These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Plant Pathogens as Indicators of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Chapter 25 Plant Pathogens as Indicators of Climate Change K.A. Garrett, M. Nita, E.D. De Wolf, L. Introduction 2. Climatic Variables and Plant Disease 3. Evidence that Simulated Climate Change Affects Plant Disease in Experiments 4. Evidence that Plant Disease Patterns have Changed due to Climate Change

Garrett, Karen A.

2

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes to Ecosystems K. A. Garrett, S. P. Dendy, E. E in the effects of climate change on plant disease contin- ues to be limited, but some striking progress has been of the magnitude of climate change effects. Ecosystem ecologists are now addressing the role of plant disease

Garrett, Karen A.

3

Climate change and plant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities are altering greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and causing global climate change. In the near future, there will certainly be changes in the Brazilian phytosanitary scenario attributed to global climate change. The impacts of climate change can be positive, negative or neutral, since these changes can decrease, increase or have no impact on diseases, depending on each

Raquel Ghini; Emília Hamada; Wagner Bettiol

2008-01-01

4

Impact of Climate Change on Plant Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant pathogen responses to climate change must be considered within the context of the “disease triangle” in which the pathogen, the host, and the environment are intrinsically connected. In addition to the very basic components being conducive for plant disease to occur, plant pathogens are impac...

5

Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers  

E-print Network

- 1 - Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers March 12, 2012 How trees die in drought key to plant, climate change questions How plants die during drought is one of the largest uncertainties in determining how plants will succumb to changing climate. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change

6

Climate change and plant diseases in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models predict that expected climate change in Ontario will significantly affect the occurrence of plant diseases in agriculture and forestry in the coming years. Direct, multiple effects on the epidemiology of plant diseases are expected, including the survival of primary inoculum, the rate of disease progress during a growing season, and the duration of epidemics. These effects will positively

G. J. Boland; M. S. Melzer; A. Hopkin; V. Higgins; A. Nassuth

2004-01-01

7

REVIEW OF "PLANT GROWTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper reviews a recent book on the topic entitled APlant Growth and Climate Change@ edited by James I.L. Morison and Michael D. Morecroft. The authors discuss effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on plant growth and development and on plant water relations. The book gives a generally good ov...

8

Book Review: Plant Growth and Climate Change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The technical book "Plant Growth and climate Change" (2006. James I.L. Morison and M.D. Morecroft, Eds. Blackwell Publishing. 213 pp.) was reviewed for the scientific readership of the peer-reviewed journal HortScience. The text is well organized into nine independently-authored chapters each of whi...

9

Genetic plant improvement and climate changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of climate change for the agribusiness in Brazil have been widely debated. The issue is discussed in this publication to show the expected problems, particularly those associated with increases in temperature and water stress. It is emphasized that the genetic improvement of plants, based on the experience in the past, has much to contribute to mitigate these problems.

Magno Antonio; Patto Ramalho; Graciele Simoneti da Silva; Luiz Antonio dos; Santos Dias

2009-01-01

10

Epidemiology / pidmiologie Climate change and plant diseases in Ontario  

E-print Network

Epidemiology / Épidémiologie Climate change and plant diseases in Ontario G.J. Boland, M.S. Melzer represent the most important effects of climate change on plant diseases. The management of plant diseases and adaptation. Key words: climate change, plant diseases, epidemiology, Ontario. Résumé : Les modèles actuels

Boland, Greg J.

11

Ris-R-1332(EN) Plant Respiration and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Risø-R-1332(EN) Plant Respiration and Climate Change Effects Dan Bruhn Ph.D. thesis Plant Research, Roskilde April 2002 #12;Abstract The ongoing climate changes can affect many plant physiological processes. In turn, these effects on plants may result in a feedback between the climate change and the vegetation

12

Desert Plant Communities Threatened by Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a series of chemical and ecological processes, new research shows that climate change will likely result in detrimental shifts in desert plant communities. The process through which desert plant communities will shift is complex, involving increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and precipitation -- two fundamental ingredients of photosynthesis. Due to human industrial activity, concentrations of carbon dioxide have increased markedly in the atmosphere, and are expected to double relative to pre-industrial times by the year 2050. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide helps plants use water more efficiently. Simultaneously, climate change models predict a higher frequency of extreme weather events, such as the powerful El Nino of 1998. Through a series of experiments, ecologist Stanley Smith of the University of Nevada and colleagues have demonstrated that plant species respond differently to the combination of wet weather and high carbon dioxide concentrations. Their results, published in the November 2 issue of Nature, show that invasive species benefit more from these conditions, thus unsettling the balance by out-competing native desert plants. Additionally, the increase in plant matter boosts the amount of fuel for fires, an effect which could magnify over time since exotic species tend to recover faster than native species, after a blaze. This week's In The News describes the new findings and offers links to several educational and research Websites.

13

Climate change and plant invasions: restoration opportunities ahead?  

E-print Network

Climate change and plant invasions: restoration opportunities ahead? B E T H A N Y A . B R A D L E change may also reduce invasive plant competitiveness if conditions become climatically unsuitable. Using al., 1996). Global climate change is expected to further expand the risk of plant invasion through

Bradley, Bethany

14

Mitigating Climate Change by Planting Trees: The  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Land-use change,and forestry proj- ects are,considered,a low-cost option,for ad- dressing climate change mitigation. In Canada, afforestation is targeted to sequester enough,car- bon,to meet,one-é fth of its international,obliga- tions, and at lower cost than emissions reduction. We examine,economic,aspects of the institutions and,incentives needed,to encourage,landowners in Canada,to adopt tree planting on a large scale. Based on data from a survey of

G. Cornelis Van Kooten; Sabina Lee Shaikh; Pavel Suchanek

15

Terrestrial plant production and climate change.  

PubMed

The likely future increase in atmospheric CO(2) and associated changes in climate will affect global patterns of plant production. Models integrate understanding of the influence of the environment on plant physiological processes and so enable estimates of future changes to be made. Moreover, they allow us to assess the consequences of different assumptions for predictions and so stimulate further research. This paper is a review of the sensitivities of one such model, Hybrid6.5, a detailed mechanistic model of terrestrial primary production. This model is typical of its type, and the sensitivities of the global distribution of predicted production to model assumptions and possible future CO(2) levels and climate are assessed. Sensitivity tests show that leaf phenology has large effects on mean C(3) crop and needleleaved cold deciduous tree production, reducing potential net primary production (NPP) from that obtained using constant maximum annual leaf area index by 32.9% and 41.6%, respectively. Generalized Plant Type (GPT) specific parameterizations, particularly photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf N, affect mean predicted NPP of higher C(3) plants by -22.3% to 27.9%, depending on the GPT, compared to NPP predictions obtained using mean parameter values. An increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentrations from current values to 720 ppm by the end of this century, with associated effects on climate from a typical climate model, is predicted to increase global NPP by 37.3%. Mean increases range from 43.9-52.9% across different C(3) GPTs, whereas the mean NPP of C(4) grass and crop increases by 5.9%. Significant uncertainties concern the extent to which acclimative processes may reduce any potential future increase in primary production and the degree to which any gains are transferred to durable, and especially edible, biomass. Experimentalists and modellers need to work closely together to reduce these uncertainties. A number of research priorities are suggested. 'The green leaf or, to be more precise, the microscopic green grain of chlorophyll, is the focus, the point in the world to which solar energy flows on one side while all the manifestations of life on earth take their source on the other side.' Kliment Arkadievich Timiryazev The conclusions of a century of plant physiology, speech at Moscow University, 12 January 1901. PMID:20202998

Friend, Andrew D

2010-03-01

16

ORIGINAL PAPER Climate change increases risk of plant invasion  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Climate change increases risk of plant invasion in the Eastern United States Bethany eco- systems, natural resources, and managed lands world- wide. Climate change may increase risk from invasive plant species as favorable climate conditions allow invaders to expand into new ranges. Here, we

Schweik, Charles M.

17

CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE FOR NATIVE PLANTS AND  

E-print Network

CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE FOR NATIVE PLANTS AND CONSERVATION A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012024 Prepared for to changes in global climate. Recorded increases of global average temperatures through the twentieth century

18

Insect herbivory, plant defense, and early Cenozoic climate change  

E-print Network

Insect herbivory, plant defense, and early Cenozoic climate change Peter Wilf* , Conrad C the Central Rocky Mountains, United States, documents the response of herbivores to changing regional climates decreased. Climate change affects herbivorous insects directly and also indirectly, through the turnover

Wilf, Peter

19

A plant’s perspective of extremes: Terrestrial plant responses to changing climatic variability  

PubMed Central

We review observational, experimental and model results on how plants respond to extreme climatic conditions induced by changing climatic variability. Distinguishing between impacts of changing mean climatic conditions and changing climatic variability on terrestrial ecosystems is generally underrated in current studies. The goals of our review are thus (1) to identify plant processes that are vulnerable to changes in the variability of climatic variables rather than to changes in their mean, and (2) to depict/evaluate available study designs to quantify responses of plants to changing climatic variability. We find that phenology is largely affected by changing mean climate but also that impacts of climatic variability are much less studied but potentially damaging. We note that plant water relations seem to be very vulnerable to extremes driven by changes in temperature and precipitation and that heatwaves and flooding have stronger impacts on physiological processes than changing mean climate. Moreover, interacting phenological and physiological processes are likely to further complicate plant responses to changing climatic variability. Phenological and physiological processes and their interactions culminate in even more sophisticated responses to changing mean climate and climatic variability at the species and community level. Generally, observational studies are well suited to study plant responses to changing mean climate, but less suitable to gain a mechanistic understanding of plant responses to climatic variability. Experiments seem best suited to simulate extreme events. In models, temporal resolution and model structure are crucial to capture plant responses to changing climatic variability. We highlight that a combination of experimental, observational and /or modeling studies have the potential to overcome important caveats of the respective individual approaches. PMID:23504722

Reyer, C.; Leuzinger, S.; Rammig, A.; Wolf, A.; Bartholomeus, R. P.; Bonfante, A.; de Lorenzi, F.; Dury, M.; Gloning, P.; Abou Jaoudé, R.; Klein, T.; Kuster, T. M.; Martins, M.; Niedrist, G.; Riccardi, M.; Wohlfahrt, G.; de Angelis, P.; de Dato, G.; François, L.; Menzel, A.; Pereira, M.

2013-01-01

20

Alien plants confront expectations of climate change impacts.  

PubMed

The success of alien plants in novel environments questions basic assumptions about the fate of native species under climate change. Aliens generally spread faster than the velocity of climate change, display considerable phenotypic plasticity as well as adaptation to new selection pressures, and their ranges are often shaped by biotic rather than climatic factors. Given that many native species also exhibit these attributes, their risk of extinction as a result of climate change might be overestimated. PMID:24946989

Hulme, Philip E

2014-09-01

21

Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has already triggered species distribution shifts in many parts of the world. Increasing impacts are expected for the future, yet few studies have aimed for a general understanding of the regional basis for species vulnerability. We projected late 21st century distributions for 1,350 European plants species under seven climate change scenarios. Application of the International Union for Conservation

Wilfried Thuiller; Sandra Lavorel; Miguel B. Araújo; Martin T. Sykes; I. Colin Prentice

2005-01-01

22

Dynamics of alpine plant litter decomposition in a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic changes resulting from anthropogenic activities over the passed century are repeatedly reported to alter the functioning\\u000a of pristine ecosystems worldwide, and especially those in cold biomes. Available literature on the process of plant leaf litter\\u000a decomposition in the temperate Alpine zone is reviewed here, with emphasis on both direct and indirect effects of climate\\u000a change phenomena on rates of

Konstantin S. Gavazov

2010-01-01

23

Climate Change Shifts Frost Seasons and Plant Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This month's issue of Ecology Letters adds new evidence to the effect of climate change on ecosystems. In a paper by Professor of Biology Dr. David Inouye of the University of Maryland, global climate change appears to influence early and late frost events, which in turn, "inhibit growth and possibly damage many plants." This news brief from ScienceDaily.com describes the recent finding and comments on its wider significance.

24

Climate change, phenology, and butterfly host plant utilization.  

PubMed

Knowledge of how species interactions are influenced by climate warming is paramount to understand current biodiversity changes. We review phenological changes of Swedish butterflies during the latest decades and explore potential climate effects on butterfly-host plant interactions using the Orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines and its host plants as a model system. This butterfly has advanced its appearance dates substantially, and its mean flight date shows a positive correlation with latitude. We show that there is a large latitudinal variation in host use and that butterfly populations select plant individuals based on their flowering phenology. We conclude that A. cardamines is a phenological specialist but a host species generalist. This implies that thermal plasticity for spring development influences host utilization of the butterfly through effects on the phenological matching with its host plants. However, the host utilization strategy of A. cardamines appears to render it resilient to relatively large variation in climate. PMID:25576283

Navarro-Cano, Jose A; Karlsson, Bengt; Posledovich, Diana; Toftegaard, Tenna; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan; Gotthard, Karl

2015-01-01

25

Climate Climate change change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile pastoralists are amongst those most at risk to climate change, yet they are amongst those with the greatest potential to adapt to climate change, and they may also of- fer one of the greatest hopes for mitigating climate change. The vulnerability that is associated with climate change in some pastoral environments has its roots in the restriction of tried

Jonathan Davies; Michele Nori

2008-01-01

26

The effects of climate change on plant phenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available data on climate change over the past century indicate that the Earth is warming. Important biological events,\\u000a including changes in plant phenology, have been reported in many parts of the world. We have explored some of these phenological\\u000a changes in more than 650 temperate species, which have indicated the average advancement of 1.9 days per decade in spring

V. P. Khanduri; C. M. Sharma; S. P. Singh

2008-01-01

27

Will Climate Change Promote Alien Plant Invasions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive alien plant species pose significant challenges to managing and maintaining indigenous biodiversity in natural ecosystems.\\u000a Invasive plants can transform ecosystems by establishing viable populations with growth rates high enough to displace elements\\u000a of the native biota (Rejmánek 1999) or to modify disturbance regimes (Brooks et al. 2004), thereby potentially transforming\\u000a ecosystem structure and functioning (Dukes and Mooney 2004). Because

Wilfried Thuiller; David M. Richardson; Guy F. Midgley

28

CLIMATE CHANGE, PLANT BIOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEAL m  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract I naddition to being the principle greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2) is also the principle source of carbon,for photosynthesis. Although the stimulation of plant,growth by rising CO2is usually viewed,as a positive aspect of climate change, the rise in CO2 is indiscriminate with respect to the stimulation of both anthropogenically important and deleteri- ous plant species. Here we present laboratory

Lewis H Ziska

29

Mitigating climate change by planting trees : the transaction costs trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use change and forestry projects are considered a low-cost option for addressing climate change mitigation. In Canada, afforestation is targeted to sequester enough carbon to meet one-fifth of its international obligations, and at lower cost than emissions reduction. We examine economic aspects of the institutions and incentives needed to encourage landowners in Canada to adopt tree planting on a large

Kooten van G. C; S. Shaikh; P. Suchanek

2002-01-01

30

Mitigating Climate Change by Planting Trees: The Transaction Costs Trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use change and forestry projects are considered a low-cost option for addressing climate change mitigation. In Canada, afforestation is targeted to sequester enough carbon to meet one-fifth of its international obligations, and at lower cost than emissions reduction. We examine economic aspects of the institutions and incentives needed to encourage landowners in Canada to adopt tree planting on a large

G. Cornelis van Kooten; Sabina Lee Shaikh; Pavel Suchánek

2002-01-01

31

Movement, impacts and management of plant distributions in response to climate change: insights from invasions  

E-print Network

1265 Movement, impacts and management of plant distributions in response to climate change and management of species responses to climate change. Synthesis A major challenge in this era of rapid climate climate change. Global climate change will likely result in species extinctions, disruption of ecosystem

Alvarez, Nadir

32

Climate Change and Plant Diseases: Forests, Crops, and Food Katherine Siegel '13 and Priyan Wickremesinghe `13  

E-print Network

107 Climate Change and Plant Diseases: Forests, Crops, and Food Security Katherine Siegel '13 not yet have a complete understanding of the effects of climate change on plant health, recent work of climate change on the plants that we depend on, scientists are working to develop a more thorough

Smith, Kate

33

Impacts of climate change on plant diseases--opinions Marco Pautasso & Thomas F. Dring &  

E-print Network

Impacts of climate change on plant diseases--opinions and trends Marco Pautasso & Thomas F. Döring There has been a remarkable scientific output on the topic of how climate change is likely to affect plant of previous reviews and trends in recent studies on the impacts of climate change on plant health. Sudden Oak

California at Berkeley, University of

34

Accepted Manuscript Woody plant population dynamics in response to climate changes from 1984 to  

E-print Network

Accepted Manuscript Woody plant population dynamics in response to climate changes from 1984, E., Soumaguel, N., Baup, F., Woody plant population dynamics in response to climate changes from the resilience Sahel vegetation.14 Keywords: Sahel, Mali, climate change, drought, woody plant population,

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Soil ecosystem functioning under climate change: plant species and community effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change depend on soil ecosystem dynamics. Soil ecosystems can directly and indirectly respond to climate change. For example, warming directly alters microbial communities by increasing their activity. Climate change may also alter plant community composition, thus indirectly altering the microbial communities that feed on their inputs. To better understand how climate change may directly

Paul Kardol; Melissa A. Cregger; Courtney E. Campany; Aimee T. Classen

2010-01-01

36

Evolution under changing climates: climatic niche stasis despite rapid evolution in a non-native plant  

PubMed Central

A topic of great current interest is the capacity of populations to adapt genetically to rapidly changing climates, for example by evolving the timing of life-history events, but this is challenging to address experimentally. I use a plant invasion as a model system to tackle this question by combining molecular markers, a common garden experiment and climatic niche modelling. This approach reveals that non-native Lactuca serriola originates primarily from Europe, a climatic subset of its native range, with low rates of admixture from Asia. It has rapidly refilled its climatic niche in the new range, associated with the evolution of flowering phenology to produce clines along climate gradients that mirror those across the native range. Consequently, some non-native plants have evolved development times and grow under climates more extreme than those found in Europe, but not among populations from the native range as a whole. This suggests that many plant populations can adapt rapidly to changed climatic conditions that are already within the climatic niche space occupied by the species elsewhere in its range, but that evolution to conditions outside of this range is more difficult. These findings can also help to explain the prevalence of niche conservatism among non-native species. PMID:23902908

Alexander, Jake M.

2013-01-01

37

Evolution under changing climates: climatic niche stasis despite rapid evolution in a non-native plant.  

PubMed

A topic of great current interest is the capacity of populations to adapt genetically to rapidly changing climates, for example by evolving the timing of life-history events, but this is challenging to address experimentally. I use a plant invasion as a model system to tackle this question by combining molecular markers, a common garden experiment and climatic niche modelling. This approach reveals that non-native Lactuca serriola originates primarily from Europe, a climatic subset of its native range, with low rates of admixture from Asia. It has rapidly refilled its climatic niche in the new range, associated with the evolution of flowering phenology to produce clines along climate gradients that mirror those across the native range. Consequently, some non-native plants have evolved development times and grow under climates more extreme than those found in Europe, but not among populations from the native range as a whole. This suggests that many plant populations can adapt rapidly to changed climatic conditions that are already within the climatic niche space occupied by the species elsewhere in its range, but that evolution to conditions outside of this range is more difficult. These findings can also help to explain the prevalence of niche conservatism among non-native species. PMID:23902908

Alexander, Jake M

2013-09-22

38

Genetic consequences of climate change for northern plants  

PubMed Central

Climate change will lead to loss of range for many species, and thus to loss of genetic diversity crucial for their long-term persistence. We analysed range-wide genetic diversity (amplified fragment length polymorphisms) in 9581 samples from 1200 populations of 27 northern plant species, to assess genetic consequences of range reduction and potential association with species traits. We used species distribution modelling (SDM, eight techniques, two global circulation models and two emission scenarios) to predict loss of range and genetic diversity by 2080. Loss of genetic diversity varied considerably among species, and this variation could be explained by dispersal adaptation (up to 57%) and by genetic differentiation among populations (FST; up to 61%). Herbs lacking adaptations for long-distance dispersal were estimated to lose genetic diversity at higher rate than dwarf shrubs adapted to long-distance dispersal. The expected range reduction in these 27 northern species was larger than reported for temperate plants, and all were predicted to lose genetic diversity according to at least one scenario. SDM combined with FST estimates and/or with species trait information thus allows the prediction of species' vulnerability to climate change, aiding rational prioritization of conservation efforts. PMID:22217725

Alsos, Inger Greve; Ehrich, Dorothee; Thuiller, Wilfried; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Tribsch, Andreas; Schönswetter, Peter; Lagaye, Claire; Taberlet, Pierre; Brochmann, Christian

2012-01-01

39

Soil ecosystem functioning under climate change: plant species and community effects  

SciTech Connect

Feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change depend on soil ecosystem dynamics. Soil ecosystems can directly and indirectly respond to climate change. For example, warming directly alters microbial communities by increasing their activity. Climate change may also alter plant community composition, thus indirectly altering the microbial communities that feed on their inputs. To better understand how climate change may directly and indirectly alter soil ecosystem functioning, we investigated old-field plant community and soil ecosystem responses to single and combined effects of elevated [CO2], warming, and water availability. Specifically, we collected soils at the plot level (plant community soils), and beneath dominant plant species (plant-specific soils). We used microbial enzyme activities and soil nematodes as indicators for soil ecosystem functioning. Our study resulted in two main findings: 1) Overall, while there were some interactions, water, relative to increases in [CO2] and warming, had the largest impact on plant community composition, soil enzyme activities, and soil nematodes. Multiple climate change factors can interact to shape ecosystems, but in this case, those interactions were largely driven by changes in water availability. 2) Indirect effects of climate change, via changes in plant communities, had a significant impact on soil ecosystem functioning and this impact was not obvious when looking at plant community soils. Climate change effects on enzyme activities and soil nematode abundance and community structure strongly differed between plant community soils and plant-specific soils, but also within plant-specific soils. In sum, these results indicate that accurate assessments of climate change impacts on soil ecosystem functioning require incorporating the concurrent changes in plant function and plant community composition. Climate change-induced shifts in plant community composition will likely modify or counteract the direct impact of climate change on soil ecosystem functioning, and hence, these indirect effects should be taken into account when predicting how climate change will alter ecosystem functioning.

Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Cregger, Melissa [ORNL; Campany, Courtney E [ORNL; Classen, Aimee T [ORNL

2010-01-01

40

Project BudBurst: People, Plants, and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2009 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2010 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst co managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago botanic Garden. Financial support has been received from the National Science Foundation, UCLA Center for Embedded network Sensors U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Geological Survey , National Geographic Education Foundation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and NASA.

Henderson, S.; Ward, D.; Havens, K.; Gardiner, L. S.; Alaback, P.

2010-12-01

41

Emerging Landscapes: Using Ecological Theory to Guide Urban Planting Design: An adaptation strategy for climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change threatens the structure and function of ecological communities in urban areas, including public and private gardens. An adaptation strategy was developed to accommodate the challenges of urban greenspace design under a changing climate. The strategy offers a protocol for planting design that focuses on adding resilience to plantings rather than matching specific plant species to specific predictions

MaryCarol Hunter

2011-01-01

42

Warming Experiments Underpredict Plant Phenological Responses to Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Warming experiments are increasingly relied on to estimate plant responses to global climate change. For experiments to provide meaningful predictions of future responses, they should reflect the empirical record of responses to temperature variability and recent warming, including advances in the timing of flowering and leafing. We compared phenology (the timing of recurring life history events) in observational studies and warming experiments spanning four continents and 1,634 plant species using a common measure of temperature sensitivity (change in days per degree Celsius). We show that warming experiments underpredict advances in the timing of flowering and leafing by 8.5-fold and 4.0-fold, respectively, compared with long-term observations. For species that were common to both study types, the experimental results did not match the observational data in sign or magnitude. The observational data also showed that species that flower earliest in the spring have the highest temperature sensitivities, but this trend was not reflected in the experimental data. These significant mismatches seem to be unrelated to the study length or to the degree of manipulated warming in experiments. The discrepancy between experiments and observations, however, could arise from complex interactions among multiple drivers in the observational data, or it could arise from remediable artefacts in the experiments that result in lower irradiance and drier soils, thus dampening the phenological responses to manipulated warming. Our results introduce uncertainty into ecosystem models that are informed solely by experiments and suggest that responses to climate change that are predicted using such models should be re-evaluated.

Wolkovich, E. M.; Cook, B. I.; Allen, J. M.; Crimmins, T. M.; Betancourt, J. L.; Travers, S. E.; Pau, S.; Regetz, J.; Davies, T. J.; Kraft, N. J. B.; Ault, T. R.; Bolmgren, K.; Mazer, S. J.; McCabe, G. J.; McGill, B. J.; Parmesan, C.; Salamin, N.; Schwartz, M. D.; Cleland, E. E.

2012-01-01

43

Rising CO2, Climate Change, and Public Health: Exploring the Links to Plant Biology  

PubMed Central

Background Although the issue of anthropogenic climate forcing and public health is widely recognized, one fundamental aspect has remained underappreciated: the impact of climatic change on plant biology and the well-being of human systems. Objectives We aimed to critically evaluate the extant and probable links between plant function and human health, drawing on the pertinent literature. Discussion Here we provide a number of critical examples that range over various health concerns related to plant biology and climate change, including aerobiology, contact dermatitis, pharmacology, toxicology, and pesticide use. Conclusions There are a number of clear links among climate change, plant biology, and public health that remain underappreciated by both plant scientists and health care providers. We demonstrate the importance of such links in our understanding of climate change impacts and provide a list of key questions that will help to integrate plant biology into the current paradigm regarding climate change and human health. PMID:19270781

Ziska, Lewis H.; Epstein, Paul R.; Schlesinger, William H.

2009-01-01

44

Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

45

Calibrating vascular plant abundance for detecting future climate changes in Oregon and Washington, USA  

E-print Network

Calibrating vascular plant abundance for detecting future climate changes in Oregon and Washington vascular plant abundances as indicators of future climate in a way analogous to the reconstruction of past and equilibrium abundances of populations of vascular plants. and therefore. it influences their evolutionary

Fried, Jeremy S.

46

Shifting Global Invasive Potential of European Plants with Climate Change  

E-print Network

Global climate change and invasions by nonnative species rank among the top concerns for agents of biological loss in coming decades. Although each of these themes has seen considerable attention in the modeling and forecasting communities...

Peterson, A. Townsend; Stewart, Aimee; Mohamed, Kamal I.; Araú jo, Miguel B.

2008-06-18

47

SYNTHESES Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate is a potent selective force in natural populations, yet the importance of adaptation in the response of plant species to past climate change has been questioned. As many species are unlikely to migrate fast enough to track the rapidly changing climate of the future, adaptation must play an increasingly important role in their response. In this paper we review

Alistair S. Jump; Unitat d'Ecofisiologia

2005-01-01

48

Seed banking of endangered plants: are we conserving the right species to address climate change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing awareness of the effects of climate change on plant distributions in situ has made the appropriate application\\u000a of ex situ techniques more crucial. These ex situ conservation techniques need to be targeted to priority species identified\\u000a at risk from climate change. The present paper assesses the sensitivity of plant species to climate change in Belgium and\\u000a explores the

Sandrine Godefroid; Thierry Vanderborght

2010-01-01

49

Effects of climate change on parasitic plants: the root hemiparasitic Orobanchaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change may affect hemisparasiticOrobanchaceae (ex-Scrophulariaceae) both directly through impacts on hemiparasite physiology and indirectly through impacts on host plants. This dual action\\u000a suggests particular sensitivity of the parasite to climate change and any associated impacts on hosts and other members of\\u000a the community. While little research has addressed the responses of parasitic plants to climate change in natural environments,

Gareth K. Phoenix

2005-01-01

50

Changing Climates  

E-print Network

and vegetation. Climate Change ? EPA?s Climate Change Site http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ Comprehensive information on the issue of climate change, including science, U.S. climate policy, greenhouse emissions, health and environmental effects... on the comment section. L ong before climate change and global warming became such a popular topic, scientists were researching the different aspects of the world?s changing climate. In Texas alone, dozens of scientists from different universities...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

51

Climate Change Scenarios Produce Novel Plant Communities in Simulated Arctic Tundra Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic tundra plant communities are strongly limited by the availability of nitrogen, as well as the cold climate conditions that are common in these regions. Perturbations to the environment, such as a change in climate, will likely lead to changes in these plant communities. With rising concentrations of greenhouse gases, global temperatures are expected to rise by several degrees by

A. M. Kelley; H. E. Epstein

2008-01-01

52

Modelling the impact of climate change on woody plant population dynamics in South African savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Southern Africa savannas climate change has been proposed to alter rainfall, the most important environmental driver for woody plants. Woody plants are a major component of savanna vegetation determining rangeland condition and biodiversity. In this study we use a spatially explicit, stochastic computer model to assess the impact of climate change on the population dynamics of Grewia flava,

Jörg Tews; Florian Jeltsch

2004-01-01

53

Potential effects of climate change on plant communities in three montane nature reserves in Scotland, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain ecosystems are often identified as being particularly sensitive to climate change, however this has rarely been investigated at the scale of individual mountain ranges using local relationships between plants and climate. This study uses fine resolution data to assess the potential changes to internationally important Arctic-alpine plant communities in three national nature reserves in the Scottish Highlands, United Kingdom.

Mandar R. Trivedi; Michael D. Morecroft; Pamela M. Berry; Terence P. Dawson

2008-01-01

54

Functional consequences of climate change-induced plant species loss in a tallgrass prairie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change is likely to reduce the floristic diversity of grasslands. Yet the potential consequences of climate-induced\\u000a plant species losses for the functioning of these ecosystems are poorly understood. We investigated how climate change might\\u000a alter the functional composition of grasslands for Konza Prairie, a diverse tallgrass prairie in central North America. With\\u000a species-specific climate envelopes, we show that

Joseph M. CraineJesse; Jesse B. Nippert; E. Gene Towne; Sally Tucker; Steven W. Kembel; Adam Skibbe; Kendra K. McLauchlan

2011-01-01

55

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA explains the difference between weather and climate and features groundbreaking analysis revealing that Earth's climate has changed much faster than previously believed.

2005-10-21

56

Rising CO2, climate change, and public health: Exploring the links to plant biology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although the issue of anthropogenic climate forcing and public health is widely recognized, one fundamental aspect has remained underappreciated; the impact of climatic change on plant biology and the well-being of human systems. To critically evaluate the extant and probable links between plant fun...

57

Evaluation of solar collector plant to contribute climate change mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manner in which we produce and consume energy is of crucial importance to sustainable development, as energy has deep relationships with each of its three dimensions - the economy, the environment and social welfare; energy is part of many environmental problems, including climate change, and must be part of the solution. Renewable energy increases diversity of energy supplies and

Morris Brenna; Federica Foiadelli; Mariacristina Roscia; D. Zaninelli

2008-01-01

58

Climate Change and Extreme Weather Impacts on Salt Marsh Plants  

EPA Science Inventory

Regional assessments of climate change impacts on New England demonstrate a clear rise in rainfall over the past century. The number of extreme precipitation events (i.e., two or more inches of rain falling during a 48-hour period) has also increased over the past few decades. ...

59

Climate change and plant health: designing research spillover from plant genomics for understanding the role of microbial communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change presents new challenges for managing plant health. Simultaneously, the revolution in sequencing technologies offers an exciting new perspective on whole microbial communities – and on both microbial responses to climate and microbial effects on plant health. There is still the need for a comparable revolution in experimental approaches to understand the functional roles of microbial taxa within these

K. A. Garrett; A. Jumpponen; C. Toomajian; L. Gomez-Montano

2012-01-01

60

LONGEVITY CAN BUFFER PLANT AND ANIMAL POPULATIONS AGAINST CHANGING CLIMATIC VARIABILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both means and year-to-year variances of climate variables such as temperature and precipitation are predicted to change. However, the potential impact of changing climatic variability on the fate of populations has been largely unexamined. We analyzed multiyear demographic data for 36 plant and animal species with a broad range of life histories and types of environment to ask how sensitive

William F. Morris; Catherine A. Pfister; Shripad Tuljapurkar; Chirrakal V. Haridas; Carol L. Boggs; Mark S. Boyce; Emilio M. Bruna; Don R. Church; Tim Coulson; Daniel F. Doak; Stacey Forsyth; Jean-Michel Gaillard; Carol C. Horvitz; Susan Kalisz; Bruce E. Kendall; Tiffany M. Knight; Charlotte T. Lee; Eric S. Menges

2008-01-01

61

Climate change – impact on crop growth and food production, and plant pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climates are changing worldwide at rates not seen previously in geological time. This affects food production itself and the growth and reproduction of plant pathogens which reduce crop yield and quality. There is a need to develop an understanding of the implications and impacts of climate change on natural biodiversity, artificial landscapes as well as production agriculture (defined here as

Geoffrey Richard Dixon

2012-01-01

62

Complexity in climate-change impacts: an analytical framework for effects mediated by plant disease  

E-print Network

The impacts of climate change on ecosystem services are complex in the sense that effective predictionREVIEW Complexity in climate-change impacts: an analytical framework for effects mediated by plant International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico City, Mexico; and h International Crops

Garrett, Karen A.

63

Holocene Substrate Influences on Plant and Fire Response to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of substrates in facilitating plant responses to climate change in the past has received little attention. Ecological studies, documenting the relative role of fertile and infertile substrates in mediating the effects of climate change, lack the temporal information that paleoecological lake studies provide on how plants have responded under equal, larger and more rapid past climate events than today. In this paper, pollen and macroscopic charcoal preserved in the sediments of eight lakes surrounded by infertile ultramafic soils and more fertile soils in the Klamath Mountains of northern California were analyzed. Comparison of late-Quaternary paleoecological sites suggests that infertile and fertile substrates supported distinctly different plant communities. Trees and shrubs on infertile substrates were less responsive to climate change than those on fertile substrates, with the only major compositional change occurring at the glacial/interglacial transition (~11.5ka), when temperature rose 5oC. Trees and shrubs on fertile substrates were more responsive to climate changes, and tracked climate by moving along elevational gradients, including during more recent climate events such as the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. Fire regimes were similar until 4ka on both substrate types. After 4ka, understory fuels on infertile substrates became sparse and fire activity decreased, while on fertile substrates forests became increasingly denser and fire activity increased. The complacency of plant communities on infertile sites to climate change contrasts with the individualistic and rapid adjustments of species on fertile sites. The findings differ from observations on shorter time scales that show the most change in herb cover and richness in the last 60 years on infertile substrates. Thus, the paleorecord provides unique long-term ecological data necessary to evaluate the response of plants to future climate change under different levels of soil fertility.

Briles, C.; Whitlock, C. L.

2011-12-01

64

Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to elevated CO sub 2 and climate change  

SciTech Connect

While the exact effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on global climate are unknown, there is a growing consensus among climate modelers that global temperature and precipitation will increase, but that these changes will be non-uniform over the Earth's surface. In addition to these potential climatic changes, CO{sub 2} also directly affects plants via photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal closure. Global climate change, in concert with these direct effects of CO{sub 2} on plants, could have a significant impact on both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Society's ability to prepare for, and respond to, such changes depends largely on the ability of climate and ecosystem researchers to provide predictions of regional level ecosystem responses with sufficient confidence and adequate lead time.

Reynolds, J.F.; Hilbert, D.W.; Chen, Jia-lin; Harley, P.C.; Kemp, P.R.; Leadley, P.W.

1992-03-01

65

Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change  

SciTech Connect

While the exact effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on global climate are unknown, there is a growing consensus among climate modelers that global temperature and precipitation will increase, but that these changes will be non-uniform over the Earth`s surface. In addition to these potential climatic changes, CO{sub 2} also directly affects plants via photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal closure. Global climate change, in concert with these direct effects of CO{sub 2} on plants, could have a significant impact on both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Society`s ability to prepare for, and respond to, such changes depends largely on the ability of climate and ecosystem researchers to provide predictions of regional level ecosystem responses with sufficient confidence and adequate lead time.

Reynolds, J.F.; Hilbert, D.W.; Chen, Jia-lin; Harley, P.C.; Kemp, P.R.; Leadley, P.W.

1992-03-01

66

Climate Change Disproportionately Increases Herbivore over Plant or Parasitoid Biomass  

PubMed Central

All living organisms are linked through trophic relationships with resources and consumers, the balance of which determines overall ecosystem stability and functioning. Ecological research has identified a multitude of mechanisms that contribute to this balance, but ecologists are now challenged with predicting responses to global environmental changes. Despite a wealth of studies highlighting likely outcomes for specific mechanisms and subsets of a system (e.g., plants, plant-herbivore or predator-prey interactions), studies comparing overall effects of changes at multiple trophic levels are rare. We used a combination of experiments in a grassland system to test how biomass at the plant, herbivore and natural enemy (parasitoid) levels responds to the interactive effects of two key global change drivers: warming and nitrogen deposition. We found that higher temperatures and elevated nitrogen generated a multitrophic community that was increasingly dominated by herbivores. Moreover, we found synergistic effects of the drivers on biomass, which differed across trophic levels. Both absolute and relative biomass of herbivores increased disproportionately to that of plants and, in particular, parasitoids, which did not show any significant response to the treatments. Reduced parasitism rates mirrored the profound biomass changes in the system. These findings carry important implications for the response of biota to environmental changes; reduced top-down regulation is likely to coincide with an increase in herbivory, which in turn is likely to cascade to other fundamental ecosystem processes. Our findings also provide multitrophic data to support the general concern of increasing herbivore pest outbreaks in a warmer world. PMID:22815763

de Sassi, Claudio; Tylianakis, Jason M.

2012-01-01

67

Climate change disproportionately increases herbivore over plant or parasitoid biomass.  

PubMed

All living organisms are linked through trophic relationships with resources and consumers, the balance of which determines overall ecosystem stability and functioning. Ecological research has identified a multitude of mechanisms that contribute to this balance, but ecologists are now challenged with predicting responses to global environmental changes. Despite a wealth of studies highlighting likely outcomes for specific mechanisms and subsets of a system (e.g., plants, plant-herbivore or predator-prey interactions), studies comparing overall effects of changes at multiple trophic levels are rare. We used a combination of experiments in a grassland system to test how biomass at the plant, herbivore and natural enemy (parasitoid) levels responds to the interactive effects of two key global change drivers: warming and nitrogen deposition. We found that higher temperatures and elevated nitrogen generated a multitrophic community that was increasingly dominated by herbivores. Moreover, we found synergistic effects of the drivers on biomass, which differed across trophic levels. Both absolute and relative biomass of herbivores increased disproportionately to that of plants and, in particular, parasitoids, which did not show any significant response to the treatments. Reduced parasitism rates mirrored the profound biomass changes in the system. These findings carry important implications for the response of biota to environmental changes; reduced top-down regulation is likely to coincide with an increase in herbivory, which in turn is likely to cascade to other fundamental ecosystem processes. Our findings also provide multitrophic data to support the general concern of increasing herbivore pest outbreaks in a warmer world. PMID:22815763

de Sassi, Claudio; Tylianakis, Jason M

2012-01-01

68

Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change  

PubMed Central

While there is a large consensus that plant–plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation–climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1) the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2) alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant–plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and climate change. PMID:25161660

Anthelme, Fabien; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.; Dangles, Olivier

2014-01-01

69

Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change.  

PubMed

While there is a large consensus that plant-plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation-climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1) the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2) alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant-plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and climate change. PMID:25161660

Anthelme, Fabien; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Dangles, Olivier

2014-01-01

70

Projected impacts of climate change on regional capacities for global plant  

E-print Network

Projected impacts of climate change on regional capacities for global plant species richness Jan turnover and thereby be a threat to native floras. Keywords: biodiversity patterns; global warming; water-energy dynamics; water-energy-richness hypothesis 1. INTRODUCTION Global climate has been warming by approximately

Kreft, Holger

71

Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent climate change, extremes in meteorological conditions are forecast and observed to increase globally, and to affect vegetation composition. More prolonged dry periods will alternate with more intensive rainfall events, both within and between years, which will change soil moisture dynamics. In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental filter in determining local plant species composition, as it determines the availability of both oxygen and water to plant roots. These resources are indispensable for meeting the physiological demands of plants. The consequences of climate change for our natural environment are among the most pressing issues of our time. The international research community is beginning to realise that climate extremes may be more powerful drivers of vegetation change and species extinctions than slow-and-steady climatic changes, but the causal mechanisms of such changes are presently unknown. The roles of amplitudes in water availability as drivers of vegetation change have been particularly elusive owing to the lack of integration of the key variables involved. Here we show that the combined effect of increased rainfall variability, temperature and atmospheric CO2-concentration will lead to an increased variability in both wet and dry extremes in stresses faced by plants (oxygen and water stress, respectively). We simulated these plant stresses with a novel, process-based approach, incorporating in detail the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. In order to quantify oxygen and water stress with causal measures, we focused on interacting meteorological, soil physical, microbial, and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. As both the supply and demand of oxygen and water depend strongly on the prevailing meteorological conditions, both oxygen and water stress were calculated dynamically in time to capture climate change effects. We demonstrate that increased rainfall variability in interaction with predicted changes in temperature and CO2, affects soil moisture conditions and plant oxygen and water demands such, that both oxygen stress and water stress will intensify due to climate change. Moreover, these stresses will increasingly coincide, causing variable stress conditions. These variable stress conditions were found to decrease future habitat suitability, especially for plant species that are presently endangered. The future existence of such species is thus at risk by climate change, which has direct implications for policies to maintain endangered species, as applied by international nature management organisations (e.g. IUCN). Our integrated mechanistic analysis of two stresses combined, which has never been done so far, reveals large impacts of climate change on species extinctions and thereby on biodiversity.

Bartholomeus, R.; Witte, J.; van Bodegom, P.; Dam, J. V.; Aerts, R.

2010-12-01

72

Climate change effects on plant biomass alter dominance patterns and community evenness in an experimental old-field ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric and climatic change can alter plant biomass production and plant community composition. However, we know little about how climate change-induced alterations in biomass production affect plant community composition. To better understand how climate change will alter both individual plant species and community biomass we manipulated atmospheric [CO2], air temperature and precipitation in a constructed old-field ecosystem. Specifically, we compared

Paul Kardol; COURTNEY E. CAMPANY; Lara Souza; RICHARD J. NORBY; JAKE F. WELTZIN; AIMEE T. CLASSEN

2010-01-01

73

FORECASTING REGIONAL TO GLOBAL PLANT MIGRATION IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The rate of future climate change is likely to exceed the migration rates of most plant species. The replacement of dominant species by locally rare species may require decades, and extinctions may occur when plant species cannot migrate fast enough to escape the consequences of...

74

Plant phenology, resource seasonality and climate change in a Brazilian cerrado savanna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant phenology, the study of recurring events and its relationship to climate, contributes with key information for the understanding of forest dynamics and plant resource availability to the fauna. Plant reproduction and growth are affected by proximate factors such as precipitation, temperature and photoperiod, ecological factors such as plant-animal interaction, for instance pollination and seed dispersal, and by phylogeny. Therefore, phenological changes may have enormous consequences for both, plants and animals depending upon the periodical availability of plant resources. The Brazilian tropical savannas, the cerrado, is a highly diverse vegetation with around 70% of the woody flora relaying on animal vectors for pollination and seed dispersal. We consider the cerrado savanna a good model to investigate shifts on tropical phenology and climate change. This vegetation presents a very seasonal phenology shaped by the climate characterized by the alternation of a hot, wet season and a dry, cooler one. The onset of leafing, flowering and fruiting is defined by the duration and intensity of the dry season, and changes on precipitation patterns and dryness may likely affect the plant species reproductive pattern as well as the resource availability to the fauna. In that context, we are carrying out a long-term project to investigate the phenology of growth and reproduction of a cerrado savanna woody community in Southeastern Brazil. Our aim is to understand the cerrado savanna long-term phenological patterns, its relationship to local climate, and whether phenological shifts over time may occur due to variations on climate. We are collecting data on crop size, species abundance and fruit consumption by birds to understand the fruit-frugivore network. Additionally, analyses are underway to explore the relationship among fruit season, fruit production, color and nutritional contents, and the activity of frugivores. Our final goal is to verify at which extension climate change may induce shifts on plant community phenology, affecting the availability of resource, plant-frugivore interactions and the mutualism network.

Gutierrez de Camargo, Maria Gabriela; de Camargo Guaraldo, André; Reys, Paula; Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Leonor

2010-05-01

75

The effect of Quaternary climatic changes on plant distribution and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic oscillations in the Quaternary have played a major role in changing the geographical distribution of plant species. Recent molecular work has provided new insights into the location of glacial refugia and routes of postglacial expansion. A comparative analysis shows that phylogeographic patterns in Europe appear to be less congruent than in North America. The change of geographical distribution has

Hans Peter Comes; Joachim W Kadereit

1998-01-01

76

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON PLANT BIOLOGY AND CONSEQUENCES FOR PUBLIC HEALTH.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a consequence of climate change and rising carbon dioxide levels, a number of aspects of weed biology are likely to be affected. These changes not only impact food security, but may include probable links to public health. Some examples of such direct links between CO2/temperature, plant biolog...

77

Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about forecasting plant migration due to climate change. The rate of future climate change is likely to exceed the migration rates of most plant species. The replacement of dominant species by locally rare species may require decades, and extinctions may occur when plant species cannot migrate fast enough to escape the consequences of climate change. Such lags may impair ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and clean water production. Thus, to assess global change, simulation of plant migration and local vegetation change by dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) is critical, yet fraught with challenges. Global vegetation models cannot simulate all species, necessitating their aggregation into plant functional types (PFTs). Yet most PFTs encompass the full spectrum of migration rates. Migration processes span scales of time and space far beyond what can be confidently simulated in DGVMs. Theories about climate change and migration are limited by inadequate data for key processes at short and long time scales and at small and large spatial scales. These theories must be enhanced to incorporate species-level migration and succession processes into a more comprehensive definition of PFTs.

Forecasting Regional to Global Plant Migration in Response to Climate Change (; )

2005-09-01

78

Impacts of climate change on plant productivity in the Cajander larch woodlands of northeastern Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change in Northern Eurasia is driving shifts in the productivity and extent of forest ecosystems, which can in turn feedback on the climate system. Few studies have examined plant response to climate change near latitudinal treeline in northeastern Siberia. We therefore quantified trends in climate and plant productivity, as well as productivity-climate relationships, in the Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma River watershed using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring measurements, and climate data. Averaged across the watershed there was a 1.0°C increase in mean summer temperature (T) from 1938 to 2009, but no systematic change in precipitation or climate moisture index (CMI). Plant productivity, as indicated by mean summer NDVI (NDVIs), was widely correlated with T and exhibited positive trends across 20% of the watershed, primarily in the climatically coolest area. In the climatically warmest areas NDVIs was positively associated with CMI instead of T and positive trends in NDVIs were uncommon. Annual larch basal area increment was positively correlated with NDVIs (r=0.44, P<0.05, 1982-2007), but showed no trend during the period of overlap with the satellite record despite a positive trend in NDVIs. Larch growth from 1938 to 2007 was positively associated with June and August temperature, as well as with prior summer CMI. Our analysis revealed that warming enhanced plant productivity in the coolest areas, yet in the warmest areas moisture availability likely limited increases in productivity. Unless there is a concomitant increase in moisture availability with future warming, it is possible that increased moisture stress could progressively limit forest productivity and perhaps slow the rate of forest expansion into the tundra, which could have significant climate feedback implications dues to impacts on carbon storage and surface energy balance.

Berner, L. T.; Beck, P.; Bunn, A. G.; Goetz, S. J.

2013-12-01

79

Plant response to climate change varies with topography, interactions with neighbors, and ecotype.  

PubMed

Predicting the future of any given species represents an unprecedented challenge in light of the many environmental and biological factors that affect organismal performance and that also interact with drivers of global change. In a three-year experiment set in the Mongolian steppe, we examined the response of the common grass Festuca lenensis to manipulated temperature and water while controlling for topographic variation, plant-plant interactions, and ecotypic differentiation. Plant survival and growth responses to a warmer, drier climate varied within the landscape. Response to simulated increased precipitation occurred only in the absence of neighbors, demonstrating that plant-plant interactions can supersede the effects of climate change. F. lenensis also showed evidence of local adaptation in populations that were only 300 m apart. Individuals from the steep and dry upper slope showed a higher stress/drought tolerance, whereas those from the more productive lower slope showed a higher biomass production and a greater ability to cope with competition. Moreover, the response of this species to increased precipitation was ecotype specific, with water addition benefiting only the least stress-tolerant ecotype from the lower slope origin. This multifaceted approach illustrates the importance of placing climate change experiments within a realistic ecological and evolutionary framework. Existing sources of variation impacting plant performance may buffer or obscure climate change effects. PMID:23691663

Liancourt, Pierre; Spence, Laura A; Song, Daniel S; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Sharkhuu, Anarmaa; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Helliker, Brent R; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

2013-02-01

80

Non-climatic constraints on upper elevational plant range expansion under climate change.  

PubMed

We are limited in our ability to predict climate-change-induced range shifts by our inadequate understanding of how non-climatic factors contribute to determining range limits along putatively climatic gradients. Here, we present a unique combination of observations and experiments demonstrating that seed predation and soil properties strongly limit regeneration beyond the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple, a tree species of major economic importance. Most strikingly, regeneration beyond the range limit occurred almost exclusively when seeds were experimentally protected from predators. Regeneration from seed was depressed on soil from beyond the range edge when this soil was transplanted to sites within the range, with indirect evidence suggesting that fungal pathogens play a role. Non-climatic factors are clearly in need of careful attention when attempting to predict the biotic consequences of climate change. At minimum, we can expect non-climatic factors to create substantial time lags between the creation of more favourable climatic conditions and range expansion. PMID:25253462

Brown, Carissa D; Vellend, Mark

2014-11-01

81

Evolution of plant–pollinator mutualisms in response to climate change  

PubMed Central

Climate change has the potential to desynchronize the phenologies of interdependent species, with potentially catastrophic effects on mutualist populations. Phenologies can evolve, but the role of evolution in the response of mutualisms to climate change is poorly understood. We developed a model that explicitly considers both the evolution and the population dynamics of a plant–pollinator mutualism under climate change. How the populations evolve, and thus whether the populations and the mutualism persist, depends not only on the rate of climate change but also on the densities and phenologies of other species in the community. Abundant alternative mutualist partners with broad temporal distributions can make a mutualism more robust to climate change, while abundant alternative partners with narrow temporal distributions can make a mutualism less robust. How community composition and the rate of climate change affect the persistence of mutualisms is mediated by two-species Allee thresholds. Understanding these thresholds will help researchers to identify those mutualisms at highest risk owing to climate change. PMID:25568025

Gilman, R Tucker; Fabina, Nicholas S; Abbott, Karen C; Rafferty, Nicole E

2012-01-01

82

Agroecology: Implications for plant response to climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural ecosystems (agroecosystems) represent the balance between the physiological responses of plants and plant canopies and the energy exchanges. Rising temperature and increasing CO2 coupled with an increase in variability of precipitation will create a complex set of interactions on plant ...

83

On the brink of change: plant responses to climate on the Colorado Plateau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The intensification of aridity due to anthropogenic climate change in the southwestern U.S. is likely to have a large impact on the growth and survival of plant species that may already be vulnerable to water stress. To make accurate predictions of plant responses to climate change, it is essential to determine the long-term dynamics of plant species associated with past climate conditions. Here we show how the plant species and functional types across a wide range of environmental conditions in Colorado Plateau national parks have changed with climate variability over the last twenty years. During this time, regional mean annual temperature increased by 0.18°C per year from 1989–1995, 0.06°C per year from 1995–2003, declined by 0.14°C from 2003–2008, and there was high interannual variability in precipitation. Non-metric multidimensional scaling of plant species at long-term monitoring sites indicated five distinct plant communities. In many of the communities, canopy cover of perennial plants was sensitive to mean annual temperature occurring in the previous year, whereas canopy cover of annual plants responded to cool season precipitation. In the perennial grasslands, there was an overall decline of C3 perennial grasses, no change of C4 perennial grasses, and an increase of shrubs with increasing temperature. In the shrublands, shrubs generally showed no change or slightly increased with increasing temperature. However, certain shrub species declined where soil and physical characteristics of a site limited water availability. In the higher elevation woodlands, Juniperus osteosperma and shrub canopy cover increased with increasing temperature, while Pinus edulis at the highest elevation sites was unresponsive to interannual temperature variability. These results from well-protected national parks highlight the importance of temperature to plant responses in a water-limited region and suggest that projected increases in aridity are likely to promote grass loss and shrub expansion on the Colorado Plateau.

Munson, Seth M.; Belnap, Jayne; Schelz, Charles D.; Moran, Mary; Carolin, Tara W.

2011-01-01

84

Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent climate change, extremes in meteorological conditions are forecast and observed to increase globally, and to affect vegetation composition. More prolonged dry periods will alternate with more intensive rainfall events, both within and between years, which will change soil moisture dynamics. In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental filter in determining local plant species composition, as it determines the availability of both oxygen and water to plant roots. These resources are indispensable for meeting the physiological demands of plants. The consequences of climate change for our natural environment are among the most pressing issues of our time. The international research community is beginning to realise that climate extremes may be more powerful drivers of vegetation change and species extinctions than slow-and-steady climatic changes, but the causal mechanisms of such changes are presently unknown. The roles of amplitudes in water availability as drivers of vegetation change have been particularly elusive owing to the lack of integration of the key variables involved. Here we show that the combined effect of increased rainfall variability, temperature and atmospheric CO2-concentration will lead to an increased variability in both wet and dry extremes in stresses faced by plants (oxygen and water stress, respectively). We simulated these plant stresses with a novel, process-based approach, incorporating in detail the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. In order to quantify oxygen and water stress with causal measures, we focused on interacting meteorological, soil physical, microbial, and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. The first physiological process inhibited at high soil moisture contents is plant root respiration, i.e. oxygen consumption in the roots, which responds to increased temperatures. High soil moisture contents hamper oxygen transport from the atmosphere, through the soil - where part of the oxygen additionally disappears by soil microbial oxygen consumption - and to the root cells. Reduced respiration negatively affects the energy supply to plant metabolism. Plant transpiration, which responds to increased temperatures and atmospheric CO2-concentrations, is the first physiological process that will be inhibited by low soil moisture contents, negatively affecting both photosynthesis and cooling. As both the supply and demand of oxygen and water depend strongly on the prevailing meteorological conditions, both oxygen and water stress were calculated dynamically in time to capture climate change effects. We demonstrate that increased rainfall variability in interaction with predicted changes in temperature and CO2, affects soil moisture conditions and plant oxygen and water demands such, that both oxygen stress and water stress will intensify due to climate change. Moreover, these stresses will increasingly coincide, causing variable stress conditions. These variable stress conditions were found to decrease future habitat suitability, especially for plant species that are presently endangered. The future existence of such species is thus at risk by climate change, which has direct implications for policies to maintain endangered species, as applied by international nature management organisations (e.g. IUCN). Our integrated mechanistic analysis of two stresses combined, which has never been done so far, reveals large impacts of climate change on species extinctions and thereby on biodiversity.

(Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Peter) van Bodegom, P. M.; (Jos) van Dam, J. C.; (Rien) Aerts, R.

2010-05-01

85

Forecasting spatial plant dynamics under future climate change in a semiarid savanna ecosystem with complex topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space and time dynamics of savanna ecosystems in semiarid regions is tightly related to fluctuations and changes in the climate, and the competition strategies of individual plants for resources. In most parts of the southwest U.S., various General Circulation Models (GCMs) predict general warming trends with reduced annual precipitation amounts, and increased frequency of extreme droughts and wet periods in the 21st century. Despite the potential risks posed by climate change on vegetation patterns and hydrology, our ability to predict such changes at the catchment and regional scales is limited. In this study, we used a recently developed spatially explicit Cellular Automata Tree-Grass-Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) to investigate the impacts of climate change on plant dynamics in a semiarid catchment (>3km2) located in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in central New Mexico, USA. In the catchment north-facing slopes are characterized by a juniper-grass savanna, and south-facing slopes by creosote bush and grass species. Initialized by LIDAR-derived tree locations and simulated grass and shrub patterns obtained from model calibration, CATGraSS is forced by a weather generator, AWE-GEN, used to downscale an ensemble of eight different GCM outputs at the study basin, producing multiple stochastic realizations of a transient climate scenario for the next hundred years. The ensemble simulations are used to examine the uncertainty in vegetation response and develop probabilistic plant distribution maps in relation to landscape morphology. This study highlights the importance of understanding local scale plant-to-plant interactions and the role of climate variability in determining climate change impacts on vegetation dynamics at varying spatial scales.

Zhou, X.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.

2011-12-01

86

Crop planting date optimization: An approach for climate change adaptation in West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture is the main source of income for population and the main driver of economy in Africa, particularly in West Africa. West African agriculture is dominated by rainfed agriculture. This agricultural system is characterized by smallholder and subsistence farming, and a limited use of crop production inputs such as machines, fertilizers and pesticides. Therefore, crop yield is strongly influenced by climate fluctuation and is more vulnerable to climate change and climate variability. To reduce climate risk on crop production, a development of tailored agricultural management strategies is required. The usage of agricultural management strategies such as tailored crop planting date might contribute both to reduce crop failure and to increased crop production. In addition, unlike aforementioned crop production inputs, the usage of tailored planting dates is costless for farmers. Thus, efforts to improve crop production by optimizing crop planting date can contribute to alleviate food insecurity in West Africa, in the context of climate change. In this study, the process-based crop model GLAM (General Large Area Model for annual crop) in combination with a fuzzy logic approach for planting date have been coupled with a genetic algorithm to derive Optimized Planting Dates (OPDs) for maize cropping in Burkina Faso, West Africa. For a specific location, the derived OPDs correspond to a time window for crop planting. To analyze the performance of the OPDs approach, the derived OPDs has been compared to two well-known planting date methods in West Africa. The results showed a mean OPD ranging from May 1st (South-West) to July 11th (North) across the country. In comparison with well-known methods, the OPD approach yielded earliest planting dates across Burkina Faso. The deviation of OPDs from planting dates derived from the well known methods ranged from 10 days to 20 days for the northern and central region, and less than 10 days for the southern region. With respect to the potential yields, the OPD approach indicated that an average increase in maize potential yield of around 20% could be obtained in water limited regions in Burkina Faso. Further investigations are carried out to evaluate both climate change and OPDs impact on crop productivity. Climate change scenario RCP45 and RCP85 data from eight regional climate models are used to perform crop yields simulation using GLAM in combination with OPDs.

Waongo, Moussa; Laux, Patrick; Kunstmann, Harald

2014-05-01

87

The relation investigation on climate change and woody plant phenophase in Zhengzhou City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of a linear tendency estimation scheme and correlation analysis a study is undertaken of change in Zhengzhou climate and phonological response of woody plants thereto, together with relations between meteorological elements (rainfall, sunshine length and mean temperature) and phenological periods investigated. And later, using a least squares polynomial, a fit expression is constructed for the peak phase of

Guoqiang Zhao; Youfei Zheng; Jing Liu; Xuefen Zhang; Huailiang Chen; Jun Wang

2006-01-01

88

Extreme climatic events change the dynamics and invasibility of semi-arid annual plant communities.  

PubMed

Extreme climatic events represent disturbances that change the availability of resources. We studied their effects on annual plant assemblages in a semi-arid ecosystem in north-central Chile. We analysed 130 years of precipitation data using generalised extreme-value distribution to determine extreme events, and multivariate techniques to analyse 20 years of plant cover data of 34 native and 11 exotic species. Extreme drought resets the dynamics of the system and renders it susceptible to invasion. On the other hand, by favouring native annuals, moderately wet events change species composition and allow the community to be resilient to extreme drought. The probability of extreme drought has doubled over the last 50 years. Therefore, investigations on the interaction of climate change and biological invasions are relevant to determine the potential for future effects on the dynamics of semi-arid annual plant communities. PMID:21988736

Jiménez, Milagros A; Jaksic, Fabian M; Armesto, Juan J; Gaxiola, Aurora; Meserve, Peter L; Kelt, Douglas A; Gutiérrez, Julio R

2011-12-01

89

From the Cover: Rapid shifts in plant distribution with recent climate change  

E-print Network

28) greenhouse gas-forced global climate change. Our resultsconstraint, and that global climate change may already bechanges in climate are projected to cause changes in vege- tation distribution (3). The global

Kelly, A. E.; Goulden, M. L.

2008-01-01

90

Climate change: can we predict the impacts on plant pathology and pest management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The science of climate change has matured considerably during the past decade, both relative to the strength of the evidence documenting the ongoing anthropogenic climate change and in terms of the quality of climate models projecting future changes in climate. Concomitantly, modeling studies to project the likely impacts of climate change on agricultural production also have become more sophisticated. Nonetheless,

H. Scherm

2004-01-01

91

Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather can change many times a day. Climate.the sum of weather.changes slowly, over decades and centuries, but it can change\\u000a abruptly with large volcanic eruptions, instabilities in ocean currents, or meteorite crashes. The dramatic 1815 Tambora eruption\\u000a spewed 100 km3 of ash, causing “a year without a summer” to cool Earth by 4°C. Cooling from volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols must

David Hafemeister

92

Effects of climate change on agricultural-plant pests. Volume II, Part 10 of environmental and societal consequences of a possible COâ-induced climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant pests and their community of biotic cohorts respond to climatic changes, whether temporal aberrations or long term shifts. How they respond depends on the magnitude of the change and the ability of the species to tolerate or adapt to the new environment. Scientists see several climatological scenarios concerning the increase of atmospheric COâ and ambient temperature. Those who foresee

1982-01-01

93

Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats  

E-print Network

Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats B A C K G R O U DN C H E C K ! Habitat, Food, Water Change on habitats,and in particular at the impacts that could result from the warming of global the potential to affect plants,animals and humans around the globe. #12;Climate Change Action Pack 158 Habitat

Gunawardena, Arunika

94

Comment on "Changes in climatic water balance drive downhill shifts in plant species' optimum elevations"  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crimmins et al. (Reports, 21 January 2011, p. 324) attributed an apparent downward elevational shift of California plant species to a precipitation-induced decline in climatic water deficit. We show that the authors miscalculated deficit, that the apparent decline in species' elevations is likely a consequence of geographic biases, and that unlike temperature changes, precipitation changes should not be expected to cause coordinated directional shifts in species' elevations.

Stephenson, Nathan L.; Das, Adrian J.

2011-01-01

95

Birds, Plants, and Climate: Impacts of Climatic Change on the Phenology of Spring Bird Migration in the Great Lakes, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is likely to emerge as a significant, if not dominant force, in ecosystem change over the next several decades. While the potential impacts of discordant range shifts have received considerable attention, asynchronies in phenology have received less attention. Migrating birds are of particular concern given their need of multiple habitats, which often involve large spatial scales. Time is of the essence for migrating birds: it is critical for departures with favorable weather conditions, intersecting adequate resources to fuel further flight, and for spring migrants, arrival on the breeding grounds in concert with the flush of food to feed offspring. We assess changes in the spring phenology of migrant birds in the Great Lakes region using observations in Germfask, MI, USA (49° 17'N, 85° 57'W) from 1965-1994 and Fairfield Township, WI,USA (43° 30'N, 89° 30'W) from 1976-1999. We correlate the species temporal changes with abiotic and biotic variables to understand how migrants' behaviour is associated with spring green-up (plant phenology) and multi-scalar climate/weather variables, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, and local and regional temperature. We assess the observed changes and correlations in light of migrant life history factors (wintering grounds, diet, residency) to understand which species, or groups of species, are particularly at risk from climatic-change-induced disruptions to the migratory and breeding schedule. The implications of potential ecosystem asynchronies between climate/weather, migratory schedules, and the arrival of spring are discussed.

Macmynowski, D. P.; Root, T. L.

2004-12-01

96

Climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

But there are many reasons to question the wisdom of the Kyoto Protocol's approach to climate change policy, including questions about the scientific grounding of the protocol; questions about the feasibility of the proposed implementation mechanisms; questions about the efficacy of those measures; questions about the adverse consequences of diverting resources to address highly uncertain risks using tools with uncertain

Staffordshire County Council; Anthony J. Richardson; RICHARD MCCANN; HOWARD AYLESWORTH; MARY L. VIGILANTE

1974-01-01

97

Forecasting climate change impacts to plant community composition in the Sonoran Desert region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hotter and drier conditions projected for the southwestern United States can have a large impact on the abundance and composition of long-lived desert plant species. We used long-term vegetation monitoring results from 39 large plots across four protected sites in the Sonoran Desert region to determine how plant species have responded to past climate variability. This cross-site analysis identified the plant species and functional types susceptible to climate change, the magnitude of their responses, and potential climate thresholds. In the relatively mesic mesquite savanna communities, perennial grasses declined with a decrease in annual precipitation, cacti increased, and there was a reversal of the Prosopis velutina expansion experienced in the 20th century in response to increasing mean annual temperature (MAT). In the more xeric Arizona Upland communities, the dominant leguminous tree, Cercidium microphyllum, declined on hillslopes, and the shrub Fouquieria splendens decreased, especially on south- and west-facing slopes in response to increasing MAT. In the most xeric shrublands, the codominant species Larrea tridentata and its hemiparasite Krameria grayi decreased with a decrease in cool season precipitation and increased aridity, respectively. This regional-scale assessment of plant species response to recent climate variability is critical for forecasting future shifts in plant community composition, structure, and productivity.

Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Belnap, Jayne; Hubbard, J. Andrew; Swann, Don E.; Rutman, Sue

2012-01-01

98

Climate-associated changes in spring plant phenology in China.  

PubMed

The timing of phenological events is highly responsive to global environmental change, and shifts in a phenological phase can affect terrestrial ecosystems, agriculture and economics. We analyzed changes in phenology for the spring season in China that occurred between the 1960's and the 2000's using four methods: species-level observations, meta-analysis, satellite measurements and phenology modeling. Previous analyses have rarely been reported due to sparse observations. Our results suggest that spring in China has started on average 2.88 days earlier per decade in response to spring warming by -4.93 days per degree Celsius over the last three decades. The shift towards an earlier start of spring was faster in two forest biomes (spring started on average 3.90 days earlier per decade) than in three grassland biomes (spring started on average 0.95 day earlier per decade). This difference was probably due to increased precipitation impacts in the grassland biomes. Interannual variations in the start of spring were most likely attributed to annual fluctuations in spring temperature (?40%) and in large-scale circulation anomalies (?20%). PMID:21484539

Ma, Ting; Zhou, Chenghu

2012-03-01

99

USA National Phenology Network: Plant and Animal Life-Cycle Data Related to Climate Change  

DOE Data Explorer

Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenology affects nearly all aspects of the environment, including the abundance and diversity of organisms, their interactions with one another, their functions in food webs, and their seasonable behavior, and global-scale cycles of water, carbon, and other chemical elements. Phenology records can help us understand plant and animal responses to climate change; it is a key indicator. The USA-NPN brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators, and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. The network harnesses the power of people and the Internet to collect and share information, providing researchers with far more data than they could collect alone.[Extracts copied from the USA-NPN home page and from http://www.usanpn.org/about].

100

Projected impacts of climate change on regional capacities for global plant species richness  

PubMed Central

Climate change represents a major challenge to the maintenance of global biodiversity. To date, the direction and magnitude of net changes in the global distribution of plant diversity remain elusive. We use the empirical multi-variate relationships between contemporary water-energy dynamics and other non-climatic predictor variables to model the regional capacity for plant species richness (CSR) and its projected future changes. We find that across all analysed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios, relative changes in CSR increase with increased projected temperature rise. Between now and 2100, global average CSR is projected to remain similar to today (+0.3%) under the optimistic B1/+1.8°C scenario, but to decrease significantly (?9.4%) under the ‘business as usual’ A1FI/+4.0°C scenario. Across all modelled scenarios, the magnitude and direction of CSR change are geographically highly non-uniform. While in most temperate and arctic regions, a CSR increase is expected, the projections indicate a strong decline in most tropical and subtropical regions. Countries least responsible for past and present greenhouse gas emissions are likely to incur disproportionately large future losses in CSR, whereas industrialized countries have projected moderate increases. Independent of direction, we infer that all changes in regional CSR will probably induce on-site species turnover and thereby be a threat to native floras. PMID:20335215

Sommer, Jan Henning; Kreft, Holger; Kier, Gerold; Jetz, Walter; Mutke, Jens; Barthlott, Wilhelm

2010-01-01

101

Climate Change and Citizen Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how citizen observations can document the impact of climate change on plants and animals. It introduces the topic of phenology and data collection, the impact of climate change on phenology, and how individuals can become citizen scientists.

Citizen Science Central, Cornell Lab of Ornithology

102

A demographic approach to study effects of climate change in desert plants  

PubMed Central

Desert species respond strongly to infrequent, intense pulses of precipitation. Consequently, indigenous flora has developed a rich repertoire of life-history strategies to deal with fluctuations in resource availability. Examinations of how future climate change will affect the biota often forecast negative impacts, but these—usually correlative—approaches overlook precipitation variation because they are based on averages. Here, we provide an overview of how variable precipitation affects perennial and annual desert plants, and then implement an innovative, mechanistic approach to examine the effects of precipitation on populations of two desert plant species. This approach couples robust climatic projections, including variable precipitation, with stochastic, stage-structured models constructed from long-term demographic datasets of the short-lived Cryptantha flava in the Colorado Plateau Desert (USA) and the annual Carrichtera annua in the Negev Desert (Israel). Our results highlight these populations' potential to buffer future stochastic precipitation. Population growth rates in both species increased under future conditions: wetter, longer growing seasons for Cryptantha and drier years for Carrichtera. We determined that such changes are primarily due to survival and size changes for Cryptantha and the role of seed bank for Carrichtera. Our work suggests that desert plants, and thus the resources they provide, might be more resilient to climate change than previously thought. PMID:23045708

Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Siewert, Wolfgang; Casper, Brenda B.; Tielbörger, Katja

2012-01-01

103

Winter climate change in alpine tundra: plant responses to changes in snow depth and snowmelt timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow is an important environmental factor in alpine ecosystems, which influences plant phenology, growth and species composition\\u000a in various ways. With current climate warming, the snow-to-rain ratio is decreasing, and the timing of snowmelt advancing.\\u000a In a 2-year field experiment above treeline in the Swiss Alps, we investigated how a substantial decrease in snow depth and\\u000a an earlier snowmelt affect

Sonja Wipf; Veronika Stoeckli; Peter Bebi

2009-01-01

104

Overwintering of herbaceous plants in a changing climate. Still more questions than answers.  

PubMed

The increase in surface temperature of the Earth indicates a lower risk of exposure for temperate grassland and crop to extremely low temperatures. However, the risk of low winter survival rate, especially in higher latitudes may not be smaller, due to complex interactions among different environmental factors. For example, the frequency, degree and length of extreme winter warming events, leading to snowmelt during winter increased, affecting the risks of anoxia, ice encasement and freezing of plants not covered with snow. Future climate projections suggest that cold acclimation will occur later in autumn, under shorter photoperiod and lower light intensity, which may affect the energy partitioning between the elongation growth, accumulation of organic reserves and cold acclimation. Rising CO2 levels may also disturb the cold acclimation process. Predicting problems with winter pathogens is also very complex, because climate change may greatly influence the pathogen population and because the plant resistance to these pathogens is increased by cold acclimation. All these factors, often with contradictory effects on winter survival, make plant overwintering viability under future climates an open question. Close cooperation between climatologists, ecologists, plant physiologists, geneticists and plant breeders is strongly required to predict and prevent possible problems. PMID:25017157

Rapacz, Marcin; Ergon, Ashild; Höglind, Mats; Jørgensen, Marit; Jurczyk, Barbara; Ostrem, Liv; Rognli, Odd Arne; Tronsmo, Anne Marte

2014-08-01

105

Climate change: Flawed science, or  

E-print Network

Climate change: Fraud, Flawed science, or Fundamental dilemma? Prof Roy Thompson, FRSE #12;Fraud innovation Dilemma... Vicious Circle #12;1. Climate Change - Weather vs. climate - The greenhouse effect - Past climates 2. Impacts - Plants & animals - The seasons 3. Fundamental dilemma - Overpopulation

106

Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing had values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

Swift, P.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baker, B.L. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Economy, K. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Rudeen, D.K. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01

107

Plant population differentiation and climate change: responses of grassland species along an elevational gradient.  

PubMed

Mountain ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate change. Characterizing intraspecific variation of alpine plants along elevational gradients is crucial for estimating their vulnerability to predicted changes. Environmental conditions vary with elevation, which might influence plastic responses and affect selection pressures that lead to local adaptation. Thus, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity among low and high elevation plant populations in response to climate, soil and other factors associated with elevational gradients might underlie different responses of these populations to climate warming. Using a transplant experiment along an elevational gradient, we investigated reproductive phenology, growth and reproduction of the nutrient-poor grassland species Ranunculus bulbosus, Trifolium montanum and Briza media. Seeds were collected from low and high elevation source populations across the Swiss Alps and grown in nine common gardens at three different elevations with two different soil depths. Despite genetic differentiation in some traits, the results revealed no indication of local adaptation to the elevation of population origin. Reproductive phenology was advanced at lower elevation in low and high elevation populations of all three species. Growth and reproduction of T. montanum and B. media were hardly affected by garden elevation and soil depth. In R. bulbosus, however, growth decreased and reproductive investment increased at higher elevation. Furthermore, soil depth influenced growth and reproduction of low elevation R. bulbosus populations. We found no evidence for local adaptation to elevation of origin and hardly any differences in the responses of low and high elevation populations. However, the consistent advanced reproductive phenology observed in all three species shows that they have the potential to plastically respond to environmental variation. We conclude that populations might not be forced to migrate to higher elevations as a consequence of climate warming, as plasticity will buffer the detrimental effects of climate change in the three investigated nutrient-poor grassland species. PMID:24115364

Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Matter, Philippe; Heggli, Martin; Pluess, Andrea R

2014-02-01

108

Response of plants and ecosystems to CO{sub 2} and climate change. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

In recognition of the important role of vegetation in the bio-geosphere carbon cycle, the Carbon Dioxide Research Program of the US Department of Energy established the research program: Direct Effects of increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation. The ultimate goal is to develop a general ecosystem model to investigate, via hypothesis testing, the potential responses of different terrestrial ecosystems to changes in the global environment over the next century. The approach involves the parallel development of models at several hierarchical levels, from the leaf to the ecosystem. At the plant level, mechanism and the direct effects of CO{sub 2} in the development of a general plant growth model, GEPSI - GEneral Plant SImulator has been stressed. At the ecosystem level, we have stressed the translation Of CO{sub 2} effects and other aspects of climate change throughout the ecosystem, including feedbacks and constraints to system response, in the development of a mechanistic, general ecosystem model SERECO - Simulation of Ecosystem Response to Elevated CO{sub 2} and Climate Change has been stressed.

Reynolds, J.F.

1993-12-31

109

Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.  

PubMed

Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months while encountering reduced habitat suitability throughout the northern migration. PMID:25705876

Lemoine, Nathan P

2015-01-01

110

Climate Change May Alter Breeding Ground Distributions of Eastern Migratory Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via Range Expansion of Asclepias Host Plants  

PubMed Central

Climate change can profoundly alter species’ distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months while encountering reduced habitat suitability throughout the northern migration. PMID:25705876

Lemoine, Nathan P.

2015-01-01

111

Plant response to climate change along the forest-tundra ecotone in northeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

Russia's boreal (taiga) biome will likely contract sharply and shift northward in response to 21st century climatic change, yet few studies have examined plant response to climatic variability along the northern margin. We quantified climate dynamics, trends in plant growth, and growth-climate relationships across the tundra shrublands and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma river basin (657 000 km(2) ) in northeastern Siberia using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring-width measurements, and climate data. Mean summer temperatures (Ts ) increased 1.0 °C from 1938 to 2009, though there was no trend (P > 0.05) in growing year precipitation or climate moisture index (CMIgy ). Mean summer NDVI (NDVIs ) increased significantly from 1982 to 2010 across 20% of the watershed, primarily in cold, shrub-dominated areas. NDVIs positively correlated (P < 0.05) with Ts across 56% of the watershed (r = 0.52 ± 0.09, mean ± SD), principally in cold areas, and with CMIgy across 9% of the watershed (r = 0.45 ± 0.06), largely in warm areas. Larch ring-width measurements from nine sites revealed that year-to-year (i.e., high-frequency) variation in growth positively correlated (P < 0.05) with June temperature (r = 0.40) and prior summer CMI (r = 0.40) from 1938 to 2007. An unexplained multi-decadal (i.e., low-frequency) decline in annual basal area increment (BAI) occurred following the mid-20th century, but over the NDVI record there was no trend in mean BAI (P > 0.05), which significantly correlated with NDVIs (r = 0.44, P < 0.05, 1982-2007). Both satellite and tree-ring analyses indicated that plant growth was constrained by both low temperatures and limited moisture availability and, furthermore, that warming enhanced growth. Impacts of future climatic change on forests near treeline in Arctic Russia will likely be influenced by shifts in both temperature and moisture, which implies that projections of future forest distribution and productivity in this area should take into account the interactions of energy and moisture limitations. PMID:23813896

Berner, Logan T; Beck, Pieter S A; Bunn, Andrew G; Goetz, Scott J

2013-11-01

112

Predicting plant diversity patterns in madagascar: understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot.  

PubMed

Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species. We developed three scenarios, (i.e., climate only, land cover only and combined climate-land cover) based on recent and future climate and land cover variables. We used this modelling framework to investigate how the impacts of changes to climate and land cover influenced biodiversity across ecoregions and elevation bands. There were large-scale climate- and land cover-driven changes in plant biodiversity across Madagascar, including both losses and gains in diversity. The sharpest declines in biodiversity were projected for the eastern escarpment and high elevation ecosystems. Sharp declines in diversity were driven by the combined climate-land cover scenarios; however, there were subtle, region-specific differences in model outputs for each scenario, where certain regions experienced relatively higher species loss under climate or land cover only models. We strongly caution that predicted future gains in plant diversity will depend on the development and maintenance of dispersal pathways that connect current and future suitable habitats. The forecast for Madagascar's plant diversity in the face of future environmental change is worrying: regional diversity will continue to decrease in response to the combined effects of climate and land cover change, with habitats such as ericoid thickets and eastern lowland and sub-humid forests particularly vulnerable into the future. PMID:25856241

Brown, Kerry A; Parks, Katherine E; Bethell, Colin A; Johnson, Steig E; Mulligan, Mark

2015-01-01

113

Predicting Plant Diversity Patterns in Madagascar: Understanding the Effects of Climate and Land Cover Change in a Biodiversity Hotspot  

PubMed Central

Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species. We developed three scenarios, (i.e., climate only, land cover only and combined climate-land cover) based on recent and future climate and land cover variables. We used this modelling framework to investigate how the impacts of changes to climate and land cover influenced biodiversity across ecoregions and elevation bands. There were large-scale climate- and land cover-driven changes in plant biodiversity across Madagascar, including both losses and gains in diversity. The sharpest declines in biodiversity were projected for the eastern escarpment and high elevation ecosystems. Sharp declines in diversity were driven by the combined climate-land cover scenarios; however, there were subtle, region-specific differences in model outputs for each scenario, where certain regions experienced relatively higher species loss under climate or land cover only models. We strongly caution that predicted future gains in plant diversity will depend on the development and maintenance of dispersal pathways that connect current and future suitable habitats. The forecast for Madagascar’s plant diversity in the face of future environmental change is worrying: regional diversity will continue to decrease in response to the combined effects of climate and land cover change, with habitats such as ericoid thickets and eastern lowland and sub-humid forests particularly vulnerable into the future. PMID:25856241

Brown, Kerry A.; Parks, Katherine E.; Bethell, Colin A.; Johnson, Steig E.; Mulligan, Mark

2015-01-01

114

Dramatic response to climate change in the Southwest: Robert Whittaker's 1963 Arizona Mountain plant transect revisited  

PubMed Central

Models analyzing how Southwestern plant communities will respond to climate change predict that increases in temperature will lead to upward elevational shifts of montane species. We tested this hypothesis by reexamining Robert Whittaker's 1963 plant transect in the Santa Catalina Mountains of southern Arizona, finding that this process is already well underway. Our survey, five decades after Whittaker's, reveals large changes in the elevational ranges of common montane plants, while mean annual rainfall has decreased over the past 20 years, and mean annual temperatures increased 0.25°C/decade from 1949 to 2011 in the Tucson Basin. Although elevational changes in species are individualistic, significant overall upward movement of the lower elevation boundaries, and elevational range contractions, have occurred. This is the first documentation of significant upward shifts of lower elevation range boundaries in Southwestern montane plant species over decadal time, confirming that previous hypotheses are correct in their prediction that mountain communities in the Southwest will be strongly impacted by warming, and that the Southwest is already experiencing a rapid vegetation change. PMID:24223270

Brusca, Richard C; Wiens, John F; Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeff; Franklin, Kim; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Moore, Wendy

2013-01-01

115

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new report from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Marine Conservation Biology Institute argues that rising temperatures have impacted the world's oceans to a far greater extent than previously acknowledged. Addressing topics such as sea-level rise, ocean circulation, coral reefs, sea birds and invertebrates, as well as the increasing threats to Salmon, the report predicts a dangerous chain reaction in marine ecosystems if global warming continues unabated. On the positive side, it also argues that decisive actions now to reduce pollution can slow the warming and preserve the world's oceans. Accessible from the WWF Climate Change page, the full text of the report is available in .pdf, Word 6.0, and HTML versions. A summary is also provided.

116

Teaching change to local youth: Plant phenology, climate change and citizen science at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant phenology is a powerful indicator of how climate change affects native ecosystems, and also provides an experiential outdoor learning opportunity for promoting youth conservation education and awareness. We developed a youth conservation education curriculum, including both classroom and field components, for local middle and high school students from Hawaii. The curriculum is focused on linking plant phenology and climate change, with emphasis on ecologically and culturally important native trees and birds at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), on the Island of Hawaii. In this curriculum, students: (i) visit Hakalau Forest NWR to learn about the ecology of native ecosystems, including natural disturbance regimes and the general concept of change in forest ecosystems; (ii) learn about human-induced climate change and its potential impact on native species; and (iii) collect plant phenology measurements and publish these data on the USA National Phenology Network website. This youth conservation education curriculum represents a close collaboration between Hakalau Forest NWR; the Friends of Hakalau Forest NWR; the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources at the University of Hawaii at Manoa; the USDA Forest Service; and Imi Pono no Ka Aina, an environmental education and outreach program for the Three Mountain Alliance Watershed Partnership. In the Winter and Spring of 2011-2012, we developed classroom and field portions of the curriculum. In the Spring and Summer of 2012, we recruited four groups of participants, with a total of ~40 students, who visited the refuge to participate in the curriculum. Preliminary phenology observations based upon ~4 months of measurements show low to medium levels of flowering, fruiting and leaf flush. However, the real science value of this program will come over years to decades of accumulated student activity. From this, we anticipate the emergence of a unique tropical montane forest dataset on plant phenology for Hakalau Forest NWR. This work would not otherwise exist in Hawaii as we are the first and only site in Hawaii participating in the USA National Phenology Network. In turn, the education and outreach value of this program is immediate, as participating students are exposed to: (i) native ecosystems that they would never otherwise have the opportunity to visit; (ii) the concept of plant phenology and its utility for monitoring native ecosystems; and (iii) the concept of change, including anthropogenic climate change. The curriculum we have developed in Hawaii can be easily replicated elsewhere by: (i) selecting local species with high cultural and ecological value; (ii) devising phenology collection methods tailored to these local species, and student backgrounds and educational levels; and (iii) building sustainable partnerships between community conservation groups and government agencies.

Litton, C. M.; Laursen, S. C.; Phifer, C.; Giardina, C. P.

2012-12-01

117

Climate Change Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources BoardBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

118

Climate Change Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change as approved Prepared by the California AirBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

119

Specialization in Plant-Hummingbird Networks Is Associated with Species Richness, Contemporary Precipitation and Quaternary Climate-Change Velocity  

PubMed Central

Large-scale geographical patterns of biotic specialization and the underlying drivers are poorly understood, but it is widely believed that climate plays an important role in determining specialization. As climate-driven range dynamics should diminish local adaptations and favor generalization, one hypothesis is that contemporary biotic specialization is determined by the degree of past climatic instability, primarily Quaternary climate-change velocity. Other prominent hypotheses predict that either contemporary climate or species richness affect biotic specialization. To gain insight into geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization and its drivers, we use network analysis to determine the degree of specialization in plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks sampled at 31 localities, spanning a wide range of climate regimes across the Americas. We found greater biotic specialization at lower latitudes, with latitude explaining 20–22% of the spatial variation in plant-hummingbird specialization. Potential drivers of specialization - contemporary climate, Quaternary climate-change velocity, and species richness - had superior explanatory power, together explaining 53–64% of the variation in specialization. Notably, our data provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized roles of species richness, contemporary precipitation and Quaternary climate-change velocity as key predictors of biotic specialization, whereas contemporary temperature and seasonality seem unimportant in determining specialization. These results suggest that both ecological and evolutionary processes at Quaternary time scales can be important in driving large-scale geographical patterns of contemporary biotic specialization, at least for co-evolved systems such as plant-hummingbird networks. PMID:21998716

Dalsgaard, Bo; Magård, Else; Fjeldså, Jon; Martín González, Ana M.; Rahbek, Carsten; Olesen, Jens M.; Ollerton, Jeff; Alarcón, Ruben; Cardoso Araujo, Andrea; Cotton, Peter A.; Lara, Carlos; Machado, Caio Graco; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies; Timmermann, Allan; Watts, Stella; Sandel, Brody; Sutherland, William J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

2011-01-01

120

CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change and climate variability has received considerable attention from the scientific community in recent decades and has led to a better understanding of various climate phenomena and driving mechanisms. This increased understanding of climate has prompted engineers and policy makers to as...

121

Effects of climate change on mountain ecosystems -- Upward shifting of alpine plants  

SciTech Connect

Ecosystems at high latitudes and altitudes are particularly sensitive to climate change. As an effect of global warming, upward shifting of plant species in high mountain systems was predicted for the near future. In consequence the habitats of the alpine and nival vegetation could be restricted drastically, which might result in extinctions, particular of summit floras. Evidence of upward movement of vascular plants in high mountains was recently empirically determined in the European Alps. In 1992 and 1993, data on the flora of 30 high summits were collected. A comparison of the recent investigations with historical records from the same peaks indicated a distinct increase of species richness at 70% of the summits. A stagnation or a slight decrease of species richness was recorded at 9 summits, but one of them showed an increase in species abundance. The change of species richness is correlated with the geomorphological situation, whereas no significant difference could be found by comparing siliceous and carbonate summits. Approximate moving rates for common alpine plants were calculated to be between 0 and 4 meters per decade. This evidence of upward shifting of high mountain plants may already be a measurable result of global warming since the 19th century.

Pauli, H.; Gottfried, M.; Grabherr, G. [Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

1996-09-01

122

Changes in chloroplast ultrastructure in some high-alpine plants: adaptation to metabolic demands and climate?  

PubMed

The cytology of leaf cells from five different high-alpine plants was studied and compared with structures in chloroplasts from the typical high-alpine plant Ranunculus glacialis previously described as having frequent envelope plus stroma protrusions. The plants under investigation ranged from subalpine/alpine Geum montanum through alpine Geum reptans, Poa alpina var. vivipara, and Oxyria digyna to nival Cerastium uniflorum and R. glacialis. The general leaf structure (by light microscopy) and leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure (by transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) did not show any specialized structures unique to these mountain species. However, chloroplast protrusion formation could be found in G. reptans and, to a greater extent, in O. digyna. The other species exhibited only a low percentage of such chloroplast structural changes. Occurrence of protrusions in samples of G. montanum and O. digyna growing in a mild climate at about 50 m above sea level was drastically reduced. Serial TEM sections of O. digyna cells showed that the protrusions can appear as rather broad and long appendices of plastids, often forming pocketlike structures where mitochondria and microbodies are in close vicinity to the plastid and to each other. It is suggested that some high-alpine plants may form such protrusions to facilitate fast exchange of molecules between cytoplasm and plastid as an adaptation to the short, often unfavorable vegetation period in the Alps, while other species may have developed different types of adaptation that are not expressed in ultrastructural changes of the plastids. PMID:17603748

Lütz, C; Engel, L

2007-01-01

123

Climate change action plan  

E-print Network

Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing

124

Phosphorus Concentrations in Above Ground Plant Biomass under Changing Climate Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment explores the effects of climate change on annual grasslands with different combinations of elevated or ambient levels of carbon dioxide, heat, precipitation, and nitrate deposition. The nested split-plot design allows for analysis of each variable, combinations of variables, and secondary effects. In this study, plant nutrient levels in homogenized above ground biomass are analyzed to assess the utility of this parameter as a tool to describe the response of an ecosystem to environmental changes. Total phosphorus concentrations showed considerable variability within treatment (n=8) and therefore no significant differences between treatments (n=16) is found. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in bulk above ground biomass are being analyzed to determine nitrogen and carbon ratios and further elucidate the environmental response of phosphorus levels in plants to the modified parameters. P concentrations and elemental ratios will also be related to other parameters such as soil humidity, microbial biomass, enzyme activity, and plant diversity to determine the parameters influencing P content in the biomass.

Selvin, C.; Paytan, A.; Roberts, K.

2013-12-01

125

Plant trait-based models identify direct and indirect effects of climate change on bundles of grassland ecosystem services  

PubMed Central

Land use and climate change are primary causes of changes in the supply of ecosystem services (ESs). Although the consequences of climate change on ecosystem properties and associated services are well documented, the cascading impacts of climate change on ESs through changes in land use are largely overlooked. We present a trait-based framework based on an empirical model to elucidate how climate change affects tradeoffs among ESs. Using alternative scenarios for mountain grasslands, we predicted how direct effects of climate change on ecosystems and indirect effects through farmers’ adaptations are likely to affect ES bundles through changes in plant functional properties. ES supply was overall more sensitive to climate than to induced management change, and ES bundles remained stable across scenarios. These responses largely reflected the restricted extent of management change in this constrained system, which was incorporated when scaling up plot level climate and management effects on ecosystem properties to the entire landscape. The trait-based approach revealed how the combination of common driving traits and common responses to changed fertility determined interactions and tradeoffs among ESs. PMID:25225382

Lamarque, Pénélope; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouchet, Maud; Quétier, Fabien

2014-01-01

126

Plant trait-based models identify direct and indirect effects of climate change on bundles of grassland ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Land use and climate change are primary causes of changes in the supply of ecosystem services (ESs). Although the consequences of climate change on ecosystem properties and associated services are well documented, the cascading impacts of climate change on ESs through changes in land use are largely overlooked. We present a trait-based framework based on an empirical model to elucidate how climate change affects tradeoffs among ESs. Using alternative scenarios for mountain grasslands, we predicted how direct effects of climate change on ecosystems and indirect effects through farmers' adaptations are likely to affect ES bundles through changes in plant functional properties. ES supply was overall more sensitive to climate than to induced management change, and ES bundles remained stable across scenarios. These responses largely reflected the restricted extent of management change in this constrained system, which was incorporated when scaling up plot level climate and management effects on ecosystem properties to the entire landscape. The trait-based approach revealed how the combination of common driving traits and common responses to changed fertility determined interactions and tradeoffs among ESs. PMID:25225382

Lamarque, Pénélope; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouchet, Maud; Quétier, Fabien

2014-09-23

127

EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATERSHED RUNOFF FLOW - UPPER COOSA RIVER BASIN UPSTREAM FROM PLANT HAMMOND  

SciTech Connect

The ability of water managers to maintain adequate supplies in the coming decades depends on future weather conditions, as climate change has the potential to reduce stream flows from their current values due to potentially less precipitation and higher temperatures, and possibly rendering them unable to meet demand. The upper Coosa River basin, located in northwest Georgia, plays an important role in supplying water for industry and domestic use in northern Georgia, and has been involved in water disputes in recent times. The seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) is the lowest average flow for seven consecutive days that has an average recurrence interval of 10 years. The 7Q10 flow is statistically derived from the observed historical flow data, and represents the low flow (drought) condition for a basin. The upper Coosa River basin also supplies cooling water for the 935MW coal-fired Hammond plant, which draws about 65% of the 7Q10 flow of the upper Coosa River to dissipate waste heat. The water is drawn through once and returned to the river directly from the generator (i.e., no cooling tower is used). Record low flows in 2007 led to use of portable cooling towers to meet temperature limits. Disruption of the Plant Hammond operation may trigger closure of area industrial facilities (e.g. paper mill). The population in Georgia is expected to double from 9 million to 18 million residents in the next 25 years, mostly in the metropolitan Atlanta area. Therefore, there will be an even greater demand for potable water and for waste assimilation. Climate change in the form of persistent droughts (causing low flows) and high ambient temperatures create regulatory compliance challenges for Plant Hammond operating with a once-through cooling system. Therefore, the Upper Coosa River basin was selected to study the effect of potential future weather change on the watershed runoff flow.

Chen, K.

2011-10-24

128

El Nin~o, Host Plant Growth, and Migratory Butterfly Abundance in a Changing Climate Robert B. Srygley1,2,6  

E-print Network

in Spanish is available in the online version of this article. Key words: climate change; drought; ENSOEl Nin~o, Host Plant Growth, and Migratory Butterfly Abundance in a Changing Climate Robert B changes in both frequency and amplitude of the El Ni~no Southern Oscillation with climate change. Abstract

Bermingham, Eldredge

129

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather is notoriously unpredictable; however, climate descriptions, which identify average and normal temperatures and precipitation levels, tend to be perceived as stable, at least over time scales that humans can easily relate to. New evidence suggests that hasn't always been the case. This video segment describes climate data, obtained from ice cores drilled into the Greenland Ice Sheet, that suggest the Earth has undergone dramatic climate shifts in relatively short spans of time. The segment is five minutes forty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

130

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is intended to describe the differences between weather and climate. It includes sections about sky, sea, ice, land, life, and people. Each section has a discussion of the human impact on that part of the environment.

2009-05-04

131

CONSIDERATIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

CONSIDERATIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIABILITY ADAPTATION ON THE NAVAJO NATION March 2014 Julie Nania & Karen Cozzetto, et. al #12;Considerations for Climate Change and Variability Adaptation provided information for and authored the Framework Tribal Climate Change Adaptation Report

Neff, Jason

132

Late Ordovician land plant spore 13C fractionation records atmospheric CO2 and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular systematics and spore wall ultrastructure studies indicate that late Ordovician diad and triad fossil spores were likely produced by plants most closely related to liverworts. Here, we report the first ?13C estimates of Ordovician fossil land plant spores, which were obtained using a spooling wire micro-combustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (Sessions et al., 2005, Analytical Chemistry, 77, 6519). The spores all originate from Saudi Arabia on the west of Gondwana and date to before (Cardadoc, ca. 460 Ma), during (443Ma) and after (Llandovery, ca. 440Ma) the Hirnantian glaciation. We use these numbers along with marine carbonate ?13C records to estimate atmospheric CO2 by implementing a theoretical model that captures the strong CO2-dependency of 13C fractionation in non-vascular land plants (Fletcher et al., 2008, Nature Geoscience, 1, 43). Although provisional at this stage, reconstructed CO2 changes are consistent with the Kump et al. (2008) (Paleo. Paleo. Paleo. 152, 173) 'weathering hypothesis' whereby pre-Hirnantian cooling is caused by relatively low CO2 (ca. 700ppm) related to enhanced weathering of young basaltic rocks during the early phase of the Taconic uplift, with background values subsequently rising to around double this value by the earliest Silurian. Further analyses will better constrain atmospheric CO2 change during the late Ordovician climatic perturbation and address controversial hypotheses concerning the causes and timing of the Earth system transition into an icehouse state.

Beerling, D. J.; Nelson, D. M.; Pearson, A.; Wellman, C.

2008-12-01

133

Effects of climate change on mountain ecosystems -- upward shifting of alpine plants  

SciTech Connect

Ecosystems at high latitudes and altitudes are particularly sensitive to climate change. As an effect of global warming, upward shifting of plant species or entire vegetation belts in high mountain systems like the European Alps are predicted for the near future. Less productive mountain plants might become overgrown by more productive species from lower vegetation belts. The habitats of alpine and nival vegetation would be restricted dramatically, which might result in extinctions, particularly of summit floras. Evidence of upward movement of vascular plants in high mountains was recently empirically determined in the Austrian and Swiss Alps. During the summers of 1992 and 1993, data on the flora of 30 high summits was collected. A comparison of the recent investigations with historical records from the same peaks, which were researched between 1895 and 1953, indicated a distinct increase of species richness at 70% of the summits. This evidence of upward shifting of high mountain plants may already be a measurable result of global warming since the mid-19th century.

Pauli, H.; Gottfried, G.; Grabherr, G.

1996-12-31

134

Climate change and plant health; Development of a conceptual frame-work for impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a conceptual framework for systematic assessment of direct economic impacts of climate change on pest and disease management at the crop level. The framework evaluates and aggregates the effects, and subsequently impacts, of climate change on selected pests and diseases and their control in a particular crop. Application of the framework reveals opportunities and threats in crop

M. L. H. Breukers

2010-01-01

135

Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent climate change, extremes in meteorological conditions are forecast and observed to increase globally, and to affect vegetation composition. More prolonged dry periods will alternate with more intensive rainfall events, both within and between years, which will change soil moisture dynamics. In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental

R. Bartholomeus; J. Witte; P. van Bodegom; J. V. Dam; R. Aerts

2010-01-01

136

Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent climate change, extremes in meteorological conditions are forecast and observed to increase globally, and to affect vegetation composition. More prolonged dry periods will alternate with more intensive rainfall events, both within and between years, which will change soil moisture dynamics. In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental

2010-01-01

137

Predicting plant invasions under climate change: are species distribution models validated by field trials?  

PubMed

Climate change may facilitate alien species invasion into new areas, particularly for species from warm native ranges introduced into areas currently marginal for temperature. Although conclusions from modelling approaches and experimental studies are generally similar, combining the two approaches has rarely occurred. The aim of this study was to validate species distribution models by conducting field trials in sites of differing suitability as predicted by the models, thus increasing confidence in their ability to assess invasion risk. Three recently naturalized alien plants in New Zealand were used as study species (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Psidium guajava and Schefflera actinophylla): they originate from warm native ranges, are woody bird-dispersed species and of concern as potential weeds. Seedlings were grown in six sites across the country, differing both in climate and suitability (as predicted by the species distribution models). Seedling growth and survival were recorded over two summers and one or two winter seasons, and temperature and precipitation were monitored hourly at each site. Additionally, alien seedling performances were compared to those of closely related native species (Rhopalostylis sapida, Lophomyrtus bullata and Schefflera digitata). Furthermore, half of the seedlings were sprayed with pesticide, to investigate whether enemy release may influence performance. The results showed large differences in growth and survival of the alien species among the six sites. In the more suitable sites, performance was frequently higher compared to the native species. Leaf damage from invertebrate herbivory was low for both alien and native seedlings, with little evidence that the alien species should have an advantage over the native species because of enemy release. Correlations between performance in the field and predicted suitability of species distribution models were generally high. The projected increase in minimum temperature and reduced frosts with climate change may provide more suitable habitats and enable the spread of these species. PMID:24446429

Sheppard, Christine S; Burns, Bruce R; Stanley, Margaret C

2014-09-01

138

Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?  

E-print Network

Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate

Pan, Feifei

139

Internal recycling of respired CO2 may be important for plant functioning under changing climate regimes  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have provided evidence of a large flux of root-respired CO2 in the transpiration stream of trees. In our study, we investigated the potential impact of this internal CO2 transport on aboveground carbon assimilation and CO2 efflux. To trace the transport of root-respired CO2, we infused a 13C label at the stem base of field-grown Populus deltoides Bartr. ex. Marsh trees. The 13C label was transported to the top of the stem and throughout the crown via the transpiration stream. Up to 17% of the 13C label was assimilated by chlorophyll-containing tissues. Our results provide evidence of a mechanism for recycling respired CO2 within trees. Such a mechanism may have important implications for how plants cope with predicted increases in intensity and frequency of droughts. Here, we speculate on the potential significance of this recycling mechanism within the context of plant responses to climate change and plants currently inhabiting arid environments. PMID:24398440

Bloemen, Jasper; Anne McGuire, Mary; Aubrey, Doug P; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

2013-01-01

140

Alpine Plant Monitoring for Global Climate Change; Analysis of the Four California GLORIA Target Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research project with the goal to assess climate-change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. Standardized protocols direct selection of each node in the network, called a Target Region (TR), which consists of a set of four geographically proximal mountain summits at elevations extending from treeline to the nival zone. For each summit, GLORIA specifies a rigorous mapping and sampling design for data collection, with re-measurement intervals of five years. Whereas TRs have been installed in six continents, prior to 2004 none was completed in North America. In cooperation with the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT), California Native Plant Society, and the White Mountain Research Station, four TRs have been installed in California: two in the Sierra Nevada and two in the White Mountains. We present comparative results from analyses of baseline data across these four TRs. The number of species occurring in the northern Sierra (Tahoe) TR was 35 (16 not found in other TRs); in the central Sierra (Dunderberg) TR 65 species were found. In the White Mountains, 54 species were found on the granitic/volcanic soils TR and 46 (19 not found in other TRs) on the dolomitic soils TR. In all, we observed 83 species in the Sierra Nevada range TRs and 75 in the White Mountain TRs. Using a mixed model ANOVA of percent cover from summit-area-sections and quadrat data, we found primary differences to be among mountain ranges. Major soil differences (dolomite versus non-dolomite) also contribute to floristic differentiation. Aspect did not seem to contribute significantly to diversity either among or within target regions. Summit floras in each target region comprised groups of two distinct types of species: those with notably broad elevational ranges and those with narrow elevational ranges. The former we propose to be species that retain importance in vegetation structure across elevation and the latter to be more sensitive to climate change. In general, we find common species in the Sierra Nevada to be rare in the White Mountains, that the northern Sierra Nevada TR (Tahoe area) to be distinct in many vegetation features, and that distinct substrate differences in the White Mountains delineate significant species diversities. With four target regions, we document patterns of species composition, distribution, and diversity with respect to elevation, aspect, and geographic distance. This provides new information about summit floras in the White Mountains and Sierra Nevada, and documents baseline conditions against which we will measure response to climate change.

Dennis, A.; Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.

2007-12-01

141

Climate Change and Transportation  

E-print Network

1 Climate Change and Transportation Addressing Climate Change in the Absence of Federal Guidelines;6 WSDOT Efforts · Climate Change Team · Project Level GHG Approach · Planning Level GHG Approach · Alternative Fuels Corridor · Recent legislation and research #12;7 WSDOT Efforts: Climate Change Team

Minnesota, University of

142

Climate Change Schools Project...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

McKinzey, Krista

2010-01-01

143

Vascular plant diversity and climate change in the alpine belt of the central Apennines (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to analyse the vascular flora and the local climate along the altitude gradient in the largest alpine belt of the central Apennines (Majella National Park), and to contribute to the evaluation of the possible effects of global climate changes on the biodiversity of the alpine ecosystem. For this purpose floristic-quantitative analyses and temperature records

Angela Stanisci; Giovanni Pelino; Carlo Blasi

2005-01-01

144

Outchasing climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pygmy possums, monarch butterflies, spoon-billed sandpipers, and a number of trees and other plants could be among the species unable to migrate fast enough to new habitat in the face of potential global climate changes, according to an August 30 report by the Switzerland-based World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the U.S. based Clean-Air-Cool Planet (CACP), two conservation organizations.

Showstack, Randy

145

A multi-scale assessment of physiological processes in arctic tundra plants under natural and simulated climate change scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate warming is predicted to cause an increase in the growing season by as much as 30% for regions of the arctic tundra. This will have a significant effect on the physiological activity of the vascular plant species and the ecosystem as a whole. The need to understand the possible physiological change within this ecosystem is confounded by the fact

Gregory Starr

2001-01-01

146

Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms  

EPA Science Inventory

A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of sea level rise and climate change on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...

147

Tidal wetland plant and algal assemblages in Oregon: spatial patterns of composition and vulnerability to climate change  

EPA Science Inventory

Tidal wetlands support important ecosystem functions along the coast of the Pacific Northwest such as primary production and nutrient transformation. Sea-level rise (SLR) and elevated salinity due to climate change may affect the abundance, distribution, and diversity of plants a...

148

Impacts of climate change on plant food allergens: a previously unrecognized threat to human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change has had, and will continue to have, many significant impacts on biological and human systems. There\\u000a are now many studies of climate change impacts on aeroallergens, particularly pollen, including a study demonstrating significant\\u000a increases in the major allergen content of ragweed pollen as a function of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration\\u000a ([CO2]). Recent research has also demonstrated

Paul John Beggs; Nicole Ewa Walczyk

2008-01-01

149

Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994 that will address climate change. Scientists tell us that the climate of the earth is warming, and that the warmingCampus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CAMPUS Southwestern Pennsylvania Program

Attari, Shahzeen Z.

150

programs in climate change  

E-print Network

existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change

151

Modeling the effects of two different land cover change data sets on the carbon stocks of plants and soils in concert with CO2 and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geographically explicit terrestrial carbon cycle component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) is used to examine the response of plant and soil carbon stocks to historical changes in cropland land cover, atmospheric CO2, and climate. The ISAM model is forced with two different land cover change data sets for cropland: one spatially resolved set based on cropland statistics

Atul K. Jain; Xiaojuan Yang

2005-01-01

152

Long-term spatial pattern change in a semi-arid plant community: The role of climate and composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial pattern of plant communities can be an indicator of the processes that regulate community structure and their interplay with environmental drivers such as climate. However, to exploit such indicators we need a fuller understanding of the links between spatial pattern and climate. We examined variation in spatial pattern of annuals/biennials and perennials in a range margin steppic plant community in Germany over 26 years. We assessed change in spatial pattern through time, and how this change was related to local variation in climate and community composition. We found increasing dissociation between annuals/biennials and perennials through time, and a response of spatial pattern to summer temperature and precipitation. These responses are associated with the occurrence of Centaurea stoebe, a species which establishes in the community mid-way through the recording period. Our results indicate that in some circumstances spatial patterning of vegetation may not be directly linked to environmental severity, and that species turnover rather than changes in the interactions or abundance of species already in the community can influence the observed dynamics of vegetation spatial pattern. Thus, they support calls for a better understanding of the context-specificity of plant-plant interactions, their translation to spatial pattern, and their regulation by climate and other drivers such as species turnover.

Brooker, Rob W.; Matesanz, Silvia; Valladares, Fernando; Klotz, Stefan

2012-11-01

153

Climate Change and Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A senior researcher discusses extinction due to global warming in this two-minute sound segment. He says that as climate warms, species will probably move upslope and towards the poles but in many cases, that may put species that are found on mountain tops at risk. Species with small ranges or lowland species that may not be able to get to mountain slopes and find equitable climate will die out. His study suggests that as many as one million species of plants and animals worldwide could be facing extinction as a result of climate change. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

2004-07-12

154

Use of an automated digital images system for detecting plant status changes in response to climate change manipulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of phenological research for understanding the consequences of global environmental change on vegetation is highlighted in the most recent IPCC reports. Collecting time series of phenological events appears to be of crucial importance to better understand how vegetation systems respond to climatic regime fluctuations, and, consequently, to develop effective management and adaptation strategies. However, traditional monitoring of phenology is labor intensive and costly and affected to a certain degree of subjective inaccuracy. Other methods used to quantify the seasonal patterns of vegetation development are based on satellite remote sensing (land surface phenology) but they operate at coarse spatial and temporal resolution. To overcome the issues of these methodologies different approaches for vegetation monitoring based on "near-surface" remote sensing have been proposed in recent researches. In particular, the use of digital cameras has become more common for phenological monitoring. Digital images provide spectral information in the red, green, and blue (RGB) wavelengths. Inflection points in seasonal variations of intensities of each color channel can be used to identify phenological events. Canopy green-up phenology can be quantified from the greenness indices. Species-specific dates of leaf emergence can be estimated by RGB image analyses. In this research, an Automated Phenological Observation System (APOS), based on digital image sensors, was used for monitoring the phenological behavior of shrubland species in a Mediterranean site. The system was developed under the INCREASE (an Integrated Network on Climate Change Research) EU-funded research infrastructure project, which is based upon large scale field experiments with non-intrusive climatic manipulations. Monitoring of phenological behavior was conducted continuously since October 2012. The system was set to acquire one panorama per day at noon which included three experimental plots for climate manipulations: control (no manipulation), warming (overnight cover), and drought (interception of the periodic precipitation) treatments (36 shots x panorama (3 rows x 12 columns) with a degree of overlapping equal to 30%). On each panorama, ROIs (Regions of Interest) focusing major species of the shrubland ecosystem were identified. Then, image analysis was performed to obtain information on vegetation status (i.e. color signals and phenology). The color channel information (digital numbers; DNs) were extracted from the RAW file. The overall brightness (i.e., total RGB DN, green excess index) was also calculated. Finally, the RGB value was correlated with the pattern of phenological development. Preliminary results of this study show that the use of digital images are well-suited to identify phenological pattern of the Mediterranean species. Results of digital images analysis can be a valuable support for ecologists, environmental scientists, and land managers providing information useful to interpret phenological responses of plants to climate change, to validate satellite-based phenology data, and to provide input to adaption strategies plans to climate change.

Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

2014-05-01

155

Some poleward movement of British native vascular plants is occurring, but the fingerprint of climate change is not evident  

PubMed Central

Recent upperward migration of plants and animals along altitudinal gradients and poleward movement of animal range boundaries have been confirmed by many studies. This phenomenon is considered to be part of the fingerprint of recent climate change on the biosphere. Here I examine whether poleward movement is occurring in the vascular plants of Great Britain. The ranges of plants were determined from detection/non-detection data in two periods, 1978 to 1994 and 1995 to 2011. From these, the centre of mass of the population was calculated and the magnitude and direction of range shifts were determined from movements of the centre of mass. A small, but significant, northward movement could be detected in plants with expanding ranges, but not among declining species. Species from warmer ranges were not more likely to be moving northward, nor was dispersal syndrome a predictor of migration success. It is concluded that simply looking at northward movement of species is not an effective way to identify the effect of climate change on plant migration and that other anthropogenic changes obscure the effect of climate. PMID:23734340

2013-01-01

156

On the role of plant volatiles in anthropogenic global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from terrestrial ecosystems undergo rapid oxidation in the atmosphere that affects multiple warming and cooling climate pollutants. Since the preindustrial, BVOC-chemistry-climate interactions have been strongly influenced by anthropogenic changes in land cover, pollution emissions, and the physical climate state. Here, an Earth system model is applied to quantify the effects of BVOC emissions on the global radiation balance in the 1850s and 2000s including changes to tropospheric ozone, methane, and direct aerosol-radiation interactions. The net chemical forcing of global climate due to all known anthropogenic influences on BVOC emissions is -0.17 Wm-2 (cooling) that offsets the +0.10 Wm-2 (warming) due to anthropogenic VOC emissions from fossil fuel use and industry for this time period. BVOC emissions need to be included in assessments of anthropogenic radiative forcing.

Unger, Nadine

2014-12-01

157

"Managing Department Climate Change"  

E-print Network

"Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

Sheridan, Jennifer

158

Increased Fitness of Rice Plants to Abiotic Stress Via Habitat Adapted Symbiosis: A Strategy for Mitigating Impacts of Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Climate change and catastrophic events have contributed to rice shortages in several regions due to decreased water availability and soil salinization. Although not adapted to salt or drought stress, two commercial rice varieties achieved tolerance to these stresses by colonizing them with Class 2 fungal endophytes isolated from plants growing across moisture and salinity gradients. Plant growth and development, water usage, ROS sensitivity and osmolytes were measured with and without stress under controlled conditions. The endophytes conferred salt, drought and cold tolerance to growth chamber and greenhouse grown plants. Endophytes reduced water consumption by 20–30% and increased growth rate, reproductive yield, and biomass of greenhouse grown plants. In the absence of stress, there was no apparent cost of the endophytes to plants, however, endophyte colonization decreased from 100% at planting to 65% compared to greenhouse plants grown under continual stress (maintained 100% colonization). These findings indicate that rice plants can exhibit enhanced stress tolerance via symbiosis with Class 2 endophytes, and suggest that symbiotic technology may be useful in mitigating impacts of climate change on other crops and expanding agricultural production onto marginal lands. PMID:21750695

Redman, Regina S.; Kim, Yong Ok; Woodward, Claire J. D. A.; Greer, Chris; Espino, Luis; Doty, Sharon L.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

2011-01-01

159

Abrupt Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a broad introduction to the subject of abrupt climate change. It cites several historical examples of climate change and their impact on human civilization. In addition, some of the current questions about climate are presented including the drying of the Sahel since the 1960s and changes in the El Nino pattern. The site includes links to a question and answer feature, paleoclimate research that focuses on how and why abrupt climate change events occurred in the recent past, and an explanation of a joint observational and modeling approach to climate change. There is also a link to the Climate Kids Corner with on-line activities.

160

Ecological niche modeling of coastal dune plants and future potential distribution in response to climate change and sea level rise.  

PubMed

Climate change (CC) and sea level rise (SLR) are phenomena that could have severe impacts on the distribution of coastal dune vegetation. To explore this we modeled the climatic niches of six coastal dunes plant species that grow along the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula, and projected climatic niches to future potential distributions based on two CC scenarios and SLR projections. Our analyses suggest that distribution of coastal plants will be severely limited, and more so in the case of local endemics (Chamaecrista chamaecristoides, Palafoxia lindenii, Cakile edentula). The possibilities of inland migration to the potential 'new shoreline' will be limited by human infrastructure and ecosystem alteration that will lead to a 'coastal squeeze' of the coastal habitats. Finally, we identified areas as future potential refuges for the six species in central Gulf of Mexico, and northern Yucatán Peninsula especially under CC and SLR scenarios. PMID:23625760

Mendoza-González, Gabriela; Martínez, M Luisa; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Vázquez, Gabriela; Gallego-Fernández, Juan B

2013-08-01

161

Climate Change and Biodiverstiy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes climate change due to human activities and natural factors; future scenarios due to global warming; and how climate change will impact ecosystems and biodiversity. It includes information on political activity such as avoidance, mitigation and adaptation as a response to climate change. Current projects of the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre( UNEP-WCMC) involving involving climate change migration and adaptation and impact on the ecosystem services.

162

Spatial and temporal variation in plant hydraulic traits and their relevance for climate change impacts on vegetation.  

PubMed

Plant hydraulics mediate terrestrial woody plant productivity, influencing global water, carbon, and biogeochemical cycles, as well as ecosystem vulnerability to drought and climate change. While inter-specific differences in hydraulic traits are widely documented, intra-specific hydraulic variability is less well known and is important for predicting climate change impacts. Here, I present a conceptual framework for this intra-specific hydraulic trait variability, reviewing the mechanisms that drive variability and the consequences for vegetation response to climate change. I performed a meta-analysis on published studies (n = 33) of intra-specific variation in a prominent hydraulic trait - water potential at which 50% stem conductivity is lost (P50) - and compared this variation to inter-specific variability within genera and plant functional types used by a dynamic global vegetation model. I found that intra-specific variability is of ecologically relevant magnitudes, equivalent to c. 33% of the inter-specific variability within a genus, and is larger in angiosperms than gymnosperms, although the limited number of studies highlights that more research is greatly needed. Furthermore, plant functional types were poorly situated to capture key differences in hydraulic traits across species, indicating a need to approach prediction of drought impacts from a trait-based, rather than functional type-based perspective. PMID:25729797

Anderegg, William R L

2015-02-01

163

Global Climate Change Exploratorium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, funded by NSF, is the home page for the Global Climate Change research explorer. Multicolor tabs at the top of the page link to further information and visualizations (graphs, charts, pictures, etc.) for climate change resources in each of the Earth's spheres, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and global effects of climate change.

The Exploratorium

164

The Changing Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the global change of climate. Presents the trend of climate change with graphs. Describes mathematical climate models including expressions for the interacting components of the ocean-atmosphere system and equations representing the basic physical laws governing their behavior. Provides three possible responses on the change. (YP)

Schneider, Stephen H.

1989-01-01

165

The Mathematics Climate Change  

E-print Network

;Evaluating global warming #12;The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) nds that human - inducedThe Mathematics of Climate Change Graciela Chichilnisky UNESCO Professor of Mathematics January 7 & 8, 2008 #12;Climate Change is a New Phenomenon Notoriously di cult to model mathematically

Zeeman, Mary Lou

166

Environment and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE #12;The opinions expressed;Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE Edited by Frank Laczko and Christine with with the financial support of #12;3 Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence Contents

Galles, David

167

Forest Research: Climate Change  

E-print Network

Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

168

Abrupt Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur for many reasons, it is conceivable that human forcing of climate change is increasing the probability of large, abrupt events. Were such an event to recur, the economic and ecological impacts

R. B. Alley; J. Marotzke; W. D. Nordhaus; J. T. Overpeck; D. M. Peteet; R. A. Pielke Jr; R. T. Pierrehumbert; P. B. Rhines; T. F. Stocker; L. D. Talley; J. M. Wallace

2003-01-01

169

Climate Change Workshop 2007  

E-print Network

1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

170

International Finance and Climate Change  

E-print Network

International Finance and Climate Change Thursday, October 17, 2013 Breakfast ­ 8:30 a Principal Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Group at International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group Vladimir Stenek Senior Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Department of the International

Zhang, Junshan

171

Plant defenses and climate change: doom or destiny for the lodgepole pine?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lodgepole pine is a species of great importance to the forestry industry of British Columbia. However, recent climate-change associated outbreaks of insect pests (i.e. the mountain pine beetle) and diseases (Dothistroma needle blight) have limited productivity of stands throughout its northern range...

172

Climate change and plant distribution: local models predict high-elevation persistence  

E-print Network

, we assess whether climate change-induced habitat losses predicted at the European scale (10 Â 100 regions of the Swiss Alps. We show that local-scale models predict persistence of suitable habitats in up to 100% of species that were predicted by a European-scale model to lose all their suitable habitats

Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

173

Developing robust crop plants for sustaining growth and yield under adverse climatic changes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural production and quality are expected to suffer from adverse changes in climatic conditions, including global warming, and this will affect worldwide human and animal food security. Global warming has been shown to negatively impact crop yield and therefore will affect sustainability of a...

174

Potential climate change impacts on tidal wetland plant and algal assemblages in the Pacific Northwest  

EPA Science Inventory

Tidal wetlands along the coast of the Pacific Northwest provide wildlife habitat and support important ecosystem functions such as primary productivity. The future structure and function of these ecosystems may be altered by sea-level rise (SLR) or other climate change effects. W...

175

Influence of atmospheric and climatic change on plant-pathogen interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Atmospheric change studies conducted in Free Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) systems and open topped chambers have increased our understanding of how factors, such as rising CO2 and O3 levels, impact the development of plant disease epidemics. Using these systems, plant scientists have been able...

176

Experiment, monitoring, and gradient methods used to infer climate change effects on plant communities yield consistent patterns.  

PubMed

Inference about future climate change impacts typically relies on one of three approaches: manipulative experiments, historical comparisons (broadly defined to include monitoring the response to ambient climate fluctuations using repeat sampling of plots, dendroecology, and paleoecology techniques), and space-for-time substitutions derived from sampling along environmental gradients. Potential limitations of all three approaches are recognized. Here we address the congruence among these three main approaches by comparing the degree to which tundra plant community composition changes (i) in response to in situ experimental warming, (ii) with interannual variability in summer temperature within sites, and (iii) over spatial gradients in summer temperature. We analyzed changes in plant community composition from repeat sampling (85 plant communities in 28 regions) and experimental warming studies (28 experiments in 14 regions) throughout arctic and alpine North America and Europe. Increases in the relative abundance of species with a warmer thermal niche were observed in response to warmer summer temperatures using all three methods; however, effect sizes were greater over broad-scale spatial gradients relative to either temporal variability in summer temperature within a site or summer temperature increases induced by experimental warming. The effect sizes for change over time within a site and with experimental warming were nearly identical. These results support the view that inferences based on space-for-time substitution overestimate the magnitude of responses to contemporary climate warming, because spatial gradients reflect long-term processes. In contrast, in situ experimental warming and monitoring approaches yield consistent estimates of the magnitude of response of plant communities to climate warming. PMID:25548195

Elmendorf, Sarah C; Henry, Gregory H R; Hollister, Robert D; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Gould, William A; Hermanutz, Luise; Hofgaard, Annika; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg I; Jorgenson, Janet C; Lévesque, Esther; Magnusson, Borgþór; Molau, Ulf; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Oberbauer, Steven F; Rixen, Christian; Tweedie, Craig E; Walker, Marilyn

2015-01-13

177

Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry,

B. Metz; O. Davidson; P. Bosch; R. Dave; L. Meyer

2007-01-01

178

A landscape-based assessment of climate change vulnerability for all native Hawaiian plants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In Hawai?i and elsewhere, research efforts have focused on two main approaches to determine the potential impacts of climate change on individual species: estimating species vulnerabilities and projecting responses of species to expected changes. We integrated these approaches by defining vulnerability as the inability of species to exhibit any of the responses necessary for persistence under climate change (i.e., tolerate projected changes, endure in microrefugia, or migrate to new climate-compatible areas, but excluding evolutionary adaptation). To operationalize this response-based definition of species vulnerability within a landscape-based analysis, we used current and future climate envelopes for each species to define zones across the landscape: the toleration zone; the microrefugia zone; and the migration zone. Using these response zones we calculated a diverse set of factors related to habitat area, quality, and distribution for each species, including the amount of habitat protection and fragmentation and areas projected to be lost to sea-level rise. We then calculated the probabilities of each species exhibiting these responses using a Bayesian network model and determined the overall climate change vulnerability of each species by using a vulnerability index. As a first iteration of a response-based species vulnerability assessment (VA), our landscape-based analysis effectively integrates species-distribution models into a Bayesian network-based VA that can be updated with improved models and data for more refined analyses in the future. Our results show that the species most vulnerable to climate change also tend to be species of conservation concern due to non-climatic threats (e.g., competition and predation from invasive species, land-use change). Also, many of Hawai?i’s taxa that are most vulnerable to climate change share characteristics with species that in the past were found to be at risk of extinction due to non-climatic threats (e.g., archipelago endemism, single-island endemism). Of particular concern are the numerous species that have no compatible-climate areas remaining by the year 2100. Species primarily associated with dry forests have higher vulnerability scores than species from any other habitat type. When examined at taxonomic levels above species, low vulnerabilities are concentrated in families and genera of generalists (e.g., ferns or sedges) and typically associated with mid-elevation wet habitats. Our results replicate findings from other regions that link higher species vulnerability with decreasing range size. This species VA is possibly the largest in scope ever conducted in the United States with over 1000 species considered, 319 of which are listed as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, filling a critical knowledge gap for resource managers in the region. The information in this assessment can help prioritize species for special conservation actions, guide the management of conservation areas, inform the selection of research and monitoring priorities, and support adaptive management planning and implementation.

Fortini, Lucas; Price, Jonathan; Jacobi, James; Vorsino, Adam; Burgett, Jeff; Brinck, Kevin; Amidon, Fred; Miller, Steve; `Ohukani`ohi`a Gon, Sam, III; Koob, Gregory; Paxton, Eben

2013-01-01

179

Is Climate Change Happening?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this lesson, the guiding Concept Question is: What is climate change and how does climate relate to greenhouse gas concentrations over time? This activity is the second lesson in a nine-lesson module 'Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change' produced by the International Year of Chemistry project (2011).

King's Centre for Visualization in Science

180

Atmospheric circulation climate changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the atmospheric circulation in climate change is examined. A review is given of the information available in the past record on the atmosheric circulation and its role in climate change, firstly at the surface via sea level pressure in both the northern and southern hemispheres and secondly for the free atmosphere. As with most climate information, the

Kevin E. Trenberth

1995-01-01

181

IISDnet: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) provides this site to present its knowledge base for climate change and adaptation. The knowledge base includes links to global projects on climate change, policy documents and research reports. The e-newsletter, Climate Canada, is accessible from this site as well.

182

Global Climatic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed.

Richard A. Houghton; George M. Woodwell

1989-01-01

183

Messaging climate change uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is full of uncertainty and the messengers of climate science are not getting the uncertainty narrative right. To communicate uncertainty one must first understand it, and then avoid repeating the mistakes of the past.

Cooke, Roger M.

2015-01-01

184

11 CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

Information collected over many years at northern climate stations, suggests that the climate in the Mackenzie Delta and the Mackenzie Valley region might be changing. Communities and other stakeholders are concerned about the potential

unknown authors

185

Climate change changing hazards?  

E-print Network

, Brussels How does the climate system work? sun heats surface (land + ocean), mainly in tropics atmosphere = -15°C surface heats atmosphere warm atmosphere gives extra heating => Tglob = +15°C "Greenhouse effect" #12;21.03.2012 Andreas Sterl, Insurance Strategy, Brussels Greenhouse gases only 1

Stoffelen, Ad

186

Modeled subalpine plant community response to climate change and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA.  

PubMed

To evaluate potential long-term effects of climate change and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on subalpine ecosystems, the coupled biogeochemical and vegetation community competition model ForSAFE-Veg was applied to a site at the Loch Vale watershed of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Changes in climate and N deposition since 1900 resulted in pronounced changes in simulated plant species cover as compared with ambient and estimated future community composition. The estimated critical load (CL) of N deposition to protect against an average future (2010-2100) change in biodiversity of 10% was between 1.9 and 3.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Results suggest that the CL has been exceeded and vegetation at the study site has already undergone a change of more than 10% as a result of N deposition. Future increases in air temperature are forecast to cause further changes in plant community composition, exacerbating changes in response to N deposition alone. PMID:24448482

McDonnell, T C; Belyazid, S; Sullivan, T J; Sverdrup, H; Bowman, W D; Porter, E M

2014-04-01

187

Impact of future climate change on wheat production in relation to plant-available water capacity in a semiaridenvironment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptions encompassing climate change are irreversible rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, increased temperature, and changes in rainfall both in spatial- and temporal-scales worldwide. This will have a major impact on wheat production, particularly if crops are frequently exposed to a sequence, frequency, and intensity of specific weather events like high temperature during growth period. However, the process of wheat response to climate change is complex and compounded by interactions among atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variables, soil, nutrition, and agronomic management. In this study, we use the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM)-wheat model, driven by statistically downscaled climate projections of 18 global circulation models (GCMs) under the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 CO2 emission scenario to examine impact on future wheat yields across key wheat growing regions considering different soil types in New South Wales (NSW) of Australia. The response of wheat yield, yield components, and phenology vary across sites and soil types, but yield is closely related to plant available water capacity (PAWC). Results show a decreasing yield trend during the period of 2021-2040 compared to the baseline period of 1961-1990. Across different wheat-growing regions in NSW, grain yield difference in the future period (2021-2040) over the baseline (1961-1990) varies from +3.4 to -14.7 %, and in most sites, grain number is decreased, while grain size is increased in future climate. Reduction of wheat yield is mainly due to shorter growth duration, where average flowering and maturing time are advanced by an average of 11 and 12 days, respectively. In general, larger negative impacts of climate change are exhibited in those sites with higher PAWC. Current wheat cultivars with shorter growing season properties are viable in the future climate, but breading for early sowing wheat varieties with longer growing duration will be a desirable adaptation strategy for mitigating the impact of changing climate on wheat yield.

Yang, Yanmin; Liu, De Li; Anwar, Muhuddin Rajin; Zuo, Heping; Yang, Yonghui

2014-02-01

188

Climate change impairs processes of soil and plant N cycling in European beech forests on marginal soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beech forests of Central Europe are covering large areas with marginal calcareous soils, but provide important ecological services and represent a significant economical value. The vulnerability of these ecosystems to projected climate conditions (higher temperatures, increase of extreme drought and precipitation events) is currently unclear. Here we present comprehensive data on the influence of climate change conditions on ecosystem performance, considering soil nitrogen biogeochemistry, soil microbiology, mycorrhiza ecology and plant physiology. We simultaneously quantified major plant and soil gross N turnover processes by homogenous triple 15N isotope labeling of intact beech natural regeneration-soil-microbe systems. This isotope approach was combined with a space for time climate change experiment, i.e. we transferred intact beech seedling-soil-microbe mesocosms from a slope with N-exposure (representing present day climate conditions) to a slope with S exposure (serving as a warmer and drier model climate for future conditions). Transfers within N slope served as controls. After an equilibration period of 1 year, three isotope labeling/harvest cycles were performed. Reduced soil water content resulted in a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in soil (AOB). Consequently, we found a massive five-fold reduction of gross nitrification in the climate change treatment and a subsequent strong decline in soil nitrate concentrations as well as nitrate uptake by microorganisms and beech. Because nitrate was the major nutrient for beech in this forest type with little importance of ammonium and amino acids, this resulted in a strongly reduced performance of beech natural regeneration with reduced N content, N metabolite concentrations and plant biomass. These findings provided an explanation for a large-scale decline of distribution of beech forests on calcareous soils in Europe by almost 80% until 2080 predicted by statistical modeling. Hence, we question the sustainability of such forests under projected climate change conditions, but also discuss potential mitigation and adaptation options. Important comment: The topic of this abstract is subject to a press embargo, because it is in review at a Nature Journal

Tejedor, Javier; Gasche, Rainer; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Bimüller, Carolin; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Pole, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Bilela, Silvija; Dannenmann, Michael

2014-05-01

189

Potential impact of climate change on plant diseases of economic significance to Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning of fossil fuel, large scale clearing of forests and other human activities have changed global climate. Atmospheric\\u000a concentration of radiatively active CO2, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons has increased to cause global warming. In Australia temperature is projected\\u000a to rise between 1 and 3°C by 2100. This review is the result of a recent workshop on the potential impact

S. ChakrabortyA; G. M. Murray; P. A. Magarey; T. Yonow; R. G. O’Brien; B. J. Croft; M. J. Barbetti; K. Sivasithamparam; K. M. Old; M. J. Dudzinski; R. W. Sutherst; L. J. Penrose; C. Archer; R. W. Emmett

1998-01-01

190

Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent changes in the Earth's climate. Summarizes reports on changes related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, sea level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the changes. Lists 16 references. (YP)

Hall, Dorothy K.

1989-01-01

191

Jessalyn Toldo Will climate change influence  

E-print Network

, responses to climate change, such as earlier flowering time, may expose plants to different environmentalJessalyn Toldo Will climate change influence disease susceptibility? A study of natural polyploids change will be on native plants and their diseases. Erysiphe cichoracearum is a powdery mildew

Weiblen, George D

192

Modeling dynamics of tundra plant communities on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, in response to climate change and grazing pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the responses of the arctic tundra biome to a changing climate requires knowledge of the complex interactions among the climate, soils and biological system. This study investigates the individual and interaction effects of climate change and reindeer grazing across a variety of climate zones and soil texture types on tundra vegetation community dynamics using an arctic vegetation model that

Q Yu; H E Epstein; D A Walker; G V Frost; B C Forbes

2011-01-01

193

History of Plant Phenological Observation in Hungary and Plans for Renewal of System to detect Evidence of the Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first plant protection warning was issued 1760 by the Senate of the Town of Debrecen concerning the destruction of caterpillar's nest. In the middle of the 19th century the first responsible Hungarian Government issued a note in which the minister takes measurements for the phytosanitary safety of agricultural products. Though Hungary had not got independent institutional system for plant protection at the end of the 19th c., still in the middle of the 1870s, the territory of the country was protected with harmonised quarantine measures from the introduction of Colorado beetle. A new era started both in Europe and in Hungary with the devastation caused by Phylloxera vastatrix in vineyards. In 1876, the Act 29 definitely specified the measures to be taken for preventing the spread of the pest and the damages caused by it; and it was proclaimed in both Chambers of the Parliament. This incident resulted basically in the launching for the establishment of an independent plant protection institution. In l880, the National Committee on Phylloxera, then in 1881, the National Experimental Station for Phylloxera was set up, this latter considered as the first nucleus of the Hungarian plant protection organisation. The international plant protection convention, concluded in 1929 and signed by our country, had a great role in the history of the development of the plant protection organisation. Hungary agreed to establish an official plant protection organization which should consist of a plant protection service and a research institute. In compliance with the Ministerial Decree 49.000/1932 the Hungarian Plant Protection Service was set up which can now be taken for the first organisation of the uniform national plant protection administration system. Plant protection stations were established in 1954. The plant phenological observation network was run by the plant protection administration but financially was maintained by OMSZ therefore the main aim of the phenological observation in Hungary is to give information for plant protection forecast. The system was time to time renewed, last tin in 1984. The system was closed in 2001because of financial restriction. Taking into consideration of necessity of systematic phenological observation mainly as a possible tool of climate change detection and seeing the results of COST Action 725 a project proposal was submitted for reconstruction of phonological network. Beside the main historical milestones of Hungarian phenological history the most important elements of the new plan will be shown. Since climate change expressed by the responses of the vegetation system our investigation is focused to long time data series like the Book of Vine Branches which contains the conditions of wine branches year by year on St. George day 24 April since 1740.

Hunkar, M.; Dunkel, Z.

2009-04-01

194

Effects of plant species, organic matter quality, and microbial activity on peatland ecosystem function and resiliance to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in peatland responses to climate change are due to our poor understanding of interactions between soil climate, plant community structure, organic matter quality, and microbial activity that operate on timeframes ranging from seconds to decades or longer. These uncertainties restrict our understanding of C cycling in peatlands under current and future climate regimes, and inhibit our ability to accurately predict and manage future C cycling patterns and magnitudes in peat accumulating systems. Therefore, our research addresses several fundamental questions regarding the interactive effects of warming and water manipulations on peatland carbon cycling and how they are modified by peat chemistry and vegetation changes. We are monitoring seven sites in Seney National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, that represent a gradient of long-term water manipulations (~50 years of drainage), plus another peatland where we are conducting a short-term warming experiment to quantify how short-term warming influence peatland ecosystems, and if different types of experimental warming (warming lamps vs. open top chambers) produce different results. In SNWR we have installed two eddy flux towers, a series of micromet stations, collected soil for peat quality analysis, collected chamber based ecosystem carbon fluxes (GEP, ER and NEE) every 2 weeks, and are monitoring plant production, decomposition, water table levels, soil temperatures and climate data. We also established 18 plots at our other site and divided them into 3 treatments comprised of heating lamps, open top chambers, and control plots. Initial results indicate that carbon fluxes are influenced by temperature and hydrologic conditions. Increased temperatures generally increased GEP, ER and had mixed effects on NEE. Lowered water levels tended to increased GEP, ER and lowered NEE. There were also synergistic effects of temperature, water levels, plant community changes and peat quality on carbon cycling.

Chimner, R.; Pypker, T.; Turetsky, M. M.; Hribljan, J.; Waddington, M.

2008-12-01

195

Dictionary of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This book represents a revision of the climate change lexicon that was prepared for the Second World Climate Conference in 1990. The conference had 1400 participants and consisted of a scientific component followed by a ministerial meeting. To foster communication among the different constituencies, a lexicon of climate and climate change was prepared for the participants. The dictionary includes definitions and descriptions of most of the scientific terms, organizations, and programs related to the physical aspects of climate change. Nearly 40% of the material describes organized projects, experiments, or programs, mostly international. Some information on biological topics, such as the difference between C3 and C4 plants, is also included. The length of definitions and descriptions ranges from one line to one or more pages, with the longer descriptions usually related to programs.

Maunder, W.J. (ed.)

1992-01-01

196

Responding to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the ninth and final lesson in a series of lessons about climate change. This lesson focuses on the various activities that humans can do to mitigate the effects of climate change. This includes information on current and predicted CO2 emission scenarios across the globe, alternative energy sources, and how people are currently responding to climate change. Importantly, this lesson is motivating in showing students that they can make a difference.

King's Centre for Visualization in Science

197

Climate Change Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experts Jason Shogren and Michael Toman wrote this discussion paper (00-22) on the economics of climate change policy, recently posted on the Resources for the Future (RFF) Website. The paper (.pdf format) examines the risks of climate change, the benefits of protection from climate change, and the costs of alternative protection policies. Also included is a summary of key policy lessons and knowledge gaps.

198

Our Changing Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,…

Newhouse, Kay Berglund

2007-01-01

199

Stomatal and mesophyll conductances to CO? in different plant groups: underrated factors for predicting leaf photosynthesis responses to climate change?  

PubMed

The climate change conditions predicted for the end of the current century are expected to have an impact on the performance of plants under natural conditions. The variables which are foreseen to have a larger effect are increased CO2 concentration and temperature. Although it is generally considered CO2 assimilation rate could be increased by the increasing levels of CO2, it has been reported in previous studies that acclimation to high CO2 results in reductions of physiological parameters involved in photosynthesis, like the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc,max), stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm). On the one hand, most of the previous modeling efforts have neglected the potential role played by the acclimation of gm to high CO2 and temperature. On the other hand, the effect of climate change on plant clades other than angiosperms, like ferns, has received little attention, and there are no studies evaluating the potential impact of increasing CO2 and temperature on these species. In this study we predicted responses of several representative species among angiosperms, gymnosperms and ferns to increasing CO2 and temperature. Our results show that species with lower photosynthetic capacity - such as some ferns and gymnosperms - would be proportionally more favored under these foreseen environmental conditions. The main reason for this difference is the lower diffusion limitation imposed by gs and gm in plants having high capacity for photosynthesis among the angiosperms, which reduces the positive effect of increasing CO2. However, this apparent advantage of low-diffusion species would be canceled if the two conductances - gs and gm - acclimate and are down regulated to high CO2, which is basically unknown, especially for gymnosperms and ferns. Hence, for a better understanding of different plant responses to future climate, studies are urged in which the actual photosynthetic response/acclimation to increased CO2 and temperature of ferns, gymnosperms and other under-evaluated plant groups is assessed. PMID:25113449

Flexas, Jaume; Carriquí, Marc; Coopman, Rafael E; Gago, Jorge; Galmés, Jeroni; Martorell, Sebastià; Morales, Fermín; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

2014-09-01

200

Communicating Urban Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of climate change. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down climate change. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to climate change requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand climate change and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic climate change. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with climate scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about climate change and its impacts on urban audiences. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about climate change. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused climate education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about climate science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global climate change in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of models for community programming and this session will present early results of these efforts while engaging participants in exploring approaches to connecting urban communities and their local concerns to the issues of global climate change.

Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership

2011-12-01

201

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear  

E-print Network

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters Rob Goldston MIT IAP plays a large role in replacing coal red plants. al hydro electricity options penetrate in the climate way across scenarios, showing a slight severe climate targets. In Industry, the climate target has

202

Past Climate Change and Plant Evolution in Western North America: A Case Study in Rosaceae  

PubMed Central

Species in the ivesioid clade of Potentilla (Rosaceae) are endemic to western North America, an area that underwent widespread aridification during the global temperature decrease following the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. Several morphological features interpreted as adaptations to drought are found in the clade, and many species occupy extremely dry habitats. Recent phylogenetic analyses have shown that the sister group of this clade is Potentilla section Rivales, a group with distinct moist habitat preferences. This has led to the hypothesis that the ivesioids (genera Ivesia, Horkelia and Horkeliella) diversified in response to the late Tertiary aridification of western North America. We used phyloclimatic modeling and a fossil-calibrated dated phylogeny of the family Rosaceae to investigate the evolution of the ivesioid clade. We have combined occurrence- and climate data from extant species, and used ancestral state reconstruction to model past climate preferences. These models have been projected into paleo-climatic scenarios in order to identify areas where the ivesioids may have occurred. Our analysis suggests a split between the ivesioids and Potentilla sect. Rivales around Late Oligocene/Early Miocene (?23 million years ago, Ma), and that the ivesioids then diversified at a time when summer drought started to appear in the region. The clade is inferred to have originated on the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains from where a westward range expansion to the Sierra Nevada and the coast of California took place between ?12-2 Ma. Our results support the idea that climatic changes in southwestern North America have played an important role in the evolution of the local flora, by means of in situ adaptation followed by diversification. PMID:23236369

Töpel, Mats; Antonelli, Alexandre; Yesson, Chris; Eriksen, Bente

2012-01-01

203

Climate change. Uncertainty and climate change assessments.  

PubMed

Clear and quantitative discussion of uncertainties is critical for public policy making on climate change. The recently completed report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessed the uncertainty in its findings and forecasts. The uncertainty assessment process of the IPCC should be improved in the future by using a consistent approach to quantifying uncertainty, focusing the quantification on the few key results most important for policy making. The uncertainty quantification procedure should be fully documented, and if expert judgment is used, a specific list of the experts consulted should be included. PMID:11463897

Reilly, J; Stone, P H; Forest, C E; Webster, M D; Jacoby, H D; Prinn, R G

2001-07-20

204

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air ResourcesBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

205

Climate Change and Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Human civilisations have for millennia depended on the stability of groundwater resources to survive dry or unreliable climates.\\u000a While groundwater supplies are buffered against short-term effects of climate variability, they can be impacted over longer\\u000a time frames through changes in rainfall, temperature, snowfall, melting of glaciers and permafrost and vegetation and land-use\\u000a changes. Groundwater provides an archive of past climate

Catherine E. Hughes; Dioni I. Cendón; Mathew P. Johansen; Karina T. Meredith

206

Alleviating climate change Alleviating climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing climate change will require dramatic policy shifts in the fields of energy, livestock production and forest management. The following paper summarises where we are now and what we need to do, with an emphasis on how multilateral organisations like The World Bank can help to address the challenges ahead.

Robert Goodland; Simon Counsell

2008-01-01

207

Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L. (eds.)

2007-07-01

208

Climate Change Review of Muller's chapter on Climate Change from  

E-print Network

Climate Change · Review of Muller's chapter on Climate Change from Physics for Future Society) controversy on climate change (e.g. resignation of Hal Lewis, Ivar Giaever and other notable. #12;Some climate changes basics · IPCC = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change · The IPCC

Browder, Tom

209

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

Hulme, Mike

210

Coastal Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As climate changes, dynamic coastal regions are experiencing a wide range of impacts. Sea levels, ocean acidification, sea surface temperatures, ocean heat, and ocean circulation have all been changing in ways unseen for thousands of years. Arctic sea ice melted significantly more during summers in the last 30 years, and storms are intensifying. Coastal ecosystems stand to be damaged, and coasts will likely erode from rising sea levels, intensified storm surges, and flooding that climate change may amplify. Coastal communities will need to prepare adaptation strategies to cope, and many who live or work in coastal regions are wondering what climate change might mean for them. This module provides an overview of the impacts coastal regions are experiencing and may continue to experience as a result of Earth’s changing climate. A video series within the module demonstrates effective strategies for communicating climate science.

2014-09-14

211

Historical climate change and speciation: neotropical seasonally dry forest plants show patterns of both tertiary and quaternary diversification.  

PubMed Central

Historical climate changes have had a major effect on the distribution and evolution of plant species in the neotropics. What is more controversial is whether relatively recent Pleistocene climatic changes have driven speciation, or whether neotropical species diversity is more ancient. This question is addressed using evolutionary rate analysis of sequence data of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers in diverse taxa occupying neotropical seasonally dry forests, including Ruprechtia (Polygonaceae), robinioid legumes (Fabaceae), Chaetocalyx and Nissolia (Fabaceae), and Loxopterygium (Anacardiaceae). Species diversifications in these taxa occurred both during and before the Pleistocene in Central America, but were primarily pre-Pleistocene in South America. This indicates plausibility both for models that predict tropical species diversity to be recent and that invoke a role for Pleistocene climatic change, and those that consider it ancient and implicate geological factors such as the Andean orogeny and the closure of the Panama Isthmus. Cladistic vicariance analysis was attempted to identify common factors underlying evolution in these groups. In spite of the similar Mid-Miocene to Pliocene ages of the study taxa, and their high degree of endemism in the different fragments of South American dry forests, the analysis yielded equivocal, non-robust patterns of area relationships. PMID:15212100

Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt; Prado, Darién E; Pendry, Colin A; Pell, Susan K; Butterworth, Charles A

2004-01-01

212

Predicting the Impacts of Climate Change on the Potential Distribution of Major Native Non-Food Bioenergy Plants in China  

PubMed Central

Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of “precipitation of the warmest quarter” and “annual mean temperature” were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China. PMID:25365425

Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

2014-01-01

213

Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.  

PubMed

Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China. PMID:25365425

Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

2014-01-01

214

Physiological and growth responses of arctic plants to a field experiment simulating climatic change  

SciTech Connect

Field manipulations of light, temperature, nutrients, and length of growing season in directions simulating global environmental change altered biomass of the four most abundant vascular plant species in tussock tundra of northern Alaska. These species are Betula nana, Ledum palustre, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, and Eriophorum vaginatum. Biomass response reflected changes in both growth and mortality, with growth being stimulated by treatments that enhanced biomass,a and mortality being enhanced by all treatments (except in Vaccinium). Those species with highest leaf and stem turnover (the graminoid and deciduous shrub) initially showed large positive responses to nutrient addition. By contrast, slow-turnover evergeen species showed little initial change in production in response to our manipulations, and their long-term biomass responses were in the opposite direction to those of the responsive species. Short-term measurement of leaf expansion, photosynthesis, and phosphate uptake showed little correlation with net production of biomass change in response to manipulations because of compensatory mechanisms at levels of growth and allocation. Changes in nutrient distribution among species accounted for many of the long-term changes in biomass and productivity. Processes that are readily integrated at annual time steps (e.g., shoot growth, shoot mortality, allocation) were more useful than instantaneous physiological measurements in predicting decadal vegetation changes because (1) compensating responses among physiological processes buffer plant responses at progressively longer time scales, (2) species interactions in the community buffer ecosystem processes such as productivity and nutrient cycling from changes in growth of individual species, and (3) different time lags between physiological, demographic, and ecosystem processes complicate modeling of long-term responses from short-term mechanism. 76 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

Chapin, F.S. III [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shaver, G.R. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

1996-04-01

215

Projected Range Contractions of European Protected Oceanic Montane Plant Communities: Focus on Climate Change Impacts Is Essential for Their Future Conservation  

PubMed Central

Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly greater focus on potential climate change impacts, including models with higher-resolution species distribution and environmental data, to aid these communities' long-term survival. PMID:24752011

Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

2014-01-01

216

Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

217

Modeling Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding global climate change is challenging, even for adults, yet having an understanding of this topic is consequential for the future. In this activity, middle school students learn about global climate change using models that allow them to make predictions, observations, and then explain mechanisms for climate change. Component ideas include change over time, deep time, and accumulation. Students are asked to act as advisers on how to lower energy use, and refine their understanding of how and why this is important, before testing their ideas and finally revising their advice.

Vanessa Svihla

218

Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on a Prairie Plant Community  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change directly affects species by altering their physical environment and indirectly affects species by altering interspecific interactions such as predation and competition. Recent studies have shown that the indirect effects of climate change may amplify or counteract the direct effects. However, little is known about the the relative strength of direct and indirect effects or their potential to impact population persistence. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the effects of altered precipitation and interspecific interactions on the low-density tiller growth rates and biomass production of three perennial grass species in a Kansas, USA mixed prairie. We transplanted plugs of each species into local neighborhoods of heterospecific competitors and then exposed the plugs to a factorial manipulation of growing season precipitation and neighbor removal. Precipitation treatments had significant direct effects on two of the three species. Interspecific competition also had strong effects, reducing low-density tiller growth rates and aboveground biomass production for all three species. In fact, in the presence of competitors, (log) tiller growth rates were close to or below zero for all three species. However, we found no convincing evidence that per capita competitive effects changed with precipitation, as shown by a lack of significant precipitation × competition interactions. Conclusions/Significance We found little evidence that altered precipitation will influence per capita competitive effects. However, based on species' very low growth rates in the presence of competitors in some precipitation treatments, interspecific interactions appear strong enough to affect the balance between population persistence and local extinction. Therefore, ecological forecasting models should include the effect of interspecific interactions on population growth, even if such interaction coefficients are treated as constants. PMID:19727390

Adler, Peter B.; Leiker, James; Levine, Jonathan M.

2009-01-01

219

Modern global climate change.  

PubMed

Modern climate change is dominated by human influences, which are now large enough to exceed the bounds of natural variability. The main source of global climate change is human-induced changes in atmospheric composition. These perturbations primarily result from emissions associated with energy use, but on local and regional scales, urbanization and land use changes are also important. Although there has been progress in monitoring and understanding climate change, there remain many scientific, technical, and institutional impediments to precisely planning for, adapting to, and mitigating the effects of climate change. There is still considerable uncertainty about the rates of change that can be expected, but it is clear that these changes will be increasingly manifested in important and tangible ways, such as changes in extremes of temperature and precipitation, decreases in seasonal and perennial snow and ice extent, and sea level rise. Anthropogenic climate change is now likely to continue for many centuries. We are venturing into the unknown with climate, and its associated impacts could be quite disruptive. PMID:14657489

Karl, Thomas R; Trenberth, Kevin E

2003-12-01

220

The Biodiversity: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step-by-step slide show animation, from the International Polar Foundation, deals with the topics of biodiversity and climate change. It lays out the main effects of climate change, i.e. the strengthening of the natural greenhouse effect phenomenon that has been caused by our way of life, and the unprecedented speeding up of rises in temperature compared with the natural periods of warming that have occurred in the past. It also looks at the main consequences of these changes.

International Polar Foundation

221

What Is Climate Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weather consists of those meteorological events, such as rain, wind and sunshine, which can change day-by-day or even hour-by-hour. Climate is the average of all these events, taken over a period of time. The climate varies over different parts of the world. Climate is usually defined as the average of the weather over a 30-year period. It is when…

Beswick, Adele

2007-01-01

222

[Homeostatic responses of plants to modern climate change: spatial and phenological aspects].  

PubMed

A series of dates of unfolding of the first leaves and duration of the season of vegetation in the silver birch (Betulapendula Roth. (B. verrucosa Ehrh.)), as well as the duration of flowering of the bird cherry (Padus avium), mountain ash (Sórbus aucupária), and small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) for the period 1970-2010 in the central part of European Russia were studied in order to assess the trends. Differences in phenological responses to homogeneous climate changes in the trees of the same species from the northern and southern parts of the range were revealed. If spring events occur 3-7 days earlier in the northern part, no such effect is observed in the south. This fact can be interpreted as a manifestation of the different mechanisms of homeostasis in different populations determined by their biological characteristics (in particular, by the need to pass successfully the periods of organic rest and vegetation). PMID:25720275

Minin, A A; Voskova, A V

2014-01-01

223

Climate change and skin.  

PubMed

Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

2013-02-01

224

Status of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Status of Climate Change 2013 CaTee Conference San Antonio 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Menu for Today • IPCC 2013: Assessment Report #5 • Facts about Climate Change... Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Facts about Climate Change ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

North, G.

2013-01-01

225

Elevated CO? does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants.  

PubMed

In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO? might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of CO? and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO?-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70-97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO? increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO? increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (?¹³C(leaf) ), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. The moderate positive effects of elevated CO? on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO?, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species. PMID:23171384

Perry, Laura G; Shafroth, Patrick B; Blumenthal, Dana M; Morgan, Jack A; LeCain, Daniel R

2013-01-01

226

Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

* In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. * We examined the effects of CO2 and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO2-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. * Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70–97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO2 increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (?13Cleaf), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. * The moderate positive effects of elevated CO2 on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO2, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

Perry, Laura G.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

227

Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of CO2 and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoids spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO2-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70–97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO2 increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (?13Cleaf), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. The moderate positive effects of elevated CO2 on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO2, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

Perry, Laura G.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

228

Climate Change and the Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity covers the role that the oceans may play in climate change and how climate change may affect the oceans. It is lesson 8 in a nine-lesson module Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change.

The King's Centre for Visualization in Science

229

Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION . THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE .INTRODUCTION The earth has entered a new period of significant climate change.introductions to the concepts of adaptation and adaptive capacity, including how the concepts are used in the climate change

Cole, Daniel H.

2008-01-01

230

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,  

E-print Network

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

231

Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises  

E-print Network

Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

232

Conservation and Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

Landweber, Laura

233

Climate change and drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Climate change is likely to increase drought risk during the 21st century in many parts of the world. Climate model projections, under a range of emissions scenarios, consistently show that seasonal rainfall is likely to decrease across large parts of southern Europe, north Africa, central Asia and southern Africa, and reductions are also possible in other dry parts

N. W. Arnell

234

Climate Change Made Simple  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.…

Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

2007-01-01

235

Climate change in the oceans: evolutionary versus phenotypically plastic responses of marine animals and plants  

PubMed Central

I summarize marine studies on plastic versus adaptive responses to global change. Due to the lack of time series, this review focuses largely on the potential for adaptive evolution in marine animals and plants. The approaches were mainly synchronic comparisons of phenotypically divergent populations, substituting spatial contrasts in temperature or CO2 environments for temporal changes, or in assessments of adaptive genetic diversity within populations for traits important under global change. The available literature is biased towards gastropods, crustaceans, cnidarians and macroalgae. Focal traits were mostly environmental tolerances, which correspond to phenotypic buffering, a plasticity type that maintains a functional phenotype despite external disturbance. Almost all studies address coastal species that are already today exposed to fluctuations in temperature, pH and oxygen levels. Recommendations for future research include (i) initiation and analyses of observational and experimental temporal studies encompassing diverse phenotypic traits (including diapausing cues, dispersal traits, reproductive timing, morphology) (ii) quantification of nongenetic trans-generational effects along with components of additive genetic variance (iii) adaptive changes in microbe–host associations under the holobiont model in response to global change (iv) evolution of plasticity patterns under increasingly fluctuating environments and extreme conditions and (v) joint consideration of demography and evolutionary adaptation in evolutionary rescue approaches. PMID:24454551

Reusch, Thorsten B H

2014-01-01

236

Climate change and plant community composition in national parks of the southwestern US: forecasting regional, long-term effects to meet management needs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Park Service (NPS) faces tremendous management challenges in the future as climates alter the abundance and distribution of plant species. These challenges will be especially daunting in the southwestern U.S., where large increases in aridity are forecasted. The expected reduction in water availability will negatively affect plant growth and may result in shifts of plant community composition. Synthesis of climate and plant vital sign data from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) networks is essential to provide park managers with important insights into contemporary climate responses and a sound basis to forecast likely future changes at species, community, and ecosystem scales. We describe a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NPS in which we have conducted regional cross-site assessments across the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts to understand plant species responses to past climate and forecast future plant community composition. We also determined whether a widely-implemented vegetation monitoring protocol in these deserts is suitable to track long-term vegetation changes caused by climate and other factors. Our results from these analyses are intended to help natural resource managers identify and prepare for changes in plant cover and community composition and evaluate the efficacy of current monitoring programs.

Munson, Seth M.; Belnap, Jayne; Webb, Robert H.; Hubbard, J. Andrew; Reiser, M. Hildegard; Gallo, Kirsten

2014-01-01

237

Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to CO{sub 2} and climate change. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Objectives can be divided into those for plant modeling and those for ecosystem modeling and experimental work in support of both. The author worked in a variety of ecosystem types, including pine, arctic, desert, and grasslands. Plant modeling objectives are: (1) to construct generic models of leaf, canopy, and whole-plant response to elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (2) to validate predictions of whole-plant response against various field studies of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (3) to use these models to test specific hypotheses and to make predictions about primary, secondary and tertiary effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on individual plants for conditions and time frames beyond those used to calibrate the model; and (4) to provide information to higher-level models, such as community models and ecosystem models. Ecosystem level modeling objectives are: (1) to incorporate models of plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2} into a generic ecosystem model in order to predict the direct and indirect effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on ecosystems; (2) to validate model predictions of total system-level response (including decomposition) against various ecosystem field studies of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (3) to use the ecosystem model to test specific hypotheses and to make predictions about primary, secondary and tertiary effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on ecosystems for conditions and time frames beyond those used to calibrate the model; and (4) to use the ecosystem model to study effects of change in CO{sub 2} and climate at regional and global scales. Occasionally the author conducted some experimental work that was deemed important to the development of the models. This work was mainly physiological work that could be performed in the Duke University Phytotron, using existing facilities.

Reynolds, J.F.

1998-04-10

238

Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

Armstrong, Jennifer

2014-05-01

239

Mitigating Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Navajo Technical College, meet a chemistry professor who explains some of the core concepts connected to climate change: carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and emissions from energy use.

2012-03-16

240

Climate change and jobs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development expert Barbara Harriss-White leads a team of specialists from agriculture to economics, environmental science and policy to investigate neglected aspects of the climate change response in India.

2012-05-01

241

Assessing effects of forecasted climate change on the diversity and distribution of European higher plants for 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidly increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases may lead to significant changes in regional and seasonal climate patterns. Such changes can strongly influence the diversity and distribution of species and, therefore, affect ecosystems and biodiversity. To assess these changes we developed a model, called euromove. The model uses climate data from 1990 to 2050 as compiled from the image

M. Bakkenes; J. R. M. Alkemade; F. Ihle; R. Leemans; J. B. Latour

2002-01-01

242

Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

1989-04-01

243

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site students can explore scientific data on climate change relating to the atmosphere, the oceans, the areas covered by ice and snow, and the living organisms in all these domains. They will get a sense of how scientists study natural phenomena, how researchers gather evidence, test theories, and come to conclusions. Though climate change is not new, the study of how human activity affects the earth's climate is. Links lead to five major sections: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and global effects. Each section is a separate lesson consisting of visual thumbnails with supporting text. All sections are supported by a glossary.

244

Specialization in Plant-Hummingbird Networks Is Associated with Species Richness, Contemporary Precipitation and Quaternary Climate-Change Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale geographical patterns of biotic specialization and the underlying drivers are poorly understood, but it is widely believed that climate plays an important role in determining specialization. As climate-driven range dynamics should diminish local adaptations and favor generalization, one hypothesis is that contemporary biotic specialization is determined by the degree of past climatic instability, primarily Quaternary climate-change velocity. Other prominent

Bo Dalsgaard; Else Magård; Jon Fjeldså; Ana M. Martín González; Carsten Rahbek; Jens M. Olesen; Jeff Ollerton; Ruben Alarcón; Andrea Cardoso Araujo; Peter A. Cotton; Carlos Lara; Caio Graco Machado; Ivan Sazima; Marlies Sazima; Allan Timmermann; Stella Watts; Brody Sandel; William J. Sutherland; Jens-Christian Svenning; Anna Traveset

2011-01-01

245

Research Facility Climate change and environmental stresses placed by humans on plants,  

E-print Network

: Biomes, Earth Science, Imaging, Insects, Microbiology, Plants and Algae, Plant Productivity accessible central server · Biomes: Six large, environmentally controlled, completely sealed biomes allowing

Denham, Graham

246

Dynamics of desert-shrub populations in regulating soil transport based on plant-size scaling relevant to climate-change timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pervasive presence of vegetation undoubtedly interacts with land surface evolution. Yet complex plant community dynamics make it difficult to predict changes in the surface of the Earth over extended timescales, such as those related to climate change. As global climate change suggests alterations in climate throughout the world, it becomes necessary to accurately quantify the relationship between the land surface and plant communities and also to predict possible plant community fluctuations in a changing climate. Allometric scaling in vascular plants provides a clear method to define relationships between structural and functional variables in plants [Enquist et al., 2000]. Scaling relationships hold over 12 orders of magnitude in vascular plants and provide a solid foundation for use in dynamic, biologically-informed, land surface evolution modelling. Past studies have shown that rainsplash processes create mounds, or sediment 'capacitors', beneath desert shrubs which can affect the sediment flux on hillslopes. We have expanded this research to model the effect of desert shrub communities on hillslope evolution over climate-change timescales. We collected individual and community level data on two dominant shrub species, Rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) and Broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae) in central New Mexico. We found that both shrub species followed the theoretical scaling relationships: rcan ? r2/3 and h ? r2/3, where rcan is the plant canopy radius, h is plant height, and r is base stem radius [West et al., 2008]. Our confidence in this relationship provides us with the basis to extrapolate the total biomass of these shrub communities to apply to our model of coupled plant behavior and soil transport in order to quantitatively define transport rates in an increasingly arid environment.

Fathel, S. L.; Furbish, D. J.; Worman, S. L.

2012-12-01

247

Climate Change: Good for Us?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity with the objective of encouraging students to think about the effects of climate change. Explains background information on dependence to climate and discuses whether climate change is important. Provides information for the activity, extensions, and evaluation. (YDS)

Oblak, Jackie

2000-01-01

248

Energy and climate change  

SciTech Connect

Models that simulate present and past climatic behavior suggest that an increase in carbon dioxide concentration to double the preindustrial level would commit us to an increase in global average temperatures of up to a few degrees Celsius. This warming would be accompanied by many other related changes of climate. An increase in annual average temperature by such an amount, while not unprecedented on a local basis, would elevate global temperatures to levels not experienced in historical times. This climate change could occur before the carbon dioxide concentration doubled because of the similar radiative effects of other gases, necessitating coupled consideration of the climatic and chemical effects of carbon dioxide and other trace gases, including especially methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and nitrous oxide. Consideration of this issue in the development of the National Energy Strategy will require addressing a series of very difficult and interconnected questions concerning: projection of future energy use and the mix of technologies, estimation of the consequent level of chemical, climate, and environmental change, selection of the acceptable rate of chemical, climate, and environmental change, estimation of the probably rate of conservation and of technological and efficiency developments, and determination of the appropriate level of national and international commitment for addressing this global issue. This report attempts to summarize the technical basis for addressing these issues, even while recognizing the many complex societal aspects underlying each of them. 310 refs., 24 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-01

249

Plant functional type classification for Earth System Models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land-cover datasets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), with land cover (LC_CCI) as one of thirteen Essential Climate Variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases, first responding to a survey of user needs, then developing a global, moderate resolution, land-cover dataset for three time periods, or epochs, 2000, 2005, and 2010, and the last phase resulting in a user-tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFT). The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three-earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT dataset and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land-atmosphere interactions. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as Phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, G.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.

2015-01-01

250

Current Climate Variability & Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and climate change. The next section guides students through the exploration of temporal changes in global temperature from the surface to the lower stratosphere. Students discover that there has been global warming over the past several decades, and the subsequent section allows them to consider solar radiation and greenhouse gases as possible causes of this warming. Students then zoom in on different latitudinal zones to examine changes in temperature for each zone and hypothesize about why one zone may have warmed more than others. The final section, prior to the answering of the essential questions, is an examination of the following effects of the current change in temperatures: loss of sea ice; rise of sea level; loss of permafrost loss; and moistening of the atmosphere. The lab addresses 14 climate-literacy concepts and all seven climate-literacy principles through data and images that are mainly NASA products. It focuses on the satellite era of climate data; therefore, 1979 is the typical starting year for most datasets used by students. Additionally, all time-series analysis end with the latest year with full-year data availability; thus, the climate variability and trends truly are 'current.'

Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

2013-12-01

251

Avoiding dangerous climate change  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

2006-02-15

252

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the greenhouse effect is related to global warming and how global warming impacts our planet, including global climate change. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and how we react to these changes are the main points of focus of this lesson.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

253

Solar Influence: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video, the sixth in the National Academies Climate Change, Lines of Evidence series, explores the hypothesis that changes in solar energy output may be responsible for observed global surface temperature rise. Several lines of evidence, such as direct satellite observations, are reviewed.

National Research Council

254

Climate change and marine plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how climate change will affect the planet is a key issue worldwide. Questions concerning the pace and impacts of climate change are thus central to many ecological and biogeochemical studies, and addressing the consequences of climate change is now high on the list of priorities for funding agencies. Here, we review the interactions between climate change and plankton communities,

Graeme C. Hays; Anthony J. Richardson; Carol Robinson

2005-01-01

255

Climate change and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change, although a natural phenomenon, is accelerated by human activities. Disaster policy response to climate change is dependent on a number of factors, such as readiness to accept the reality of climate change, institutions and capacity, as well as willingness to embed climate change risk assessment and management in development strategies. These conditions do not yet exist universally. A

Geoff O'Brien; Phil O'Keefe; Joanne Rose; Ben Wisner

2006-01-01

256

Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

. Climatic changes--Government policy--United States. 4. Global warming-- Environmental aspects. I. NationalPotential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE on U.S. Transportation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD SPECIAL REPORT 290 #12;#12;Committee on Climate Change and U

Sheridan, Jennifer

257

Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International  

E-print Network

climate change in the Kalahari and Australian deserts Y. Ashkenazy & H. Yizhaq & Haim Tsoar Received: 241 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes and Implications of Climatic Change ISSN 0165-0009 Volume 112 Combined 3-4 Climatic Change (2012) 112:901-923 DOI

Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

258

Climate Change and Runoff Management  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Runoff Management in Wisconsin Fox-Wolf Watershed Alliance May 10, 2011 David S of Engineering #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts of a changing climate J. Magnuson Source: IPCC 2007 Potter, et al. A longer record is better! #12;What about

Sheridan, Jennifer

259

Debating Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

Malone, Elizabeth L.

2009-11-01

260

Predicting climate change  

SciTech Connect

Few scientific topics evoke such general interests and public discussion as climate change. It is a subject that has been highly politicized. New results enter the environmental debate as evidence supporting a position. Usually the qualifiers, the background, and perspective needed to understand the result have been stripped away to form an appropriate sound bite. The attention is understandable given the importance of climate to agriculture and energy use. Fear of global warming and the greenhouse effect has been justification for reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing use of nuclear energy and alternative energy sources. It has been suggested to avoid climate change, a return to a preindustrial level of emissions is necessary. The subject of this article is not the policy implications of greenhouse warming, or even the validity of the premise that global warming caused by the greenhouse effect is occurring. The subject is the current array of concepts and tools available to understand and predict the earth`s climate based on mathematical models of physical processes. These tools for climate simulations include some of the world`s most powerful computers, including the Intel Paragon XP/S 150 at ORNL. With these tools, the authors are attempting to predict the climate changes that may occur 100 years from now for different temperatures of the earth`s surface that will likely result from rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Drake, J.B.

1995-12-31

261

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health. Here, we apply the definition of EIDs used in the medical and veterinary fields to botany and highlight a series of emerging plant diseases. We include EIDs of cultivated and wild plants, some of which are of significant conservation concern. The underlying cause of most plant EIDs is the

Pamela K. Anderson; Andrew A. Cunningham; Nikkita G. Patel; Francisco J. Morales; Paul R. Epstein; Peter Daszak

2004-01-01

262

Impact of global climate change on ecosystem-level interactions among sympatric plants from all three photosynthetic pathways. Terminal report  

SciTech Connect

The proposed research will determine biochemical and physiological responses to variations in environmental factors for plants of all three photosynthetic pathways under competitive situations in the field. These responses will be used to predict the effects of global climatic change on an ecosystem in the northwestern Sonoran Desert where the C{sub 3} subshrub Encelia farinosa, the C{sub 4} bunchgrass Hilaria rigida, and the CAM succulent Agave deserti are co-dominants. These perennials are relatively short with overlapping shallow roots facilitating the experimental measurements as well as leading to competition for soil water. Net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods measured in the laboratory will be analyzed using an environmental productivity index (EPI) that can incorporate simultaneous effects of soil water, air temperature, and light. Based on EPI, net CO{sub 2} uptake and hence plant productivity will be predicted for the three species in the field under various treatments. Activity of the two CO{sub 2} fixation enzymes, Rubisco and PEPCase, will be determined for these various environmental conditions; also, partitioning of carbon to various organs will be measured based on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} labeling and dry weight analysis. Thus, enzymatic and partitioning controls on competition among sympatric model plants representing all three photosynthetic pathways will be investigated.

Nobel, P.S.

1997-12-17

263

Adaptation of agriculture to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparing agriculture for adaptation to climate change requires advance knowledge of how climate will change and when. The direct physical and biological impacts on plants and animals must be understood. The indirect impacts on agriculture's resource base of soils, water and genetic resources must also be known. We lack such information now and will, likely, for some time to come.

Norman J. Rosenberg

1992-01-01

264

Biodiversity and climate change in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the various consequences of climate change on the biodiversity of Kuwait. Many world organizations have established strategic plans for climate change, such as The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation, which is adopted in 2002 by the Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper

Samira Omar Asem; Waleed Y. Roy

2010-01-01

265

Climate change matters.  

PubMed

One manifestation of climate change is the increasingly severe extreme weather that causes injury, illness and death through heat stress, air pollution, infectious disease and other means. Leading health organisations around the world are responding to the related water and food shortages and volatility of energy and agriculture prices that threaten health and health economics. Environmental and climate ethics highlight the associated challenges to human rights and distributive justice but rarely address health or encompass bioethical methods or analyses. Public health ethics and its broader umbrella, bioethics, remain relatively silent on climate change. Meanwhile global population growth creates more people who aspire to Western lifestyles and unrestrained socioeconomic growth. Fulfilling these aspirations generates more emissions; worsens climate change; and undermines virtues and values that engender appreciation of, and protections for, natural resources. Greater understanding of how virtues and values are evolving in different contexts, and the associated consequences, might nudge the individual and collective priorities that inform public policy toward embracing stewardship and responsibility for environmental resources necessary to health. Instead of neglecting climate change and related policy, public health ethics and bioethics should explore these issues; bring transparency to the tradeoffs that permit emissions to continue at current rates; and offer deeper understanding about what is at stake and what it means to live a good life in today's world. PMID:23665996

Macpherson, Cheryl Cox

2014-04-01

266

EPA's Climate Change Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this site in order to present or direct users to accurate and timely social, scientific, and logistic information on the very broad issue of climate change and global warming in a way that is accessible and meaningful to all parts of society. The subtopics covered are climate - which includes information on global warming or The Greenhouse Effect -, emissions - with information on the Greenhouse Gases -, impacts, and actions, including what you can do to help with the problem of global warming. Specific information is presented for Concerned Citizens, Kids and Educators, Small Business and Industry and how they can help with the issue of global warming, Public Decision makers, International, Coastal Residents, Health Professionals, Meteorologists, and Wildlife Advocates. Some features are News, Calendar, Publications, Presentations (slide shows), Online tools (including software, calculators, case studies, and document searches), Science Frequently Asked Questions, Uncertainties, Glossary, and Links. The United States has based its climate change policies on the conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has provided an authoritative international consensus on the science of climate change.

267

In the right place at the right time: habitat representation in protected areas of South american nothofagus-dominated plants after a dispersal constrained climate change scenario.  

PubMed

In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

2015-01-01

268

In the Right Place at the Right Time: Habitat Representation in Protected Areas of South American Nothofagus-Dominated Plants after a Dispersal Constrained Climate Change Scenario  

PubMed Central

In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

2015-01-01

269

Climate-change scenarios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the United States Congress passed the Global Change Research Act directing the Executive Branch of government to assess the potential effects of predicted climate change and variability on the nation. This congressional action followed formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 by the United Nations Environmental Program and World Meteorological Organization. Some 2,000 scientists from more than 150 nations contribute to the efforts of the IPCC. Under coordination of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the congressionally ordered national assessment has divided the country into 19 regions and five socio-economic sectors that cut across the regions: agriculture, coastal and marine systems, forests, human health, and water. Potential climate-change effects are being assessed in each region and sector, and those efforts collectively make up the national assessment. This document reports the assessment of potential climate-change effects on the Rocky Mountain/Great Basin (RMGB) region which encompasses parts of nine western states. The assessment began February 16-18, 1998 with a workshop in Salt Lake City co-convened by Frederic H. Wagner of Utah State University and Jill Baron of the U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (BRD). Invitations were sent to some 300 scientists and stakeholders representing 18 socio-economic sectors in nine statesa?|

Wagner, F.H.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Baldwin, C.K.; Mearns, L.O.

2003-01-01

270

Changes in chloroplast ultrastructure in some high-alpine plants: adaptation to metabolic demands and climate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The cytology of leaf cells from five different high-alpine plants was studied and compared with structures in chloroplasts\\u000a from the typical high-alpine plant Ranunculus glacialis previously described as having frequent envelope plus stroma protrusions. The plants under investigation ranged from subalpine\\/alpine\\u000a Geum montanum through alpine Geum reptans, Poa alpina var. vivipara, and Oxyria digyna to nival Cerastium uniflorum and R.

C. Lütz; L. Engel

2007-01-01

271

SIDS and Climate Change Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that the climate is changing. Climate change is also affecting our natural world, society and economy. Our climate has been evolving continuously since centuries. But the last two millennia have witnessed an unprecedented change in the climate. The clear message from the scientific community is that this warming is due, at least in part, to the

Soonil D. Rughooputh

272

Software research and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop explored the contributions that software research can make to the challenge of climate change. Climate change is likely to be the defining issue of the 21st Century. Recent studies indicate that climate change is accelerating, confirming the most pessimistic of scenarios identified by climate scientists. Our past use of fossil fuels commit the world to around 2°C average

Steve M. Easterbrook; Michael Glenn; Jorge Aranda; Jon Pipitone

2009-01-01

273

Understanding and Attributing Climate Change  

E-print Network

9 Understanding and Attributing Climate Change Coordinating Lead Authors: Gabriele C. Hegerl (USA. Nicholls, J.E. Penner and P.A. Stott, 2007: Under- standing and Attributing Climate Change. In: Climate of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M

Box, Jason E.

274

Biological Impacts of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may

McCarty, John P.

275

Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review  

PubMed Central

The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

2014-01-01

276

Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review.  

PubMed

The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

2014-11-01

277

Global climate change and US agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

1990-01-01

278

Possible Effects of Climate Change on Plant\\/Herbivore Interactions in Moist Tropical Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between plants and herbivores are key determinants of community structure world wide. Their role is particularly important in lowland tropical rain forests where rates of herbivory are higher, plants are better defended chemically and physically, and herbivores have specialized diets. In contrast to the temperate zone, most of the herbivory in the tropics occurs on ephemeral young leaves

Phyllis D. Coley

1998-01-01

279

Biological Effects of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How important is climate change--something that has occurred throughout Earth's history? Can ecosystems tolerate the magnitude and rate of future change? How will other conservation threats interact with climate change? How likely are widespread extinction

Juanita Constible

2008-10-01

280

Climate Change and Ground Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the theory of climate change and the relationship of climate-change forcing to hydrologic and aquifer processes. It focuses on regional aquifer systems and on the methods to link large-scale climate-change processes to ground-water recharge and to simulate ground-water flow and solute transport in a warmer, 2xCO2 climate. The article reviews methods currently available to generate climate-change forcing

Hugo A. Loáiciga

2003-01-01

281

CHANGING OUR WAYS SCOTLAND'S CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME  

E-print Network

;Foreword Climate change is one of the most serious threats facing the world today. Scientific evidence in light of sound scientific evidence that Scotland's climate will change significantly over the comingCHANGING OUR WAYS SCOTLAND'S CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME #12;Cover based on diagram below. Hadley

282

Climate change, plant migration, and range collapse in a global biodiversity hotspot: the Banksia (Proteaceae) of Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has already altered global patterns of biodiversity by modifying the geographic distributions of species. Forecasts based on bioclimatic envelop modeling of distributions of species suggests greater impacts can be expected in the future, but such projections are contingent on assumptions regarding future climate and migration rates of species. Here, we present a first assessment of the potential impact

T THEW C. F ITZP; A ARON; D. G OVE; HAN J. S AN DE R S; ROBERT R. DUNN

283

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a brief overview of processes and properties associated with global climate change and its rate of change, which is of current concern to scientists. The carbon cycle is discussed including its sources, sinks, and release agents along with the fact that it is critical to the biosphere and must continue cycling to support life on Earth. The information at this site should lead students to an understanding of carbon dioxide and the other major greenhouse gases, which is necessary to identify the current trends in atmospheric concentrations and climate change. Three other concepts addressed at this site include the profound effects living organisms in an ecosystem can have upon the local atmosphere, profound effects changes in vegetation can have upon wind speed, and the link of human activity to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This section serves as a reference for and includes links to seven classroom activities.

284

What is Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is offered by Canada's Natural Resources Department. The main page describes the basics of the phenomenon, while the links tell about the impact of climate change on health and safety, communities, land resources, water resources, and coastal regions. Although specific to Canadian regions, the site will give visitors from all over a good introduction to the potential problems of global warming.

285

Environmental Sustainability & Climate Change  

E-print Network

s p Policies Climate Change Smart Growth Bay Restoration #12;Policies Facilitate the effective and working groups­ Statewide goals and working groups · Chesapeake Bay Restoration · Maryland Smart Growth· Coordination activities #12;Practices: System-widey · USM Strategic Plan ­ Greenhouse gas emissions

286

Adapting to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the optimal time to adapt to climate change. We take the perspective of a farmer growing a crop in a stochastic environment. The farmer faces stochastic seasonal growth, which makes harvest at the end of any season a random variable. Within a season, crop biomass is assumed to grow according to a continuous- time Itô process. The

Jon M. Conrad; Koji Kotani

287

Climate Change? When? Where?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city. The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is…

Boon, Helen

2009-01-01

288

Confronting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage…

Roach, Ronald

2009-01-01

289

Volcanoes and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Major volcanic eruptions alter the Earth's radiative balance, as volcanic ash and gas clouds absorb terrestrial radiation and scatter a significant amount of the incoming solar radiation, an effect known as "radiative forcing" that can last from two to three years following a volcanic eruption. This results in reduced temperatures in the troposphere, and changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. This site uses text, photographs, and links to related sites to describe volcano-induced climate change.

290

Climate change threatens European conservation areas  

PubMed Central

Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natura 2000 network in conserving a large proportion of European plant and terrestrial vertebrate species under climate change. We found that by 2080, 58 ± 2.6% of the species would lose suitable climate in protected areas, whereas losses affected 63 ± 2.1% of the species of European concern occurring in Natura 2000 areas. Protected areas are expected to retain climatic suitability for species better than unprotected areas (P<0.001), but Natura 2000 areas retain climate suitability for species no better and sometimes less effectively than unprotected areas. The risk is high that ongoing efforts to conserve Europe's biodiversity are jeopardized by climate change. New policies are required to avert this risk. PMID:21447141

Araújo, Miguel B; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar; Nogués-Bravo, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

2011-01-01

291

Climate Kids: What is Global Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A question and answer format is used to differentiate between weather and climate, and to provide a brief overview of global warming. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

2013-11-07

292

77 FR 2996 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy AGENCY...Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy...wildlife, plants, and ecosystem functions, as well as...provide, in a changing climate. In addition to this...Madison, WI; Oklahoma City, OK; Sacramento,...

2012-01-20

293

Climate change, plant extinctions and vegetational recovery during the Middle-Late Pennsylvanian Transition: the Case of tropical peat-forming environments in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major extinction of terrestrial plants occurred at the end of the Westphalian (Middle Pennsylvanian) in the lowland tropics of North America. Approximately 67% of the species in peat-forming mires, and at least half the species in clastic wetlands were eliminated by changing climatic conditions, probably protracted moisture deficits or exaggeration of seasonal dryness. Independent studies suggest that the end

WILLIAM A. DIMICHELE; TOM L. PHILLIPS

1996-01-01

294

Anticipating the spatio-temporal response of plant diversity and vegetation structure to climate and land use change in a protected area  

PubMed Central

Vegetation is a key driver of ecosystem functioning (e.g. productivity and stability) and of the maintenance of biodiversity (e.g. creating habitats for other species groups). While vegetation sensitivity to climate change has been widely investgated, its spatio-temporally response to the dual efects of land management and climate change has been ignored at landscape scale. Here we use a dynamic vegetation model called FATE-HD, which describes the dominant vegetation dynamics and associated functional diversity, in order to anticipate vegetation response to climate and land-use changes in both short and long-term perspectives. Using three contrasted management scenarios for the Ecrins National Park (French Alps) developed in collaboration with the park managers, and one regional climate change scenario, we tracked the dynamics of vegetation structure (forest expansion) and functional diversity over 100 years of climate change and a further 400 additional years of stabilization. As expected, we observed a slow upward shift in forest cover distribution, which appears to be severely impacted by pasture management (i.e. maintenance or abandonment). The tme lag before observing changes in vegetation cover was the result of demographic and seed dispersal processes. However, plant diversity response to environmental changes was rapid. Afer land abandonment, local diversity increased and spatial turnover was reduced, whereas local diversity decreased following land use intensification. Interestingly, in the long term, as both climate and management scenarios interacted, the regional diversity declined. Our innovative spatio-temporally explicit framework demonstrates that the vegetation may have contrasting responses to changes in the short and the long term. Moreover, climate and land-abandonment interact extensively leading to a decrease in both regional diversity and turnover in the long term. Based on our simulations we therefore suggest a continuing moderate intensity pasturing to maintain high levels of plant diversity in this system. PMID:25722538

Boulangeat, Isabelle; Georges, Damien; Dentant, Cédric; Bonet, Richard; Van Es, Jérémie; Abdulhak, Sylvain; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Thuiller, Wilfried

2014-01-01

295

Impacts of meteorology-driven seed dispersal on plant migration : implications for future vegetation structure under changing climates  

E-print Network

As the impacts among land cover change, future climates and ecosystems are expected to be substantial (e.g., Feddema et al., 2005), there are growing needs for improving the capability of simulating the dynamics of vegetation ...

Lee, Eunjee

2011-01-01

296

Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas  

E-print Network

State legislatures and environmental agencies have taken the lead in combating climate change, in the absence of leadership by the federal government. The most widely publicized efforts have involved the imposition of emission controls and fuel...

Glicksman, Robert L.

2008-04-01

297

Bayesian Climate Change Assessment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Bayesian fingerprinting methodology for assessing anthropogenic impacts on climate was developed. This analysis considers the effect of increased CO2 on near-surface temperatures. A spatial CO2 fingerprint based on control and forced model output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Climate System Model was developed. The Bayesian approach is distinguished by several new facets. First, the prior model for the amplitude of the fingerprint is a mixture of two distributions: one reflects prior uncertainty in the anticipated value of the amplitude under the hypothesis of `no climate change.' The second reflects behavior assuming`climate change forced by CO2.' Second, within the Bayesian framework, a new formulation of detection and attribution analyses based on practical significance of impacts rather than traditional statistical significance was presented. Third, since Bayesian analyses can be very sensitive to prior inputs, a robust Bayesian approach, which investigates the ranges of posterior inferences as prior inputs are varied, was used. Following presentation of numerical results that enforce the claim of changes in temperature patterns due to anthropogenic CO2 forcing, the article concludes with a comparative analysis for another CO2 fingerprint and selected discussion.

Berliner, L. Mark; Levine, Richard A.; Shea, Dennis J.

2000-11-01

298

The origin of climate changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Investigation on climate change is coordinated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has the delicate task of collecting recent knowledge on climate change and the related impacts of the observed changes, and then developing a consensus statement from these findings. The IPCC's last review, published at the end of 2007, summarised major findings on the present

P. Delecluse

2008-01-01

299

Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture  

E-print Network

Warming Climate Change: Any systematic change in the state of the atmosphere (temperature, humidity7/23/2009 1 Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture Dev Niyogi Indiana State Climatologist it l d f d i li tWebsite: landsurface.org and iclimate.org What is Climate Change? (and...... what

300

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change

301

Climate Kids: Plant a Butterfly Garden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Butterflies are dependent on native plants for survival. The decrease in the number and diversity of native plants has caused a drop in butterfly populations. Planting a butterfly garden, using plants native to the area, can promote butterfly population growth. This article explains the life cycle of the butterfly, the reasons for the loss of native habitat and the basics of creating a butterfly garden. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

302

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

Polz, Martin

303

Climate change, environment and allergy.  

PubMed

Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

2012-01-01

304

Ecosystem Carbon Stock Influenced by Plantation Practice: Implications for Planting Forests as a Measure of Climate Change Mitigation  

PubMed Central

Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha?1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age (<25 years vs. ?25 years), stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen), tree species origin (native vs. exotic) of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation. PMID:20523733

Liao, Chengzhang; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Li, Bo

2010-01-01

305

Plant-soil feedbacks and the reversal of desertification with climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to provide a conceptual framework for perennial grass recovery in a series of wet years, which includes both plant-soil feedbacks that increase available water to grasses and effects of precipitation on a sequence of recovery-related processes. We tested hypotheses based on this fr...

306

Comment on "Changes in climatic water balance drive downhill shifts in plant species' optimum elevations".  

PubMed

Crimmins et al. (Reports, 21 January 2011, p. 324) reported that plant species moved downhill between 1935 and 2005. They compared plot data for two time periods, ignoring that the modern plots were farther north than the historical plots. I contend that there is no support for a general downhill shift after correcting for this geographic bias. PMID:21998370

Hijmans, Robert J

2011-10-14

307

Simulating plant water availability in dry lands under climate change: A generic model of two soil layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry lands are exposed to a highly variable environment and face a high risk of degradation. The effects of climate change are likely to increase this risk; thus a profound knowledge of the system dynamics is crucial for evaluating management options. This applies particularly for the interactions between water and vegetation, which exhibit strong feedbacks. To evaluate these feedbacks and the effects of climate change on soil moisture dynamics, we developed a generic, process-based, spatially explicit soil moisture model of two soil layers, which can be coupled with vegetation models. A time scale relevant for ecological processes can be simulated without difficulty, and the model avoids complex parameterization with data that are unavailable for most regions of the world. We applied the model to four sites in Israel along a precipitation and soil type gradient and assessed the effects of climate change by comparing possible climatic changes with present climate conditions. The results show that in addition to temperature, the total amount of precipitation and its intra-annual variability are an important driver of soil moisture patterns. This indicates that particularly with regard to climate change, the approach of many ecological models that simulate water dynamics on an annual base is far too simple to make reliable predictions. Thus, the introduced model can serve as a valuable tool to improve present ecological models of dry lands because of its focus on the applicability and transferability.

Tietjen, Britta; Zehe, Erwin; Jeltsch, Florian

2009-01-01

308

Climate, climatic change, and water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earth's climate is changing, and associated predictions of future floods and droughts reverberate throughout the news media. Coupled with forecasts of climatic change one can often find associated predictions of social unrest, wars, and famines, but these possible derivative issues have not been addressed. We considered only the simpler problems of water shortages, which may or may not be

James R. Wallis

1977-01-01

309

Climate Change and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how global climate change affects human health in this interactive activity adapted from A Human Health Perspective: On Climate Change by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

2011-05-02

310

Health Effects of Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

... over generations. TODAY It is now established that climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. These ... are becoming alert to the dynamic relationship between climate change and human health. Some of these impacts are ...

311

Development of Flexi-Burn™ CFB Power Plant to Meet the Challenge of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon-dioxide capture and storage (CCS) offers the potential for major reductions in carbon- dioxide emissions of fossil fuel-based power generation in the fairly short term, and oxyfuel combustion is one of the identified CCS technology options. Foster Wheeler (FW) is working on reduction of carbon-dioxide with its integrated Flexi-Burn™ CFB technology. The proven high efficiency circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology, when coupled with air separation units and carbon purification units, offers a solution for carbon dioxide reduction both in re-powering and in greenfield power plants. CFB technology has the advantages over pulverized coal technology of a more uniform furnace heat flux, increased fuel flexibility and offers the opportunity to further reduce carbon dioxide emissions by co-firing coal with bio-fuels. Development and design of an integrated Flexi-Bum™ CFB steam generator and balance of plant system was conducted for both air mode and oxyfuel mode. Through proper configuration and design, the same steam generator can be switched from air mode to oxyfuel mode without the need for unit shutdown for modifications. The Flexi-Burn™ CFB system incorporates features to maximize plant efficiency and power output when operating in the oxy-firing mode through firing more fuel in the same boiler.

Hackt, Horst; Fant, Zhen; Seltzert, Andrew; Hotta, Arto; Erikssoni, Timo; Sippu, Ossi

312

Perception of climate change.  

PubMed

"Climate dice," describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons, have become more and more "loaded" in the past 30 y, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3?) warmer than the climatology of the 1951-1980 base period. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface during the base period, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change. PMID:22869707

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto

2012-09-11

313

Climate change and the potential distribution of an invasive alien plant: Acacia nilotica ssp. indica in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Acacia nilotica is a spinescent woody legume that has become highly invasive in several parts of the world, including Australia where it has been declared a weed of national significance. Understanding the likely potential distribution of this notorious plant under current and future climate scenarios will enable policy makers and land managers to prepare appropriate strategies to manage

D. J. Kriticos; R. W. Sutherst; J. R. Brown; S. W. Adkins; G. F. Maywald

2003-01-01

314

Fire management, managed relocation, and land conservation options for long-lived obligate seeding plants under global changes in climate, urbanization, and fire regime.  

PubMed

Most species face multiple anthropogenic disruptions. Few studies have quantified the cumulative influence of multiple threats on species of conservation concern, and far fewer have quantified the potential relative value of multiple conservation interventions in light of these threats. We linked spatial distribution and population viability models to explore conservation interventions under projected climate change, urbanization, and changes in fire regime on a long-lived obligate seeding plant species sensitive to high fire frequencies, a dominant plant functional type in many fire-prone ecosystems, including the biodiversity hotspots of Mediterranean-type ecosystems. First, we investigated the relative risk of population decline for plant populations in landscapes with and without land protection under an existing habitat conservation plan. Second, we modeled the effectiveness of relocating both seedlings and seeds from a large patch with predicted declines in habitat area to 2 unoccupied recipient patches with increasing habitat area under 2 projected climate change scenarios. Finally, we modeled 8 fire return intervals (FRIs) approximating the outcomes of different management strategies that effectively control fire frequency. Invariably, long-lived obligate seeding populations remained viable only when FRIs were maintained at or above a minimum level. Land conservation and seedling relocation efforts lessened the impact of climate change and land-use change on obligate seeding populations to differing degrees depending on the climate change scenario, but neither of these efforts was as generally effective as frequent translocation of seeds. While none of the modeled strategies fully compensated for the effects of land-use and climate change, an integrative approach managing multiple threats may diminish population declines for species in complex landscapes. Conservation plans designed to mitigate the impacts of a single threat are likely to fail if additional threats are ignored. PMID:24606578

Bonebrake, Timothy C; Syphard, Alexandra D; Franklin, Janet; Anderson, Kurt E; Akçakaya, H Resit; Mizerek, Toni; Winchell, Clark; Regan, Helen M

2014-08-01

315

CLIMATE CHANGE: A POLITICAL INTRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syllabus Summary Climate change has now grown from a scientific concern to one of the most pressing issues of our time. This seminar aims to look at the topic from a political viewpoint, and analyze the different mechanisms of cooperation in the fight against climate change. The first part provides an appraisal of climate change as a political issue: it

François Gemenne

316

The Politics of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains the ways in which climate change is a geopolitical problem. It discusses the potential ramifications of the impacts of climate change on security, and argues that predictions of international conflicts arising from climate change are premature. It explains the spatial politics of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through an overview of the positions of the main actors in

L. Robert

2010-01-01

317

4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 2875­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Climate change impact­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

318

Climate Change Action Plan Report  

E-print Network

Climate Change Action Plan Report Intermountain Region 2013 National Park Service Resource Stewardship and Science Landscape Conservation and Climate Change Division #12;About this Report Each National Park Service is responding to the challenge of climate change; and (2) raise awareness among NPS

Hansen, Andrew J.

319

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

320

[Keynote address: Climate change  

SciTech Connect

Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

Forrister, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

321

A New GLORIA Target Region in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA; Alpine Plant Monitoring For Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research project with the goal to assess climate change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. Standardized protocols direct selection of each node in the network, called a target region, which consists of a set of four geographically proximal mountain summits at elevations extending from treeline to the nival zone. For each summit, GLORIA specifies a rigorous mapping and sampling design for data collection, with re-measurement intervals of five years. Whereas target regions have been installed in six continents, prior to 2004 none was completed in North America. In cooperation with the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT), three target regions were completed by September 2004, one in the Sierra Nevada, California, one in the White Mountains, California, and one in Glacier National Park, Montana. The SIERRA NEVADA (GLORIA code: SND) target region lies along the Sierra Nevada crest in the Yosemite National Park/Mono Lake region. The four summits well represent the GLORIA design standards, being little visited by climbers, outside domestic grazing allotments, relatively rounded in shape, situated within one climate region, related substrate types (metamorphic), and extending from treeline to the highest elevation zones in the area. The four summits include the subordinate peak of Mt Dunderberg (3744m), two lesser peaks of Mt Dunderberg (3570m and 3322m) and a summit along the Yosemite National Park boundary region south of Mt Conness (3425m). Preliminary data indicate that numbers of vascular plant species, from lowest to highest summit, were 40, 36, 12, 22 (total for SN, 67). Only 1 species (Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus) occurred on all four summits; 8 species occurred on three summits; no exotic species was detected. The most distant summit, also most distinct in substrate, had the largest number of unique species. The genus Carex (Cyperaceae) had the most species represented (five). Only one tree species (Pinus albicaulis) occurred within the summit areas. Data analysis of the baseline measurements has just begun; the standardized GLORIA protocols will enable direct comparisons among summits within the target region, across target regions in California, among the three target regions in North America, and with established GLORIA regions in other continents.

Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Murrell, K. E.

2004-12-01

322

Global Climate Change and Tropical Forest Genetic Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change may have a serious impact on genetic resources in tropical forest trees. Genetic diversity plays a critical role in the survival of populations in rapidly changing environments. Furthermore, most tropical plant species are known to have unique ecological niches, and therefore changes in climate may directly affect the distribution of biomes, ecosystems, and constituent species. Climate change

Kamaljit S. Bawa; S. Dayanandan

1998-01-01

323

A Process-Based Approach to Predicting the Effect of Climate Change on the Distribution of an Invasive Allergenic Plant in Europe  

PubMed Central

Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S.; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A.

2014-01-01

324

A process-based approach to predicting the effect of climate change on the distribution of an invasive allergenic plant in Europe.  

PubMed

Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A

2014-01-01

325

Designing Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

2012-12-01

326

Agriculture and climate change  

SciTech Connect

How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

Abelson, P.H.

1992-07-03

327

PETM: Unearthing Ancient Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, a team of paleontologists, paleobotanists, soil scientists, and other researchers take to the field in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin to document how the climate, plants, and animals there changed during the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) when a sudden, enormous influx of carbon flooded the ocean and atmosphere for reasons that are still unclear to scientists. The PTEM is used as an analog to the current warming occurring. The scientists' research may help inform our understanding of current increases in carbon in the atmosphere and ocean and the resulting impact on ecosystems. Supporting materials include essay and interactive overview of animals that existed in the Basin after the PETM event.

American Museum Natural History

328

Population and climate change.  

PubMed

To review, the four broad dimensions of any complex human problem, including climate change, are the human population, economics, culture, and environment. These dimensions interact with one another in all directions and on many time-scales. From 2010 to 2050, the human population is likely to grow bigger, more slowly, older, and more urban. It is projected that by 2050 more than 2.6 billion people (almost 94% of global urban growth) will be added to the urban population in today's developing countries. That works out to 1.26 million additional urban people in today's developing countries every week from 2010 to 2050. Humans alter the climate by emitting greenhouse gases, by altering planetary albedo, and by altering atmospheric components. Between 1900 and 2000, humans' emissions of carbon into the atmosphere increased fifteenfold, while the numbers of people increased less than fourfold. Population growth alone, with constant rates of emissions per person, could not account for the increase in the carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The world economy grew sixteenfold in the twentieth century, accompanied by enormous increases in the burning of gas, oil, and coal. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, population grew much faster in developing countries than in high-income countries, and, compared with population growth, the growth of carbon emissions to the atmosphere was even faster in developing countries than in high-income countries. The ratio of emissions-to-population growth rates was 2.8 in developing countries compared with 1.6 in high-income countries. Emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases are influenced by the sizes and density of settlements, the sizes of households, and the ages of householders. Between 2010 and 2050, these demographic factors are anticipated to change substantially. Therefore demography will play a substantial role in the dynamics of climate changes. Climate changes affect many aspects of the living environment, including human settlements, food production, and diseases. These changes will affect poor people more severely than rich, and poor nations more severely than rich. Yet not enough is known to predict quantitatively many details that will matter enormously to future people and other species. Three kinds of responses are related to demographic issues that affect climate changes: universal secondary education, voluntary contraception and maternal health services, and smarter urban design and construction. These responses may prevent, reduce, or ameliorate the impacts of climate changes. They are as relevant to rich countries as to poor, though in ways that are as different as are rich countries and poor. They are desirable in their own right because they improve the lives of the people they affect directly; and they are desirable for their beneficial effects on the larger society and globe. They are effective responses to the twin challenges of reducing poverty and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:21553595

Cohen, Joel E

2010-06-01

329

Enviropedia: Introduction to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the concept of climate change and discusses past climate changes, as evidenced by sea sediments and sedimentary rock studied by paleoclimatologists. More recently, ice cores, tree rings, and historical records tell of changes such as interglacial periods and the little ice age. Other factors like volcanoes, changes in the Earth's orbit, comets, and meteorites that may alter the energy balance, change the greenhouse effect, or cause climate forcing are also explored in these pages.

330

Climate Change and Extreme Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module discusses how a changing climate can also lead to changes in extreme weather events on the local scale. The role of natural variability is also explained. The module describes how climate change can have both positive and negative effects, depending on the situation, location, and the vulnerability of the population. While research on climate change and extreme events is still relatively new, the module discusses what changes scientists think are likely if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise.

2014-09-14

331

Sea change under climate change: case studies in rare plant conservation from the dynamic San Francisco Estuary  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We present case studies supporting management of two rare plant species in tidal wetlands of the San Francisco Estuary. For an annual hemiparasite, we used demographic analyses to identify factors to enhance population establishment, survivorship and fitness, and to compare reintroduced with natura...

332

World Bank Group: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the World Bank's Environment Department, the Climate Change team "provides resources and expertise for the World Bank's participation in international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and provides technical advice to the World Bank's Global Environment Facility Program." Understandably, the site contains a brief explication of the key themes surrounding contemporary concerns about climate change, along with offering a detailed discussion of the various programs and research projects with which the Climate Change group is engaged directly or in tandem with other related organizations and institutions. From the main page, visitors can read about the nature of international climate change (and its disproportionate effects on the developing world), peruse a list of relevant online publications, and read press releases from the Climate Change team.

333

Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

1990-01-01

334

Free Podcasts on Climate and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In partnership with the National Science Digital Library and Apple, NCAR and UCAR offer podcasts that provide a brief and accessible overview on climate and climate change. These podcasts, short 5-8 minute videos you can download on your computer or iPod, are a part of the NSDL on iTunes U collection.

Robert Payo

335

76 FR 30193 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of Intent: Request for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...reducing the negative impacts of climate change on fish, wildlife, plants...Strategy. The adverse impacts of climate change transcend political and administrative...society against the effects of climate change. This Strategy will provide...

2011-05-24

336

Phenotypic response of plants to simulated climate change in a long-term rain-manipulation experiment: a multi-species study.  

PubMed

Many species will need to adapt to the observed climate change in order to persist. However, research about adaptation or phenotypic plasticity in response to climate change is rare. In particular, field studies are lacking that impose artificial selection for a sufficiently long time to elicit changes in phenotypic and genotypic structure of populations. Here, we present findings for an 8-year field experiment with 16 annual plant species that tested potentially adaptive phenotypic responses to precipitation change. In both a Mediterranean and a semi-arid site, annual precipitation was manipulated (±30 %) and phenotypic response was recorded. We measured flowering time as a key trait related to climatic conditions and biomass and survival as fitness correlates. Differences in traits among treatments were compared to trait shifts between sites, according to space-for-time approaches. In the drier site, phenology was accelerated, but within that site, experimental drought delayed phenology, probably as a plastic response to delayed ontogenetic development. Biomass was smaller in the dry treatments of that site, but it was also reduced in irrigated plots in both sites, indicating more intense competition. The shifts from limitation by drought to limitation by competition corresponded to patterns along the gradient. This also implies a larger negative impact of climate change in the drier site. Our results suggest that experimental selection in the field caused directional responses in most species, but these were not necessarily adaptive. Furthermore, competitive release imposed by climate change may revert direct negative effects of rainfall change in determining plant performance. PMID:25707776

Hänel, Sabine; Tielbörger, Katja

2015-04-01

337

Climate Change Economics and Policy  

E-print Network

AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE-SMART DEVELOPMENT 11 - 13 September 2013 #12;According to the International Energy Agency, greenhouse gas emissions.2 Agricultural land is also an important source of greenhouse gas emissions ­ the US Environmental

Romano, Daniela

338

Human Engineering and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic climate change is arguably one of the biggest problems that confront us today. There is ample evidence that climate change is likely to affect adversely many aspects of life for all people around the world, and that existing solutions such as geoengineering might be too risky and ordinary behavioural and market solutions might not be sufficient to mitigate climate

S. Matthew Liao; Anders Sandberg; Rebecca Roache

2012-01-01

339

Climate Change: Prospects for Nature  

SciTech Connect

Thomas Lovejoy, President of The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, explores the impact of climate change on the natural world. He also discusses the implications of climate change for climate policy and natural resource management.

Thomas Lovejoy

2008-03-12

340

Climate Change and Regional Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short module is an overview of the different effects climate change produces in different regions of the United States. In addition to discussing impacts already being experienced, the module presents information on how climate scientists use specialized models and statistical techniques to estimate how regional climates are likely to change in the future.

COMET

2012-08-14

341

Teaching Climate Change Through Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2006, Peter Weiss aka "The Singing Scientist" performed many music assemblies for elementary schools (K-5) in Santa Cruz County, California, USA. These assemblies were an opportunity for him to mix a discussion of climate change with rock n' roll. In one song called "Greenhouse Glasses", Peter and his band the "Earth Rangers" wear over-sized clown glasses with "molecules" hanging off them (made with Styrofoam balls and pipe cleaners). Each molecule is the real molecular structure of a greenhouse gas, and the song explains how when the wearer of these glasses looks up in the sky, he/she can see the "greenhouse gases floating by." "I've seen more of them this year than the last / 'Cuz fossil fuels are burning fast / I wish everyone could see through these frames / Then maybe we could prevent climate change" Students sing, dance and get a visual picture of something that is invisible, yet is part of a very real problem. This performance description is used as an example of an educational style that can reach a wide audience and provide a framework for the audience as learners to assimilate future information on climate change. The hypothesis is that complex socio-environmental issues like climate change that must be taught in order to achieve sustainability are best done so through alternative mediums like music. Students develop awareness which leads to knowledge about chemistry, physics, and biology. These kinds of experiences which connect science learning to fun activities and community building are seriously lacking in primary and secondary schools and are a big reason why science illiteracy is a current social problem. Science education is also paired with community awareness (including the local plant/animal community) and cooperation. The Singing Scientist attempts to create a culture where it is cool to care about the environment. Students end up gardening in school gardens together and think about their "ecological footprint".

Weiss, P. S.

2007-12-01

342

Climate Change Workshop Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is a collection of useful Web links to climate change resources. Only a few resources here right now, but you get the idea... NIERRS Water quality monitoring data page NERRS - Water quality monitoring data This is a great site for water stuff. GOMOOS Site -- buoy monitoring data GOMOOS - Weather and water data (real-time) from Gulf of Maine buoys This is a great site for ocean temperatures and wind speed, etc. Coastal Ocean Observing Center Here\\'s another: The COOLroom ...

Deb and Chad

2007-11-20

343

Contrails and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, learners analyze the role of condensation trails from jets, or contrails, and their role in climate change. Contrails are thin ice clouds that form from the burning of jet fuel and release of water vapor. The issue with contrails is that narrow trails can spread and coalesce to form significant banks of cirrus-type clouds. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

344

Climate Variability and Change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on climate variability and change and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

345

Climate change and ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What does it matter if the climate changes? This kind of question does not admit of a scientific answer. Natural science can tell us what some of its biophysical effects are likely to be; social scientists can estimate what consequences such effects could have for human lives and livelihoods. But how should we respond? The question is, at root, about how we think we should live--and different people have myriad different ideas about this. The distinctive task of ethics is to bring some clarity and order to these ideas.

Hayward, Tim

2012-12-01

346

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National  

E-print Network

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National Adaptation Programme Meg Patel Defra #12 change #12;Weather & climate impacts - economic, societal, environmental Water consumption per capita;Legislative Framework Climate Change Act 2008 Adaptation Reporting Power 2011 Climate Change Risk Assessment

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

347

Ruminants, climate change and climate policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant meat production are significant. Reductions in global ruminant numbers could make a substantial contribution to climate change mitigation goals and yield important social and environmental co-benefits.

Ripple, William J.; Smith, Pete; Haberl, Helmut; Montzka, Stephen A.; McAlpine, Clive; Boucher, Douglas H.

2014-01-01

348

Mineral stress: the missing link in understanding how global climate change will affect plants in real world soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many natural and agricultural ecosystems are characterized by sub-optimal availability of mineral nutrients and ion toxicities. Mineral stresses are likely to have important, complex, and poorly understood interactions with global climate change variables. For example, most terrestrial vegetation is supported by weathered soils with some combination of low P, low Ca, Al toxicity, and Mn toxicity. Each of these stresses

Jonathan P. Lynch; Samuel B. St. Clair

2004-01-01

349

A New GLORIA Target Region in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA; Alpine Plant Monitoring For Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research project with the goal to assess climate change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. Standardized protocols direct selection of each node in the network, called a target region, which consists of a set of four geographically proximal mountain summits at elevations extending from treeline to the

A. Dennis; C. I. Millar; K. E. Murrell

2004-01-01

350

Facilitative plant interactions and climate simultaneously drive alpine plant diversity.  

PubMed

Interactions among species determine local-scale diversity, but local interactions are thought to have minor effects at larger scales. However, quantitative comparisons of the importance of biotic interactions relative to other drivers are rarely made at larger scales. Using a data set spanning 78 sites and five continents, we assessed the relative importance of biotic interactions and climate in determining plant diversity in alpine ecosystems dominated by nurse-plant cushion species. Climate variables related with water balance showed the highest correlation with richness at the global scale. Strikingly, although the effect of cushion species on diversity was lower than that of climate, its contribution was still substantial. In particular, cushion species enhanced species richness more in systems with inherently impoverished local diversity. Nurse species appear to act as a 'safety net' sustaining diversity under harsh conditions, demonstrating that climate and species interactions should be integrated when predicting future biodiversity effects of climate change. PMID:24238015

Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Brooker, Rob W; Butterfield, Bradley J; Cook, Bradley J; Kikvidze, Zaal; Lortie, Christopher J; Michalet, Richard; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Schöb, Christian; Xiao, Sa; Anthelme, Fabien; Björk, Robert G; Dickinson, Katharine J M; Cranston, Brittany H; Gavilán, Rosario; Gutiérrez-Girón, Alba; Kanka, Robert; Maalouf, Jean-Paul; Mark, Alan F; Noroozi, Jalil; Parajuli, Rabindra; Phoenix, Gareth K; Reid, Anya M; Ridenour, Wendy M; Rixen, Christian; Wipf, Sonja; Zhao, Liang; Escudero, Adrián; Zaitchik, Benjamin F; Lingua, Emanuele; Aschehoug, Erik T; Callaway, Ragan M

2014-02-01

351

Predicting the impacts of climate change on plant dynamics and tree-grass-shrub competition using a Cellular Automata model in a Mediterranean catchment in Sicily, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and predicting vegetation change along ecosystem boundaries is among paramount challenges in ecohydrology. In this study, Cellular-Automaton Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) is implemented in a small upland catchment in Sicily, IT, where north-facing slopes are characterized by quercus (trees), and south-facing slopes exhibit plant coexistence, composed of Opuntia ficus-indaca (shrub) and grasses, to examine the control of solar radiation on plant development and predict potential trajectories of vegetation change under the stress of global warming. CATGraSS is driven by stochastic rainfall and variable solar radiation on topography, represented by a fine-scale gridded domain where vegetation type at each cell is represented individually. In the model, each cell can hold a single plant type or remain empty. Plant competition is modeled explicitly by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. Spatially explicit treatment of solar radiation, and a lower limit to soil moisture storage imposed by bedrock depth lead to spatial organization in evapotranspiration, soil moisture, runoff, and plant type. CATGraSS is first calibrated at the field site driven by stochastic climate that represent the current climate at the study site. Calibrated model results are examined against Google-Earth images. Implications of future climate change are examined using the advanced weather generator (AWE-GEN). AWE-GEN characterizes the statistical characteristics of selected climate variables and their change over time based on a multi-model ensemble of outputs from General Circulation Models (GCMs). Stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of twelve GCMs adopted in the IPCC 4AR, A1B emission scenario for the future scenarios 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. Future vegetation changed is predicted to bring a dramatic reorganization of the plant composition based mainly on the topography, characterized by loss of quercus and expansion of grass. Rapid vegetation change could lead to soil erosion, prone soils and changes in the biogeochemical processes in such steep mountainous terrains in the region.

Noto, L. V.; Caracciolo, D.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

2013-12-01

352

Climate Change on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today, Mars is cold and dry. With a 7 mbar mean surface pressure, its thin predominantly CO2 atmosphere is not capable of raising global mean surface temperatures significantly above its 217K effective radiating temperature, and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is equivalent to a global ocean only 10 microns deep. Has Mars always been in such a deep freeze? There are several lines of evidence that suggest it has not. First, there are the valley networks which are found throughout the heavily cratered terrains. These features are old (3.8 Gyr) and appear to require liquid water to form. A warm climate early in Mars' history has often been invoked to explain them, but the precise conditions required to achieve this have yet to be determined. Second, some of the features seen in orbiter images of the surface have been interpreted in terms of glacial activity associated with an active hydrological cycle some several billion years ago. This interpretation is controversial as it requires the release of enormous quantities of ground water and enough greenhouse warming to raise temperatures to the melting point. Finally, there are the layered terrains that characterize both polar regions. These terrains are geologically young (10 Myr) and are believed to have formed by the slow and steady deposition of dust and water ice from the atmosphere. The individual layers result from the modulation of the deposition rate which is driven by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. The ongoing research into each of these areas of Martian climate change will be reviewed, and similarities to the Earth's climate system will be noted.

Haberle, R. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

353

Climate Change: Precipitation and Plant Nutrition Interactions on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in North-Eastern Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely well known that annual temperatures over Europe warm at a rate of between 0.1 0C decade-1 and 0.4 0C decade-1. And most of Europe gets wetter in the winter season between +1% and +4% decade-1. In summer there is a strong gradient of change between northern Europe (wetting of up to +2% decade-1) and southern Europe (drying of up to 5% decade-1). The droughts and the floods were experienced at Hungary in the early eighties as well as today. So among the natural catastrophes, drought and flooding caused by over-abundant rainfall cause the greatest problems in field potato production. The crop is demanding indicator plant of climate factors (temperature, rainfall) and soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium status. This publication gives the results achieved in the period from 1962 to 2001 of a long term small- plot fertilization experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil at Nyírlugos in the Nyírség region in North-Eastern Hungary. Characteristics of the experiment soil were a pH (KCl) 4.5, humus 0.5%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100g-1 in the ploughed layer. The topsoil was poor in all four macronutrient N, P, K and Mg. The mineral fertilization experiment involved 2 (genotypes: Gülbaba and Aranyalma) x 2 (ploughed depths: 20 and 40 cm) x 16 (fertilizations: N, P, K, Mg) = 64 treatments in 8 replications, giving a total of 512 plots. The gross and net plot sizes were 10x5=50 m2 and 35.5 m2. The experimental designe was split-split-plot. The N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1 year-1 and the P, K, Mg levels were 48, 150, 30 kg ha-1 year-1 P2O5, K2O, MgO in the form of 25% calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate, 40% potassium chloride, and powdered technological magnesium sulphate. The forecrop every second year was rye. The groundwater level was at a depth of 2-3 m. From the 64 treatments, eight replications, altogether 512- experimental plots with 7 treatments and their 16 combinations are summarised of experiment period from 1962 to 1979. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. The experiment years (1962-1963, 1964-1965, 1966-1967, 1968-1969, 1970-1971, 1972-1973, 1974-1975, 1976-1977, 1978-1979) were characterised by frequent extremes of climate. Seven years had an average rainfall, one year had an over rainfall and one year had a very dry by Hungarian traditional and RISSAC-HAS (Márton 2001b) new potato ecological standards. 2. The unfavorable effects of climate anomalies (drought, over-abundance of water in the topsoil) on the yield formation, yield quantity of potato depended decisively on the time of year when they were experienced and the period for which they lasted. 3. Precipitation deficiency (droughts) in the winter could not be counterbalanced by average rainfall during the vegetation period, and its effect on the yield was similar to that of summer drought. 4. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent than by 0-150 kg ha-1 nitrogen and NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg combinations. 5. Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses and its combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32%. 6. It was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of N: Y'=380.18-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NP: Y'=387.19-3.04x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96, NK: Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NPK: Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96 and NPKMg: Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96 nutrition systems. The optimum yields ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. Key words: climate change, rainfall, potato, N, NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg, yield Introduction: Climate change was recognized as a serious environmental issue. The build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the inertia in trends in emissions means that we can expect significant changes for at least the next few decades and probably for the future time. Annual temperatures over Europe warm at a rate of between 0.1 0C decade-1 and 0.4 0C decade-1. And most of Europe gets wetter in the winter season between +1% and +4% decade-1. In

László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

2009-04-01

354

California Climate Change Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global warming and climate change have been a top priority for a number of international organizations, and in recent years, a number of states have also become profoundly concerned about these transformations. Not surprisingly, the state of California has been interested in these subjects for some time, and this website is an initiative of the various agencies working in this area of research. On this site, visitors can learn about various initiatives sponsored by different agencies within the state and also peruse a list of FAQâ??s on the subject. First-time visitors will want to start at the â??Backgroundâ? section; they may then proceed to the â??Policy & Programâ? area, where they can learn what the state is doing to combat this situation. Some of these programs include a voluntary greenhouse gas emission registry for California companies and a research program to spur environmentally-friendly energy alternatives. Finally, the site also includes a very nice glossary of terms used in discussing global climate change.

355

Communicating Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss the various challenges scientists must confront in efforts to communicate the science and implications of climate change to the public. Among these challenges is the stiff headwind we must fight of a concerted disinformation effort designed to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding of the problem and the reality of the underlying societal threat. We also must fight the legacy of the public’s perception of the scientist. That is to say, we must strive to communicate in plainspoken language that neither insults the intelligence of our audience, nor hopelessly loses them in jargon and science-speak. And through all of this, we must maintain our composure and good humor even in the face of what we might consider the vilest of tactics by our opposition. When it comes to how best to get our message out to the broader public, I don’t pretend to have all of the answers. But I will share some insights and anecdotes that I have accumulated over the course of my own efforts to inform the public about the reality of climate change and the potential threat that it represents.

Mann, M. E.

2009-12-01

356

Stakeholder Engagement in Climate Change Policymaking in American Cities  

E-print Network

planning, tree planting, public park expansion, reduction in energy costs through improved efficiencyplanning efforts of the DEP Climate Change Task Force and established improving building energy efficiency

Fiack, Duran; Kamieniecki , Sheldon

2015-01-01

357

Forest Management Adaptation to Gradual Climate Change and Extreme Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend existing stand-level decision models of forest managers in the presence of two aspects of climate change: Gradual climate change and extreme event risk. The forest managers adapt to the climate change by choosing optimal planting density and rotation age to maximize their net benefit. The possibility of species switch is also considered. Based on simulation results, we find

Jin Huang; Robert C. Abt

358

Climate change and marine life  

PubMed Central

A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F.; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V.; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J.; O'Connor, Mary I.; Pandolfi, John M.; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S.; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.

2012-01-01

359

Climate change and marine life.  

PubMed

A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

Richardson, Anthony J; Brown, Christopher J; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T; Duarte, Carlos M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J; O'Connor, Mary I; Pandolfi, John M; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J; Poloczanska, Elvira S

2012-12-23

360

The Biological Currency of Climate Change Effects?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that climate affects organisms in a wide range of different ways, including their distributions and, indeed, their performance (i.e. changes in growth, survival and reproduction). However, establishing whether species respond to changes in climate is not necessarily equal to establishing whether species performance is also affected. This argument also applies when climate effects are considered across trophic levels, such as consumer-resources interactions. For example, a phenological response of a plant may have no effect on its performance but may indeed have significant effects on herbivores. Here we emphasize and exemplify how the choice of a “biological currency” of climate change effects may be highly informative in one aspect but apparently useless in another. We do this by using the comprehensive data collected on plant species, large herbivore and their interactions at Zackenberg and Kangerlussuaq in Greenland.

Forchhammer, M. C.; Callaghan, T. V.; Post, E.

2009-12-01

361

Challenges of climate change: omics-based biology of saffron plants and organic agricultural biotechnology for sustainable saffron production.  

PubMed

Kashmir Valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as "Karewas"), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean sea level (amsl), under temperate climatic conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas, faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by climate change. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a 'niche crop' and is a recognized "geographical indication," growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of climate change effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of climate change process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues. PMID:25072266

Husaini, Amjad M

2014-01-01

362

Climate change and emerging infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ranges of infectious diseases and vectors are changing in altitude, along with shifts in plant communities and the retreat of alpine glaciers. Additionally, extreme weather events create conditions conducive to ?clusters? of insect-, rodent- and water-borne diseases. Accelerating climate change carries profound threats for public health and society.

Paul R. Epstein

2001-01-01

363

Earth's Climate and Global Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on the way climate affects our world. Global climate, regional climate, and climate change are all explained. There is an important section on what controls climate change, like the sun, volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, snow, and ice. there is a module called Energy Choices and Climate Change that provides a new way to look at issues related to energy and climate change. In the scenarios within this module, you will be able to make decisions about the types and amount of energy used and see what effect your decisions have on the amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere. Your goal is to reduce the amount of warming greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere from fossil fuel emissions while keeping costs within reason.

2004-05-11

364

Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.

Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.

2014-01-01

365

Competitive Cities and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities are part of the climate change problem, but they are also a key part of the solution. This report offers a comprehensive analysis of how cities and metropolitan regions can change the way we think about responding to climate change. Cities consume the vast majority of global energy and are therefore major contributors of greenhouse gas emissions. At the

Lamia Kamal-Chaoui; Alexis Robert

2009-01-01

366

Forests, climate change and tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests are an important store of carbon within the global carbon cycle and increasingly play a role in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The review illustrates that the cultural, economic and environmental services of forests that are utilized for tourism and recreation are being affected by climate change. In addition to the changes to the distribution and composition of forests

C. Michael Hall; Daniel Scott; Stefan Gössling

2011-01-01

367

Hurricanes-Climate Change Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page focuses on recent natural disasters and the latest climate change research to engage students with topical issues and help them understand the larger issue of climate change. Includes resources and visualizations of recent storms such as Katrina and changing coastlines worldwide.

368

Cadastres and Climate Change1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the role of land registers and cadastre in supporting measures that aim at adapting to and mitigating climate change. To that end, the paper provides a brief introduction to climate change in general. The paper then continues by analyzing the role of housing, land use, land-use change and forestry with respect to carbon storage and emission reduction.

Paul VAN DER MOLEN

369

Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

Project Activities for Conceptualizing Climate and Climate Change

370

Are different facets of plant diversity well protected against climate and land cover changes? A test study in the French Alps  

PubMed Central

Climate and land cover changes are important drivers of the plant species distributions and diversity patterns in mountainous regions. Although the need for a multifaceted view of diversity based on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic dimensions is now commonly recognized, there are no complete risk assessments concerning their expected changes. In this paper, we used a range of species distribution models in an ensemble-forecasting framework together with regional climate and land cover projections by 2080 to analyze the potential threat for more than 2,500 plant species at high resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km) in the French Alps. We also decomposed taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity facets into ? and ? components and analyzed their expected changes by 2080. Overall, plant species threats from climate and land cover changes in the French Alps were expected to vary depending on the species’ preferred altitudinal vegetation zone, rarity, and conservation status. Indeed, rare species and species of conservation concern were the ones projected to experience less severe change, and also the ones being the most efficiently preserved by the current network of protected areas. Conversely, the three facets of plant diversity were also projected to experience drastic spatial re-shuffling by 2080. In general, the mean ?-diversity of the three facets was projected to increase to the detriment of regional ?-diversity, although the latter was projected to remain high at the montane-alpine transition zones. Our results show that, due to a high-altitude distribution, the current protection network is efficient for rare species, and species predicted to migrate upward. Although our modeling framework may not capture all possible mechanisms of species range shifts, our work illustrates that a comprehensive risk assessment on an entire floristic region combined with functional and phylogenetic information can help delimitate future scenarios of biodiversity and better design its protection. PMID:25722539

Thuiller, Wilfried; Guéguen, Maya; Georges, Damien; Bonet, Richard; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Garraud, Luc; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Van Es, Jérémie; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Lavergne, Sébastien

2014-01-01

371

Cinematic climate change, a promising perspective on climate change communication.  

PubMed

Previous research findings display that after having seen popular climate change films, people became more concerned, more motivated and more aware of climate change, but changes in behaviors were short-term. This article performs a meta-analysis of three popular climate change films, The Day after Tomorrow (2005), An Inconvenient Truth (2006), and The Age of Stupid (2009), drawing on research in social psychology, human agency, and media effect theory in order to formulate a rationale about how mass media communication shapes our everyday life experience. This article highlights the factors with which science blends in the reception of the three climate change films and expands the range of options considered in order to encourage people to engage in climate change mitigation actions. PMID:24916195

Sakellari, Maria

2014-06-10

372

Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.

373

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

374

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

375

Environmental magnetism and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major and pressing problem is to understand how, and how fast, the Earth's climate has changed in the past, with and without human influences on the global carbon cycle. Magnetic, remanence-acquiring, minerals, mostly iron oxides and sulphides, occur ubiquitously in sediments. They can act as sensitive recorders of past climates, because as climate has varied (from glacial to interglacial,

Barbara A. Maher

2007-01-01

376

Geomorphic responses to climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of this book is the response of landscapes to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic changes. During the past 40 ky the global climate has varied from full-glacial to interglacial. Global temperatures decreased between 40 and 20 ka culminating in full-glacial climatic conditions at 20 ka. This resulted in a sea level decline of 130 m. Only 8 to

W. B. Bull

1991-01-01

377

Preparing for climate change.  

PubMed

There is a distinct probability that humankind is changing the climate and at the same time raising the sea level of the world. The most plausible projections we have now suggest a rise in mean world temperature of between 1 degree Celsius and 2 degrees Celsius by 2030--just 40 years hence. This is a bigger change in a smaller period than we know of in the experience of the earth's ecosystems and human societies. It implies that by 2030 the earth will be warmer than at any time in the past 120,000 years. In the same period, we are likely to see a rise of 15-30 centimeters in sea level, partly due to the melting of mountain glaciers and partly to the expansion of the warmer seas. This may not seem much--but it comes on top of the 12-centimeter rise in the past century and we should recall that over 1/2 the world's population lives in zones on or near coasts. A quarter meter rise in sea level could have drastic consequences for countries like the Maldives or the Netherlands, where much of the land lies below the 2-meter contour. The cause of climate change is known as the 'greenhouse effect'. Greenhouse glass has the property that it is transparent to radiation coming in from the sun, but holds back radiation to space from the warmed surfaces inside the greenhouse. Certain gases affect the atmosphere in the same way. There are 5 'greenhouse gases' and we have been roofing ourselves with them all: carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have increased 25% above preindustrial levels and are likely to double within a century, due to tropical forest clearance and especially to the burning of increasing quantities of coal and other fossil fuels; methane concentrations are now twice their preindustrial levels as a result of releases from agriculture; nitrous oxide has increased due to land clearance for agriculture, use of fertilizers, and fossil fuel combustion; ozone levels near the earth's surface have increased due mainly to pollution from motor vehicles; and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been released in great quantities through their use in aerosol sprays, refrigerator fluids, and insulating foams. We can get rid of CFCs and curb the pollutants generating ozone, but it will be difficult to put the brake on either methane or nitrous oxide. And the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will demand major changes in energy policy as well as action to slow deforestation. It appears that we are already committed to rising temperatures and sea levels. The question is by how much, in which areas? A number of things can be done to prepare for these changes: Governments must recognize that there is a problem; Better models must be worked out, especially to define where the greatest impacts from climate change and sea level rise will hit; Reference scenarios must be developed to see what the impacts are likely to be in ecological, agricultural, social and economic terms; Every country should develop "avoidance strategies" to minimize risk (for example, by not building on land likely to be flooded); We must cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from human activities, by eliminating CFCs and adopting energy conservation programs and other measures to minimize CO2 release; Global agreements to protect the atmosphere are needed. PMID:12285901

Holdgate, M

1989-01-01

378

1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate  

E-print Network

1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate A BrAzil-UK AnAlysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011Alysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;4 DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE

379

Is planting forests bad for the climate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planting forests is one of few readily available and proven approaches to mitigating climate change through the sequestering of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). In order to avoid a doubling in the concentration of atmospheric CO2 from preindustrial values by mid-century will require a multitude of technologies and approaches - carbon sequestration through forest planting being one of the more practical ones. It has been estimated that the establishment of 400 Mha of new forests in temperate latitudes and 300 Mha of plantations on nonforested land would account for an equivalent of 1 GtC/year of reduced carbon emissions over the life of a forest. Policies currently being proposed and debated in Congress have carbon sequestration as a central component of a national plan for mitigating climate change (e.g., Cap and Trade), however there is considerable uncertainty over whether afforestation/reforestation will actually do more harm than good. Planting a forest may decrease the surface reflectivity resulting in greater net radiation being absorbed at the surface and thus, surface warming. In some cases this warming can more than offset the climate benefit derived from carbon sequestration. A number of theoretical studies have suggested that planting forests in temperate and high latitudes could actually have the unintended consequence of warming the planet by decreasing the surface reflectivity. These studies, however, have relied on coarse-resolution climate models with unrealistic representation of forest structure and dynamics. In reality there are compounding forest and environmental factors that affect how the climate responds to planting a forest. Here we present results from a dynamic global vegetation model in which we evaluate the competing effects of fraction cover of forest, stand age, and local climate on the total benefit to the climate system. A benefit occurs when the radiative forcing equivalent of sequestration exceeds the increase in surface net radiation resulting from placement of a forest. Our study indicates that regionally there are large variations in the climate benefit of forest placement. There are some regions of temperate and boreal latitudes where forest plantations could be placed to benefit the climate system, but only if the local climate, stand age, and fraction cover of forest are also considered. Different regions require different configurations of forest age structure and cover depending on where the forest is placed. This study offers new insight on the feasibility of large-scale forest planting as a climate mitigation strategy.

Snyder, P. K.; Williams, M.

2010-12-01

380

Wednesday, October 26, 2011 12:20 pm Room 160, Plant Biotech Building What is happening? Global Climate Changes  

E-print Network

scrub, h l ft d h d d yp chaparral, softwood, hardwood Sizes 1m--30m ring diameters Site conditions CO2://public.ornl.gov/face/global_face.shtml · Typical FACE plot ­ Circular, surrounded by a ring of pipes ­ The pipes release CO2 (or O3, CO2+O3 is happening? ­ Global Climate Changes · Why CO2 is important to study? Outline · FACE project · Current

Gray, Matthew

381

Climate Change and National Security  

SciTech Connect

Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.

Malone, Elizabeth L.

2013-02-01

382

Climate change refugia as a tool for climate adaptation  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change refugia, areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change so as to increase persistence of valued physical, ecological, and cultural resources, are considered as potential adaptation options in the face of anthropogenic climate change. In a collaboration ...

383

Canadian vegetation response to climate and projected climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The response of Canadian vegetation to climate and climatic change was modeled at three organizational levels of the vegetation mosaic. Snowpack, degree-days, minimum temperature, soil moisture deficit, and actual evapotranspiration are components of climate that physiologically constrain distribution of dominant plant life-forms and species. The rule-based Canadian Climate-Vegetation Model (CCVM) predicts the response of vegetation formations to climate. The CCVM simulation for current climatic conditions is more accurate and detailed than those of other equilibrium models. Ecological response surfaces predict the probability of dominance for eight boreal tree species in Canada with success. Variation in the probability of dominance is related to the species' individualistic response to climatic constraints within different airmass regions. A boreal forest-type classification shows a high degree of geographic correspondence with observed forest-types. Under two doubled-CO[sub 2] climatic scenarios, CCVM predicts a reduction in arctic tundra and subarctic woodland, a northward shift in the distribution of boreal evergreen forest, and an expansion of temperate forest, boreal summergreen woodland, and two prairie formations. The response surfaces predict significant changes in species dominance under both climatic scenarios. Species exhibit an individualistic responses to climatic change. Most of the boreal forest-types derived from future probabilities of dominance are analogous to extant forest-types, but fewer types are distinguished. Geographic correspondence in the simulated boreal forest regions under both the current and projected climates provides a link between the results of the two modelling approaches. Even with constraints, the realism of the vegetation scenarios in this study are arguably the most reliable and comprehensive predictions for Canada.

Lenihan, J.M.

1992-01-01

384

Geomorphic responses to climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The primary focus of this book is the response of landscapes to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic changes. During the past 40 ky the global climate has varied from full-glacial to interglacial. Global temperatures decreased between 40 and 20 ka culminating in full-glacial climatic conditions at 20 ka. This resulted in a sea level decline of 130 m. Only 8 to 14 ky later the global temperature had reversed itself and the climate was the warmest of the past 120 ky. These dramatic changes in climate imposed significant controls on fluvial systems and impacted land forms and whole landscapes worldwide. Chapter 1, Conceptual Models for Changing landscapes, presents numerous concepts related to erosional and depositional processes controlling landscape development. Each of the next four chapters of the book, 2, 3, 4, and 5, examine different aspects of climatic change on fluvial systems. The conceptual models are used to analyze landscape response in four different climatic and geologic settings. In each setting the present and past climatic conditions, the climatically induced changes in vegetation and soil development, and geochronology are considered in assessing the influence of climatic changes on geomorphic processes. Chapter 2, investigates the influence of climatic change on the geomorphic processes operating in desert watersheds in the southwestern US and northern Mexico. The study sites for Chapter 3, are small desert drainage basins in the southwestern US and near the Sinai Peninsula in the Middle East. Chapter 4, investigates fill terraces in several drainage basins of the San Gabrial Mountains of the central Transverse Ranges of coastal southern California. The study site for Chapter 5 is the Charwell River watershed in the Seaward Kaikoura Range of New Zealand. Chapter 6, Difference Responses of Arid and Humid Fluvial Systems, compares the effects of changing climates in basins that range from extremely arid to humid.

Bull, W.B.

1991-01-01

385

Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Whether the characteristics of tropical cyclones have changed or will change in a warming climate — and if so, how — has been the subject of considerable investigation, often with conflicting results. Large amplitude ...

Knutson, Thomas R.

386

Urban Growth and Climate Change  

E-print Network

The best models of future temperature and rainfall indicatemodels yield county level predictions over average temperature and rainfallmodels of climate change’s predicted effects for future temperature and rainfall

Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01

387

AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

388

Re-assessing the role of plant community change and climate in the PETM n-alkane record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial leaf wax n-alkane record of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, shows large excursions in both carbon isotope (?13C) values and n-alkane average chain length (ACL). At the onset of the PETM, ACL values increase from ~28.5 to ~30.1 while the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) is 4-6‰ in magnitude and larger than ?13C records from other materials. It has been hypothesized previously that both the ACL excursion and the large magnitude of the CIE were caused by a concurrent turnover in the local flora from a mixed conifer/angiosperm community before the PETM to a different suite of angiosperm species during the PETM. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of data (>2000 data from 89 sources, both published and unpublished) on n-alkane amounts and chain length distributions in modern plants from around the world. We applied the data in two sets of comparisons: 1) within and among plant groups such as herbs and graminoids, and 2) between plants and climate, using reported collection locations for outdoor plants and climate values generated via GIS extraction of WorldClim modeled data. We show that angiosperms, as group, produce more n-alkanes than do gymnosperms by 1-2 orders of magnitude, and this means that the gymnosperm contribution to a mixed soil n-alkane pool would be negligible, even in an ecosystem where gymnosperms dominated (i.e. the pre/post-PETM ecosystems). The modern plant data also demonstrate that turnover of the plant community during the PETM, even among only the angiosperm species, is likely not the source of the observed ACL excursion. First, we constructed "representative" groups of PETM and pre/post-PETM communities using living relative species at the Chicago Botanic Garden and find no significant difference in chain length distributions between the two groups. Second and moreover, the modern plant data reveal that n-alkane chain length distributions are tremendously variable within large vascular plant groups--both functional groups such as woody plants or graminoids as well as phylogenetic groups at the family level or higher. This variability makes it difficult at best to use n-alkane chain lengths to distinguish one vascular group from another, as was previously suggested. Instead, our results suggest that chain length distributions and ACL are driven more by climate, especially temperature. Longer chain lengths, with their increased hydrophobicity, would likely experience favorable selection under warmer or drier conditions where leaf water loss is likely to be a greater stress. Thus, it may be that we can interpret the increase in ACL during the PETM as a direct response by the flora to increased temperature during the hyperthermal event, and n-alkane chain length distributions, properly constrained, may possibly serve as a qualitative paleotemperature proxy.

Bush, R. T.; Baczynski, A. A.; McInerney, F. A.; Chen, D.

2012-12-01

389

Narratives of climate change: introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a special feature on narratives of climate change, containing papers by Richard Hamblyn, Sverker Sörlin, Michael Bravo and Diana Liverman. The feature reflects the rising cultural profile of climate change in the public sphere, as represented, for example, by Al Gore's documentary film, An Inconvenient Truth, and art exhibitions devoted to the subject.

Stephen Daniels; Georgina H. Endfield

2009-01-01

390

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This organization was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change. The website contains reports, publications, technical papers, press releases, and official documents related to climate change.

World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme

391

Idea Bank: Climate Change Inquiries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can students engage in authentic inquiry on global climate change if they are not able to do the actual experiments? Many questions about climate change emerge over large areas and long periods of time. The good news is that much of the data from thes

Ryan Bowman

2010-02-01

392

Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the signing the Kyoto Protocol, the international community has focused a great deal of attention on measures designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Much less attention has been paid to climate change adaption. This is unfortunate because, even if the Kyoto Protocol is fully implemented, climate change will generate substantial costs requiring substantial adaptation efforts, especially in the

Daniel H. Cole

2007-01-01

393

Historic and Projected Climate Change  

E-print Network

Historic and Projected Climate Change F A C T S H E E T This evidence strongly indicates and Projected Climate Change PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert M. Roseen, Ph.D. P.E., D.WRE · Director, The UNH is largely the result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels. · A warming trend of about 1

394

Take Aim At Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This music video features a rap song about some of the causes and effects of climate change with the goal of increasing awareness of climate change and how it will impact nature and humans. The website also includes links to short fact sheets with lyrics to the song that are annotated with the sources of the information in the lyrics.

Polar Palooza.com

395

Generating Arguments About Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article from the NSTA Press Journal, Science Scope, students participate in a unit on global climate change by engaging in the process of scientific argumentation. The lessons presented in this article were created using the generate-an-argument model to help students understand climate change science. The article is free to both NSTA members and nonmembers.

Barry Golden

396

Implications of Climate Change for  

E-print Network

Implications of Climate Change for Northern Ireland: Informing Strategy Development #12;Further expressed in this document are not necessarily those of SNIFFER, any Northern Ireland Government Department and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER) to improve understanding of climate change

397

Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

2011-01-01

398

Generating Arguments about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is a different and fun way to engage students with an extremely important topic, climate change, which cuts across scientific and nonscientific disciplines. While climate change itself may not be listed in the curriculum of every science class, the authors contend that such a unit is appropriate for virtually any science curriculum.…

Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin

2012-01-01

399

Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International  

E-print Network

1 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes that the most genetically diverse populations are the ones most at risk from climate change, so that global warming will erode the species' genetic variability faster than it curtails the species' geographic

Alvarez, Nadir

400

Climate change and avian influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net

M. Gilbert; J. Slingenbergh; X. Xiao

2008-01-01

401

BIRD MIGRATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to explain and forecast the dependency of different migratory processes: spring arrival dates, migratory take-off, transit autumnal and spring migrations, migration abruption, and their characteristics upon different climatic parameters. We tried to explain the change in migratory-resident state of birds, and defined the effect of climate change upon species specificity of bird migration, mechanisms

Mecislovas ŽALAKEVI?IUS

1997-01-01

402

Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate scientists configure computer model parameters through the portal user interface. After model configuration, scientists then launch the computing task. Next, data is atomized and distributed to computing engines that are running on citizen participants' computers. Scientists will receive notifications on the completion of computing tasks, and examine modeling results via visualization modules of the portal. Computing tasks, computing resources, and participants are managed by project managers via portal tools. A portal prototype has been built for proof of concept. Three forums have been setup for different groups of users to share information on science aspect, technology aspect, and educational outreach aspect. A facebook account has been setup to distribute messages via the most popular social networking platform. New treads are synchronized from the forums to facebook. A mapping tool displays geographic locations of the participants and the status of tasks on each client node. A group of users have been invited to test functions such as forums, blogs, and computing resource monitoring.

Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

2011-12-01

403

Ground Water and Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

2013-01-01

404

Ground water and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

2012-01-01

405

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION: PHYSIOLOGY, LIFE HISTORY, AND ECOSYSTEM CHANGE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center of the uncertainties with climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems is understanding where transitions

406

Coherent changes in relative C 4 plant productivity and climate during the late Quaternary in the North American Great Plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution of the mixed and shortgrass prairie of the North American Great Plains is poorly understood because of limited proxies available for environmental interpretations. Buried soils in the Great Plains provide a solution to the problem because they are widespread both spatially and temporally with their organic reservoirs serving as a link to the plants than once grew on them. Through stable carbon isotopic analysis of soil organic carbon ( ?13C), the percent carbon from C 4 plants (%C 4) can be ascertained. Because C 4 plants are primarily warm season grasses responding positively to summer temperature, their representation has the added advantage of serving as a climate indicator. To better understand grassland and climate dynamics in the Great Plains during the last 12 ka (ka=1000 radiocarbon years) we developed an isotopic standardization technique by: determining the difference in buried soil ?13C and modern soil ?13C expected for that latitude (? ?13C), and transferring the ? ?13C to ?%C 4 (% C 4) using mass balance calculations. Our analysis reveals two isotopic stages in the mixed and shortgrass prairie of the Great Plains based on trends in ?%C 4. In response to orbital forcing mechanisms, ?%C 4 was persistently below modern in the Great Plains between 12 and 6.7 ka (isotopic stage II) evidently because of the cooling effect of the Laurentide ice sheet and proglacial lakes in northern latitudes, and glacial meltwater pulses cooling the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean. The ?%C 4 after 6.7 ka (isotopic stage I) increased to modern levels as conditioned by the outflow of warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and dry incursions from the west that produced periodic drought. At the millennial-scale, time series analysis demonstrates that ?%C 4 oscillated with 0.6 and 1.8 ka periodicities, possibly governed by variations in solar irradiance. Our buried soil isotopic record correlates well with other environmental proxy from the Great Plains and surrounding regions.

Nordt, L.; Von Fischer, J.; Tieszen, L.; Tubbs, J.

2008-08-01

407

CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction Richard Allan, Department of Meteorology r.p.allan@reading.ac.uk #12;Text Books and References · Henson, B., Rough Guide to Climate Change http://www.amazon.co.uk/Climate-Change-Guides-Reference- Titles/dp/1858281059 · Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007, www

Allan, Richard P.

408

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government  

E-print Network

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local: RESOURCES THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT 3. Past and Future Climate Change and Its Impacts 4

Pedersen, Tom

409

Paleoceanography and Climate Change  

E-print Network

;IPCC 2007 #12;Paleoclimate Proxy Records · Historical Documents (~1000 years) · Tree Rings (~10) #12;Tree Rings · Temperature · Precipitation · Drought #12;IPCC 2007 #12;The Climate System #12;The in Earth's orbit around the sun · Climate and CO2 tightly coupled #12;

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

410

Climate change and dead zones.  

PubMed

Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

2015-04-01

411

Adapting agriculture to climate change  

PubMed Central

The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists. PMID:18077402

Howden, S. Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

2007-01-01

412

Climatic Variability Leads to Later Seasonal Flowering of Floridian Plants  

PubMed Central

Understanding species responses to global change will help predict shifts in species distributions as well as aid in conservation. Changes in the timing of seasonal activities of organisms over time may be the most responsive and easily observable indicator of environmental changes associated with global climate change. It is unknown how global climate change will affect species distributions and developmental events in subtropical ecosystems or if climate change will differentially favor nonnative species. Contrary to previously observed trends for earlier flowering onset of plant species with increasing spring temperatures from mid and higher latitudes, we document a trend for delayed seasonal flowering among plants in Florida. Additionally, there were few differences in reproductive responses by native and nonnative species to climatic changes. We argue that plants in Florida have different reproductive cues than those from more northern climates. With global change, minimum temperatures have become more variable within the temperate-subtropical zone that occurs across the peninsula and this variation is strongly associated with delayed flowering among Florida plants. Our data suggest that climate change varies by region and season and is not a simple case of species responding to consistently increasing temperatures across the region. Research on climate change impacts need to be extended outside of the heavily studied higher latitudes to include subtropical and tropical systems in order to properly understand the complexity of regional and seasonal differences of climate change on species responses. PMID:20657765

Von Holle, Betsy; Wei, Yun; Nickerson, David

2010-01-01

413

Computational biology approaches to plant metabolism and photosynthesis: applications for corals in times of climate change and environmental stress.  

PubMed

Knowledge of factors that are important in reef resilience helps us to understand how reef ecosystems react following major anthropogenic and environmental disturbances. The symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic zooxanthellae algal cells and corals is that the zooxanthellae provide the coral with carbon, while the coral provides protection and access to enough light for the zooxanthellae to photosynthesise. This article reviews some recent advances in computational biology relevant to photosynthetic organisms, including Beyesian approaches to kinetics, computational methods for flux balances in metabolic processes, and determination of clades of zooxanthallae. Application of these systems will be important in the conservation of coral reefs in times of climate change and environmental stress. PMID:20666925

Crabbe, M James C

2010-08-01

414

Climate change: Challenges for future crop adjustments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change will affect all agricultural areas over the coming years; however, this effect will not be equally distributed spatially or temporally. Increasing temperatures of 2-3°C over the next 40 years will expose plants to higher temperatures throughout their life cycle and also increase the a...

415

Earth's Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1896, Svante Arrhenius published the first model of the effects of industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on Earth's climate. Since the days of Arrhenius, scientists have moved from pencils to supercomputers. Calculations take hours or days instead

Juanita Constible

2008-10-01

416

Earth's Orbit and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced tutorial, learners examine data to determine the relative contribution of what we call natural climate cycles and that of human-caused greenhouse gases to contemporary climate change. Changes in the Earth-Sun geometry over time are explored using interactive digital applets. A section supporting pedagogical techniques that begin with student prior conceptions and a list of common Earth science student misconceptions are included. Vocabulary terms are hot linked to a glossary. This is the sixth of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

2012-10-18

417

Climate change, wine, and conservation  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

2013-01-01

418

Ecological Networks in a Changing Climate  

E-print Network

to the Components of Climate Change: Impacts of Warming on Aqueous Media and Surveys at Different Scales and Examples . . . . 78 III. Network Responses to Climate Change Components to the Components of Climate Change: Atmospheric Composition and Ecological Stoichiometry . . . . . . . . . . 100 VI

Benstead, Jon

419

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Outline of talk: A. What causes climate change B. Possible changes in the world's and the Pacific Northwest's climate C. Possible impacts of climate change I. The world and U.S. II. Oregon D. Possible solutions E. Discussion ...

420

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER SYSTEM Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012020 Prepared for: California consideration of climate change effects on highelevation hydropower supply and demand in California. Artificial

421

The Arctic Tree Line and Climate Change  

E-print Network

quicker Overall Feedbacks to Climate Change Advance in Treeline . Global Warming Decrease in Albedo Models). Arctic climate change with a 2 C global warming: Timing, climate patterns and vegetation change. ClimaticThe Arctic Tree Line and Climate Change By Amanda Reinwald 1 IntroductionIntroduction · What

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

422

Climate Change and Tourism Dr David Viner  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Tourism éCLAT Dr David Viner Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia d.viner@uea.ac.uk Tourism has a strong international dimension and is sensitive to any changes of climate that alter to attract visitors are likely to be vulnerable to climate change and the implementation of climate change

Feigon, Brooke

423

Ground water and climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

424

Extinction risk from climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change over the past ~30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of

Chris D. Thomas; Alison Cameron; Rhys E. Green; Michel Bakkenes; Linda J. Beaumont; Yvonne C. Collingham; Barend F. N. Erasmus; Marinez Ferreira de Siqueira; Alan Grainger; Lee Hannah; Lesley Hughes; Brian Huntley; Albert S. van Jaarsveld; Guy F. Midgley; Lera Miles; Miguel A. Ortega-Huerta; A. Townsend Peterson; Oliver L. Phillips; Stephen E. Williams

2004-01-01

425

Climate signals in Palaeozoic land plants  

PubMed Central

The Palaeozoic is regarded as a period in which it is difficult to recognize climate signals in land plants because they have few or no close extant relatives. In addition early, predominantly axial, representatives lack the features, e.g. leaf laminae, secondary growth, used later as qualitative and quantitive measures of past climates. Exceptions are stomata, and the preliminary results of a case study of a single taxon present throughout the Devonian, and analysis of stomatal complex anatomy attempt to disentangle evolutionary, taxonomic, habitat and atmospheric effects on stomatal frequencies. Ordovician-Silurian vegetation is represented mainly by spores whose widespread global distribution on palaeocontinental reconstructions with inferred climates suggest that the producers were independent of major climate variables, probably employing the physiology and behavioural strategies of extant bryophytes, further characterized by small size. Growth-ring studies, first possible on Mid-Devonian plants, have proved most informative in elucidating the climate at high palaeolatitudes in Late Permian Gondwana. Changes in the composition of Carboniferous-Permian low-latitude wetland vegetation are discussed in relation to tectonic activity and glaciation, with most confidence placed on the conclusion that major extinctions at the Westphalian-Stephanian boundary in Euramerica resulted from increased seasonality created by changes in circulation patterns at low latitudes imposed by the decrease of glaciations in most parts of Gondwana.

Edwards, D.

1998-01-01

426

Atmospheric chemistry: A new player in climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change from pre-industrial times to the present day has altered Earth's surface energy balance. Until now, the role of volatile hydrocarbons, emitted by plants, in controlling this balance and driving climate change has been overlooked.

Ashworth, Kirsti

2014-10-01

427

Coherent changes in relative C4 plant productivity and climate during the late Quaternary in the North American Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evolution of the mixed and shortgrass prairie of the North American Great Plains is poorly understood because of limited proxies available for environmental interpretations. Buried soils in the Great Plains provide a solution to the problem because they are widespread both spatially and temporally with their organic reservoirs serving as a link to the plants than once grew on them. Through stable carbon isotopic analysis of soil organic carbon (??13C), the percent carbon from C4 plants (%C4) can be ascertained. Because C4 plants are primarily warm season grasses responding positively to summer temperature, their representation has the added advantage of serving as a climate indicator. To better understand grassland and climate dynamics in the Great Plains during the last 12 ka (ka=1000 radiocarbon years) we developed an isotopic standardization technique by: determining the difference in buried soil ??13C and modern soil ??13C expected for that latitude (????13C), and transferring the ????13C to ??%C4 (% C4) using mass balance calculations. Our analysis reveals two isotopic stages in the mixed and shortgrass prairie of the Great Plains based on trends in ??%C4. In response to orbital forcing mechanisms, ??%C4 was persistently below modern in the Great Plains between 12 and 6.7 ka (isotopic stage II) evidently because of the cooling effect of the Laurentide ice sheet and proglacial lakes in northern latitudes, and glacial meltwater pulses cooling the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean. The ??%C4 after 6.7 ka (isotopic stage I) increased to modern levels as conditioned by the outflow of warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and dry incursions from the west that produced periodic drought. At the millennial-scale, time series analysis demonstrates that ??%C4 oscillated with 0.6 and 1.8 ka periodicities, possibly governed by variations in solar irradiance. Our buried soil isotopic record correlates well with other environmental proxy from the Great Plains and surrounding regions. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

Nordt, L.; Von Fischer, J.; Tieszen, L.; Tubbs, J.

2008-01-01

428

Ecological sensitivity: a biospheric view of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is often characterized in terms of climate sensitivity, the globally averaged temperature rise associated with\\u000a a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 (equivalent) concentration. In this study, we develop and apply two new ecological sensitivity metrics, analogs of climate\\u000a sensitivity, to investigate the potential degree of plant community changes over the next three centuries. We use ten climate\\u000a simulations

Jon C. Bergengren; Duane E. Waliser; Yuk L. Yung

2011-01-01

429

Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication  

E-print Network

Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour;1 Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour? Thomas D. Lowe 1 these kinds of messages (which have recently been dubbed `climate porn' (Ereaut and Segnit, 2006)), can

Watson, Andrew

430

Responses of carbon dioxide flux and plant biomass to water table drawdown in a treed peatland in northern Alberta: a climate change perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern peatland ecosystems represent large carbon (C) stocks that are susceptible to changes such as accelerated mineralization due to water table lowering expected under a climate change scenario. During the growing seasons (1 May to 31 October) of 2011 and 2012 we monitored CO2 fluxes and plant biomass along a microtopographic gradient (hummocks-hollows) in an undisturbed dry continental boreal treed bog (control) and a nearby site that was drained (drained) in 2001. Ten years of drainage in the bog significantly increased coverage of shrubs at hummocks and lichens at hollows. Considering measured hummock coverage and including tree incremental growth, we estimate that the control site was a sink of -92 in 2011 and -70 g C m-2 in 2012, while the drained site was a source of 27 and 23 g C m-2 over the same years. We infer that, drainage-induced changes in vegetation growth led to increased biomass to counteract a portion of soil carbon losses. These results suggest that spatial variability (microtopography) and changes in vegetation community in boreal peatlands will affect how these ecosystems respond to lowered water table potentially induced by climate change.

Munir, T. M.; Xu, B.; Perkins, M.; Strack, M.

2014-02-01

431

Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

432

Taking Action on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this Government of Canada website, visitors can "learn about the science, impacts and adaptation to climate change and how individuals, governments, businesses, industry and communities take action by reducing greenhouse gas emissions." Through maps, graphs, and clear text, users can learn the basics of climate change and the greenhouse gases. The website details many of the ecological, economic, and global impacts of climate change. Users can find out about the One-Tonne Challenge, which encourages everyone to reduce their emissions. Teachers can find questions and activities to educate their students about climate change. The website also offers a calculator to estimate a user's current emissions, a series of videos instructing individuals how to create an energy efficient home and car, as well as publications and media resources. This site is also reviewed in the March 18, 2005 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

433

Climate change & street trees project  

E-print Network

Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values, and governance, of street trees Norman Dandy March 2010 #12;Contents Summary .................................................................................................4 1.1 What is a `street tree

434

Climate Change is About... Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change Is About...Water tells the story of climate change and impacts on water in Bolivia through a range of voices and multimedia materials. Case studies bring the explanatory analysis of vulnerability and the social, economic and cultural impacts of climate change vividly to life. A Teaching and Activities Guide is available to help educators and learners delve into this material, understand the realities of climate change for affected communities, apply this to their own experiences and encourage citizenship in responding to it. The resources are designed to be flexible and accessible for use with secondary-level students upwards, and can be adapted for self-led or teacher-led exploration in both formal and informal settings.

The Democracy Center

435

NASA Climate Change Resource Reel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of resources from NASA includes animations and still shots covering a wide range of topics in climate, including the cryosphere, ocean sciences, changes on land, the atmosphere, and satellite images.

NASA

436

Support & advice climate change Which tree species to  

E-print Network

Support & advice climate change Which tree species to plant for a changing forestry environment #12 to its likely effects. We must start to implement adaptation strategies today, as England's forests genetic material is a key action to adapt to climate change. The negative impact of pests and diseases

437

Conservation practices and their potential to mitigate climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The resilience of agricultural systems to climate change is dependent on the ability of the soil to capture and supply water to the plant at critical times in order to overcome the potential negative impacts of rising temperature. Climate change will occur as not only changes in the mean values of t...

438

LAY REPRESENTATIONS ON CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Lay representations on climate change were mapped via the free-word association method,in two pilot studies. Participants were asked to generate words associated to “the big problems faced by humankind nowadays” (1,study). Climate change was not spontaneously evoked by the participants in the first study: pollution was among the top 10 problems, but references to other environmental issues were very

Rosa Cabecinhas; Alexandra Lázaro; Anabela Carvalho

439

Climate Change, MFA on Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This MFA Thesis exhibition by Christy Roberts, entitled Climate Change, MFA on Ice consisted of a synthetic ice skating rink in the gallery, with a video-projected changing climate and a soundtrack comprised of music made from nature samples. Visitors were able to check out skates at the concession stand and skate for as long as they liked.\\u000aWithin the confines

Christy Roberts

2011-01-01

440

Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Congressional Research Service

441

Risk analysis and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing emphasis on risk-based approaches in the scientific and economic assessment of climate change, exemplified by the Stern Report and IPPC 4th Assessment. In the United Kingdom, risk discourse also increasingly dominates environmental policy-making and governance. The use of risk assessment, management and communication practices in climate change governance and policy is critically examined, utilising an interpretation

Nick Pidgeon; Catherine Butler

2009-01-01

442

Understanding and Communicating Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is designed for a four week elective class on the local impacts of climate change. The lessons incorporate current data and information from a variety of sources, are designed to keep student engagement high, and include a variety of instructional approaches, from jigsaw readings to online interactives to hands-on simulated ice core analysis. The unit is themed around countering skeptics' statements, and the final product emphasizes clear written communication around climate change and its impacts.

2012-01-01

443

Life on a Changing Edge: Arctic-Alpine Plants at the Edges of Permanent Snowfields that are Receding Due to Climate Change at Glacier National Park  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers and snowfields are intrinsic parts of many alpine landscapes but they are retreating rapidly at Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. Plants that inhabit the edges of glaciers and snowfields are vulnerable to habitat changes wrought by the recession of these frozen bodies. Snowfields provide plants with frost protection in the winter and water in the form of melting snow during the summer. However, changes in snowfield and glacial edges may leave plants exposed to frost in the winter and subjected to water stress in the summer, which would likely have an impact on important processes, including emergence from the soil, leaf expansion, root growth, flowering, seed germination, seedling establishment, photosynthesis, and transpiration. Because these processes influence the survival of plants, responses of snowfield plants to changing edges will likely result in changes in species abundance, distribution and diversity, which will in turn influence community composition. In summer 2012, we initiated a study of Glacier National Park's snowfield plants by establishing 2m2 plots at geospatially referenced 50m transects extending outwards from the toe and perpendicularly outward from the lateral edges of currently permanent snowfields at Siyeh Pass, Piegan Pass, and Preston Park, with an additional 100m transect extending from an impermanent snowfield to treeline at Mt. Clements near Logan Pass. We constructed species lists and determined percent cover for each species in each 2m2 plot, and used high resolution photographs of each plot as records and for fine scale determinations of species presence and location. In addition, we searched for rare arctic-alpine plants which, due to their rarity, may be especially vulnerable to changes in snowfields and glaciers. Two species of rare arctic-alpine plants, Tofieldia pusilla and Pinguicula vulgaris, were found near snowmelt-fed springs, rivulets, and tarns but were not found adjacent to the snowfields. Thus, they may rely indirectly on the snowfields for at least part of their water supply. The baseline study provides us with current knowledge of the snowfield plants. Ideally, the plots will be expanded on and monitored in the future to detect changes in the distribution, abundance, and diversity of these plants and their communities in the context of determining and explaining the influences on alpine plant ecology of the recession of permanent snowfields and glaciers.

Apple, M. E.; Martin, A. C.; Moritz, D. J.

2013-12-01

444

Purdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for  

E-print Network

as a top producer of those crops. · Heavier rainfall and periodic flooding during planting and harvest periods may lead to crop losses in Indiana, as well as increased pest and disease burdens. · The pace are potentially threatened in Indiana. · Should climate in Indiana shift to "hotter, drier summers" and "warmer

445

Climate Change, Energy and Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of the causes of climate change and the repercussions it has on our environment and our health. Special focus topics include energy and health (with respect to fossil fuels and nuclear energy), national energy policy and health, how a warming climate affects weather and health, impacts of fuel economy (with respect to emissions of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons on environmental and human health), and air quality and climate change. The site also features links to current news and related resources.