sinks of greenhouse gases* Describe the impacts of wetlands on global climate change* Describe the impacts of global climate change on both coastal and inland wetlands* Describe how carbon trading has been applied to wetlands

Cudmore, Wynn

2011-09-20

161

Secular Changes of Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR some time past it has been generally believed that the climate of Central Asia was once less arid than at present, but we now know, as Dr. Sven Hedin explained to the Royal Geographical Society on December 8 (p. 134), that important changes have taken place since the Christian era began. He found in the Lob Nor region forests

T. G. Bonney

1902-01-01

162

Confronting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage…

Roach, Ronald

2009-01-01

163

Biological Effects of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How important is climate change--something that has occurred throughout Earth's history? Can ecosystems tolerate the magnitude and rate of future change? How will other conservation threats interact with climate change? How likely are widespread extinction

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee Jr., Richard E.

2008-10-01

164

Dating martian climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological evidence indicates that low-latitude polygonally-patterned grounds on Mars, generally thought to be the product of flood volcanism, are periglacial in nature and record a complex signal of changing climate. By studying the martian surface stratigraphically (in terms of the geometrical relations between surface landforms and the substrate) rather than genetically (by form analogy with Earth), we have identified dynamic surfaces across one-fifth of martian longitude. New stratigraphical observations in the Elysium-Amazonis plains have revealed a progressive surface polygonisation that is destructive of impact craters across the region. This activity is comparable to the climatically-driven degradation of periglacial landscapes on Earth, but because it affects impact craters—the martian chronometer—it can be dated. Here, we show that it is possible to directly date this activity based on the fraction of impact craters affected by polygon formation. Nearly 100% of craters (of all diameters) are superposed by polygonal sculpture: considering the few-100 Ma age of the substrate, this suggests that the process of polygon formation was active within the last few million years. Surface polygonisation in this region, often considered to be one of the signs of young, 'plains-forming' volcanism on Mars, is instead shown to postdate the majority of impact craters seen. We therefore conclude that it is post-depositional in origin and an artefact of thermal cycling of near-surface ground ice. Stratigraphically-controlled crater counts present the first way of dating climate change on a planet other than Earth: a record that may tell us something about climate change on our own planet. Parallel climate change on these two worlds—an ice age Mars coincident with Earth's glacial Quaternary period—might suggest a coupled system linking both. We have previously been unable to generalise about the causes of long-term climate change based on a single terrestrial example—with the beginnings of a chronology for climate change on our nearest planetary neighbour, we can.

Page, David P.; Balme, Matthew R.; Grady, Monica M.

2009-10-01

165

Changing climate, changing democracy: a cautionary tale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has come to hold a central position within many policy arenas. However, a particular framing of climate change and climate science, underpinned by modernist assumptions, dominates policy discourse. This leads to restricted policy responses reflecting particular interests and socio-political imaginaries. There is little public debate concerning this framing or the assumptions underpinning approaches to climate policy. The implications

Mhairi Aitken

2012-01-01

166

Weather, Climate, Climate Change and Actions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This e-book contains the basics of weather and climate, climate change, and basic actions one can do to combat climate change. Included are embedded videos, slideshows, readings, and graphics. Discussion questions follow each section or chapter. This resource allows one to learn and/or use in a variety of ways integrating online resources that extend the learning, specifically flash animations, online labs, videos, curriculum, and readings. An iPad version is also available.

2012-01-01

167

Dialogue on Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a summary of a 2 day seminar on the topic "Dialogue on Global Climate Change." The sessions on October 1 included a scientific overview of global climate change, a discussion on religious perspectives on global climate change, and consideration of impacts and equity. The sessions on October 2 focused on policy considerations and the Kyoto Convention on Climate Change. Panelists discussed economic challenges in responding to climate change, reviewed the Kyoto convention and its political prospects, and examined the roles of science, religion, values, and economics in crafting public policy on climate change.

;

2007-06-28

168

Projections of Future Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Contents: Executive Summary 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Climate and Climate Change 9.3 Projections of Climate Change 9.4 General Summary Appendix 9.1: Tuning of a Simple Climate Model toAOGCM Results References

Cubasch, U.; Meehl , G.; Boer, G. J.; Stouffer, Ron; Dix, M.; Noda, A.; Senior, C. A.; Raper, S.; Yap, K. S.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Brinkop, S.; Claussen, M.; Collins, M.; Evans, J.; Fischer-Bruns, I.; Flato, G.; Fyfe, J. C.; Ganopolski, A.; Gregory, J. M.; Hu, Z. Z.; Joos, Fortunat; Knutson, T.; Knutti, R.; Landsea, C.; Mearns, L. O.; Milly, C.; Mitchell, J. F.; Nozawa, T.; Paeth, H.; Raisanen, J.; Sausen, R.; Smith, Steven J.; Stocker, T.; Timmermann, A.; Ulbrich, U.; Weaver, A.; Wegner, J.; Whetton, P.; Wigley, T. M.; Winton, M.; Zwiers, F.; Kim, J. W.; Stone, J.

2001-10-01

169

Climate Change: A Controlled Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Researchers are altering temperature, carbon dioxide and precipitation levels across plots of forests, grasses and crops to see how plant life responds. Warmer temperatures and higher CO{sub 2} concentrations generally result in more leaf growth or crop yield, but these factors can also raise insect infestation and weaken plants ability to ward off pests and disease. Future field experiments that can manipulate all three conditions at once will lead to better models of how long-term climate changes will affect ecosystems worldwide.

Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Strahl, Maya [ORNL

2010-01-01

170

Learn About Colorado's Changing Climate: Climate Change and Colorado's Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of teacher-developed and teacher-tested model lessons are designed to engage students in the science of climate change. All topics are linked to one or more of five Learn More About Climate videos, which localize climate change by pairing interviews with leading climate scientists with everyday Coloradans who explain how climate change is affecting Colorado communities. Each lesson outlines the essential principles, learning objectives and Colorado State Science Standards addressed and is accompanied by a variety of classroom materials that can be adapted for learners in grades 5-12. Suggestions for potential extensions and links to additional climate change curricula and other classroom resources are also provided.

171

Teaching Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science of climate change often gets lost behind the political debate. It presents those of us who teach physical science both the responsibility and the opportunity to teach both the science and, as importantly, the process of science to our students and the general public. Part of the problem is that the science - reconstruction of past climate through the use of proxy sources, such as isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen - is complex, making teaching it to science-averse students and general audiences even more challenging. Also, in our times when every action and statement is suspected of having a political motivation, teaching the process of science - data gathering and analysis, hypothesis testing and peer review - as our way of keeping science as truthful as possible so that the conclusions are more than just another opinion presents as great a challenge as teaching the science itself. I have been teaching a course in Global Climate since 2000, have taught elderhostel courses twice, and have given many public talks on this topic. Thus I have experience in this area to share with others. I would also like to learn of others' approaches to the vast amount of scientific information and getting past the politics. A special interest group on climate change will allow those of us to teach this important topic to share how we approach both the science and the politics of this issue.

O'Donoghue, A.

2011-09-01

172

Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, irreversible changes in climate may have a major effect on the economies of the world. The social costs of climate change will vary dramatically from country to country. This landmark assessment from Working Group III of the IPCC addresses the costs of climate change, both in terms of society and equity issues, and the economic burden of combating adverse

James P. Bruce; Hoesung Lee; Erik F. Haites

1996-01-01

173

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the

Pamela K. Anderson; Andrew A. Cunningham; Nikkita G. Patel; Francisco J. Morales; Paul R. Epstein; Peter Daszak

2004-01-01

174

Climate Change and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how global climate change affects human health in this interactive activity adapted from A Human Health Perspective: On Climate Change by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-07-01

175

Climate change, environment and allergy.  

PubMed

Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

2012-03-13

176

Impact of global climate change on ecosystem-level interactions among sympatric plants from all three photosynthetic pathways. Terminal report  

SciTech Connect

The proposed research will determine biochemical and physiological responses to variations in environmental factors for plants of all three photosynthetic pathways under competitive situations in the field. These responses will be used to predict the effects of global climatic change on an ecosystem in the northwestern Sonoran Desert where the C{sub 3} subshrub Encelia farinosa, the C{sub 4} bunchgrass Hilaria rigida, and the CAM succulent Agave deserti are co-dominants. These perennials are relatively short with overlapping shallow roots facilitating the experimental measurements as well as leading to competition for soil water. Net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods measured in the laboratory will be analyzed using an environmental productivity index (EPI) that can incorporate simultaneous effects of soil water, air temperature, and light. Based on EPI, net CO{sub 2} uptake and hence plant productivity will be predicted for the three species in the field under various treatments. Activity of the two CO{sub 2} fixation enzymes, Rubisco and PEPCase, will be determined for these various environmental conditions; also, partitioning of carbon to various organs will be measured based on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} labeling and dry weight analysis. Thus, enzymatic and partitioning controls on competition among sympatric model plants representing all three photosynthetic pathways will be investigated.

Nobel, P.S.

1997-12-17

177

Implications of abrupt climate change.  

PubMed Central

Records of past climates contained in ice cores, ocean sediments, and other archives show that large, abrupt, widespread climate changes have occurred repeatedly in the past. These changes were especially prominent during the cooling into and warming out of the last ice age, but persisted into the modern warm interval. Changes have especially affected water availability in warm regions and temperature in cold regions, but have affected almost all climatic variables across much or all of the Earth. Impacts of climate changes are smaller if the changes are slower or more-expected. The rapidity of abrupt climate changes, together with the difficulty of predicting such changes, means that impacts on the health of humans, economies and ecosystems will be larger if abrupt climate changes occur. Most projections of future climate include only gradual changes, whereas paleoclimatic data plus models indicate that abrupt changes remain possible; thus, policy is being made based on a view of the future that may be optimistic.

Alley, Richard B.

2004-01-01

178

Climate change hastens population extinctions  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to alter the distribution and abundance of many species. Predictions of climate-induced population extinctions are supported by geographic range shifts that correspond to climatic warming, but few extinctions have been linked mechanistically to climate change. Here we show that extinctions of two populations of a checkerspot butterfly were hastened by increasing variability in precipitation, a phenomenon predicted by global climate models. We model checkerspot populations to show that changes in precipitation amplified population fluctuations, leading to rapid extinctions. As populations of checkerspots and other species become further isolated by habitat loss, climate change is likely to cause more extinctions, threatening both species diversity and critical ecosystem services.

McLaughlin, John F.; Hellmann, Jessica J.; Boggs, Carol L.; Ehrlich, Paul R.

2002-01-01

179

Activities for Conceptualizing Climate and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is a digitally-based instructional program that contains data-rich case studies and visualization activities, as well as a visual library as a resource for teachers and students. A series of activities is organized to move scientifically from climate, to climate variability, to climate change. The site contains free teacher lesson plans, powerpoints, student activities, a summary of research on student conceptions and a curricular framework/philosopy document.

180

CLIMATE CHANGE: A POLITICAL INTRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syllabus Summary Climate change has now grown from a scientific concern to one of the most pressing issues of our time. This seminar aims to look at the topic from a political viewpoint, and analyze the different mechanisms of cooperation in the fight against climate change. The first part provides an appraisal of climate change as a political issue: it

François Gemenne

181

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the anthropogenic introduction of parasites, although severe weather events are also important drivers of disease emergence. Much is known about crop plant EIDs, but there is little information about wild-plant EIDs, suggesting that their impact on conservation is underestimated. We conclude with recommendations for improving strategies for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. PMID:16701319

Anderson, Pamela K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Patel, Nikkita G; Morales, Francisco J; Epstein, Paul R; Daszak, Peter

2004-10-01

182

Understanding recent climate change.  

PubMed

The Earth's atmosphere has a natural greenhouse effect, without which the global mean surface temperature would be about 33 degrees C lower and life would not be possible. Human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases in trace amounts. This has enhanced the greenhouse effect, resulting in surface warming. Were it not for the partly offsetting effects of increased aerosol concentrations, the increase in global mean surface temperature over the past 100 years would be larger than observed. Continued surface warming through the 21st century is inevitable and will likely have widespread ecological impacts. The magnitude and rate of warming for the global average will be largely dictated by the strength and direction of climate feedbacks, thermal inertia of the oceans, the rate of greenhouse gas emissions, and aerosol concentrations. Because of regional expressions of climate feedbacks, changes in atmospheric circulation, and a suite of other factors, the magnitude and rate of warming and changes in other key climate elements, such as precipitation, will not be uniform across the planet. For example, due to loss of its floating sea-ice cover, the Arctic will warm the most. PMID:20121837

Serreze, Mark C

2010-02-01

183

Free Podcasts on Climate and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In partnership with the National Science Digital Library and Apple, NCAR and UCAR offer podcasts that provide a brief and accessible overview on climate and climate change. These podcasts, short 5-8 minute videos you can download on your computer or iPod, are a part of the NSDL on iTunes U collection.

Payo, Robert

184

Climate change threatens endangered plant species by stronger and interacting water-related stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric CO2-concentration, temperature and rainfall variability are all expected to increase in the near future. The resulting increased dynamics of soil moisture contents, together with increased plant physiological demands for both oxygen and water, will lead to an increased occurrence of wet and dry extremes of plant stresses, i.e. of oxygen and drought stress, respectively, alone and in interaction. The

R. P. Bartholomeus; J. P. M. Witte; Bodegom van P. M; Dam van J. C; R. Aerts

2011-01-01

185

Climatic change on Mars.  

PubMed

The equatorial sinuous channels on Mars detected by Mariner 9 point to a past epoch of higher pressures and abundant liquid water. Advective instability of the martian atmosphere permits two stable climates-one close to present conditions, the other at a pressure of the order of 1 bar depending on the quantity of buried volatiles. Variations in the obliquity of Mars, the luminosity of the sun, and the albedo of the polar caps each appear capable of driving the instability between a current ice age and more clement conditions. Obliquity driving alone implies that epochs of much higher and of much lower pressure must have characterized martian history. Climatic change on Mars may have important meteorological, geological, and biological implications. PMID:17731265

Sagan, C; Toon, O B; Gierasch, P J

1973-09-14

186

World Bank Group: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the World Bank's Environment Department, the Climate Change team "provides resources and expertise for the World Bank's participation in international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and provides technical advice to the World Bank's Global Environment Facility Program." Understandably, the site contains a brief explication of the key themes surrounding contemporary concerns about climate change, along with offering a detailed discussion of the various programs and research projects with which the Climate Change group is engaged directly or in tandem with other related organizations and institutions. From the main page, visitors can read about the nature of international climate change (and its disproportionate effects on the developing world), peruse a list of relevant online publications, and read press releases from the Climate Change team.

187

Climate Change: Prospects for Nature  

ScienceCinema

Thomas Lovejoy, President of The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, explores the impact of climate change on the natural world. He also discusses the implications of climate change for climate policy and natural resource management.

188

Human Engineering and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate change is arguably one of the biggest problems that confront us today. There is ample evidence that climate change is likely to affect adversely many aspects of life for all people around the world, and that existing solutions such as geoengineering might be too risky and ordinary behavioural and market solutions might not be sufficient to mitigate climate

S. Matthew Liao; Anders Sandberg; Rebecca Roache

2012-01-01

189

Modelling Agricultural Production Risk and the Adaptation to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model that integrates biophysical simulations in an economic model is used to analyze the impact of climate change on crop production. The biophysical model simulates future plant-management-climate relationships and the economic model simulates farmers’ adaptation actions to climate change using a nonlinear programming approach. Beyond the development of average yields, special attention is devoted to the impact of climate

Robert Finger; Stéphanie Schmid

2007-01-01

190

Modeling agricultural production risk and the adaptation to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model that integrates biophysical simulations in an economic model is used to analyze the impact of climate change on crop production. The biophysical model simulates future plant-management-climate relationships and the economic model simulates farmers' adaptation actions to climate change using a nonlinear programming approach. Beyond the development of average yields, special attention is devoted to the impact of climate

Robert Finger; Stephanie Schmid

2007-01-01

191

Scenarios of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of current and prospected climate changes, their causes and implied threats, and of a possible route to keep the changes within a tolerable level. The global mean temperature has up to 2005 risen by almost 0.8°C, and the change expected by 2100 is as large as glacial-interglacial changes in the past, which were commonly spread out over 10000 years. As is well known, the principle actor is man-made CO2, which, together with other anthropogenic gases, enhances the atmosphere’s greenhouse effect. The only man-made cooling agent appears to be atmospheric aerosols. Atmospheric CO2 has now reached levels unprecedented during the past several million years. Principal threats are a greatly reduced biodiversity (species extinction), changes in the atmospheric precipitation pattern, more frequent weather extremes, and not the least, sea level rise. The expected precipitation pattern will enhance water scarcity in and around regions that suffer from water shortage already, affecting many countries. Sea level rise will act on a longer time scale. It is expected to amount to more than 50 cm by 2100, and over the coming centuries the potential rise is of the order of 10 m. A global-mean temperature increase of 2°C is often quoted as a safe limit, beyond which irreversible effects must be expected. To achieve that limit, a major, rapid, and coordinated international effort will be needed. Up to the year 2050, the man-made CO2 releases must be reduced by at least 50%. This must be accompanied by a complete overhaul of the global energy supply toward depending increasingly on the Sun’s supply of energy, both directly and in converted form, such as wind energy. Much of the information and insight available today has been generated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in particular its Fourth Assessment Report of 2007, which greatly advanced both public attention and political action.

Graßl, H.

2009-09-01

192

Is planting forests bad for the climate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planting forests is one of few readily available and proven approaches to mitigating climate change through the sequestering of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). In order to avoid a doubling in the concentration of atmospheric CO2 from preindustrial values by mid-century will require a multitude of technologies and approaches - carbon sequestration through forest planting being one of the more practical

P. K. Snyder; M. Williams

2010-01-01

193

Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

1990-01-01

194

PETM: Unearthing Ancient Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, a team of paleontologists, paleobotanists, soil scientists, and other researchers take to the field in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin to document how the climate, plants, and animals there changed during the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) when a sudden, enormous influx of carbon flooded the ocean and atmosphere for reasons that are still unclear to scientists. The PTEM is used as an analog to the current warming occurring. The scientists' research may help inform our understanding of current increases in carbon in the atmosphere and ocean and the resulting impact on ecosystems. Supporting materials include essay and interactive overview of animals that existed in the Basin after the PETM event.

History, American M.

195

Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plan for Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program for global monitoring of man's inadvertent modification of weather and climate. The interrelated activities, several of which sho...

1971-01-01

196

Climate Change: Assessing Our Actions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The power sector is a major source of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that threaten the stability of the global climate system. OPIC understands the serious implications of GHG emissions and climate change and was the first bilateral fina...

2000-01-01

197

Uncertainty in Climate Change Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn why trout are important indicators in Wisconsin’s changing climate, and why the uncertainty of global climate models complicates predictions about their survival, in this video produced by the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board.

Ecb, Wisconsin

2010-11-30

198

Ecosystem Carbon Stock Influenced by Plantation Practice: Implications for Planting Forests as a Measure of Climate Change Mitigation  

PubMed Central

Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha?1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age (<25 years vs. ?25 years), stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen), tree species origin (native vs. exotic) of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

Liao, Chengzhang; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Li, Bo

2010-01-01

199

Holocene vegetational history and climatic change in west Spitsbergen - plant macrofossils from Skardtjørna, an Arctic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrofossil analyses of a 335 cm-long core from Skardtjørna, a small lake on the west coast of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, are presented. The known processes of deposition of plant remains to arctic lake sediments are summarised, and used in the interpretation of the vegetation history at Skardtjørna. The basal sediment is AMS-dated to 8110 ± 110 BP. The rest of the

Hilary H. Birks

1991-01-01

200

Plant-soil feedbacks and the reversal of desertification with climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to provide a conceptual framework for perennial grass recovery in a series of wet years, which includes both plant-soil feedbacks that increase available water to grasses and effects of precipitation on a sequence of recovery-related processes. We tested hypotheses based on this fr...

201

Teaching Climate Change Through Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2006, Peter Weiss aka "The Singing Scientist" performed many music assemblies for elementary schools (K-5) in Santa Cruz County, California, USA. These assemblies were an opportunity for him to mix a discussion of climate change with rock n' roll. In one song called "Greenhouse Glasses", Peter and his band the "Earth Rangers" wear over-sized clown glasses with "molecules" hanging off them (made with Styrofoam balls and pipe cleaners). Each molecule is the real molecular structure of a greenhouse gas, and the song explains how when the wearer of these glasses looks up in the sky, he/she can see the "greenhouse gases floating by." "I've seen more of them this year than the last / 'Cuz fossil fuels are burning fast / I wish everyone could see through these frames / Then maybe we could prevent climate change" Students sing, dance and get a visual picture of something that is invisible, yet is part of a very real problem. This performance description is used as an example of an educational style that can reach a wide audience and provide a framework for the audience as learners to assimilate future information on climate change. The hypothesis is that complex socio-environmental issues like climate change that must be taught in order to achieve sustainability are best done so through alternative mediums like music. Students develop awareness which leads to knowledge about chemistry, physics, and biology. These kinds of experiences which connect science learning to fun activities and community building are seriously lacking in primary and secondary schools and are a big reason why science illiteracy is a current social problem. Science education is also paired with community awareness (including the local plant/animal community) and cooperation. The Singing Scientist attempts to create a culture where it is cool to care about the environment. Students end up gardening in school gardens together and think about their "ecological footprint".

Weiss, P. S.

2007-12-01

202

Climate change and water use partitioning by different plant functional groups in a grassland on the tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is predicted to experience increases in air temperature, increases in snowfall, and decreases in monsoon rains; however, there is currently a paucity of data that examine the ecological responses to such climate changes. In this study, we examined the effects of increased air temperature and snowfall on: 1) water use partitioning by different plant functional groups, and 2) ecosystem CO2 fluxes throughout the growing season. At the individual plant scale, we used stable hydrogen isotopes (?D) to partition water use between shallow- and deep-rooted species. Prior to the arrival of summer precipitation (typically mid-July), snowmelt was the main water source in the soils. During this time, shallow and deep-rooted species partitioned water use by accessing water from shallow and deep soils, respectively. However, once the monsoon rains arrived, all plants used rainwater from the upper soils as the main water source. Snow addition did not result in increased snowmelt use throughout the growing season; instead, snowmelt water was pushed down into deeper soils when the rains arrived. At the larger plot scale, CO2 flux measurements demonstrated that rain was the main driver for net ecosystem productivity (NEP). NEP rates were low during June and July and reached a maximum during the monsoon season in August. Warming decreased NEP through a reduction in gross primary productivity (GPP), and snow additions did not mitigate the negative effects of warming by increasing NEP or GPP. Both the isotope and CO2 flux results suggest that rain drives productivity in the Nam Tso region on the TP. This also suggests that the effects of warming-induced drought on the TP may not be mitigated by increased snowfall. Further decreases in summer monsoon rains may affect ecosystem productivity, with large implications for livestock-based livelihoods. PMID:24069425

Hu, Jia; Hopping, Kelly A; Bump, Joseph K; Kang, Sichang; Klein, Julia A

2013-09-17

203

Climate Change and Water Use Partitioning by Different Plant Functional Groups in a Grassland on the Tibetan Plateau  

PubMed Central

The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is predicted to experience increases in air temperature, increases in snowfall, and decreases in monsoon rains; however, there is currently a paucity of data that examine the ecological responses to such climate changes. In this study, we examined the effects of increased air temperature and snowfall on: 1) water use partitioning by different plant functional groups, and 2) ecosystem CO2 fluxes throughout the growing season. At the individual plant scale, we used stable hydrogen isotopes (?D) to partition water use between shallow- and deep-rooted species. Prior to the arrival of summer precipitation (typically mid-July), snowmelt was the main water source in the soils. During this time, shallow and deep-rooted species partitioned water use by accessing water from shallow and deep soils, respectively. However, once the monsoon rains arrived, all plants used rainwater from the upper soils as the main water source. Snow addition did not result in increased snowmelt use throughout the growing season; instead, snowmelt water was pushed down into deeper soils when the rains arrived. At the larger plot scale, CO2 flux measurements demonstrated that rain was the main driver for net ecosystem productivity (NEP). NEP rates were low during June and July and reached a maximum during the monsoon season in August. Warming decreased NEP through a reduction in gross primary productivity (GPP), and snow additions did not mitigate the negative effects of warming by increasing NEP or GPP. Both the isotope and CO2 flux results suggest that rain drives productivity in the Nam Tso region on the TP. This also suggests that the effects of warming-induced drought on the TP may not be mitigated by increased snowfall. Further decreases in summer monsoon rains may affect ecosystem productivity, with large implications for livestock-based livelihoods.

Hu, Jia; Hopping, Kelly A.; Bump, Joseph K.; Kang, Sichang; Klein, Julia A.

2013-01-01

204

California Climate Change Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global warming and climate change have been a top priority for a number of international organizations, and in recent years, a number of states have also become profoundly concerned about these transformations. Not surprisingly, the state of California has been interested in these subjects for some time, and this website is an initiative of the various agencies working in this area of research. On this site, visitors can learn about various initiatives sponsored by different agencies within the state and also peruse a list of FAQÂs on the subject. First-time visitors will want to start at the ÂBackground section; they may then proceed to the ÂPolicy & Program area, where they can learn what the state is doing to combat this situation. Some of these programs include a voluntary greenhouse gas emission registry for California companies and a research program to spur environmentally-friendly energy alternatives. Finally, the site also includes a very nice glossary of terms used in discussing global climate change.

205

Communicating Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss the various challenges scientists must confront in efforts to communicate the science and implications of climate change to the public. Among these challenges is the stiff headwind we must fight of a concerted disinformation effort designed to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding of the problem and the reality of the underlying societal threat. We also must fight the legacy of the public’s perception of the scientist. That is to say, we must strive to communicate in plainspoken language that neither insults the intelligence of our audience, nor hopelessly loses them in jargon and science-speak. And through all of this, we must maintain our composure and good humor even in the face of what we might consider the vilest of tactics by our opposition. When it comes to how best to get our message out to the broader public, I don’t pretend to have all of the answers. But I will share some insights and anecdotes that I have accumulated over the course of my own efforts to inform the public about the reality of climate change and the potential threat that it represents.

Mann, M. E.

2009-12-01

206

Climate change and marine life.  

PubMed

A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

Richardson, Anthony J; Brown, Christopher J; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T; Duarte, Carlos M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J; O'Connor, Mary I; Pandolfi, John M; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

2012-07-11

207

National Fish, Wildlife and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the National Fish, Wildlife and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy is to inspire and enable natural resource administrators, elected officials, and other decision makers to take action to adapt to a changing climate. Adaptation actions are ...

2012-01-01

208

A New GLORIA Target Region in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA; Alpine Plant Monitoring For Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research project with the goal to assess climate change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. Standardized protocols direct selection of each node in the network, called a target region, which consists of a set of four geographically proximal mountain summits at elevations extending from treeline to the nival zone. For each summit, GLORIA specifies a rigorous mapping and sampling design for data collection, with re-measurement intervals of five years. Whereas target regions have been installed in six continents, prior to 2004 none was completed in North America. In cooperation with the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT), three target regions were completed by September 2004, one in the Sierra Nevada, California, one in the White Mountains, California, and one in Glacier National Park, Montana. The SIERRA NEVADA (GLORIA code: SND) target region lies along the Sierra Nevada crest in the Yosemite National Park/Mono Lake region. The four summits well represent the GLORIA design standards, being little visited by climbers, outside domestic grazing allotments, relatively rounded in shape, situated within one climate region, related substrate types (metamorphic), and extending from treeline to the highest elevation zones in the area. The four summits include the subordinate peak of Mt Dunderberg (3744m), two lesser peaks of Mt Dunderberg (3570m and 3322m) and a summit along the Yosemite National Park boundary region south of Mt Conness (3425m). Preliminary data indicate that numbers of vascular plant species, from lowest to highest summit, were 40, 36, 12, 22 (total for SN, 67). Only 1 species (Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus) occurred on all four summits; 8 species occurred on three summits; no exotic species was detected. The most distant summit, also most distinct in substrate, had the largest number of unique species. The genus Carex (Cyperaceae) had the most species represented (five). Only one tree species (Pinus albicaulis) occurred within the summit areas. Data analysis of the baseline measurements has just begun; the standardized GLORIA protocols will enable direct comparisons among summits within the target region, across target regions in California, among the three target regions in North America, and with established GLORIA regions in other continents.

Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Murrell, K. E.

2004-12-01

209

Groundwater under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has a large impact on different environmental issues, such as groundwater availability. In Switzerland, springs provide nearly 40 % of the drinking water and are, in many regions, the main water supply. Dry periods show how vulnerable some of these systems are. The response of springs to drought, however, is complex and not readily predictable. While some show a decrease of discharge and low water table values, others do not react, or only slightly, to such extreme weather conditions. The aim of this study is to understand the behavior of springs and to estimate their vulnerability under different climate scenarios. Two different field sites are presented. The first site is located at Wohlenschwil in a relatively flat moraine landscape (400 m a.s.L.) overlying a porous aquifer. Because of the water abstraction scheme, no spring discharge can be observed but the dynamic of this system is typical of spring behavior. The second site is located in the Upper Emme valley, a hilly region where groundwater flows mostly in fractured Molasse before discharging through springs at an altitude of 860 m a.s.L. Tracer tests and isotopes measurements, as well as geophysical and hydraulic methods to quantify recharge processes and estimate buffer capacity of the systems during dry phases, are applied for unsaturated and saturated zones. All field results are used to build up a fully coupled numerical model (HydroGeoSphere), which gives results about the dynamic of the system with given climate scenarios. Preliminary results from tracer tests and numerical modeling show that, only with an integral approach that includes both the saturated and unsaturated zones, a global assessment of transit times and of the buffer capacity is possible. Furthermore, numerical modeling based partly on soil water measurements and a structure analysis of the “Wohlenschwil” catchment shows that recharge processes are only controlled by precipitation and that inflow from borders are of minor role. The dynamic of this area is strongly dependent on the local climate. The next step will be a more detailed investigation of the soil to obtain a better understanding of direct recharge and flow processes in the unsaturated zone. Therefore soil moisture measurements at different location in the catchment will be carried out

Moeck, C.; Schirmer, M.; Hunkeler, D.; Project Of National Research Programme "Sustainable Water Management" (Nrp 61)

2010-12-01

210

Modelling Arctic Climate Change: Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate prediction requires the use of coupled models of the atmosphere-deep ocean-sea ice and land surface. This paper outlines the formulation of processes relevant to the simulation and prediction of climate change in the Arctic of one such model, that of the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research at the Meteorological Office. Comparison of the simulation of a number

D. J. Drewry; J. Crossley

1995-01-01

211

Natural and anthropogenic climate changes  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following three components of the project: analysis of climate data in US and China to study the regional climate changes; analysis of general circulation model simulations of current and CO[sub 2]-doubled global and regional climates; and studies of desertification in the United States and China.

Wang, W.C.; Ronberg, B.; Gutowski, W.; Gutzler, D.; Portman, D. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Li, K.; Wang, S. (Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Geography)

1987-01-06

212

Geomorphic responses to climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of this book is the response of landscapes to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic changes. During the past 40 ky the global climate has varied from full-glacial to interglacial. Global temperatures decreased between 40 and 20 ka culminating in full-glacial climatic conditions at 20 ka. This resulted in a sea level decline of 130 m. Only 8 to

W. B. Bull

1991-01-01

213

Environmental magnetism and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major and pressing problem is to understand how, and how fast, the Earth's climate has changed in the past, with and without human influences on the global carbon cycle. Magnetic, remanence-acquiring, minerals, mostly iron oxides and sulphides, occur ubiquitously in sediments. They can act as sensitive recorders of past climates, because as climate has varied (from glacial to interglacial,

Barbara A. Maher

2007-01-01

214

Expert credibility in climate change  

PubMed Central

Although preliminary estimates from published literature and expert surveys suggest striking agreement among climate scientists on the tenets of anthropogenic climate change (ACC), the American public expresses substantial doubt about both the anthropogenic cause and the level of scientific agreement underpinning ACC. A broad analysis of the climate scientist community itself, the distribution of credibility of dissenting researchers relative to agreeing researchers, and the level of agreement among top climate experts has not been conducted and would inform future ACC discussions. Here, we use an extensive dataset of 1,372 climate researchers and their publication and citation data to show that (i) 97–98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field surveyed here support the tenets of ACC outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and (ii) the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of the convinced researchers.

Anderegg, William R. L.; Prall, James W.; Harold, Jacob; Schneider, Stephen H.

2010-01-01

215

Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.

216

Pembina Institute: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the Pembina Institute, provides access to materials related to the threat of climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions as seen in Canada, and some possible solutions to the problem. There is a science overview that describes the increase in atmospheric Carbon dioxide due to human activity and how it causes Earth's atmosphere to retain heat, and a section on government policy, both worldwide and in Canada, to stabilize or reduce emission of greenhouse gases. There is also an overview of the Institute's work to aid implementation of the Kyoto protocol in Canada and achieve future reductions in GHG emssions. There are also links to additional materials such as publications and news releases, information on renewable energy sources, E-education programs, and teaching tools.

217

Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

Change, Project A.; University, Purdue

218

Shrinking body size as an ecological response to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining how climate change will affect global ecology and ecosystem services is one of the next important frontiers in environmental science. Many species already exhibit smaller sizes as a result of climate change and many others are likely to shrink in response to continued climate change, following fundamental ecological and metabolic rules. This could negatively impact both crop plants and

Jennifer A. Sheridan; David Bickford

2011-01-01

219

Clouds and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As concern grows over the possibility of altering the Earth's climate, a major uncertainty exists in computer models used to study the Earth's atmosphere, regarding our current understanding of clouds and our ability to simulate their effect on climate. A number of recent observations and computer simulation studies, however, have shed light on the important role of clouds in determining the present and future climate of our atmosphere.Data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment have been used to obtain an accurate picture of how clouds affect our present global climate system [Ramanathan, 1989]. The effect of clouds on solar and thermal radiation entering and leaving our climate is known as cloud forcing. Low clouds generally cool the Earth's surface, while high clouds warm the climate system. For the entire planet, however, the cooling effect of low clouds is stronger than the warming effect from high clouds, so that overall, clouds cool the climate.

Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

220

Sea change under climate change: case studies in rare plant conservation from the dynamic San Francisco Estuary  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We present case studies supporting management of two rare plant species in tidal wetlands of the San Francisco Estuary. For an annual hemiparasite, we used demographic analyses to identify factors to enhance population establishment, survivorship and fitness, and to compare reintroduced with natura...

221

Simulating plant water availability in dry lands under climate change: A generic model of two soil layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry lands are exposed to a highly variable environment and face a high risk of degradation. The effects of climate change are likely to increase this risk; thus a profound knowledge of the system dynamics is crucial for evaluating management options. This applies particularly for the interactions between water and vegetation, which exhibit strong feedbacks. To evaluate these feedbacks and

Britta Tietjen; Erwin Zehe; Florian Jeltsch

2009-01-01

222

Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report is an attempt to describe what is known about abrupt climate changes and their impacts, based on paleoclimate proxies, historical observations, and modeling. Large, abrupt climate changes have repeatedly affected much or all of the earth, locally reaching as much as 10 Celsius degrees change in 10 years. Available evidence suggests that abrupt climate changes are not only possible but likely in the future, potentially with large impacts on ecosystems and societies. The report does not focus on large, abrupt causes like nuclear wars or giant meteorite impacts, but rather on new findings that cite gradual causes that push the earth system across a threshold. The slow effects of drifting continents, wobbling orbits or changing atmospheric composition may "switch" the climate to a new state. Faster earth-system changes, whether natural or human-caused, are likely to increase the probability of encountering a threshold that triggers a still faster climate shift.

223

Climate Change: Precipitation and Plant Nutrition Interactions on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in North-Eastern Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely well known that annual temperatures over Europe warm at a rate of between 0.1 0C decade-1 and 0.4 0C decade-1. And most of Europe gets wetter in the winter season between +1% and +4% decade-1. In summer there is a strong gradient of change between northern Europe (wetting of up to +2% decade-1) and southern Europe (drying of up to 5% decade-1). The droughts and the floods were experienced at Hungary in the early eighties as well as today. So among the natural catastrophes, drought and flooding caused by over-abundant rainfall cause the greatest problems in field potato production. The crop is demanding indicator plant of climate factors (temperature, rainfall) and soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium status. This publication gives the results achieved in the period from 1962 to 2001 of a long term small- plot fertilization experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil at Nyírlugos in the Nyírség region in North-Eastern Hungary. Characteristics of the experiment soil were a pH (KCl) 4.5, humus 0.5%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100g-1 in the ploughed layer. The topsoil was poor in all four macronutrient N, P, K and Mg. The mineral fertilization experiment involved 2 (genotypes: Gülbaba and Aranyalma) x 2 (ploughed depths: 20 and 40 cm) x 16 (fertilizations: N, P, K, Mg) = 64 treatments in 8 replications, giving a total of 512 plots. The gross and net plot sizes were 10x5=50 m2 and 35.5 m2. The experimental designe was split-split-plot. The N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1 year-1 and the P, K, Mg levels were 48, 150, 30 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5, K2O, MgO in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate, 40% potassium chloride, and powdered technological magnesium sulphate. The forecrop every second year was rye. The groundwater level was at a depth of 2-3 m. From the 64 treatments, eight replications, altogether 512- experimental plots with 7 treatments and their 16 combinations are summarised of experiment period from 1962 to 1979. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. The experiment years (1962-1963, 1964-1965, 1966-1967, 1968-1969, 1970-1971, 1972-1973, 1974-1975, 1976-1977, 1978-1979) were characterised by frequent extremes of climate. Seven years had an average rainfall, one year had an over rainfall and one year had a very dry by Hungarian traditional and RISSAC-HAS (Márton 2001b) new potato ecological standards. 2. The unfavorable effects of climate anomalies (drought, over-abundance of water in the topsoil) on the yield formation, yield quantity of potato depended decisively on the time of year when they were experienced and the period for which they lasted. 3. Precipitation deficiency (droughts) in the winter could not be counterbalanced by average rainfall during the vegetation period, and its effect on the yield was similar to that of summer drought. 4. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent than by 0-150 kg ha-1 nitrogen and NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg combinations. 5. Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses and its combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32%. 6. It was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of N: Y'=380.18-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NP: Y'=387.19-3.04x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96, NK: Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NPK: Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96 and NPKMg: Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96 nutrition systems. The optimum yields ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. Key words: climate change, rainfall, potato, N, NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg, yield Introduction: Climate change was recognized as a serious environmental issue. The build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the inertia in trends in emissions means that we can expect significant changes for at least the next few decades and probably for the future time. Annual temperatures over Europe warm at a rate of between 0.1 0C decade-1 and 0.4 0C decade-1. And most of Europe gets wetter in the winter season between +1% and +4% decade-1. In

László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

2009-04-01

224

FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the first binding international legal instrument that deals directly with climate change. The Convention was adopted on 9 May 1992 after negotiations by the UN-sponsored Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Fra...

225

Climate Change Mitigation in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most contentious issues in the debate over global climate change is the perceived divide between interests and obligations of developed and developing countries. Equity demands that developed countries act first to reduce emissions. That principle is embedded in the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which sets binding emission

KAMIL KAYGUSUZ

2004-01-01

226

Generating Arguments about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit is a different and fun way to engage students with an extremely important topic, climate change, which cuts across scientific and nonscientific disciplines. While climate change itself may not be listed in the curriculum of every science class, the authors contend that such a unit is appropriate for virtually any science curriculum.…

Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin

2012-01-01

227

Climate change, conflict and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both conflict and climate change may produce serious negative health consequences. However, there is insufficient evidence that climate change, e.g. through environmental degradation or fresh water shortages, leads to conflict as is often claimed. Also, current theory on causes of conflict would refute this hypothesis.

Egbert Sondorp; Preeti Patel

2003-01-01

228

Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

2011-01-01

229

Climate Change and Your Health  

MedlinePLUS

Nearly all scientists agree that climate change is real, is here, and that we humans are part of the problem — and part of the solution. Experts also agree ... the effects of global warming are serious. But climate change threatens more than the environment. It also threatens ...

230

Idea Bank: Climate Change Inquiries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can students engage in authentic inquiry on global climate change if they are not able to do the actual experiments? Many questions about climate change emerge over large areas and long periods of time. The good news is that much of the data from thes

Bowman, Ryan

2010-02-01

231

Take Aim At Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This music video features a rap song about some of the causes and effects of climate change with the goal of increasing awareness of climate change and how it will impact nature and humans. The website also includes links to short fact sheets with lyrics to the song that are annotated with the sources of the information in the lyrics.

Palooza.com, Polar

232

Congress Assesses Climate Change Paleodata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The `hockey stick' graph of surfacetemperature change overthe past millennium and implicationsfor climate change assessments wasthe subject of two hearings held by the U.S.House of Representatives Energy and CommerceSubcommittee on Oversight andInvestigations, on 19 and 27 July. These hearingsmarked only the second time that thecommittee has discussed climate issuessince George W. Bush became president.

Bierly, Eugene W.

2006-08-01

233

Climate Change and Aerosol Feedbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate instability is expected as mixing ratios of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere increase. The current trend in rising temperature can be related to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, this trend may change as feedback mechanisms amplify; one of the least-understood aspects of climate change. Formation of cloud condensation nuclei from rising sulfate concentrations in the atmosphere may counteract

Ann-Lise Norman

2008-01-01

234

BIRD MIGRATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explain and forecast the dependency of different migratory processes: spring arrival dates, migratory take-off, transit autumnal and spring migrations, migration abruption, and their characteristics upon different climatic parameters. We tried to explain the change in migratory-resident state of birds, and defined the effect of climate change upon species specificity of bird migration, mechanisms

Mecislovas ŽALAKEVI?IUS

1997-01-01

235

Simulating the effects of climate change on the distribution of an invasive plant, using a high resolution, local scale, mechanistic approach: challenges and insights.  

PubMed

The growing economic and ecological damage associated with biological invasions, which will likely be exacerbated by climate change, necessitates improved projections of invasive spread. Generally, potential changes in species distribution are investigated using climate envelope models; however, the reliability of such models has been questioned and they are not suitable for use at local scales. At this scale, mechanistic models are more appropriate. This paper discusses some key requirements for mechanistic models and utilises a newly developed model (PSS[gt]) that incorporates the influence of habitat type and related features (e.g., roads and rivers), as well as demographic processes and propagule dispersal dynamics, to model climate induced changes in the distribution of an invasive plant (Gunnera tinctoria) at a local scale. A new methodology is introduced, dynamic baseline benchmarking, which distinguishes climate-induced alterations in species distributions from other potential drivers of change. Using this approach, it was concluded that climate change, based on IPCC and C4i projections, has the potential to increase the spread-rate and intensity of G. tinctoria invasions. Increases in the number of individuals were primarily due to intensification of invasion in areas already invaded or in areas projected to be invaded in the dynamic baseline scenario. Temperature had the largest influence on changes in plant distributions. Water availability also had a large influence and introduced the most uncertainty in the projections. Additionally, due to the difficulties of parameterising models such as this, the process has been streamlined by utilising methods for estimating unknown variables and selecting only essential parameters. PMID:23504901

Fennell, Mark; Murphy, James E; Gallagher, Tommy; Osborne, Bruce

2013-01-10

236

Changing with the climate - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Jul 1, 2013 ... Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific ... Changes to the global climate have significant repercussions and will ... As we grapple with what these changes mean for ecosystems, and how the output ...

237

Projected Impact of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This visualization is a chart that displays future climate change in terms of temperature increases and the impacts and Food, Water, Ecosystems, Extreme Weather Events, and Risk of Abrupt and Irreversible Changes that are predicted with the increasing temperature benchmarks.

Berger, Ketill; Unep/grid-Arendal

238

AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Aaas

239

Climate Change and Human Health  

PubMed Central

Climate change science points to an increase in sea surface temperature, increases in the severity of extreme weather events, declining air quality, and destabilizing natural systems due to increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The direct and indirect health results of such a global imbalance include excessive heat-related illnesses, vector- and waterborne diseases, increased exposure to environmental toxins, exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases due to declining air quality, and mental health stress among others. Vulnerability to these health effects will increase as elderly and urban populations increase and are less able to adapt to climate change. In addition, the level of vulnerability to certain health impacts will vary by location. As a result, strategies to address climate change must include health as a strategic component on a regional level. The co-benefits of improving health while addressing climate change will improve public health infrastructure today, while mitigating the negative consequences of a changing climate for future generations.

Luber, George; Prudent, Natasha

2009-01-01

240

The World Bank: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change continues to be of grave concern to many, and the World Bank is particularly concerned with the ramifications it will have on people in the developing world. Their Climate Change site is designed to provide an overview of their work on this vexing problem including information about their current projects, data sets, research papers, and books. Visitors should start by looking over their weblog, and then take a look at their "News" area. Here, they can learn about innovative carbon trading programs, engineering projects, and international agreements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change. The "Research" area has dozens of free publications, including the very relevant "Climate Resilient Cities" work, which discusses how city governments can better understand how to plan for the impact of climate change through sound urban planning.

241

The World Bank: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change continues to be of grave concern to many, and the World Bank is particularly concerned with the ramifications it will have on people in the developing world. Their Climate Change site is designed to provide an overview of their work on this vexing problem and information about their current projects, data sets, research papers, and books. Visitors should start by looking over their weblog, and then take a look at their "What's New" area. Here they can learn about innovative carbon trading programs, engineering projects, and international agreements designed to mitigate the effects of climate change. The "Research & Analysis" area has dozens of free publications, including the very relevant "Climate Resilient Cities" work, which discusses how city governments can better understand how to plan for the impact of climate change through sound urban planning.

2009-08-13

242

Climate change hot-spots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI), is developed based on regional mean precipitation change, mean surface air temperature change, and change in precipitation and temperature interannual variability. The RCCI is a comparative index designed to identify the most responsive regions to climate change, or Hot-Spots. The RCCI is calculated for 26 land regions from the latest set of climate change projections by 20 global climate models for the A1B, A2 and B1 IPCC emission scenarios. The Mediterranean and North Eastern European regions emerge as the primary Hot-Spots, followed by high latitude northern hemisphere regions and by Central America, the most prominent tropical Hot-Spot. The main African Hot-Spots are Southern Equatorial Africa and the Sahara. Eastern North America is the prominent Hot-Spot over the continental U.S. Different factors over different regions contribute to the magnitude of the RCCI, which is in fact greater than 0 for all regions.

Giorgi, F.

2006-04-01

243

Diverse views on climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Third Santa Fe Conference on Global and Regional Climate Change; Santa Fe, New Mexico, 30 October to 4 November 2011 At the Third Santa Fe Conference on Global and Regional Climate Change, hosted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Center for Nonlinear Studies, researchers offered some of the latest thinking on how to observe and model the driving forces as well as the impacts of regional and global climate change, climate system responses, and societal impacts. It was the third in a series of conferences held at 5-year intervals. More than 140 climate science experts from the United States and foreign universities and research centers attended the conference, held at the La Fonda Hotel in historic downtown Santa Fe. The conference program included more than 80 invited and contributed oral presentations and about 30 posters. The oral sessions were grouped by topic into sessions of four or five talks, with discussion occurring at the end of each session

Garrett, Timothy; Dubey, Manvendra; Schwartz, Stephen

2012-04-01

244

Agrometeorological adaptation strategies to increasing climate variability and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper starts with summarizing the indications for climate change as they are reviewed in the most recent WMO global climate system reviews. There are indications in the paper for increasing climate variability in certain areas. Some of the principal causes of increasing climate variability and climate change (ICV & CC) are a mixture of external and internal factors to

M. J. Salinger; C. J. Stigter; H. P. Das

2000-01-01

245

Climate change and marine turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine turtles occupy a wide range of terrestrial and marine habitats, and many aspects of their life history have been demonstrated to be closely tied to climatic variables such as ambient temperature and storminess. As a group, therefore, marine turtles may be good indicators of climate change effects on coastal and marine habitats. Despite the small number of species in

Lucy A. Hawkes; Annette C. Broderick; Matthew H. Godfrey; Brendan J. Godley

2009-01-01

246

Aerosol, Clouds, and Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence...

S. E. Schwartz

2005-01-01

247

Leaf morphology shift linked to climate change  

PubMed Central

Climate change is driving adaptive shifts within species, but research on plants has been focused on phenology. Leaf morphology has demonstrated links with climate and varies within species along climate gradients. We predicted that, given within-species variation along a climate gradient, a morphological shift should have occurred over time due to climate change. We tested this prediction, taking advantage of latitudinal and altitudinal variations within the Adelaide Geosyncline region, South Australia, historical herbarium specimens (n = 255) and field sampling (n = 274). Leaf width in the study taxon, Dodonaea viscosa subsp. angustissima, was negatively correlated with latitude regionally, and leaf area was negatively correlated with altitude locally. Analysis of herbarium specimens revealed a 2 mm decrease in leaf width (total range 1–9 mm) over 127 years across the region. The results are consistent with a morphological response to contemporary climate change. We conclude that leaf width is linked to maximum temperature regionally (latitude gradient) and leaf area to minimum temperature locally (altitude gradient). These data indicate a morphological shift consistent with a direct response to climate change and could inform provenance selection for restoration with further investigation of the genetic basis and adaptive significance of observed variation.

Guerin, Greg R.; Wen, Haixia; Lowe, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

248

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Outline of talk: A. What causes climate change B. Possible changes in the world's and the Pacific Northwest's climate C. Possible impacts of climate change I. The world and U.S. II. Oregon D. Possible solutions E. Discussion ...

249

Natural and anthropogenic climate change  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of two parts: (1) progress for the period 9/1/91--3/31/92 and (2) the plan for the remaining period 4/1/92--8/31/92. The project includes two tasks: atmospheric radiation and improvement of climate models to evaluate the climatic effects of radiation changes. The atmospheric radiation task includes four subtasks: (1) Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM), (2) analysis of the water vapor continuum using line-by-line calculations to develop a parameterization for use in climate models, (3) parameterization of longwave radiation and (4) climate/radiation interactions of desert aerosols. Our effort in this period is focused on the first three subtasks. The improvement of climate models to evaluate the subtasks: (1) general circulation model study and (2) 2- D model development and application.

Ko, M.K.W.; Clough, S.A.; Molnar, G.I.; Iacono, M. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Wang, W.C. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States) State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center)

1992-03-01

250

Assessing Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale climatic patterns, rather than a growing “heat island” effect, are the overriding influence on weather in the Potomac River area, and temperature data in the area can therefore be validly compared to global trends. At least temporarily, however, the area, which includes Washington, D.C., has lost its coupling with global temperature trends.Short-term regional anomalies in the Potomac River area's weather, especially high summer temperatures, may promote legislative action in the U.S. Congress on long-term global climate research. However, the current benign weather conditions in the political center of the United States tend to divert attention away from global climate research, diminishing the likelihood of significant expansion of research funding and greenhouse gas legislation.

Covey, Curt; Gleckler, null

251

Is Climate Change Predictable? Really?  

SciTech Connect

This project is the first application of a completely different approach to climate modeling, in which new prognostic equations are used to directly compute the evolution of two-point correlations. This project addresses three questions that are critical for the credibility of the science base for climate prediction: (1) What is the variability spectrum at equilibrium? (2) What is the rate of relaxation when subjected to external perturbations? (3) Can variations due to natural processes be distinguished from those due to transient external forces? The technical approach starts with the evolution equation for the probability distribution function and arrives at a prognostic equation for ensemble-mean two-point correlations, bypassing the detailed weather calculation. This work will expand our basic understanding of the theoretical limits of climate prediction and stimulate new experiments to perform with conventional climate models. It will furnish statistical estimates that are inaccessible with conventional climate simulations and likely will raise important new questions about the very nature of climate change and about how (and whether) climate change can be predicted. Solid progress on such issues is vital to the credibility of the science base for climate change research and will provide policymakers evaluating tradeoffs among energy technology options and their attendant environmental and economic consequences.

Dannevik, W P; Rotman, D A

2005-11-14

252

Psychology: Climate change hits home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engaging the public with climate change has proved difficult, in part because they see the problem as remote. New evidence suggests that direct experience of one anticipated impact -- flooding -- increases people's concern and willingness to save energy.

Elke U. Weber

2011-01-01

253

Climate Change and New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1998-01-01

254

Climate Change and New Hampshire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases -- primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. The heat-trap...

1997-01-01

255

Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

256

NASA Climate Change Resource Reel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of resources from NASA includes animations and still shots covering a wide range of topics in climate, including the cryosphere, ocean sciences, changes on land, the atmosphere, and satellite images.

Nasa

257

Climate Change and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, students explore, at their own pace, how global climate change may affect health issues. Issues include airborne diseases, developmental disorders, mental health disorders, vector-borne diseases and waterborne diseases.

Sciences, National I.; Domain, Teachers'

258

Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Service, Congressional R.; Environment, National C.

259

Ocean productivity and climate change.  

PubMed

Satellite measurements and the development of new techniques have confirmed the importance of ocean biology in controlling the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) content of the atmosphere. The marine sedimentary record shows that climate change and the ocean carbon cycle are closely linked: during glacial periods, marine productivity was enhanced and atmospheric CO(2) levels were reduced. Global warming may have the opposite effect, with reduced uptake of CO(2) exacerbating the problems of climate change. PMID:21232378

Williamson, P; Holligan, P M

1990-09-01

260

Climate Change: Teaching Through Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine Mathematics and Science Alliance Dec. 6, 2007 Agenda 8:00 Welcome Puzzle Intro Overview: The Science of Climate Change Carbon Cycle Activity Data Analysis: Buoy Data Activity Using Technology Effectively 10:00-10:15 Break Links to the 2007 Maine Learning Results Introduction to Afternoon Exploration COSEE (COSEE Ocean-Climate beta website) Giovanni project (Givoanni: Arabian Sea Lesson) (Giovanni Graphing Activity) Earth Exploration Toolkit: Whither Arctic Sea Ice? (Whither Arctic Sea Ice?) Google Earth Climate Change Resources 11:15-12:00 Lunch Afternoon Resource Exploration Exploration Report and Discussion Antarctic Expedition Opportunity WAIS Divide Outreach Blog WAIS Divide Main Science Page Wrap-Up/Evaluation ...

Chad, Deb A.

2007-12-06

261

Aerosol lifetime and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominant removal mechanism for atmospheric aerosol is activation of particles to cloud droplets and subsequent wet deposition in precipitation. The atmospheric lifetime of aerosol is thus closely coupled to the atmospheric cycling time of water vapor. Changes of hydrological cycle characteristics resulting from climate change therefore directly affect aerosol lifetime, and thus the radiative forcing exerted by aerosol. This study expresses the coupling between water vapor and aerosol lifetimes and their temperature sensitivities in fundamental equations and in terms of the efficiency of processing of air by precipitating clouds. Based on climate model simulations these temperature sensitivities are estimated to be on the order of +5.3% K-1, but this may be an overestimation. Generally, shifting spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol (precursor) emissions and precipitation, and changes in aerosol activation efficiency probably influence aerosol lifetimes more than climate change itself, resulting in a wide range of simulated aerosol lifetime sensitivities between aerosol-climate models. It is possible that the climate sensitivity of models plays a role. It can be argued that climate sensitivity is intrinsically coupled with the simulated (temperature sensitivity of the) aerosol lifetime through the distribution of water vapor and aerosol between the lower and upper troposphere. This implies a fundamental relation between various feedback forcings (water vapor, lapse rate, cloud) and the aerosol forcing, illustrating the key role of the hydrological cycle in different aspects of the climate system.

Roelofs, G.-J.

2012-07-01

262

Abrupt climate change: can society cope?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and

Mike Hulme

2003-01-01

263

Changes in future fire regimes under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are expected to change under future climate change, climatic fire is is increasing due to increase in droughts and heat waves affecting vegetation productivity and ecosystem function. Vegetation productivity influences fuel production, but can also limit fire spread. Vegetation-fire models allow investigating the interaction between wildfires and vegetation dynamics, thus non-linear effects between changes in fuel composition and production on fire as well as changes in fire regimes on fire-related plant mortality and fuel combustion. Here we present results from simulation experiments, where the vegetation-fire models LPJmL-SPITFIRE and LPJ-GUESS are applied to future climate change scenarios from regional climate models in Europe and Northern Africa. Climate change impacts on fire regimes, vegetation dynamics and carbon fluxes are quantified and presented. New fire-prone regions are mapped and changes in fire regimes of ecosystems with a long-fire history are analyzed. Fuel limitation is likely to increase in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, indicating non-linear connection between increasing fire risk and fuel production. Increased warming in temperate ecosystems in Eastern Europe and continued fuel production leads to increases not only in climatic fire risk, but also area burnt and biomass burnt. This has implications for fire management, where adaptive capacity to this new vulnerability might be limited.

Thonicke, Kirsten; von Bloh, Werner; Lutz, Julia; Knorr, Wolfgang; Wu, Minchao; Arneth, Almut

2013-04-01

264

Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a brief version of an in-depth report published as a book, which examines the current scientific evidence and theoretical understanding used to describe current knowledge about abrupt climate change, including patterns and magnitudes, mechanisms, and probability of occurrence. The report identifies critical knowledge gaps concerning the potential for future abrupt changes, including those aspects of change most important to society and economies, and outlines a research strategy to close those gaps. Based on the best and most current research available, the book surveys the history of climate change and makes a series of specific recommendations for the future. The brief version at this site captures the highlights.

265

Climate change and avian influenza  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in water bird populations will continue with endless adaptation and evolution. In domestic poultry, too little is known about the direct effect of environmental factors on highly pathogenic avian influenza transmission and persistence to allow inference about the possible effect of climate change. However, possible indirect links through changes in the distribution of duck-crop farming are discussed.

Slingenbergh, J.; Xiao, X.

2009-01-01

266

Study of Climate Change in the Arctic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes why and how scientists study climate change in the Arctic. It includes information on the climate indices and important research concepts used by scientists to study climate change.

Overland, Jim; Soreide, Nancy; Bond, Nick

2000-01-01

267

Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... All Responses Is there a scientific consensus on climate change? The major scientific agencies of the United States ... or natural variations in climate responsible for the climate change being observed today? The Earth does go through ...

268

Climate signals in Palaeozoic land plants  

PubMed Central

The Palaeozoic is regarded as a period in which it is difficult to recognize climate signals in land plants because they have few or no close extant relatives. In addition early, predominantly axial, representatives lack the features, e.g. leaf laminae, secondary growth, used later as qualitative and quantitive measures of past climates. Exceptions are stomata, and the preliminary results of a case study of a single taxon present throughout the Devonian, and analysis of stomatal complex anatomy attempt to disentangle evolutionary, taxonomic, habitat and atmospheric effects on stomatal frequencies. Ordovician-Silurian vegetation is represented mainly by spores whose widespread global distribution on palaeocontinental reconstructions with inferred climates suggest that the producers were independent of major climate variables, probably employing the physiology and behavioural strategies of extant bryophytes, further characterized by small size. Growth-ring studies, first possible on Mid-Devonian plants, have proved most informative in elucidating the climate at high palaeolatitudes in Late Permian Gondwana. Changes in the composition of Carboniferous-Permian low-latitude wetland vegetation are discussed in relation to tectonic activity and glaciation, with most confidence placed on the conclusion that major extinctions at the Westphalian-Stephanian boundary in Euramerica resulted from increased seasonality created by changes in circulation patterns at low latitudes imposed by the decrease of glaciations in most parts of Gondwana.

Edwards, D.

1998-01-01

269

Climate Change and the Nation's Forests: Challenges and Opportunities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Climate change is worsening fires and insect outbreaks in many of Americas forests. It is also altering precipitation patterns and streamflows and causing plants and animals to change behavior and even to migrate to new locations. Although researchers rem...

C. Millar D. Bosworth L. Joyce R. Birdsey

2008-01-01

270

Conservation practices and their potential to mitigate climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The resilience of agricultural systems to climate change is dependent on the ability of the soil to capture and supply water to the plant at critical times in order to overcome the potential negative impacts of rising temperature. Climate change will occur as not only changes in the mean values of t...

271

Climate Change Impacts on Protea Species: PDEAR Model Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major concerns today is global warming and climate change impacts, and how they are changing the distribution and behaviour of the plant species. For example, Proteas species in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa, are very sensitive to climate change. In this paper, we first arguing and the random fuzzy error structure for spatial modelling accuracy and

Danni Guo; Renkuan Guo; Guy F. Midgley; A. G. Rebelo

2008-01-01

272

Climate change and food security.  

PubMed

Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

2005-11-29

273

Indigenous health and climate change.  

PubMed

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

Ford, James D

2012-05-17

274

Climate change dialogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human influence on the planet is undeniable. Making a switch from exploitation to maintenance of natural resources depends on a step change in communication, to convince the Earth's population of the necessity for a fundamental change of course.

2012-05-01

275

Climate change impacts on forestry  

PubMed Central

Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. Our review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. We concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand.

Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Sedjo, Roger A.

2007-01-01

276

Congress probes climate change uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers are demanding information about climate change faster than it can be turned out by scientists. This conflict between politics and science was debated at a recent congressional hearing on priorities in global change research. On October 8 and 10, panels of scientists that included AGU president-elect Ralph J. Cicerone of the University of California attempted to identify scientific uncertainties

Lynn Teo Simarski

1991-01-01

277

Invasive species and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

Middleton, Beth A.

2006-01-01

278

Faces of Climate Change: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of three short videos showcasing the dramatic changes in Alaska's marine ecosystems through interviews with scientists and Alaska Natives. This introduction to the impacts of climate change in Alaska includes interviews with Alaska Natives, commentary by scientists, and footage from Alaska's Arctic.

Dugan, Darcy; Noaa Sea Grant, Alaska C.

279

Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In "Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge," we conclude the special section by assuming that you have been persuaded by Thompson's paper or other evidence that global warming is real and poses a threat that must be dealt with, and that for now the only way to deal with it is by changing behavior. Then we ask what you, as behavior analysts, can do…

Chance, Paul; Heward, William L.

2010-01-01

280

Linkages between climate change and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change does not yet feature prominently within the environmental or economic policy agendas of developing countries. Yet evidence shows that some of the most adverse effects of climate change will be in developing countries, where populations are most vulnerable and least likely to easily adapt to climate change, and that climate change will affect the potential for development in

Noreen Beg; Jan Corfee Morlot; Ogunlade Davidson; Yaw Afrane-Okesse; Lwazikazi Tyani; Fatma Denton; Youba Sokona; Jean Philippe Thomas; Emilio Lèbre La Rovere; Jyoti K. Parikh; Kirit Parikh; A. Atiq Rahman

2002-01-01

281

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

282

The Climate of Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in information technology, in institutional or societal imperatives, and in user expectations are forcing library administrators to re-examine not only the library's basic services but also the organizational structures which have been created over time to support those services. Organizational change-particularly structural change-is prescribed. The traditional separation of the two major divisions of libraries, technical services and public services,

Patricia M. Larsen

1991-01-01

283

Species richness changes lag behind climate change.  

PubMed

Species-energy theory indicates that recent climate warming should have driven increases in species richness in cool and species-poor parts of the Northern Hemisphere. We confirm that the average species richness of British butterflies has increased since 1970-82, but much more slowly than predicted from changes of climate: on average, only one-third of the predicted increase has taken place. The resultant species assemblages are increasingly dominated by generalist species that were able to respond quickly. The time lag is confirmed by the successful introduction of many species to climatically suitable areas beyond their ranges. Our results imply that it may be decades or centuries before the species richness and composition of biological communities adjusts to the current climate. PMID:16777739

Menéndez, Rosa; Megías, Adela González; Hill, Jane K; Braschler, Brigitte; Willis, Stephen G; Collingham, Yvonne; Fox, Richard; Roy, David B; Thomas, Chris D

2006-06-22

284

Fisheries and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When populations of harvestable fish start to decline, managers look for explanations of the changes throughout the Earth system. In this activity, the impact of global climate change on marine and Great Lakes fish is considered. First, decline in the striped bass population of the North Atlantic, noted in the Downeaster Alexa song by Billy Joel, is examined with spreadsheet analysis and on-line searches of National Marine Fisheries Service databases. In a second investigation, ArcView generates a model of the Lake Erie depths that could be associated with global climate change (shallower water). Students identify fish species that use nearshore shallows for spawning and nursery areas, and speculate on the impact of the lower water. In both activities, the thermal niche of the species is considered as a factor in where fish populations may migrate with new climate regimes.

Fortner, Rosanne; Merry, Carolyn

2002-07-31

285

Interactive Quizzes on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website allows you to test your knowledge on 5 topics. Warm Up: Test your knowledge about global temperature change and its impact on Earth's climate; Freeze Frames: How much do you know about glaciers and ice caps?; Sea Change: Test your knowledge of sea level rise and its effect on global populations; It's A Gas: Test your knowledge of carbon dioxide and why it's so important to climate stability and our quality of life; Each test consists of 10 questions and are immediately scored. The final module, 10 Things You Never Knew About Earth: Discover some amazing and little-known facts about our home planet, allows you to learn facts about the Earth and Climate Change.

286

Soil Moisture-Ecosystem-Climate Interactions in a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture is a key variable of the climate system. It constrains plant transpiration and photosynthesis in several regions of the world, with consequent impacts on the water, energy and biogeochemical cycles (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2010). Moreover it is a storage component for precipitation and radiation anomalies, inducing persistence in the climate system. Finally, it is involved in a number of feedbacks at the local, regional and global scales, and plays a major role in climate-change projections. This presentation will provide an overview on these interactions, based on several recent publications (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2006, Orlowsky and Seneviratne 2010, Teuling et al. 2010, Hirschi et al. 2011). In particular, it will highlight possible impacts of soil moisture-ecosystem coupling for climate extremes such as heat waves and droughts, and the resulting interconnections between biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks in the context of climate change. Finally, it will also address recent regional- to global-scale trends in land hydrology and ecosystem functioning, as well as issues and potential avenues for investigating these trends (e.g. Jung et al. 2010, Mueller et al. 2011). References Hirschi, M., S.I. Seneviratne, V. Alexandrov, F. Boberg, C. Boroneant, O.B. Christensen, H. Formayer, B. Orlowsky, and P. Stepanek, 2011: Observational evidence for soil-moisture impact on hot extremes in southeastern Europe. Nature Geoscience, 4, 17-21, doi:10.1038/ngeo1032. Jung, M., et al., 2010: Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply. Nature, 467, 951-954. doi:10.1038/nature09396 Mueller, B., S.I. Seneviratne, et al.: Evaluation of global observations-based evapotranspiration datasets and IPCC AR4 simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L06402, doi:10.1029/2010GL046230 Orlowsky, B., and S.I. Seneviratne, 2010: Statistical analyses of land-atmosphere feedbacks and their possible pitfalls. J. Climate, 23(14), 3918-3932 Seneviratne, S.I., T. Corti, E.L. Davin, M. Hirschi, E.B. Jaeger, I. Lehner, B. Orlowsky, and A.J. Teuling, 2010: Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing climate: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 99, 3-4, 125-161, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.02.004 Seneviratne, S.I., D. Lüthi, M. Litschi, and C. Schär, 2006: Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443, 205-209. Teuling, A.J., S.I. Seneviratne, et al. 2010: Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves. Nature Geoscience, 3, 722-727, doi:10.1038/ngeo950.

Seneviratne, S. I.; Davin, E.; Hirschi, M.; Mueller, B.; Orlowsky, B.; Teuling, A.

2011-12-01

287

Abrupt Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on a current issue in science in order to help students understand the process by which scientific knowledge is developed and refined. The goal of science is to advance human understanding of the natural world and that sometimes means changing long-held views. According to recent studies, many students think that changes come mainly through facts and improved observational and measuring technology. However, they often do not make the distinction that advancements or changes can come from both new observations and reinterpreting old observations.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)

2008-04-28

288

Atmospheric rivers in changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric rivers are impressive, intermittent circulation features in mid-latitude regions of the globe that can cause disastrous floods if they smash against mountainous terrain. While discovered by meteorologists and long feared by hydrologists they have only recently come to the broader attention of climate scientists. In a new letter published in Environmental Research Letters, Lavers et al (2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 034010) investigate atmospheric rivers reaching the British Isles in the context of climate change. They consider these potentially devastating meteorological features in present and future climate model scenarios, and walk through possible mechanisms that could cause them to strengthen. This is a refreshingly new work that estimates extreme events in future climates with an impact driven approach.

Liepert, Beate G.

2013-09-01

289

Responses of carbon dioxide flux and plant biomass to drought in a treed peatland in northern Alberta: a climate change perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern peatland ecosystems represent large carbon stocks that are susceptible to changes such as accelerated mineralization due to water table lowering expected under a climate change scenario. During the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012 we monitored CO2 fluxes and plant biomass along a microtopographic gradient (hummocks-hollows) in an undisturbed dry continental boreal treed bog (control) and a nearby site that was drained (drained) in 2001. Ten years of drainage in the bog significantly increased coverage of shrubs at hummocks and lichens at hollows. Considering measured hummock coverage and including tree incremental growth, we estimate that the control site was a larger sink in 2011 of -40 than that of -13 g C m-2 in 2012 while the drained site was a source of 144 and 140 g C m-2 over the same years. We infer that, drainage induced changes in vegetation growth led to increased biomass to counteract a portion of soil carbon losses. These results suggest that spatial variability (microtopography) and changes in vegetation community in boreal peatlands will affect how these ecosystems respond to lowered water table potentially induced by climate change.

Munir, T. M.; Xu, B.; Perkins, M.; Strack, M.

2013-09-01

290

Public Engagement on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change communication is complicated by complexity of the scientific problem, multiple perspectives on the magnitude of the risk from climate change, often acrimonious disputes between scientists, high stakes policy options, and overall politicization of the issue. Efforts to increase science literacy as a route towards persuasion around the need for a policy like cap and trade have failed, because the difficulty that a scientist has in attempting to make sense of the social and political complexity is very similar to the complexity facing the general public as they try to make sense of climate science itself. In this talk I argue for a shift from scientists and their institutions as information disseminators to that of public engagement and enablers of public participation. The goal of engagement is not just to inform, but to enable, motivate and educate the public regarding the technical, political, and social dimensions of climate change. Engagement is a two-way process where experts and decision-makers seek input and learn from the public about preferences, needs, insights, and ideas relative to climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, solutions and policy options. Effective public engagement requires that scientists detach themselves from trying to control what the public does with the acquired knowledge and motivation. The goal should not be to "sell" the public on particular climate change solutions, since such advocacy threatens public trust in scientists and their institutions. Conduits for public engagement include the civic engagement approach in the context of community meetings, and perhaps more significantly, the blogosphere. Since 2006, I have been an active participant in the climate blogosphere, focused on engaging with people that are skeptical of AGW. A year ago, I started my own blog Climate Etc. at judithcurry.com. The demographic that I have focused my communication/engagement activities are the technically educated and scientifically literate public, many of whom have become increasingly skeptical of climate science the more they investigate the topic. Specific issues that this group has with climate science include concerns that science that cannot easily be separated from risk assessment and value judgments; concern that assessments (e.g. IPCC) have become a Maxwell's daemon for climate research; inadequate assessment of our ignorance of this complex scientific issue; elite scientists and scientific institutions losing credibility with the public; political exploitation of the public's lack of understanding; and concerns about the lack of public accountability of climate science and climate models that are being used as the basis for far reaching decisions and policies. Individuals in this group have the technical ability to understand and examine climate science arguments and are not prepared to cede judgment on this issue to the designated and self-proclaimed experts. This talk will describe my experiences in engaging with this group and what has been learned, both by myself and by participants in the discussion at Climate Etc.

Curry, J.

2011-12-01

291

Teaching About Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Association of American Geographers (AAG) presents free, online professional development modules for geography and social studies teachers at middle and high school levels who are preparing to teach about global climate change. The modules provide information and materials including assessments, overview of the Earth system science, frequently asked questions about global climate change, examples of how to address common student misconceptions and an interactive resource library that delivers a resource list to your e-mail inbox. Free registration is required to access the complete materials and resources.

292

United Nations Environment Programme: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to information on the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) initiatives on the issue of climate change. Materials include UNEP's areas of focus on addressing climate change (climate, finance, and business; emissions mitigation; carbon sequestration; vulnerability and adaptation to climate change; and others); links to UNEP Climate Change Centres; links to partner organizations; and links to information and media activities. There are also links to multimedia materials (posters, films, and video), printed publications on climate change, maps and graphics, and links to other organizations working on the issue of climate change.

293

Rates of plant succession, carbon and nitrogen accumulation in small-scale tundra chronosequences; an implication for climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate in which plants are able to colonize and build up soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) in soil are crucial in understanding the effect of environmental changes on high latitude ecosystems via plant community. In this presentation we present high-spatial-resolution data of plant colonization and SOC and N accumulation rates occurring on frost boils that are common in many periglacial landscapes. The diameters of each frost boil ranges from 1 to 3 meters. The distribution of plant community across a frost boil can be identified as a gradient of ongoing primary succession. The primary succession is initiated in the centre of the frost boil every time up-frozen soil is deposited on top of the surface. A subsequent lateral mass-movement of newly deposited soil from the centre of the frost boil towards the rim over time causes the surface soil and plant community to become progressively "older" from the centre towards the rim of the frost boil. In the presented work we constrain the age of the soil surface as a function of distance from the centre of the frost boil towards the rim by using lichenometry dating. With this investigation, we achieve soil age gradients (chronosequences) ranging from approximately from 0 to 300 years for meters-scale. We present data from northern Sweden where we have utilized this small-scale variation in soil age to understand how the accumulation rate of SOC and N varies over time in the upper 10 cm of the arctic soil and how the accumulation rates is affected by other ecosystem properties such as temperature, plant diversity, dominant plant functional groups and litter quality. Our key conclusions is that reduced soil frost actions, which is likely to accompany the predicted warming of the Scandinavian arctic, are likely to accelerate the colonization rate of vegetation that will enhance the accumulation of SOC and N. However, one likely side effect of this colonization into previously frost-disturbed system is the decline in spatial heterogeneity of plant community structure in tundra systems. Reference Makoto, K and Klaminder, J. (in review) The influence of non-sorted circles on species diversity of vascular plant, moss and lichens in sub-arctic tundra. Arct Antarct Alp Res.

Kobayashi, M.; Klaminder, J.

2011-12-01

294

AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

SciTech Connect

Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

SCHWARTZ, S.E.

2005-09-01

295

Fossil Plants As Proxies For Climate Change In The Tropics During Greenhouse To Icehouse And Icehouse To Greenhouse Conditions During The Late Paleozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular plants first experienced the effects of major glaciation during the Carboniferous (glaciation ~ 326 to 305 million years ago). The response of tropical vegetation to these climatic fluctuations, especially the transitions from greenhouse to icehouse conditions (ice age sensu lato) and back to warm times, can now be characterized based on results from large paleobotanical data sets originally collected to solve stratigraphic and paleoecologic questions. The data come from North America and central Europe, which at that time were part of a single continent situated in the tropics. At the onset of icehouse conditions innovation (species origination) occurred in ever-wet climates and environments, while floras in drier environments were still dominated by holdovers/survivors. The changes that did occur happened step-wise spread over a significant time. During the height of the ice age, glacial-interglacial cycles produced large sea-level fluctuations, and concomitant climatic changes, so that significant areas of continents in the tropics were alternately covered by shallow seas or densely vegetated terrestrial environments. In spite of the repeated destruction of wet lowland habitats during each transgression of the sea, most of the species and the basic configuration of the plant communities in the wetland biome returned again and again. This resilience demonstrates that glacial-interglacial cycles by themselves do not produce extirpations or extinctions. Actually, the Carboniferous icehouse time has the lowest values for extinctions or originations. At the transition from icehouse to greenhouse conditions evolutionary innovation was occurring on a major scale in dry environments while wet environments retained their "conservative" species make up. Thus, environmental threshold-crossing marked both the beginning and end of this cold interval, and produced extinctions and innovation, although a reversal is seen in the environments that support innovation at the beginning and the end. In contrast, the "smaller" changes between glacial and interglacial times did not influence the structure of tropical lowland vegetation substantially.

Pfefferkorn, H. W.; Gastaldo, R. A.; DiMichele, W. A.

2011-12-01

296

Tourism and climate change: An international perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the implications of climate change for tourism through a survey of national tourism and meteorological organisations. While climate change may have far?reaching consequences for tourism, it is shown that while most respondents felt that climate is important to their country's tourism industry, very few were aware of climate change research specifically related to tourism. Almost half felt

Geoffrey Wall; Catherine Badke

1994-01-01

297

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by

N. Bhatti; R. R. Cirillo; R. K. Dixon

1995-01-01

298

Simulated Climate Change by the Community Climate System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) are presented that consider the predicted magnitude and spatial patterns of natural climate variability and anthropogenically forced climate change. These simulations will consider changes from the inter-annual to century time scales for both the 20th and 21st centuries. Special focus will be given to the simulated variability and change in Earth's hydrologic

J. T. Kiehl

2001-01-01

299

Genetic patterns of habitat fragmentation and past climate-change effects in the Mediterranean high-mountain plant Armeria caespitosa (Plumbaginaceae).  

PubMed

• Premise of the Study: Mountain plants are among the species most vulnerable to global warming, because of their isolation, narrow geographic distribution, and limited geographic range shifts. Stochastic and selective processes can act on the genome, modulating genetic structure and diversity. Fragmentation and historical processes also have a great influence on current genetic patterns, but the spatial and temporal contexts of these processes are poorly known. We aimed to evaluate the microevolutionary processes that may have taken place in Mediterranean high-mountain plants in response to changing historical environmental conditions. • Methods: Genetic structure, diversity, and loci under selection were analyzed using AFLP markers in 17 populations distributed over the whole geographic range of Armeria caespitosa, an endemic plant that inhabits isolated mountains (Sierra de Guadarrama, Spain). Differences in altitude, geographic location, and climate conditions were considered in the analyses, because they may play an important role in selective and stochastic processes. • Key Results: Bayesian clustering approaches identified nine genetic groups, although some discrepancies in assignment were found between alternative analyses. Spatially explicit analyses showed a weak relationship between genetic parameters and spatial or environmental distances. However, a large proportion of outlier loci were detected, and some outliers were related to environmental variables. • Conclusions: A. caespitosa populations exhibit spatial patterns of genetic structure that cannot be explained by the isolation-by-distance model. Shifts along the altitude gradient in response to Pleistocene climatic oscillations and environmentally mediated selective forces might explain the resulting structure and genetic diversity values found. PMID:23857736

García-Fernández, Alfredo; Iriondo, Jose M; Escudero, Adrián; Aguilar, Javier Fuertes; Feliner, Gonzalo Nieto

2013-07-15

300

The origin of climate changes.  

PubMed

Investigation on climate change is coordinated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has the delicate task of collecting recent knowledge on climate change and the related impacts of the observed changes, and then developing a consensus statement from these findings. The IPCC's last review, published at the end of 2007, summarised major findings on the present climate situation. The observations show a clear increase in the temperature of the Earth's surface and the oceans, a reduction in the land snow cover, and melting of the sea ice and glaciers. Numerical modelling combined with statistical analysis has shown that this warming trend is very likely the signature of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases linked with human activities. Given the continuing social and economic development around the world, the IPCC emission scenarios forecast an increasing greenhouse effect, at least until 2050 according to the most optimistic models. The model ensemble predicts a rising temperature that will reach dangerous levels for the biosphere and ecosystems within this century. Hydrological systems and the potential significant impacts of these systems on the environment are also discussed. Facing this challenging future, societies must take measures to reduce emissions and work on adapting to an inexorably changing environment. Present knowledge is sufficientto start taking action, but a stronger foundation is needed to ensure that pertinent long-term choices are made that will meet the demands of an interactive and rapidly evolving world. PMID:18819661

Delecluse, P

2008-08-01

301

The Atlantic Climate Change Program  

SciTech Connect

The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Molinari, R.L. (Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., Miami, FL (United States)); Battisti, D. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)); Bryan, K. (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Walsh, J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

1994-07-01

302

The Atlantic Climate Change Program.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include 1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; 2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; 3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and 4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation.

Molinari, Robert L.; Battisti, David; Bryan, Kirk; Walsh, John

1994-07-01

303

Climate Change and California. Staff Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Change is happening to Californias climate. The frequency of extreme climatic events worldwide indicates that climate variability may be on the rise and scientists predict global warming will significantly increase that variability in the future. Californ...

2003-01-01

304

Climate change, nuclear power, and the adaptation–mitigation dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many policy-makers view nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change. Efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, however, interact with existing and new nuclear power plants, and these installations must contend with dilemmas between adaptation and mitigation. This paper develops five criteria to assess the adaptation–mitigation dilemma on two major points: (1) the ability of nuclear power to

Natalie Kopytko; John Perkins

2011-01-01

305

Smithsonian climate change exhibits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal

Mohi Kumar

2006-01-01

306

Orbital changes and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 41,000-period of orbital tilt, summer insolation forces a lagged response in northern ice sheets. This delayed ice signal is rapidly transferred to nearby northern oceans and landmasses by atmospheric dynamics. These ice-driven responses lead to late-phased changes in atmospheric CO2 that provide positive feedback to the ice sheets and also project ‘late’ 41-K forcing across the tropics and

William F. Ruddiman

2006-01-01

307

Tracking seasonal signs of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 2 March, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), a consortium of government, academic, and citizen scientists, launched a national program for volunteers to help observe the seasonal cycles of plants, including flowering, fruiting, and other seasonal events. The program will begin monitoring animals in 2010. Scientists and resource managers will use these observations to track effects of climate change on Earth's life-support systems.

Showstack, Randy

308

Climate change and trace gases.  

PubMed

Palaeoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the 'albedo flip' property of ice/water, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that 'flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Inertia of ice sheet and ocean provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the largest human-made climate forcing, but other trace constituents are also important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. The most important of the non-CO2 forcings is methane (CH4), as it causes the second largest human-made GHG climate forcing and is the principal cause of increased tropospheric ozone (O3), which is the third largest GHG forcing. Nitrous oxide (N2O) should also be a focus of climate mitigation efforts. Black carbon ('black soot') has a high global warming potential (approx. 2000, 500 and 200 for 20, 100 and 500 years, respectively) and deserves greater attention. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could preserve Arctic ice, while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity and the global environment. PMID:17513270

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Kharecha, Pushker; Russell, Gary; Lea, David W; Siddall, Mark

2007-07-15

309

A Lesson on Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cooperative learning activity, for grades 7-12, promotes critical thinking skills within the context of learning about the causes and effects of climate change. Objectives include: (1) understanding factors that reduce greenhouse gases; (2) understanding the role of trees in reducing greenhouse gases; (3) identifying foods that produce…

Lewis, Jim

310

1000 years of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar activity has been observed to vary on decadal and centennial time scales. Recent evidence (Bond, 2002) points to a major semi-periodic variation of approximately 1,500 yrs. For this reason, and because high resolution proxy records are limited to the past thousand years or so, assessing the role of the sun's variability on climate change over this time f ame

C. Keller

2002-01-01

311

A Lesson on Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This cooperative learning activity, for grades 7-12, promotes critical thinking skills within the context of learning about the causes and effects of climate change. Objectives include: (1) understanding factors that reduce greenhouse gases; (2) understanding the role of trees in reducing greenhouse gases; (3) identifying foods that produce…

Lewis, Jim

312

Climatic Change and Human Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces the history of the Earth over four billion years, and shows how climate has had an important role to play in the evolution of humans. Posits that the world's rapidly growing human population and its increasing use of energy is the cause of present-day changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (Author/JRH)|

Garratt, John R.

1995-01-01

313

Global Climate Change Interaction Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)|

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

314

Impacts of Climate Change Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents one of three animated films for schoolchildren, commissioned by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. An emotive and visual animation conveys the effects climate change will have on marine ecosystems and suggests ways to minimize our impact.

2010-01-01

315

Urban development and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

With growing worldwide concern about global climate change, this article asks two critical questions: What reduction in vehicle?miles traveled (VMT) is possible in the USA with compact development rather than continuing urban sprawl?; and What reduction in greenhouse gas emissions would accompany such a reduction in VMT? Based on four different planning literatures, the answer to the first question appears

Reid Ewing; Keith Bartholomew; Steve Winkelman; Jerry Walters; Geoffrey Anderson

2008-01-01

316

Conservation, Development and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in Latin America, especially in the A mazon Basin, is a major source of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 which contribute to global warming. Protected area s play a vital role in minimizing forest loss and in supplyi ng key environmental services, including carbon sequestration and rainfall regulat ion, which mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change amidst

Anthony Hall

317

Climate Change Wildlife and Wildlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video focuses on the science of climate change and its impacts on wildlife on land and in the sea, and their habitats in the U.S. There are short sections on walruses, coral reefs, migrating birds and their breeding grounds, freshwater fish, bees, etc. Video concludes with some discussion about solutions, including reduce/recyle/reuse, energy conservation, backyard habitats, citizen scientists.

Service, U. S.; Program, U. S.

318

Climate Change and Agricultural Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document discusses the impact that global climate change has on food production both globally and in Latin America and the Caribbean. The author discusses environmental issues including extreme temperatures, water scarcity, flooding, and soil erosion. Using available information, this document discusses the impacts of these issues on Mesoamerica, the Caribbean Islands, the Andean Community, and the Southern Cone. Finally,

Rodomiro Ortiz

2012-01-01

319

Ecosystem Responses to Global Climate Change: Moving Beyond Color Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is on the effects of climate change on ecosystems. Current assessments of climate-change effects on ecosystems use two key approaches: (1) empirical synthesis and modeling of species range shifts and life-cycle processes that coincide with recent evidence of climate warming, from which scenarios of ecosystem change are inferred; and (2) experiments examining plant-soil interactions under simulated climate warming. Both kinds of assessment offer indisputable evidence that climate change and its effects on ecosystems are ongoing. However, both approaches often provide conservative estimates of the effects of climate change on ecosystems, because they do not consider the interplay and feedback among higher trophic levels in ecosystems, which may have a large effect on plant species composition and on ecosystem services such as productivity. Understanding the impacts of these top-down processes on ecosystems is critical for determining large-scale ecosystem response to climate change. Using examples of links between climate forcing, trophic interactions, and changes in ecosystem state in selected terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems, we show that the ability to understand and accurately forecast future effects of climate change requires an integrated perspective, linking climate and the biotic components of the ecosystem as a whole.

OSWALD J. SCHMITZ, ERIC POST, CATHERINE E. BURNS, and KEVIN M. JOHNSTON (;)

2003-12-01

320

Climate Science in a Nutshell: Climate Change Around the World?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is part of the Climate Science in a Nutshell video series. This short video looks at the effects of climate change happening right now around the globe, including: more extreme weather events, droughts, forest fires, land use changes, altered ranges of disease-carrying insects, and the loss of some agricultural products. It concludes with a discussion of the differences among weather, climate variability and climate change.

Nutshell, Planet; Network, Utah E.

321

Changing Climates @ Colorado State: 100 (Multidisciplinary) Views of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We would like to talk about a multidisciplinary education and outreach program we co-direct at Colorado State University, with support from an NSF-funded STC, CMMAP, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes. We are working to raise public literacy about climate change by providing information that is high quality, up to date, thoroughly multidisciplinary, and easy for non-specialists to understand. Our primary audiences are college-level students, their teachers, and the general public. Our motto is Climate Change is Everybody's Business. To encourage and help our faculty infuse climate-change content into their courses, we have organized some 115 talks given by as many different speakers-speakers drawn from 28 academic departments, all 8 colleges at CSU, and numerous other entities from campus, the community, and farther afield. We began with a faculty-teaching-faculty series and then broadened our attentions to the whole campus and surrounding community. Some talks have been for narrowly focused audiences such as extension agents who work on energy, but most are for more eclectic groups of students, staff, faculty, and citizens. We count heads at most events, and our current total is roughly 6,000. We have created a website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) that includes videotapes of many of these talks, short videos we have created, and annotated sources that we judge to be accurate, interesting, clearly written, and aimed at non-specialists, including books, articles and essays, websites, and a few items specifically for college teachers (such as syllabi). Pages of the website focus on such topics as how the climate works / how it changes; what's happening / what might happen; natural ecosystems; agriculture; impacts on people; responses from ethics, art, literature; communication; daily life; policy; energy; and-pulling all the pieces together-the big picture. We have begun working on a new series of very short videos that can be combined in various ways to comprise focused, lively, accurate primers to what we all need to know about climate change. With college classrooms as our intended venue, we are looking at such topics as why the weather in your backyard tells you nothing about global climate change-but a good deal about climate; how tiny molecules warm the planet; how snowpack, drought, bark beetles, fire suppression, and wildfire interact as stress complexes; why (and where) women, children, and the poor are especially vulnerable to harm from climate change; what international policy negotiators argue about; what poets and artists can contribute to understanding and solving the climate problem; and why ecologists are worried about changes in the seasonal timing of natural events. We will describe what we have done and how we did it; offer a few tips to others who might wish to do something similar; and introduce our website.

Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Changing Climates, Cmmap Education; Diversity Team

2011-12-01

322

Environment and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is intended to convey a broad understanding of the nature of climate change and its potential impacts. Students will come to understand the effects of radiation imbalance in the Arctic, fluctuations in albedo, and ecological consequences of decreasing albedo in the Arctic. Upon completion of the module, they will be able to explain: the consequences of decreasing stratospheric ozone, potential hazards of POP's entering Arctic food chains, and the possible impacts of environmental changes on traditional lifestyles in the Arctic.

323

Risk management and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection of climate policies should be an exercise in risk management reflecting the many relevant sources of uncertainty. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. Hence policy analysis cannot effectively evaluate alternatives using standard approaches, such as expected utility theory and benefit-cost analysis. This Perspective highlights the value of robust decision-making tools designed for situations such as evaluating climate policies, where consensus on probability distributions is not available and stakeholders differ in their degree of risk tolerance. A broader risk-management approach enables a range of possible outcomes to be examined, as well as the uncertainty surrounding their likelihoods.

Kunreuther, Howard; Heal, Geoffrey; Allen, Myles; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Field, Christopher B.; Yohe, Gary

2013-05-01

324

The ACIA, climate change and fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) is a project of the intergovernmental Arctic Council, intended to synthesize knowledge of the effects of climate change on the Arctic. This paper is based on the primary output of the ACIA project, a 1042 page book entitled Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Our concern is with the effects of Arctic climate change on fisheries.

William E. Schrank

2007-01-01

325

Validation of species-climate impact models under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing concern over the implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of species-climate envelope models to project species extinction risk under climate- change scenarios. However, recent studies have demonstrated significant variability in model predictions and there remains a pressing need to validate models and to reduce uncertainties. Model validation is problematic as predictions are made for

MIGUEL B. A RAUJO; R ICHARD G. P EARSON; W ILFRIED T HUILLER; MARKUS E RHARD

2005-01-01

326

Validation of species-climate impact models under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing concern over the implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of species-climate envelope models to project species extinction risk under climate- change scenarios. However, recent studies have demonstrated significant variability in model predictions and there remains a pressing need to validate models and to reduce uncertainties. Model validation is problematic as predictions are made for

MIGUEL B. A RAUJO; W ILFRIED T HUILLER

327

America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video production is a part of a four-panel report from the National Academies' America's Climate Choices project. The video maps out the realm of our accumulated knowledge regarding climate change and charts a path forward, urging that research on climate change enter a new era focused on the needs of decision makers.

Academies, National

328

Climate Change As An Ecosystem Architect: Implications To Rare ...  

Treesearch

Title: Climate Change As An Ecosystem Architect: Implications To Rare Plant ... Research Center USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station ... major migrations, range shifts, and population extirpations and colonizations (up to ...

329

Polar methane production, hothouse climates, and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the role of carbon dioxide in producing and maintaining hothouse climates has been considered extensively, the role of methane is more uncertain. Because methane is a very effective greenhouse gas, investigations of methane production and the potential impact of this gas on Cenozoic climate are critical. Methane produced from polar wetlands of hothouse climates is particularly important to understand, as production was likely much higher when wetlands rather than permafrost covered these areas. In this study we focus on Arctic methane production during the Eocene. Carbon isotope ratios of fossil tooth dentine and of authigenic carbonates associated with wetland sediment range from +5 to +10 per mil, which indicated that significant amount of methane production took place, and that this methane was able to reach the atmosphere. Support for this hypothesis is provided by experiments in which litter of plants related to those found in the Eocene high Arctic (e.g. conifers) were incubated at temperatures similar to those estimated for the region at this time. Methane production was measured for these incubations, and the resulting ‘Eocene’ production rates, when scaled to the landscape level, represent a polar source of methane that may several times that of the present day global methane flux. Therefore polar methane production during the Eocene likely represents a significant and presently unaccounted for input of this gas to the early Cenozoic atmosphere. High rates of polar methane production such as that estimated for the Eocene may have had a major impact on Cenozoic climate. They could have resulted in the production of polar stratospheric clouds that preferentially warmed the poles, thus providing a mechanism for preferentially warming high-latitude regions during hothouse climate states. Equally important incubation experiments indicate that methane production in Eocene wetlands is strongly influenced by temperature. Therefore a wetland-based source of methane at high latitudes likely served as a critical positive and negative feedback to climate change throughout the Cenozoic.

Fricke, H. C.; Williams, C.; Yavitt, J. B.

2009-12-01

330

The effects of climate change on tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is one of the major environmental issues facing the world today. The ongoing global warming has had and will continue to have serious impact on natural environment. The impact of climate change on the natural environment is manifested in changes in geography, landscape and ecosystems. Tourism is one of the sectors causing global climate change. This is an

S. K. Yazdi; B. Shakouri

2010-01-01

331

Ecological Restoration and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing consensus that global climate change occurs and that potential changes in climate are likely to have important regional consequences for biota and ecosystems. Ecological restoration, including (re)- afforestation and rehabilitation of degraded land, is included in the array of potential human responses to cli- mate change. However, the implications of climate change for the broader practice

James A. Harris; Richard J. Hobbs; Eric Higgs; James Aronson

2006-01-01

332

Climatic variability, plant phenology, and northern ungulates  

SciTech Connect

Models of climate change predict that global temperatures and precipitation will increase within the next century, with the most pronounced changes occurring in northern latitudes and during winter. A large-scale atmospheric phenomenon, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), is a strong determinant of both interannual variation and decadal trends in temperatures and precipitation during winter in northern latitudes, and its recent persistence in one extreme phase may be a substantial component of increases in global temperatures. Hence, the authors investigated the influences of large-scale climatic variability on plant phenology and ungulate population ecology by incorporating the NAO in statistical analyses of previously published data on: (1) the timing of flowering by plants in Norway, and (2) phenotypic and demographic variation in populations of northern ungulates. The authors analyzed 137 time series on plant phenology for 13 species of plants in Norway spanning up to 50 yr and 39 time series on phenotypic and demographic traits of 7 species of northern ungulates from 16 populations in North America and northern Europe spanning up to 30 yr.

Post, E.; Stenseth, N.C. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway)

1999-06-01

333

Extinction risk from climate change.  

PubMed

Climate change over the past approximately 30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of extinction shows a power-law relationship with geographical range size, we predict, on the basis of mid-range climate-warming scenarios for 2050, that 15-37% of species in our sample of regions and taxa will be 'committed to extinction'. When the average of the three methods and two dispersal scenarios is taken, minimal climate-warming scenarios produce lower projections of species committed to extinction ( approximately 18%) than mid-range ( approximately 24%) and maximum-change ( approximately 35%) scenarios. These estimates show the importance of rapid implementation of technologies to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and strategies for carbon sequestration. PMID:14712274

Thomas, Chris D; Cameron, Alison; Green, Rhys E; Bakkenes, Michel; Beaumont, Linda J; Collingham, Yvonne C; Erasmus, Barend F N; De Siqueira, Marinez Ferreira; Grainger, Alan; Hannah, Lee; Hughes, Lesley; Huntley, Brian; Van Jaarsveld, Albert S; Midgley, Guy F; Miles, Lera; Ortega-Huerta, Miguel A; Peterson, A Townsend; Phillips, Oliver L; Williams, Stephen E

2004-01-01

334

1000 years of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar activity has been observed to vary on decadal and centennial time scales. Recent evidence (Bond, 2002) points to a major semi-periodic variation of approximately 1,500 yrs. For this reason, and because high resolution proxy records are limited to the past thousand years or so, assessing the role of the sun's variability on climate change over this time f ame has received much attention. A pressingr application of these assessments is the attempt to separate the role of the sun from that of various anthropogenic forcings in the past century and a half. This separation is complicated by the possible existence of natural variability other than solar, and by the fact that the time-dependence of solar and anthropogenic forcings is very similar over the past hundred years or so. It has been generally assumed that solar forcing is direct, i.e. changes in sun's irradiance. However, evidence has been put forth suggesting that there exist various additional indirect forcings that could be as large as or even exceed direct forcing (modulation of cosmic ray - induced cloudiness, UV- induced stratospheric ozone change s, or oscillator -driven changes in the Pacific Ocean). Were such forcings to be large, they could account for nearly all 20th Century warming, relegating anthropogenic effects to a minor role. Determination of climate change over the last thousand years offers perhaps the best way to assess the magnitude of total solar forcing, thus allowing its comparison with that of anthropogenic sources. Perhaps the best proxy records for climate variation in the past 1,000 yrs have been variations in temperat ure sensitive tree rings (Briffa and Osborne, 2002). A paucity of such records in the Southern Hemisphere has largely limited climate change determinations to the subtropical NH. Two problems with tree rings are that the rings respond to temperature differently with the age of the tree, and record largely the warm, growing season only. It appears that both these problems have been adequately solved although caution is warranted. A promising adjunct to tree rings is actual measurement of temperatures in boreholes. Inversion of such records gives low frequency temperatures that are potentially more accurate than any proxy- derived ones. All these records give a fairly consistent picture of at least one major warming and cooling extreme (Medieval Warming Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Many modeling efforts using direct solar forcing have been done. These typically employ proxy data (sunspot number and variations in Be-10 and C -14 calibrated by satellite observations) for changes in solar forcing, and give the same general picture-- that of a substantial warming 1,000 yrs ago (MWP) followed by cooling that was particularly marked in the late 17th and early 19th centuries (LIA). The resulting amplitude of temperature change between MWP and LIA agrees well with paleo-temperature reconstructions and suggests that solar forcing alone is inadequate to account for more than about half the 20th century warming (Lean et al 1995, Crowley and Lowry 2000). Since these quantitatively reproduce climate variations in the past 1000 years, the role of indirect solar forcing is inferred to be small but may be important (Lean and Rind 2001). Gerard Bond, Bernd Kromer, Juerg Beer, Raimund Muscheler, Michael N. Evans, William Showers, Sharon Hoffmann, Rusty Lotti-Bond, Irka Hajdas, and Georges Bonani, (2001) Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate During the Holocene,Science 294: 2130-2136 Briffa and Osborne, (2002) Blowing Hot and Cold, Science 295, 2227-2228. Lean, J., Beer, J., and Bradley, R., (1995) Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett.., 22, 3195-3198. Crowley ,T., (2000) Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years, Science,289, 270- 277. Lean and Rind, (2001), Earth's Response to a Variable Sun, Science, 292, 234-236.

Keller, C.

335

Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development.

Majumdar, S.K.

1992-01-01

336

Overview-Climate Change and Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses a grave threat to sustainability. The first section of Sustainability2009: The Next Horizon, therefore, is devoted to Climate Change and Adaptation. Contributions focus on the historical consequences of climate change for human societies, as well as the effects of current climate change on sea level, lightning intensity, fire, the El Nin~o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and hurricane intensity. Chapters on fisheries and coral reefs highlight the cascading effects climatic warming, rising sea level, and ocean acidification. Adaptation to climate change and its consequences will be necessary to buy time for mitigation and reversal of the effects of greenhouse-gas emissions.

Aronson, Richard B.

2009-07-01

337

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it’s important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

338

Climate Change Scenarios and Sea Level Rise Estimates For the California 2009 Climate Change Scenarios Assessment. A Paper From: California Climate Change Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the 2008 California Climate Change Assessment, to further investigate possible future climate changes in California, a set of 12 climate change model simulations was selected and evaluated. From the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Ass...

D. Cayan E. Maurer H. Hidalgo M. Dettinger M. Tyree N. Graham P. Bromirski R. Flick T. Das

2009-01-01

339

Severe thunderstorms and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the planet warms, it is important to consider possible impacts of climate change on severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. To further that discussion, the current distribution of severe thunderstorms as a function of large-scale environmental conditions is presented. Severe thunderstorms are much more likely to form in environments with large values of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and deep-tropospheric wind shear. Tornadoes and large hail are preferred in high-shear environments and non-tornadic wind events in low shear. Further, the intensity of tornadoes and hail, given that they occur, tends to be almost entirely a function of the shear and only weakly depends on the thermodynamics. Climate model simulations suggest that CAPE will increase in the future and the wind shear will decrease. Detailed analysis has suggested that the CAPE change will lead to more frequent environments favorable for severe thunderstorms, but the strong dependence on shear for tornadoes, particularly the strongest ones, and hail means that the interpretation of how individual hazards will change is open to question. The recent development of techniques to use higher-resolution models to estimate the occurrence of storms of various kinds is discussed. Given the large interannual variability in environments and occurrence of events, caution is urged in interpreting the observational record as evidence of climate change.

Brooks, H. E.

2013-04-01

340

Honey Bees, Satellites and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life isn't what it used to be for honey bees in Maryland. The latest changes in their world are discussed by NASA scientist Wayne Esaias, a biological oceanographer with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. At Goddard, Esaias has examined the role of marine productivity in the global carbon cycle using visible satellite sensors. In his personal life, Esaias is a beekeeper. Lately, he has begun melding his interest in bees with his professional expertise in global climate change. Esaias has observed that the period when nectar is available in central Maryland has shifted by one month due to local climate change. He is interested in bringing the power of global satellite observations and models to bear on the important but difficult question of how climate change will impact bees and pollination. Pollination is a complex, ephemeral interaction of animals and plants with ramifications throughout terrestrial ecosystems well beyond the individual species directly involved. Pollinators have been shown to be in decline in many regions, and the nature and degree of further impacts on this key interaction due to climate change are very much open questions. Honey bee colonies are used to quantify the time of occurrence of the major interaction by monitoring their weight change. During the peak period, changes of 5-15 kg/day per colony represent an integrated response covering thousands of hectares. Volunteer observations provide a robust metric for looking at spatial and inter-annual variations due to short term climate events, complementing plant phenology networks and satellite-derived vegetation phenology data. In central Maryland, the nectar flows are advancing by about -0.6 d/y, based on a 15 yr time series and a small regional study. This is comparable to the regional advancement in the spring green-up observed with MODIS and AVHRR. The ability to link satellite vegetation phenology to honey bee forage using hive weight changes provides a basis for applying satellite-derived plant phenology and land cover data to improve estimates of the northern limits of Africanized Honey Bee invasion in North America.

Esaias, W.

2008-05-01

341

Simulated climate change provokes rapid genetic change in the Mediterranean shrub Fumana thymifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid climate change will impose strong directional selection pressures on natural plant populations. Climate-linked genetic variation in natural populations indicates that an evolutionary response is possible. We investigated such a response by comparing individuals subjected to elevated drought and warming treatments with individuals establishing in an unmanipulated climate within the same population. We report that reduction in seedling establishment in

ALIST A IR; S. J UMP; J O S E P P E NUELAS; L AURA R ICO; E LISENDA R AMALLO; MARC E STIARTE; J O S EA; d'Ecologõ ´ a

342

Global Climate Change: Threat Multiplier for AFRICOM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent increased pace in which extreme weather patterns are occurring has received national attention. Whatever the catalyst for this abrupt climate change, stability for Africa hinges upon mitigating the effects of global climate change to prevent fu...

T. A. Yackle

2007-01-01

343

Global Climate Change: Policy Implications for Fisheries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. These include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. For fisheries resources, p...

H. Gucinski R. T. Lackey B. C. Spence

1990-01-01

344

Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earth's climate is changing, with the global temperature now rising at rates unprecedented in the experience of human society. While some historical changes in climate have resulted from natural causes and variations, the strength of the trends and the pa...

2009-01-01

345

Mitigating Climate Change in China and Ethiopia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Hope in a Changing Climate, learn how an environmentally devastated ecosystem has been restored, benefiting both the local economy and global efforts to fight climate change.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

346

Global climate change and above- belowground insect herbivore interactions.  

PubMed

Predicted changes to the Earth's climate are likely to affect above-belowground interactions. Our understanding is limited, however, by past focus on two-species aboveground interactions mostly ignoring belowground influences. Despite their importance to ecosystem processes, there remains a dearth of empirical evidence showing how climate change will affect above-belowground interactions. The responses of above- and belowground organisms to climate change are likely to differ given the fundamentally different niches they inhabit. Yet there are few studies that address the biological and ecological reactions of belowground herbivores to environmental conditions in current and future climates. Even fewer studies investigate the consequences of climate change for above-belowground interactions between herbivores and other organisms; those that do provide no evidence of a directed response. This paper highlights the importance of considering the belowground fauna when making predictions on the effects of climate change on plant-mediated interspecific interactions. PMID:24155750

McKenzie, Scott W; Hentley, William T; Hails, Rosemary S; Jones, T Hefin; Vanbergen, Adam J; Johnson, Scott N

2013-10-22

347

Global climate change and above- belowground insect herbivore interactions  

PubMed Central

Predicted changes to the Earth’s climate are likely to affect above–belowground interactions. Our understanding is limited, however, by past focus on two-species aboveground interactions mostly ignoring belowground influences. Despite their importance to ecosystem processes, there remains a dearth of empirical evidence showing how climate change will affect above–belowground interactions. The responses of above- and belowground organisms to climate change are likely to differ given the fundamentally different niches they inhabit. Yet there are few studies that address the biological and ecological reactions of belowground herbivores to environmental conditions in current and future climates. Even fewer studies investigate the consequences of climate change for above–belowground interactions between herbivores and other organisms; those that do provide no evidence of a directed response. This paper highlights the importance of considering the belowground fauna when making predictions on the effects of climate change on plant-mediated interspecific interactions.

McKenzie, Scott W.; Hentley, William T.; Hails, Rosemary S.; Jones, T. Hefin; Vanbergen, Adam J.; Johnson, Scott N.

2013-01-01

348

Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past three decades LA was subjected to several climate-related impacts due to increased El Niño occurrences. Two extremely intense episodes of El Niño and other increased climate extremes happened during this period contributing greatly to augment the vulnerability of human systems to natural disasters. In addition to weather and climate, the main drivers of the increased vulnerability are demographic pressure, unregulated urban growth, poverty and rural migration, low investment in infrastructure and services, and problems in inter-sector coordination. As well, increases in temperature and increases/decreases in precipitation observed during the last part of 20th century have yet led to intensification of glaciers melting, increases in floods/droughts and forest fires frequency, increases in morbidity and mortality, increases in plant diseases incidence; lost of biodiversity, reduction in dairy cattle production, and problems with hydropower generation, highly affecting LA human system. For the end of the 21st century, the projected mean warming for LA ranges from 1 to 7.5ºC and the frequency of weather and climate extremes could increase. Additionally, deforestation is projected to continue leading to a reduction of 25 percent in Amazonia forest in 2020 and 40 percent in 2050. Soybeans planted area in South America could increase by 55 percent by 2020 enhancing aridity/desertification in many of the already water- stressed regions. By 2050 LA population is likely to be 50 percent larger than in 2000, and migration from the country sides to the cities will continue. In the near future, these predicted changes are very likely to severely affect a number of ecosystems and sectors distribution; b) Disappearing most tropical glaciers; c) Reducing water availability and hydropower generation; d) Increasing desertification and aridity; e) Severely affecting people, resources and economic activities in coastal areas; f) Increasing crop's pests and diseases; and g) Changing some human diseases distribution and provoking the emergence of new ones. The impact of climate change in Latin America's productive sectors is estimated to be of a 1.3 percent reduction of the region's GDP for a change of 2ºC in global temperature (without consider non market sectors and extremes events). Moreover, if the LA countries continue to follow the business as usual scenario, the wealth of natural resources that have supported economic and socio-cultural development in the region will be further degraded, reducing the regional potential for growth. Urgent measures must be taken to help bring environmental and social considerations from the margins to the decision-making and development strategies. This presentation is part of the revision done for the Latin American (LA) chapter under the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report.

Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

2007-05-01

349

Climate change 'understanding' and knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent surveys find that many people report having "a great deal" of understanding about climate change. Self-assessed understanding does not predict opinions, however, because those with highest "understanding" tend also to be most polarized. These findings raise questions about the relationship between "understanding" and objectively-measured knowledge. In summer 2011 we included three new questions testing climate-change knowledge on a statewide survey. The multiple-choice questions address basic facts that are widely accepted by contrarian as well as mainstream scientists. They ask about trends in Arctic sea ice, in CO2 concentrations, and the meaning of "greenhouse effect." The questions say nothing about impacts, attribution or mitigation. Each has a clear and well-publicized answer that does not presume acceptance of anthropogenic change. About 30% of respondents knew all three answers, and 36% got two out of three. 34% got zero or one right. Notably, these included 31% of those who claimed to have "a great deal" of understanding. Unlike self-assessed understanding, knowledge scores do predict opinions. People who knew more were significantly more likely to agree that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. This positive relationship remains significant controlling for gender, age, education, partisanship and "understanding." It does not exhibit the interaction effects with partisanship that characterize self-assessed understanding. Following the successful statewide test, the same items were added to a nationwide survey currently underway. Analyses replicated across both surveys cast a new light on the problematic connections between "understanding," knowledge and opinions about climate science.

Hamilton, L.

2011-12-01

350

Climate Change in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a South Asia, is home to over one fifth of the world’s population and is known to be the most disaster prone region in the world.\\u000a The high rates of ­population growth, and natural resource degradation, with continuing high rates of poverty and food insecurity\\u000a make South Asia one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. In

Mannava V. K. Sivakumar; Robert Stefanski

351

Climate change, zoonoses and India.  

PubMed

Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review. PMID:22435190

Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

2011-12-01

352

Energy Choices and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive provides a new way for students to look at issues related to energy and climate change. In the scenarios within this module, students make decisions about the types and amount of energy used and see what effect their decisions have on the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere. Their goal is to reduce the amount of warming greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere from fossil fuel emissions while keeping costs within reason.

Universe, Windows T.; Education, Ncar O.

353

Engaging the Public in Climate Change Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, currently finishing its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. In anticipation of the 2010 campaign, Project BudBurst has developed and released innovative and exciting projects with a special focus in the field of phenology and climate change. The collaborations between Project BudBurst and other organizations are producing unique campaigns for engaging the public in environmental research. The special project foci include on-the-spot and in-the-field data reporting via mobile phones, an emphasis on urban tree phenology data, as well as monitoring of native gardens across the US National Wildlife Refuge System. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and the new special projects, and share results from 2007-2009. Project BudBurst is managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, the Chicago Botanic Garden, and the University of Montana.

Meymaris, K. K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.; Schwarz Ballard, J.

2009-12-01

354

Climate Change: A Case Study Over India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   A brief account of various causes of climate change in recent decades and climate change trends in the Indian region is presented.\\u000a It is of great importance to determine the influence of human activities on the likely climate change during recent decades.\\u000a Local temperature is one of the major climatic elements to record the changes in the atmospheric environment

A. K. Sahai

1998-01-01

355

Climate Change Impact on Forestry in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate change represents a significant threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. Climate change is expected\\u000a to have also impacts on forest ecology. It is thus important to make assessments of possible impacts of climate change on\\u000a forests in different regions to allow respective governments and communities to adapt. Climate change is projected to affect\\u000a individual organisms, populations, species distributions

Geetanjali Kaushik; M. A. Khalid

356

Communicating Uncertainties on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term of uncertainty in common language is confusing since it is related in one of its most usual sense to what cannot be known in advance or what is subject to doubt. Its definition in mathematics is unambiguous but not widely shared. It is thus difficult to communicate on this notion through media to a wide public. From its scientific basis to the impact assessment, climate change issue is subject to a large number of sources of uncertainties. In this case, the definition of the term is close to its mathematical sense, but the diversity of disciplines involved in the analysis process implies a great diversity of approaches of the notion. Faced to this diversity of approaches, the issue of communicating uncertainties on climate change is thus a great challenge. It is also complicated by the diversity of the targets of the communication on climate change, from stakeholders and policy makers to a wide public. We will present the process chosen by the IPCC in order to communicate uncertainties in its assessment reports taking the example of the guidance note to lead authors of the fourth assessment report. Concerning the communication of uncertainties to a wide public, we will give some examples aiming at illustrating how to avoid the above-mentioned ambiguity when dealing with this kind of communication.

Planton, S.

2009-09-01

357

Mushroom fruiting and climate change  

PubMed Central

Many species of fungi produce ephemeral autumnal fruiting bodies to spread and multiply. Despite their attraction for mushroom pickers and their economic importance, little is known about the phenology of fruiting bodies. Using ?34,500 dated herbarium records we analyzed changes in the autumnal fruiting date of mushrooms in Norway over the period 1940–2006. We show that the time of fruiting has changed considerably over this time period, with an average delay in fruiting since 1980 of 12.9 days. The changes differ strongly between species and groups of species. Early-fruiting species have experienced a stronger delay than late fruiters, resulting in a more compressed fruiting season. There is also a geographic trend of earlier fruiting in the northern and more continental parts of Norway than in more southern and oceanic parts. Incorporating monthly precipitation and temperature variables into the analyses provides indications that increasing temperatures during autumn and winter months bring about significant delay of fruiting both in the same year and in the subsequent year. The recent changes in autumnal mushroom phenology coincide with the extension of the growing season caused by global climate change and are likely to continue under the current climate change scenario.

Kauserud, Havard; Stige, Leif Christian; Vik, Jon Olav; ?kland, Rune H.; H?iland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2008-01-01

358

Climate Change: Fitting the Pieces Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth Gauge and the COMET Program have designed a two-hour course for that provides a basic overview of climate change science and resources to answer common questions about climate change. Although initially designed for broadcast meteorologists, the course is a good primer for anyone interested in climate change.

2009-01-01

359

International business and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has become an important topic on the business agenda with strong pressure being placed on companies to respond and contribute to finding solutions to this urgent problem. This text provides a comprehensive analysis of international business responses to global climate change and climate change policy. Embedded in relevant management literature, this book gives a concise treatment of developments

J. Pinkse; A. Kolk

2008-01-01

360

Climate change impacts on electricity demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is expected to lead to changes in ambient temperature, wind speed, humidity, precipitation and cloud cover. As electricity demand is closely influenced by these climatic variables, there is likely to be an impact on demand patterns. The potential impact of future changes in climate on electricity demand can be seen on a daily and seasonal basis through the

S. Parkpoom; G. P. Harrison; J. W. Bialek

2004-01-01

361

Climate Change Impacts on Southeast Asian Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the extensive interest in measuring the economic impacts of climate change in general, there is very little empirical research on Asia. This study extrapolates results from India and selected experiments to the rest of Southeast Asia in order to measure the impact of climate change on agriculture in this region. The study examines a variety of climate change predictions

Robert Mendelsohn

362

Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change

Dawson, Vaille

2012-01-01

363

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: GOVERNMENT OF CANADA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Government of Canada Climate Change Site was developed to inform Canadians about climate change and how it affects our environment. The site explains what the Government of Canada is doing about climate change and how individuals, communities, businesses, industries, and ever...

364

Climate change and poverty in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa is most vulnerable to climate change, although it makes the least contribution to factors that result in global and regional climatic changes. High levels of vulnerability and low adaptive capacity across the continent have been linked to, among other things, poverty. This paper discusses and analyses the relationship between climate change and poverty in Africa. It investigates the relationship

Kempe Ronald Hope Sr

2009-01-01

365

Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

Anderson, Allison

2012-01-01

366

As climate changes, so do glaciers  

PubMed Central

Understanding abrupt climate changes requires detailed spatial/temporal records of such changes, and to make these records, we need rapidly responding, geographically widespread climate trackers. Glacial systems are such trackers, and recent additions to the stratigraphic record show overall synchronous response of glacial systems to climate change reflecting global atmosphere conditions.

Lowell, Thomas V.

2000-01-01

367

Climate change, human security and violent conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is increasingly been called a ‘security’ problem, and there has been speculation that climate change may increase the risk of violent conflict. This paper integrates three disparate but well-founded bodies of research – on the vulnerability of local places and social groups to climate change, on livelihoods and violent conflict, and the role of the state in development

Jon Barnett; W. Neil Adger

2007-01-01

368

Climate Change Compounding Risks in North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of climate change on agriculture and poor groups’ livelihoods are one of the greatest potential threats to development and a key challenge in climate change agenda. The North Africa region is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to geographic and ecological features. The situation is aggravated by the interaction of multiple economic and social sources of stress and

Imed Drine

2011-01-01

369

Ocean Circulation and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the mainstream media has provided extensive coverage of El Nino and La Nina -- the warmer and colder phases of a perpetual oscillation in the surface temperature of the tropical Pacific Ocean -- little attention has been paid to deep-water phases. Several recent publications in leading scientific journals (Science and Nature) are adding new dimensions to the link between large-scale ocean circulation patterns and climate. Researchers Dr. Wallace Broecker and researchers at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (see the November 5, 1999 issue of Science and the November 9, 1999 issue of The New York Times) found that deep ocean currents, operating as an oceanic "conveyor belt," may hold clues to climate change. The conveyor belt works by transporting warm, increasingly salty, ocean water from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean; eventually, the warm water current runs into a cold water current, causing the warm water to cool quickly and sink, due to greater density. In turn, this creates a "sub-surface countercurrent which carries the cool water back to the Indian and Pacific oceans" (2). In this week's issue of Nature (December 2, 1999), German scientist Carsten Ruhlemann and colleagues provide new evidence that the thermohaline circulation has triggered rapid climate change events in the past, including the last deglaciation. In addition, the current issue of Science Times (December 7, 1999) highlights the connection between thawing Arctic ice sheets and oceanic currents. This week's In The News focuses on ocean circulation patterns and climate change. The seven resources provide background information and specific links to related resources.

Payne, Laura X.

370

Congress probes climate change uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policymakers are demanding information about climate change faster than it can be turned out by scientists. This conflict between politics and science was debated at a recent congressional hearing on priorities in global change research. On October 8 and 10, panels of scientists that included AGU president-elect Ralph J. Cicerone of the University of California attempted to identify scientific uncertainties in global warming research before the House Science Committee's Subcommittee on Science.“Decisionmakers provided with incomplete information are left with the problem of choosing among options where the consequences of a wrong choice could be disastrous,” said subcommittee chair Rick Boucher (D-Va.).

Simarski, Lynn Teo

371

Arctic Climate Change: Are Current Climate Models too Conservative?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic Climate Change: Are Current Climate Models too Conservative? Julienne Stroeve, Marika Holland, Mark Serreze Climate models have long predicted that warming in the Arctic in response to greenhouse gas loading will be especially pronounced. This strong warming is closely related to loss of the sea ice cover. However, observed sea ice losses since 1979 have been stronger than those

J. C. Stroeve; M. Holland; M. Serreze

2006-01-01

372

Climate, climate change and human health in Asian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will affect the health of urban populations. It represents a range of environmental hazards and will affect populations where the current burden of climate-sensitive disease is high — such as the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding the current impact of weather and climate variability on the health of urban populations is the first step towards

Sari Kovats; Rais Akhtar

2008-01-01

373

The science of climate change.  

SciTech Connect

A complex debate is underway on climate change linked to proposals for costly measures that would reshape our power grid. This confronts technical experts outside of the geophysical disciplines with extensive, but unfamiliar, data both supporting and refuting claims that serious action is warranted. For example, evidence is brought to the table from one group of astrophysicists concerned with sunspots--this group believes there is no issue man can manage; while another group of oceanographers concerned with the heat balance in the world's oceans are very alarmed at the loss of arctic ice. What is the evidence? In an effort to put some of these issues in perspective for a technical audience, without a background in geophysics, a brief survey will consider (1) an overview of the 300 years of scientific inquiry on man's relationship to climate; (2) a basic discussion of what is meant by the ''greenhouse'' and why there are concerns which include not only CO{sub 2}, but also CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CFC's; (3) the geological record on CO{sub 2}--which likely was present at 1,000 times current levels when life began; (4) the solar luminosity and sunspot question; and (5) the current evidence for global climate change. We are at a juncture where we are attempting to understand the earth as an integrated dynamic system, rather than a collection of isolated components.

Doctor, R. D.

1999-09-10

374

Atmospheric carbon dioxide, past climates and the plant fossil record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic evidence and geochemical modelling indicate that the course of evolution of terrestrial vegetation has been marked by continuously changing climate and atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and O2. Consequently, there is a need to understand their impact on plant function. Data from CO2 enrichment experiments and vegetation models indicate the need to consider CO2 effects when interpreting plant-climate interactions from

D. J. Beerling

1999-01-01

375

Climate change scenarios for the assessments of the climate change on regional ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the different methods which may be used for the construction of regional climate change scenarios. The main focus of the paper is the construction of regional climate change scenarios from climate change experiments carried out using General Circulation Models (GCMs). An introduction to some GCM climate change experiments highlights the difference between model types and experiments (e.g.

D. Viner; M. Hulme; S. C. B. Raper

1995-01-01

376

Climate Change or Land Use Dynamics: Do We Know What Climate Change Indicators Indicate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different components of global change can have interacting effects on biodiversity and this may influence our ability to detect the specific consequences of climate change through biodiversity indicators. Here, we analyze whether climate change indicators can be affected by land use dynamics that are not directly determined by climate change. To this aim, we analyzed three community-level indicators of climate

Miguel Clavero; Daniel Villero; Lluís Brotons; Stephen G. Willis

2011-01-01

377

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:� Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.� Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.� Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.� Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

378

Hydrological change--climate change impact simulations for Sweden.  

PubMed

Climate change resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to give rise to changes in hydrological systems. This hydrological change, as with the change in climate variables, will vary regionally around the globe. Impact studies at local and regional scales are needed to assess how different regions will be affected. This study focuses on assessment of hydrological impacts of climate change over a wide range of Swedish basins. Different methods of transferring the signal of climate change from climate models to hydrological models were used. Several hydrological model simulations using regional climate model scenarios from Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM) are presented. A principal conclusion is that subregional impacts to river flow vary considerably according to whether a basin is in northern or southern Sweden. Furthermore, projected hydrological change is just as dependent on the choice of the global climate model used for regional climate model boundary conditions as the choice of anthropogenic emissions scenario. PMID:15264601

Andréasson, Johan; Bergström, Sten; Carlsson, Bengt; Graham, L Phil; Lindström, Göran

2004-06-01

379

Towards a Psychology of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper gives a structured overview about possible contributions of psychology to the climate change debate. As a starting\\u000a point, it assumes that understanding people’s behaviour related to climate change (mitigation and adaptation) is crucial for\\u000a successfully dealing with the future challenges. Climate change-related behaviour includes voting, support for climate lobbyists,\\u000a individual consumption, adapting new technology, and taking adaptive actions.

Christian A. Kloeckner

380

Mitigation needs adaptation: Tropical forestry and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between tropical forests and global climate change has so far focused on mitigation, while much less emphasis\\u000a has been placed on how management activities may help forest ecosystems adapt to this change. This paper discusses how tropical\\u000a forestry practices can contribute to maintaining or enhancing the adaptive capacity of natural and planted forests to global\\u000a climate change and

Manuel R. Guariguata; Jonathan P. Cornelius; Bruno Locatelli; Claudio Forner; G. Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa

2008-01-01

381

Climate Change in the Preservice Teacher's Mind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the recent media attention on the public's shift in opinion toward being more skeptical about climate change, 154 preservice teachers' participated in an intervention in an elementary science methods course. Findings indicated that students developed a deeper level of concern about climate change. Their perceptions on the evidence for climate change, consensus of scientists, impacts of climate change, and influence of politics also changed significantly. The curriculum and instruction appear to be an important factor in increasing understanding of climate change and developing perceptions more aligned to those of climate scientists. More broadly, this study provides preliminary support for the value of providing a careful framing of the topic of climate change within the context of science methods courses.

Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

2013-10-01

382

Tree rings, carbon dioxide, and climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree rings have been used in various appli- cations to reconstruct past climates as well as to assess the effects of recent climatic and environmental change on tree growth. In this paper we brief ly review two ways that tree rings provide information about climate change and CO2 :( i )i n determining whether recent warming during the period of

GORDON C. JACOBY; ROSANNE D. D'ARRIGO

1997-01-01

383

The ocean and climate change policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean plays a major role in regulating Earth's climate system, and is highly vulnerable to climate change, but continues to receive little attention in the ongoing policymaking designed to mitigate and adapt to global climate change. There are numerous ways to consider the ocean more significantly when developing these policies, several of which offer the co-benefits of biodiversity protection

Grantly Galland; Ellycia Harrould-Kolieb; Dorothée Herr

2012-01-01

384

Climate change, parasites and shifting boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Around the world the three major components of climate change already evident and escalating in magnitude and significance are; 1) warming; 2) altered patterns of precipitation; and 3) an increased incidence of extreme climatic events [1]. For the structure and function of ecosystems, impacts of climate change vary with place and with time, and among the key outcomes are

Lydden Polley; Eric Hoberg; Susan Kutz

2010-01-01

385

ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF RECENT CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Global climate change is frequently considered a major conservation threat. The Earth's climate has already warmed by 0.5 degrees C over the past century, and recent studies show that it is possible to detect the effects of a changing climate on ecological systems....

386

The scientific consensus of climate change revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper first reviews previous work undertaken to assess the level of scientific consensus concerning climate change, concluding that studies of scientific consensus concerning climate change have tended to measure different things. Three dimensions of consensus are determined: manifestation, attribution and legitimation. Consensus concerning these dimensions are explored in detail using a time series of data from surveys of climate

Dennis Bray

2010-01-01

387

Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological contributions, summarizes what psychology has learned, and sets out an agenda for making additional

Paul C. Stern

2011-01-01

388

Climate Change and Human Security1  

Microsoft Academic Search

percent of those living below the poverty line are women 3 for whom climate change represents very specific threats to security. When the impacts of climate change are brought home, then women, in their roles as the primary managers of family, food, water and health, must deal very directly with the impacts. While natural climate variations have existed for millennia,

Ben Wisner; Maureen Fordham; Ilan Kelman; Barbara Rose Johnston; David Simon; Allan Lavell; Hans Günter; Gustavo Wilches-Chaux; Marcus Moench

389

Advancing the Science of Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change, one of five groups convened under the Americas Climate Choices suite of activities (see Foreword), was charged to address the following question: What can be done to better understand climate change an...

2010-01-01

390

Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecosystems, and the biodiversity and services they support, are intrinsically dependent on climate. During the twentieth century, climate change has had documented impacts on ecological systems, and impacts are expected to increase as climate change continues and perhaps even accelerates. This techn...

391

CLIMATE CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN WILDLIFE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A large and growing body of scientific evidence indicates the Earth’s climate is changing, and the recent International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) declared that “warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean tempera...

392

Projecting Climate Change Impacts on Wildfire Probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present preliminary results of the 2008 Climate Change Impact Assessment for wildfire in California, part of the second biennial science report to the California Climate Action Team organized via the California Climate Change Center by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research Program pursuant to Executive Order S-03-05 of Governor Schwarzenegger. In order to support decision making by

A. L. Westerling; B. P. Bryant; H. Preisler

2008-01-01

393

Communicating Climate Change: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

For climate scientists, climate change is a problem that has a significant chance of having catastrophic environmental, social and economic consequences during the course of this century. In contrast, public opinion seems to regard with scepticism the pronouncements on climate change that emanate from the scientific community. Why the difference? This is what our research project was designed to examine.

Kevin A. Parton; Mark Morrison

2011-01-01

394

El Niño in a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Niño events, characterized by anomalous warming in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, have global climatic teleconnections and are the most dominant feature of cyclic climate variability on subdecadal timescales. Understanding changes in the frequency or characteristics of El Niño events in a changing climate is therefore of broad scientific and socioeconomic interest. Recent studies show that the canonical El

Sang-Wook Yeh; Jong-Seong Kug; Boris Dewitte; Min-Ho Kwon; Ben P. Kirtman; Fei-Fei Jin

2009-01-01

395

Pew Center on Global Climate Change: Observed Impacts of Global Climate Change in the U.S.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recently released report from the Pew Center on Global Climate Change "reviews the broad range of ecological changes that have occurred in response to human induced changes in the global and U.S. climate." The 67-page report, authored by Camille Parmesan of the University of Texas-Austin and Hector Galbraith of the University of Colorado-Boulder, is available in portable document format. The publication utilizes maps, tables, and figures as it addresses the following topics: Potential Effects of Climate Change on Wild Plants, Animals, and Ecological Processes; Current Observed Climate Change Impacts; Scope of Review and Evaluation Criteria for Studies; and Strength of Evidence that Climate Change is Already Affecting Natural Systems. Site visitors will also find the following sections of the report online: Table of Contents, Foreword, Executive Summary, and Conclusions. In addition, the site links to short bios for the authors and to a Glossary as well.

396

Recovery of native plant communities after eradication of rabbits from the subantarctic Kerguelen Islands, and influence of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of rabbits in 1874 into the Kerguelen archipelago had a significant impact on plant communities: the most sensitive species Pringlea antiscorbutica and Azorella selago disappeared and Acaena magellanica became dominant in most of the coastal areas. To study the recovery of native plant communities, rabbits were eradicated by poisoning on two islands. This produced a significant increase in

Jean-Louis Chapuis; Yves Frenot; Marc Lebouvier

2004-01-01

397

Practical resilience to climate change.  

PubMed

With the NHS generating around 18 million tonnes of carbon and CO2 annually, estates personnel face a considerable challenge in meeting tough Government and EU energy reduction targets while maintaining patient safety/comfort amid predictions of, for instance, hotter summers. A three-year research project, which builds on the conclusions of two recent academic papers examining low energy design and refurbishment strategies for NHS buildings, and the opportunities for low energy ventilation and cooling, is investigating practical ways to adapt the NHS Retained Estate to increase its climate change resilience while simultaneously reducing its carbon footprint. PMID:20597384

2010-06-01

398

Abrupt tropical climate change: past and present.  

PubMed

Three lines of evidence for abrupt tropical climate change, both past and present, are presented. First, annually and decadally averaged delta(18)O and net mass-balance histories for the last 400 and 2,000 yr, respectively, demonstrate that the current warming at high elevations in the mid- to low latitudes is unprecedented for at least the last 2 millennia. Second, the continuing retreat of most mid- to low-latitude glaciers, many having persisted for thousands of years, signals a recent and abrupt change in the Earth's climate system. Finally, rooted, soft-bodied wetland plants, now exposed along the margins as the Quelccaya ice cap (Peru) retreats, have been radiocarbon dated and, when coupled with other widespread proxy evidence, provide strong evidence for an abrupt mid-Holocene climate event that marked the transition from early Holocene (pre-5,000-yr-B.P.) conditions to cooler, late Holocene (post-5,000-yr-B.P.) conditions. This abrupt event, approximately 5,200 yr ago, was widespread and spatially coherent through much of the tropics and was coincident with structural changes in several civilizations. These three lines of evidence argue that the present warming and associated glacier retreat are unprecedented in some areas for at least 5,200 yr. The ongoing global-scale, rapid retreat of mountain glaciers is not only contributing to global sea-level rise but also threatening freshwater supplies in many of the world's most populous regions. PMID:16815970

Thompson, Lonnie G; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; Brecher, Henry; Davis, Mary; León, Blanca; Les, Don; Lin, Ping-Nan; Mashiotta, Tracy; Mountain, Keith

2006-06-30

399

EOS-WEBSTER: Climate Change Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides a compendium of current climate change information, including scientific evidence for climate change, policy documents (including the Kyoto Protocol and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports), summaries of specific climate change issues, and links to additional resources. These data holdings can be searched spatially, temporally, or by keyword, freetext, or collection name. There are also links to climate model projections from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), satellite and land use modeling data, and case studies. Registration and log-in are required to obtain some materials.

2005-12-02

400

Is climate change affecting human health?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First principles suggest that climate change is affecting human health, based on what is understood about the relationships between the mean and variability of temperature, precipitation, and other weather variables and climate-sensitive health outcomes, and the magnitude of climate change that has occurred. However, the complexity of these relationships and the multiple drivers of climate-sensitive health outcomes makes the detection and attribution of changing disease patterns to climate change very challenging. Nevertheless, efforts to do so are vital for informing policy and for prioritizing adaptation and mitigation options.

Ebi, Kristie L.

2013-09-01

401

Comparison of two potato simulation models under climate change. II Application of climate change scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of climate change (for the year 2050 compared to ambient climate) and change in climatic variability on potato growth and production at 6 sites in Europe were calculated. These calculations were done with both a simple growth model, POTATOS, and a comprehensive model, NPOTATO. Comparison of the results from both models indicated the sort of climate change conditions

J. Wolf

2002-01-01

402

Climate Change: A simulation with commentary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains two videos that show climate visualizations created by super computers. Both videos show climate changes that may occur during the 21st Century due to human activities based on IPCC science.

Research, Center F.; Ministry Of The Environment, Japan

403

Climate Change Education in Earth System Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory data analysis the approaches on climate time series, trend analysis and extreme events analysis are explained. Tools to describe relations within the data sets and significance tests further corroborate this. Within the weekly exercises that have to be prepared at home, the students work with self-selected climate data sets and apply the learned methods. The presentation and discussion of intermediate results by the students is as much part of the exercises as the illustration of possible methodological procedures by the teacher using exemplary data sets. The total time expenditure of the course is 270 hours with 90 attendance hours. The remainder consists of individual studies, e.g., preparation of discussions and presentations, statistical data analysis, and scientific writing. Different forms of examination are applied including written or oral examination, scientific report, presentation and portfolio work.

Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

2013-04-01

404

Abrupt climate change: can society cope?  

PubMed

Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and those who argue that the unknowns in the Earth system are too large to justify such early action. This paper explores the question of abrupt climate change in terms of its potential implications for society, focusing on the UK and northwest Europe in particular. The nature of abrupt climate change and the different ways in which it has been defined and perceived are examined. Using the example of the collapse of the thermohaline circulation (THC), the suggested implications for society of abrupt climate change are reviewed; previous work has been largely speculative and has generally considered the implications only from economic and ecological perspectives. Some observations about the implications from a more social and behavioural science perspective are made. If abrupt climate change simply implies changes in the occurrence or intensity of extreme weather events, or an accelerated unidirectional change in climate, the design of adaptation to climate change can proceed within the existing paradigm, with appropriate adjustments. Limits to adaptation in some sectors or regions may be reached, and the costs of appropriate adaptive behaviour may be large, but strategy can develop on the basis of a predicted long-term unidirectional change in climate. It would be more challenging, however, if abrupt climate change implied a directional change in climate, as, for example, may well occur in northwest Europe following a collapse of the THC. There are two fundamental problems for society associated with such an outcome: first, the future changes in climate currently being anticipated and prepared for may reverse and, second, the probability of such a scenario occurring remains fundamentally unknown. The implications of both problems for climate policy and for decision making have not been researched. It is premature to argue therefore that abrupt climate change - in the sense referred to here - imposes unacceptable costs on society or the world economy, represents a catastrophic impact of climate change or constitutes a dangerous change in climate that should be avoided at all reasonable cost. We conclude by examining the implications of this contention for future research and policy formation. PMID:14558906

Hulme, Mike

2003-09-15

405

Climate change scenarios for the California region  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate possible future climate changes in California, a set of climate change model simulations was selected and evaluated.\\u000a From the IPCC Fourth Assessment, simulations of twenty-first century climates under a B1 (low emissions) and an A2 (a medium-high\\u000a emissions) emissions scenarios were evaluated, along with occasional comparisons to the A1fi (high emissions) scenario. The\\u000a climate models whose simulations were

Daniel R. Cayan; Edwin P. Maurer; Michael D. Dettinger; Mary Tyree; Katharine Hayhoe

2008-01-01

406

Community-level phenological response to climate change.  

PubMed

Climate change may disrupt interspecies phenological synchrony, with adverse consequences to ecosystem functioning. We present here a 40-y-long time series on 10,425 dates that were systematically collected in a single Russian locality for 97 plant, 78 bird, 10 herptile, 19 insect, and 9 fungal phenological events, as well as for 77 climatic events related to temperature, precipitation, snow, ice, and frost. We show that species are shifting their phenologies at dissimilar rates, partly because they respond to different climatic factors, which in turn are shifting at dissimilar rates. Plants have advanced their spring phenology even faster than average temperature has increased, whereas migratory birds have shown more divergent responses and shifted, on average, less than plants. Phenological events of birds and insects were mainly triggered by climate cues (variation in temperature and snow and ice cover) occurring over the course of short periods, whereas many plants, herptiles, and fungi were affected by long-term climatic averages. Year-to-year variation in plants, herptiles, and insects showed a high degree of synchrony, whereas the phenological timing of fungi did not correlate with any other taxonomic group. In many cases, species that are synchronous in their year-to-year dynamics have also shifted in congruence, suggesting that climate change may have disrupted phenological synchrony less than has been previously assumed. Our results illustrate how a multidimensional change in the physical environment has translated into a community-level change in phenology. PMID:23901098

Ovaskainen, Otso; Skorokhodova, Svetlana; Yakovleva, Marina; Sukhov, Alexander; Kutenkov, Anatoliy; Kutenkova, Nadezhda; Shcherbakov, Anatoliy; Meyke, Evegeniy; Delgado, Maria Del Mar

2013-07-30

407

Climate Change and Aerosol Feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate instability is expected as mixing ratios of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere increase. The current trend in rising temperature can be related to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, this trend may change as feedback mechanisms amplify; one of the least-understood aspects of climate change. Formation of cloud condensation nuclei from rising sulfate concentrations in the atmosphere may counteract the current warming trend. A key point is where the sulfate, and cloud condensation nuclei are formed. Is cloud formation widespread or localized near sulfate emission sources? A major source of atmospheric sulfate is dimethylsulfide, a compound related to biotic turnover in the surface ocean that constitutes a widespread natural source of aerosols over the remote ocean. A second major source contributing a significant proportion of atmospheric sulfate in the northern hemisphere is produced over continents from industrial activities and fossil fuel combustion. Distinguishing the source of sulfate in well-mixed air is important so that relationships with cloud formation, sea-ice in polar regions, and albedo can be explored. This distinction in sulfate sources can be achieved using isotope apportionment techniques. Recent measurements show an increase in biogenic sulfate coincident with rising temperatures in the Arctic and large amounts sulfur from DMS oxidation over the Atlantic, potentially indicating a widespread biotic feedback to warming over northern oceans.

Norman, Ann-Lise

2008-05-01

408

Climate Change Effects on Marine Ecological Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is no secret that our climate is changing – rapidly – and together with it, oceans change as well. The Intergovernmental\\u000a Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), consisting of hundreds of scientists worldwide, have shown that changes in global climate\\u000a have accelerated since the 1750s, causing an overall increase in temperature both on land and in the sea. The IPCC

Gil Rilov; Haim Treves

409

The United Kingdom Environmental Change Network: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource briefly discusses the facts about climate change, and what effects a change in climate will have on humans. This includes a look at how the climate has already changed in recent times, and changes that will occur such as a rise in sea level, changes in vegetation, increases in disease, and changes in ecosystems. There is also a section discussing what can be done to stop this process.

410

Climate Change and Human Health: A One Health Approach.  

PubMed

Climate change adds complexity and uncertainty to human health issues such as emerging infectious diseases, food security, and national sustainability planning that intensify the importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Collaboration between veterinary, medical, and public health professionals to understand the ecological interactions and reactions to flux in a system can facilitate clearer understanding of climate change impacts on environmental, animal, and human health. Here we present a brief introduction to climate science and projections for the next century and a review of current knowledge on the impacts of climate-driven environmental change on human health. We then turn to the links between ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change and health. The literature on climate impacts on biological systems is rich in both content and historical data, but the connections between these changes and human health is less understood. We discuss five mechanisms by which climate changes impacts on biological systems will be felt by the human population: Modifications in Vector, Reservoir, and Pathogen Lifecycles; Diseases of Domestic and Wild Animals and Plants; Disruption of Synchrony Between Interacting Species; Trophic Cascades; and Alteration or Destruction of Habitat. Each species responds to environmental changes differently, and in order to predict the movement of disease through ecosystems, we have to rely on expertise from the fields of veterinary, medical, and public health, and these health professionals must take into account the dynamic nature of ecosystems in a changing climate. PMID:23160860

Patz, Jonathan A; Hahn, Micah B

2012-11-18

411

Shrinking body size as an ecological response to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining how climate change will affect global ecology and ecosystem services is one of the next important frontiers in environmental science. Many species already exhibit smaller sizes as a result of climate change and many others are likely to shrink in response to continued climate change, following fundamental ecological and metabolic rules. This could negatively impact both crop plants and protein sources such as fish that are important for human nutrition. Furthermore, heterogeneity in response is likely to upset ecosystem balances. We discuss future research directions to better understand the trend and help ameliorate the trophic cascades and loss of biodiversity that will probably result from continued decreases in organism size.

Sheridan, Jennifer A.; Bickford, David

2011-11-01

412

Climate change impact on neotropical social wasps.  

PubMed

Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997-2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals. PMID:22073236

Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

2011-11-02

413

Aeroallergens, Allergic Disease, and Climate Change: Impacts and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that there are many effects of climate change on aeroallergens and thus allergic diseases in humans.\\u000a Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration acts as a fertilizer for plant growth. The fertilizing effects of carbon\\u000a dioxide, as well as increased temperatures from climate change, increase pollen production and the allergen content of pollen\\u000a grains. In addition, higher temperatures

Colleen E. Reid; Janet L. Gamble

2009-01-01

414

Climate Change Solutions: Oregon Switches to Cleaner Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Utilities and power plant developers across the nation can play a significant role in slowing global climate change. In 1996, Oregon took an important step in this direction when it approved the construction of a power plant that incorporates measures to ...

2000-01-01

415

How alpine plant growth is linked to snow cover and climate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent climate models predict future changes in temperature and precipitation in the Alps. To assess the potential response of alpine plant communities to climate change, we analyzed specific and combined effects of temperature, precipitation, and snow season timing on the growth of plants. This analysis is based on data from 17 snow meteorological stations and includes plant growth records from

Tobias Jonas; Christian Rixen; Matthew Sturm; Veronika Stoeckli

2008-01-01

416

Climate Change: Environmental Literacy and Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change is a technology-supported middle school science inquiry curriculum. This curriculum focuses on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change. Students use geospatial information technology tools (Google Earth), Web-based tools (including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline), and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate important climate change topics. Climate Change is aligned to the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy in addition to national science and environmental education standards. The unit takes 21 days which include pretest and post test. Assessments for each learning activity are available using the following login and password: Login: eliteacher Password: 87dja92

417

Statistical Principles for Climate Change Studies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical principles underlying `fingerprint' methods for detecting a climate change signal above natural climate variations and attributing the potential signal to specific anthropogenic forcings are discussed. The climate change problem is introduced through an exposition of statistical issues in modeling the climate signal and natural climate variability. The fingerprint approach is shown to be analogous to optimal hypothesis testing procedures from the classical statistics literature. The statistical formulation of the fingerprint scheme suggests new insights into the implementation of the techniques for climate change studies. In particular, the statistical testing ideas are exploited to introduce alternative procedures within the fingerprint model for attribution of climate change and to shed light on practical issues in applying the fingerprint detection strategies.

Levine, Richard A.; Berliner, L. Mark

1999-02-01

418

The economics of abrupt climate change.  

PubMed

The US National Research Council defines abrupt climate change as a change of state that is sufficiently rapid and sufficiently widespread in its effects that economies are unprepared or incapable of adapting. This may be too restrictive a definition, but abrupt climate change does have implications for the choice between the main response options: mitigation (which reduces the risks of climate change) and adaptation (which reduces the costs of climate change). The paper argues that by (i) increasing the costs of change and the potential growth of consumption, and (ii) reducing the time to change, abrupt climate change favours mitigation over adaptation. Furthermore, because the implications of change are fundamentally uncertain and potentially very high, it favours a precautionary approach in which mitigation buys time for learning. Adaptation-oriented decision tools, such as scenario planning, are inappropriate in these circumstances. Hence learning implies the use of probabilistic models that include socioeconomic feedbacks. PMID:14558908

Perrings, Charles

2003-09-15

419

Global climate change and international security  

SciTech Connect

On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

Rice, M.

1991-01-01

420

Tools for Teaching Climate Change Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) develops public outreach materials and educational resources for schools. Studies prove that science education in rural and indigenous communities improves when educators integrate regional knowledge of climate and environmental issues into school curriculum and public outreach materials. In order to promote understanding of ACRF climate change studies, ACRF Education and Outreach has

A. M. Maestas; L. A. Jones

2005-01-01

421

Manufacturing weather: climate change, indoors and out  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many parts of the world, the indoor climate - by which I mean temperature, humidity and ventilation within buildings - has been transformed over the last two centuries in ways that are of direct consequence for global warming and (outdoor) climate change. In this short paper I consider the relation between indoor and outdoor climates. I do so first

Elizabeth Shove

422

Climate change: The IPCC scientific assessment  

SciTech Connect

Book review of the intergovernmental panel on climate change report on global warming and the greenhouse effect. Covers the scientific basis for knowledge of the future climate. Presents chemistry of greenhouse gases and mathematical modelling of the climate system. The book is primarily for government policy makers.

Houghton, J.T.; Jenkins, G.J.; Ephraums, J.J. (eds.)

1990-01-01

423

Does the Sun contribute to climate change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous attempts have been made over the years to link various aspects of solar variability to changes in the Earth's climate. Since the Sun's output of electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles varies, and since the Sun is the ultimate driver for the climate system, it seems natural to link the two together and look for the source of climate variability

Paal Brekke

2010-01-01

424

Climate change adaptation in the ski industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of the success of climate change mitigation efforts, the international community has concluded that societies around\\u000a the world will need to adapt to some magnitude of climate change in the 21st century. While some economic sectors (e.g., agriculture,\\u000a water resources and construction) have been actively engaged in climate change adaptation research for years, adaptation has\\u000a received scant consideration within

Daniel Scott; Geoff McBoyle

2007-01-01

425

Plural Methodologies in Climate Change Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The proposed paper explores plural methodological strategies in climate change. The paper investigates the possibilities and difficulties associated with bridging the gap between model- based approaches in climate change science and climate-change economics, which need validation or 'ground-truthing', and qualitative and case-study based approaches of other social sciences, which from an instrumental viewpoint would need to be more generalisable.

J. Paavola

426

Australian agriculture: coping with dangerous climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian agriculture has operated successfully in one of the world’s most hostile environments for two centuries. However,\\u000a climate change is posing serious challenges to its ongoing success. Determining what might constitute dangerous climate change\\u000a for Australian agriculture is not an easy task, as most climate-related risks are associated with changes in the highly uncertain\\u000a hydrological cycle rather than directly to

Will Steffen; John Sims; James Walcott; Greg Laughlin

2011-01-01

427

Climate change and health - what's the problem?  

PubMed Central

The scientific consensus is that global warming is occurring and is largely the result of greenhouse gas emissions from human activity. This paper examines the health implications of global warming, the current socio-political attitudes towards action on climate change and highlight the health co-benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, policy development for climate change and health should embrace health systems strengthening, commencing by incorporating climate change targets into Millennium Development Goal 7.

2013-01-01

428

Effects of Climatic Change on Fisheries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of our accumulated knowledge of the effects of temperature and salinity have come through large-scale natural experiments, when major climatic changes have caused measured changes in the ocean environment, to which changes in abundance or distributio...

J. L. McHugh

1976-01-01

429

Climate variability and climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Workshop summary  

SciTech Connect

Representatives from fifteen countries met in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 11-15, 1995, to share results from the analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to global climate change. The workshop focused on the issues of global climate change and its impacts on various sectors of a national economy. The U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which has been signed by more than 150 governments worldwide, calls on signatory parties to develop and communicate measures they are implementing to respond to global climate change. An analysis of a country`s vulnerability to changes in the climate helps it identify suitable adaptation measures. These analyses are designed to determine the extent of the impacts of global climate change on sensitive sectors such as agricultural crops, forests, grasslands and livestock, water resources, and coastal areas. Once it is determined how vulnerable a country may be to climate change, it is possible to identify adaptation measures for ameliorating some or all of the effects.The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: The objectives of the vulnerability and adaptation workshop were to: Provide an opportunity for countries to describe their study results; Encourage countries to learn from the experience of the more complete assessments and adjust their studies accordingly; Identify issues and analyses that require further investigation; and Summarize results and experiences for governmental and intergovernmental organizations.

Bhatti, N.; Cirillo, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dixon, R.K. [U.S. Country Studies Program, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

430

Volcanoes and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data; develop descriptions, explanations, predictions and models using evidence; develop an understanding of the Earth as a system by understanding that global patterns of atmospheric movement influence climate, including local weather; and understand that internal and external processes of the Earth system cause natural hazards (volcanoes) that can change or destroy human and wildlife habitats, damage property and harm or kill humans. Students will demonstrate numerous cooperative learning strategies in response to a presentation of basic concepts. They will also collect, analyze, and interpret data, and make predictions based on its synthesis. The lesson provides detailed instructions as well as worksheets, charts, internet access, and publications.

431

Chemistry implications of climate change  

SciTech Connect

Since preindustrial times, the concentrations of a number of key greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and the nitric oxides (N{sub 2}O) have increased. Additionally, the concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols have also increased during the same time period. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are expected to increase temperature, while the aerosols tend to have a net cooling effect. Taking both of these effects into account, the current best scientific estimate is that the global average surface temperature is expected to increase by 2{degrees}C between the years 1990 to 2100. A climate change if this magnitude will both directly and indirectly impact atmospheric chemistry. For example, many important tropospheric reactions have a temperature dependence (either Arrhenius or otherwise). Thus, if temperature increase, reaction rates will also increase.

Atherton, C.S.

1997-05-01

432

Climate Change and Biodiversity in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is already affecting European biodiversity, as de m- onstrated by changes in species' ranges and ecosystem boundaries, shifts in reproductive cycles and growing seasons, and cha nges to the complex ways in which species interact (predation, pollination, competition and disease). These effects vary between regions and ecosystems. Strategies adopted to mitigate or adapt to climate change also impact

Hannah Reid

433

Will climate change affect ectoparasite species ranges?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Over the next 100 years, human-driven climate change and resulting changes in species occurrences will have global impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human health. Here we examine how climate change may affect the occurrences of tick species in Africa and alter the suitability of habitat outside Africa for African ticks. Location Africa and the world. Methods We predicted

Graeme S. Cumming; Detlef P. Van Vuuren

2006-01-01

434

The economics of abrupt climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US National Research Council defines abrupt climate change as a change of state that is sufficiently rapid and sufficiently widespread in its effects that economies are unprepared or incapable of adapting. This may be too restrictive a definition, but abrupt climate change does have implications for the choice between the main response options: mitigation (which reduces the risks of

Charles Perrings

2003-01-01

435

Climate Change: The Public Health Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing cli- mate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are un-

Howard Frumkin; Jeremy Hess; George Luber; Josephine Malilay; Michael McGeehin

2008-01-01

436

Climate change: the public health response.  

PubMed

There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18235058

Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

2008-01-30

437

Climate Change: The Public Health Response  

PubMed Central

There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations.

Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

2008-01-01

438

Global Distributions of Vulnerability to Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Signatories of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have committed themselves to addressing the “specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change”.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has since concluded with high confidence that “developing countries will be more vulnerable to climate change than developed countries”.2 In their most recent report, however, the IPCC notes that “current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is insufficient for reliable prediction of adaptations” 3 because “the capacity to adapt varies considerably among regions, countries and socioeconomic groups and will vary over time”.4 Here, we respond to the apparent contradiction in these two statements by exploring how variation in adaptive capacity and climate impacts combine to influence the global distribution of vulnerability. We find that all countries will be vulnerable to climate change, even if their adaptive capacities are enhanced. Developing nations are most vulnerable to modest climate change. Reducing greenhouse-gas emissions would diminish their vulnerabilities significantly. Developed countries would benefit most from mitigation for moderate climate change. Extreme climate change overwhelms the abilities of all countries to adapt. These findings should inform both ongoing negotiations for the next commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and emerging plans for implementing UNFCCC-sponsored adaptation funds.

Yohe, Gary; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Schlesinger, Michael; Meij, Henk; Xiaoshi, Xing

2006-12-01

439

Nordic exchange of students and climate change.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the end of 2010 and until the summer of 2011 two upper secondary schools in Höyanger, Norway and Ronneby, Sweden had the possibility to take part in a project called Nordplus junior. The main aims of the program are: • To promote Nordic languages and culture and mutual Nordic-Baltic linguistic and cultural understanding. • To contribute to the development of quality and innovation in the educational systems for life-long learning in the participating countries by means of educational cooperation, development projects, exchanges and networking. • To support, develop, draw benefit from and spread innovative products and processes in education through systematic exchange of experiences and best practice. • To strengthen and develop Nordic educational cooperation and contribute to the establishment of a Nordic-Baltic educational area. The students did research on climate change and the impact on local and regional areas. Many questions had to be answered, giving an explanation to what happens if the climate changes. Questions related to Höyanger, Norway What happens to life in Norwegian fiords? Which attitudes do youngsters and adults have about climate change and what actions do they take? What does a rise in sea level mean for Höyanger? How are different tourist attractions affected in western Norway? Questions related to Ronneby, Sweden How is the regional fauna and flora affected? What will happen to agriculture and forestry? What do adults and youngsters know about consequences of a possible climate change? What happens to the people of Ronneby if the sea level rises? Are there any positive outcomes if the climate changes? Conclusions In Norwegian fiords there could be benefits because fish are growing faster in the winter because of an increased temperature. At the same time there could be an imbalance in the ecosystem because of a change in the living ranges of different species. Most of the young boys and girls in Höyanger, Norway were consistent with their attitudes towards the environment. In the survey of adults (Höyanger) women between 50-60 years old were the ones that were friendliest towards the environment. The students of Sweden (Ronneby) believe both young Norwegian and Swedish people are well educated in climate changes issues. A rise in the sea level will have serious impact on both Ronneby and Höyanger. In Höyanger people could lose their jobs and landslides could take place. In Ronneby, ground water could be polluted by salt and sewage water. In Ronneby parks would be flooded and restrictions on building new houses below 2.2 meters above sea level would be enforced. In Bergen, Norway, the Hanseatic buildings will be flooded, there will be huge economic problems, new roads have to be built etc. The regional flora and fauna in Sweden will move northwards and new species will enter from Central Europe. The vegetation season will be longer and the crops will benefit from a higher carbon dioxide concentration. The plants could be exposed to parasites. The students of Ronneby also see possibilities due to climate change. There might be more tourists as the temperature increases. It could mean faster development for renewable energy sources. It could be possible to grow exotic fruits and vegetables in Ronneby if the temperature increases. Written by Mr. Anders Thomsson, teacher of Geography and Biology.

Thomsson, A.

2012-04-01

440

Managing for multiple resources under climate change: national forests.  

PubMed

This study explores potential adaptation approaches in planning and management that the United States Forest Service might adopt to help achieve its goals and objectives in the face of climate change. Availability of information, vulnerability of ecological and socio-economic systems, and uncertainties associated with climate change, as well as the interacting non-climatic changes, influence selection of the adaptation approach. Resource assessments are opportunities to develop strategic information that could be used to identify and link adaptation strategies across planning levels. Within a National Forest, planning must incorporate the opportunity to identify vulnerabilities to climate change as well as incorporate approaches that allow management adjustments as the effects of climate change become apparent. The nature of environmental variability, the inevitability of novelty and surprise, and the range of management objectives and situations across the National Forest System implies that no single approach will fit all situations. A toolbox of management options would include practices focused on forestalling climate change effects by building resistance and resilience into current ecosystems, and on managing for change by enabling plants, animals, and ecosystems to adapt to climate change. Better and more widespread implementation of already known practices that reduce the impact of existing stressors represents an important "no regrets" strategy. These management opportunities will require agency consideration of its adaptive capacity, and ways to overcome potential barriers to these adaptation options. PMID:19588192

Joyce, Linda A; Blate, Geoffrey M; McNulty, Steven G; Millar, Constance I; Moser, Susanne; Neilson, Ronald P; Peterson, David L

2009-12-01

441

Aeroallergens, Allergic Disease, and Climate Change: Impacts and Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Recent research has shown that there are many effects of climate change on aeroallergens and thus allergic diseases in humans. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration acts as a fertilizer for plant growth. The fertilizing effects of carbon dioxide, as well as increased temperatures from climate change, increase pollen production and the allergen content of pollen grains. In addition, higher temperatures are changing the timing and duration of the pollen season. As regional climates change, plants can move into new areas and changes in atmospheric circulation can blow pollen- and spore-containing dust to new areas, thus introducing people to allergens to which they have not been exposed previously. Climate change also influences the concentrations of airborne pollutants, which alone, and in conjunction with aeroallergens, can exacerbate asthma or other respiratory illnesses. The few epidemiological analyses of meteorological factors, aeroallergens, and allergic diseases demonstrate the pathways through which climate can exert its influence on aeroallergens and allergic diseases. In addition to the need for more research, there is the imperative to take preventive and adaptive actions to address the onset and exacerbation of allergic diseases associated with climate variability and change.

Reid, Colleen E.

2009-01-01

442

The impact of Pleistocene climate change on an ancient arctic-alpine plant: multiple lineages of disparate history in Oxyria digyna.  

PubMed

The ranges of arctic-alpine species have shifted extensively with Pleistocene climate changes and glaciations. Using sequence data from the trnH-psbA and trnT-trnL chloroplast DNA spacer regions, we investigated the phylogeography of the widespread, ancient (>3 million years) arctic-alpine plant Oxyria digyna (Polygonaceae). We identified 45 haplotypes and six highly divergent major lineages; estimated ages of these lineages (time to most recent common ancestor, T(MRCA)) ranged from ?0.5 to 2.5 million years. One lineage is widespread in the arctic, a second is restricted to the southern Rocky Mountains of the western United States, and a third was fou