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Sample records for climate south-eastern spain

  1. The relative influence of climate, environmental heterogeneity, and human population on the distribution of vertebrate species richness in south-eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio; Pizarro, Manuel

    2007-07-01

    In view of the many factors affect species richness, this study examines the relative influence of environmental heterogeneity, climate, human disturbance and spatial structure with respect to the species-richness distribution of terrestrial vertebrates in an area of south-eastern Spain with a Mediterranean climate. We show that environmental heterogeneity was the primary factor determining species richness (20.3% of variance), with the effect of temperature and precipitation being lower (11.6%). Climate had greater importance in determining the species richness of ectotherms (amphibians and reptiles) than of endotherms (mammals and birds). Species richness had less spatial autocorrelation in mammals and birds than in ectotherms. Also, a positive correlation was found between species richness and human population density, especially in reptiles and mammals. Orders and families more sensitive to human presence, such as snakes, raptors, ungulates, and carnivores, showed no relationship (or a negative one) with the human population. This study highlights the importance of environmental heterogeneity (topographic heterogeneity and habitat diversity) for vertebrate conservation in zones with a Mediterranean climate.

  2. Groundwater intensive use and mining in south-eastern peninsular Spain: Hydrogeological, economic and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Emilio; Andreu-Rodes, José Miguel; Aragón, Ramón; Estrela, Teodoro; Ferrer, Javier; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Manzano, Marisol; Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis; Sahuquillo, Andrés; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-15

    Intensive groundwater development is a common circumstance in semiarid and arid areas. Often abstraction exceeds recharge, thus continuously depleting reserves. There is groundwater mining when the recovery of aquifer reserves needs more than 50years. The MASE project has been carried out to compile what is known about Spain and specifically about the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The objective was the synthetic analysis of available data on the hydrological, economic, managerial, social, and ethical aspects of groundwater mining. Since the mid-20th century, intensive use of groundwater in south-eastern Spain allowed extending and securing the areas with traditional surface water irrigation of cash crops and their extension to former dry lands, taking advantage of good soils and climate. This fostered a huge economic and social development. Intensive agriculture is a main activity, although tourism plays currently an increasing economic role in the coasts. Many aquifers are relatively high yielding small carbonate units where the total groundwater level drawdown may currently exceed 300m. Groundwater storage depletion is estimated about 15km(3). This volume is close to the total contribution of the Tagus-Segura water transfer, but without large investments paid for with public funds. Seawater desalination complements urban supply and part of cash crop cultivation. Reclaimed urban waste water is used for irrigation. Groundwater mining produces benefits but associated to sometimes serious economic, administrative, legal and environmental problems. The use of an exhaustible vital resource raises ethical concerns. It cannot continue under the current legal conditions. A progressive change of water use paradigm is the way out, but this is not in the mind of most water managers and politicians. The positive and negative results observed in south-eastern Spain may help to analyse other areas under similar hydrogeological conditions in a less

  3. Identification of vulnerable sites in salts affected agricultural soils from South-Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Angel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Jansen, Boris; Silvia, Martinez-Martinez

    2010-05-01

    Soil salinization is one of the main problems in many soils under intensive agricultural practices, especially in arid and semiarid zones. Two important reasons for the occurrence of salinization are i) the use of low quality irrigation water and ii) climatic conditions reducing soil quality. The results of salinization can be quite serious. It limits the growing of crops, constrains agricultural productivity, and in severe cases, leads to the abandonment of agricultural soils. There are mainly two kinds of soil salinity: naturally occurring dry-land salinity and human-induced salinity caused by the low quality of irrigation water, excessive water and fertilizer applications. In both cases the development of plants and soil organisms is limited. Natural occurrence of salts in soils is very difficult to handle and requires higher investments than the reduction of human-induced salinity. For these reasons, identification of vulnerable sites is essential for sustainable agricultural management, especially in these semiarid and arid environments. The main aim of this study was to examine spatial and vertical distribution pattern of salts in a semi-arid study site in South-Eastern Spain in order to identify vulnerable sites. In order to achieve this objective, surface soil samples were collected in January and July 2009 at 48 sites located in a representative lemon production area close to City of Murcia, covering a surface area of 44 km2. The area was divided using a square grid of 1000 m and the samples were taken from these squares. The ionic concentrations were used as the input data for distribution maps. The software used for the spatial analysis was Arcview 3.1. An interpolation method called the Inverse Distanced Weighted (IDW) method was adopted for the interpolation of the data. The results indicated that the concentrations of most anions are higher in summer. The difference was particularly large for chloride, most likely because of its high mobility and

  4. Salinity, organic content, micronutrients and heavy metals in pig slurries from South-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Moral, R; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Moreno-Caselles, J; Paredes, C; Rufete, B

    2008-01-01

    The increase in commercial pig production is an opportunity to reuse animal manures in arid and semiarid soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. However, there are components in pig slurry that are potentially dangerous for the environment. In this study, pig slurries of 36 pig farms in South-eastern Spain were evaluated for salt content (electrical conductivity, chloride and sodium), organic load (BOD5 and COD), micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn), and heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb). Except for electrical conductivity, Cu and Zn, components in pig slurries did not vary considerably between animal production stages, indicating similar management of diverse animal types. Assuming an application rate based on the maximum input of nitrogen from animal manure (210 kg total N/ha/yr), the estimates for soil annual load of Cl and Na, 415 kg/ha, could be a significant salinisation risk. Cu and Zn seemed to be the metals that could be accumulated most in soils where application of pig slurries is common (4 and 15 kg/ha/yr, respectively). The estimated heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb) input to soils would be 260 g/ha/yr, with a relative contribution of Cr>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd. PMID:17419044

  5. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  6. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  7. Modelling post-fire soil erosion hazard using ordinal logistic regression: A case study in South-eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notario del Pino, Jesús S.; Ruiz-Gallardo, José-Reyes

    2015-03-01

    Treatments that minimize soil erosion after large wildfires depend, among other factors, on fire severity and landscape configuration so that, in practice, most of them are applied according to emergency criteria. Therefore, simple tools to predict soil erosion risk help to decide where the available resources should be used first. In this study, a predictive model for soil erosion degree, based on ordinal logistic regression, has been developed and evaluated using data from three large forest fires in South-eastern Spain. The field data were successfully fit to the model in 60% of cases after 50 runs (i.e., agreement between observed and predicted soil erosion degrees), using slope steepness, slope aspect, and fire severity as predictors. North-facing slopes were shown to be less prone to soil erosion than the rest.

  8. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  9. The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulmeister, J.; Cohen, T.; Kiernan, K.; Woodward, C.; Barrows, T.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Kemp, J.; Haworth, R.; Clark, D. H.; Gontz, A. M.; Chang, J.; Mueller, D.; Slee, A.; Ellerton, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Last Glaciation Maximum (c. 25-18 kyr) in south-eastern Australia has traditionally been regarded as both significantly colder than the present and much more arid. This was based on a variety of evidence including the dramatic reduction in tree pollen and dune activity in currently humid areas such as the Blue Mountains of NSW. Maintaining arid conditions under significantly lower temperatures is quite challenging and not all lines of evidence supported strong aridity. Over the last four years an ARC project has worked to develop new lines of evidence to test these inferences. Outcomes from the project indicate that winter temperatures were significantly colder than at present (an 8-11 C decrease) while summer temperatures were cooler but not as extreme (4-6.5 C). Moisture balances appear to have been more positive than present along the eastern highlands, while areas to the west were comparatively drier. The humid zone along the divide maintained at least seasonally stronger flows in the major rivers, meaning that water was more available in western districts than under modern climates. I will summarise the evidence for this new pattern and highlight the climatological patterns that would be consistent with the reconstruction. I will conclude by speculating on the implications for both human landscape use and what happened to the vegetation.

  10. Suspicion of elder abuse in South Eastern Spain: the extent and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cárceles, M D; Rubio, L; Pereniguez, J E; Pérez-Flores, D; Osuna, E; Luna, A

    2009-01-01

    Elder abuse is recognized internationally as a growing problem. Recent years have seen an increase in the number of authors recommending that the MDs systematically question old people concerning possible abuse. The aim of our study was to ascertain the extent of suspicion of elder abuse and the different types of abuse. We design a cross-sectional survey including 460 patients > or = 65 years at different health centers (South East Spain). A face-to-face interview and a physical examination was carried out. Extent of suspected abuse was 44.6%. Female sex, > or = 75 years, widowhood, living alone or with children, accommodation in house of relatives and income < or = 300 euros/month were the associated sociodemographic variables. The risk factors associated are recent worsening of health, living with a mentally ill person, excessive consumption of alcohol or illegal drugs, arguing frequently with relatives or the dependence on someone to carry out a daily activity. The signs in the physical examination associated are dehydration/malnutrition, pressure ulcers and poor body and/or mouth hygiene. There is a high extent of suspicion of elder abuse and the keyword in this respect is prevention. PMID:18676036

  11. Modelling the response of surface fuel to climate change across south-eastern Australia: consequences for future fire regimes .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstock, Ross; Matthews, Stuart; Penman, Trent; Price, Owen; Watson, Penny; Williams, Dick

    2014-05-01

    Changes to fire regimes in the future will be determined by a complex range of processes. Vegetation, weather and ignitions may be altered by climate change, elevated CO2 and human activity. In this study, we used an empirically based approach to project future changes in surface litter fuel within major vegetation formations (rainforest, wet sclerophyll forest, dry sclerophyll forest, grassy woodlands) the temperate and subtropical areas of south eastern Australia. Climatic controls of litterfall, decomposition and steady state fuel load within each vegetation formation were examined using metadata derived from field studies. Changes in steady state litter fuel load were then estimated for the current spatial domain of each vegetation formation (1 km grid), using the fuel/climate models, and a range of 2080 climate projections (5 GCMs) selected to encompass both warmer and drier and warmer and wetter future conditions for the region, under the A1b emissions scenario. Steady state surface fine fuel load was generally, negatively related to mean annual temperature but mean annual rainfall had divergent effects dependent on vegetation type. Under all 2080 climate projections, a mean decline in steady state surface litter was predicted in dry sclerophyll forest (-5 to -18%), the most extensive forest type in the region. Similarly a general decline was estimated for rainforest (-5 to -13%). For the other vegetation formations, predicted 2080 responses varied from a small mean increase to a more substantial decline: i.e. + 0.1 to - 24%, grassy woodlands; +3 to -18%, wet sclerophyll forest. The predominant, predicted decline in future surface fine fuel load has the potential to reduce future area burned due to the influence of fuel load on fire behaviour in these ecosystems. Early results from experiments and stand growth models dealing with Eucalyptus species indicate that possible declines in surface fine fuel load induced by a warmer climate may be partially off

  12. Mapping the isotopic signature of methane in South-Eastern Spain: complementing biogeochemical long-term research with short term observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Àgueda, Alba; Morguí, Josep Anton; Vazquez Garcia, Eusebi; Curcoll, Roger; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2016-04-01

    As a greenhouse gas, methane has a global warming potential of 25 in a 100 year scale. In order to establish mitigation plans it is important to assess its sources and sinks which can be both of geological and biological origin. South-Eastern Spain is a region with many different possible methane sources: i) by seismic activity of many geological faults both inland and in the neighbouring marine region (i.e. the Carboneras fault crossing the Alborán Sea along Málaga coastline); ii) by seepage of methane from hydrates present in the marine regions close to the Gibraltar Strait and the Gulf of Cádiz; iii) by emissions from fossil fuels caused by high traffic of merchant ships and the presence of large harbours (Algeciras, Tetuan and Cádiz), and the Africa - Europe Gas Transport Network in the Gibraltar Strait region; iv) by organic matter decomposition in both highly productive marshlands and eutrophic reservoirs; v) by burning of agricultural debris for energy supply, mainly from olive residues. In this study, a methane mapping survey has been conducted in the area around three atmospheric stations of the ClimaDat Atmospheric Network for Continuous Measurements of Greenhouse Gases (www.climadat.es) located in South-Eastern Spain (Sierra de Grazalema (SGC3), Tarifa (EEC3) and Sierra de Segura (SSC3). A cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) (G2301m, Picarro®) installed on a car has been used to measure methane concentrations. Additionally, in selected points, air samples have been collected in Tedlar bags for isotopic signature analysis by CF-GC-IRMS (Continuous Flow Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry). In order to obtain a map facilitating the identification of the different methane sources in the background air at regional scale, the mapping of isotopic signature of methane together with its concentration is a useful tool to obtain fast and direct information that will contribute to the knowledge of methane transport at the regional scale and

  13. Evidence of climatic effects on soil, vegetation and landform in temperate forests of south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Assaf; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick; Sheridan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Water and radiation are unevenly distributed across the landscape due to variations in topography, which in turn causes water availability differences on the terrain according to elevation and aspect orientation. These differences in water availability can cause differential distribution of vegetation types and indirectly influence the development of soil and even landform, as expressed in hillslope asymmetry. While most of the research on the effects of climate on the vegetation and soil development and landscape evolution has been concentrated in drier semi-arid areas, temperate forested areas has been poorly studied, particularly in South Eastern Australia. This study uses soil profile descriptions and data on soil depth and landform across climatic gradients to explore the degrees to which coevolution of vegetation, soils and landform are controlled by radiative forcing and rainfall. Soil depth measurements were made on polar and equatorial facing hillslopes located at 3 sites along a climatic gradient (mean annual rainfall between 700 - 1800 mm yr-1) in the Victorian Highlands, where forest types range from dry open woodland to closed temperate rainforest. Profile descriptions were taken from soil pits dag on planar hillslopes (50 m from ridge), and samples were taken from each horizon for physical and chemical properties analysis. Hillslope asymmetry in different precipitation regimes of the study region was quantified from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Significant vegetation differences between aspects were noted in lower and intermediate rainfall sites, where polar facing aspects expressed higher overall biomass than the drier equatorial slope. Within the study domain, soil depth was strongly correlated with forest type and above ground biomass. Soil depths and chemical properties varied between topographic aspects and along the precipitation gradient, where wetter conditions facilitate deeper and more weathered soils. Furthermore, soil depths showed

  14. Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the south-eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, P.J.; Best, G.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Hornberger, G.M.; Meyer, J.L.; Robinson, P.J.; Stenberg, J.R.; Turner, R.E.; Vera-Herrera, F.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4??C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought. The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  15. Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater Ecosystems of the South-Eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Best, G. Ronnie; Coutant, Charles C.; Hornberger, George M.; Meyer, Judy L.; Robinson, Peter J.; Stenberg, John R.; Turner, R. Eugene; Vera-Herrera, Francisco; Wetzel, Robert G.

    1997-06-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4°C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought.The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  16. Composition and structure of the molluscan assemblage associated with a Cymodocea nodosa bed in south-eastern Spain: seasonal and diel variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, Pablo; Urra, Javier; Rueda, José L.; Salas, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    The molluscan taxocoenosis associated with a Cymodocea nodosa seagrass bed was studied throughout 1 year in Genoveses Bay, in the MPA "Parque Natural Cabo de Gata-Níjar" (south-eastern Spain). A total of 64,824 individuals were collected and 54 species identified. The molluscan fauna was mainly composed of gastropods (99.56% of individuals, 43 spp.). The families Rissoidae (72.98%, 11 spp.) and Trochidae (16.93%, 7 spp.) were the most abundant and diversified in terms of number of species. Rissoa monodonta (47.1% dominance), Rissoa membranacea (25.1%) and Gibbula leucophaea (11.6%) proved the top dominant species in both diurnal and nocturnal samples. Bivalves (0.41%, 10 species) and cephalopods (0.03%, 1 species) represented only a low percentage of the molluscan taxocoenosis. The molluscan assemblage was mainly composed of species with a wide geographical distribution in Europe, followed by strictly Mediterranean species. The abundance was significantly higher in the cold (December, March) than in the warm months (June, July). Species richness ( S) was higher in nocturnal than in diurnal samples, reaching maximal values in diurnal samples of March and June. Shannon-Wiener diversity ( H') values were generally higher in nocturnal samples than in diurnal ones, displaying minimum values in December and June, respectively. Evenness was similar in diurnal and nocturnal samples, with maximum values in July in both groups. S and H' were also significantly different between diurnal and nocturnal samples. Multivariate analyses based on both qualitative and quantitative data showed a significant seasonal and diel variation. Diel changes revealed to be more distinct than seasonal ones.

  17. Using Chironomid-Based Transfer Function and Stable Isotopes for Reconstructing Past Climate in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J.; Shulmeister, J.; Woodward, C.

    2014-12-01

    A transfer-function based on chironomids was created to reconstruct past summer temperatures from a training set comprised of 33 south eastern Australian lakes. Statistical analyses show that mean February temperature (MFT) is the most robust and independent variable explaining chironomid species variability. The best MFT transfer function was a partial least squares (PLS) model with a coefficient of determination (r2Jackknifed) of 0.69, a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.33˚C, and maximum bias of 2.15°C. The transfer function was tested by applying it to a Late Glacial to Holocene record from Blue Lake, New South Wales using published data. The reconstruction displays an overall pattern very similar to the Milankovitch driven summer insolation curve for 30°S and to the chironomid based summer temperature reconstruction from Eagle Tarn, Tasmania (Rees and Cwynar 2010) suggesting that the model is robust. The transfer function was also applied to reconstruct the Last Glacial Maxium (LGM) summer temperature from Welsby Lagoon, North Stradbroke Island (Queensland). Preliminary results show a c. 4.2~8.6˚C of cooling in summer temperatures during the LGM from south east Australia. Stable oxygen and deuterium isotope composition (δ18O and δD) of the chitnous subfossil head capsules from Australian chironomids were also measured to explore the opportunity developing them as an independent temperature proxy. This is the first application of this technique in the Southern Hemisphere. The modern range of chironomid δ18O values were measured based on the same 33 lakes sampled for the transfer function. For these lakes, head capsules of single genera were picked to avoid complications from 'vital effects'. The relationship of chironomid δ18O to modern lake temperatures has been investigated. Deuterium (δD) on the head capsules has been measured concurrently and the relationship to climate and environment will be explored based on the latest available

  18. New drilling of the early Aptian OAE1a: the Cau core (Prebetic Zone, south-eastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandro Ruiz-Ortiz, Pedro; Castro, José Manuel; de Gea, Ginés Alfonso; Jarvis, Ian; Molina, José Miguel; Nieto, Luis Miguel; Pancost, Richard David; Quijano, María Luisa; Reolid, Matías; Skelton, Peter William; Jürg Weissert, Helmut

    2016-08-01

    The Cretaceous was punctuated by several episodes of accelerated global change, defined as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs), that reflect abrupt changes in global carbon cycling. The Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE1a; 120 Ma) represents an excellent example, recorded in all major ocean basins, and associated with massive burial of organic matter in marine sediments. The OAE1a is concomitant with the "nannoconid crisis", which is characterized by a major biotic turnover, and a widespread demise of carbonate platforms. Many studies have been published over the last decades on OAE1a's from different sections in the world, and provide a detailed C-isotope stratigraphy for the event. Nevertheless, new high-resolution studies across the event are essential to shed light on the precise timing and rates of the multiple environmental and biotic changes that occurred during this critical period of Earth history. Here we present a new drill core recovering an Aptian section spanning the OAE1a in southern Spain. The so-called Cau section was drilled in the last quarter of 2015. The Cau section is located in the easternmost part of the Prebetic Zone (Betic Cordillera), which represents platform deposits of the southern Iberian palaeomargin. The lower Aptian deposits of the Cau section belong to a hemipelagic unit (Almadich Formation), deposited in a highly subsident sector of the distal parts of the Prebetic Platform. Previous work on the early Aptian of the Cau succession has focused on stratigraphy, bioevents, C-isotope stratigraphy, and organic and elemental geochemistry. A more recent study based on biomarkers has presented a detailed record of the pCO2 evolution across the OAE1a (Naafs et al., 2016). All these studies reveal that the Cau section represents an excellent site to further investigate the OAE1a, based on its unusually high sedimentation rate and stratigraphic continuity, the quality and preservation of fossils, and the well-expressed geochemical signatures.

  19. Black carbon aerosols over an urban area in south-eastern Spain: Changes detected after the 2008 economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Foyo, I.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-11-01

    Continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) concentrations performed at Granada, an urban location in southeast Spain, using a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer from December 2005 to November 2008, are analysed and discussed here. The daily mean BC concentrations showed considerable day-to-day variations and were found to vary from low values of 0.5 μg m -3 to high values of 8.6 μg m -3, with overall mean and standard deviation of 3.0 ± 1.5 μg m -3. The annual mean BC concentrations were similar during 2006 and 2007 (3.2 ± 1.4 μg m -3 and 3.1 ± 1.6 μg m -3, respectively), but decreased by about 16-18% to 2.6 ± 1.4 μg m -3 in 2008. This reduction is not only observed in the mean value, but also in the median, third and first quartiles. A Mann-Whitney test at 0.05 significance level confirms that the BC concentration difference between 2006 and 2007 is statistically no significant while the BC concentration in 2008 tends to be less than that in 2006-2007. Analysis of meteorological conditions suggested that although the day-to-day variations in BC concentrations were driven mostly by meteorology, the reduction in the use of fossil fuels due to economic slowdown contributed significantly to the observed decrease in BC concentrations in 2008. Under conditions dominated by local source emissions, the effect of the economic crisis on BC concentration was more pronounced. For the three analysed years, BC concentrations obtained during winter were higher than those measured during summer, probably due to increased emissions from domestic heating and less intense vertical mixing in winter season, which lead to the confinement of the BC particles near the surface. The monthly mean BC concentrations were lower in 2008 than in 2006-2007 for almost every month of the year. In all years BC concentrations exhibited a clear diurnal pattern, with two maxima and two minima within a day. There were no differences among the daily patterns for 2006, 2007 and 2008 except for

  20. Climate variability on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau since the Lateglacial based on a multiproxy approach from Lake Naleng - comparing pollen and non-pollen signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Stephan; Zhang, Chengjun; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Mischke, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    A multi-proxy Lateglacial environmental record is described from Lake Naleng (31.10°N; 99.75°E, 4200 m above sea level), situated on south-eastern Tibetan Plateau to gain deeper insights into the hydrological and palaeoclimate development since 17.7 cal ka BP. Palynological reconstructions of variations in mean annual precipitation (MAP) and temperature (MAT), sedimentological data and sediment chemistry including weathering indicators provide a multi-faceted picture of local and regional environmental changes since the Lateglacial. Principal component analyses of all parameters provide information on interrelationships between each parameters, which help to evaluate their traceability to temperature and precipitation and to estimate their usability as proxy indicators for local and or regional variations. During the Lateglacial from 17.7 to 14.0 cal ka BP Lake Naleng experienced cold and dry climate conditions with low biological productivity and supply of unaltered fine-grained material due to the high supply of glacier milk. During the second half of the Lateglacial, climate conditions changed abruptly: increases in MAT (from -4 to -2.2 °C) and MAP (from 500 mm to 820 mm) between 14.0 and 13.0 cal ka BP indicate a climate amelioration. This time interval can be correlated to the Bølling/Allerød (B/A) warming period in the North Atlantic region and is followed by the Younger Dryas cold reversal indicated by abrupt decreases of MAT (from -2.2 to -5 °C) and MAP (from 820 to 650 mm). The onset of the Holocene at about 11.5 cal ka BP is indicated by rises in reconstructed MAT (from -5 to about -0.3 °C) and MAP (from 600 mm to 950 mm), which led to an increased supply of weathered material and higher biological productivity. Between 5.0 and 3.0 cal ka BP, MAT increases to about 0.2 °C and MAP rises to maximum values of about 1000 mm, followed by slightly decreasing MAT and MAP between 3.0 and 0 cal ka BP. The biogeochemical parameters (total organic carbon

  1. Geochemical evidence for Holocene millennial-scale climatic and environmental changes in the south-eastern Mu Us Desert, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Jin, Heling; Sun, Liangying; Sun, Zhong; Zhao, Shuang

    2015-10-01

    Deserts and sandylands that are located in the semi-arid and arid regions in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are usually regarded as environmentally sensitive change belts which respond to global climatic change. In northern China, activation or immobilization of sand dunes is mainly influenced by humid and dry variation and is related to stronger or weaker Asian monsoons. In this paper, the history of Holocene millennial-scale climatic and environmental change is reconstructed by the systematic analysis of the geochemical element contents and parameters, along with the OSL and 14C chronologies, from the different lithologies of the palaeosol-aeolian sand sequence in the south-eastern Mu Us Desert, northern China. Our results indicate that the region was dominated by a dry climate with intensive aeolian activity before 7.2 ka BP, and there was an optimal humid climate and fixed desert in 7.2-4.6 ka. Afterwards, the dune fields became mobile again as the effective humidity declined. Additionally, six dry events were discovered with times of ~7.2, 7.0-6.8, 6.6-5.7, 4.6-4.1, 3.7-3.5, and 3.3-2.5 ka, which were not only coincident with the intervals of millennial-scale weaker Asian summer monsoons, but also accordant with the cold events evidenced in the ice cores and deep-sea deposits of the high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. In general, the Holocene climatic and environmental changes had the characteristics of the "monsoonal mode" and "abrupt millennial-scale oscillation" in the Mu Us Desert.

  2. Impact of climate change and water use policies on hydropower potential in the south-eastern Alpine region.

    PubMed

    Majone, Bruno; Villa, Francesca; Deidda, Roberto; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is expected to cause alterations of streamflow regimes in the Alpine region, with possible relevant consequences for several socio-economic sectors including hydropower production. The impact of climate change on water resources and hydropower production is evaluated with reference to the Noce catchment, which is located in the Southeastern Alps, Italy. Projected changes of precipitation and temperature, derived from an ensemble of 4 climate model (CM) runs for the period 2040-2070 under the SRES A1B emission scenario, have been downscaled and bias corrected before using them as climatic forcing in a hydrological model. Projections indicate an increase of the mean temperature of the catchment in the range 2-4K, depending on the climate model used. Projections of precipitation indicate an increase of annual precipitation in the range between 2% and 6% with larger changes in winter and autumn. Hydrological simulations show an increase of water yield during the period 2040-2070 with respect to 1970-2000. Furthermore, a transition from glacio-nival to nival regime is projected for the catchment. Hydrological regime is expected to change as a consequence of less winter precipitation falling as snow and anticipated melting in spring, with the runoff peak decreasing in intensity and anticipating from July to June. Changes in water availability reflect in the Technical Hydropower Potential (THP) of the catchment, with larger changes projected for the hydropower plants located at the highest altitudes. Finally, the impacts on THP of water use policies such as the introduction of prescriptions for minimum ecological flow (MEF) have been analyzed. Simulations indicate that in the lower part of the catchment reduction of the hydropower production due to MEF releases from the storage reservoirs counterbalances the benefits associated to the projected increases of inflows as foreseen by simulations driven only by climate change. PMID:25980972

  3. Climate change vulnerability assessments as catalysts for social learning: four case studies in south-eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2012-01-01

    Technical assessments of vulnerability and/or risk are increasingly being undertaken to assess the impacts of climate change. Underlying this is the belief that they will bring clarity to questions regarding the scale of institutional investments required, plausible adaptation policies and measures, and the timing of their implementation. Despite the perceived importance of technical assessments in 'evidence-based' decision environments, assessments cannot be undertaken independent of values and politics, nor are they capable of eliminating the uncertainty that clouds decision-making on climate adaptation As such, assessments can trigger as many questions as they answer, leaving practitioners and stakeholders to question their value. This paper explores the value of vulnerability/risk assessments in climate change adaptation planning processes as a catalyst for learning in four case studies in Southeastern Australia. Data were collected using qualitative interviews with stakeholders involved in the assessments and analysed using a social learning framework. This analysis revealed that detailed and tangible strategies or actions often do not emerge directly from technical assessments. However, it also revealed that the assessments became important platforms for social learning. In providing these platforms, assessments present opportunities to question initial assumptions, explore multiple framings of an issue, generate new information, and galvanise support for collective actions. This study highlights the need for more explicit recognition and understanding of the important role social learning plays in climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning more broadly.

  4. Coevolution of soil and vegetation in the South Eastern Australian uplands with variable climate and fire regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Assaf; Petter, Nyman; Patrick, Lane; Gary, Sheridan

    2016-04-01

    The south east Australian forested uplands are characterized by complex and inter-correlated spatial patterns in forest types, soil depths and fire regimes, even within areas with similar sedimentary geology and catenary position. The ecohydrology of these system-state combinations varies markedly, and is difficult to predict. Here we present preliminary results from a soil and vegetation co-evolutionary framework that represents the key feedbacks that have resulted in the current quasi-equilibrium system states of standing biomass, soil depth and fire frequency. The model is based on a modification of an existing mechanistic model, and includes an ecohydrological engine that drives a vegetation dynamics and a geomorphic submodels. Five sites with similar parent material and slope along a rainfall gradient and opposing aspects were chosen to test the model outputs: soil depth and above-ground biomass. In three of the sites, microclimate conditions were extensively monitored in a clear ridge-top (Open), and North and South facing aspects. The data was used to calibrate and test the ecohydrology modelling according to landscape position. Geomorphic processes that control soil depth were modeled using existing transport functions which varied with climate and forest type, and fire regime was set to be a function of biomass state and water deficit. In the next step, the model will have the potential to be incorporated into a 2D landscape evolution model in order to route sediment and water in a dynamic landscape. Using this model allows us to explore how, and in what rate, did each of the different systems evolve into their current state, and what is the unique and combined part of climate and fire regimes in the coevolution process, and predict the response of the current systems to change in a changing climate.

  5. Lateglacial and Holocene climatic changes in south-eastern Patagonia inferred from carbonate isotope records of Laguna Potrok Aike (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlerich, M.; Mayr, C.; Gussone, N.; Hahn, A.; Hölzl, S.; Lücke, A.; Ohlendorf, C.; Rummel, S.; Teichert, B. M. A.; Zolitschka, B.

    2015-04-01

    First results of strontium, calcium, carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of bulk carbonates from a 106 m long sediment record of Laguna Potrok Aike, located in southern Patagonia are presented. Morphological and isotopic investigations of μm-sized carbonate crystals in the sediment reveal an endogenic origin for the entire Holocene. During this time period the calcium carbonate record of Laguna Potrok Aike turned out to be most likely ikaite-derived. As ikaite precipitation in nature has only been observed in a narrow temperature window between 0 and 7 °C, the respective carbonate oxygen isotope ratios serve as a proxy of hydrological variations rather than of palaeotemperatures. We suggest that oxygen isotope ratios are sensitive to changes of the lake water balance induced by intensity variations of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies and discuss the role of this wind belt as a driver for climate change in southern South America. In combination with other proxy records the evolution of westerly wind intensities is reconstructed. Our data suggest that weak SHW prevailed during the Lateglacial and the early Holocene, interrupted by an interval with strengthened Westerlies between 13.4 and 11.3 ka cal BP. Wind strength increased at 9.2 ka cal BP and significantly intensified until 7.0 ka cal BP. Subsequently, the wind intensity diminished and stabilised to conditions similar to present day after a period of reduced evaporation during the "Little Ice Age". Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr ratio) were identified as a potential lake-level indicator and point to a lowering from overflow conditions during the Glacial (∼17 ka cal BP) to lowest lake levels around 8 ka cal BP. Thereafter the strontium isotope curve resembles the lake-level curve which is stepwise rising until the "Little Ice Age". The variability of the Ca isotope composition of the sediment reflects changes in the Ca budget of the lake, indicating higher degrees of Ca utilisation during the period with

  6. Prospects for maize production in Spain under climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, A.; Minguez, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    Agricultural productivity and water resources may be affected by global climate change. Three global climate models (GCMs) and the CERES-maize crop model were used to explore the potential impacts of climate change on maize (Zea mays L.) production in Spain. This study was carried out in five regions that include the largest areas of Spain where maize is grown as a high input crop. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the physiological effects of CO{sub 2} on the crop, the simulations under the present management practices suggest that yields are likely to decrease in the all production areas. This is due to a shortening of the crop growth duration as temperatures increase. Finally, this study evaluated changes in crop management that may represent the adaptation of farmers to changing climate conditions. Adaptation strategies based on earlier sowing dates or choice of hybrids with a longer crop growth duration compensated for climate change impacts only in two regions, but not in the main maize-growing areas of central Spain. The high production costs of this crop and the limited water available for irrigation may force maize production to be abandoned in some areas, especially in Central Spain.

  7. Effects of climate variation on viticulture in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Isabel; Nieves Lorenzo, M.; Taboada, Juan J.; Ramos, Alexandre M.

    2015-04-01

    Droughts, floods and extreme weather events (heat-waves, floods and droughts) may cause higher losses to the primary sector. The crops are very dependent on meteorological conditions. In particular, the agricultural sector needs climatic and seasonal forecast that anticipates variations in crop production. Changes in climate could alter crop distribution, and policy-makers working in areas related to climate change should learn about the impact of climate change on crop yields. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of climate variation on Spanish viticulture. Spain remains the country with the largest area of vineyards of the European Union and the world. The vine is the third extension of cultivation in Spanish, after cereals and olives. The knowledge on influence of changes in temperature and rainfall in the actual context of climate change on grape of wine productivity is necessary to elaborate appropriate adaptation measures to the viticulture sector. The influence of main climate variability patterns on the grape of wine also has been analyzed. In particular, the main variability modes of the North Atlantic area (NAO, EA; EAWR and SCA) and the oscillation modes of the equatorial Pacific will be considered (SOI and NIÑO34). The choice of these modes was motivated by previous work where the influence of these modes on Iberian Peninsula was analyzed.

  8. Towards CONFINTEA VI: Lifelong Learning Advocacy in South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Anelia

    2007-01-01

    Adult learning is a field that has so far been neglected in education and training reforms in South Eastern European countries and territories but which is beginning to emerge as an important policy area. Further efforts are needed to foster national policy debate about the importance of lifelong learning (and adult education as a vital component…

  9. Portraits of Innovative Vocational Schools in South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldroyd, David, Ed.; Nielsen, Soren, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The reform of South Eastern European country vocational education and training (VET) systems has been underway for more than a decade. Initially major efforts focused on reforming the curricula of the vocational schools and training centres to align them better with the rapidly changing needs of the labour market and society. Later the focus moved…

  10. Climate variability and wildfire risk and occurrence in northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Codron, J. C.; Rasilla, D.; Diego, C.; Carracedo, V.

    2009-04-01

    In spite of their reputation of wetness, wildfires are a frequent event in Cantabria (Northern Spain), but their seasonality does not match the typical warm season maximum generalized in most of the Iberian Peninsula. They occur at the end of the winter and the beginning of the spring (January to March), being mostly anthropogenically triggered due to the necessity of preparing pastures in the uplands. However, catastrophic episodes of generalized burning are controlled by different atmospheric mechanisms, namely the occurrence of "Suradas", a downslope windstorms which combines high winds speeds and low humidities, and long periods of drought in late fall and winter. This contribution analyzes long term trends (1961 onwards) of several climatic variables during the highest wildfire risk period in order to assess to what extent the occurrence of wildfires may be linked to the recent climatic variability. Raw meteorological values of temperature, humidity, wind speed and precipitation are transformed into a well-known meteorological fire weather index, the Canadian Forest Fire Index (FWI). Besides, monthly values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index we used to assess the spatial and temporal magnitude and intensity of droughts. Our results show that the regional climate has become warmer and drier, due to the combined effects of increases in temperatures, sunshine duration, and the decrease in relative humidity and precipitation, variables that are likely to play an important role in drought. Unknown in the 60s, 70s and most of the 80s, drought has become a relatively frequent phenomenon during the last two decades, and, in fact, the two most extreme episodes of drought at century scale, during 1989-1990 and 1993, occur in the 90. However, both the frequency and the intensity of "Suradas" have reduced, and consequently, the high fire risk episodes are now less frequent, but their absolute maximum values remain unchanged. Those regional climate trends are strongly

  11. The south-eastern Europe winter precipitation variability in relation to the North Atlantic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Wu, Renguang

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) and the winter precipitation of south-eastern Europe is investigated and possible changes of this relationship in the past are explored, as such changes may be of significant importance for understanding the impacts of global warming on regional climate. The data used involve observational winter precipitation of 54 stations for the period 1959-2000 and the University of Delaware (UDel) gridded global precipitation, together with the NOAA Extended Reconstruction SST with 2.0° × 2.0° resolution and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. The study focuses on interannual variations and a harmonic analysis is applied to the time series to exclude possible contamination of interannual relationship by interdecadal changes. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis on winter precipitation data shows that the first EOF, explaining about 44% of interannual variability, indicates a uniform behavior over the whole examined area and is highly correlated with the tropical North Atlantic SST anomalies with a time lead reaching up to two seasons. The observed relationship between tropical North Atlantic SST and south-eastern Europe winter precipitation can be attributed to a Rossby wave type response to tropical SST anomalies featuring a wave pattern from western tropical Atlantic to Europe.

  12. Lignin oxidation product and carbohydrate composition of plant tissues from the south-eastern united states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberts, James J.; Price, Mary T.; Lewis, Sharon

    1991-09-01

    Twenty-one samples of woody and non-woody angiosperm and gymnosperm tissue from plants dominant in south-eastern U.S. coastal ecosystems were analysed for the distribution of CuO oxidation products and neutral monosaccharides derived from acid hydrolysis of the tissues. Phenolic oxidation products gave the same general distributions as reported for plant species in the Pacific north-west, Buzzards Bay, MA, and the western Gulf of Mexico regions of the U.S. However, monosaccharides derived from these plants had generally lower total yields and wider ranges of weight % distributions than the plants from the other regions. Thus, the phenolic oxidation products appear to be a valid indicator of terrestrial carbon source terms across a wide geographical and climatic area; however, neutral monosaccharide distributions must be used with caution when determining source term.

  13. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  14. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  15. Spain.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  16. A warm thermal enclave in the late Pleistocene of the south-eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Russell, Dale A; Rich, Fredrick J; Schneider, Vincent; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    2009-05-01

    Physical and biological evidence supports the probable existence of an enclave of relatively warm climate located between the Southern Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean in the United States during the Last Glacial Maximum. The region supported a mosaic of forest and prairie habitats inhabited by a "Floridian" ice-age biota. Plant and vertebrate remains suggest an ecological gradient towards Cape Hatteras (35 degreesN) wherein forests tended to replace prairies, and browsing proboscideans tended to replace grazing proboscideans. Beyond 35 degreesN, warm waters of the Gulf Stream were deflected towards the central Atlantic, and a cold-facies biota replaced "Floridian" biota on the Atlantic coastal plain. Because of niche diversity and relatively benign climate, biodiversity may have been greater in the south-eastern thermal enclave than in other unglaciated areas of North America. However, the impact of terminal Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions may also have been shorter and more severe in the enclave than further north. A comparison with biotic changes that occurred in North America approximately 55 million years (ma) ago at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum suggests that similar processes of change took place under both ice-house and greenhouse climates. PMID:19391200

  17. Climatic zoning for the calculation of the thermal demand of buildings in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Pulido, Elena; Ruíz, Antonio; López, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports on a methodology to assess the climatic severity of a particular geographic region as compared to specific information available in the current regulations. The viability for each of the 387 municipalities in the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) is analysed, making a distinction between those with reliable climate reports and those for which no such information is available. In the case study, although the weather conditions in Extremadura are quite homogeneous according to the Spanish Technical Building Code (STBC 2015) classification and most areas are associated to zone C4 (soft winters and hot summers), the southern area in the region is associated to zone D1, similar to the north of Spain, where winters and summers are cool, which does not coincide with the actual climate in the south of Extremadura. The general climatic homogeneity in Extremadura was also highlighted with the new procedure, predominating zone C4, but unexpected or unreal climatic zoning was not generated, giving place to a consistent spatial distribution of zones throughout the region. Consequently, the proposed method allows a more accurate climatic zoning of any region in agreement with the Spanish legislation on energy efficiency in buildings, which would enhance the setting of thermal demand rates according to the actual climatic characterisation of the area in which a particular municipality is located.

  18. Performance of a multi-RCM ensemble for South Eastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carril, A. F.; Menéndez, C. G.; Remedio, A. R. C.; Robledo, F.; Sörensson, A.; Tencer, B.; Boulanger, J.-P.; de Castro, M.; Jacob, D.; Le Treut, H.; Li, L. Z. X.; Penalba, O.; Pfeifer, S.; Rusticucci, M.; Salio, P.; Samuelsson, P.; Sanchez, E.; Zaninelli, P.

    2012-12-01

    The ability of four regional climate models to reproduce the present-day South American climate is examined with emphasis on La Plata Basin. Models were integrated for the period 1991-2000 with initial and lateral boundary conditions from ERA-40 Reanalysis. The ensemble sea level pressure, maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation are evaluated in terms of seasonal means and extreme indices based on a percentile approach. Dispersion among the individual models and uncertainties when comparing the ensemble mean with different climatologies are also discussed. The ensemble mean is warmer than the observations in South Eastern South America (SESA), especially for minimum winter temperatures with errors increasing in magnitude towards the tails of the distributions. The ensemble mean reproduces the broad spatial pattern of precipitation, but overestimates the convective precipitation in the tropics and the orographic precipitation along the Andes and over the Brazilian Highlands, and underestimates the precipitation near the monsoon core region. The models overestimate the number of wet days and underestimate the daily intensity of rainfall for both seasons suggesting a premature triggering of convection. The skill of models to simulate the intensity of convective precipitation in summer in SESA and the variability associated with heavy precipitation events (the upper quartile daily precipitation) is far from satisfactory. Owing to the sparseness of the observing network, ensemble and observations uncertainties in seasonal means are comparable for some regions and seasons.

  19. Vegetation structure in cerrado physiognomies in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Batalha, M A; Mantovani, W; de Mesquita Júnior, H N

    2001-08-01

    We studied three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado, a savanna woodland; cerrado sensu stricto, a woodland; and cerradão, a tall woodland) in a reserve with 1,225 ha, in Santa Rita do Passa-Quatro (21 degrees 36-38'S and 47 degrees 36-39'W), São Paulo State, South-eastern Brazil, to compare plant communities structure. As descriptors of the vegetation structure, we used richness, density, basal area, cylindrical volume, and diversity. Ten 40 m2 quadrats were placed randomly in each physiognomy, in which we sampled the woody plants with stem diameter equal or larger than 1 cm (woody component), and ten 2.5 m2 quadrats, in which we sampled the woody plants with stem diameter smaller than 1 cm and all the non-woody individuals (herbaceous component). In the woody component, we found significant differences among the physiognomies for richness, density and cylindrical volume. Cylindrical volume increased from campo cerrado to cerradão, but richness and density were higher in cerrado sensu stricto. In the herbaceous component, we detected differences for all variables, which were higher in the savanna physiognomies, campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, than in the forest physiognomy, cerradão. Cylindrical volume was the best variable to distinguish the physiognomies. Floristic similarity followed the campo cerrado-cerrado sensu stricto-cerradão gradient, and beta diversity was higher in the herbaceous component. PMID:11706576

  20. Pathways to mental healthcare in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken; Chen-Wilson, Josephine; Oyebode, Femi; Muomah, Rosemary Chizobam; Igboaka, Anulika

    2016-10-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional and faith healers provide competing services alongside biomedical professionals. This may be associated with delays in reaching specialised mental health services, and hence with longer duration of untreated illness. As first line care constitutes a crucial stage in accessing of psychiatric care, investigating pathways to mental healthcare can highlight help-seeking choices. This study explored the pathways to care for mental illness preferred by a non-clinical sample of the population in south-eastern Nigeria. Multistage sampling was used to select participants (N = 706) who completed questionnaires on help-seeking. Results showed a significant preference for biomedical (90.8%) compared to spiritual (57.8%) and traditional (33.2%) pathways. Higher education predicted preference for the biomedical model, while low education was associated with traditional and spiritual pathways. Protestants preferred the spiritual pathway more than did Catholics. The use of biomedical care is potentially undermined by poor mental health infrastructure, a lack of fit between the culture of biomedical care and the deep-seated cultural/religious worldviews of the people, stigma surrounding mental illness, and the likelihood of a social desirability bias in responses. A complementary model of care is proposed. PMID:27460986

  1. High mortality from snakebite in south-eastern Senegal.

    PubMed

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over 24 years, from 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were caused by snakebite, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged > or = 1 year, 0.9% (26/2880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of total deaths by accidents. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspidae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%). PMID:11579888

  2. Impact of climate change on olive crop flowering at southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabaldón-Leal, Clara; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; de la Rosa, Raúl; León, Lorenzo; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Belaj, Angjelina; Lorite, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Andalusia region (Southern Spain) is the largest olive oil producer in the world with 40% of the total production (1.1millions tons; FAOSTAT, 2013). Predicting flowering dates of olive under future climate conditions has a critical importance as flowering is a critical stage for olive as heat and water stresses during this period have a significant impact on final olive oil yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the olive flowering dates under future climate conditions. Climate data for the future period was obtained from the ENSEMBLES European Project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/) with a bias correction in temperature and precipitation with regard with the SPAIN02 dataset (Herrera et al., 2012) (ENS-SP). Flowering of ten different olive cultivars were evaluated under current and forced (greenhouse) climate conditions, applying the bias in temperatures comparing the current period (1981-2010) with the future period (2071-2100) to the current conditions in Cordoba (Andalusia, Spain). These observations allowed obtaining a flowering approach which was applied to the whole Andalusia region. The results showed an average advance in flowering dates about 16 days at the end of the 21st century. With these results different areas within Andalusia region were classified based on the vulnerability caused by the lack of chilling hours accumulation (coastal areas) or by high temperatures during flowering (north and northeast regions). This study has been supported by the project RTA2014-00030-00-00 funded by INIA and FEDER 2014-2020 "Programa Operativo de Crecimiento Inteligente" and IFAPA project AGR6126 from Junta de Andalucía, Spain. FAOSTAT (2013) Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations. Available at http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QD/E. Accessed 07 January 2016 Herrera S, Gutiérrez JM, Ancell R, Pons MR, Frías MD, Fernández J. 2012. Development and analysis of a 50-year high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset over Spain (Spain02

  3. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mynhardt, Samantha; Maree, Sarita; Pelser, Illona; Bennett, Nigel C; Bronner, Gary N; Wilson, John W; Bloomer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus) endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5-3 million years ago (Ma), habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity. PMID:26683828

  4. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes 'scale-up' to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five 'microgeographic regions' at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  5. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Ryan C.; Rowell, David M.; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes ‘scale-up’ to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five ‘microgeographic regions’ at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  6. Uranium-series disequilibrium dating of secondary uranium ore from the south Eastern Desert of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Y H

    2001-12-01

    The secondary uranium ore of Um Ara mining area, south Eastern Desert of Egypt, is composed mainly of uranophane and beta-uranophane. They occur in the oxidized zone as idiomorphic crystals filling cavities and as coatings on the fracture surfaces of the alkali-feldspar and albitized granites. The activity ratios 234U/238U and 230Th/234U of the secondary uranium ore and host rocks indicate that there were two main phases of uranium mobility in recent geological time. An earlier precipitation of uranium from solutions forming the secondary ore and a subsequent mobilization resulted in adsorption of uranium to the host granitic rocks. The 230Th/234U age of secondary uranium ore varies from (50 +/- 10) to (159 +/- 69/-45) ka whereas, the age of uranium adsorption to the rocks ranges from (18 +/- 6) to (38 +/- 5) ka. The time of secondary uranium ore precipitation can be attributed to the Saharan II pluvial period which prevailed in Egypt during humid oxygen isotope climatic stage 5. The later uranium mobility and subsequent adsorption by the rocks took place during Kubbaniyan and Nabtian pluvial periods that coincided with oxygen isotope stages 3 and 1, respectively. PMID:11761113

  7. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mynhardt, Samantha; Maree, Sarita; Pelser, Illona; Bennett, Nigel C.; Bronner, Gary N.; Wilson, John W.; Bloomer, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA) region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus) endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5–3 million years ago (Ma), habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity. PMID:26683828

  8. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  9. Downscaling local extreme temperature changes in south-eastern Australia from the CSIRO Mark2 GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Sascha

    1998-11-01

    Climate impact studies crucially rely on climate change information at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Since the most developed tools for estimating future climate change - the general circulation models (GCMs) - still operate on rather coarse spatial scales, their output has to be downscaled in order to provide the needed high resolution input for climate impact models.In this study, a perfect prognosis approach is employed to downscale daily local temperature extremes at several stations in south-eastern Australia from synoptic scale atmospheric circulation fields. The statistical model combines principal component analysis and linear multiple regression and is suitable to explain a considerable part of both short and long frequency variations of local temperature extremes. Using simulated and observed daily data the regional to local performance of the Mark2 GCM, developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), was validated over the Australian region. While the regional temperature extremes simulated under present-day climate conditions are in general agreement with the observed climate, there are highly significant differences on the local scale. The observed daily synoptic scale atmospheric circulation, however, is well reproduced by the GCM. This supports the idea of using these reliably simulated climatic parameters to estimate the changes in local temperature extremes under altered global climate conditions.The downscaling model was applied to synoptic scale atmospheric circulation fields generated by the CSIRO Mark2 GCM under 1×CO2 and 2×CO2 conditions. Compared to the extreme temperature changes simulated by the GCM directly, the downscaled variations are much weaker. Several sources of uncertainty might be causing these differences. Firstly, the statistical model is stationary. Therefore, it is not capable of including changes in the relationships between circulation and local temperature which are likely

  10. Intraplate earthquake swarm in Kouvola, south-eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedberg, I.; Uski, M.; Tiira, T.; Komminaho, K.; Korja, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Vyborg rapakivi batholith comprises an area of more than 20 000 km3 in south-eastern Finland and Russian Karelia. The 1.65-1.63 Ga old batholith intrudes Paleoproterozoic bedrock that was formed in the Svecofennian orogeny between 1.9 and 1.8 Ga. The batholiths area is known for shallow swarm type earthquake activity. The latest swarm has been occurring since December 1, 2011 in and around the town of Kouvola. More than 70 earthquakes, with magnitudes ranging from ML 0.4-2.8, have been recorded so far by the Finnish permanent seismic network. The swarm has been widely felt and reports on explosion- or thunder-like sounds accompanied by shaking of the ground are common. The felt effects and a strong Rg phase recorded by the nearest stations, at epicentral distances of 60-70 km, constrain the earthquake foci within the uppermost few kilometres of the crust. The events are concentrated around a major sub-vertical fault and contact zone traversing the batholith in NE- SW direction. Inspired by the ongoing activity, four off-line seismic stations have been installed in the source area on December 19-20, 2011. The central station is located close to the active fault segment, while the others are deployed within a radius of 9 km from it. The stations are equipped with three-component Trillium 120 PA broadband seismometers. The sampling rate is set to 250 Hz. The response to ground velocity is flat in the frequency band of 0.01-100 Hz. In this study, waveform data recorded by the off-line stations are used to improve the detection capability and hypocentre locations of the swarm events. Preliminary locations of the events are reanalysed using synthetic waveform-modelling of depth sensitive Rg phases and a high-precision relative location method. The relocated hypocentres are correlated with magnetic anomalies associated with tectonized lithological contacts within the batholiths. A composite fault plane solution is computed to constrain the source mechanism and the

  11. The challenge of climate change in Spain: Water resources, agriculture and land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Amelin, Elisa; Pindado, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    Climate change effects are becoming evident worldwide, but some water scarce regions present higher vulnerability. Spain, located in the Mediterranean region, is expected for instance to be highly vulnerable given its unbalanced distribution between water resources availability and existing demands. This article presents an introduction to the main threats of climate change mainly on water resources, but it also assesses effects in interlinked areas such as agriculture, soil and land management. Contents focus on measures and initiatives promoted by the central government and address efforts to establish multi-sectoral coordinating bodies, specific adaptation plans and measures for the different sectors. The article highlights some political aspects, such as the complexity of involved competent authorities in water and land management, the need to strengthen public participation and the conflicts arising from the defence of regional interests. It also makes a link to current EU policies; summarises foreseeable problems derived from climate change effects, and provides some recommendations in the different areas covered.

  12. Temperature sensitivity of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeer, Katharina; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2016-04-01

    How will convective precipitation intensities and patterns evolve in a warming climate on a regional to local scale? Studies on the scaling of precipitation intensities with temperature are used to test observational and climate model data against the hypothesis that the change of precipitation with temperature will essentially follow the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) equation, which corresponds to a rate of increase of the water holding capacity of the atmosphere by 6-7 % per Kelvin (CC rate). A growing number of studies in various regions and with varying approaches suggests that the overall picture of the temperature-precipitation relationship is heterogeneous, with scaling rates shearing off the CC rate in both upward and downward directions. In this study we investigate the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands of Austria (SEA) based on a dense rain gauge net of 188 stations, with sub-daily precipitation measurements since about 1990 used at 10-min resolution. Parts of the study region are European hot-spots for severe hailstorms and the region, which is in part densely populated and intensively cultivated, is generally vulnerable to climate extremes. Evidence on historical extremely heavy short-time and localized precipitation events of several hundred mm of rain in just a few hours, resulting in destructive flash flooding, underline these vulnerabilities. Heavy precipitation is driven by Mediterranean moisture advection, enhanced by the orographic lifting at the Alpine foothills, and hence trends in positive sea surface temperature anomalies might carry significant risk of amplifying future extreme precipitation events. In addition, observations from the highly instrumented subregion of south-eastern Styria indicate a strong and robust long-term warming trend in summer of about 0.7°C per decade over 1971-2015, concomitant with a significant increase in the annual number of heat days. The combination of these

  13. Climate change effects on soil organic carbon changes in agricultural lands of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvaro-Fuentes, J.; Easter, M.; Arrúe, J. L.; Cantero-Martínez, C.; Paustian, K.

    2012-04-01

    Climate is a key factor to explain changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) at regional scales. Experimental data have showed that spatial and temporal changes in soil temperature and moisture modify microbial activity and thus SOC decomposition. Furthermore, precipitation amount and distribution have a main impact on crop growth and residue production. According to predictions based on atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCM) for the next decades in the Mediterranean region, air temperature will significantly increase and precipitation decrease with a significant impact on SOC turnover. However, in agricultural systems, the study of the impacts of climate on SOC dynamics is a complex task since climate effects will be determined by both soil characteristics and management practices. The establishment of soil monitoring networks within a specific region is a recommended approach to study the interactive effects of climate, management and soil on SOC changes. However, in large areas, the establishment and maintenance of these networks can imply significant cost and time. A lower cost and time consuming approach can be the use of soil organic matter (SOM) models. The use of process based SOM models linked to spatial data through geographical information systems (GIS) permits to integrate the spatial variability of the parameters that control SOM dynamics. This approach can be appropriate for Spanish conditions where the complex orography results in a large range of local climates. Moreover, the large agricultural heterogeneity in terms of management systems could have a noteworthy impact on the effects of climate on SOC turnover in Spanish agroecosystems. Thus, in this study we used the Century model to analyse the impact of climate on SOC changes in a representative area of 40498 km2 located in northeast Spain. The spatial distribution of the different land use categories and their change over time was obtained from the European Corine database. Soil

  14. Spatio-temporal dynamics of maize yield water constraints under climate change in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have analyzed the impact of climate change on crop productivity, but comparing the performance of water management systems has rarely been explored. Because water supply and crop demand in agro-systems may be affected by global climate change in shaping the spatial patterns of agricultural production, we should evaluate how and where irrigation practices are effective in mitigating climate change effects. Here we have constructed simple, general models, based on biological mechanisms and a theoretical framework, which could be useful in explaining and predicting crop productivity dynamics. We have studied maize in irrigated and rain-fed systems at a provincial scale, from 1996 to 2009 in Spain, one of the most prominent "hot-spots" in future climate change projections. Our new approach allowed us to: (1) evaluate new structural properties such as the stability of crop yield dynamics, (2) detect nonlinear responses to climate change (thresholds and discontinuities), challenging the usual linear way of thinking, and (3) examine spatial patterns of yield losses due to water constraints and identify clusters of provinces that have been negatively affected by warming. We have reduced the uncertainty associated with climate change impacts on maize productivity by improving the understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors and providing a better spatial comprehension of the key processes. We have identified water stress and water management systems as being key causes of the yield gap, and detected vulnerable regions where efforts in research and policy should be prioritized in order to increase maize productivity. PMID:24878747

  15. Mammalian Faunas as Indicators of Environmental and Climatic Changes in Spain during the Pliocene-Quaternary Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montuire, Sophie

    1999-07-01

    The study of mammal communities provides useful knowledge of paleoenvironments and paleoclimates during the Quaternary Period, and better documentation about the main fossil sites is making this task easier. Paleoecological reconstructions of this study are based on (i) rodent evolution and species richness, (ii) the cenogram method, and (iii) methods for quantifying climatic parameters. These analyses applied to a Pliocene-Quaternary faunal sequence of Spain indicate that a climatic change occurred at the end of the Pliocene when considerable cooling led to the onset of the glacial-interglacial cycles. Subsequently, during the Quaternary Period, alternating environmental patterns occurred, with a rather open and arid environment during the cold phases that contrasts with a somewhat more closed and comparatively wet environment during warmer phases. These observations are generalized from Spain to the remainder of the continent, noting that climatic conditions were less harsh and more arid in Spain than elsewhere in Europe.

  16. Climate change impact on water resources - Example of an anthropized basin (Llobregat, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, P.-A.; Pouget, L.; Mc Ennis, S.; Guiu Carrio, R.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Escaler, I.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of climate change is one of the central topics of study by water agencies and companies. Indeed, the forecasted increase of atmospheric temperature may change the amount, frequency and intensity of precipitation and affect the hydrological cycle: runoff, infiltration, aquifer recharge, etc… Moreover, global change combining climate change but also land use and water demand changes, may cause very important impacts on water availability and quality. Global change scenarios in Spain describe a general trend towards increased temperature and water demand, and reduced precipitation as a result of its geographical situation and socio-economic characteristics. The European project WATER CHANGE (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program) aims to develop a modeling system to assess the Global Change impacts, and their associated uncertainties, on water availability for water supply and water use. Its objective is to help river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. This work presents the results obtained by applying the modelling system to the Llobregat river basin (Spain). This is an anthropized catchment of about 5000 km2, where water resources are used for different purposes, such as drinking water production, agriculture irrigation, industry and hydroelectric energy production. Based on future global change scenarios, the water resources system has been assessed in terms of water deficit and supply. A cost-benefit analysis has also been conducted in order to evaluate every realistic measure that could optimize and improve the system.

  17. 78 FR 2482 - Koch Industries, Inc.-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Texas South-Eastern Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Koch Industries, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Texas South-Eastern Railroad Company Koch Industries, Inc. (Koch), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption to acquire indirect control of Texas South-Eastern Railroad Co. (TSE), a Class III rail carrier. Koch...

  18. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park, South-Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Belda, A; Zaragozí, B; Belda, I; Martínez, Je; Seva, E

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to inventory and analyse the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park. In respect to traditional uses, 93 species reported by local informants were therapeutic, 27 food, 4 natural dyes and 13 handcrafts. We developed a methodology that allowed the location of individuals or vegetation communities with a specific popular use. We prepared a geographic information system (GIS) that included gender, family, scientific nomenclature and common names in Spanish and Catalan for each species. We also made a classification of 39 medicinal uses from ATC (Anatomical, Therapeutic, Chemical classification system). Labiatae (n=19), Compositae (n=9) and Leguminosae (n=6) were the families most represented among the plants used to different purposes in humans. Species with the most elevated cultural importance index (CI) values were Thymus vulgaris (CI=1.431), Rosmarinus officinalis (CI=1.415), Eryngium campestre (CI=1.325), Verbascum sinuatum (CI=1.106) and Sideritis angustifolia (CI=1.041). Thus, the collected plants with more therapeutic uses were: Lippia triphylla (12), Thymus vulgaris and Allium roseum (9) and Erygium campestre (8). The most repeated ATC uses were: G04 (urological use), D03 (treatment of wounds and ulcers) and R02 (throat diseases). These results were in a geographic map where each point represented an individual of any species. A database was created with the corresponding therapeutic uses. This application is useful for the identification of individuals and the selection of species for specific medicinal properties. In the end, knowledge of these useful plants may be interesting to revive the local economy and in some cases promote their cultivation. PMID:24146454

  19. Analysis of climate change scenarios in an olive orchard microcatchment in Spain using the model WIMMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Enrique; Aguilar, Cristina; José Polo, María; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    Olive orchards constitute traditional systems in the Mediterranean Basin. In Andalusia, Southern Spain, more than 1.5Mha are dedicated to olive crop land use, which represent a production of 1Mt of olive oil per year. This is a strategic economic sector with environmental and social relevance. In the context of climate change in Andalusia, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has highlighted that an increase of temperatures and rainfall intensities as well as the reduction of cumulated rainfall might be expected. This may mean serious detrimental economic and environmental risks associated to floods and the reduction of available water resources which would be convenient to quantify. The objective of this work is to analyse the rainfall-runoff relationships in an olive orchard catchment by the application of the distributed hydrological model WIMMED (Herrero et al., 2009) simulating the effects of climate change, with a special emphasis on extreme events. Firstly, the model was calibrated and validated with 9 maximum annual events of a datasets from 2005-2012 obtained in an olive orchard catchment in Spain (Taguas et al., 2010). In this stage, only the saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil moisture in saturation were adjusted after a sensitivity analysis where 68 simulations were carried out. A good agreement was obtained between observed and simulated hydrographs. The mean errors and the root mean square errors were 0.18 mm and 2.19 mm for the calibration and 0.18 and 1.94 mm, for the validation. Finally, the catchment response to the increase of intensity and temperature and the reduction of cumulated rainfall were simulated for the maximum event of the series. The results showed a rise of 11% of the runoff coefficient quantifying the possible impact of climate change. REFERENCES Herrero J, Polo M., Moñino A., Losada MA (2009). An energy balance snowmelt model in a Mediterranean site. J. Hydrol. 371, pp. 98-107 Taguas EV, Peña A, Ayuso JL, Yuan Y

  20. Unraveling fan-climate relationships: Milankovitch cyclicity in a Miocene alluvial fan (Teruel Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventra, D.; Abels, H. A.; Hilgen, F. J.; de Boer, P. L.

    2009-04-01

    The role of climate change in alluvial fan sedimentation is often evident in geomorphological studies dealing with Quaternary successions, but remains hard to assess in the pre-Quaternary stratigraphic record, for which an additional obstacle is represented by detailed chronologies difficult to established within coarse clastic systems. The Teruel Basin (eastern Spain) is an extensional trough whose main tectonic activity spanned from late Oligocene to Pliocene times. Permanent internal drainage and a Mediterranean semi-arid climate made the basin and its sedimentary signatures highly sensitive to climate fluctuations, especially in terms of hydrological balance. Recent studies have proved orbital control on the development of facies sequences from low-energy, basinal settings in Teruel. In particular, high-resolution chronological and paleoclimatic information has been derived by orbital tuning of mudflat to ephemeral lake deposits in the Prado area (Villastar), linking basic facies rhythms to alternating, relatively humid/arid phases paced mainly by climatic precession. Clastic lobes from a coeval alluvial fan distally interfinger with this reference section. Stratigraphic relationships show how fan sedimentation patterns were also influenced by climate cyclicity. Highest volumes of debris transfer towards the distal mudflat repeatedly coincide with relatively humid periods. Furthermore, distal to medial fan outcrops feature prominent rhythms of distinct, alternating coarse and fine clastic packages. Such a highly organized architecture, unusual in alluvial fan successions, points to the influence of a rhythmic forcing mechanism which might have been climate variability, as evidenced by the adjacent reference section. Rather than on processes of sediment transport basinwards, climate change would have acted on sediment production and availability at the source, within the fan catchment.

  1. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  2. Community Members' Interference and Conduct of University Distance Learning Examinations in South Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unamma, Anthony Odera

    2013-01-01

    This research work was aimed at determining the degree of community members' interference in the conduct of university distance learning examination in South Eastern Nigeria. It was also aimed at finding out the factors responsible for the community members' interference, the ways by which interference is effected, the consequences and the…

  3. Agricultural Extension in South-Eastern Europe: Issues of Transition and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daku, Lefter; Norton, George W.; Taylor, Daniel B.; Qenani-Petrela, Eivis

    2005-01-01

    Following the economic reforms in the early 90's, most of the south-eastern European countries (SEE) made efforts to establish agricultural extension services. However, a number of factors including tight governmental budgets, lack of experience, and the existence of vested interests have constrained the development of extension services. This…

  4. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  5. Influence of climate change predictions on snow in Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; María Perales, José; José Polo, María

    2015-04-01

    Snow is a basic component in Earth's surface energy balance. Its importance is greater in mountainous areas and therefore, its study is crucial to obtain conclusion about water resources over these areas. Moreover these regions are more vulnerable to climate variations. Sierra Nevada National Park (Southern Spain), with altitudes range from 2000 to 3500 m.a.s.l., is part of the global climate change observatories network and a clear example of snow regions in a semiarid environment. This work estimates the impact of climate change on snow dynamics and its influence on mountain hydrology in this area. Precipitation and temperature datasets from three different scenarios (A1B, A2, B1) proposed by the Fifth Assessment Report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were used as forcing meteorological sequences to simulate selected snow variables (snow water equivalent, daily snow cover area, annual number of days with snow and annual snowmelt and evaporation volumes). The associated results were compared for each scenario, and the snow behavior and evolution over the 2046-2100 periods were assessed. The results point to a higher decrease on snow cover extension, than those estimated for other snow variables. As expected, this variation is greater from the worst of the scenarios analyzed (A2). Furthermore, the comparison of the driving meteorological datasets throughout the reference period (1960-2000) with the real observations has allowed the introduction of another term of uncertainty in the estimations, not considered in a simple scenario analysis.

  6. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  7. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  8. Sensitivity of agro-environmental zones in Spain to global climatic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanwalleghem, T.; Guzmán, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Laguna, A.; Giraldez, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    Soil has a key role in the regulation of carbon, water and nutrient cycles. Traditionally, agricultural soil management was oriented towards optimizing productivity. Nowadays, mitigation of climate change effects and maintaining long-term soil quality are evenly important. Developing policy guidelines for best management practices need to be site-specific, given the large spatial variability of environmental conditions within the EU. Therefore, it is necessary to classify the different farming zones that are susceptible to soil degradation. Especially in Mediterranean areas, this variability and its susceptibility to degradation is higher than in other areas of the EU. The objective of this study is therefore to delineate current agro-environmental zones in Spain and to determine the effect of global climate change on this classification in the future. The final objective is to assist policy makers in scenario analysis with respect to soil conservation. Our classification scheme is based on soil, topography and climate (seasonal temperature and rainfall) variables. We calculated slope and elevation based on a SRTM-derived DEM, soil texture was extracted from the European Soil Database and seasonal mean, minimum and maximum precipitation and temperature data were gridded from publically available weather station data (Aemet). Global change scenarios are average downscaled ensemble predictions for the emission scenarios A2 and B2. The k-means method was used for classification of the 10 km x 10 km gridded variables. Using the before-mentioned input variables, the optimal number of agro-environmental zones we obtained is 8. The classification corresponds well with the observed distribution of farming typologies in Spain. The advantage of this method is that it is a simple, objective method which uses only readily available, public data. As such, its extrapolation to other countries of the EU is straightforward. Finally, it presents a tool for policy makers to assess

  9. Managing the impact of climate change on the hydrology of the Gallocanta Basin, NE-Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2010-12-01

    The endorheic Gallocanta Basin represents an environment highly sensitive to climate change. Over the past 60 years, the Laguna de Gallocanta, an ephemeral lake situated in the centre of the Gallocanta basin, experienced a sequence of wet and dry phases. The lake and its surrounding wetlands are one of only a few bird sanctuaries left in NE-Spain for grey cranes on their annual migration from Scandinavia to northern Africa. Understanding the impact of climate change on basin hydrology is therefore of utmost importance for the appropriate management of the bird sanctuary. Changes in lake level are only weakly linked to annual rainfall, but strongly to individual events, with reaction times from hours to months after rainfall. Individual extreme event intensities as well as magnitudes affect lake level through both groundwater and surface runoff. In this study, the characteristics and frequencies of daily, event, monthly and bi-monthly rainfall over the past 60 years were analysed to assess the role of past, current and future rainfall characteristics for the lake level and its fluctuations. The results revealed a clear link between increased frequencies of high magnitude rainfall and phases of water filling in the Laguna de Gallocanta. In the middle of the 20th century, the rainfall recharge of groundwater appears to have been more important for lake level, while more recently the frequency of high magnitude rainfall and surface runoff has emerged as the dominant variable. In the Gallocanta Basin, climate change and the distinct and continuing land use change since Spain joined the EU in 1986 have created an environment that is in a more or less constant state of transition. This highlights two challenges faced by researchers involved in developing water management tools for the Gallocanta Basin in particular, but also other endorheic basins with sensitive and rapidly changing environments. Hydrologists have to understand the processes and the spatial and temporal

  10. Applying Multimodel Ensemble from Regional Climate Models for Improving Runoff Projections on Semiarid Regions of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Galiano, S. G.; Olmos, P.; Giraldo Osorio, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    In the Mediterranean area, significant changes on temperature and precipitation are expected throughout the century. These trends could exacerbate the existing conditions in regions already vulnerable to climatic variability, reducing the water availability. Improving knowledge about plausible impacts of climate change on water cycle processes at basin scale, is an important step for building adaptive capacity to the impacts in this region, where severe water shortages are expected for the next decades. RCMs ensemble in combination with distributed hydrological models with few parameters, constitutes a valid and robust methodology to increase the reliability of climate and hydrological projections. For reaching this objective, a novel methodology for building Regional Climate Models (RCMs) ensembles of meteorological variables (rainfall an temperatures), was applied. RCMs ensembles are justified for increasing the reliability of climate and hydrological projections. The evaluation of RCMs goodness-of-fit to build the ensemble is based on empirical probability density functions (PDF) extracted from both RCMs dataset and a highly resolution gridded observational dataset, for the time period 1961-1990. The applied method is considering the seasonal and annual variability of the rainfall and temperatures. The RCMs ensembles constitute the input to a distributed hydrological model at basin scale, for assessing the runoff projections. The selected hydrological model is presenting few parameters in order to reduce the uncertainties involved. The study basin corresponds to a head basin of Segura River Basin, located in the South East of Spain. The impacts on runoff and its trend from observational dataset and climate projections, were assessed. Considering the control period 1961-1990, plausible significant decreases in runoff for the time period 2021-2050, were identified.

  11. Mesoscale climatic simulation of surface air temperature cooling by highly reflective greenhouses in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Campra, Pablo; Millstein, Dev

    2013-01-01

    A long-term local cooling trend in surface air temperature has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world, at the Province of Almeria, SE Spain, associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area. The availability of reliable long-term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, we have run a sensitivity experiment to simulate the impact of the observed surface albedo change on monthly and annual surface air temperatures. The model output showed a mean annual cooling of 0.25 °C associated with a 0.09 albedo increase, and a reduction of 22.8 W m(-2) of net incoming solar radiation at surface. Mean reduction of summer daily maximum temperatures was 0.49 °C, with the largest single-day decrease equal to 1.3 °C. WRF output was evaluated and compared with observations. A mean annual warm bias (MBE) of 0.42 °C was estimated. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.9) were found between modeled and observed values. This study has particular interest in the assessment of the potential for urban temperature cooling by cool roofs deployment projects, as well as in the evaluation of mesoscale climatic models performance. PMID:24074145

  12. Reconstruction of past climate variability in SE Spain between 14 and 8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budsky, Alexander; Scholz, Denis; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Christoph, Spötl; Gibert, Luis; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2016-04-01

    In comparison to the large climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene, Holocene climate only underwent minor changes. Nevertheless, cyclic climate changes also occurred during the Holocene. The Bond events, represented by the presence of cold, ice-bearing waters from the north of Iceland as far south as the latitude of Britain, occurred at a cyclicity of about 1500 a and were particularly pronounced during the Early Holocene. However, their climatic impact on the terrestrial realm was not consistent over Europe, in particular with respect to changes in precipitation. Here we present a precisely dated high-resolution flowstone record from Cueva Victoria, SE Spain, a site well suited to study the competing influence of the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea on the southern Iberian Peninsula. We sampled several flowstones with a thickness of up to 60 cm. 230Th/U-dating has shown that these deposits mainly formed during relatively warm climate intervals of the Middle and Late Pleistocene, i.e. interglacials and interstadials (Budsky et al., 2015; Gibert et al., 2016). Here we focus on a short (11 cm) flowstone sequence from the Holocene with a high temporal resolution (centennial for stable isotopes and annual for trace elements). The flowstone grew between 14 and ca. 8 ka b2k. The decreasing trend of the δ18O and δ13C values as well as of several trace elements between 12 and 11 ka b2k reflects an increase in temperature and precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene. In particular, Sr and Mg show a trend towards low and stable values. Subsequently, from 10.5 to 8 ka b2k, the δ13C values show a high variability (-11 to -4), whereas the δ18O values are rather stable (between -6 and -7). Maxima in δ13C are interpreted as drier conditions in response to Bond events. These events possibly led to a change of the atmospheric circulation, affecting the vegetation in SE Spain, which evolved towards an open C3 vegetation at ca. 8 ka b2k concomitant with drier conditions

  13. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture. PMID:26694490

  14. Impact of land cover changes and climate on the main airborne pollen types in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Mozo, Herminia; Oteros, Jose Antonio; Galán, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Airborne pollen concentrations strongly correlate with flowering intensity of wind-pollinated species growing at and around monitoring sites. The pollen spectrum, and the variations in its composition and concentrations, is influenced by climatic features and by available nutritional resources but it is also determined by land use and its changes. The first factor influence is well known on aerobiological researches but the impact of land cover changes has been scarcely studied until now. This paper reports on a study carried out in Southern Spain (Córdoba city) examining airborne pollen trends over a 15-year period and it explores the possible links both to changes in land use and to climate variations. The Seasonal-Trend Decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL) which decomposes long-term data series into smaller seasonal component patterns was applied. Trends were compared with recorded changes in land use at varying distances from the city in order to determine their possible influence on pollen-count variations. The influence of climate-related factors was determined by means of non-parametric correlation analysis. The STL method proved highly effective for extracting trend components from pollen time series, because their features vary widely and can change quickly in a short term. Results revealed mixed trends depending on the taxa and reflecting fluctuations in land cover and/or climate. A significant rising trend in Olea pollen counts was observed, attributable both to the increasing olive-growing area but also to changes in temperature and rainfall. Poaceae pollen concentrations also increased, due largely to an expansion of heterogeneous agricultural areas and to an increase in pollen season length positively influenced by rainfall and temperature. By contrast, the significant declining trend observed for pollen from ruderal taxa, such as Amaranthaceae, Rumex, Plantago and Urticaceae, may be linked to changes in urban planning strategies with a

  15. Long term carbon fluxes in south eastern U.S. pine ecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho, R. G.; Martin, T.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Sharp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Forests in the southeastern U.S. are a critical component of the national carbon balance storing a third of the total forest carbon (C) in conterminous USA. South eastern forests occupy 60% of the land area, with a large fraction dominated by the genus Pinus distributed in almost equal proportions of naturally-regenerated and planted stands. These stands often differ in structure (e.g., stem density, leaf area index (LAI)) and in the intensity with which they are managed (e.g. naturally-regenerated, older pine stands are often managed less intensively, with prescribed fire). We measured C fluxes using the eddy covariance approach (net ecosystem production, -NEP) in planted (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) and naturally-regenerated mixed stand of long leaf (Pinus palustris Mill) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) accompanied by biometric estimations of C balance. Measurements spanned more than a decade and included interannual climatic variability ranging from severe droughts (e.g. Palmer Drought severity index (PDSI) averaged -2.7 from January 2000 to May 2002, and -3.3 from June 2006 to April 2008), to years with tropical storms. Annual NEP for the older, naturally-regenerated stand fluctuated from -1.60 to -5.38 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 with an average of -2.73 ± 1.17 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 while in plantations after canopy closure NEP fluctuated from -4.0 to -8.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 with an average of -6.17 ± 1.34 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Annual NEP in naturally-regenerated pine was mainly driven by a combination of water availability and understory burning while in plantations it was driven by water availability after canopy closure. Woody and above ground net primary productivity (NPP) followed gross ecosystem carbon exchange (GEE) in both ecosystems. Naturally-regenerated and planted pine are a strong carbon sink under the current management and environmental fluctuations accumulating 28 and 130 Mg C ha-1 in a decade, respectively, and are among the most productive forests in

  16. Mitochondrial DNA control region haplotype and haplogroup diversity in South Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Serin, Ayse; Canan, Husniye; Alper, Behnan; Korkut Gulmen, Mete; Zimmermann, Bettina; Parson, Walther

    2016-09-01

    Despite its large geographic and population size only little is known about the mitochondrial (mt)DNA make up of Turkey.orensically relevant data are almost completely absent in the literature. We analyzed the mtDNA control region of 224 volunteers from South Eastern Turkey and compared the data to populations from neighboring countries. The haplotypes will be made available via the EMPOP database (EMP00670) and contribute to the body of forensic mtDNA data. PMID:27479879

  17. Regional Climate Model sesitivity to different parameterizations schemes with WRF over Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Hidalgo-Muñoz, Jose Manuel; Argüeso, Daniel; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2015-04-01

    The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the regional climate depends on the selection of an adequate combination of parameterization schemes. This study assesses WRF sensitivity to different parameterizations using six different runs that combined three cumulus, two microphysics and three surface/planetary boundary layer schemes in a topographically complex region such as Spain, for the period 1995-1996. Each of the simulations spanned a period of two years, and were carried out at a spatial resolution of 0.088° over a domain encompassing the Iberian Peninsula and nested in the coarser EURO-CORDEX domain (0.44° resolution). The experiments were driven by Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data. In addition, two different spectral nudging configurations were also analysed. The simulated precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures from WRF were compared with Spain02 version 4 observational gridded datasets. The comparison was performed at different time scales with the purpose of evaluating the model capability to capture mean values and high-order statistics. ERA-Interim data was also compared with observations to determine the improvement obtained using dynamical downscaling with respect to the driving data. For this purpose, several parameters were analysed by directly comparing grid-points. On the other hand, the observational gridded data were grouped using a multistep regionalization to facilitate the comparison in term of monthly annual cycle and the percentiles of daily values analysed. The results confirm that no configuration performs best, but some combinations that produce better results could be chosen. Concerning temperatures, WRF provides an improvement over ERA-Interim. Overall, model outputs reduce the biases and the RMSE for monthly-mean maximum and minimum temperatures and are higher correlated with observations than ERA-Interim. The analysis shows that the Yonsei University planetary boundary layer

  18. The climate of Zaragoza (NE of Spain) in the context of global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Cuadrat, José; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Tejedor, Ernesto; de Luis, Martín; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC 2013 (AR5) emphasizes that the impact of an increase in temperature will be compounded in large cities by the effect of the urban heat island. Therefore, it suggests the need to study the urban climate in urban planning to anticipate changes and define adaptation strategies. The aim of this work is to analyze recent trends in temperature in the city of Zaragoza (NE of Spain, 750,000 inhabitants) and the extreme values from climate indices defined by the WMO. Daily temperature data recorded at 10 observatories located in Zaragoza was homogenized and quality-controlled using 'HOMER, R-Package', developing a single daily series since 1892 to present. Temperature records show a clear positive trend since the early 80s of 20th century. The first decade of the 21th century is the warmest since the beginning of the instrumental records. There is an increase of +0.07 °C per decade. Furthermore, the temperature rise in this period has been +1.6 ° C. The frequency of tropical nights has also been increased. The number of nights when the minimum temperature was not lower than 20 °C has moved from 89 in the period 1900-1930 to 386 in 1991-2010. Days when the maximum daily exceeds 35°C are also more frequent. Regarding the cold events, there is a decrease in the number of days with temperatures below 0 °C. These results reinforce the idea of the IPCC that the challenges of climate change should be recognized as fundamental elements for urban planning in order to reduce risks and promote the welfare of citizens, as well as an instrument to minimize vulnerability and identify ways to maximize opportunities.

  19. A vulnerability analysis for a drought vulnerable catchment in South-Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, Clara; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Birk, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    To detect uncertainties and thresholds in a drought vulnerable region we focus on a typical river catchment of the Austrian South-Eastern Alpine forelands with good data availability, the Raab valley. This mid-latitude region in the south-east of the Austrian state Styria (˜ 47° N, ˜ 16° E) exhibits a strong temperature increase over the last decades. Especially the mean summer temperatures (June to August) show a strong increase (˜ 0.7 °C per decade) over the last decades (1971 - 2015) (Kabas et al., Meteorol. Z. 20, 277-289, 2011; pers. comm., 2015). The Styrian Raab valley, with a catchment size of 986 km2, has already struggled with drought periods (e.g., summers of 1992, 2001 and 2003). Thus, it is important to know what happens if warm and dry periods occur more frequently. Therefore we analyze which sensitivities and related uncertainties exist, which thresholds might be crossed, and what the effects on the different components of the water balance equation are, in particular on runoff, soil moisture, groundwater recharge, and evapotranspiration. We use the mainly physics-based hydrological Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM), developed at ETH Zurich (Schulla, Diss., ETH Zurich, CH, 1997). The model is well established and widely used for hydrological modeling at a diversity of spatial and temporal resolutions. We choose a model set up which is as simple as possible but as complex as necessary to perform sensitivity studies on uncertainties and thresholds in the context of climate change. In order to assess the model performance under a wide range of conditions, the calibration and validation is performed with a split sample for dry and wet periods. With the calibrated and validated model we perform a low-flow vulnerability analysis ("stress test"), with focus on drought-related conditions. Therefore we simulate changes in weather and climate (e.g., 20% and 50% less precipitation, 2 °C and 5 °C higher temperature), changes in land use and

  20. Spatial debris-cover effect on the maritime glaciers of Mount Gongga, south-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Fujita, K.; Liu, S.; Liu, Q.

    2013-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and surroundings contain a large number of debris-covered glaciers, on which debris cover affects glacier response to climate change by altering ice melting rates and spatial patterns of mass loss. Insufficient spatial distribution of debris thickness data makes it difficult to analyze regional debris-cover effects. Mount Gongga glaciers, maritime glaciers in the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau, are characterized by a substantial reduction in glacier length and ice mass in recent decades. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)-derived thermal property of the debris layer reveals that 68% of the glaciers have extensive mantles of supraglacial debris in their ablation zones, in which the proportion of debris cover to total glacier area varies from 1.74% to 53.0%. Using a surface energy-mass balance model accounting for the debris-cover effect applied at a regional scale, we find that although the presence of supraglacial debris has a significant insulating effect on heavily debris-covered glaciers, it accelerates ice melting on ~ 10.2% of the total ablation area and produces rapid wastage of ~ 25% of the debris-covered glaciers, resulting in the similar mass losses between debris-covered and debris-free glaciers. Widespread debris cover also facilitates the development of active terminus regions. Regional differences in the debris-cover effect are apparent, highlighting the importance of debris cover for understanding glacier status and hydrology in both the Tibetan Plateau and other mountain ranges around the world.

  1. Is rainfall erosivity influenced by climate change?. A case study in a Mediterranean Climate area of North East Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Maria C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean climate is the high intensity rainfall events usually recorded in autumn and spring. Those events usually concentrate a high percentage of annual rainfall. Different studies carried out in the Mediterranean countries suggest that notable changes in seasonal precipitation regimes have occurred during the second half of the 20th century. In addition, precipitation extremes seem to increase in association with global warming, which may favour erosion processes. Under this hypothesis one question arise: is the rainfall erosivity increasing influenced by climate change? In this work rainfall erosivity and its variability in the last two decades was analysed in an area located NE Spain, where erosion processes of high magnitude are recorded. The main land use in that area is grape vines, which due to the scarce soil cover is usually associated with the highest erosion rates. The study area was located in the Penedès depression (North East Spain). Hourly data from four observatories Els Hostalets de Pierola (UTM X: 400664, Y: 4598608m, elv: 326m ), La Granada ( X:393758; Y:4580393), Sant Martí Sarroca (X: 385556; Y:4581486, elv: 257m) and Font_Rubi (X: 385118, Y:4587935. elev: 415 m ) belonging to the period 1997-2013 were used in the analysis together with a tipping bucket rainfall series recorded at one minute intervals (10 years within the period 1996-2012). Rainfall erosivity was quantified by the index rainfall kinetic energy multiplied by the maximum intensity in 30minute periods (E*Imax30). The Imax30 was estimated from the relationship between hourly and 30 minute data obtained for the tipping bucket series using the Marquard algoritme. In order to analsye changes in rainfall erosivity, the annual and monthly number of erosive events were analysed for each observatory and in each year, the events were classified into intervals according to their erosivity. The intervals used were: 0-100; 100-200; 200-300; 300

  2. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  3. Health in south-eastern Europe: a troubled past, an uncertain future.

    PubMed Central

    Rechel, Bernd; Schwalbe, Nina; McKee, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The political and economic turmoil that occurred in south-eastern Europe in the last decade of the twentieth century left a legacy of physical damage. This aspect of the conflict has received considerable coverage in the media. However, surprisingly less has been reported about the effects of that turmoil on the health of the people living in the region. In an attempt to identify and synthesize data on these effects, we carried out a systematic review and used the results to put together a searchable online database of documents, reports, and published material, the majority of which have not previously been easily accessible (http:// www.lshtm.ac.uk/ecohost/see/index.php). The database covers the period from the early 1990s to 2003 and will be of considerable interest to policy-makers. It contains 762 items, many of them annotated and available for downloading. This paper synthesizes the main findings obtained from the material in the database and emphasizes the need for concerted action to improve the health of people in south-eastern Europe. Furthermore, we also recommend that agencies working in post-conflict situations should invest in developing and maintaining online databases that would be useful to others working in the area. PMID:15500286

  4. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations. PMID:26207670

  5. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis in South Eastern of Iran.

    PubMed

    Narooie-Nejad, Mehrnaz; Moossavi, Maryam; Torkamanzehi, Adam; Moghtaderi, Ali; Salimi, Saeedeh

    2015-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the most widespread demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. Environmental and genetic factors are collaborating in triggering MS. The role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and its polymorphisms are highlighted as susceptible components. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-BsmI and FokI-in VDR gene and MS susceptibility in the South Eastern Iranian population. Therefore, 113 MS patients and 122 controls were recruited in the study. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to detect the SNPs. There were no significant differences in the polymorphism of FokI (rs2228570) in VDR gene among patients and controls (P > 0.05), while a significant difference was observed in BsmI (rs1544410) polymorphism in healthy subjects and homozygous genotype-b/b- with MS (P = 0.025). Results showed a protective association of homozygous genotype-b/b- of BsmI with MS susceptibility in a population in South Eastern of Iran. PMID:25854779

  6. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Eric J.; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A.; McInnes, Allison S.; Waite, Anya M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180–250 O2 μmol.kg-1) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  7. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Raes, Eric J; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A; McInnes, Allison S; Waite, Anya M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180-250 O2 μmol.kg(-1)) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  8. Modelling origin and transport fate of waste materials on the south-eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.; Janeković, I.

    2014-12-01

    The south-eastern parts of the Adriatic Sea coastline were severely polluted by large amounts of accumulated waste material in the second half of November 2010. The waste, reported by major news agencies, accumulated dominantly during 21 November 2010 by favourable wind - ocean current transport system. In the study we analysed meteorological and oceanographic conditions that lead to the waste deposition using available in situ measurements, remote sensing data as well numerical models of the ocean and the atmosphere. The measured data reveal that an intensive rainfall event from 7 till 10 November 2010, over the parts of Montenegro and Albania, was followed by a substantial increase of the river water levels indicating flash floods that possibly splashed the waste material into a river and after to the Adriatic Sea. In order to test our hypothesis we set a number of numerical drifter experiments with trajectories initiated off the coast of Albania during the intensive rainfall events following their faith in space and time. One of the numerical drifter trajectory experiment resulted with drifters reached right position (south-eastern Adriatic coast) and time (exactly by the time the waste was observed) when initiated on 00:00 and 12:00 UTC of 10 November 2010 during the mentioned flash flood event.

  9. Body Size, Growth and Life Span: Implications for the Polewards Range Shift of Octopus tetricus in South-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jorge E.; Pecl, Gretta T.; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A.; Strugnell, Jan M.; León, Rafael I.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  10. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  11. Structure, formation and geochronology of the late Pleistocene and Holocene cover deposits in South-Eastern Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltrūnas, Valentinas; Karmaza, Bronislavas; Molodkov, Anatoly; Šinkūnas, Petras; Švedas, Kęstutis; Zinkutė, Rimantė

    2010-11-01

    The available data of earlier investigations ( Basalykas, 1965; Basalykas et al., 1976a,b; Kudaba, 1983) show that deposits of various origin and age are widespread in Ašmena Upland and Lyda Plateau (South-Eastern Lithuania). They overlie a polygenetic dislodged marginal formations of the penultimate Medininkai (Warthe) glaciation. Pleistocene deposits in this area are often deformed by solifluction and fluvial erosion and penetrated by cryogenic ice-wedge pseudomorphs. Granulometric, geochemical and petrographic investigations of the deposits have demonstrated that they are characterized by different sources of sedimentary material supply as well as different degrees of physical and chemical weathering. The alternate deposits preserved in the study area imply palaeoenvironmental changes associated with the different palaeoclimatic events. The Ca/Zr ratios in cover deposits testify that the upper beds usually experienced stronger chemical weathering that is associated with warmer climate. The cases of weaker weathering can be explained by different sources of material, i.e. deposit origin, which can be indicated by Zr/Ti ratio. According to the scarce geochronological data available at least 4 clusters of IR-OSL dates can be distinguished in the late Pleistocene environmental history of Ašmena Upland and Lyda Plateau: about 100 ka (marine isotope stage (MIS) 5c, Merkinė interglacial), 89-71 ka (MIS 5a, Merkinė interglacial), about 40 ka (MIS 3, Rokai interstadial) and 21-12 ka (late Nemunas). One cluster of IR-OSL dates (9.7-5.3 ka) is obtained in the first half of Holocene.

  12. The zoonotic flaviviruses of southern, south-eastern and eastern Asia, and Australasia: the potential for emergent viruses.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, J S; Williams, D T

    2009-08-01

    The genus Flaviviridae comprises about 70 members, of which about 30 are found in southern, south-eastern and eastern Asia and Australasia. These include major pathogens such as Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile (WN), Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), tick-borne encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest disease virus, and the dengue viruses. Other members are known to be associated with mild febrile disease in humans, or with no known disease. In addition, novel flaviviruses continue to be discovered, as demonstrated recently by New Mapoon virus in Australia, Sitiawan virus in Malaysia, and ThCAr virus in Thailand. About 19 of these viruses are mosquito-borne, six are tick-borne, and four have no known vector and represent isolates from rodents or bats. Evidence from phylogenetic studies suggest that JE, MVE and Alfuy viruses probably emerged in the Malaya-Indonesian region from an African progenitor virus, possibly a virus related to Usutu virus. WN virus, however, is believed to have emerged in Africa, and then dispersed through avian migration. Evidence suggests that there are at least seven genetic lineages of WN virus, of which lineage 1b spread to Australasia as Kunjin virus, lineages 1a and 5 spread to India, and lineage 6 spread to Malaysia. Indeed, flaviviruses have a propensity to spread and emerge in new geographic areas, and they represent a potential source for new disease emergence. Many of the factors associated with disease emergence are present in the region, such as changes in land use and deforestation, increasing population movement, urbanization, and increasing trade. Furthermore, because of their ecology and dependence on climate, there is a strong likelihood that global warming may significantly increase the potential for disease emergence and/or spread. PMID:19486319

  13. Climate change adaptation via targeted ecosystem service provision: a sustainable land management strategy for the Segura catchment (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaria, Cecilia; de Vente, Joris; Perez-Cutillas, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Topical research investigating climate, land-use and management scenarios in the Segura catchment (SE Spain), depicts a landscape at high-risk of, quite literally, deserting agriculture. Land degradation in the semi-arid region of SE Spain is characterized by water shortage, high erosion rates and salinization, increasingly exacerbated by climatic changes, scarce vegetation cover and detrimental farming practices. Future climate scenarios predict increases in aridity, variability and intensity of rainfall events, leading to increasing pressure on scarce soil and water resources. This study conceptualized the impending crisis of agro-ecological systems of the Segura basin (18800 km2) as a crisis of ecosystem service deterioration. In light of existing land degradation drivers and future climate scenarios, the potential of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies was evaluated to target three priority ecosystem services (water provision, sediment retention and carbon sequestration) as a means to achieve climate change adaptation and mitigation. A preceding thorough process of stakeholder engagement (as part of the EU funded DESIRE project) indicated five SLM technologies for potential implementation, all with a focus upon reducing soil erosion, increasing soil water holding capacity and soil organic matter content. These technologies have been tested for over four years in local experimental field plots, and have provided results on the local effects upon individual environmental parameters. Despite the growing emphasis witnessed in literature upon the context-specificity which characterizes adaptation solutions, the frequent analysis at the field scale is limited in both scope and utility. There is a need to investigate the effects of adaptive SLM solutions at wider, regional scales. Thus, this study modeled the cumulative effect of each of the five selected SLM technologies with InVEST, a spatial analyst tool designed for ecosystem service quantification and

  14. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria; A 15 Years Histopathologic Review (2000-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ukekwe, FI; Olusina, DB; Banjo, AAF; Akinde, OR; Nzegwu, MA; Okafor, OC; Ocheni, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has brought about a resurgence in tuberculosis (TB), especially in developing countries. Previous studies on TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) in South-Eastern Nigeria were done before the advent of the HIV pandemic making a review pertinent. Aim: To evaluate the role of TBLN as a cause of superficial lymphadenopathy in the post-HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) era of South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 15 years (2000-2014) retrospective review of all superficial lymph node biopsies (SLNBs) received at the Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla Enugu, Nigeria. Results: One hundred and seventy-two cases of TBLN were identified in this study constituting 14.6% (172/1,180) of SLNBs received at our Hospital's Morbid Anatomy Department during the 15 years period under review. Twenty-eight cases of TBLN were clinically screened for HIV, 23 of which tested positive, representing 82.1% (23/28) of clinically screened cases. Acid fast bacilli demonstration was positive in 15.1% (26/172) of cases using Ziehl-Neelsen stain. 48.8% (84/172) of TBLN cases were males, and 51.2% (88/172) were females with most (22) cases received in 2012 and least (5) cases in 2000. Most TBLN occurred in the 21-25 years age group with a total of 21.5% (37/172) of cases and a male to female ratio of 1:1.5 The most common biopsy site for TBLN was the cervical group followed by the axillary and inguinal groups with 73.8% (127/172), 14% (24/172), and 4.7% (8/172) of cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a remarkable decline in the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria indicating a change in trend from the pre- to the post-HIV/AIDS era with slightly more females now presenting with TBLN and most TB lymphadenitis patients now presenting with associated HIV/AIDS disease. There is an urgent need to provide modern diagnostic facilities in our medical

  15. [Communication, participation and leadership in the perception of the emotional climate in a university hospital in Andalusia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Danet, Alina; March, Joan Carles; Romera, Inmaculada García

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyze perceptions and opinions among health professionals in a university hospital in Andalusia, Spain, regarding the emotional climate, leadership style, quality of information, and internal communication. The study also aimed to collect health professionals' suggestions for improving these workplace characteristics. The study included 730 participants and used a quantitative and qualitative methodology. The results reflect a medium-to-low level of emotional climate, correlated with the leadership style and information and internal communication. Statistically significant differences appeared when comparing professional categories and hospital units. The health professionals provided a positive assessment of the administrators' work, although requiring more task-oriented, participative, and affiliative leadership skills. PMID:24714944

  16. Overcoming scepticism: Interacting influences of geographical location on perceived climate change adaptation measures to water resources in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bardaji, Isabel; Iglesias, Pedro; Granados, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Though many climate adaptation efforts attempt to be defined with the participation of local communities, these strategies may be ineffective because among citizens affected equally, a local risk perception rather than scientific understanding largely drives adaptation choices. Further, the geographical location may polarize climate risk perceptions, making some adaptation efforts ineffective among sceptics. This study examines how the local degradation of the environment and water resources relates to adaption choices and in turn, climate change risk perception among a range of citizens in the Tagus basin, Spain (n = 300). We find respondents of less degraded areas have individualistic responses, and are significantly less likely to accept adaptation strategies than respondents in water stressed communities. The interaction between climate knowledge and adaptation choices is positively related to acceptance of adaptation choices in both groups, and had a stronger positive relationship among individualists. There is no statistical difference in acceptance of adaptation between individualists and communitarians at high levels of knowledge (top decile). Thus, education efforts specific to climate change may counteract divisions based geographical location and environmental stress.

  17. Extending to seasonal scales the current usage of short range weather forecasts and climate projections for water management in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Camino, Ernesto; Voces, José; Sánchez, Eroteida; Navascues, Beatriz; Pouget, Laurent; Roldan, Tamara; Gómez, Manuel; Cabello, Angels; Comas, Pau; Pastor, Fernando; Concepción García-Gómez, M.°; José Gil, Juan; Gil, Delfina; Galván, Rogelio; Solera, Abel

    2016-04-01

    This presentation, first, briefly describes the current use of weather forecasts and climate projections delivered by AEMET for water management in Spain. The potential use of seasonal climate predictions for water -in particular dams- management is then discussed more in-depth, using a pilot experience carried out by a multidisciplinary group coordinated by AEMET and DG for Water of Spain. This initiative is being developed in the framework of the national implementation of the GFCS and the European project, EUPORIAS. Among the main components of this experience there are meteorological and hydrological observations, and an empirical seasonal forecasting technique that provides an ensemble of water reservoir inflows. These forecasted inflows feed a prediction model for the dam state that has been adapted for this purpose. The full system is being tested retrospectively, over several decades, for selected water reservoirs located in different Spanish river basins. The assessment includes an objective verification of the probabilistic seasonal forecasts using standard metrics, and the evaluation of the potential social and economic benefits, with special attention to drought and flooding conditions. The methodology of implementation of these seasonal predictions in the decision making process is being developed in close collaboration with final users participating in this pilot experience.

  18. Sexual and Alcohol Risk Behaviours of Immigrant Latino Men in the South-eastern USA

    PubMed Central

    RHODES, SCOTT D.; HERGENRATHER, KENNETH C.; GRIFFITH, DEREK; YEE, LELAND J.; ZOMETA, CARLOS S.; MONTAÑO, JAIME; VISSMAN, ARRON T.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the intersections of immigration, masculinity, and sexual risk behaviours among recently arrived Latino men in the United States (USA). Nine immigrant Latino men from three urban housing communities in the South-eastern USA used photovoice to identify and explore their lived experiences. From the participants’ photographs and words, thirteen themes emerged within four domains. The immigration experience and sociocultural norms and expectations of masculinity were factors identified decreasing Latino men’s sense of power and increasing stress, which lead to sexual risk. Latino community strengths and general community strengths were factors that participants identified as promoting health and preventing risk. These themes influenced the development of a conceptual model to explain risk among immigrant Latino men. This model requires further exploration and may prove useful in intervention development. PMID:19234948

  19. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  20. Canine breeds at high risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease in the south-eastern UK.

    PubMed

    Kathrani, A; Werling, D; Allenspach, K

    2011-12-10

    Genetics are an important factor in the development of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, there is very little information available regarding the role of genetics in canine IBD. The purpose of this study was to gather information about which canine breeds in the south-eastern UK are at a high risk for developing IBD. Determination of such breeds may help further genetic research in this complex disease. The computer medical records at the Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, Royal Veterinary College dating from August 1, 2003 to December 31, 2009 were retrospectively searched for cases diagnosed with IBD. Five hundred and forty-six dogs with IBD were identified, representing 86 different breeds. The comparison group consisted of all dogs from these same 86 breeds without IBD admitted to the hospital during the same period that amounted to 27,463 dogs. The breeds at significantly higher risk of developing IBD compared with mixed-breed dogs consisted of weimaraner (odds ratio [OR]=3.6797, 95 per cent confidence interval [CI]=2.0167 to 6.7141, P<0.0001), rottweiler (OR=2.9697, 95 per cent CI=1.7569 to 5.0196, P<0.0001), German shepherd dog (GSD) (OR=2.4101, 95 per cent CI=1.5826 to 3.36705, P<0.0001), border collie (OR=1.9936, 95 per cent CI=1.1655 to 3.4101, P=0.0118) and boxer (OR=1.6961, 95 per cent CI=1.0441 to 2.755, P=0.0328). This study demonstrates for the first time canine breeds in the south-eastern UK that are highly susceptible to developing IBD. Identification of such breeds may allow for a more focused investigation of genetic mutations associated with canine IBD. PMID:21896567

  1. Multilocus sequence typing of canine Giardia duodenalis from South Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Sommer, M F; Beck, R; Ionita, M; Stefanovska, J; Vasić, A; Zdravković, N; Hamel, D; Rehbein, S; Knaus, M; Mitrea, I L; Shukullari, E; Kirkova, Z; Rapti, D; Capári, B; Silaghi, C

    2015-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a worldwide occurring protozoan that can infect various mammalian hosts. While living conditions are getting closer between pet animals and owners, there is discussion whether dogs may contribute to the transmission of these pathogens to humans. The present study was conducted in order to identify the Giardia assemblages in dogs from South Eastern Europe. For this purpose, 1645 faecal samples of household and shelter dogs from Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia were tested for Giardia coproantigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A subset of 107 faecal samples demonstrating Giardia cysts by direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA) or microscopy (15-22 per country) plus 26 IFA-positive canine faecal samples from Croatia were used for DNA extraction and multilocus sequence typing with nested PCRs targeting five different gene loci: SSU rRNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, beta giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi). One third (33.7%) of the samples tested positive for Giardia antigen in the coproantigen ELISA. Shelter dogs were infected more frequently than household dogs (57.2 vs. 29.7%, p < 0.01). Amplification was obtained in 82.0, 12.8, 11.3, 1.5, and 31.6%, of the investigated samples at the SSU rRNA, bg, gdh and tpi loci and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, respectively. The dog-specific assemblages C and D were identified in 50 and 68 samples, respectively. The results demonstrate that G. duodenalis should be considered as a common parasite in dogs from South Eastern Europe. However, there was no evidence for zoonotic Giardia assemblages in the investigated canine subpopulation. PMID:25804971

  2. Epidemiology of intestinal helminth parasites in stray dogs from markets in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoye, I C; Obiezue, N R; Okorie, C E; Ofoezie, I E

    2011-12-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of stray dogs (Canis familiaris) was conducted at Obollo-Afor and Ekwulobia markets, in Enugu and Anambra States, south-eastern Nigeria, respectively, to determine the patterns of infection among dogs in different parts of south-eastern Nigeria. Faecal samples collected, using long forceps, from every dog encountered in the markets between June 2007 and December 2008 were analysed by the Kato-Katz technique. Out of 413 dogs examined in both markets, 217 (52.6%) were infected with at least one of five parasites (Toxocara spp., Dipylidium caninum, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia spp. and Trichuris vulpis). Overall faecal egg intensity of infection was 49.9 ± 58.7 eggs/g (epg). The prevalence of infection was comparable between the markets and between the male and female dogs, but varied significantly (P < 0.05) by age, decreasing from 78.9% in pups to 36.0% in adult dogs. The mean intensity pattern was similar to that of prevalence, decreasing from 86.7 ± 63.0 epg in pups to 22.1 ± 34.4 in adults. The most important individual parasite infection was Ancylostoma spp. (39.2%; 30.0 ± 41.2 epg) while T. vulpis was the least important (1.9%; 0.7 ± 5.4 epg). Generally, prevalence and intensity patterns of each parasite were also comparable between the markets and between sexes, but significantly (P < 0.05) age-dependent. The implications of these findings to public health in Nigeria and other endemic countries are discussed in relation to options for cost-effective control design and implementation. PMID:21144127

  3. Background concentrations and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in south-eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestenius, Mika; Leppänen, Sirkka; Anttila, Pia; Kyllönen, Katriina; Hatakka, Juha; Hellén, Heidi; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Hakola, Hannele

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds) were measured in the PM 10 fraction [from ambient air] at Virolahti, Finland. The sampling site is located in a rural area in the south-eastern corner of Finland, near the Russian border. Altogether, 51 daily and 85 weekly filter samples were collected in 2007-2008. The yearly average concentration of benzo(a)pyrene at Virolahti in 2007 was 0.21 ng m -3, which is well below the annual target value of 1 ng m -3 set by the European Union. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied in source apportionment for daily PAH data combined with other pollutant data. A three-factor solution of the PMF analysis with 28 components was chosen. These three factors were identified as long-range transported secondary particles (F1), combustion (F2) and a sea-salt factor (F3). The conditional probability function (CPF) was used to combine wind direction sectors with the PMF factors. In cases F1 and F2, pollutants mainly originated from the south-east, whereas pollutants in F3 came from the south-western sector. PAHs entered into the combustion factor 2 together with SO 2, NO x, black carbon and potassium. This suggests that the PAHs at Virolahti originated from traffic and industrial pollution, as well as biomass burning. Elevated concentrations occurred throughout the winter period and most frequently originated from the south-eastern sector between 90°-135°. This sector includes, among other transboundary areas, the metropolis of St. Petersburg at a distance of 160 km.

  4. Interannual Variability of South-Eastern African Summer Rainfall. Part 1: Relationships with Air-Sea Interaction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Alfredo; Simmonds, Ian

    1997-03-01

    This paper investigates the role that air-sea interaction processes may play in interannual variability of south-eastern African summer rainfall. The principal spatial modes of south-eastern African summer rainfall are first identified using principal component analysis. Four modes are retained. The most important mode of variability is found to represent rainfall variability over most of the domain, particularly in the regions to the south.The influence of ENSO (as measured by the SOI) on summer rainfall is investigated in detail for different SOI leads. The relationship is such that during the summer following the onset of an ENSO event, south-eastern Africa tends to experience dry conditions. Strongest relationships are found with the SOI leading rainfall by about 3 to 6 months.A second index, the Brandon-Marion Index (BMI) which is indicative of changes in the pressure field over the Indian Ocean correlates with rainfall better than the SOI. Strongest correlations are found when this index leads rainfall by about 1 to 3 months. More importantly, a partial correlation analysis reveals that the BMI influences rainfall independently of ENSO. Both the SOI and the BMI are potential predictors of summer rainfall.An investigation of rainfall associations with global SST anomalies reveals areas in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans that are linked with rainfall changes over the subcontinent. The relationship is such that warm anomalies tend to be followed by dry conditions over much of south-eastern Africa. Strongest relationships are found when SSTs lead the rainfall season by about 1 to 3 months. Well-defined atmospheric anomalies are identified during dry south-eastern African summers. These include, amongst others, anomalously warm tropospheric temperatures and marked low-level cyclonic circulation anomalies over the central Indian Ocean, which generate abnormally weak easterly winds along much of the south-eastern coast of Africa. These perturbations to the

  5. Contribution of the climatic transect approach application to the study of soil degradation in South of Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.; Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2014-05-01

    Since 1990s, the climatic transect approach has been widely applied to Mediterranean mountainous areas where climatic conditions are modified in few kilometres, from semiarid to humid conditions. The target in most of the cases was to evaluate the climatic change effect on the spatial variability of eco-geomorphological system, runoff and erosion and soil degradation processes, especially, in abandoned fields and Mediterranean rangeland. The Physical Geography and Land Management Research Group from the University of Málaga is applying this experimental approach since 2001. The study area corresponded to the Mediterranean Cordillera Bética in South of Spain, from the Strait of Gibraltar to Cabo de Gata, where a longitudinal climatic transect can be observed: from humid Mediterranean climate in the West (>1,500 mm/y) to nearly arid Mediterranean climate in the East (200 mm/y). More specifically, the investigations were focussed on the spatial and temporal variability of eco-geomorphological system (vegetation, soil and water relationship), runoff and erosion processes and controlling factors affecting to abandoned fields located in steep hillslopes of metamorphic and acid bedrocks (phyllites, schists and mica-schists) but differing in climatic conditions (humid, subhumid, dry and semiarid Mediterranean climate). The aim of this contribution is to share our findings and challenges from the last 13 years being some of the most important ones: i) Mediterranean summer drought homogenise the functioning of eco-geomorphological system independently of the geographical location along the climatic transect; ii) drought period affects more dramatically to humid and subhumid Mediterranean areas, especially, to the vegetation cover and pattern; iii) areas characterised by dry-Mediterranean climate are found as threshold areas and in risk of aridification due to Climate Change; iv) runoff and erosion processes can be similar in humid and semiarid abandoned lands as it has to

  6. Climate change and drought effects on rural income distribution in the Mediterranean: a case study for Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, S.; Suárez, C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the effects of climate change and drought on agricultural outputs in Spanish rural areas. By now the effects of drought as a response to climate change or policy restrictions have been analyzed through response functions considering direct effects on crop productivity and incomes. These changes also affect incomes distribution in the region and therefore modify the social structure. Here we consider this complementary indirect effect on social distribution of incomes which is essential in the long term. We estimate crop production functions for a range of Mediterranean crops in Spain and we use a decomposition of inequalities measure to estimate the impact of climate change and drought on yield disparities. This social aspect is important for climate change policies since it can be determinant for the public acceptance of certain adaptation measures in a context of drought. We provide the empirical estimations for the marginal effects of the two considered impacts: farms' income average and social income distribution. In our estimates we consider crop productivity response to both bio-physical and socio-economic aspects to analyze long term implications on both competitiveness and social disparities. We find disparities in the adaptation priorities depending on the crop and the region analyzed.

  7. Climate and prevalence of atopic eczema in 6- to 7-year-old school children in Spain. ISAAC PhASE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Varela, María Morales; García-Marcos Alvarez, Luís; Kogan, Michael D.; González, Agustín Llopis; Gimeno, Antonio Martínez; Ontoso, Inés Aguinaga; Díaz, Carlos González; Pena, Alberto Arnedo; Aurrecoechea, Begoña Domínguez; Monge, Rosa María Busquets; Quiros, Alfredo Blanco; Garrido, José Batlles; Canflanca, Iñaqui Miner; Varela, Ángel López-Silvarrey

    2008-11-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic skin disease. Recent reports indicate that the worldwide prevalence of AE is increasing and that various environmental factors are implicated in its aetiology. Climatic conditions have been related with AE prevalence, and Spain has varying climatic conditions. The aim of this study is to document the possible climatic influence on the prevalence of AE in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years in three different climatic regions in Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey of 28,394 schoolchildren aged 6-7 years from 10 Spanish centres in three different climatic regions. The mean participation rate was 76.5%. AE prevalence was assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Spanish Academy of Dermatology criteria used in Spain to diagnose AE. The data, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and the annual number of sunny hours per climatic region, were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Meteorology. Different AE prevalences were found in all three climatic regions studied: Atlantic, 32.9; Mediterranean 28.3; and Continental 31.2 per 100 children studied ( p < 0.005). AE was positively associated with precipitation and humidity, and was negatively associated with temperature and the number of sunny hours. The results show that AE is significantly dependent on meteorological conditions.

  8. Record of climatic change in neritic carbonates: turnover in biogenic associations and depositional modes (Late Miocene, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, T. C.; Betzler, C.; Braga, J. C.; Martin, J. M.

    In order to evaluate the geological record of climatic change in neritic carbonates, we studied Late Miocene rock outcrops in southern Spain. Six episodes of reef growth are documented (Burdigalian to Messinian) in Neogene basins of the Betic Cordillera, which were located close to the margin of the global reef belt. The reefs are characterized by various zooxanthellate corals which decrease in diversity with time, and Halimeda; the youngest reefs of the latest Messinian are characterized by the dominance of the genus Porites. Late Miocene coral reefs and reef-rimmed platforms alternate over time with non-reefal carbonate ramps characterized by skeletal calcirudites or with gypsum such as that formed during the Messinian salinity crisis. The calcirudites lack reef corals, calcified green algae and extensive marine cement, but exhibit skeletal components described from both modern and fossil non-tropical carbonates. These include bryozoans, mollusks, foraminifers, echinoderms and minor balanids, as well as coralline algae of a bryomol association. The presence of some larger foraminifers indicates high temperatures, close to the lower temperature threshold of the reef assemblage. Sea level lowstands and highstands are documented by wedges of bryomol carbonate and chlorozoan patch reefs or prograding platforms. Thus, temperate climate depositional modes correspond to relatively low sea levels, and warm-water modes to high sea levels. The Neogene infill of the Agua Amarga and Sorbas basins documents two of these cycles. Other climate/sea-level cycles (including Messinian gypsum in the cool water depositional mode) are well established in adjacent Neogene basins in southern Spain. This type of composite sequence seems to occur only along the margin of the global reef belt and indicates an oscillatory latitudinal movement of the margin, which is associated with global climatic change. The analysis of turnover in neritic depositional carbonate systems may therefore be

  9. Record of climatic change in neritic carbonates: turnover in biogenic associations and depositional modes (Late Miocene, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, T. C.; Betzler, C.; Braga, J. C.; Martin, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    In order to evaluate the geological record of climatic change in neritic carbonates, we studied Late Miocene rock outcrops in southern Spain. Six episodes of reef growth are documented (Burdigalian to Messinian) in Neogene basins of the Betic Cordillera, which were located close to the margin of the global reef belt. The reefs are characterized by various zooxanthellate corals which decrease in diversity with time, and Halimeda; the youngest reefs of the latest Messinian are characterized by the dominance of the genus Porites. Late Miocene coral reefs and reef-rimmed platforms alternate over time with non-reefal carbonate ramps characterized by skeletal calcirudites or with gypsum such as that formed during the Messinian salinity crisis. The calcirudites lack reef corals, calcified green algae and extensive marine cement, but exhibit skeletal components described from both modern and fossil nontropical carbonates. These include bryozoans, mollusks, foraminifers, echinoderms and minor balanids, as well as coralline algae of a bryomol association. The presence of some larger foraminifers indicates high temperatures, close to the lower temperature threshold of the reef assemblage. Sea level lowstands and highstands are documented by wedges of bryomol carbonate and chlorozoan patch reefs or prograding platforms. Thus, temperate climate depositional modes correspond to relatively low sea levels, and warm-water modes to high sea levels. The Neogene infill of the Agua Amarga and Sorbas basins documents two of these cycles. Other climate/sea-level cycles (including Messinian gypsum in the cool water depositional mode) are well established in adjacent Neogene basins in southern Spain. This type of composite sequence seems to occur only along the margin of the global reef belt and indicates an oscillatory latitudinal movement of the margin, which is associated with global climatic change. The analysis of turnover in neritic depositional carbonate systems may therefore be

  10. Influence of climate variability on grape production and wine quality in the Rias Baixas, north-western Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Lorenzo, Nieves; Taboada, Juan; Lorenzo, Jose

    2013-04-01

    Climate variability has an important role on grape production and wine quality. Wine grapes require a very specific set of climatic conditions; they need a mean temperature of between 12°C and 22°C during the growing season. The local and regional atmospheric changes that result from global climate change could have a significant effect on grapevine phenology, grape production and wine quality. For one of the main areas protected under the denomination of origin Rías Baixas, in Galicia, Spain, we explore the relationships among grape production, wine quality, rainfall and temperature for the period 1987 - 2005. The influence of climatic variability was analysed in terms of the relationship between the productivity of the grapevines and the main meteorological teleconnection patterns affecting the North Atlantic region. We consider three bioclimatic indices for viticultural zoning, Winkler and Huglin, and the hydrothermic index of Branas, Bernon and Levadoux. While significant trends were identified in the Winkler and Huglin indices, there were no significant trends in the Branas, Bernon and Levadoux index, for the period 1958 - 2005. In addition, we had also investigate the daily variation in atmospheric circulation through the study of the influence of circulation weather types derived using an automated daily classification. For the coming decades, using the scenario A1B evaluated by the regional climate models used in the ENSEMBLES project, the positive trends of Winkler and Huglin indices continue, while Branas, Bernon and Levadoux implies a negative trend. In all cases, these trends induce significant changes in the viticulture of the region. This work was supported by the Xunta de Galicia under Research Grant No. 10PXIB383169PR and co-financing by European Regional Development Fund (FEDER)

  11. Holocene denudation pattern across the South-Eastern Australian Escarpment and implications for its evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, Vincent; Dosseto, Anthony; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Fleury, Jules; Aster Team

    2016-04-01

    Developing a process based understanding of continental relief evolution requires to quantify rates of denudation and to compare their distribution with the evolution of geomorphic parameters. The analysis of denudation and exhumation spatial patterns based from cosmogenic nuclides and low temperature thermochronology are routinely used to document the processes associated with the geomorphic evolution of continental relief over various timescales. Passive margin escarpments are among some of the most salient continental geomorphic features outside of orogenic areas. Their evolution have been studied intensively over the long-term (several Ma to tens of Ma), using for example low-temperature thermochronology. However, datasets documenting their shorter-term (1-10 ka) dynamics are scarcer, and only a limited number of case studies have used quantitative techniques such as cosmogenic nuclides to document the denudation pattern across such escarpments. The South Eastern Australian Escarpment is such a place where cosmogenic nuclides have been intensively used over the last two decades to constrain processes of landscape evolution over short wavelength, with, for example the calibration of the soil production function. Such existing data and constraints provide an ideal setting to carry on further long-wavelength exploration of the dynamics of the whole escarpment. We have sampled 17 catchments across the South Eastern Australian Escarpment, starting from the coastal plain and moving westward up to the low relief plateau surface. The observed landscape denudation rates are 10-20 mm/ka in the coastal area and progressively increases up to ~60 mm/ka toward the edge of the escarpment. In the low-relief areas located west of the continental drainage divide denudation rates fall back to 10-20 mm/ka. This nearly four-fold contrast in denudation across the divide is characteristic of a major disequilibrium in the dynamics of the river network associated with a progressive

  12. Using MicroLEIS DSS to evaluate climate change impacts on land suitability in Andalusia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the effects of climate change on land suitability for crop production has become an important issue with respect to food security in areas undergoing increasing population sizes. Land suitability for six common Mediterranean crops was evaluated under current conditions and future climate change scenario. This evaluation was performed using the Agro-ecological Decision Support System Micro LEIS (MicroLEIS DSS) through the application of Terraza and Cervatana models. Terraza model provides an experimental prediction for the bioclimatic deficiency in the 62 natural regions that represent the Andalusia region. This model is dependent on current climate data, future climate change scenario data, and crop response data including coefficient of photosynthetic efficacy (Kc), coefficient of efficiency (Ky), and soil water retention. Alternatively, the Cervatana model is used to estimate agricultural land use capability under different soil types. Soil morphological and analytical data were collected from SEISnet data base representative of the natural region (NUTS 2) of Andalusia by 62 soil profiles. Agro-climatic data, referred to temperature and precipitation were obtained from the CDBm-Andalusia database, which contains monthly average values of climate variables: mean temperature, maximum and minimum rainfall, number of days of rain and humidity, collected during a consecutive period of 30 years (1960-1990), that represent the current climate scenario. Future climate is represented under A1B scenario for theperiods 2040, 2070 and 2100. These scenarios have been calculated using climate change variation values from the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET, 2011). The results of the Cervatana model depends on Terraza output results (e.g. water deficit class and the risk of frost class) and other land properties including soil factors, slope factors, and erosion risk factors. In order to spatialize the evaluation data, both models were incorporated into a

  13. Late Holocene paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution at Elaiussa Sebaste archeological area (South-Eastern Turkey): preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Romana; Bernasconi, Maria Pia; Colizza, Ester; Di Rita, Federico; Equini Schneider, Eugenia; Montenegro, Maria Eugenia; Pugliese, Nevio

    2013-04-01

    Geological disciplines are increasingly applied to archaeological research. Their potentialities are able to cover numerous fields of research, since they can become very interesting tools to define the ancient environments, the origin of the human settlements and the natural and anthropic processes which occurred through the evolution of the territory. Elaiussa Sebaste (Mersin region, South-Eastern coast of the Turkey), which was an important coastal town from the II century BC to VII century AD, may represent a noteworthy field of application of geological disciplines. This site was one of the main trading harbours of the Mediterranean (from the Augustan to the Byzantine era) growing in the Augustan period and maintaining its prestige until the late Empire and the Byzantine era. Actually it was the intersection of the most important shipping and land routes among Syria, Egypt and the Anatolian peninsula. The evolution of the coastal environment around this town has been continuously modified by men along its history. The most evident modification occurred North and South the promontory of Elaiussa-Sebaste bay, i.e. the construction of two harbours, which have been subsequently buried by not well defined events. The definition of the geological processes controlling the evolution of the coastal area during the last 3000 years, should become essential to reconstruct the succession of the palaeoenvironments of Elaiussa Sebaste, including the decline of the harbours. With regard to this topic, the geomorphologic analysis reveals the complex interactions among tectonics, erosion and sedimentation in this coastal area in both, emerged and in ancient times submerged settings facing the archaeological site. During the summer 2012, a geological survey allowed us to drill nine boreholes along the land-to-sea transects in both harbours. Preliminary observations indicate the stratigraphic evolution from restricted to open marine coastal environments. Sedimentology

  14. The effects of sea level and palaeotopography on lithofacies distribution and geometries in heterozoan carbonates, south-eastern Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.L.; Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized three-dimensional exposures to evaluate how sea-level position and palaeotopography control the facies and geometries of heterozoan carbonates. Heterozoan carbonates were deposited on top of a Neogene volcanic substrate characterized by palaeotopographic highs, palaeovalleys, and straits that were formed by subaerial erosion, possibly original volcanic topography, and faults prior to carbonate deposition. The depositional sequence that is the focus of this study (DS1B) consists of 7-10 fining upward cycles that developed in response to relative sea-level fluctuations. A complete cycle has a basal erosion surface overlain by deposits of debrisflows and high-density turbidity currents, which formed during relative sea-level fall. Overlying tractive deposits most likely formed during the lowest relative position of sea level. Overlying these are debrites grading upward to high-density turbidites and low-density turbidites that formed during relative sea-level rise. The tops of the cycles consist of hemipelagic deposits that formed during the highest relative position of sea level. The cycles fine upward because upslope carbonate production decreased as relative sea level rose due to less surface area available for shallow-water carbonate production and partial drowning of substrates. The cycles are dominated by two end-member types of facies associations and stratal geometries that formed in response to fluctuating sea-level position over variable substrate palaeotopography. One end-member is termed 'flank flow cycle' because this type of cycle indicates dominant sediment transport down the flanks of palaeovalleys. Those cycles drape the substrate, have more debrites, high-density turbidites and erosion on palaeovalley flanks, and in general, the lithofacies fine down the palaeovalley flanks into the palaeovalley axes. The second end-member is termed 'axial flow cycle' because it indicates a dominance of sediment transport down the axes of palaeovalleys. Those cycles are characterized by debrites and high-density turbidites in palaeovalley axes, and lap out of strata against the flanks of palaeovalleys. Where and when an axial flow cycle or flank flow cycle developed appears to be related to the intersection of sea level with areas of gentle or steep substrate slopes, during an overall relative rise in sea level. Results from this study provide a model for similar systems that must combine carbonate principles for sediment production, palaeotopographic controls, and physical principles of sediment remobilization into deep water. ?? 2005 International Association of Sedimentologists.

  15. Analysis of trophic networks and carbon flows in south-eastern Baltic coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, Maciej T.; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Järv, Leili; Kotta, Jonne; Martin, Georg; Minde, Atis; Põllumäe, Arno; Razinkovas, Arturas; Strake, Solvita; Bucas, Martynas; Blenckner, Thorsten

    2009-04-01

    Carbon flows in five south-eastern Baltic coastal ecosystems (Puck Bay, Curonian Lagoon, Lithuanian coast, Gulf of Riga coast and Pärnu Bay) were compared on the basis of ECOPATH models using 12 common functional groups. The studied systems ranged from the hypertrophic Curonian Lagoon to the mesotrophic Gulf of Riga coast. Interestingly, we found that macrophytes were not consumed by grazers, but rather channelled into the detritus food chain. In all ecosystems fisheries had far reaching impacts on their target species and on the food-web in general. In particular, benthic food-webs were partly affected by indirect fisheries effects. For example, fisheries tend to change the biomass of piscivorous fish, causing a cascading effect on benthivorous fish and macrozoobenthos. These cascades are ecosystem specific and need to be considered when using benthic invertebrates as productivity and eutrophication indicators. Odum’s maturity attributes allowed a ranking of costal ecosystems according to their maturity. Namely, the community development decreased in the following order: Pärnu Bay > Gulf of Riga coast > Lithuanian coast > Puck Bay > Curonian Lagoon.

  16. Trace fossil assemblages in the tide-dominated estuarine system: Ameki Group, south-eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekwenye, O. C.; Nichols, G.; Okogbue, C. O.; Mode, A. W.

    2016-06-01

    A systematic ichnological analysis with sedimentological study of the Eocene Ameki Group in south-eastern Nigeria, was conducted to infer depositional and biogenic processes operating during basin fill, identify discontinuities using substrate controlled ichnofacies, and identify the paleocological conditions that affected the diversity of the trace fossils. The Ameki Group represents a tide-dominated estuarine system characterised by a range of trace fossils assemblages. Eighteen individual ichnogenera and nineteen ichnospecies observed in the study area, were grouped into six recurring ichnofacies namely Scoyenia, Psilonichnus, Skolithos, Cruziana, Glossifungites and Teredolites. Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies are predominant in the estuarine deposits indicating that the sedimentary successions of the Eocene are dominantly of moderate to high energy marginal marine environments. The estuarine deposits (senus stricto) were controlled by low to fluctuating salinity levels, high sedimentation rate and fluctuating hydrodynamic energy. These resulted in the occurrence of low diversity of Scoyenia and Teredolites ichnofacies and low to moderate ichnodiversity of mixed Skolithos and depauperate Cruziana ichnofacies. Low levels of dissolved oxygen in quiescent water-embayment (open estuarine) resulted in low diversity of impoverished Cruziana ichnofacies. Glossifungites ichnofacies marked an amalgamated sequence boundary/marine flooding and an initial flooding surface at the base of the tidally influenced fluvial deposits.

  17. Geological and geophysical evidences for mud diapirism in south-eastern Sicily (Italy) and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    A recent investigation on the northern margin of the Hyblean Plateau in south-eastern Sicily highlights the occurrence of a clayey diapiric intrusion into the foreland carbonate series. The piercing body, exposed along a ∼270 long and ∼30 m deep NE-SW elongated quarry, consists of serpentinite-bearing clayey material. As suggested by the internal contractional features and by its geometric relations with the adjacent rocks, the clayey body intruded in the foreland series producing on its flanks a set of domino-arranged normal faults which nucleated as a result of gravitative collapse. Taking into account previous petrological studies, which provided information about the origin of the mud, a deep geodynamic model for the northern part of the Hyblean Plateau is here presented. The mud diapirs originated from the uprising of pre-existing serpentinite bodies and others products of alteration probably developed along an ancient ridge-transform intersection where a hydrothermally altered mantle wedge occurred. This interpretation is supported by seismic, magnetic and gravimetric anomalies beneath the analyzed area and has implications on its geodynamic evolution.

  18. Environmental determinants of the distribution of Chagas disease vectors in south-eastern Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Dulce Maria; Monroy, Maria Carlota; Rodas, Antonieta Guadalupe; Juarez, Jaime Abraham; Malone, John B

    2007-05-01

    The associations between the presence of triatomines and environmental variables were studied using correlation analysis and logistic regression models for a sample of villages in the south-eastern provinces of Guatemala. Information on the presence of Triatoma dimidiata, T. nitida and Rhodnius prolixus came from entomological surveys carried out by the Ministry of Health of Guatemala as part of its vector control programme. Environmental information for each village was extracted from digital thematic maps developed by the Ministry of Agriculture. The presence of T. nitida was found to be significantly associated with the average minimum temperature. The odds of presence of T. nitida in a village decreased as the average minimum temperature increased. T. nitida exists at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level in temperate regions. The presence of R. prolixus showed a significant positive association with maximum absolute temperature and relative humidity. The logistic regression model for R. prolixus showed a good fit and predicted suitable habitats in the provinces of Chiquimula, Zacapa and Jalapa, which agrees with the known distribution of the species. Habitat partitioning between R. prolixus and T. dimidiata is suggested by their significant and opposite associations with maximum absolute temperature. Improved models to predict suitable habitats for T. dimidiata hold promise for spatial targeting of integrated vector management. PMID:18686245

  19. Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

    Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

  20. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  1. Malaria in tree crop plantations in south-eastern and western provinces of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singhasivanon, P; Thimasarn, K; Yimsamran, S; Linthicum, K; Nualchawee, K; Dawreang, D; Kongrod, S; Premmanisakul, N; Maneeboonyang, W; Salazar, N

    1999-09-01

    During the past three decades almost half of the existing natural tropical forests in Thailand were destroyed and replaced by cash crops, rubber, coffee, fruit orchards (durian, rambutan, mangosteen) and other commercial plantations. In order to determine the proportion of malaria cases contracted from such commercial plantations, an epidemiological study was conducted between June 1996 to May 1997 in two districts, one in Pong Nam Ron, located in a south-eastern province near the Cambodian border and another in Sai Yok, in a western province along the Myanmar border. Data were collected by passive case detection from patients attending the existing malaria clinics and active case detection by monthly malariometric survey in selected villages. All malaria cases were thoroughly investigated and classified according to exposure to different ecotypes prior to onset of malaria symptoms in the preceding two weeks. Malaria cases acquired from commercial plantations accounted for 35.2% and 11.2% in Pong Nam Ron and in Sai Yok districts respectively. In such plantations, most of the malaria cases were contracted from fruit orchards and to a lesser extent from rubber and teak plantations. From this study it is evident that commercial plantations provide a significant site of malaria transmission in addition to the forest and foothills areas in Southeast Asia where efficient vectors such as An. dirus and An. minimus are prevalent and have adapted to such changed ecosystems. PMID:10774642

  2. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García Mochón, Leticia; Caro Martínez, Araceli; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. Methods An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. Results The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. Conclusion This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance. PMID:26935616

  3. Distribution and sources of organic matter in sediments of the south-eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remeikaitė-Nikienė, Nijolė; Lujanienė, Galina; Malejevas, Vitalijus; Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Žilius, Mindaugas; Garnaga-Budrė, Galina; Stankevičius, Algirdas

    2016-05-01

    Temporal and spatial distribution of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) as well as its sources in the south-eastern Baltic Sea were investigated. Organic matter was characterized by the organic carbon content, δ13C and δ15N signatures and C/N ratios. The sampling was performed in the coastal, offshore areas and in the Curonian Lagoon in the period from May 2012 to September 2014. The average elemental (C/N ~ 6.4) and isotopic composition (δ13C from - 29.6‰ to - 24.9‰) of SOM suggested that during most of the year it was composed of both freshwater and marine phytoplanktonic material. Elevated δ15N values (average ranging from 5.6‰ to 6.7‰) were detected in SOM from the Curonian Lagoon. This most likely reflected the increased isotopic signal of the Nemunas River (δ15N ~ 8‰) derived from the anthropogenic input in the basin area. At the Baltic Sea offshore sites, SOM had lower δ15N values (δ15N ~ 3.5‰ on average), indicating phytoplankton blooms. A two-end member mixing model based on the carbon stable isotopic composition showed that a large proportion (~ 90%) of SOM in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon was of the freshwater origin. The allochthonous organic matter accounted for about 47% of SOM in the studied Baltic Sea area with the highest contribution (about 75%) within the Curonian Lagoon plume zone in the coastal waters.

  4. Phytoplankton Dynamics During the Spring Bloom in the South-eastern English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, C.; Brylinski, J. M.; Bodineau, L.; Thoumelin, G.; Bentley, D.; Hilde, D.

    1996-10-01

    The two main phases of a phytoplankton spring bloom in the South-eastern English Channel were studied during two 3-day cruises in March and May 1992. Physico-chemical parameters were measured, such as temperature, salinity, density, turbidity and nutrients, as well as biological parameters ( in situchlorophyll afluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and fatty acids). Photo-synthetic pigments and fatty acids were used as taxonomic and physiological markers of phytoplankton populations. Data suggest the existence of two ' biological provinces ' north and south of the Bay of Somme. In the Northern province, the bloom starts earlier, probably due to the shallower coastal water, and is characterized by high proportions of diatoms and, successively, of Prymnesiophytes ( Phaeocystissp.). The bloom maintains high biomass levels sustained by inputs from the Somme River and probable nutrient regeneration. The Southern province, directly influenced by the Seine River, is characterized by a deeper coastal water column and the presence of phytoflagellates. Despite the higher supply of nutrients from the Seine River, the bloom starts later and supports a lower phytoplankton biomass. The differences between both areas are analysed on the basis of the hydrodynamism of the area, and are interpreted as two different stages of the same process. To understand the spatio-temporal variations of phytoplankton dynamics, interactions between biology and hydrodynamical characteristics of this area are discussed.

  5. Geolectrical methods applied on a contaminated site : the Entressen landfill case study (south-eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naudet, V.; Revil, A.; Bottero, J.-Y.

    2003-04-01

    Redox potential is a controlling parameter in many contaminated site remediation technologies. Its knowledge is crutial to understand the contaminant plume development and risks for groundwater ressources. But, redox potential is very difficult to measure directlly in the field. A geophysical method that could determine the redox potential distribution in a contaminant plume would be particularly welcome. We believe that the self-potential method (SP) offers such a possibility. We performed extensive SP and electrical resistivity measurements downstream the Entressen landfill (south-eastern France in Provence). Thanks to the electrical resistivity tomographies, we obtained a 3D image of the aquifer datum. This image helps us to better understand the pattern of water flow through the channels, and to estimate the electrokinetic component of the SP signal. An important negative SP anomaly (-400 mV) is measured near the decantation basins of the landfill, suggesting an hypothetical leak of these basins. The polarity and the great amplitude of this anomaly indicate that the main component of the SP signal is due to electrochemical reactions such as oxido-reduction reactions. The comparison of the SP measurements and the geochemical data shows that the negative SP anomaly is correlated with the anaerobic zone of the contaminant plume. We believe that redox potential gradients in the contaminant plume generate a diffusion potential which is responsible for the SP anomaly. Microbial activity also plays a key role in all these processes.

  6. Treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities and medicine retailers in south-eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background At primary care facilities in Nigeria, national treatment guidelines state that malaria should be symptomatically diagnosed and treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Evidence from households and health care providers indicates that many patients do not receive the recommended treatment. This study sought to determine the extent of the problem by collecting data as patients and caregivers leave health facilities, and determine what influences the treatment received. Methods A cross-sectional cluster survey of 2,039 respondents exiting public health centres, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers was undertaken in urban and rural settings in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria. Results Although 79% of febrile patients received an anti-malarial, only 23% received an ACT. Many patients (38%) received sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). A further 13% of patients received an artemisinin-derivative as a monotherapy. An estimated 66% of ACT dispensed was in the correct dose. The odds of a patient receiving an ACT was highly associated with consumer demand (OR: 55.5, p < 0.001). Conclusion Few febrile patients attending public health facilities, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers received an ACT, and the use of artemisinin-monotherapy and less effective anti-malarials is concerning. The results emphasize the importance of addressing both demand and supply-side influences on malaria treatment and the need for interventions that target consumer preferences as well as seek to improve health service provision. PMID:21651787

  7. Economic Burden of Road Traffic Accidents; Report from a Single Center from South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sargazi, Aliyeh; Sargazi, Atefeh; Nadakkavukaran Jim, Prigil Kumar; Danesh, HoseinAli; Aval, ForoughSargolzaee; Kiani, Zohre; Lashkarinia, AmirHosein; Sepehri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the economic burden of road traffic accidents (RTAs) in patients admitted to a single center in south eastern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol affiliated with Zabol University of Medical Sciences during a 12-month period from April 2012 to April 2013. All the RTAs patients who were admitted to our emergency department were included. The direct expenses of hospital care were recorded according to their medical charts and the accountant registration information. Data are presented according to different RTAs characteristics. Results: Overall 1155 patients were included in the current study with mean age of 36.7 ± 5.14 years among whom there were 673(58.3%) men and 482 (41.7%) women. The annual incidence of RTAs were calculated to be 288 per 100,000 population. The RTAs economic burden in our center was 589,448.49 USD which accounted for 10.4% of total hospital expenses during the study period. The money spend on RTAs in our center was 130 times more than gross national income per capita. Cost of each patient in road traffic was 15 times more than cost of an average patient of the hospital in other sections. Conclusion: With considerable high ratio of accidents in Zabol, proper intervention is needed for controlling and preventing RTAs in order to decrease its injuries, impact and the associated economic burden. PMID:27162926

  8. Infant Sleeping Environment in South-Eastern Nigeria (Sleeping Place and Sleeping Position): A Preliminary Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ibeziako, Ngozi S.; Ibekwe, Roland Chidi; Ibe, Bede C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To determine infant sleeping position/place and the factors associated with them in South-eastern Nigeria. Methods. this is a cross-sectional study on infant sleeping environment. Subjects were the mother/ infant pairs that attended the well baby clinics at the Institute of Child Health of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu (ICH-UNTH), Mother of Christ Specialist Hospital (MCSH), Enugu and the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH), Abakaliki. Results. Lying on the side was the most common (51.1%) and the least stable sleeping position. Only 36.6% of infants who slept in that position were likely to be found in the same position the following morning; lying supine was the most stable (74.1%). The difference in stability of sleeping positions was statistically significant (P < .01). Twenty six point seven percent of the mothers routinely lay their infants in prone position. On logistic regression, maternal parity was the only factor that was predictive of nonprone sleeping position (P = .01). Bed sharing, though common (66.9%), was more among the experienced (P = .03) and less educated mothers (P < .01). Conclusion. There is a high level of prone sleeping position and bed sharing among infants in this study site. The potential consequences of these are unclear. There is therefore a need to conduct local studies to clarify its implication. PMID:20309418

  9. Hydrogeological impacts of a railway tunnel in fractured Precambrian gneiss rocks (south-eastern Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kværner, Jens; Snilsberg, Petter

    2013-11-01

    Groundwater monitoring along the Romeriksporten tunnel, south-eastern Norway, provided an opportunity for studying the impacts of tunnelling on groundwater in fractured Precambrian gneiss rocks, and examining relations between bedrock hydrology, tectonic weakness zones and catchments. Tunnel leakage resulted in groundwater drawdown up to 35 m in weakness zones, converted groundwater discharge zones into recharge zones, and affected groundwater chemistry. The magnitude of drawdown and fluctuations in groundwater level differed between weakness zones, and varied with distance from the tunnel route, tunnel leakage, and recharge from catchments. Clear differences in groundwater level and fluctuation patterns indicated restricted groundwater flow between weakness zones. The groundwater drawdowns demonstrated coherent water-bearing networks to 180-m depth in faults and fracture zones. Similar groundwater levels with highly correlated fluctuations demonstrated hydraulic connectivity within fracture zones. Different groundwater drawdown and leakage in weakness zones with different appearance and influence of tectonic events demonstrated the importance of the geological history for bedrock hydrogeology. Water injection into the bedrock counteracted groundwater drawdowns. Even moderate leakage to underground constructions may lead to large groundwater drawdown in areas with small groundwater recharge. Hydrogeological interpretation of tectonic weakness zones should occur in the context of geological history and local catchment hydrology.

  10. Modeling sedimentation rates of Malilangwe reservoir in the south-eastern lowveld of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalu, Tatenda; Tambara, Edwin Munyaradzi; Clegg, Bruce; Chari, Lenin Dzibakwe; Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka

    2013-03-01

    Modelling the sedimentation rates using the Wallingford (2004) equations with the aid of NDVI (remote sensing) to assess land degradation was carried out for Malilangwe reservoir catchment in the south eastern lowveld of Zimbabwe. Siltation life of the reservoir was determined from rate of incoming sediment, trap efficiency and reservoir capacity using the Wallingford method. The average rainfall of the study area was about 560 mm while runoff from the catchment ranged from 0.3 mm (minimum) to 199 mm (maximum) with an overall average runoff of 50.03 mm. Results showed that the overall mean annual sediment concentration was approximately 2,400 ppm. The reservoir capacity to inflow ratio was estimated at 0.8 with a sedimentation rate of 120.1 tkm-2 year-1. Calculated probability of the dam filling is 26.8 %. Results also showed that the siltation life of the reservoir was >100 years according to the Wallingford method. The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) showed progressive decline ( p < 0.05) of the vegetation health from 2000 to 2009. While acknowledging the limitations of techniques used, this study demonstrates in part the effectiveness of sedimentation modelling and remote sensing as a tool for the production of baseline data for assessment and monitoring levels of land degradation in the Malilangwe reservoir catchment.

  11. A quantitative analysis of microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nel, H A; Froneman, P W

    2015-12-15

    The extent of microplastic pollution (<5mm) in the southern hemisphere, particularly southern Africa, is largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa, looking at whether bays are characterised by higher microplastic densities than open stretches of coastline in both beach sediment and surf-zone water. Microplastic (mean ± standard error) densities in the beach sediment ranged between 688.9 ± 348.2 and 3308 ± 1449 particles · m(-2), while those in the water column varied between 257.9 ± 53.36 and 1215 ± 276.7 particles · m(-3). With few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in either the sediment or water column microplastic densities; with little differences in density between bays and the open coast (P>0.05). These data indicate that the presence of microplastics were not associated with proximity to land-based sources or population density, but rather is governed by water circulation. PMID:26433774

  12. Rock glaciers, protalus ramparts and pronival ramparts in the south-eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, R. R.; Boccali, C.; Žebre, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Rock glaciers and protalus ramparts are characteristic landforms of the periglacial domain often used as markers for the occurrence of permafrost in mountain terrains. As such, relict rock glaciers can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions. We present here the first previously unreported rock glacier inventory of the south-eastern Alps (including the north-eastern-most region of Italy and Slovenia), interpreted from high resolution orthophotos and a high resolution digital terrain model interpolated from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). We mapped 53 rock glaciers covering a total area of 3.45 km2. The majority of rock glaciers are classified as relict and distributed between 1708 and 1846 m a.s.l. with slope ranging between 19° and 27°. In addition to rock glaciers we observed 66 protalus (pronival) ramparts, having median elevation of 1913 m a.s.l. and covering 0.48 km2. More than half of the inventoried protalus ramparts are located in the more maritime area of the Alps with higher precipitation compared to the location of rock glaciers. Using paleoclimate reconstruction based on the 1981-2010 climatological record of the area, we infer that the rock glaciers formed during one of the dry and cold periods of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Possible evolution of the active pronival forms observed in the most maritime area of this alpine sector is also discussed.

  13. The drought of the 1890s in south-eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David; Klein, Jorgen; Endfield, Georgina

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the 1890s south-eastern Africa, from modern day Zimbabwe and Botswana down to South Africa, was hit by a drought driven ecological crisis. Using instrumental observations and previously unexploited documentary records in the form of British administrative sources, reports and letters by various Protestant mission societies and newspapers, the extent, duration and severity of the drought are explored. Generally the period was marked by a delayed onset of the rainy season of several months; rainfall totals dropped and perennial rivers such as the Limpopo dried up. The delay of the rainy season negatively impacted the rain-fed agriculture. Recurrent drought conditions during the rainy season frequently withered the young crops. In the interior of southern Africa, on the border of the Kalahari desert, the drought was more severe and continuous than towards the coast of the Indian Ocean. The prolonged dry conditions furthered the outbreak of locust plagues and cattle disease, which in the 1890s took the disastrous form of Rinderpest. A model is established showing how the drought as the original driver of the crisis, triggered a cascade of responses from harvest failure to famine and finally leading to profound socio-economic change.

  14. Distribution patterns of bacterioplankton in the oligotrophic south-eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Keuter, Sabine; Rahav, Eyal; Herut, Barak; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2015-08-01

    The spatial variability in the composition of bacterioplankton communities from the Levantine basin off the Israeli coast (south-eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied using water samples from nine stations down to 1880 m depth. An nMDS (non-metric multidimensional scaling) ordination plot of ARISA (automated rRNA intergenic spacer analyses) fingerprints performed on 39 water samples revealed three groups of communities based on depth (epi, meso and bathypelagial waters), while the stations' geographical location did not seem to have an effect on the distribution of bacterioplankton assemblages. Interestingly, communities from the two deep pelagic zones were further grouped depending on the three prevailing water masses in the Levantine basin, and depth, salinity, temperature and silicic acid were significantly related to the variations of the bacterial community compositions. Cloning of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of dominant ARISA peaks showed that abundant bacteria in all depths were ubiquitous uncultured Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. The results further indicate that distinct microbial community profiles in the Levantine basin are associated with prevailing water masses that have formed due to different physico-chemical parameters and thus might act as physical barriers rather than physiological discriminators, as has been suggested in studies from other ocean regions. PMID:26109135

  15. Risk factors for obesity development in school children from south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Artur; Klimek, Katarzyna; Telega, Grzegorz; Hejda, Grazyna; Wdowiak, Leszek; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine socio-economic and parental factors affecting odds for development of obesity in school-age children from south-eastern Poland (SEP). 2,182 boys and 2,066 girls from randomly selected elementary schools in SEP were involved in this study. The mean age of the girls was 10.4 years (SD 2.4, range 6.7-14.9). The mean age of the boys was 10.5 years (SD 2.3, range 6.9-14.9). 167 boys (7.7 % , 95 % CI : 6.6-8.8 %) and 208 girls (10.1 % , 95 % CI : 8.8-11.4 %) were obese. The difference in prevalence of obesity between genders was statistically significant. Socioeconomic risk factors (RF) were different from those in Western Europe or the United States. A small number of siblings was RF for obesity. Intact family had a protective effect. No correlation was found between child's obesity and parental education, income per capita or mother working outside the home. Parental obesity was RF for the obesity in children. High BMI at birth was an RF for obesity. A distinct pattern of socio-economic RF underlines the importance of population specific epidemiological studies. Defining RF in a specific region provides information to design specific preventive strategies. PMID:19061264

  16. Genetic population structure of spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus along the south-eastern U.S.A.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, T P; Denson, M R; Darden, T L

    2014-08-01

    Analyses of the genetic population structure of spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus along the south-eastern U.S. coast using 13 microsatellites suggest significant population differentiation between fish in North Carolina (NC) compared with South Carolina (SC) and Georgia (GA), with New River, NC, serving as an area of integration between northern and southern C. nebulosus. Although there is a significant break in gene flow between these areas, the overall pattern throughout the sampling range represents a gradient in genetic diversification with the degree of geographic separation. Latitudinal distance and estuarine density appear to be main drivers in the genetic differentiation of C. nebulosus along the south-eastern U.S. coast. The isolation-by-distance gene-flow pattern creates fine-scale differences in the genetic composition of proximal estuaries and dictates that stocking must be confined to within 100 km of the location of broodstock collection in order to maintain the natural gradient of genetic variation along the south-eastern U.S. coast. PMID:24890601

  17. Application of climatic indices to analyse viticultural suitability in Extremadura, south-western Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Rebollo, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luis L.; García, Abelardo; de Salazar, Enrique Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Although climate is recognised as one of the main drivers of viticulture success, its main features have not been sufficiently described in many viticultural regions, including Extremadura, which contains one of the largest grapevine-growing areas in Europe. Using climatic data from 80 weather stations located throughout Extremadura, seven bioclimatic indices were calculated to estimate heat accumulation and potential water balance during the growing season and the thermal regime during the ripening of grapes. Differences in some climatic indices were found, and after a multivariate geographic analysis, four groups were delimited containing weather stations with similar climatic features, with variability between groups explained by heat accumulation and tempearture and thermal amplitude during the ripening season. Suitability for cultivation of grapevines without thermal restriction and temperate nights during the ripening period are the main characteristics of the weather stations studied, but spatial variability found in climatic potential denotes the importance of differentiating locations to properly relate the viticultural climate to grape quality factors and the style of wines produced. The climatic features of the four groups are very similar to those described in other viticultural regions, including those in close proximity to Extremadura and others worldwide, but few studies have used broad and updated temporal climate data for computing bioclimatic indices as in this case study. Finally, trends in climate indices were analysed. Results revealed that all groups have experienced warmer growing seasons, driven mainly by changes in minimum temperatures. This fact has numerous potential impacts, including changes in grapevine phenological timing, disruption of balanced composition in grapes (ultimately affecting wine characteristics), alterations in varieties grown and spatial changes in viable winegrape-growing zones.

  18. Integrated assessment of the impact of climate and land use changes on groundwater quantity and quality in Mancha Oriental (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Peña-Haro, S.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Mocholi-Almudever, A. F.; Henriquez-Dole, L.; Macian-Sorribes, H.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.

    2014-09-01

    Climate and land use change (global change) impacts on groundwater systems cannot be studied in isolation, as various and complex interactions in the hydrological cycle take part. Land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes have a great impact on the water cycle and contaminant production and transport. Groundwater flow and storage are changing in response not only to climatic changes but also to human impacts on land uses and demands (global change). Changes in future climate and land uses will alter the hydrologic cycles and subsequently impact the quantity and quality of regional water systems. Predicting the behavior of recharge and discharge conditions under future climatic and land use changes is essential for integrated water management and adaptation. In the Mancha Oriental system in Spain, in the last decades the transformation from dry to irrigated lands has led to a significant drop of the groundwater table in one of the largest groundwater bodies in Spain, with the consequent effect on stream-aquifer interaction in the connected Jucar River. Streamflow depletion is compromising the related ecosystems and the supply to the downstream demands, provoking a complex management issue. The intense use of fertilizer in agriculture is also leading to locally high groundwater nitrate concentrations. Understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability and water quality is essential for a proper management of the system. In this paper we analyze the potential impact of climate and land use change in the system by using an integrated modelling framework consisting of the sequentially coupling of a watershed agriculturally-based hydrological model (SWAT) with the ground-water model MODFLOW and mass-transport model MT3D. SWAT model outputs (mainly groundwater recharge and pumping, considering new irrigation needs under changing ET and precipitation) are used as MODFLOW inputs to simulate changes in groundwater flow and storage and impacts on stream

  19. Climate, water and tourism: causes and effects of droughts associated with urban development and tourism in Benidorm (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ibarra, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse the relationship between climate, tourism and water in Benidorm (Spain), an international icon of Fordist tourism (mass tourism). In particular, we have studied the causes and effects of the water supply droughts Benidorm has suffered since becoming a major holiday destination. For this purpose, we consulted the local press in Benidorm over the period 1969-2003. Using qualitative and quantitative geographical techniques, we found that the water supply in the area has managed to keep up with rapidly increasing demand, with only occasional imbalances and periods of crisis. We focused in particular on the causes and effects of the water supply crisis of 1978, a moment of great uncertainty in the history of Benidorm as a holiday resort. We also examined the influence of atmospheric conditions on precipitation levels and how these precipitation levels affect the water supply. Our results highlight the importance of intense rainfall episodes associated with easterly winds, which provided large inputs for Benidorm's water supply system (Marina Baja Water Consortium). We also found that the water supply crisis of 1978 resulted in serious economic losses for Benidorm and damaged its image as a holiday destination and that the city is now less vulnerable to variations in the climate, as a result of its search for new water resources (both surface and ground water resources and from other nonconventional sources).

  20. Climate, water and tourism: causes and effects of droughts associated with urban development and tourism in Benidorm (Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse the relationship between climate, tourism and water in Benidorm (Spain), an international icon of Fordist tourism (mass tourism). In particular, we have studied the causes and effects of the water supply droughts Benidorm has suffered since becoming a major holiday destination. For this purpose, we consulted the local press in Benidorm over the period 1969-2003. Using qualitative and quantitative geographical techniques, we found that the water supply in the area has managed to keep up with rapidly increasing demand, with only occasional imbalances and periods of crisis. We focused in particular on the causes and effects of the water supply crisis of 1978, a moment of great uncertainty in the history of Benidorm as a holiday resort. We also examined the influence of atmospheric conditions on precipitation levels and how these precipitation levels affect the water supply. Our results highlight the importance of intense rainfall episodes associated with easterly winds, which provided large inputs for Benidorm's water supply system (Marina Baja Water Consortium). We also found that the water supply crisis of 1978 resulted in serious economic losses for Benidorm and damaged its image as a holiday destination and that the city is now less vulnerable to variations in the climate, as a result of its search for new water resources (both surface and ground water resources and from other nonconventional sources). PMID:24899396

  1. Climate change and drought effects on rural income distribution in the Mediterranean: a case study for Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, Sonia; Suárez, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of climate change and drought on agricultural incomes in Spanish rural areas. Present research has focused on the effects of these extreme climatological events through response functions, considering effects on crop productivity and average incomes. Among the impacts of droughts, we focused on potential effects on income distribution. The study of the effects on abnormally dry periods is therefore needed in order to perform an analysis of diverse social aspects in the long term. We estimate crop production functions for a range of Mediterranean crops in Spain and we use a measure of the decomposition of inequality to estimate the impact of climate change and drought on yield disparities. Certain adaptation measures may require a better understanding of risks by the public to achieve general acceptance. We provide empirical estimations for the marginal effects of the two impacts considered: farms' average income and income distribution. Our estimates consider crop production response to both biophysical and socio-economic aspects to analyse long-term implications on competitiveness and disparities. As for the results, we find disparities in the adaptation priorities depending on the crop and the region analysed.

  2. Future climate scenarios and rainfall--runoff modelling in the Upper Gallego catchment (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bürger, C M; Kolditz, O; Fowler, H J; Blenkinsop, S

    2007-08-01

    Global climate change may have large impacts on water supplies, drought or flood frequencies and magnitudes in local and regional hydrologic systems. Water authorities therefore rely on computer models for quantitative impact prediction. In this study we present kernel-based learning machine river flow models for the Upper Gallego catchment of the Ebro basin. Different learning machines were calibrated using daily gauge data. The models posed two major challenges: (1) estimation of the rainfall-runoff transfer function from the available time series is complicated by anthropogenic regulation and mountainous terrain and (2) the river flow model is weak when only climate data are used, but additional antecedent flow data seemed to lead to delayed peak flow estimation. These types of models, together with the presented downscaled climate scenarios, can be used for climate change impact assessment in the Gallego, which is important for the future management of the system. PMID:17428594

  3. Climate driven changes in subtidal kelp forest communities in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Voerman, Sofie E; Llera, Eva; Rico, José M

    2013-09-01

    Reconstructions suggest a massive decline of nearly 1400 ha of kelp forest in North Western Spain in 2007. In line with global rising temperatures, we hypothesized that Sea Surface Temperature (SST) surpassed a lethal threshold for kelp. We examined whether changes in SST correlated to the proposed decline in kelp forest. All investigated SST characteristics suggested to affect kelp abundance increased significantly during the past thirty years, reaching extreme values during the last decade. In addition over the past two decades, the landscape formerly dominated by both cold and warm temperate canopy forming and understory species changed to one dominated by warm temperate understory species, resulting in a loss of vertical community structure. Fisheries landing data of kelp associated species was used to support the suggested change in kelp abundance. Subsequent recovery of the kelp appears to be occurring in deeper waters. PMID:23948150

  4. Climatic implications of correlated upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits on the Cinca and Gallego rivers, NE Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Claudia J; Mcdonald, Eric; Sancho, Carlos; Pena, Jose- Luis

    2008-01-01

    We correlate Upper Pleistocene glacial and fluvial deposits of the Cinca and Gallego River valleys (south central Pyrenees and Ebro basin, Spain) using geomorphic position, luminescence dates, and time-related trends in soil development. The ages obtained from glacial deposits indicate glacial periods at 85 {+-} 5 ka, 64 {+-} 11 ka, and 36 {+-} 3 ka (from glacial till) and 20 {+-} 3 ka (from loess). The fluvial drainage system, fed by glaciers in the headwaters, developed extensive terrace systems in the Cinca River valley at 178 {+-} 21 ka, 97 {+-} 16 ka, 61 {+-} 4 ka, 47 {+-} 4 ka, and 11 {+-} 1 ka, and in the Gallego River valley at 151 {+-} 11 ka, 68 {+-} 7 ka, and 45 {+-} 3 ka. The times of maximum geomorphic activity related to cold phases coincide with Late Pleistocene marine isotope stages and heinrich events. The maximum extent of glaciers during the last glacial occurred at 64 {+-} 11 ka, and the terraces correlated with this glacial phase are the most extensive in both the Cinca (61 {+-} 4 ka) and Gallego (68 {+-} 7 ka) valleys, indicating a strong increase in fluvial discharge and availability of sediments related to the transition to deglaciation. The global Last Glacial Maximum is scarcely represented in the south central Pyrenees owing to dominantly dry conditions at that time. Precipitation must be controlled by the position of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation system. The glacial systems and the associated fluvial dynamic seem sensitive to (1) global climate changes controlled by insolation, (2) North Atlantic thermohaline circulation influenced by freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic, and (3) anomalies in atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic controlling precipitation on the Iberian peninsula. The model of glacial and fluvial evolution during the Late Pleistocene in northern Spain could be extrapolated to other glaciated mountainous areas in southern Europe.

  5. Soil water content and yield variability in vineyards of Mediterranean northeastern Spain affected by mechanization and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. C.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyse the combined influence of the Mediterranean climate variability (particularly the irregular rainfall distribution throughout the year) and the land transformations carried out in vineyards of northeastern Spain on soil water content evolution and its influence on grape production. The study was carried out in a commercial vineyard located in the Anoia-Alt Penedès region (Barcelona province, northeastern Spain), which was prepared for mechanization with important land transformations. Two plots were selected for the study: one with low degree of transformation of the soil profile, representing a non-disturbed situation, and the second one in which more than 3 m were cut in the upper part of the plot and filled in the lower part, representing the disturbed situation. Soil water content was evaluated at three positions along the slope in each plot and at three depths (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm) during the period 1999-2001, years with different rainfall characteristics, including extreme events and long dry periods. Rainfall was recorded in the experimental field using a pluviometer linked to a data-logger. Runoff rates and yield were evaluated at the same positions. For the same annual rainfall, the season of the year in which rainfall is recorded and its intensity are critical for water availability for crops. Soil water content varies within the plot and is related to the soil characteristics existing at the different positions of the landscape. The differences in soil depth created by soil movements in the field mechanization give rise to significant yield reductions (up to 50%) between deeper and shallow areas. In addition, for the same annual rainfall, water availability for crops depends on its distribution over the year, particularly in soils with low water-storage capacity. The yield was strongly affected in years with dry or very dry winters.

  6. Preliminary comparative study of middle Anisian vertebrate ichnoassociation from South-Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdiserri, D.; Todesco, R.; Avanzini, M.

    2009-04-01

    Anisian vertebrate tracks from the south-eastern Alps are known since the first decades of 1900s (Abel, 1926). The sedimentary units yielding footprints are characterized by the alternation of limestone influenced by terrigenous supply with mere marine and volcanic layers allowing a precise dating. In this study, we compare four different ichnoassociations from three different outcrops in the South-Eastern Alps correlating them chronologically and sedimentologically. They were found to be subsequent in time from Lower Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill-Voltago Conglomerate; Todesco, 2007) through middle Pelsonian (Bad Gfrill- Giovo Formation) (Valdiserri et al., 2006) and basal Illyrian (Piz da Peres- Richthofen Conglomerate; Todesco et al., 2008) to the middle Illyrian (Val Duron-Morbiac Limestone; Avanzini et al., 2007). In all these ichno-associations, Rhynchosauroides, an ichno-genus referable to a lizard - like trackmaker well known in the European Anisian, is dominant. Within this group at least four different morphotypes are known, probably reflecting both intraspecific variation (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and different ichnospecies. Although the Chirotheridae group, referred to Archosaurian trackmakers Synaptichnium is represented in both Pelsonian ichnoassociation of the Bad Gfrill outcrop, while Chirotherium , Isochirotherium and Brachichirotherium are recognized both in Pelsonian and in Illyrian ichnosites with a incremental presence in the Illyrian The ichofamiliae Rotodactylidae und Procolophonidae seem well represented in the Pelsonian strata but absent in the Illyrian ones. The preliminarly comparative analysis of these four correlated ichnosites and the comparision with the yet known ones (Avanzini and Mietto 2008) pointed out the expected predominance of the Lepidosaurian-Archosaurian association typical for the middle Triassic ichnofauna. The incremental presence of the Chirotherian track in Illyrian and the presence of the Procolophonichium just in the

  7. Perception and research of soil erosion by water until the mid-20th century - examples from central Europe and south-eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, many phases of agricultural expansion and regression occurred with associated land clearance and reforestation. As a result, soil has been washed downslope by soil erosion and gullies have incised, leading to the development of colluvial and alluvial deposits in many areas worldwide. While an increasing number of studies on past soil erosion shows significant loss of soil as an effect of human activity and extreme rainfall events, only little is known about the knock-on effects on soil fertility, possibly triggering crop failures and land abandonment until the beginning of the coordinated research programmes on soil conservation. Based on historical documents and literature reviews this paper gives examples on how soil erosion had been perceived previously by farmers, land owners, researches, and policy makers in central Europe and south-eastern USA. It presents different types of problem solving strategies and their long term efficiency - a helpful tool to evaluate the long term effects of current soil conservation practices under changing climatic conditions and increasing land use pressure.

  8. Assessing the Potentialities of FORMOSAT-2 Data for Water and Crop Monitoring at Small Regional Scale in South-Eastern France

    PubMed Central

    Courault, Dominique; Bsaibes, Aline; Kpemlie, Emmanuel; Hadria, Rachid; Hagolle, Olivier; Marloie, Olivier; Hanocq, Jean-F.; Olioso, Albert; Bertrand, Nadine; Desfonds, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    Water monitoring at the scale of a small agricultural region is a key point to insure a good crop development particularly in South-Eastern France, where extreme climatic conditions result in long dry periods in spring and summer with very sparse precipitation events, corresponding to a crucial period of crop development. Remote sensing with the increasing imagery resolution is a useful tool to provide information on plant water status over various temporal and spatial scales. The current study focussed on assessing the potentialities of FORMOSAT-2 data, characterized by high spatial (8m pixel) and temporal resolutions (1-3 day/time revisit), to improve crop modeling and spatial estimation of the main land properties. Thirty cloud free images were acquired from March to October 2006 over a small region called Crau-Camargue in SE France, while numerous ground measurements were performed simultaneously over various crop types. We have compared two models simulating energy transfers between soil, vegetation and atmosphere: SEBAL and PBLs. Maps of evapotranspiration were analyzed according to the agricultural practices at field scale. These practices were well identified from FORMOSAT-2 images, which provided accurate input surface parameters to the SVAT models.

  9. Impact assessment of combined climate and management scenarios on groundwater resources and associated wetland (Majorca, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Lucila; von Igel, Wolf; Javier Elorza, F.; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2009-10-01

    SummaryClimate change impact on a groundwater dependent wetland and natural recharge has been investigated in the Inca-Sa Pobla coastal aquifer for the year 2025. Temperature and precipitation based on the downscaled output from a general circulation model (GCM) was coupled to a groundwater model to estimate the impacts of climate change and management practices on groundwater. Management practices were based on changes in the volume of water extracted for agricultural and domestic purposes. Climate change impacts on the hydrogeological system were based on downscaled HadCM3 outputs for future medium-high (A2) and medium-low (B2) greenhouse gas scenarios developed by the IPCC [IPCC, 2001. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. In: Houghton, J.T., Ding, Y., Griggs, D.J., Noguer, M., Van Der Linden, P.J., Dai, X., Maskell, K., Johnson, C.A. (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 881 pp]. Assessment of the impacts on the water level of the wetland were carried out by estimating the flow rate of springs discharging from the aquifer obtained by changes of agricultural land use and water supply allocation and variation of recharge according climate scenarios. The greatest reduction in recharge was observed in scenario A2 (-21%), while recharge in scenario B2 remained relatively unchanged (-4%). However, as uncertainties arising from GCM outputs maybe greater than the differences simulated here results are only indicative of the system response. In order to preserve the spring discharge at its current level (17 Mm 3/yr), which successfully prevents the wetland from drying up, a decrease in groundwater extraction is needed. In addition, the reallocation of agricultural wells is recommended under both scenarios. Spring discharge was affected the most by agricultural wells located near the wetland, as indicated by

  10. Metabolic Syndrome in School Children in Mardin, South-Eastern of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in a school children population. Materials and Methods: Three thousand four hundred and sixty children aged between 7 and 15 in three elementary schools in the city of Mardin, located in the south-eastern region of Turkey, were included in this study in April and May 2011. Age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and a variety of blood tests were done. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used for the diagnosis of MES. Results: It was found that 9.42% of those tested were overweight, and 8.0% were obese. The study found that more girls (9.1%) were obese than girls (6.9%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.001). A positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) and the other parameters, namely waist and hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), triglyceride (TG) (p=0.0001). It was found that total cholesterol (T-Chol), TG, BMI, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly different among obese MES’s group and non-obese children (p<0.05). The waist/hip ratio reference value in girls was significantly higher than boys (p>0.05). The prevalence of MES was 6.3%. The number of components of MES was higher in girls and obese children. The rate of MES was 30.3% in obese children. Conclusion: The frequency of obesity, hypertension and MES in childhood period have been steadily increasing. Children who are classified having central obesity and high body mass index should be more carefully evaluated to its potential to progress to MES. And the quality of the life should be improved by reducing the risks resulted from life style changes, necessary treatments and follow ups. PMID:25610318

  11. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

    PubMed Central

    Lô, Aissata; Tall-Dia, Anta; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Background Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania. Objective The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania. Design In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were randomly enrolled using multistage cluster sampling in February 2012. A TB centre nurse examined participants using a standard clinical protocol, and a participant questionnaire was completed. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community members and health personnel, respectively. Results Fourteen new presumptive TB cases were identified, leading to an overall prevalence of 2.8%, (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–4.7%). The prevalence was non-significantly higher among villagers than pastoralists (3.6% vs. 2.0%). Assuming illness duration was 3 years and all presumptive cases started treatment, an overall crude incidence of 933 cases/100,000 was derived. Five of six presumptive cases in Djiguenni were confirmed by sputum smear microscopy, but none out of eight presumptive cases were confirmed in Néma, although the same nurse performed all clinical examinations in both departments. This result was attributed to the use of expired reagents in Néma. Communities mentioned distance rather than lack of information as the main constraint to seeking diagnosis, but poor diagnostic centre performance also delayed decision-making. Conclusions TB prevalences were high among both pastoralists and villagers. None of the 14 presumptive cases sought prior diagnostic testing. TB diagnostic centres in the remote rural study zone were poorly equipped. These centres must remain in operation to reduce TB incidence in vulnerable communities in insecure remote rural zones and to

  12. The bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) of the South Eastern Pacific: Molecular species delimitation reveals extensive diversity.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ramírez, María Eliana; Macaya, Erasmo C; Contador, Cristian Bulboa; Woods, Helen; Wyatt, Christopher; Brodie, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    A molecular taxonomic study of the bladed Bangiales of the South Eastern Pacific (coast of Chile) was undertaken based on sequence data of the mitochondrial COI and chloroplast rbcL for 193 specimens collected from Arica (18°S) in the north to South Patagonia (53°S) in the south. The results revealed for the first time that four genera, Porphyra, Pyropia, Fuscifolium and Wildemania were present in the region. Species delimitation was determined based on a combination of a General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. The overall incongruence between the species delimitation methods within each gene was 29%. The GMYC method led to over-splitting groups, whereas the ABGD method had a tendency to lump groups. Taking a conservative approach to the number of putative species, at least 18 were recognized and, with the exception of the recently described Pyropia orbicularis, all were new to the Chilean flora. Porphyra and Pyropia were the most diverse genera with eight 'species' each, whereas only a 'single' species each was found for Fuscifolium and Wildemania. There was also evidence of recently diverging groups: Wildemania sp. was distinct but very closely related to W. amplissima from the Northern Hemisphere and raises questions in relation to such disjunct distributions. Pyropia orbicularis was very closely related to two other species, making species delimitation very difficult but provides evidence of an incipient speciation. The difference between the 'species' discovered and those previously reported for the region is discussed in relation to the difficulty of distinguishing species based on morphological identification. PMID:26484942

  13. Time Series Analysis of Meteorological Factors Influencing Malaria in South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ostovar, Afshin; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Raeisi, Ahmad; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Malaria Early Warning System is defined as the use of prognostic variables for predicting the occurrence of malaria epidemics several months in advance. The principal objective of this study was to provide a malaria prediction model by using meteorological variables and historical malaria morbidity data for malaria-endemic areas in south eastern Iran. Methods: A total of 2002 locally transmitted microscopically confirmed malaria cases, which occurred in the Minab district of Hormozgan Province in Iran over a period of 6 years from March 2003 to March 2009, were analysed. Meteorological variables (the rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity in this district) were also assessed. Monthly and weekly autocorrelation functions, partial autocorrelation functions, and cross-correlation graphs were examined to explore the relationship between the historical morbidity data and meteorological variables and the number of cases of malaria. Having used univariate auto-regressive integrated moving average or transfer function models, significant predictors among the meteorological variables were selected to predict the number of monthly and weekly malaria cases. Ljung-Box statistics and stationary R-squared were used for model diagnosis and model fit, respectively. Results: The weekly model had a better fit (R2= 0.863) than the monthly model (R2= 0.424). However, the Ljung-Box statistic was significant for the weekly model. In addition to autocorrelations, meteorological variables were not significant, except for different orders of maximum and minimum temperatures in the monthly model. Conclusions: Time-series models can be used to predict malaria incidence with acceptable accuracy in a malaria early-warning system. The applicability of using routine meteorological data in statistical models is seriously limited. PMID:27308280

  14. Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p < 0.05). Primiparity and previous experience of a miscarriage or stillbirth were associated with an earlier antenatal care attendance (p < 0.05). Adolescent pregnant women started antenatal care no later than adult pregnant women despite being more likely to be single. Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve

  15. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Geospatial Technology in South Eastern Part of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangasamy, N.; Varathan, R.

    2013-05-01

    Landslides are often destructive and periodically affect the Nilgiris district. Two method viz., Frequency ratio (FR) and Weights of evidence (WofE) were used to reclassify the sub-variables and the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was calculated by weighted sum overlay analysis. The final LS Zonation map was prepared from the LSI and the area was classified into two zones. Validation of the LSM was the next step and was accomplished by excluding some landslide points in the GIS analyses and overlying the unused landslides points over the LSM. The LSMs prepared using the FR and WofE methods are reliable as more than 75% of the excluded slides fall in high and very high landslide susceptibility zones and the error of mismatch in the two maps is negligible.During the course of this study landslides devastated the Kethi, Coonoor, Barliyar and Kothagiri areas due to an extreme event with 374 to 1,171 mm rainfall received in these stations in just three days on 8th to 10th November, 2009. The rainfall event is unprecedented and such extreme rainfall has not occurred in the region since meteorological records are maintained. Over 100 landslides took place in the area of which 75 are major slides and more 43 people died and 200 houses were damaged. The event was documented and a data base containing the location, details of death, slide characteristics and photographs was prepared. Further, the probability of landslide occurrence may change over time due to changes in land use, unscientific massive developmental activities and establishing settlements without adopting proper safety measures. The study also highlights the need for maintenance of landslide database and installation of more rain gauge stations to update and improve the LSM so as to reduce the risk of landslide hazard faced by the Community. NaveenRaj.T INDIA LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH EASTERN PART OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

  16. Occupational differences, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits in South Eastern rural Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In rural and remote Australia, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates are higher than metropolitan rates. This study analysed cardiovascular and other chronic disease risk factors and related health behaviours by occupational status, to determine whether agricultural workers have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than other rural workers. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in three rural regions of South Eastern Australia (2004-2006). A stratified random sample of 1001 men and women aged 25-74 from electoral rolls were categorised by occupation into agricultural workers (men = 214, women = 79), technicians (men = 123), managers (men = 148, women = 272) and ‘home duties’ (women = 165). Data were collected from self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements and laboratory tests. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were assessed by Framingham 5 years risk calculation. Results Amongst men, agricultural workers had higher occupational physical activity levels, healthier more traditional diet, lower alcohol consumption, lower fasting plasma glucose, the lowest proportion of daily smokers and lower age-adjusted 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Amongst women, managers were younger with higher HDL cholesterol, lower systolic blood pressure, less hypertension, lower waist circumference, less self-reported diabetes and better 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Agricultural workers did not have higher cardiovascular disease risk than other occupational groups. Conclusions Previous studies have suggested that farmers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease but this is because the risk has been compared with non-rural populations. In this study, the comparison has been made with other rural occupations. Cardiovascular risk reduction programs are justified for all. Programs tailored only for agricultural workers are unwarranted. PMID:24266886

  17. The genetic spectrum of familial hypercholesterolemia in south-eastern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mahtab; Walus-Miarka, Małgorzata; Idzior-Waluś, Barbara; Malecki, Maciej T.; Sanak, Marek; Whittall, Ros; Li, Ka Wah; Futema, Marta; Humphries, Steve E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common autosomal dominant disorder with a frequency of 1 in 200 to 500 in most European populations. Mutations in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes are known to cause FH. In this study, we analyzed the genetic spectrum of the disease in the understudied Polish population. Materials and methods 161 unrelated subjects with a clinical diagnosis of FH from the south-eastern region of Poland were recruited. High resolution melt and direct sequencing of PCR products were used to screen 18 exons of LDLR, a region of exon 26 in the APOB gene and exon 7 of PCSK9. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed to detect gross deletions and insertions in LDLR. Genotypes of six LDL-C raising SNPs were used for a polygenic gene score calculation. Results We found 39 different pathogenic mutations in the LDLR gene with 10 of them being novel. 13 (8%) individuals carried the p.Arg3527Gln mutation in APOB, and overall the detection rate was 43.4%. Of the patients where no mutation could be found, 53 (84.1%) had a gene score in the top three quartiles of the healthy comparison group suggesting that they have a polygenic cause for their high cholesterol. Conclusions These results confirm the genetic heterogeneity of FH in Poland, which should be considered when designing a diagnostic strategy in the country. As in the UK, in the majority of patients where no mutation can be found, there is likely to be a polygenic cause of their high cholesterol level. PMID:26892515

  18. Past, present and future of wave climate, storms and morphological impacts on sandy coasts: Spain and Wales coasts examples.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel-Buitrago, N. G.; Anfuso, G.; Phillips, M.; Thomas, T.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal response to climate events is very important for both socio-economic and environmental reasons. In order to carry out a correct coastal management program, it is important to provide realistic analysis of the natural variability and trend associated with climatic events (i.e. hurricanes, storms). In a scenario of rising sea level and increasing wave heights, the coastline will suffer huge impacts in terms of erosion and flooding especially with respect to low-lying regions that may partly or entirely disappear. This work deals with the analysis of a 22 year long wave buoy dataset recorded at Cadiz (SW Spain) and Tenby (S Wales, UK) with the objective of find the existing relationships between wave climate and coastal response. The analysis consisted in the characterization of winter wave climate, extreme waves and storms characteristics and distribution and their relationships with regional cycles (Teleconnection Patterns) such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index, the East Atlantic (EA) pattern and the Arctic Oscillation (AO), among others. Wave climate showed clear cyclic variations in average monthly significant wave height (Hs). Winter waves rapidly increased in height, reaching peak values (Hs = 1.2 m, Cadiz, Hs = 2.1 m, Tenby) between December and January. Energy patterns calculated using the equation of wave energy flux, showed average values of 37 kW/m and 155 kW/m respectively, during winter. In the same way, storm characterization in each study area was carried out using the Storm Power Index (Dolan and Davis, 1992) and five classes were obtained, from class I (weak) to V (extreme). Storm occurrence probability was 95% for class I (i.e. almost one event per year) to 5 % for class V. The return period for class V was 25 years and ranged from 5 to 8 years for classes III and IV storms, e.g. significant and severe events. Classes I and II showed a period of recurrence ranging from 1 to 3 years. For both areas high energy wave values were

  19. Increasing late winter-early spring fire activity in Northern Spain: climate change or human footprint?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo Martín, Virginia; García Codron, Juan Carlos; Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo

    2016-04-01

    Most of the fire activity across Spain concentrates during the summer months, but a secondary peak appears also during late winter and early spring (February and March). This peak represents a tiny fraction of the burned surface but in northern Spain becomes the main fire season, representing up to 60 % of the total burned surface. Moreover, the impact of this "unseasonal" fire regime is becoming more relevant; an analysis of the temporal evolution of the burned surface since 2005 shows that the suppression efforts of summer forest fires have apparently succeeded, while the opposite has occurred with late winter-early spring forest fires. For example, during March 2012 more than 22,000 ha were burned in the Spanish provinces of Asturias and Cantabria, while about 14,000 suffers the effects of fires in Northern Portugal. Anthropogenic factor (mostly linked to an extensive cattle farming in the mountains) are the main cause of such fire activity, but atmospheric factors also play a relevant role in the spread of this fires. Consequently, the main aim of this poster is to explore if the recent evolution of forest fires in the study area are consequence of an aggravation of the atmospheric conditions driving to more fire risk conditions, or other factor could also explain the increase in fire activity. Burned surface data obtained from official statistics since 1971 were compared with atmospheric data at two temporal scales: daily fire risk values calculated from synoptic records and long term drought indices (SPI and SPEI). The results show a long term increase in both daily fire risk and drought conditions, but this trend can be related to the background warming of the area, rather to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of the extreme fire weather events. Thus, we consider that the regional atmospheric evolution cannot explain by itself the recent increase in late winter-early spring fire activity. Additional anthropogenic factors, such as recent changes in

  20. Science in pictures: Visual representation of climate change in Spain's television news.

    PubMed

    León, Bienvenido; Erviti, M Carmen

    2015-02-01

    The images used by the media to represent science can help people's understanding of complex processes and create meaningful links with audiences. This is particularly relevant in the case of climate change (CC), an important phenomenon that, nevertheless, is often perceived as a remote issue, with no relevance to daily life. This article presents the main results of a research on the images used in television news to represent CC. From a sample of 1476.4 hours of Spanish television news programmes, a content analysis of 78 stories on climate change was carried out. This was complemented with six semi-structured interviews at five TV newsrooms. Results indicate that the low rate of coverage of CC can be related to the scarcity of attractive images available to the channels. PMID:24013276

  1. Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Francisco, I; Arias, M; Cortiñas, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Dacal, V; Suárez, J L; Uriarte, J; Morrondo, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Díez-Baños, P; Paz-Silva, A

    2009-01-01

    A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3-10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation. PMID:20721327

  2. Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, I.; Arias, M.; Cortiñas, F. J.; Francisco, R.; Mochales, E.; Dacal, V.; Suárez, J. L.; Uriarte, J.; Morrondo, P.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; Díez-Baños, P.; Paz-Silva, A.

    2009-01-01

    A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3–10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation. PMID:20721327

  3. GIS-based models for water quantity and quality assessment in the Júcar River Basin, Spain, including climate change effects.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Javier; Pérez-Martín, Miguel A; Jiménez, Sara; Estrela, Teodoro; Andreu, Joaquín

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes two different GIS models - one stationary (GeoImpress) and the other non-stationary (Patrical) - that assess water quantity and quality in the Júcar River Basin District, a large river basin district (43,000km(2)) located in Spain. It aims to analyze the status of surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) bodies in relation to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and to support measures to achieve the WFD objectives. The non-stationary model is used for quantitative analysis of water resources, including long-term water resource assessment; estimation of available GW resources; and evaluation of climate change impact on water resources. The main results obtained are the following: recent water resources have been reduced by approximately 18% compared to the reference period 1961-1990; the GW environmental volume required to accomplish the WFD objectives is approximately 30% of the GW annual resources; and the climate change impact on water resources for the short-term (2010-2040), based on a dynamic downscaling A1B scenario, implies a reduction in water resources by approximately 19% compared to 1990-2000 and a reduction of approximately 40-50% for the long-term (2070-2100), based on dynamic downscaling A2 and B2 scenarios. The model also assesses the impact of various fertilizer application scenarios on the status of future GW quality (nitrate) and if these future statuses will meet the WFD requirements. The stationary model generates data on the actual and future chemical status of SW bodies in the river basin according to the modeled scenarios and reflects the implementation of different types of measures to accomplish the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive and the WFD. Finally, the selection and prioritization of additional measures to accomplish the WFD are based on cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:22959072

  4. Phytoclimatic Atlas of the Spanish Peninsular territory. First approach: Climate Atlas of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, J.

    2010-09-01

    The present work develops a new Climate Atlas of the Spanish Peninsular territory in the framework of a new phytoclimatic model based in a Ecosystem Functional Types (EFTs) Classification applied to this area. The phytoclimatic diagnosis of a territory requires a geo-database with spatially continuous phytoclimatic factors (independent variables of the phytoclimatic model). These are derived directly from climatic variables having structural and functional implications on the vegetation cover. The complete record series of the National Meteorological Database (Spanish Meteorological Agency) was used to compute the following climatic variables: t, mean temperature for the month, tmmf, mean of minimum temperatures for the month, tmmc, mean of maximum temperatures for the month and p, total monthly precipitation. Meteorological data spanning 1951-1999 was exhaustively explored and filtered. The spatial and temporal consistency of temperature and precipitation data, and the record series homogeneity was analyzed. Once filtered, the net of meteorological ground stations was integrated by a total of 1339 stations with temperature and rain data, and 4078 stations with only rain data. Prior to test the climatic variables regionalization process, a temperature stratification and a seasonal precipitation stratification based in the different spatial scales of variation, were calculated in order to avoid the non-stationary trends of these variables over all the territory. Multivariate Factorial Kriging allows us to estimate the random function components, detecting and separating regional and local characteristics of the studied phenomena (temperatures and seasonal precipitation). Two calculated factors (principal components) by scale of variation were used to run a K-means procedure with a large number of sets and to test a hierarchical clustering over the matrix of Mahalanobis distances between sets. Auxiliary variables were selected to improve the climatic variables

  5. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  6. Climatic spatial variability in Extremadura (Spain) based on viticultural bioclimatic indices.

    PubMed

    Moral, F J; Rebollo, F J; Paniagua, L L; García, A

    2014-12-01

    The evaluation of general suitability for viticulture in wine regions requires a knowledge of the spatial variation in temperature, which is also used to assess different grapevine cultivars and to delimit appropriate zones for winegrape production. However, usually temperature data and methods applied to properly delineate homogeneous areas are not adequate to generate accurate maps.With the aim of providing an analysis using four temperature-based indices, quantifying their spatial variability, and representing the spatial pattern of each index throughout Extremadura, one of the most important Spanish wine regions, temperature data from 117 meteorological stations, considering the 1980–2011 period, were utilized. The statistical properties of each index were assessed and, later, they were mapped by means of an integrated geographic information system (GIS) and a multivariate geostatistics (regression-kriging) approach. Results show that heat-sum temperature indices were highly related to the more simple growing season temperature; however, temperature regime differences varied upon which index was employed. The spatial variability of climate within Extremaduran natural regions (NR) is significant; although the warmer conditions predominate, some NR have part of their territory by up to eight climate classes. This information enables a better understanding of the viticulture suitability within each NR and delineating homogeneous zones. The use of consistent bioclimatic indices and an advanced geostatistical algorithm have made it possible to delimit and compare within-region climates and also enabled comparisons of Extremaduran NR with others worlwide, which should be taken into account to select varieties and assess the possibilities of producing new wines. PMID:24659115

  7. Climatic spatial variability in Extremadura (Spain) based on viticultural bioclimatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, F. J.; Rebollo, F. J.; Paniagua, L. L.; García, A.

    2014-12-01

    The evaluation of general suitability for viticulture in wine regions requires a knowledge of the spatial variation in temperature, which is also used to assess different grapevine cultivars and to delimit appropriate zones for winegrape production. However, usually temperature data and methods applied to properly delineate homogeneous areas are not adequate to generate accurate maps. With the aim of providing an analysis using four temperature-based indices, quantifying their spatial variability, and representing the spatial pattern of each index throughout Extremadura, one of the most important Spanish wine regions, temperature data from 117 meteorological stations, considering the 1980-2011 period, were utilized. The statistical properties of each index were assessed and, later, they were mapped by means of an integrated geographic information system (GIS) and a multivariate geostatistics (regression-kriging) approach. Results show that heat-sum temperature indices were highly related to the more simple growing season temperature; however, temperature regime differences varied upon which index was employed. The spatial variability of climate within Extremaduran natural regions (NR) is significant; although the warmer conditions predominate, some NR have part of their territory by up to eight climate classes. This information enables a better understanding of the viticulture suitability within each NR and delineating homogeneous zones. The use of consistent bioclimatic indices and an advanced geostatistical algorithm have made it possible to delimit and compare within-region climates and also enabled comparisons of Extremaduran NR with others worlwide, which should be taken into account to select varieties and assess the possibilities of producing new wines.

  8. Humeral Fractures in South-Eastern Australia: Epidemiology and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Kara L; Bucki-Smith, Gosia; Morse, Amelia G; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Kotowicz, Mark A; Moloney, David J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Korn, Sam; Timney, Elizabeth N; Dobbins, Amelia G; Pasco, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the epidemiology and risk factors for humeral fractures (proximal humerus and shaft) among men and women residing in south-eastern Australia. Incident fractures during 2006 and 2007 were identified using X-ray reports (Geelong Osteoporosis Study Fracture Grid). Risk factors were identified using data from case-control studies conducted as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Median age of fracture was lower in males than females for proximal humerus (33.0 vs 71.2 years), but not for humeral shaft (8.9 vs 8.5 years). For females, proximal humerus fractures occurred mainly in the 70-79 and 80+ years age groups, whereas humeral shaft fractures followed a U-shaped pattern. Males showed a U-shaped pattern for both proximal humerus and humeral shaft fractures. Overall age-standardised incidence rates for proximal humerus fractures in males and females were 40.6 (95% CI 32.7, 48.5) and 73.2 (95% CI 62.2, 84.1) per 100,000 person years, respectively. For humeral shaft fractures, the age-standardised rate was 69.3 (95% CI 59.0, 79.6) for males and 61.5 (95% CI 51.9, 71.0) for females. There was an increase in risk of proximal humerus fractures in men with a lower femoral neck BMD, younger age, prior fracture and higher milk consumption. In pre-menopausal women, increased height and falls were both risk factors for proximal humerus fractures. For post-menopausal women, risk factors associated with proximal humerus fractures included a lower non-milk dairy consumption and sustaining a prior fracture. Humeral shaft fractures in both sexes were sustained mainly in childhood, while proximal humerus fractures were sustained in older adulthood. The overall age-standardised rates of proximal humerus fractures were nearly twice as high in females compared to males, whereas the incidence rates of humeral shaft fractures were similar. PMID:26169198

  9. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the south-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.; Sedberry, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research cruises to deep (80-910 m) reef habitats off the south-eastern U.S. and in the northern Gulf of Mexico have provided new information on the diagnostic characteristics, behaviours, colour patterns in life, bottom associations, distributions and maximum sizes of species of the anglerfish genera Chaunax, Lophiodes and Sladenia. Chaunax stigmaeus occurred much further south than previously known (Blake Plateau off South Carolina), and all C. stigmaeus observed were found associated with dense beds of dead coral (Lophelia pertusa) rubble or on broken hard bottom. In contrast, Chaunax suttkusi was found on soft bottoms. Chaunax stigmaeus and C. suttkusi appear to be sympatric over a major portion of their ranges. Because knowledge of pigmentation in live or freshly caught Chaunax is critical to distinguish some members of the genus, changes in the colouration of C. suttkusi were noted and documented photographically immediately after death and after fixation. The yellow spots found on some, but not all specimens, temporarily disappeared completely after death, but they reappeared after fixation, slowly disappearing thereafter along with other carotenoid pigments. Lophiodes beroe and Lophiodes monodi were collected for the first time off the Atlantic coast of the U.S., being previously known only from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the northern coast of South America. For both species (L. beroe and L. monodi), the collections included the two largest known representatives of the species (400 and 325 mm standard length, respectively). Lophiodes beroe commonly occurred on L. pertusa rubble, and seemed to prefer this habitat. Occupying such a habitat that is deep and difficult to sample probably explains how this common species escaped detection. Only a single L. monodi was collected or observed, so this species appears to be uncommon in this geographic area or at least so on coral rubble habitat. Detailed aspects of the colour patterns of both species

  10. Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in south-eastern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saljnikov, E.; Mrvic, V.; Cakmak, D.; Nikoloski, M.; Perovic, V.; Kostic, L.; Brebanovic, B.

    2009-04-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals is one of the most powerful factors destroying biosphere components that directly affecting agricultural production quality and therefore health of human and animals. Regional soil contamination by heavy metals occurs mainly in industrial areas and in big cities. However, pollutants can be air-and/or water-transferred to big distances and may accumulated far from industrial zone what makes difficult to distinguish original background concentrations of heavy metals in soil. Our study covers south-eastern part of Serbia and is a part of a big project studying soil fertility and heavy metal contamination all around Serbia. Diverse natural characteristics and heterogeneity of soil cover, as well as, human activity greatly influenced soil fertility parameters, while, diverse geological substrate and human activity determined the level of potential geochemical pollution. There are number of industrial factories functioning from the last century on the studied area. Also, close to studied area, there was a mining in the middle of the last century. About 600 soil samples from surface 0-30 cm were investigated for main soil fertility characteristics (pH, humus, available K and P) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb). Soils graded as very acidic cover 46% of the area, which are mainly mountains with acidic parent materials. Content of humus in 41% of soil samples were below 3%. The most of the soils (71%) are weakly supplied available phosphorus. While available potassium in more than 70% is presented in the concentrations enough for good soil quality. So, about 75% of studied area is characterized with unfavorable soil fertility properties (extremly low soil pH, very low content of available P, about half of the area maintained low soil humus) that is located under forests, meadows and pastures. Content of heavy metals on studied area in 80% of sampled soils was below maximum allowed concentrations

  11. Tick bites on humans in the agricultural and recreational areas in south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Bartosik, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Monika; Szymańska, Jolanta; Buczek, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The investigations were conducted in the Lublin province (south-eastern Poland) in areas of high agricultural and recreational value. Among the 418 patients admitted to medical clinics due to arthropod bites in the years 2003-2005, 184 people (44%) had been bitten by ticks. As shown by the research, high-risk groups include people whose stay in tick habitats is connected with their occupational work (54.5%) as well as recreation and tourism (45.5%). As many as 78.7% of the patients were attacked by Ixodes ricinus ticks in forests, and much fewer (31.3%) in other habitats located in urban and rural areas. In one case, a Dermacentor reticulatus female was attached to the skin. Ticks were most commonly located on the upper (28.8%) and lower (27.2%) extremities, and on the abdomen (15.8%). Local skin reactions (57.6%) with predominance of erythema were the most prevalent. Combined local and systemic symptoms were reported less frequently (20.1%). The general symptoms were headache (10.8% of patients), fever (5.4%), lymphadenitis (5.9%) and arthralgia (4.3%). No lesions produced by tick bites were reported in 22.3% of the patients. Field studies conducted in 2003-2004 demonstrated that I. ricinus is a common species in the southern part of the Lublin province, where the density of nymphs and adult forms in various localities during the period of peak seasonal activity (in May) ranges from 18.5-26 specimens/1 h of collection. Two tick species, I. ricinus and D. reticulatus, occur in the northern part of the province. The density of I. ricinus nymphs and adult forms as well as D. reticulatus adults is in the range of 2.5-42 specimens/1 hr of collection and 19.5-64.0 speciments/1 hr of collection, respectively. Due to the high risk of tick attacks in the study area, there arises the necessity to permanent the monitoring of ticks numbers and tick-borne diseases. PMID:21736280

  12. The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: petrological characteristics and tectonomagmatic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlan, Hisham A.; Azer, Mokhles K.; Khalil, Ahmed E. S.

    2015-10-01

    The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, is one of the best preserved and least dismembered ophiolite successions in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. It contains a Penrose-type ophiolite sequence from mantle section below mafic crust upward to oceanic sedimentary cover overlying mafic volcanics, although the original magmatic (stratigraphic) contact between the mantle and crustal sections is disrupted by tectonism. The Abu Dahr ophiolite is metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions, and low-temperature alteration is widespread. Petrography reveals that: (i) the mantle is homogenous, serpentinized, and dominated by harzburgite and less abundant dunite; (ii) the cumulate ultramafics are represented by wehrlite and pyroxenite; and (iii) the crustal section is represented by metagabbros, meta-anorthosites and metabasalts. The Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites show high Mg# (0.92-0.93), with enrichment of Ni, Cr and Co, and depletion of Al2O3 and CaO, and nearly flat and unfractionated REE chondrite-normalized pattern. Major and trace element characteristics of the Abu Dahr metagabbro and metabasalt (crustal section) indicate a tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinity. Units of the crustal section have low-Nb and Zr concentrations, low Dy/Yb and relatively elevated La/Yb ratios, high U/Yb and Th/Yb ratios, and LREE enriched chondrite-normalized pattern. All of the Abu Dahr ophiolite units have trace-element signatures characterized by enrichment of LILE over HFSE. Rare and trace element patterns indicate a genetic link between the Abu Dahr mantle, cumulate ultramafics, and crust. Chromian spinel has survived metamorphism and is used as a petrogenetic indicator in the Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites. The spinel is homogeneous with a limited composition, and shows high-Cr# (>0.6) combined with low-TiO2 character (mostly <0.1 wt.%). The Abu Dahr ophiolite is interpreted as a fragment of depleted oceanic lithosphere that experienced high degrees

  13. Recent climate trends and multisecular climate variability: temperature and precipitation during the cold season (October-March) in the Ebro Basin (NE of Spain) betrween 1500 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saz-Sanchez, M.-A.; Cuadrat-Prats, J.-M.

    2009-09-01

    One of the goals of Paleoclimatology is to assess the importance and the exceptional nature of recent climate trends related to the anthropogenic climate change. Instrumental data enable the analysis of last century's climate, but do not give any information on previous periods' precipitation and temperature, during which there was no anthropic intervention on the climate system. Dendroclimatology is one of the paleoclimatic reconstruction sources giving best results when it comes to reconstructing the climate of the time before instruments could be used. This work presents the reconstructed series of precipitation and temperature of the cold season (October-March) In the central sector of the Ebro Valley (NE of Spain). The chronologies used for the reconstruction come on the one hand from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and on the other hand from the dendrochronological information bank created in the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula within the framework of the Spanish Interministerial Commission for Science and Technology (CICYT) CLI96-1862 project. The climate data used for chronology calibration and the reconstruction of the temperature and precipitation values are those of the instrumental observatory number 9910 (Pallaruelo) belonging to the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología or AEMET), located in the central sector of the Ebro Valley. The reconstruction obtained covers the 1500-1990 period. In order to extend the series up to 2008, instrumental information has been used. Thanks to data from a set of AEMET instrumental observatories close to the one used for chronology calibration, a regional series of temperatures as well as a precipitation one were generated. The series reconstructed through dendroclimatic methods and the regional series do not show statistically significant differences in their mean and variance values. R values between both series exceed 0.85. Taking these statistical characteristics

  14. New insights into the last deglaciation of the south-eastern flank of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitinas, Albertas

    2012-06-01

    The existing glaciodynamic paradigm used to explain the dynamics, morphogenesis, and deglaciation of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) does not satisfactorily reflect all the nuances of ice sheet dynamics, formation of particular forms of glacial relief, and details of deglaciation. Significant problems are to be found in the explanations proposed for the processes of deglaciation. Therefore a new theory for the deglaciation of the last SIS, based on new geochronological, geological, and geomorphological data has been developed and is presented here. It is suggested that along the south-eastern perimeter of the SIS, with the exception of the Salpausselkä moraine ridges, there is no evidence anywhere for re-advances of the SIS during deglaciation. Apart from the Salpausselkä moraine ridges the evidence for so-called 'stadial' or 'phasial' recessional events is interpreted as the result of SIS surges that occurred at different times and positions along the ice sheet margin. This new theory also proposes that deglaciation of the south-eastern flank of the SIS was dominated by surface thinning rather than marginal retreat. Characteristic landforms such as kame terraces located on the distal slopes of recessional marginal ridges and plateau-like glaciolacustrine kames, were developed during deglaciation probably due to the interaction of active ice lobes (surges) and masses of dead ice that persisting beyond the ice margin.

  15. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Løhaugen, Gro C. C.; Flak, Marianne Møretrø; Gerstner, Thorsten; Sundberg, Cato; Lerdal, Bjørn; Skranes, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS) is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1) provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2) provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3) initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions. PMID:26692762

  16. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance. PMID:22853175

  17. An assessment of the influence of sulfidic mine wastes on rainwater quality in a semiarid climate (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea, A.; Fernández-López, C.; Vázquez, M.; Caparrós, A.; Ibarra, I.; García, C.; Zarroca, M.; Rodríguez, R.

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the influence of the Sierra Minera de Cartagena - La Unión mining wastes on the surrounding areas, due to the sediment transport in the atmosphere. Monitoring of 15 weather stations located in the Campo de Cartagena land (SE Spain) was performed in the period December, 2004-March, 2008. A total of 920 rainfall water samples were collected and analyzed in this study. The network of weather stations covered a wide range of soil use and human activities (industrial, urban, agricultural, and mining sites). The physicochemical characterization involved determination of pH, EC, major ions, and the metals of interest in the soluble fraction of rainwater. Precipitations had an alkaline pH (7.0-7.9) and, compared to World Health Organization guidelines for drinking-water quality, samples were characterized by low EC (76-930 μS/cm), Ni (0.1-8 μg/L), Cu (3-88 μg/L), As (0.04-2 μg/L), Na+ (3-16 mg/L), K+ (0.41-30 mg/L), Ca2+ (6-51 mg/L), Mg2+ (up to 5 mg/L), Cl- (4-23 mg/L), NO3- (1-30 mg/L), and SO42- (4-35 mg/L) values. In certain locations, Zn, Cd, and Pb exceeded the guideline limits. A downward trend of H+, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in total depositions was observed while the distance to the area affected by mining activities increased in the first 20 km. Rainwater quality was found to be just subtly affected by the metal-sulfide abandoned minesites, but without presenting a current threat to neither public health nor natural ecosystem. Nevertheless, greater attention should be paid in the future projections of climate change, where a significant increase in aridity may favor the atmospheric transport of pollutant particles.

  18. Origin of Neoproterozoic ophiolitic peridotites in south Eastern Desert, Egypt, constrained from primary mantle mineral chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedr, Mohamed Zaki; Arai, Shoji

    2013-10-01

    The ophiolitic peridotites in the Wadi Arais area, south Eastern Desert of Egypt, represent a part of Neoproterozoic ophiolites of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). We found relics of fresh dunites enveloped by serpentinites that show abundances of bastite after orthopyroxene, reflecting harzburgite protoliths. The bulk-rock chemistry confirmed the harzburgites as the main protoliths. The primary mantle minerals such as orthopyroxene, olivine and chromian spinel in Arais serpentinites are still preserved. The orthopyroxene has high Mg# [=Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)], ~0.923 on average. It shows intra-grain chemical homogeneity and contains, on average, 2.28 wt.% A12O3, 0.88 wt.% Cr2O3 and 0.53 wt.% CaO, similar to primary orthopyroxenes in modern forearc peridotites. The olivine in harzburgites has lower Fo (93-94.5) than that in dunites (Fo94.3-Fo95.9). The Arais olivine is similar in NiO (0.47 wt.% on average) and MnO (0.08 wt.% on average) contents to the mantle olivine in primary peridotites. This olivine is high in Fo content, similar to Mg-rich olivines in ANS ophiolitic harzburgites, because of its residual origin. The chromian spinel, found in harzburgites, shows wide ranges of Cr#s [=Cr/(Cr + Al)], 0.46-0.81 and Mg#s, 0.34-0.67. The chromian spinel in dunites shows an intra-grain chemical homogeneity with high Cr#s (0.82-0.86). The chromian spinels in Arais peridotites are low in TiO2, 0.05 wt.% and YFe [= Fe3+/(Cr + Al + Fe3+)], ~0.06 on average. They are similar in chemistry to spinels in forearc peridotites. Their compositions associated with olivine’s Fo suggest that the harzburgites are refractory residues after high-degree partial melting (mainly ~25-30 % partial melting) and dunites are more depleted, similar to highly refractory peridotites recovered from forearcs. This is in accordance with the partial melting (>20 % melt) obtained by the whole-rock Al2O3 composition. The Arais peridotites have been possibly formed in a sub-arc setting (mantle wedge), where

  19. Geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami in south-eastern Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardi, Flavia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; de Martini, Paolo Marco; Pirrotta, Claudia; Smedile, Alessandra; Pinzi, Stefania; Del Carlo, Paola

    2010-05-01

    Five years ago we started a coring campaign with the purpose to identify evidence for tsunami inundations along the coastal areas of eastern Sicily, that were affected in historical times by devastating tsunamis, generated both by local earthquakes, such as the 1169, 1693 and 1908 events, and by distant seismic sources, such as those belonging to the Aegean subduction zone (e.g. the A.D. 365 Crete earthquake). Following a multi-theme approach, we used the available historical information to address geomorphological study of the coastal landscape: aerial-photographs analysis, satellite images interpretation and field surveys allowed us to select areas likely invaded by tsunami waves in the past, representing potential trap-site for high energy deposits sedimentation and preservation. Given the variability in the nature of tsunami deposit characteristics, they are not uniquely identifiable, and other kinds of high energy deposits may share some of their features. Despite the abundant literature regarding diagnostic criteria for tsunami deposits, their distinction from storm and hurricane deposits remains a debated issue. We present the geological evidence of a tsunami inundation that left continuous onshore sandy deposit inside the Pantano Morghella along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. Pantano Morghella an almost flat area, about 1.3 km long and 0.8 km wide, surrounded by Upper Cretaceous lavas and volcanoclastic deposits, Late Cretaceous limestone calciruditi, calcarenites and marls. To the east Quaternary deposits, beach sands and 3 m high, partially cemented, dunal system (Holocene and Late Pleistocene) separate the Pantano from the sea forming the intertidal pond with a little channel from which sea water can rush into. The site was partially used as salt-pans in the recent past. In this site, we dug 33 cores down to a maximum depth of 5.80 m, from 200 m up to 1200 m from the coastline. The sedimentological core analysis reveals a fine stratigraphic sequence

  20. Sedimentary and chemostratigraphic record of climatic cycles in Lower Pliensbachian marl-limestone platform successions of Asturias (North Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bádenas, Beatriz; Aurell, Marc; Armendáriz, Maider; Rosales, Idoia; García-Ramos, José Carlos; Piñuela, Laura

    2012-12-01

    A combined sedimentological, lithological and chemostratigraphical (Mg/Ca, δ13C, δ18O) analysis of the Lower Pliensbachian marl-limestone platform successions exposed along the Asturias coastline (northern Spain) has resulted in the characterization of high-frequency cycles. The highest-order sedimentary cycles (i.e. elementary cycles) are centimeter- to deciemeter-thick alternations of bioclastic and muddy laminated/burrowed facies, which do not match the marl-limestone couplets. They encompass three sedimentary stages: deposition from storm-density currents (bioclastic facies), dominant lateral advection of continental terrigenous mud accumulated on to an oxygen-deficient seafloor (laminated facies), and recovery of bottom oxygenation involving the burrowing of laminated sediments (burrowed facies). The close match between the number of elementary cycles recorded during the Jamesoni Subzone in Asturias and Yorkshire (Northern England) gives support to the idea of the influence of a regional climatic factor (i.e. millennial-scale cyclicity). Decimeter- to meter-scale cycles formed by bundles of elementary cycles are thought to record orbitally driven climatic changes (precession or obliquity, depending on the time calibration considered). Lower hemicycles of bundles are dominated by marls/calcareous mudstones, with decreasing burrowing and eventual preservation of laminated facies. They formed during humid periods, which controlled an increase in freshwater and terrigenous input to the platform and quasi-estuarine circulation promoting bottom-anoxia. Upper hemicycles of bundles are dominated by burrowed and bioclastic limestones, thought to be formed under arid conditions with anti-estuarine circulation and an increase of shallow carbonate production and offshore resedimentation. Chemostratigraphic data from belemnites recorded in the muddy laminated and burrowed facies indicate that significant concomitant shifts in δ13C and δ18O occurred during the lower

  1. Future trends of snowfall days in northern Spain from ENSEMBLES regional climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M. R.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    In a previous study Pons et al. (Clim Res 54(3):197-207, 2010. doi: 10.3354/cr01117g) reported a significant decreasing trend of snowfall occurrence in the Northern Iberian Peninsula since the mid 70s. The study was based on observations of annual snowfall frequency (measured as the annual number of snowfall days NSD) from a network of 33 stations ranging from 60 to 1350 m. In the present work we analyze the skill of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to reproduce this trend for the period 1961-2000 (using both reanalysis- and historical GCM-driven boundary conditions) and the trend and the associated uncertainty of the regional future projections obtained under the A1B scenario for the first half of the twenty-first century. In particular, we consider the regional simulation dataset from the EU-funded ENSEMBLES project, consisting of thirteen state-of-the-art RCMs run at 25 km resolution over Europe. While ERA40 severely underestimates both the mean NSD and its observed trend (-2.2 days/decade), the corresponding RCM simulations driven by the reanalysis appropriately capture the interannual variability and trends of the observed NSD (trends ranging from -3.4 to -0.7, -2.1 days/decade for the ensemble mean). The results driven by the GCM historical runs are quite variable, with trends ranging from -8.5 to 0.2 days/decade (-1.5 days/decade for the ensemble mean), and the greatest uncertainty by far being associated with the particular GCM used. Finally, the trends for the future 2011-2050 A1B runs are more consistent and significant, ranging in this case from -3.7 to -0.5 days/decade (-2.0 days/decade for the ensemble mean), indicating a future significant decreasing trend. These trends are mainly determined by the increasing temperatures, as indicated by the interannual correlation between temperature and NSD (-0.63 in the observations), which is preserved in both ERA40- and GCM-driven simulations.

  2. Riparian Vegetation and Water Chemistry in a Basin Under Semiarid Mediterranean Climate, Andarax River, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, M. J.; Blanca, G.; Romero, A. T.

    2000-11-01

    A study has been made of the relationships between the characteristics of the riparian vegetation (floristic composition, structure and diversity) and the spatial-temporal variation of the quality of the stream waters in a basin under a semiarid Mediterranean climate in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. The plant communities of the high reaches present greater specific richness and diversity ( S mean= 7.0 ± 3.4 and H'mean= 2.0 ± 0.7) than do those of the middle and low reaches ( S mean= 4.5 ± 1.6 and H'mean= 1.8 ± 0.6). One zone reached the highest specific richness ( S= 12, H'= 3.2), which, apart from being situated in the intermediate stretch of the basin, represents a transitional state (ecotone) between the Salix and Tamarix communities. The characteristics of the waters analyzed indicate very high rates of erosion and runoff due to the nature of the soils (easily eroded marls) and to agricultural expansion and mining since the 16th century. The present-day riparian vegetation is not adequate to absorb the nitrates added to the basin by crop fertilization, reaching extremely high values, particularly during the dry period (between 1.2 and 42.5 mg/liter). Sewage dumping at three sampling stations did not appear to affect the specific composition of the woody vegetation. In the zones with watercourses, water salinity was low during the period of greater water flow, but considerably higher in the dry season (the upper limit was some 1.2 mS/m), resulting in a predominance of salt cedars over willows. Three types of saltcedar areas were distinguished: subhalophilous, which barely changes its chemical composition over the season; halophilous, which develops over strongly mineralized waters and markedly alters in chemical composition during the dry season; and hyperhalophilous, where salinity is extraordinarily high and quite constant throughout the year. A direct relationship was found between the dominance of Tamarix africana and abundance of NaCl.

  3. Future trends of snowfall days in northern Spain from ENSEMBLES regional climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M. R.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    In a previous study Pons et al. (Clim Res 54(3):197-207, 2010. doi: 10.3354/cr01117g) reported a significant decreasing trend of snowfall occurrence in the Northern Iberian Peninsula since the mid 70s. The study was based on observations of annual snowfall frequency (measured as the annual number of snowfall days NSD) from a network of 33 stations ranging from 60 to 1350 m. In the present work we analyze the skill of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to reproduce this trend for the period 1961-2000 (using both reanalysis- and historical GCM-driven boundary conditions) and the trend and the associated uncertainty of the regional future projections obtained under the A1B scenario for the first half of the twenty-first century. In particular, we consider the regional simulation dataset from the EU-funded ENSEMBLES project, consisting of thirteen state-of-the-art RCMs run at 25 km resolution over Europe. While ERA40 severely underestimates both the mean NSD and its observed trend (-2.2 days/decade), the corresponding RCM simulations driven by the reanalysis appropriately capture the interannual variability and trends of the observed NSD (trends ranging from -3.4 to -0.7, -2.1 days/decade for the ensemble mean). The results driven by the GCM historical runs are quite variable, with trends ranging from -8.5 to 0.2 days/decade (-1.5 days/decade for the ensemble mean), and the greatest uncertainty by far being associated with the particular GCM used. Finally, the trends for the future 2011-2050 A1B runs are more consistent and significant, ranging in this case from -3.7 to -0.5 days/decade (-2.0 days/decade for the ensemble mean), indicating a future significant decreasing trend. These trends are mainly determined by the increasing temperatures, as indicated by the interannual correlation between temperature and NSD (-0.63 in the observations), which is preserved in both ERA40- and GCM-driven simulations.

  4. Domestic dogs in Atlantic forest preserves of south-eastern Brazil: a camera-trapping study on patterns of entrance and site occupancy rates.

    PubMed

    Srbek-Araujo, A C; Chiarello, A G

    2008-11-01

    Presence of exotic species in forest remnants is a major concern for the conservation of wild species, not only on islands, where potential impact is higher. Although the problem is widespread and increasing, there are few studies on Neotropical forests. Here we quantify the occurrence of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in an Atlantic forest reserve in south-eastern Brazil (Santa Lúcia Biological Station--SLBS). Throughout two years of monitoring with camera traps (2,142 camera-days), 25 records of 16 individual dogs were obtained in the interior of SLBS, making dogs the fourth most frequently recorded species of mammals in general and the first-ranking among Carnivora, ahead of the ocelot and puma, the top two terrestrial predators present in SLBS. Dogs entered the forest year round, in almost half of the sampled months (48%), and predominantly during daytime (89%). They were detected in various trails inside the reserve, but mostly in areas nearest to the reserve's border (<200 m from the edge). Record rates of domestic dogs did not correlate significantly with climate variables, with frequency of mammal records and richness in general, or with any particular mammal species (Spearman rank correlation, p > 0.05 in all cases), suggesting an erratic, non-seasonal pattern of entrance in the reserve. Data indicate that domestic dogs can be abundant and frequent visitors to little disturbed Atlantic forest reserves even when these are located in regions of low density of human population. The potential impact to native fauna is discussed. PMID:19197494

  5. A multi-locus molecular phylogeny for Australia's iconic Jacky Dragon (Agamidae: Amphibolurus muricatus): phylogeographic structure along the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Mitzy; Barquero, Marco D; Whiting, Martin J; Keogh, J Scott

    2014-02-01

    Jacky dragons (Amphibolurus muricatus) are ubiquitous in south-eastern Australia and were one of the first Australian reptiles to be formally described. Because they are so common, Jacky dragons are widely used as a model system for research in evolutionary biology and ecology. In addition, their distribution along the Great Dividing Range of eastern Australia provides an opportunity to examine the influence of past biogeographical processes, particularly the expansion and contraction of forest habitats, on the diversification of this iconic agamid lizard. We generated sequence data for two mitochondrial and three nuclear DNA loci (4251base pairs) for 62 Jacky dragons sampled from throughout their distribution. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian species-tree methods revealed five geographically structured clades separated by up to 6% mitochondrial and 0.7% nuclear sequence divergence. We also quantified body proportion variation within and between these genetic clades for more than 500 specimens and found no evidence of any significant differentiation in body proportions across their range. Based on body proportion homogeneity and lack of resolution in the nuclear loci, we do not support taxonomic recognition of any of the mitochondrial clades. Instead, A. muricatus is best thought of as a single species with phylogeographic structure. The genetic patterns observed in the Jacky dragon are consistent with fragmented populations reduced to multiple refugia during cold, arid phases when forested habitats were greatly restricted. Consequently, the inferred biogeographic barriers for this taxon appear to be in line with lowland breaks in the mountain ranges. Our results are congruent with studies of other reptiles, frogs, mammals, birds and invertebrates, and together highlight the overarching effects of widespread climatic and habitat fluctuations along the Great Dividing Range since the Pliocene. PMID:24315864

  6. Untangling the Palaeocene climatic rhythm: an astronomically calibrated Early Palaeocene magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy at Zumaia (Basque basin, northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Baceta, Juan Ignacio; Pujalte, Victoriano; Orue-Etxebarria, Xabier; Bernaola, Gilen; Lorito, Stefano

    2003-12-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of a 54-m-long section above the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at the sea-cliff section of Zumaia in the Basque basin (northern Spain) has been established. The section encompasses the entire Danian and the lower part of the Selandian stages as indicated by calcareous plankton biostratigraphy. The studied interval consists of (hemi)pelagic limestone-marl alternations in the form of couplets and bundles, which range from centimetre/decimetre to metre scale respectively and a few thin-bedded calcareous turbidites. The magnetostratigraphy, based on samples from about 200 stratigraphic levels, allows the identification of six reversal boundaries from chron C29r to C26r at a bed level. The spatial (or temporal) evolution of periodicities from a lithologically coded series is studied with the continuous wavelet transform technique. A preliminary age model based on the standard CK95 GPTS indicates that the basic lithologic carbonate-marl couplet corresponds to the 19-23-kyr precession cycle (21-31-cm cycle in the depth domain) and that a bundle cycle (usually groups of four to six basic couplets) with global periodicity centred at 1.22 m corresponds to the ∼110-kyr eccentricity cycle. We have tuned the bundle cycles to the Va03_R7 eccentricity orbital solution [Astrophys. J. 592 (2003) 620-630] following an initial match of a node of the ∼2.4-Ma eccentricity modulatory cycle in the target time series to particularly carbonate-rich bundles from the upper part of the Zumaia section that displays significant power of a 4.4-m-period cycle corresponding to the ∼404-kyr eccentricity cycle. Consistency between lithologic patterns and characteristics in the eccentricity target is reasonably met although the ∼404-kyr eccentricity cycle is not persistent throughout. The tuning, however, appears robust as it brings the age of the K/T boundary at ∼65.8 Ma. It is argued that a sea-level signal (tectonically driven?) is superimposed on the climatic

  7. Distribution and characteristics of metamorphic belts in the south- eastern Alaska part of the North American Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Himmelberg, G.R.; Loney, R.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Cordilleran orogen in south-eastern Alaska includes 14 distinct metamorphic belts that make up three major metamorphic complexes, from east to west: the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex; the Glacier Bay-Chichagof plutonic-metamorphic complex; and the Chugach plutonic-metamorphic complex. Each of these complexes is related to a major subduction event. The metamorphic history of the Coast complex is lengthy and is related to the Late Cretaceous collision of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes and the Gravina overlap assemblage to the west against the Stikine terrane to the east. The metamorphic history of the Glacier Bay-Chichagof complex is relatively simple and is related to the roots of a Late Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous island arc. The metamorphic history of the Chugach is complicated and developed during and after the Late Cretaceous collision of the Chugach terrane with the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes. -from Authors

  8. The female reproductive cycle of the neotropical snake Atractus pantostictus (Fernandes and Puorto, 1993) from south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Resende, F C; Nascimento, L B

    2015-06-01

    Data on reproductive activity of fossorial species are limited because the specimens are difficult to be observed and captured. Here in, we present the reproductive cycle of female Atractus pantostictus, a fossorial neotropical species, and the sexual maturity of males and females in south-eastern Brazil. The female reproductive cycle of A. pantostictus is seasonal, with vitellogenic follicles being found from September to April and eggs in November, February, March and April with the number varying between two and four. Spermatozoa were found in the lumen of the glandular and non-glandular uterus in females collected during the rainy season. Sperm storage tubules were found in the posterior infundibulum of the females, where the storage of sperm occurs for a short time. The storage may occur because mating and ovulation are dissociated. PMID:25041410

  9. Levels of Possession of Science Process Skills by Final Year Students of Colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of possession of science process skills by final year Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) Students in colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria. The skills that were assessed were observation, experimentation, measurement, communication, and inference. The research was guided by five research…

  10. The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Johnson, Jerald B; Dowling, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Biogeographic patterns displayed by obligate freshwater organisms are intimately related to the nature and extent of connectivity between suitable habitats. Two of the more significant barriers to freshwater connections are seawater and major drainage divides. South-eastern Australia provides a contrast between these barriers as it has discrete areas that are likely influenced to a greater or lesser extent by each barrier type. We use continental shelf width as a proxy for the potential degree of river coalescence during low sea levels. Our specific hypothesis is that the degree of phylogeographic divergence between coastal river basins should correspond to the continental shelf width of each region. This predicts that genetic divergences between river basins should be lowest in regions with a wider continental shelf and that regions with similar continental shelf width should have similar genetic divergences. Pygmy perches (Nannoperca australis and Nannoperca 'flindersi') in south-eastern Australia provide an ideal opportunity to test these biogeographic hypotheses. Phylogeographic patterns were examined based on range-wide sampling of 82 populations for cytochrome b and 23 polymorphic allozyme loci. Our results recovered only limited support for our continental shelf width hypothesis, although patterns within Bass clade were largely congruent with reconstructed low sea-level drainage patterns. In addition, we identified several instances of drainage divide crossings, typically associated with low elevational differences. Our results demonstrate high levels of genetic heterogeneity with important conservation implications, especially for declining populations in the Murray-Darling Basin and a highly restricted disjunct population in Ansons River, Tasmania. PMID:23398527

  11. Infection control and antibiotic stewardship practices reported by south-eastern Mediterranean hospitals collaborating in the ARMed project.

    PubMed

    Borg, M A; Cookson, B D; Gür, D; Ben, Redjeb S; Rasslan, O; Elnassar, Z; Benbachir, M; Bagatzouni, D P; Rahal, K; Daoud, Z

    2008-11-01

    The prevalence of multiply resistant organisms (MROs) reported from south-eastern Mediterranean hospitals highlights the need to identify possible contributory factors to help design control interventions. This was investigated through a structured questionnaire, which examined infection control and antibiotic stewardship practices in hospitals participating or collaborating with the Antibiotic Resistance SurveilLance & Control in the Mediterranean Region (ARMed) project. A total of 45 hospitals (78.9% of invited institutions) responded to the questionnaire; 60% indicated that they faced periods of overcrowding when available bed complement was insufficient to cope with hospital admissions and 62% reported difficulties in isolating patients with MROs due to lack of available beds. Most hospitals relied mainly on washing to achieve hand hygiene, whether by non-medicated or disinfectant soaps. Dependence on solid bars of soap (28.9%) and cloth towels (37.8%) were among the problems identified as well as inconvenient distances of sinks from patient beds (66.6%). Alcohol hand rub was the predominant hand hygiene product in only 7% of hospitals. Programmes for better antibiotic use were mostly limited in scope; 33.3% reported having antibiotic prescribing guidelines and 53.3% of hospitals fed back resistance rates to prescribers. Auditing of antibiotic consumption, whether institution- or unit-based, was carried out in 37.8% of responding hospitals. Multi-faceted approaches aimed at improving isolation of patients with MROs, increasing the emphasis on hand hygiene by encouraging greater use of alcohol hand rubs and introducing effective antibiotic stewardship programmes should be encouraged in south-eastern Mediterranean hospitals. PMID:18783850

  12. Characterization of a rapid climate shift at the MIS 8/7 transition in central Spain (Valdocarros II, Autonomous Region of Madrid) by means of the herpetological assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Panera, Joaquin; Uribelarrea, David; Rubio-Jara, Susana; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    Climate instability with high-amplitude and rapid shifts during the Middle Pleistocene is well known from pollen records and deep-ocean sediment cores. Although poorly correlatable with such long climate/environment records, the successive fossil amphibian and reptile assemblages from the Middle Pleistocene site of Valdocarros II (Autonomous Region of Madrid, central Spain) provide a unique opportunity to characterize the climatic and environmental features of such rapid (certainly less than 1000 years) shifts from cold to warm conditions in a terrestrial sequence. As the amphibians and reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the herpetofaunistic assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The difference in mean annual temperature between "cold" and "warm" periods is estimated at 3.2 °C, with a greater increase in temperature during winter (+3 °C) than during summer (+1 °C). During "cold" periods the climate was more Oceanic (although preserving some dryness during the summers), whereas during "warm" periods the climate became Mediterranean (with mild winters and a long period of dryness in the summer and early autumn). Though higher during cold periods, the continentality (or atmospheric temperature range) remained roughly similar, in accordance with the geographical location of the site in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. A greater amount of open landscape occurred during "cold" periods, whereas during "warm" periods the wooded areas expanded from 20% to 40% of the landscape surface. Such climatic/environmental changes, together with the numeric datings of the site, suggest that this shift may correspond to the transition from MIS 8 to MIS 7, also called Termination III.

  13. Climate in northern Spain through the Younger Dryas and Holocene preserved in a precisely dated speleothem from La Garma cave, Cantabria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Lisa; McDermott, Frank; Arias Cabal, Pablo; Garcia-Monco, Cristina; Baldini, James; Mattey, David; Hoffmann, Dirk; Richards, David; Mueller, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Stalagmite GAR-01 preserves a continuous, high-resolution record of climate in northern Spain over the past 14,000 years. High resolution (i.e., biennially- to decadally-resolved) laser isotope data reveal both high and low frequency climatic variability through the Holocene including a prominent carbon isotope anomaly centred on 4,000 yrs BP. Most striking is the GAR-01 pre-Holocene record that includes a pronounced excursion to cold and dry conditions at the time of the Younger Dryas Event. According to the well-defined carbon isotope excursion and six U-Series dates across the anomaly, stalagmite GAR-01 records the Younger Dryas in northern Spain between 12,907 ± 77 to 11,653 ± 116 yrs BP, in excellent agreement with the latest NGRIP Younger Dryas chronology (i.e., 12,846 ± 138 to 11,653 ± 99 yrs BP; Rasmussen et al., 2006). The GAR-01 Younger Dryas oxygen (a 1.8 per mil negative excursion) and carbon (a 3.4 per mil positive excursion) isotope anomalies are muted relative to higher latitude proxy records but the uninterrupted growth during the Younger Dryas at an average rate of 37 microns/year combined with in situ laser isotope and trace element techniques permits a detailed reconstruction of the last stages of deglaciation. The GAR-01 biennial-scale isotope and subannual-scale trace element record of the Younger Dryas Event provides crucial information about the mechanisms that led to the onset, stabilisation, and termination of this important abrupt climate change event. Striking similarities between the GAR-01 14,000 year carbon isotope record and the coeval Cariaco Basin Ti and Fe (%) records suggests that northern Iberia may be an important location for understanding North Atlantic tropical-extratropical teleconnections.

  14. Columbus's Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Jose Manuel Nieto

    1991-01-01

    Describes fifteenth-century Spain's tendencies that proved central to the Columbian enterprise: experience as a conquering and colonizing kingdom, interest in Atlantic expansion, and missionary inclination. Argues that Columbus's arrival in Spain came at the perfect time in Spanish history. Stresses Spain's long history of religious war, conquest,…

  15. The use of webcam images to determine tourist-climate aptitude: favourable weather types for sun and beach tourism on the Alicante coast (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Emilio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Climate has an obvious influence on tourism as a resource and as a location factor for tourist activities. Consequently, the tourist phenomenon in general is heavily controlled by meteorological conditions-in short, by the climate. In this article, the author proposes a set of weather types with which to establish the climate aptitude for sun and beach tourism. To determine these types, the density of use of one of the beaches with the lowest seasonality in continental Europe, the Levante Beach in Benidorm (Alicante, Spain), was analysed. Beach attendance was monitored using a webcam installed by the "Agencia Valenciana de Turismo". The relationship between the density of use of the lower and upper beach areas on the one hand, and meteorological variables on the other, allowed comfort (physiological equivalent temperature) and enjoyment (fractions of solar radiation) thresholds to be established. The appropriate hydric comfort values were obtained by comparing the ranges proposed by Besancenot in 1989 [Besancenot (1989) Clima et turismes. Massom, París] with numbers of visitors to the beach. The wind velocity and precipitation thresholds were selected following consultation with the literature and considering the climatic characteristics of the environment under analysis. Based on a combination of these thresholds, weather types suitable for this specific tourist activity are defined. Thus, this article presents a method for assessing the extent to which a day on the beach can be enjoyed. This has a number of applications, for planners, the tourism business and consumers alike. The use of this (filter) method in climate databases and meteorological forecasts could help determine the tourist season, the suitability of setting up a business associated with sun and beach tourism, as well as help plan holidays and program a day's leisure activities. Thus, the article seeks to improve our understanding of the climate preferences of that tourist activity par excellence

  16. The use of webcam images to determine tourist-climate aptitude: favourable weather types for sun and beach tourism on the Alicante coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Emilio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Climate has an obvious influence on tourism as a resource and as a location factor for tourist activities. Consequently, the tourist phenomenon in general is heavily controlled by meteorological conditions—in short, by the climate. In this article, the author proposes a set of weather types with which to establish the climate aptitude for sun and beach tourism. To determine these types, the density of use of one of the beaches with the lowest seasonality in continental Europe, the Levante Beach in Benidorm (Alicante, Spain), was analysed. Beach attendance was monitored using a webcam installed by the "Agencia Valenciana de Turismo". The relationship between the density of use of the lower and upper beach areas on the one hand, and meteorological variables on the other, allowed comfort (physiological equivalent temperature) and enjoyment (fractions of solar radiation) thresholds to be established. The appropriate hydric comfort values were obtained by comparing the ranges proposed by Besancenot in 1989 [Besancenot (1989) Clima et turismes. Massom, París] with numbers of visitors to the beach. The wind velocity and precipitation thresholds were selected following consultation with the literature and considering the climatic characteristics of the environment under analysis. Based on a combination of these thresholds, weather types suitable for this specific tourist activity are defined. Thus, this article presents a method for assessing the extent to which a day on the beach can be enjoyed. This has a number of applications, for planners, the tourism business and consumers alike. The use of this (filter) method in climate databases and meteorological forecasts could help determine the tourist season, the suitability of setting up a business associated with sun and beach tourism, as well as help plan holidays and program a day's leisure activities. Thus, the article seeks to improve our understanding of the climate preferences of that tourist activity par

  17. Integrated analysis of the climate change effects on water availability for catchment management. The case of the Ésera River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solera, Abel; Segura, Carlos; Bussi, Gianbattista; Momblanch, Andrea; Francés, Félix

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of the impact of climate change on water resources is of primary importance in Mediterranean Areas. Mean precipitation is expected to decrease, although an increase in its torrentiality is foreseen, and temperature is expected to increase. In addition, growing urban water demand and new environmental requirements also contribute to increase water stress. To achieve an improved use of water resources, new and detailed studies of the impact of the climate change are needed. Due to the high complexity of rainfall-runoff processes and the need to incorporate climate change effect in them, physically based distributed models are proposed as a tool for assessing and analysing the climate change impact on water discharge. In this case, the distributed conceptual TETIS model was employed. This model was previously calibrated and validated in order to reproduce the hydrological cycle of a Mediterranean-influenced catchment, the Ésera River (Spain), under current climate conditions. Then, the TETIS model was driven by the results of a climatic model (precipitation and temperature series) under three climatic scenarios: current climate (or control scenario), A2 and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Water discharge series were generated at different points of the catchment. The model results pointed out that a global decrease in water yield is devised, being around 33% and 37% for scenario A2 and B2 respectively. Water discharge series were subsequently used in the analysis of climate change impact on water resources and water use in the studied river basin. To do so, a water allocation model was built, calibrated and validated under current streamflow conditions for the Ésera River. It considered all the water management infrastructures, water uses and environmental requirements. The results from TETIS for the three different scenarios were introduced as inputs to the water management model, what allowed performing three simulations. The outcomes

  18. Summer and winter plankton fish assemblages around offshore oil and gas platforms in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, Francisco J.

    2005-06-01

    Opportunistic plankton surveys were conducted within a 5-nmi radius of nine offshore oil and gas platforms in Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia, in February 1998 and 1999 (summer) and August 1998 (winter). The 108 day-night samples collected alongside (vertical tows) and nearby (surface and oblique tows) platforms yielded 1526 larval and early juvenile fishes representing 55 taxa from 45 families. Epipelagic/mesopelagic taxa dominated the catches, whereas hard/soft habitat-associated taxa were uncommon. Carangidae (36.2%) and Myctophidae (31.5%) dominated in summer and winter, respectively. The most abundant taxon was Trachurus declivis (Carangidae, 35.1%), followed by Bovichtus angustifrons (Bovichtidae, 8.7%), Scomberesox saurus (Scomberesocidae, 3.7%), Centroberyx affinis (Berycidae, 3.0%) and Arripis trutta (Arripidae, 1.7%). Fish concentrations (nos. per 100 m 3) alongside platforms did not differ significantly between day and night across all surveys. Likewise, concentrations nearby platforms in February 1999, including those of T. declivis, did not vary significantly by tow type (surface vs. oblique) or day vs. night. The far greater diversity and abundance recorded in February 1999 are likely the result of upwelling conditions over the eastern Bass Strait shelf during the sampling period, and which were not detected in February 1998. In the absence of data on adult fishes associated with the Bass Strait platforms, and given the limited availability of reefs directly around the area, it could be argued that some of the taxa caught may originate from spawning around neighboring natural reefs, particularly those off the Gippsland coastline and the south-east corner of mainland Australia. However, the prime position of the platforms almost right in the center of a productivity "hotspot" would have a confounding effect on the potential source(s) of larval fishes in that region of south-eastern Australia. The role of platforms as potential de-facto reefs for

  19. Non-Linearity of the Rainfall-Runoff Response Across South-Eastern Australia During the Millennium Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.; Potter, N. J.; Petheram, C.; Dawes, W.

    2012-12-01

    South-eastern Australia experienced a major drought lasting from 1997 to 2009 (the so-called 'Millennium drought'). Average annual rainfall during this drought was 512 mm, some 12 percent below the long-term average of 582 mm. Based on simple rules-of-thumb, one would expect a rainfall decline of this magnitude to produce a runoff decline of 20 to 30 percent. However, the decline in runoff during the Millennium drought was, in some places, much greater than this. There were a number of factors contributing to this. Firstly was the nature of the rainfall decline, which saw large decreases in autumn and winter rainfall, the seasons which produce most of the runoff across the region. There was also a lack of wet years and, more importantly, very wet months, with 180 consecutive months without a monthly rainfall in the top 10th percentile. Finally, temperatures during this drought were higher than during similar droughts in the past. These conditions led to a reduction in groundwater recharge, which resulted in groundwater levels falling many metres below the surface in some catchments. This led to streams which were previously 'gaining streams' becoming 'losing streams'. In this presentation, we will present rainfall, runoff and groundwater data from a number of catchments in south-eastern Australia, showing that following a large drop in groundwater levels, runoff coefficients decreased dramatically, while cease-to-flow days showed a similarly large increase. We will also present results from a modelling experiment showing that these changes in hydrologic functioning are more likely to occur in low relief catchments, and that farm dams may act to prolong the declines in runoff due to their ability to act as a store for surface water, thereby delaying the catchment response to rainfall. Finally, we discuss how lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff models may be modified in order to capture these observed shifts in the hydrologic functioning of catchments.nnual time series

  20. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  1. Accelerated loss of alpine glaciers in the Kodar Mountains, south-eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Chris R.; Shahgedanova, Maria; Evans, Ian S.; Popovnin, Victor V.

    2013-02-01

    The recession of mountain glaciers around the world has been linked to anthropogenic climate change and small glaciers (e.g. < 2 km2) are thought to be particularly vulnerable, with reports of their disappearance from several regions. However, the response of small glaciers to climate change can be modulated by non-climatic factors such as topography and debris cover and there remain a number of regions where their recent change has evaded scrutiny. This paper presents results of the first multi-year remote sensing survey of glaciers in the Kodar Mountains, the only glaciers in SE Siberia, which we compare to previous glacier inventories from this continental setting that reported total glacier areas of 18.8 km2 in ca. 1963 (12.6 km2 of exposed ice) and 15.5 km2 in 1974 (12 km2 of exposed ice). Mapping their debris-covered termini is difficult but delineation of debris-free ice on Landsat imagery reveals 34 glaciers with a total area of 11.72 ± 0.72 km2 in 1995, followed by a reduction to 9.53 ± 0.29 km2 in 2001 and 7.01 ± 0.23 km2 in 2010. This represents a ~ 44% decrease in exposed glacier ice between ca. 1963 and 2010, but with 40% lost since 1995 and with individual glaciers losing as much as 93% of their exposed ice. Thus, although continental glaciers are generally thought to be less sensitive than their maritime counterparts, a recent acceleration in shrinkage of exposed ice has taken place and we note its coincidence with a strong summer warming trend in the region initiated at the start of the 1980s. Whilst smaller and shorter glaciers have, proportionally, tended to shrink more rapidly, we find no statistically significant relationship between shrinkage and elevation characteristics, aspect or solar radiation. This is probably due to the small sample size, limited elevation range, and topographic setting of the glaciers in deep valleys-heads. Furthermore, many of the glaciers possess debris-covered termini and it is likely that the ablation of buried

  2. A review of Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Rhys A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Raadik, Tarmo A

    2015-01-01

    The dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack), is a small, threatened freshwater fish from coastal south-eastern Australia. Recent genetic studies, using multiple nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, found substantial differences between populations in western Victoria and south Australia ('west region') compared to eastern Victoria, Flinders Island, and Tasmania ('east region') that suggest the presence of a cryptic species. Morphological measurements and meristic counts from multiple populations within each region were undertaken to investigate potential differences between regions. Several characters, found to discriminate between individuals in the regions and to be diagnostic for two taxa, were used to describe a new species, Galaxiella toourtkoourt, for the west region. This is only the second species in the Galaxiidae to exhibit sexual dimorphism. The original description of Galaxiella pusilla, based on five specimens, is revised following examination of a large number of individuals. Both species are considered nationally threatened and are categorised as 'endangered'; the revised distribution of G. pusilla s.s. is reduced by approximately 60%. A number of inconsistencies in the most recent revision of the genus Galaxiella are also corrected. PMID:26624129

  3. [Reproduction of the Spanish sardine, Sardinella aurita (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Gassman, Juan; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W

    2008-12-01

    Sex ratio, sexual maturity, fecundity and time of spawning of the Spanish sardine (Sardinella aurita) from the south-eastern area of Margarita Island were determined through monthly samplings of commercial fisheries, from January 2004 to April 2005. A total of 3 736 individuals were examined. Sex ratio was 55.47% females and 44.53% males, with a 1:1.25 sexual proportion (chi2 = 44.454, p < 0.05). Length at first sexual maturity (L50) was 20 cm. Spawning of the species was confirmed to be partial and continuous throughout the year, with two peaks of intensity during the first and last quarters. Absolute fecundity ranged from 10,530 to 83,779 oocytes and it was proportional to body length (F = -100,900 + 6696.2 * L) and to body weight (F = 13,327 + 5666.3 * P). Relative fecundity ranged from 149 to 1020 oocytes/g and also was proportional to body length and weight. We concluded that the Spanish sardine exhibits two peaks of spawning activity per year with a very fluctuating partial fecundity which could possibly be explained by environmental variability. PMID:19419083

  4. Links between riparian landcover, instream environment and fish assemblages in headwater streams of south-eastern Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, Bruna B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Cetra, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesised and tested a hierarchical organisation model where riparian landcover would influence bank composition and light availability, which in turn would influence instream environments and control fish assemblages. The study was conducted during the dry season in 11 headwater tributaries of the Sorocaba River in the upper Paraná River Basin, south-eastern Brazil. We focused on seven environmental factors each represented by one or multiple environmental variables and seven fish functional traits each represented by two or more classes. Multivariate direct gradient analyses suggested that riparian zone landcover can be considered a higher level causal factor in a network of relations that control instream characteristics and fish assemblages. Our results provide a framework for a hierarchical conceptual model that identifies singular and collective influences of variables from different scales on each other and ultimately on different aspects related to stream fish functional composition. This conceptual model is focused on the relationships between riparian landcover and instream variables as causal factors on the organisation of stream fish assemblages. Our results can also be viewed as a model for headwater stream management in that landcover can be manipulated to influence factors such as bank composition, substrates and water quality, whereas fish assemblage composition can be used as indicators to monitor the success of such efforts.

  5. Aechmea pectinata: a hummingbird-dependent bromeliad with inconspicuous flowers from the rainforest in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Canela, Maria Bernadete Ferreira; Sazima, Marlies

    2003-11-01

    The pollination biology of Aechmea pectinata (Bromeliaceae) was studied in a submontane rainforest in south-eastern Brazil. This species has a mainly clumped distribution and its aggregated individuals are likely to be clones. From October to January, during the flowering period, the distal third of its leaves becomes red. The inflorescence produces 1-15 flowers per day over a period of 20-25 d. The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-white coloured, tubular shaped with a narrow opening, and the stigma is situated just above the anthers. Anthesis begins at 0400 h and flowers last for about 13 h. The highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur between 0600 and 1000 h, and decrease throughout the day. Aechmea pectinata is self-incompatible and therefore pollinator-dependent. Hummingbirds are its main pollinators (about 90 % of the visits), visiting flowers mainly in the morning. There is a positive correlation between the number of hummingbird visits per inflorescence and the production of nectar, suggesting that the availability of this resource is important in attracting and maintaining visitors. The arrangement of the floral structures favours pollen deposition on the bill of the hummingbirds. Flowers in clumps promote hummingbird territoriality, and a consequence is self-pollination in a broader sense (geitonogamy) as individuals in assemblages are genetically close. However, trap-lining and intruding hummingbirds promote cross-pollination. These observations suggest that successful fruit set of A. pectinata depends on both the spatial distribution of its individuals and the interactions among hummingbirds. PMID:14573525

  6. Geological and geophysical characterization of the south-eastern side of the High Agri Valley (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Adurno, I.; Perrone, A.; Gallipoli, M. R.; Gueguen, E.; Norelli, E.; Piscitelli, S.

    2014-10-01

    In the frame of a national project funded by Eni S.p.A. and developed by three institutes of the National Research Council (the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, the Institute of Research for Hydrogeological Protection and the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment), a multidisciplinary approach based on the integration of satellite, aero-photogrammetric and in situ geophysical techniques was applied to investigate an area located in the Montemurro territory in the south-eastern sector of the High Agri Valley (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). This paper reports the results of the in situ geophysical investigation. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) by earthquakes and ambient noise measurements were carried out in the study area. The results were supported by interpretation of aerial photos, geological field surveys, morphotectonic investigation and borehole data. The joint analysis of geological, ERT and HVSR data allowed us to (1) show the shallow geological and structural setting, (2) detect the geometry of the different lithological units and their mechanical and dynamical properties, (3) image a previously unmapped fault beneath suspected scarps/warps and (4) characterize the geometry of an active landslide that caused damages to structures and infrastructures.

  7. High temperature combined with drought affect rainfed spring wheat and barley in South-Eastern Russia: I. Phenology and growth

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Akbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Lozovskaya, Marina Viacheslavovna; Zvolinsky, Vacheslav Petrovich

    2012-01-01

    Heat stress, when combined with drought, is one of the major limitations to food production worldwide, especially in areas that use rainfed agriculture. As the world population continues to grow, and water resources for the crop production decline and temperature increases, so the development of heat- and drought-tolerant cultivars is an issue of global concern. In this context, four barley and two wheat genotypes were evaluated in south-eastern Russia to identify heat- and drought-tolerant genotypes for future breeding programmes by identifying suitable sowing times for specific genotypes. High temperature stress, when combined with drought during late sowing, decreased the days to visible awns, days to heading and days to ripe harvest, finally negatively affecting the growth and development of plants and resulting in a lower plant population m−2, tillers plant−1, plant height and dry matter production m−2. On the other hand, low temperature in combination with early sowing increased the number of days to germination, reduced seedling stand establishment and tillering capacity, finally affecting the growth and development of the crops. Compared to overall performance and optimum sowing date, barley genotypes ‘Zernograd.770’ and ‘Nutans’, and wheat genotype ‘Line4’ performed best in both late (high temperature with drought) and early (low temperature) stress conditions. PMID:23961209

  8. Fish gills alterations as potential biomarkers of environmental quality in a eutrophized tropical river in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A A; Araújo, F G; Gomes, I D; Mendes, R M M; Sales, A

    2012-06-01

    Gill anomalies in three common fish species of different taxonomic order, habitat dwelling and feeding habits (one Characiformes, Oligosarcus hepsetus; one Siluriformes, Hypostomus auroguttatus; and one Perciformes, Geophagus brasiliensis) from a eutrophized tropical river in south-eastern in Brazil were compared. The aim of this study was to search for sentinel species that could be used as potential biomarkers of environmental quality. Most fish had gills with histological changes, namely epithelial lifting, interstitial oedema, leucocyte infiltration, hyperplasia of the epithelial cells, lamellar fusion, vasodilatation and necrosis. On the other hand, lamellar blood congestion and lamellar aneurysm, which are more serious and often irreversible changes, were recorded for the water column carnivorous O. hepsetus and, to a lesser extent, for the bottom-dwelling detritivorous H. auroguttatus. A histopathological alteration index (HAI) based on the occurrence and severity of gills anomalies indicated that O. hepsetus (mean score = 11.4) had significantly higher values (Kruskall-Wallis H(2,41) = 15.95, P = 0.0003) compared with G. brasiliensis (mean score = 7.0). Overall, the omnivorous G. brasiliensis had comparatively lesser occurrence of most gill anomalies compared with other two species, being less suitable as biomarker of environmental quality. In contrast, the water column-dweller O. hepsetus (water column) and the bottom-dweller H. auroguttatus had gills most susceptible to changes, making them more suitable for using as histological biomarkers of the environmental quality in entrophized tropical rivers. PMID:22211803

  9. Submarine Sedimentation Transport Processes in the South-Eastern Terceira Rift / São Miguel Region (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, Benedikt; Hübscher, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The south-eastern Terceira Rift comprises a rift basin, igneous ridges, seamounts and São Miguel, the main island of the volcanic Azores Archipelago. It is located ~1500 km west of continental Portugal within the convergence zone of the American, African and Eurasian plate. Due to submarine and subaerial volcanism, the sedimentation rate is higher than usually assumed in such a segregated submarine region. Multi-beam and high-resolution multi-channel seismic data reveal a wide variety of sediment transport processes. Volcanic fall-out sediments are abundant in the entire area. Along the northern slope of Sao Miguel terrestrial volcanic sediments are drained by rain water gullies which connect to submarine channels. Turbidity currents created some 10 km long erosional channels which transported the sediments more than 40 km downslope. Several regional accumulations of talus and/or pyroclastic material get instable resulting in gravitational gliding, creeping or slide events. Volcanic ridges partly collapse due to tectonic stress and/or gravity spreading. Oceanic currents remobilize sediments and form drift deposits. Infilling drifts developed on top of hangingwall blocks of step faults. Therefore, the São Miguel region is a good example of a sedimentary system with strong time-variant and locally defined sediment support. Sedimentation is controlled by volcanism and tectonics, since these processes affect sedimentation pathways and oceanographic conditions.

  10. [Influence of environmental factors on the distribution of tree species in the forests of south-eastern Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Castelán, José C; Islebe, Gerald A

    2005-01-01

    We studied the relationship between the distribution of tree species and environmental factors in the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, south-eastern Mexico. Our main objective was to examine how changes in microtopography and edaphic factors influence the distribution of tree species of medium and low-statured forests. We established 17 plots of 625 m2 and collected data on spatial distribution of individuals with dbh > or = 5 cm, and the following soil variables: electric conductivity (CE), cationic exchange capacity (CEC), textural class, pH, organic matter (MO), total nitrogen (Nt) and phosphorus availability (P). We used Twinspan to classify the plots and applied indirect (DCA) and direct (CCA) gradient analysis. We found 84 species and 4 433 individuals. MO, texture and CEC varied significantly (p< or =0.05) between the high and low parts. DCA and CCA indicated that the species distribution is strongly influenced by the microtopography gradient and the textural class. Using DCA and CCA exclusively on the data of the low parts, two low statured forest types were identified: one characteristic of low zones (soil slightly basic and high percentage of clay), the other surrounded by medium statured forest (soil slightly acid, high CEC, MO and clay). PMID:17354425

  11. Cross-timescale Interference and Rainfall Extreme Events in South Eastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Angel G.

    The physical mechanisms and predictability associated with extreme daily rainfall in South East South America (SESA) are investigated for the December-February season. Through a k-mean analysis, a robust set of daily circulation regimes is identified and then it is used to link the frequency of rainfall extreme events with large-scale potential predictors at subseasonal-to-seasonal scales. This basic set of daily circulation regimes is related to the continental and oceanic phases of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and wave train patterns superimposed on the Southern Hemisphere Polar Jet. Some of these recurrent synoptic circulation types are conducive to extreme rainfall events in the region through synoptic control of different meso-scale physical features and, at the same time, are influenced by climate phenomena that could be used as sources of potential predictability. Extremely high rainfall (as measured by the 95th- and 99th-percentiles) is preferentially associated with two of these weather types, which are characterized by moisture advection intrusions from lower latitudes and the Pacific; another three weather types, characterized by above-normal moisture advection toward lower latitudes or the Andes, are preferentially associated with dry days (days with no rain). The analysis permits the identification of several subseasonal-to-seasonal scale potential predictors that modulate the occurrence of circulation regimes conducive to extreme rainfall events in SESA. It is conjectured that a cross-timescale interference between the different climate drivers improves the predictive skill of extreme precipitation in the region. The potential and real predictive skill of the frequency of extreme rainfall is then evaluated, finding evidence indicating that mechanisms of climate variability at one timescale contribute to the predictability at another scale, i.e., taking into account the interference of different potential sources of predictability at

  12. Dendrochronological potential of the alpine shrub Rhododendron nivale on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Eryuan; Eckstein, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Shrubs and dwarf shrubs are wider spread on the Tibetan Plateau than trees and hence offer a unique opportunity to expand the present dendrochronological network into extreme environments beyond the survival limit of trees. Alpine shrublands on the Tibetan Plateau are characterized by rhododendron species. The dendrochronological potential of one alpine rhododendron species and its growth response to the extreme environment on the south-east Tibetan Plateau were investigated. Methods Twenty stem discs of the alpine snowy rhododendron (Rhododendron nivale) were collected close to the tongue of the Zuoqiupu Glacier in south-east Tibet, China. The skeleton plot technique was used for inter-comparison between samples to detect the growth pattern of each stem section. The ring-width chronology was developed by fitting a negative exponential function or a straight line of any slope. Bootstrapping correlations were calculated between the standard chronology and monthly climate data. Key Results The wood of snowy rhododendron is diffuse-porous with evenly distributed small-diameter vessels. It has well-defined growth rings. Most stem sections can be visually and statistically cross-dated. The resulting 75-year-long standard ring-width chronology is highly correlated with a timberline fir chronology about 200 km apart, providing a high degree of confidence in the cross-dating. The climate/growth association of alpine snowy rhododendron and of this timberline fir is similar, reflecting an impact of monthly mean minimum temperatures in November of the previous year and in July during the year of ring formation. Conclusions The alpine snowy rhododendron offers new research directions to investigate the environmental history of the Tibetan Plateau in those regions where up to now there was no chance of applying dendrochronology. PMID:19556264

  13. A new Mylabris species from south-eastern Iran and a key to the Iranian species of the nominate subgenus (Coleoptera, Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Serri, Sayeh; Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Mylabris of the nominate subgenus is described and figured. This species is apparently endemic to the south-eastern Iranian province of Kerman and seems to be phenetically very distinct from all other species of this subgenus, primarily because of the unique elytral pattern. A key to the species of the nominate subgenus distributed in Iran is also presented. PMID:22977351

  14. A new Mylabris species from south-eastern Iran and a key to the Iranian species of the nominate subgenus (Coleoptera, Meloidae)

    PubMed Central

    Serri, Sayeh; Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Mylabris of the nominate subgenus is described and figured. This species is apparently endemic to the south-eastern Iranian province of Kerman and seems to be phenetically very distinct from all other species of this subgenus, primarily because of the unique elytral pattern. A key to the species of the nominate subgenus distributed in Iran is also presented. PMID:22977351

  15. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. PMID:22795259

  16. Genomic scanning using AFLP to detect loci under selection in the moss Funaria hygrometrica along a climate gradient in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Spain.

    PubMed

    Magdy, M; Werner, O; McDaniel, S F; Goffinet, B; Ros, R M

    2016-03-01

    The common cord moss Funaria hygrometrica has a worldwide distribution and thrives in a wide variety of environments. Here, we studied the genetic diversity in F. hygrometrica along an abiotic gradient in the Mediterranean high mountain of Sierra Nevada (Spain) using a genome scan method. Eighty-four samples from 17 locations from 24 to 2700 m were fingerprinted based on their amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) banding pattern. Using PCA and Bayesian inference we found that the genetic diversity was structured in three or four clusters, respectively. Using a genome scan method we identified 13 outlier loci, which showed a signature of positive selection. Partial Mantel tests were performed between the Euclidean distance matrices of geographic and climatic variables, versus the pair-wise genetic distance of the AFLP dataset and AFLP-positive outliers dataset. AFLP-positive outlier data were significantly correlated with the gradient of the climatic variables, suggesting adaptive variation among populations of F. hygrometrica along the Sierra Nevada Mountains. We highlight the additional analyses necessary to identify the nature of these loci, and their biological role in the adaptation process. PMID:26284822

  17. Geo-environmental model for the prediction of potential transmission risk of Dirofilaria in an area with dry climate and extensive irrigated crops. The case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Simón, Luis; Afonin, Alexandr; López-Díez, Lucía Isabel; González-Miguel, Javier; Morchón, Rodrigo; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Kartashev, Vladimir; Simón, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Zoonotic filarioses caused by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are transmitted by culicid mosquitoes. Therefore Dirofilaria transmission depends on climatic factors like temperature and humidity. In spite of the dry climate of most of the Spanish territory, there are extensive irrigated crops areas providing moist habitats favourable for mosquito breeding. A GIS model to predict the risk of Dirofilaria transmission in Spain, based on temperatures and rainfall data as well as in the distribution of irrigated crops areas, is constructed. The model predicts that potential risk of Dirofilaria transmission exists in all the Spanish territory. Highest transmission risk exists in several areas of Andalucía, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia, Valencia, Aragón and Cataluña, where moderate/high temperatures coincide with extensive irrigated crops. High risk in Balearic Islands and in some points of Canary Islands, is also predicted. The lowest risk is predicted in Northern cold and scarcely or non-irrigated dry Southeastern areas. The existence of irrigations locally increases transmission risk in low rainfall areas of the Spanish territory. The model can contribute to implement rational preventive therapy guidelines in accordance with the transmission characteristics of each local area. Moreover, the use of humidity-related factors could be of interest in future predictions to be performed in countries with similar environmental characteristics. PMID:24456900

  18. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary schools based on school population. Stratified simple random sampling method was adopted and a table of random numbers was used to select required pupils from each arm. Clinical and laboratory examination was done to establish diagnoses of infectious skin disease. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The 400 pupils consisted of 153 males and 247 females. Age range was between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of infectious dermatoses was 72.3%. The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, pediculosis and seborrheic dermatitis, exhibited predilection for females. Pyodermas and scabies were significantly more prevalent in the 7-9 age-group; while tinea capitis, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis and pediculosis were more associated with ≥10 age-group. Conclusion Infectious dermatoses were highly prevalent in the surveyed population. Many of the clinical types exhibited sex- and age-specificity. PMID:26430479

  19. Demography of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Groenendijk, Jessica; Hajek, Frank; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Calvimontes, Jorge; Staib, Elke; Schenck, Christof

    2014-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult 'helpers', resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03) and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1) physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2) a high degree of reproductive skew, (3) small litters produced only once a year, and (4) a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males). Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs.) and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime); the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11), with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River. PMID:25162684

  20. Out-of-Pocket Payments, Health Care Access and Utilisation in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Gender Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Onah, Michael N.; Govender, Veloshnee

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

  1. Demography of the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, South-Eastern Peru: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Groenendijk, Jessica; Hajek, Frank; Johnson, Paul J.; Macdonald, David W.; Calvimontes, Jorge; Staib, Elke; Schenck, Christof

    2014-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult ‘helpers’, resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03) and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1) physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2) a high degree of reproductive skew, (3) small litters produced only once a year, and (4) a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males). Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs.) and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime); the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11), with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River. PMID:25162684

  2. The effects of quarry mining on the epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium in schoolchildren, in Ishiagu, south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, F O; Etusim, P E; Nwaugo, V O; Oguariri, R M

    2006-03-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a noticeable increase in the activities of quarry-mining companies in the Ishiagu area of south-eastern Nigeria. These activities have produced an ever-growing number of abandoned quarry pits that usually quickly fill with water and appear to become suitable habitats for the freshwater snails that may act as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium. To examine the potential role of quarry mining on the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis caused by S. haematobium, urine samples were collected from 1819 schoolchildren in northern Ishiagu (an area with intense mining activities and many quarry pits) and from 252 schoolchildren in southern Ishiagu (an area with no mining activity or quarry pits). When these 2071 samples were checked for schistosome eggs, 1005 (48.5%) were found positive and 252 (25.1%) of the infected children showed visible haematuria. The children from northern Ishiagu were much more likely to be infected than the children from the south (53.3% v. 13.9%; P<0.001). Curiously, only the children from northern Ishiagu showed a gender-related difference in prevalence that was statistically significant, with boys more likely to be infected than girls (60.9% v. 38.5%; P<0.001). Although the 'children' investigated varied in age from 5 to 20 years, no statistically significant increase or decrease in prevalence with age was apparent. Four species of snails (Bulinus globosus, B. rohlfsi, B. forskalii and B. senegalensis) were found in the overall study area but B. globosus was only found in the quarry pits in northern Ishiagu and never in the water bodies of southern Ishiagu. It does appear that quarry-mining activity in the Ishiagu area is a factor in the local epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis, with the water bodies that form in the abandoned quarry pits serving as the principal foci of transmission. PMID:16492363

  3. Public attitudes and risk perception toward land application of biosolids within the south-eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kevin G; Robinson, Carolyn H; Raup, Lauren A; Markum, Travis R

    2012-05-15

    A descriptive-correlational study of biosolids recycling was conducted in the south-eastern United States to assess current knowledge, attitudes and risk perceptions of participants in two communities that land apply biosolids as part of their waste management programs. One community, Amelia County VA, has been outspoken against biosolids recycling in the past, whereas the second community, Knoxville, TN region, has voiced few concerns about biosolids recycling. Additionally, gender differences within the entire study population were assessed. A 45-question telephone survey, utilizing a 4-point Likert scale, was developed and administered to 311 randomly selected adults in the two regions. Commonalities identified during the study revealed key risk perceptions by the public regarding biosolids regulations, treatment, and application. Given current perceptions and knowledge, respondents felt that the benefits derived from biosolids recycling do not offset the perceived health and safety risks. However, as distance between application and personal property increased, a decrease in opposition of biosolids reuse became evident for all respondents. Survey participants were dissatisfied with the level of stakeholder involvement in research and decision-making processes concerning biosolids. The outspoken Amelia County residents perceived greater health risks due to inadequate treatment of biosolids and odorous emissions during the application process than the less engaged Knox Metro respondents. Significant gender differences were observed with sampled females perceiving greater risks to health and safety from biosolids recycling than males. There was also indication that decisions and risks were not sufficiently communicated to the public, leading to respondents being inadequately informed about biosolids land application in both communities. Community-specific outreach programs must address these public risk perceptions and the differences in perception caused by

  4. Determinants of delay in seeking malaria treatment for children under-five years in parts of South Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwuocha, Uchechukwu Madukaku; Okpanma, Austin C; Nwakwuo, Geoffrey Chima; Dozie, Ikechukwu Nosike Simplicius

    2014-12-01

    One of the components of the current WHO strategy to fight malaria is early recognition and prompt and appropriate treatment. We investigated determinants of delay in seeking early and appropriate malaria treatment for children (0-5 years) in Ohaji/Egbema, South Eastern Nigeria. Data was collected using structured pre-tested questionnaires elicited in the local language (Igbo) to 738 consenting mothers within the child bearing age (15-49 years). About twenty-two percent (22%) of the respondents sought treatment within 24 h for their children with malaria and were excluded from further investigation. More than half of the remaining respondents (51.5%) delayed in seeking treatment because they had to watch their children for some days, while 21.4% were due to financial difficulties. The age, parity, marital status/type of marriage and educational attainment of the mothers including family social-economic status were found to be statistically related to delay in seeking appropriate treatment (P < 0.05). Wrong first line treatment choices by the respondents also contributed to this delay. These results underscore the need to improve awareness of mothers and caregivers on the need and ways of seeking early, appropriate and effective treatment for their children who have malaria. This is very important if the WHO strategy of early recognition, prompt and appropriate treatment is to be effective so as to sufficiently reduce mortality and morbidity due to malaria among children in endemic rural areas. It will also aid in the proper management and treatment of other childhood febrile illnesses. PMID:24729003

  5. Sedimentological conditions and sediment transport pathways in the nearshore zone of the Russian part of South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhova, Evgenia

    2016-04-01

    The sediment transport pathways and sedimentological conditions are identified on the South-Eastern Baltic Sea coastal zone (Russian part) up to the depth of 30 m on the base of grain size analysis of recent marine sediments. The interrelations between grain size statistical parameters of 971 sediment samples are used. The two independent approaches that discussed in the literature are applied: 1) the sediment trend analysis, based on spatial variations of sediment grain size parameters from sample to sample (McLaren, 1981) and 2) the population anomalies method, which allows to determine the sedimentation conditions (erosion, transit or accumulation) from the deviations of sediments grain size parameters in each sampling place from the average values in investigation area (Baraniecki and Racinowski, 1996). Taking into account that the sediment grain size composition achieve its constant in calm period of reduced storm influence and that the all samples were taking during summer season, the obtained sedimentation pattern present the long-time annual average of sediment transport pathways in the investigated area. The results show that the sediment accumulation under the wave influence prevails up to the depth of 5 m. The continuous accumulation zone breaks in erosion where the shore line changes its direction. Seaward of the accumulation zone the sediment transit area extends and interrupts by zones of erosion and accumulation up to the depth of 20 m. Sediment transport here occurs in hydrodynamic circulation cells within bays along the Sambian peninsula north coast. The erosion zones serves as sediment source on the underwater shore slope. The north-eastern direction of sediment transport exist along the straightened coast of Curonian spit according to prevail west winds. Deeper there are zones of transit and "slowly" sediment accumulation up to the depth of 30 m. The seaward and isobaths parallel sediment transport pathways are obtained in these zones. The work

  6. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker cadres with little pre

  7. Surface sediment dynamics along the Tunisian coast at Skhira (Gulf of Gabès, south-eastern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahim, Mouldi; Abdelfattah, Atoui; Sammari, Chérif; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-12-01

    An investigation was conducted in the summer of 2012 at 24 study stations along the Tunisian coast near Skhira (south-eastern Mediterranean Sea) through high resolution of analyses, grain size and mineral composition of surface sediment. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Skhira's main coastal current to follow a direction 60°E, with its main axis south-west/north-east parallel to the coastline and its minor axis east-west. Current speeds were approximately 13 cm s-1 and 4.5 cm s-1 for the major and minor axes, respectively. Parallel to the coast, currents were generally mild to moderate, but often exceeded 20 cm s-1. An Argonaut meter recorded the dominant current direction as north/north-east with a speed not exceeding 18 cm s-1. Orthogonal Empirical Function analysis of tidal currents showed that the major axis velocity dispersion was north-east/south-west, the water mass flow parallel to the shoreline being almost unidirectional, driving littoral drift parallel to the coast. Spatial distribution of particle size, along with speed and current direction analysis, furnish an overview of the Skhira area's sediment dynamics and transport. Average sand grain size shows that the bottom consists of fine and especially of medium sands near the coast, with muddy sands offshore. The fine fraction percentage (<63 microns) as opposed to the coarse fraction (>63 microns) is higher at the two offshore study stations, 20 m deep. Fine particles are discharged into the sea by rip currents. Sediment dynamics along the Skhira coast are complex, being subject to the combined effect of swell and tide. Sediments are permanently re-suspended and in constant movement, especially during storms.

  8. Surface deformation monitored on the south eastern part of Uttarakhand State of India by the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yhokha, A.; Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Goswami, P. K.; Ching, K.

    2013-12-01

    Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a useful tool in gathering the first basic information about the surface deformation, despite of different natural terrains, forested or mountainous region. This technique has been applied successfully by various worker in different field in extracting surface information in variety of terranes. The advantage of this techniques is that it has the ability of taking into account of only those return radar signal which are the brightest or the strongest in the surrounding background signal. Moreover, PS algorithms operate on a time series of interferograms all formed with respect to a single master SAR image that the noise terms of displacement for each PS pixel are much reduced. Keeping all these points in mind, we applied this technique in the Himalayan mountain, covering the south eastern part of the Uttarakhand state of India. So far lots of different work has been carried out in the Himalayan region, but less work has been done in regards to its surface deformation. The Himalayan mountain are well know for its segmented nature, different region undergoing different tectonic activity. In the similar manner, our PSI result in our study area also reveal two different set of deformation, with its eastern part revealing subsidence and the western part undergoing uplift, these two set of deformation is separated by a right later strike slip fault called, the Garampani-Kathgodam fault (G-KF). Apart from this obvious deformation, the western part also reveal differential deformation. Based on our result we have also tried to create a deformation model, to understand and to get better knowledge of the tectonic deformation setting.

  9. Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751-1900 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-03-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900 AD. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage are documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  10. Application of a crop model forced with remote sensing data at high spatio-temporal resolution to estimate evaporation and yields of irrigated grasslands in the South Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couralt, D.; Hadria, R.; Ruget, F.; Duchemin, B.; Hagolle, O.

    2009-09-01

    This study focused on the feasibility of using remote sensing data acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution (FORMOSAT-2 images(http://www.spotimage.fr/web/en/977--formosat-2-images.php) for crop monitoring at regional scale. The monitoring of agricultural practices such as grassland mowing and irrigation is essential to simulate accurately all processes related to crop system. This information is needed for example in crop simulation models to estimate production, water and fertilizer consumption and can thus serve to better understand the interactions between agriculture and climate. The analysis of these interactions is especially important in Mediterranean region where the effects of climate changes and crop management modifications are increasingly marked. In this context, an experiment was conducted in 2006 in Crau region in the South-Eastern France. In this area, permanent grassland represents 67 % of the usable agricultural area, and it is often used with irrigation (47 % of the permanent grassland). A time series of 36 FORMOSAT-2 images was acquired with a three days frequency from March to October 2006. Information concerning grassland mowing and irrigation was collected through a survey over 120 fields. The high FORMOSAT-2 revisit frequency allowed replicating the dynamics of Leaf Area index (LAI), and detecting to some extents cultural practices like vegetation cut. Simple automatic algorithms were developed to obtain daily values of LAI for each grasslands field linked with the main agricultural practices performed (cut and irrigation dates). This information was then used in a crop model called STICS (http://147.100.66.194/stics/) to estimate the spatial variability of evapotranspiration and drainage associated with the aerial biomass productions. Comparisons between simulated and observed yields gave satisfactory results. The great spatial variations of evapotranspiration were strongly related to the crop and water management. Such

  11. Determination of the desertification processes by means of the some soil physico-chemical properties analysis along a climate gradient. (South of Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.; Romero Diaz, A.

    2009-04-01

    The pluviometric gradient located in the South of Spain shows one of the European areas affected by desertification processes. In most of the cases, desertification processes are related directly with the hydrological erosion processes, when from the functional point of view could be the consequence. The erosional dynamic along a hillslopes with these soil particles movements generated processes lead to important changes of some properties. Such changes can modify the soil hydrological behaviour with a soil productivity loss and consequently a vegetation cover reduction, favouring the soil erosion processes what have been termed feedback processes, which final will be the appear of non-return situations. Mainly, such soil properties are aggregate stability, porosity, gravels, clay, organic matter, soluble salt, carbonate content, soil organic carbon, cationic exchange capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Also the soil erodibility was calculate through the K factor of USLE. The investigation boards the study of the mentioned processes through the methodology of the analogue situations reproduction in the South of Spain (Bethics Chain) and along a climatic gradient. They are areas with metamorphic rocks (schists anf filithes), high slope gradient and very shallow soils due to a historical management in the most of the cases. Has been defined a climatic gradient at this area, which fluctuates from 1100 mm/y-1 at Gaucin, 750 mm/y-1 al Marbella, 590 mm/y-1 at Almogia, 330 mm/y-1 at Berja and 240 mm/y-1. at Gergal. The soils samples were collected in the south facing slopes, of each field site, and the amount of soil were 60 in each field site, with one total amount of 300 soils samples. We have selected a representative hillslopes with a similar exposition and length in every one of each area. The final results shown modifications in the soil and hydrological properties studied with the increasing of the aridity, and the protector role of vegetation cover

  12. The weak effects of climatic change on Plantago pollen concentration: 17 years of monitoring in Northwestern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Parrado, Zulima; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa Ma.; Vega-Maray, Ana Ma.; Fuertes-Rodríguez, Carmen Reyes; Fernández-González, Delia

    2014-09-01

    Plantago L. species are very common in nitrified areas such as roadsides and their pollen is a major cause of pollinosis in temperate regions. In this study, we sampled airborne pollen grains in the city of León (NW, Spain) from January 1995 to December 2011, by using a Burkard® 7-day-recording trap. The percentage of Plantago pollen compared to the total pollen count ranged from 11 % (1997) to 3 % (2006) in the period under study. Peak pollen concentrations were recorded in May and June. Our 17-year analysis failed to disclose significant changes in the seasonal trend of plantain pollen concentration. In addition, there were no important changes in the start dates of pollen release and the meteorological parameters analyzed did not show significant variations in their usual trends. We analyzed the influence of several meteorological parameters on Plantago pollen concentration to explain the differences in pollen concentration trends during the study. Our results show that temperature, sun hours, evaporation, and relative humidity are the meteorological parameters best correlated to the behavior of Plantago pollen grains. In general, the years with low pollen concentrations correspond to the years with less precipitation or higher temperatures. We calculated the approximate Plantago flowering dates using the cumulative sum of daily maximum temperatures and compared them with the real bloom dates. The differences obtained were 4 days in 2009, 3 days in 2010, and 1 day in 2011 considering the complete period of pollination.

  13. The weak effects of climatic change on Plantago pollen concentration: 17 years of monitoring in Northwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    González-Parrado, Zulima; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa Ma; Vega-Maray, Ana Ma; Fuertes-Rodríguez, Carmen Reyes; Fernández-González, Delia

    2014-09-01

    Plantago L. species are very common in nitrified areas such as roadsides and their pollen is a major cause of pollinosis in temperate regions. In this study, we sampled airborne pollen grains in the city of León (NW, Spain) from January 1995 to December 2011, by using a Burkard® 7-day-recording trap. The percentage of Plantago pollen compared to the total pollen count ranged from 11% (1997) to 3% (2006) in the period under study. Peak pollen concentrations were recorded in May and June. Our 17-year analysis failed to disclose significant changes in the seasonal trend of plantain pollen concentration. In addition, there were no important changes in the start dates of pollen release and the meteorological parameters analyzed did not show significant variations in their usual trends. We analyzed the influence of several meteorological parameters on Plantago pollen concentration to explain the differences in pollen concentration trends during the study. Our results show that temperature, sun hours, evaporation, and relative humidity are the meteorological parameters best correlated to the behavior of Plantago pollen grains. In general, the years with low pollen concentrations correspond to the years with less precipitation or higher temperatures. We calculated the approximate Plantago flowering dates using the cumulative sum of daily maximum temperatures and compared them with the real bloom dates. The differences obtained were 4 days in 2009, 3 days in 2010, and 1 day in 2011 considering the complete period of pollination. PMID:24337493

  14. Tectonothermal evolution in the core of an arcuate fold and thrust belt: the south-eastern sector of the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt, north-western Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valín, María Luz; García-López, Susana; Brime, Covadonga; Bastida, Fernando; Aller, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    The tectonothermal evolution of an area located in the core of the Ibero-Armorican Arc (Variscan belt) has been determined by using the conodont colour alteration index (CAI), Kübler index of illite (KI), the Árkai index of chlorite (AI) and the analysis of clay minerals and rock cleavage. The area is part of the Cantabrian Zone (CZ), which represents the foreland fold and thrust belt of the orogen. It has been thrust by several large units of the CZ, what resulted in the generation of a large number of synorogenic Carboniferous sediments. CAI, KI and AI values show an irregular distribution of metamorphic grade, independent of stratigraphic position. Two tectonothermal events have been distinguished in the area. The first one, poorly defined, is mainly located in the northern part. It gave rise to very-low-grade metamorphism in some areas and it was associated with a deformation event that resulted in the emplacement of the last large thrust unit and development of upright folds and associated cleavage (S1). The second tectonothermal event gave rise to low-grade metamorphism and cleavage (S2) crosscutting earlier upright folds in the central, western and southern parts of the study area. The event continued with the intrusion of small igneous rock bodies, which gave rise to contact metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration. This event was linked to an extensional episode due to a gravitational instability at the end of the Variscan deformation. This tectonothermal evolution occurred during the Gzhelian-Sakmarian. Subsequently, several hydrothermal episodes took place and local crenulation cleavage developed during the Alpine deformation.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as a Basis for Individualized and Personalized Therapy: Rationale, Design and Methods of the South Eastern Europe (SEE)-PTSD study.

    PubMed

    Kulenovic, Alma Dzubur; Agani, Ferid; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Jakovljevic, Miro; Babic, Dragan; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Kucukalic, Sabina; Dzananovic, Emina Sabic; Mehmedbasic, Alma Bravo; Uka, Aferdita Goci; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Hoxha, Blerina; Sinanovic, Osman; Kravic, Nermina; Muminovic, Mirnesa; Aukst-Margetic, Branka; Jaksic, Nenad; Franc, Ana Cima; Rudan, Dusko; Pavlovic, Marko; Babic, Romana; Bojic, Elma Feric; Marjanovic, Damir; Bozina, Nada; Ziegler, Christiane; Wolf, Christiane; Warrings, Bodo; Domschke, Katharina; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a major health problem in South Eastern Europe (SEE). Available treatment options are not efficient enough and the course is often chronic. Little is known about molecular mediators and moderators of pathogenesis and therapy. Genetic and epigenetic variation may be one central molecular mechanism. We therefore established a consortium combining clinical expertise on PTSD from SEE countries Bosnia-Herzegovina (Sarajevo, Tuzla and Mostar), Kosovo (Prishtina) and Croatia (Zagreb) with genetic and epigenetic competence from Germany (Würzburg) in 2011 within the framework of the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst)-funded Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. After obtaining ethical votes and performing rater trainings as well as training in DNA extraction from EDTA blood between 2011 and 2013, we recruited 747 individuals who had experienced war-related trauma in the SEE conflicts between 1991 and 1999. 236 participants had current PTSD, 161 lifetime PTSD and 350 did not have and never had PTSD. Demographic and clinical data are currently merged together with genetic and epigenetic data in a single database to allow for a comprehensive analysis of the role of genetic and epigenetic variation in the pathogenesis and therapy of PTSD. Analyses will be done to a great degree by PhD students from participating SEE centers who in addition to participation in the project had an opportunity to take part in spring and summer schools of the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) funded Research Training Group (RTG) 1253 and thus meet PhD students from Germany and other countries We are confident that our project will not only contribute to a better understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of PTSD as a basis for future individualized and personalized therapies, but also to the academic development of South Eastern Europe. PMID:27287790

  16. Holocene climate variability, vegetation dynamics and fire regime in the central Pyrenees: the Basa de la Mora sequence (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sanz, A.; González-Sampériz, P.; Moreno, A.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Gil-Romera, G.; Rieradevall, M.; Tarrats, P.; Lasheras-Álvarez, L.; Morellón, M.; Belmonte, A.; Sancho, C.; Sevilla-Callejo, M.; Navas, A.

    2013-08-01

    High resolution multiproxy data (pollen, sedimentology, geochemistry, chironomids and charcoal) from the Basa de la Mora (BSM) lake sequence (42° 32' N, 0° 19' E, 1914 m a.s.l.) show marked climate variability in the central southern Pyrenees throughout the Holocene. A robust age model based on 15 AMS radiocarbon dates underpins the first precise reconstruction of rapid climate changes during the Holocene from this area. During the Early Holocene, increased winter snowpack and high snowmelt during summer, as a consequence of high seasonality, led to higher lake levels, a chironomid community dominated by non-lacustrine taxa (Orthocladiinae) related to higher inlet streams, and a forested landscape with intense run-off processes in the watershed. From 9.8 to 8.1 cal ka BP, climate instability is inferred from rapid and intense forest shifts and high fluctuation in surface run-off. Shifts among conifers and mesophytes reveal at least four short-lived dry events at 9.7, 9.3, 8.8 and 8.3 cal ka BP. Between 8.1 and 5.7 cal ka BP a stable climate with higher precipitation favoured highest lake levels and forest expansion, with spread of mesophytes, withdrawal of conifers and intensification of fires, coinciding with the Holocene Climate Optimum. At 5.7 cal ka BP a major change leading to drier conditions contributed to a regional decline in mesophytes, expansion of pines and junipers, and a significant lake level drop. Despite drier conditions, fire activity dropped as consequence of biomass reduction. Two arid intervals occurred between 2.9 and 2.4 cal ka BP and at 1.2-0.7 cal ka BP (800-1300 AD). The latter coincides with the Medieval Climate Anomaly and is one of the most arid phases of the Holocene in BSM sequence. Anthropogenic disturbances were small until 700 AD, when human pressure over landscape intensified, with Olea cultivation in the lowlands and significant deforestation in highlands. Colder and unfavourable weather conditions during the second part of the

  17. Geodynamic Implications of Himu Mantle In The Source of Tertiary Volcanics From The Veneto Region (south Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macera, P.; Gasperini, D.; Blichert-Toft; Bosch, D.; del Moro, A.; Dini, G.; Martin, S.; Piromallo, C.

    DuringTertiary times extensive mafic volcanism took place in the South-Eastern Alps, along a half-graben structure bounded by the Schio-Vicenza main fault. This mag- matism gave rise to four main volcanic centers: Lessini, Berici, Euganei, and Maros- tica. The dominating rock types are alkali basalts, basanites and transitional basalts, with hawaiites, trachybasalts, tephrites, basaltic andesites, and differentiated rocks be- ing less common. Major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic data for the most primitive lavas from each volcanic center show the typical features of HIMU hotspot volcanism, variably diluted by a depleted asthenospheric mantle component (87Sr/86Sr48Ma = 0.70314-0.70321; eNd48Ma = +6.4 to +6.5; eHf48Ma = +6.4 to +8.1, 206Pb/204Pb48Ma = 18.786-19.574). Since the HIMU component is consid- ered to be of deep mantle origin, its presence in a tectonic environment dominated by subduction (the Alpine subduction of the European plate below the Adria plate) has significant geodynamic implications. Slab detachment and ensuing rise of deep man- tle material into the lithospheric gap is proposed to be a viable mechanism of hotspot magmatism in a subduction zone setting. Interaction between deep-seated plume ma- terial and shallow depleted asthenospheric mantle may account for the geochemical features of the Veneto volcanics, as well as those of the so-called enriched astheno- spheric reservoir (EAR) component. Ascending counterflow of deep mantle material through the lithospheric gap to the top of the subducting slab further may induce heat- ing of the overriding plate and trigger it to partially melt. Upwelling of the resulting mafic magmas and their subsequent underplating at the mantle-lower crust bound- ary would favor partial melting of the lower crust, thereby giving rise to the bimodal mafic-felsic magmatism that characterizes the whole Periadriatic province. According to this model, the HIMU-like magmatism of the Alpine foreland is therefore

  18. Analysis of the spatial climate structure from a viticultural perspective. Application to determine viticulture suitability and zonification in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollo, Francisco J.; Moral, Francisco J.; Paniagua, Luís L.; García, Abelardo

    2014-05-01

    The basis for assessing the suitability for viticulture in wine regions is an accurate depiction of the temperature spatial distribution. Thus, using data for a long time internal (1980-2011) and from 117 meteorological stations, four bioclimatic indices were calculated and their spatial distribution patterns were mapped using a multivariate method, the regression-kriging technique. It was obtained that the spatial variability of climate within Extremaduran natural regions (NRs) is significant. Although the warmer conditions predominate in Extremadura, some NRs have part of their territory by up to eight climate classes; this information enables a better understanding of the viticulture suitability within each NR and delineating homogeneous zones. Finally, comparisons of Extremaduran NRs with others worlwide were conducted, which should be taken into account to select varieties and assess the possibilities of producing new wines.

  19. A new species of the rare nematode genus Paramicrolaimus Wieser, 1954 (Chromadorida: Paramicrolaimidae) from the south eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jini; Jaleel, Abdul K U; Vijayan, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A new paramicrolaimid nematode, Paramicrolaimus damodarani sp. nov., is described based on specimens from the continental shelf (95 m) of the south eastern Arabian Sea. Paramicrolaimus damodarani sp. nov. differs from other known species of the genus in having a smaller body size, form of the spicular apparatus, presence of 7 cuticularised protruding precloacal supplements and a strongly cuticularised terminal spinneret. This is the first record of the genus Paramicrolaimus from the northern Indian Ocean. A pictorial key to the four species of Paramicrolaimus is also provided, supplemented with comparative characters, based on published information. PMID:25660800

  20. Degradation of buried ice and permafrost in the Veleta cirque (Sierra Nevada, Spain) from 2006 to 2013 as a response to recent climate trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ortiz, A.; Oliva, M.; Salvador-Franch, F.; Salvà-Catarineu, M.; Palacios, D.; de Sanjosé-Blasco, J. J.; Tanarro-García, L. M.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    2014-09-01

    The Veleta cirque is located at the foot of the Veleta peak, one of the highest summits of the Sierra Nevada National Park (southern Spain). This cirque was the source of a glacier valley during the Quaternary cold periods. During the Little Ice Age it sheltered a small glacier, the most southerly in Europe, about which we have possessed written records since the 17th century. This glacier still had ice residues until the mid-20th century. This ice is no longer visible, but a residue persists along with discontinuous permafrost trapped under strata of rock blocks that make up an incipient rock glacier. From 2006 to 2013, this rock glacier was monitored by measurement of the temperature of the active layer, the degree of snow cover on the ground, movements of the body of the rock glacier and geophysical prospection inside it. The results show that the relict ice and trapped permafrost have been steadily declining. The processes that explain this degradation occur in chain, starting from the external radiation that affects the ground in summer, which is when the temperatures are higher. In effect, when this radiation steadily melts the snow on the ground, the thermal expansive wave advances into the heart of the active layer, reaching the ceiling of the frozen mass, which it then degrades and melts. In this entire linked process, the circulation of meltwaters fulfils a highly significant function, as they act as heat transmitters. The complementary nature of these processes explains the subsidence and continuous changes in the entire clastic pack and the melting of the frozen ceiling on which it rests. This happens in summer in just a few weeks. All these events, in particular the geomorphological ones, take place on the Sierra Nevada peaks within certain climate conditions that are at present unfavourable to the maintenance of snow on the ground in summer. These conditions could be related to recent variations in the climate, starting in the mid-19th century and

  1. Mid-Holocene erosive episodes in tufa deposits from Trabaque Canyon, central Spain, as a result of abrupt arid climate transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Villar, David; Vázquez-Navarro, Juan A.; Carrasco, Rosa M.

    2012-08-01

    During the Holocene a series of tufa sediments were deposited from a karstic spring along the Trabaque Canyon, central Spain. A long-term lowering of the water table caused the location of the spring to be displaced from the upper sector of the canyon during the early Holocene to the lower sector in the late Holocene. This progressive shift was in response to decreased precipitation in the region. The depositional environments and their geomorphologic relationships were characterized. Thus, five morphosedimentary units (MSUs) were identified within the Holocene tufa deposits. Erosive episodes were recognized between MSUs and, as most of the MSUs partially overlap, the older ones are perched in relation to the younger ones. The chronology of the MSUs is based on 14C dates, and stable isotopes and total organic carbon content provided environmental information during the period of tufa sedimentation. The successive dissection episodes in the Trabaque Canyon tufa deposits took place during transitioning climate conditions from the relatively wet early Holocene to the more arid late Holocene. During this transitional period in the mid-Holocene, wet phases alternated with more arid conditions, causing the largest hydrological regime gradients in the Holocene. Thus, the four erosive episodes causing tufa dissection in Trabaque during the Holocene are interpreted as the result of abrupt transitional periods towards arid conditions.

  2. Seasonal temperature and precipitation variability during the last 60 years in a Mediterranean climate area of Northeastern Spain: a multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. C.; Balasch, J. C.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the analysis of mean daily temperature and precipitation from 1950 to 2010 in an area with Mediterranean climate of NE Spain including some coastal areas near Barcelona and the Penedès and Camp de Tarragona Depressions located between the Coastal Mountain Range and the Mediterranean Sea. Their variability, with especial attention to the frequency of extreme events, was analysed by using 18 indexes: seven for temperature and 11 for precipitation were analysed for four meteorological observatories. A multivariate analysis was performed in order to analyse the temperature and precipitation trends. During the analysed period, an increase in mean annual maximum temperature was observed in all observatories ranging between 1.5 and 2.2°C associated with an increase in the number of days with high extreme temperatures. Minimum temperature only increased significantly in the coast observatories (about 1.4°C). By seasons, temperature trends were greater at Vilafranca del Penedès and Barcelona observatories and lower at Reus airport. Maximum spring temperature increased between 1.5 and 2.5°C, summer temperature increased between 1.6 and 2.5°C and autumn temperature increased by up to 2.2°C. Precipitation presented a high variability from year to year, without significant trends. The most significant results were related to the dry conditions observed in spring 2000s, the wet conditions recorded in summer 2000s and 1980s and the longer dry periods in autumn 2000s. The increase of temperatures determined the increase of evapotranspiration, and due to the higher irregular distribution, water deficits for crop development were recorded. An advance of phenological dates and a reduction of grape yield are associated to climate trends.

  3. Climate controls on rainfall isotopes and their effects on cave drip water and speleothem growth: the case of Molinos cave (Teruel, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ana; Sancho, Carlos; Bartolomé, Miguel; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Estrela, Mª José; Corell, David; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Cacho, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    The interpretation of stable isotopes in speleothems in terms of past temperature variability or precipitation rates requires a comprehensive understanding of the climatic factors and processes that influence the δ18O signal in the way through the atmosphere to the cave, where carbonate precipitates acquiring its final isotopic composition. This study presents for the first time in the Iberia Peninsula an integrated analysis of the isotopic composition of rainfall (δ18Op) during 2010-2012 years and, through a detailed monitoring survey, the transference of the primary isotopic signal throughout the soil and epikarst into the Molinos cave (Teruel, NE Spain). Both air temperature and amount of precipitation have an important effect on δ18Op values, clearly imprinting a seasonal variability modulated by an amount effect when rainfall events are more frequent or intense. Air mass history and atmospheric circulation influences are considered through the study of weather types, synoptic-scale climate patterns and large-scale atmospheric circulation indexes (North Atlantic Oscillation and Western Mediterranean Oscillation) revealing a dominant source effect on δ18Op values in this region where tropical North Atlantic and Western Mediterranean are the two moisture source regions. A delay of 2-3 months occurs between the dripwater oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Od) respect to δ18Op values as a consequence of large residence time in the epikarst. Limited calcite precipitates are found from winter to spring when δ18Od values are less negative and dripwater rates are constant. This study suggests that NE Iberian δ18Ocalcite proxy records are best interpreted as reflecting a combination of parameters, not just paleotemperature or paleorainfall and, if extending present-day situation towards the recent past, a biased signal towards winter values should be expected in Molinos speleothem records.

  4. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain).

    PubMed

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2015-11-15

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency). PMID:26186465

  5. Total organic carbon and humus fractions in restored soils from limestone quarries in semiarid climate, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Ángel Domene Ruiz, Miguel; Solé Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities generate erosion and loss of plant cover and soil organic matter (SOM), especially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem restoration in such highly disturbed areas is the development of functional soils with sufficient organic matter. But the SOM quality is also important to long-term C stabilization. The resistance to biodegradation of recalcitrant organic matter fractions has been reported to depend on some intrinsic structural factors of humic acid substances and formation of amorphous organo-mineral recalcitrant complexes. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries in the Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, several combinations of organic amendments (sewage sludge and compost from domestic organic waste) and mulches (gravel and woodchip) were added in experimental plots using a factorial design. In each plot, 75 native plants (Anthyllis cytisoides, A. terniflora and Macrochloa tenacissima) were planted and five years after the start of the experiment total organic carbon (TOC), physico-chemical soil properties and organic C fractions (particulate organic matter, H3PO4-fulvic fraction, fulvic acids (FA), humic acids (HA) and humin) were analyzed. We observed significant differences between treatments related to the TOC content and the HA/FA ratio. Compost amendments increased the TOC, HA content and HA/FA ratio, even higher than in natural undisturbed soils, indicating an effective clay humus-complex pointing to progressively increasing organic matter quality. Soils with sewage sludge showed the lowest TOC and HA/FA ratio and accumulated a lower HA proportion indicating poorer organic matter quality and comparatively lower resilience than in natural soils and soils amended with compost.

  6. MURASOC, a parametric model to test climate change effects on soil organic carbon. Application to Southern Spain (Mediterranean áreas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric C.; Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Obregón-Romero, Rafael; Gil Torres, Juan; Recio-Espejo, Jose Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is formed through the decomposition processes of plant, animal and microbial residues, root exudates, living and dead microorganism and soil biota; and is the main energy source for soil microorganism. Consequently, a strong feedback is stablished among a large number of components in the complex biota-abiota network. Likewise, SOC influences in physical, chemical and biological soil properties such as temperature, cationic exchange capacity and plant growth (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015). Therefore, to improve our knowledge about what soil variables are more responsible of SOC content would be extremely useful in soils characterization. In many studies, independent variables were related to SOC, however, the possible combined effects of different independent variables and their ability to model SOC have not been considered. On the other hand, over the last few decades interest in soil organic carbon (SOC) has increased due to its role in C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels (Lozano-García et al., 2016; Fernández-Romero et al., 2016; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García 2014). Then, attempts to model SOC content have multiplied over this time. In this study, 612 soil profiles obtained from the Natura 2000 network of protected areas in the Sierra Morena mountains, (Spain) were used with the following objectives: i) To quantify SOC content according to different variables (analytical, morphological, genetic and climatic) in order to define the variables that are most closely related to SOC content; ii) To model the Current SOC content for a geographic area (Sierra Morena - Spain); iii) To model SOC suitability-habitat under a climate change scenario; iv) To extrapolate the SOC content and distribution model to the wider Andalusia region, showing the areas that have a high probability to experience an increase in their SOC content in coming years; and v) To propose

  7. Towards a quantitative climate reconstruction linking meteorological, limnological and sedimentological datasets: the Lake Sanabria (NW Spain) case.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico-Herrero, María. Teresa; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Vega, José Carlos

    2010-05-01

    It is well-known that lacustrine sediment records constitute one of the best environmental sensors to reconstruct climate variability. Nevertheless, our knowledge of how the climate signal (precipitation, temperature, wind stress) is transferred from the atmosphere to the lake water masses (through the limnological variables such as pH, nutrient inputs or water chemistry) and to the sediments is very poor. Besides there are few reliable and temporal long limnological and/or meteorological datasets. This lack also prevents the conversion of these qualitative climate reconstructions into quantitative ones. Lake Sanabria (Zamora) is located in the northwestern of the Iberian Peninsula (42°07'30' N, 06°43'00' W), at 1.000 m a.s.l. It is the largest glacial lake (368 ha, 51 m of water depth at the deepest point and 96 Hm3 of water volume) in the Iberian Peninsula. The main water and sediments input and output is the Tera River. Monthly limnological (secchi disk, water temperature profiles, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen), nutrients (nitrates, silicon, total phosphorous, reactive phosphorous, total chlorophyll and a-chlorophyll), hydrological (Tera river discharge) and meteorological (precipitation and air temperature from the Ribadelago meteorological station) datasets covering the period 1992 - 2005 were employed to explore the relationships between the atmosphere and the Lake Sanabria hydrological balance, and the limnological variables. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner data of two gravity cores (SAN04-3A and SAN07-1M) allowed us to characterize with high resolution the evolution of the chemical composition of the uppermost sedimentary infill. SAN07-1M was dated using gamma-spectrometry (210Pb) and a key bed corresponding to the dam failure of the Vega de Tera Reservoir located upstream occurred in 1959 AD. The relationships between the sedimentological and limnological datasets allowed us to characterize the transference of the climate signal from the

  8. Towards the assessment of climate change and human activities impacts on the water resources of the Ebro catchment (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, M.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Ardoin-Bardin, S.; Thivet, G.; Servat, E.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide studies modelling the hydrological response to global changes have proven the Mediterranean area as one of the most vulnerable region to water crisis. It is characterised by limited and unequally distributed water resources, as well as by important development of its human activities. Since the late 1950s, water demand in the Mediterranean basin has doubled due to a significant expansion of irrigated land and urban areas, and has maintained on a constant upward curve. The Ebro catchment, third largest Mediterranean basin, is very representative of this context. Since the late 1970s, a negative trend in mean rainfall has been observed as well as an increase in mean temperature. Meanwhile, the Ebro River discharge has decreased by about 40%. However, climate alone cannot explain this downward trend. Another factor is the increase in water consumption for agricultural and domestic uses. Indeed, the Ebro catchment is a key element in the Spanish agricultural production with respectively 30% and 60% of the meat and fruit production of the country. Moreover, population has increased by 20% over the catchment since 1970 and the number of inhabitant doubles each summer due to tourism attraction. Finally, more than 250 storage dams have been built over the Ebro River for hydropower production and irrigation water supply purposes, hence regulating river discharge. In order to better understand the respective influence of climatic and anthropogenic pressures on the Ebro hydrological regime, an integrated water resources modelling framework was developed. This model is driven by water supplies, generated by a conceptual rainfall-runoff model and by a storage dam module that accounts for water demands and environmental flow requirements. Water demands were evaluated for the most water-demanding sector, i.e. irrigated agriculture (5 670 Hm3/year), and the domestic sector (252 Hm3/year), often defined as being of prior importance for water supply. A water allocation

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola hepatica in sheep in the northwest of Spain: relation to climatic conditions and/or man-made environmental modifications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study we studied and updated the prevalence of the infections caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Fasciola hepatica in grazing sheep in the northwest (NW) of Spain for the last six years (2006–2011), and its relationship with the current climatic conditions. Methods We analyzed faecal samples from 110 flocks located in four different provinces of the Autonomous Community of Castilla y León: 76.4% of them were situated in León, 12.7% in Zamora, 9.1% in Palencia and 1.8% in Valladolid. Results The prevalence of GIN was 100% and the mean of eggs per gram (epg) in faeces was 237.2 (± 375.9) per flock. Regarding climatic conditions, we found a direct relationship between the GIN infection level and the maximum humidity (p<0.05) but inverse with the degree of solar radiation (p<0.05). The prevalence of fasciolosis was 59.3%, with a mean epg of 17.5 (± 33.9) per flock; these values were correlated with the minimum humidity and precipitations (p<0.05). Comparing our results in León with previous studies during the early 1990s, the mean epg of GIN was increased slightly (134.3 epg); regarding fasciolosis, the prevalence rose significantly, from 26.7% to 60.5%. Since the 1990s we observed that the maximum temperature is nowadays 0.45°C higher (17.0°C) and the minimum 0.5°C lower (5.2°C); the rainfall values were very similar in both decades but at the present time the humidity is higher (75.9%). Conclusions We found that the prevalence of GIN and F. hepatica infections was directly influenced by the humidity and also by precipitations in the case of F. hepatica. Comparing the current prevalence with studies carried out in the same area for the early 1990s, we observed that nowadays the mean epg of GIN is higher with a possible cause being the differences in climatic conditions depending on the sampling year. Regarding F. hepatica infection, its prevalence rose significantly probably favoured by an increase in irrigated areas in

  10. Malaria resurgence risk in southern Europe: climate assessment in an historically endemic area of rice fields at the Mediterranean shore of Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background International travel and immigration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. This fact and climate change, prolonging the period favouring vector development, require an analysis of the malaria transmission resurgence risk in areas of southern Europe. Such a study is made for the first time in Spain. The Ebro Delta historically endemic area was selected due to its rice field landscape, the presence of only one vector, Anopheles atroparvus, with densities similar to those it presented when malaria was present, in a situation which pronouncedly differs from already assessed potential resurgence areas in other Mediterranean countries, such as France and Italy, where many different Anopheles species coexist and a different vector species dominates. Methods The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics. Results Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields. Conclusions The Ebro Delta presents the ecological

  11. Histological and morphological aspects of reproduction in the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Piercy, A N; Murie, D J; Gelsleichter, J J

    2016-05-01

    The reproduction of the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean including the Gulf of Mexico was examined using a combination of histological and morphological characteristics of C. plumbeus collected through fishery-dependent and -independent sampling programmes (n = 1,567). Indices of maturity were constructed using measurements of gonads, reproductive tracts and claspers, and sandbar sharks exhibited 50% maturity sizes of 140 and 148 cm fork length for males and females respectively. Gonado-somatic indices and variation in reproductive tract condition were used to determine seasonal trends in reproduction of mature C. plumbeus. Sandbar sharks have discrete seasonal reproductive cycles in which males produce sperm from January to May with a peak in May and females develop eggs from January to May with ovulation occurring in June. Females were shown to exhibit a >2 year reproductive cycle. Embryonic development was assessed through measurements of masses and lengths of uterine contents. Gestation was 12 months, from July to the following June, with parturition in late June. This research highlights a difference from previously reported data on the periodicity of female reproduction in C. plumbeus in the U.S. south-eastern Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, which may have major effects on future C. plumbeus stock management. PMID:27021112

  12. Geographic distribution of Gryllotalpa stepposa in south-eastern Europe, with first records for Romania, Hungary and Serbia (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Puskás, Gellért; Ivković, Slobodan; Borisov, Simeon; Gavril, Viorel Dumitru; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Described from the steppe zones north of the Black Sea, Caucasus, and central Asia, Gryllotalpa stepposa Zhantiev was recently recorded from a few localities in Greece, R. Macedonia, and Bulgaria. In May 2015, several specimens were collected from Ivrinezu Mare in Romania, which suggested a continuous distribution area of the species, stretching from the central Balkans to central Asia. Thus, to reveal its actual range of occurrence, a survey of several Orthoptera collections became mandatory and, as expected, a large number of misidentified specimens of Gryllotalpa stepposa were discovered, providing new data on the species distribution in south-eastern Europe, including also the first records of this mole cricket in Serbia and Hungary. Here a full locality list is presented of this species west of Ukraine and Moldova and the current geographic distribution of the genus Gryllotalpa in the Balkans is revised. A key for distinguishing the mole crickets in south-eastern Europe and a distribution map for this region are presented. PMID:27551213

  13. Integrated assessment of the impact of climate and land use changes on groundwater quantity and quality in the Mancha Oriental system (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Peña-Haro, S.; García-Prats, A.; Mocholi-Almudever, A. F.; Henriquez-Dole, L.; Macian-Sorribes, H.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.

    2015-04-01

    Climate and land use change (global change) impacts on groundwater systems cannot be studied in isolation. Land use and land cover (LULC) changes have a great impact on the water cycle and contaminant production and transport. Groundwater flow and storage are changing in response not only to climatic changes but also to human impacts on land uses and demands, which will alter the hydrologic cycle and subsequently impact the quantity and quality of regional water systems. Predicting groundwater recharge and discharge conditions under future climate and land use changes is essential for integrated water management and adaptation. In the Mancha Oriental system (MOS), one of the largest groundwater bodies in Spain, the transformation from dry to irrigated lands during the last decades has led to a significant drop of the groundwater table, with the consequent effect on stream-aquifer interaction in the connected Jucar River. Understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of water quantity and water quality is essential for a proper management of the system. On the one hand, streamflow depletion is compromising the dependent ecosystems and the supply to the downstream demands, provoking a complex management issue. On the other hand, the intense use of fertilizer in agriculture is leading to locally high groundwater nitrate concentrations. In this paper we analyze the potential impacts of climate and land use change in the system by using an integrated modeling framework that consists in sequentially coupling a watershed agriculturally based hydrological model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) with a groundwater flow model developed in MODFLOW, and with a nitrate mass-transport model in MT3DMS. SWAT model outputs (mainly groundwater recharge and pumping, considering new irrigation needs under changing evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation) are used as MODFLOW inputs to simulate changes in groundwater flow and storage and impacts on stream

  14. Features of autumnal differential coastal cooling in south-eastern Baltic deduced from data of MODIS spectroradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esiukova, Elena; Chubarenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of profiles of sea surface temperature (SST) from the coastline to deep sea area in Russian sector of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea during seasonal autumnal cooling are identified using the data of spectroradiometers MODIS Aqua. Time periods are chosen when vertical convection and wind mixing make the upper layer (~ 30-40 m) in deep-sea area practically isothermal, and significant horizontal gradients of temperature/density are formed above shallows and underwater coastal slopes. This picture of differential cooling is formed by the combined action of heat exchange with the atmosphere (which is practically the same in coastal and open areas) and horizontal transport of heat from the sea to the shallow/coastal zone. This allows for estimation of horizontal heat and mass transport between the deep and the coastal area. The images of October-November 2002-2009 were analyzed, corresponding to periods of fast decrease of air temperature (at a rate of 0.86-2.54 °C/day). Significant linear portion in shallow-most paret is found to be a characteristic feature of the profiles, which is detected above all types of slopes (steep, sloping, irregular), reaching 20% to 70% of the length of the slope. Comparative analysis of the characteristics of the observed profiles above different slopes at the same image, and for the same slope at different dates was performed. The actual profiles of SST are compared with several theoretically predicted cases (in the absence of horizontal exchange, in of the quasi-stationary exchange), and the modeling results. Estimations suggest that horizontal gradient of water temperature favours seasonal slide of the cold/dense water along the underwater slopes (cascading) with a fairly high speed, reaching tens of cm/s at the shelf edge in the case of rapid cooling of water above the underwater slopes. Current speed at the end of the slopes may be quite high (8-20 cm/s), but comparable to the known values. On the base of numerical

  15. Discriminating between tectonism and climate signatures in palustrine deposits: Lessons from the Miocene of the Teruel Graben, NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Zarza, Ana M.; Meléndez, Alfonso; Martín-García, Rebeca; Herrero, Mª Josefa; Martín-Pérez, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    (lacustrine deposition + palustrine modification) would require about 40,000 yr. Facies and the SD record changes across short horizontal distances, and thus reflect the topography of prior sedimentation/modification events. Small (50 cm) highs with micro-karst have their SD counterparts in lower areas of the lake, in which the SD is indicated by desiccation and mottling. The topographic differences of the micro-karst were filled by intraclastic rudstones sourced by the adjacent carbonate flats. The example examined not only clearly sketches the morphology of ancient palustrine systems or wetlands, it also provides evidence that recycling of previous carbonate deposits played an important role as a sediment source, apart from biogenic or physical-chemical production processes. Our geochemical data indicate LMC (Low Magnesian Calcite) as the main component and Fe contents lower than 1%, except for the mottled areas that are richer in FeO. Stable isotope compositions provide δ18O values close to - 6.5‰ VPDB, and more varied δ13C (- 3.39 to - 6.97‰ PDB). Oxygen and carbon values reveal no covariation and clear trends are lacking. The homogeneity of δ18O values reflects the intense effects of meteoric waters. The deposition of these palustrine limestones took place under suitable semi-arid to sub-humid climates. Climate could also have a role in determining subaerial exposure periods. However, its imprint is not easy to detect neither in the geochemical signals nor in the vertical arrangement of the facies. This could be attributed to climate changes probably occurring over shorter periods than those that can be recorded in this type of sediment, such as the astronomical precession cycles, and suggests the unsuitability of palustrine carbonates for detailed palaeoclimate analyses. Tectonism controlled the location of the main lacustrine depocentre close to the basin's main fault. The activity of this normal fault during the sedimentation of Unit II determined long- and

  16. MURASOC, a parametric model to test climate change effects on soil organic carbon. Application to Southern Spain (Mediterranean áreas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric C.; Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Obregón-Romero, Rafael; Gil Torres, Juan; Recio-Espejo, Jose Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is formed through the decomposition processes of plant, animal and microbial residues, root exudates, living and dead microorganism and soil biota; and is the main energy source for soil microorganism. Consequently, a strong feedback is stablished among a large number of components in the complex biota-abiota network. Likewise, SOC influences in physical, chemical and biological soil properties such as temperature, cationic exchange capacity and plant growth (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015). Therefore, to improve our knowledge about what soil variables are more responsible of SOC content would be extremely useful in soils characterization. In many studies, independent variables were related to SOC, however, the possible combined effects of different independent variables and their ability to model SOC have not been considered. On the other hand, over the last few decades interest in soil organic carbon (SOC) has increased due to its role in C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels (Lozano-García et al., 2016; Fernández-Romero et al., 2016; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García 2014). Then, attempts to model SOC content have multiplied over this time. In this study, 612 soil profiles obtained from the Natura 2000 network of protected areas in the Sierra Morena mountains, (Spain) were used with the following objectives: i) To quantify SOC content according to different variables (analytical, morphological, genetic and climatic) in order to define the variables that are most closely related to SOC content; ii) To model the Current SOC content for a geographic area (Sierra Morena - Spain); iii) To model SOC suitability-habitat under a climate change scenario; iv) To extrapolate the SOC content and distribution model to the wider Andalusia region, showing the areas that have a high probability to experience an increase in their SOC content in coming years; and v) To propose

  17. Palaeoflood response to climate and landuse changes in a Mediterranean river (Castellón, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, Gerardo; Machado, Maria; Rico, MarÍa Teresa; Sánchez-Moya, Yolanda; Sopeña, Alfonso

    2014-05-01

    The Rambla de la Viuda (drainage area of 1500 km2) is a Mediterranean ephemeral river, dry most of the year. The fluvial geomorphology of the rambla is dominated by transversal bars typical of short-lived flows. The short-lived and occasionally large floods, are produced by mesoscale convective systems fed by humidity from the Mediterranean sea during autumn months. For the past 120 years the largest floods recorded took place in: 1920, 1962 y 2000. The study rambla has recorded an excellent palaeoflood archive from which hydrological and environmental history (landuse and landcover) can be reconstructed. The methodology used in the study of the palaeohydrological and palaeolandscape changes during the last 500 yrs (sedimentary records timespan) involved: 1) Reconstruction of palaeoflood records ( Stratigraphic description of slack-water flood deposits, Geochronology of individual floods with Radiocarbon and Optically Stimulated Luminescence, and the estimation of discharges associated with the different flood units/features by computing the water surface profiles using one-dimensional hydraulic modeling (HEC-RAS); and 2) Reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions (Edaphological characterization of the soil horizons developed on flood units as well as the textural, geochemical and biomineralogical analysis of all sedimentary units). Four hydro/environmental phases were identified during the last 500 years, corresponding to different flood magnitud and frequency periods, associated to climate and/or land-use conditions. A high frequency and high magnitude palaeoflood period took place during the 15th-middle 16th century (Phase I) which seems to correlate in time with general wetter conditions and three main soil development episodes. Another important hydrological period took place until early 18th century (Phase III), though with a low frequency/ high magnitude floods, correlating in time with geochemical evidences of important changes on land use

  18. Estimation of the daily water consumption by maize under Atlantic climatic conditions (A Coruña, NW Spain) using Frequency Domain Reflectometry - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestas-Valero, R. M.; Mirás-Avalos, J. M.; Vidal-Vázquez, E.

    2012-03-01

    Climatic variables and soil present a high spatio-temporal variability. Evapotranspiration estimations based on climatic variables may be inadequate for assessing soil water content in the root-influenced zone and/or soil water consumption by plants. Other methods may provide better estimates of this water consumption. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil moisture dynamics in the root-influenced zone and to assess the daily water consumption by the crop using Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR). The studied site is located in A Coruña (Spain). The study was carried out from June to October in 2008 and 2009, in a maize (Zea mays, L.) field on a silt-clay textured soil. Evapotranspiration was estimated by the Penman-Monteith equation using meteorological data from a station located on the experimental site. Soil water content in the root-influenced zone (0-60 cm depth) was hourly monitored each 20 cm (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm) using FDR. Evaluations were performed on days with slight or no rainfall. During the study period, the magnitude of the diurnal soil water loss was more evident in the first layer (0-20 cm depth) and less important in the subsequent soil layers. The greatest consumption occurred between 14 and 19 h, up to 53.64% of the total. Overall, daily water consumption increased significantly with soil water content (p-value < 0.001). In general, water losses from the 0-20 cm soil layer were greater than in subsoil horizons due to maize water-uptake and evaporation. In contrast, water content in the deepest part of the soil profile was close to saturation, even on the driest days of the studied period. Evapotranspiration overestimate maize water requirements as its values were greater than those measured with the probe. In conclusion, FDR allows a more accurate estimation of the soil water balance. Therefore, monitoring soil water content would be useful in the assessment of saturation risks or water stress (drought), thus aiding in the

  19. Grape harvest and yield responses to inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation in an area of north-east Spain with a Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, Josep Odó; Ramos, María Concepción

    2012-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of temperature and precipitation trends and their impact on grape harvests in the Penedès region (NE Spain). It includes analyses of maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures (for both the growing and ripening seasons) and daily rainfall (for the hydrological year, the growing season and each phenological stage) for three observatories in the immediate area. We analysed a series of factors: beginning and end harvest dates; the day on which a given potential alcoholic degree was reached; and yield for several varieties of grape grown in the area in relation to climatic variables. Maximum temperatures increased at all the observatories, with greater values being recorded in recent years (1996-2009) than in previous decades (1960s-2000s): we observed increases in average growing season temperatures of 0.11°C per year for the period 1996-2009 vs 0.04°C per year for the period 1960-2009 at Vilafranca del Penedès. These temperature changes were due mainly to increases in maximum temperatures and an increase in the incidence of extreme heat (number of days with T > 30°C). Crop evapotranspiration also increased significantly during the same period. The Winkler index also increased, so the study area would correspond to region IV according to that climatic classification. There were no significant trends in annual rainfall but rainfall recorded between bloom and veraison decreased significantly at the three observatories, with the greatest decrease corresponding to the period 1996-2009. The dates on which harvests started and ended showed a continuous advance (of between -0.7 and -1.1 days per year, depending on the variety), which was significantly correlated with the average mean and maximum daily growing season temperatures (up to -7.68 days for 1°C increase). Winegrape yield was influenced by the estimated water deficit (crop evapotranspiration minus precipitation) in the bloom-veraison period; this value increased due to a

  20. Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe. The Role of Vocational Education and Training. Working Document. [European Training Foundation and Kulturkontakt Austria Joint Workshop on "Civil Society and Vocational Education Training. The Role of Democratic Citizenship and Diversity Education" (Mavrovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, September 9-11, 1999)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document includes the following papers: "The European Training Foundation's Experience in Supporting Human Resource Development in South-Eastern Europe" (Peter de Rooij); "Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe; The Role of Vocational Education and Training" (Cesar Birzea, Peter Grootings, Tzako Panteelev, Carsten…

  1. Solar forcing, climate dynamics and human activities in Mediterranean Mountains during the last millennium: the Lake Estanya record (Southern Pyrenees, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellon, Mario; Corella, Pablo; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Engstrom, Daniel R.; González-Sampériz, Penélope; López-Vicente, Manuel; Mata, Pilar; Moreno, Ana; Navas, Ana; Pérez-Sanz, Ana; Rico, Mayte; Rieradevall, Maria; Romero, Óscar; Rubio, Esther; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The multi-proxy study of short sediment cores recovered in small, karstic Lake Estanya (42°02' N, 0°32' E, 670 m.a.s.l.) in the Southern Pre-Pyrenean Ranges (NE Spain) provides a detailed record of the complex climatic and anthropogenic interactions occurring in Mediterranean areas since medieval times. The integration of sedimentary facies, elemental and isotopic geochemistry (δ18Ocalcite, δ13Ccalcite and δ13Corg) and biological proxies (diatoms, chironomids and pollen), together with a robust chronological control, provided by AMS radiocarbon dating and 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric techniques, enabled precise reconstruction of the main phases of environmental change during the last millennium, associated with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the Industrial Era. Shallow lake levels and saline conditions with poor development of littoral environments prevailed during medieval times (1150-1300 AD). Generally higher water levels and more dilute waters occurred during the LIA (1300-1850 AD), although this period shows a complex internal palaeohydrological structure and is contemporaneous with a gradual increase of farming activity. Maximum lake levels and flooding of the littoral shelf occurred during the nineteenth century, coinciding with the maximum expansion of agriculture in the area and prior to the last cold phase of the LIA. Finally, declining lake levels during the twentieth century, coinciding with a decrease in human pressure, are associated with warmer climate conditions reconstructed by instrumental records. A strong link with solar irradiance is suggested by the chronology of the main hydrological phases reconstructed in Estanya. Lower lake levels dominated during periods of enhanced solar activity (MCA and post—ca. 1850 AD) and higher lake levels during periods of diminished solar activity (LIA). Changes in winter precipitation, dominance of NAO negative phases and a strengthening of the westerlies would be

  2. Climate and environment of the earliest West European hominins inferred from amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages: Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit, Atapuerca, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-11-01

    The Sima del Elefante cave, in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), is famous for the fact that level TE9 of its Lower Red Unit recently delivered the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe, identified as Homo antecessor and dated by biostratigraphy and radiometric methods to ca 1.2 Ma. Given the importance of this discovery, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once thrived. The amphibian and squamate reptile assemblage of the Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit is here studied for the first time. The faunal list comprises at least 17 species (roughly 12,000 bone fossil remains): Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cf. marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana sp., cf. Pelophylax sp., Lacerta s.l., small-sized indeterminate lacertids, Anguis fragilis, Natrix cf. natrix, Natrix cf. maura, Coronella cf. girondica and Vipera sp. As the amphibians and squamate reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during the hominin presence the mean annual temperature (MAT = 10-13 °C) was always slightly warmer than at present and the mean annual precipitation (MAP = 800-1000 mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. The landscape had open habitats in the vicinity of the Atapuerca caves throughout the sequence, with wet points in the surrounding area, and a predominance of humid meadows and open woodlands. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the pollen analysis. The climate and landscape of TE-LRU are very similar to those reconstructed for the TD6 "Aurora Stratum

  3. Triple bottom line assessment of raw water treatment: methodology and application to a case study in the municipality of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Azrague, Kamal; Bell, Stig; Eikebrokk, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    There could be several options a water treatment plant (WTP) can select from, if an improvement in treated water quality (WQ) is desired. This paper outlines a methodology to test a variety of approaches to accomplish pre-set goals as regards WQ, while adopting a triple bottom line approach. This approach, in a nutshell, takes into consideration economic, environmental and social aspects in decision-making. The methodology has been applied to the Stangasen WTP in the town of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway. Among the seven alternative approaches compared were the use, as coagulant, of five different dosages of granulated aluminium sulphate, liquid aluminium sulphate (48%) and liquid ferric chloride (40%). Using the set of weighting factors obtained from experts, it was determined that increasing the dosage of granulated aluminium sulphate by 20% over the current one would be the most sustainable option from a triple bottom line point of view. PMID:25672761

  4. Emergence or re-emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in areas of Somalia, north-eastern Kenya, and south-eastern Ethiopia in 2000-01.

    PubMed

    Marlet, M V L; Sang, D K; Ritmeijer, K; Muga, R O; Onsongo, J; Davidson, R N

    2003-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was known to be endemic in Somalia along the basins of the (Middle) Shebelle and (Lower) Juba rivers, and in Kenya in parts of the Rift Valley, on the border with Uganda and the Eastern Provinces. From May 2000 to August 2001, we diagnosed 904 patients with VL. The patients came from an area which spanned the Wajir and Mandera districts of north-eastern Kenya, southern Somalia, and south-eastern Ethiopia. Small numbers of patients were also seen in northern Somalia. These areas were either previously non-endemic for VL, or had only sporadic cases prior to the epidemic. We describe the features of the outbreak and review the history of VL in the region. Unusual rainfall patterns, malnutrition, and migration of a Leishmania-infected population seeking food and security may have contributed to this outbreak. PMID:15307414

  5. Modelling of INTER-Linkages Between LAND Cover Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors in the Idemili River Basin of South Eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduekwe, N. I.; Adesina, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the inter-relationships between socio-economic factors and land cover pattern in the Idemili River Basin of South Eastern Nigeria. It is based on the concept of coupled human environment systems and focuses on the modelling of community scale relationships between critical land cover parameter and socio-demographic, economic and cultural factors in the basin. The modelling was implemented with pixel level NDVI indicators of vegetation cover density developed from NigeriaSat image with 32m resolution linked to eight indicators of socio-economic factors developed from a household survey of the basin. NDVI and socio-economic data were matched for 25 sampled localities in the basin and their relationships modelled with correlation, regression and Principal Component Analysis statistics. NDVI based image analysis showed a high level of human impact on vegetation. The Model output shows that bivariate relationships between vegetation cover dynamics and socio-demographic variables were the most significant, with R Square values > 0.60 for linear and non linear models. Vegetation cover density has high inverse correlations with population, urbanization levels and number of households in localities. Population/urbanization status of localities was also the most significant Principal Component or underlying dimension linked to spatial dynamics of vegetation cover in the basin accounting for 50% of factor variations. Relationships between vegetation cover densities and economic factors (occupational and household energy patterns) and socio-cultural factors (environmental knowledge, values and governance) were weaker and less significant. The study captured the linkages between landcover- represented by vegetation cover- and socio-economic parameters. It demonstrates that socio-economic factors are major drivers of change in the basin. Key Words: Socio-economic factors, Vegetation Cover, NDVI, Socio-ecological Systems, State Variables, South Eastern Nigeria

  6. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes Mellitus among Tuberculosis Patients in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Workneh, Mahteme Haile; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging worldwide. Recently, the prevalence of DM is increasing in resource poor countries where TB is of high burden. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and analyze associated factors of TB and DM comorbidity in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods This was a facility based cross-sectional study. All newly diagnosed TB patients attending selected health facilities in the study area were consecutively screened for DM. DM was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyles and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with TB and DM comorbidity. Result Among a total of 1314 patients who participated in the study, the prevalence of DM was estimated at 109 (8.3%). Being female [odds ratio (OR) 1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.10–2.62)], patients age [41–64 years (OR 3.35; 95% CI (2.01–5.57), 65–89 years (OR 3.18; 95% CI (1.52–6.64)], being a pulmonary TB case [(OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.09–2.63)] and having a family history of DM [(OR 4.54; 95% CI (2.36–8.73)] were associated factors identified with TB and DM comorbidity. Conclusion The prevalence of DM among TB patients in South-Eastern Amahra Region is high. Routine screening of TB patients for DM is recommended in the study area. PMID:26808967

  7. Research on the influence of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) grazing on grassland production in the south-eastern part of Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Trdan, S; Vidrih, M; Vesel, A; Bobnar, A

    2003-01-01

    Almost 60% of Slovenian territory is covered by forests and only Finland and Sweden are known as the more forest abundant countries in Europe. Among game that intensifies difficulties in the field of agricultural production, especially in north-eastern and south-eastern parts of the country, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) and red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) prevail. Negative impact of game on agricultural production in the above mentioned parts of Slovenia has risen significantly in the last decade. The data about the population density of game in Slovenia is often based on the payments of their damage on the cultivated plants that are usually performed by the hunting societies. Grassland represents around 60% of agricultural land in Slovenia, and herbage is a very important component of the red deer diet. At the forest border where ruminant ungulate animals spend most of their life, the grassland production for a farmer is often decreased because of the grazing of this hoofed animal. Hitherto, decrease of grassland productiveness from a farmer's perspective, caused by the red deer grazing, was not yet researched in Slovenia. Similar studies were also very rare in other European countries. With the intention of gathering data and learn more about the potential harmfulness of the red deer on grassland production the experiment was performed in the south-eastern part of Slovenia in the year 2002. The influence of red deer grazing on grassland production for forage conservation at the forest border during the vegetation period was studied on three locations (Mala gora, Cvislerji and Mackovec) in the Kocevje region. The experiment lasted from the third decade of March until the first decade of October. Portable cages of size 1x0.5x0.5 m were used to exclude red deer from grazing the herbage. At four sampling dates in the season herbage air dry matter (DM) yield was measured at three different observations (cage-protected plot, cage

  8. Impact of climate change on Precipitation and temperature under the RCP 8.5 and A1B scenarios in an Alpine Cathment (Alto-Genil Basin,southeast Spain). A comparison of statistical downscaling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Velazquez, David; Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Jimeno-Saez, Patricia; Fernandez-Chacon, Francisca

    2016-04-01

    In order to design adaptive strategies to global change we need to assess the future impact of climate change on water resources, which depends on precipitation and temperature series in the systems. The objective of this work is to generate future climate series in the "Alto Genil" Basin (southeast Spain) for the period 2071-2100 by perturbing the historical series using different statistical methods. For this targeted we use information coming from regionals climate model simulations (RCMs) available in two European projects, CORDEX (2013), with a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, and ENSEMBLES (2009), with a spatial resolution of 25 km. The historical climate series used for the period 1971-2000 have been obtained from Spain02 project (2012) which has the same spatial resolution that CORDEX project (both use the EURO-CORDEX grid). Two emission scenarios have been considered: the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 emissions scenario, which is the most unfavorable scenario considered in the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the A1B emission scenario of fourth Assessment Report (AR4). We use the RCM simulations to create an ensemble of predictions weighting their information according to their ability to reproduce the main statistic of the historical climatology. A multi-objective analysis has been performed to identify which models are better in terms of goodness of fit to the cited statistic of the historical series. The ensemble of the CORDEX and the ENSEMBLES projects has been finally created with nine and four models respectively. These ensemble series have been used to assess the anomalies in mean and standard deviation (differences between the control and future RCM series). A "delta-change" method (Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2011) has been applied to define future series by modifying the historical climate series in accordance with the cited anomalies in mean and standard deviation. A

  9. A community-based case–control study of prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairments in patients with epilepsy residing in South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Arinzechi, Eugene O.; Ogunrin, Olubunmi A.; Nwosu, Cosmas M.; Nwani, Paul O.; Enwereji, Kelechi O.; Asomugha, Lasbrey A.; Dimkpa, Uche

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is the commonest neurological disorder encountered in Sub-Saharan Africa. The quality of life of patients with epilepsy (PWEs) is adversely affected by cognitive impairments. Aim: This study investigated the prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairments in PWE in Ukpo community located in a South-Eastern state in Nigeria using Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID) and a computer-assisted cognitive test battery (FePsy). Methods and Patients: Fifty-one PWEs were studied and compared with 51 age-, sex-and level of education-matched healthy controls. Diagnosis of epilepsy was confirmed clinically with eye-witness corroboration. Sociodemographic data and information on epilepsy variables were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. Cognitive domains assessed include language, memory, orientation, attention, psychomotor speed and constructional praxis. Results: The prevalence rate of cognitive impairment using total CSID score was 19.6%. Analysis of CSID scores revealed significant impairment in language (17.6%), memory (29.4%), orientation (15.7%), attention (7.8%) and constructional praxis (15.7%) compared to healthy controls. A similar pattern was observed with FePsy but with better sensitivity indices for detecting cognitive impairment. Conclusion: This study indicated significant prevalence rate of cognitive impairment among treatment-naïve PWE with profound affectation of memory, mental speed and language. In addition, the FePsy was found to be more sensitive and specific in assessment of cognitive function in PWE. PMID:27365959

  10. Integrating variations in the soil chloride profile and evaporativity for in-situ estimation of evaporation in arid zones: an application in south-eastern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhlassa, Saïdati; Ammary, Bouchaib; Paré, Samuel; Safsaf, Naima

    2016-06-01

    In arid regions, knowledge of the evaporation rate from the water table is essential for appropriate management of scarce resources and to prevent land degradation. Soil chloride profiles in the unsaturated zone of a bare soil in an arid area of south-eastern Morocco were used to assess the evaporation flux, using chloride inventories in conjunction with evaporative demand. Moisture fluxes were calculated from measured chloride concentrations on the basis of a steady-state flow model. The chloride profiles displayed large variations in concentrations and had (1) low chloride concentrations near the soil surface, (2) maximum chloride concentrations at depths of 11-14 cm beneath the soil surface, respectively in July and February, and (3) gradually decreasing chloride concentrations while depth increased below these peaks. Evaporative demands were found to be inversely proportional to the depth of evaporation fronts and proportional to evaporation fluxes. In addition, the evaporation along the profiles seems to be controlled by the soil composition and texture. The investigation of chloride profiles in February and July enabled the determination of a value for annual evaporation (˜30 mm), which is in good agreement with the value estimated by the Allison-Barnes type model (˜32 mm).

  11. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in liver tissue of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jann M; Baduel, Christine; Li, Yan; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen; Christidis, Les

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment that are known to accumulate in apex predators such as sharks. Liver samples from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters were analysed for the seven indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. Median ∑PCBs were significantly higher in white than sandbar sharks (3.35 and 0.36 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively, p=0.05) but there were no significant differences between dusky sharks (1.31 μg g(-1) lipid) and the other two species. Congener concentrations were also significantly higher in white sharks. Significant differences in PCB concentrations between mature and immature dusky (3.78 and 0.76 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) and sandbar (1.94 and 0.18 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) sharks indicated that PCB concentrations in these species increased with age/growth. Higher-chlorinated congeners (hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls) dominated results, accounting for ~90% of ∑PCBs. PMID:26555794

  12. Fatty acid content, health and risk indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts of milk from organic and conventional farming systems in tropical south-eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo-Puga, Claudia; Sánchez-Muñoz, Bernardo; Nahed-Toral, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Díaz-Martínez, Margarita; Solis-Zabaleta, Roman; Reyes-Hernández, Aurora; Castillo-Domíguez, Rosa Maria

    2014-06-01

    Organic agriculture and livestock farming is claimed to promote animal welfare and can offer animal products with better hygienic-sanitary quality, based on principles of health, ecology, fairness, and care. However, no clear advantages of organic milk (OM) versus conventional milk (CM) from tropical conditions are available. The aims of the study were to determine fatty acid profile, health-promoting (HPI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts (SCC) of OM and CM in tropical south-eastern Mexico. Female cross-breed cows (400-600 kg) were employed. CM had larger values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.6 %; 4.57 %) than OM (61.48 %; 4.22 %), while OM resulted in a larger value of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (34.3 %) than CM (31.7 %). HPI and TI showed that OM was more favorable than CM. Milk production and physicochemical composition (PC) as well as density had no significant difference, while SCC was significantly lower in OM than in CM on a monthly basis. These results showed that OM promotes a healthful and balanced diet, and is already produced by sustainable ecologic technologies employing traditional agrosilvopastoral management, which is more environmentally friendly and promotes ecological resilience. PMID:24715204

  13. TDS-Eh graph analysis: a new water quality index and rural water supply implications of a river affected by mining in south-eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezekwe, I. C.; Aisubeogun, A. O.; Chima, G. N.; Odubo, E.

    2012-03-01

    The Ivo River Basin of south-eastern Nigeria is a water scarce and mining region, which suffers from water scarcity. The influence of mining activities on the quality of the Ivo River and its capacity for community water supply was investigated. Also the efficacy of TDS-Eh graph in explaining water quality was presented. Results indicated that the TDS-Eh graph highlights subtle chemical relationships which control water quality and provide a simple but generic pollution index for rapid water quality assessment. It was also discovered that the Ivo River could become an adequate alternative to groundwater as a source of rural water supply in the study area with an estimated average daily discharge of 6726000 L and a rural population of less than 200000 persons. The Ivo River meets the WHO drinking water standards in 20 physicochemical water quality parameters (pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, salinity, TDS, Eh, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead and cadmium) analyzed and can therefore (with little treatment) provide up to 133.4% of average community water demand and 83.8% of maximum community water demand. The impact of mining on Ivo River quality was found to have been moderated by the presence of carbonate rocks which may have enhanced the precipitation of heavy metals from the river.

  14. Sustainable urban development and human health: septic tank as a major breeding habitat of mosquito vectors of human diseases in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwoke, B E; Nduka, F O; Okereke, O M; Ehighibe, O C

    1993-02-01

    Septic tank mosquitoes in Abia State University Okigwe, south-eastern Nigeria were studied using exit traps between November 1988 and April 1989. The results were revealing and striking. Apart from the common septic tank mosquitoes, Culex p. quinquefasciatus, Cu. cinereus and Aedes aegypti, which have been previously commonly found breeding in ammonia and nitrate-rich waters of latrines and septic tanks, the other species, Cu. horridus, Cu. tigripes and Aedes vittatus, have not been commonly reported as colonizing septic tanks in Nigeria. Three out of these six mosquito species observed are vectors of human diseases: Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus are vectors of Yellow fever and Cu. p. quinquefasciatus is a potential vector of Bancroftian filariasis and a world-wide vector of various arboviruses. The fact that these mosquito vectors are able to breed in highly polluted waters of septic tanks during the harsh dry months when most surface water bodies are dry is epidemiologically important. The breeding of these mosquito vectors of human diseases around human dwellings indicates an intense man-vector contact creating a high level risk to the crowded urban population. The public health implications of this urbanization/modernization problem and solutions are discussed. PMID:8508215

  15. The perception, beliefs and practices toward genitourinary schistosomiasis by inhabitants of selected endemic areas (Edo/Delta States) in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukwandu, Nnamdi Callistus D; Nmorsi, O P G

    2004-01-01

    Well-structured questionnaire on the perception, impression and response to genitourinary bilharziasis (Genitourinary schistosomiasis) was administered and explained in local languages: 'Igbo' 'Esan' 'Ezon' Itshekiri and Bini to 33815 inhabitants of selected endemic areas in south-eastern Nigeria from January, 1999 to December, 2001. Out of this number, 3815 (11.3%) were properly filled and returned. About 42.0% of the inhabitants admitted knowledge of the disease, while 14 (0.4%) knew about the aetiologic agent. About 181 (5.0%) who responded, admitted procuring treatment, while 100 (5.0%) declined to seek treatment of any sort. The relationships between water-bodies and human activities, and infection were well discussed. Amongst those who admitted knowledge of the disease but no knowledge of its etiologic agent, declined seeking treatment of any kind, but believe the disease is a natural phenomenon in ones developmental stage and therefore of no morbidity and mortality. Laboratory analysis of urine, faeces, semen and HVS was employed to assess questionnaire responses, and in some cases, physical examination was utilized to augment laboratory analysis in confirming urinal diagnosis. Haematuria was only directly related to egg count in the early part of life. Females were significantly haematuric and excreted more ova than males (p < 0.05). Headache (43.0%) and fever (31.0%) were major clinical signs while sexual pains (22.0%) were the least. PMID:15361973

  16. Molecular phylogeny of porcelain crabs (Porcellanidae: Petrolisthes and allies) from the south eastern Pacific: the genera Allopetrolisthes and Liopetrolisthes are not natural entities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Porcelain crabs from the closely related genera Petrolisthes, Liopetrolisthes, and Allopetrolisthes are known for their diversity of lifestyles, habitats, and coloration. The evolutionary relationships among the species belonging to these three genera is not fully resolved. A molecular phylogeny of the group may help to resolve the long-standing taxonomic question about the validity of the genera Allopetrolisthes and Liopetrolisthes. Using both ‘total evidence’ and single-marker analyses based on a 362-bp alignment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA and a 328-bp alignment of the Histone 3 nuclear DNA, the phylogenetic relationships among 11 species from Petrolisthes (6 species), Liopetrolisthes (2 species), and Allopetrolisthes (3 species), all native to the south eastern Pacific, were examined. The analyses supported three pairs of sister species: L. mitra + L. patagonicus, P. tuberculatus + P. tuberculosus, and A. angulosus + A. punctatus. No complete segregation of species, according to genera, was evident from tree topologies. Bayesian-factor analyses revealed strong support for the unconstrained tree instead of an alternative tree in which monophyly of the three genera was forced. Thus, the present molecular phylogeny does not support the separation of the species within this complex into the genera Petrolisthes, Liopetrolisthes, and Allopetrolisthes. Taking into account the above and other recent molecular phylogenetic analyses focused on other representatives from the family Porcellanidae, it is tentatively proposed to eliminate the genera Liopetrolisthes and Allopetrolisthes, and to transfer their members to the genus Petrolisthes. PMID:26989636

  17. The impact of 85 years of coastal development on shallow seagrass beds (Posidonia oceanica L. (Delile)) in South Eastern France: A slow but steady loss without recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holon, F.; Boissery, P.; Guilbert, A.; Freschet, E.; Deter, J.

    2015-11-01

    Shallow Posidonia oceanica beds (0 to -15 m), the most common seagrass in the Mediterranean, were mapped from aerial photographs dating from the 1920's and from 2012 along 800 km of coastline in South-Eastern France (Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region). Changes in P. oceanica bed spatial distribution (limits and extent) during these 85 years were analyzed in terms of concordance (remaining areas), positive discordance (expanding areas) or negative discordance (lost areas). Lost areas were linked with direct or indirect impacts of coastal development (artificialized coastlines (namely harbours, ports of refuge, landfills, artificial beaches, groynes and pontoons, submarine pipelines and aquatic farms) visible on the photographs. The comparison showed that 73% of the shallow limits have declined. Considering spatial extent, remaining seagrass meadows areas accounted for the major part (85%), while lost areas accounted for 13% and expanding areas for 1.1%. Lost areas were mainly linked with artificial coastlines but 44% remained with undetermined causes (invisible pressures and/or mixed effects). The analysis of 96 coastal facilities creating the artificial (namely man-made) coastlines showed that the highest impact over the longest distance (5 km) was caused by harbours. Only artificial beaches had such a distant impact. Pontoons were the least surrounded by lost seagrass meadows areas. These quantitative data offer important information for marine conservation.

  18. Zr-Y-Nb-REE mineralization associated with microgranite and basic dykes at EL Sela shear zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Hassan Abd El-Razek Aly

    2014-01-01

    El Sela shear zone occurs in the younger granite rock of Gabal El Sela area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt near the Sudan Frontier. It comprises lines-arranged intrusions trending ENE-WSW and extend for about 1.5 km in length and reach up to 40 meters in width. These lines-arranged intrusions include multi-phase quartz veins, altered microgranite and altered basic dykes. These dykes hosting or acting as a source for uranium, rare metals (Zr, Y, Nb and Ga) and light rare earths (La, Ce, Sm and Nd) mineralizations. They show highly alteration, uranium enrichment and a strong enrichment in some rare metals and light rare earths contents (Zr = 644, Y = 133, Nb = 136, Ga =184, La = 50.19, Ce = 105.47, Sm = 24.81, Nd = 78.91 ppm and and ∑ LREEs = 259.38.). The chondrite normalised rare earth elements trends indicate strongly fractionated rare earth elements pattern with significant enriched of LREE according to HREE in both altered microgranite and altered basic dykes. Field radiometric measurements of the studied altered microgranite dyke revealed that eU reach up to 359 ppm with an average 78 ppm, while in the altered basic dyke reach up to 1625 ppm with an average 144 ppm. PMID:25332873

  19. Reconstructing the eruption magnitude and energy budgets for the pre-historic eruption of the monogenetic ˜5 ka Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Otterloo, Jozua; Cas, Raymond A. F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding explosive volcanic eruptions, especially phreatomagmatic eruptions, their intensities and energy budgets is of major importance when it comes to risk and hazard studies. With only a few historic occurrences of phreatomagmatic activity, a large amount of our understanding comes from the study of pre-historic volcanic centres, which causes issues when it comes to preservation and vegetation. In this research, we show that using 3D geometrical modelling it is possible to obtain volume estimates for different deposits of a pre-historic, complex, monogenetic centre, the Mt. Gambier Volcanic Complex, south-eastern Australia. Using these volumes, we further explore the energy budgets and the magnitude of this eruption (VEI 4), including dispersal patterns (eruption columns varying between 5 and 10 km, dispersed towards north-east to south), to further our understanding of intraplate, monogenetic eruptions involving phreatomagmatic activity. We also compare which thermodynamic model fits best in the creation of the maar crater of Mt. Gambier: the major-explosion-dominated model or the incremental growth model. In this case, the formation of most of the craters can best be explained by the latter model.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of porcelain crabs (Porcellanidae: Petrolisthes and allies) from the south eastern Pacific: the genera Allopetrolisthes and Liopetrolisthes are not natural entities.

    PubMed

    Baeza, J Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Porcelain crabs from the closely related genera Petrolisthes, Liopetrolisthes, and Allopetrolisthes are known for their diversity of lifestyles, habitats, and coloration. The evolutionary relationships among the species belonging to these three genera is not fully resolved. A molecular phylogeny of the group may help to resolve the long-standing taxonomic question about the validity of the genera Allopetrolisthes and Liopetrolisthes. Using both 'total evidence' and single-marker analyses based on a 362-bp alignment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA and a 328-bp alignment of the Histone 3 nuclear DNA, the phylogenetic relationships among 11 species from Petrolisthes (6 species), Liopetrolisthes (2 species), and Allopetrolisthes (3 species), all native to the south eastern Pacific, were examined. The analyses supported three pairs of sister species: L. mitra + L. patagonicus, P. tuberculatus + P. tuberculosus, and A. angulosus + A. punctatus. No complete segregation of species, according to genera, was evident from tree topologies. Bayesian-factor analyses revealed strong support for the unconstrained tree instead of an alternative tree in which monophyly of the three genera was forced. Thus, the present molecular phylogeny does not support the separation of the species within this complex into the genera Petrolisthes, Liopetrolisthes, and Allopetrolisthes. Taking into account the above and other recent molecular phylogenetic analyses focused on other representatives from the family Porcellanidae, it is tentatively proposed to eliminate the genera Liopetrolisthes and Allopetrolisthes, and to transfer their members to the genus Petrolisthes. PMID:26989636

  1. Thermodynamic modelling of Sol Hamed serpentinite, South Eastern Desert of Egypt: implication for two serpentinization stages in the Arabian-Nubian Shield ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, T.; Hamdy, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Arabian-Nubian Shield is the largest tract of juvenile continental crust of Neoproterozoic age on Earth. This crust was generated due to arc-arc collision associated with the closing of the Mozambique Ocean. Distribution of ophiolitic rocks marks fossils suture zones in the shield. Petrological, mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry and thermodynamic studies are carried out to examine the serpentinite component of Sol Hamed ophiolite in south Eastern Desert of Egypt. The protolith mantle was harzburgite and formed in subduction zone of forearc setting. Serpentinization occurred in two stages. The first by intrusion of high concentrated CO2 fluid released from carbonate-bearing sediments and altered basalt at the subduction zone. The serpentinization achieved during isobaric cooling path at pressure of 1 kbar and before the emplacement. The minimum temperature limit of the serpentinization is above the breakdown of lizardite to antigorite and brucite (170 °C). The fluid composition during the isobaric cooling path was buffered by the metamorphic reactions. The second stage of serpentinization took place through prograde path which led to formation of chrysotile after lizardite. The increasing in the pressure during this stage occurred as a result of extensive duplex array and thrusting of oceanic crust. The crust in the forearc basin was overloaded by 28 km of obducted and thrusted oceanic crust from both mid-oceanic and forearc basins, respectively.

  2. Description and implementation of a surveillance network for bluetongue in the Balkans and in adjoining areas of south-eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, F; Paladini, C; Meiswinkel, R; Savini, L; Calistri, P

    2006-01-01

    During the recent severe outbreaks of bluetongue (BT) in the Mediterranean Basin, the BT virus (BTV) spread beyond its historical limits into the Balkan region. One of the primary impacts of BT is the cessation in livestock trade which can have severe economic and social consequences. The authors briefly describe the development of the collaborative East-BTnet programme which aims to assist all affected and at-risk Balkan states and adjoining countries in the management of BT, and in the development of individual national surveillance systems. The beneficiary countries involved, and led by the World organisation for animal health (Office International des Epizooties) Collaborating Centre for veterinary training, epidemiology, food safety and animal welfare of the Istituto Zooprofilattico dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale' in collaboration with the Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen, the European Commission Joint Research Centre (IPSC-JRC), were Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Former Yugoslavia Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Malta, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia and Turkey. A regional web-based surveillance network is a valuable tool for controlling and managing transboundary animal diseases such as BT. Its implementation in the Balkan region and in adjoining areas of south-eastern Europe is described and discussed. PMID:20429055

  3. Catch composition, reproductive biology and diet of the bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus (Squaliformes: Echinorhinidae) from the south-eastern Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Shanis, C P R; Hashim, M; Ganga, U; Pillai, N G K

    2013-11-01

    Fishery and biological data are presented for the poorly known bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus (Squaliformes: Echinorhinidae), from the deep waters of the south-eastern Arabian Sea. A total of 5318 individuals from by-catch landings of deep-water bottom set longlines, gillnets and shrimp trawl fisheries operating at depths of 200-1200 m were recorded between January 2008 and December 2011 at the Kochi Fisheries Harbour (Kerala). A total of 431 individuals, from 46 to 318 cm total length (L(T)) and 0·8 to 132 kg total mass (M(T)), were examined to determine biological data for this species. The LT at which 50% were mature (L(T)50) for females and males was estimated at 189 and 187 cm LT. Litter size ranged from 10 to 36 and size at birth was between 42 and 46 cm L(T). Dietary analysis of stomach contents revealed E. brucus feeds on a variety of prey including crustaceans (69% index of relative importance, I(RI)), teleosts (25·8% I(RI)), cephalopods (1·7% I(RI)) and elasmobranchs (0·7% I(RI)). This study provides the first detailed biological data for this species and also highlights the extent of the by-catch fishery for this species in Indian waters. PMID:24580658

  4. An integrated approach for assessing influence of agricultural activities on pesticides in a shallow aquifer in south-eastern Norway.

    PubMed

    Kværner, Jens; Eklo, Ole Martin; Solbakken, Eivind; Solberg, Ivar; Sorknes, Stein

    2014-11-15

    The study examines the influence of agricultural activities on pesticides in groundwater in an area with fluvial deposits of sand with a top layer of sandy silt and silt, intensive cultivation of potatoes and cereals, and drinking water supplies of households from local groundwater wells. Information about local agricultural practice and washing sites for pesticide spraying equipment, properties of soils and deeper deposits, hydrogeology and groundwater flow, simulations of pesticide leaching, and contents of pesticides and nitrate in groundwater samples from drinking water wells was used to explore extension and reasons of pesticide contamination of groundwater. Pesticides were found in a majority of the sampled wells. Eight different pesticides and metabolites were detected in groundwater samples. The results demonstrate that on fluvial deposits diffuse pollution from spraying of fields with pesticides can result in groundwater contamination in Nordic climate. Higher concentrations of pesticides in some wells can be explained by point source contamination from washing sites. The occurrence of pesticides in drinking water wells touches up the question whether pesticides should be given general approvals, or approvals should include restrictions or recommendations regarding use on areas with high risk of groundwater contamination. Combination of washing sites for pesticide spraying equipment and groundwater wells for drinking water requires attention, proper equipment and practice, and knowledge about pesticides, soil and water to avoid contamination. Samples from wells adjacent to washing sites for pesticide equipment might overestimate average pesticide concentrations in groundwater bodies. In Nordic areas attention should be given to pesticide pollution of shallow groundwater in fluvial deposits. To provide basis for interpretation of results and planning of mitigation measures against pesticide contamination, an integrated approach using information about

  5. Refining upon the climatic background of the Early Pleistocene hominid settlement in western Europe: Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Lozano-Fernández, Iván; Agustí, Jordi; Bailon, Salvador; Menéndez Granda, Leticia; Espígares Ortiz, Maria Patrocinio; Ros-Montoya, Sergios; Jiménez Arenas, Juan Manuel; Toro-Moyano, Isidro; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Sala, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Early Pleistocene sites of Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 (Guadix-Baza Basin, SE Spain) have yielded thousands of Mode 1 or Oldowan lithic artifacts (both sites) and one tooth (in layer D, formerly 5 of Barranco León), today considered to be some of the earliest evidence of humans in western Europe at ca. 1.2-1.5 Ma. Previous quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions based on herpetile assemblages indicated that, during the formation of these two sites, the mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were higher than they are now in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, with lower continentality. Here, we propose new climatic reconstructions where the mean monthly temperature and precipitation and the difference between the four driest months and the four rainiest months are estimated. Climatograms are built in order to specify the distribution and variation of temperature and precipitation during the year, and the Aridity Indices of Gaussen, Lautensach-Mayer, Dantin-Revenga and De Martonne are used to characterize ombroclimatic differences. According to these new climatic parameters, rainfall distribution through the year shows considerably higher precipitation in every season except summer and early autumn, which remain drier and thus consistent with a Mediterranean climate pattern. No change is observed in the duration of the aridity period, which remains four months long. However, the value of the Aridity Index of De Martonne is higher than 20 (subhumid climate) in Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3, whereas today it is lower than 20 (semi-arid climate), suggesting major changes in the ombroclimatic type. These results yield a more precise scenario for the paleoclimatic conditions that prevailed during the late Early Pleistocene in the Guadix-Baza Basin and permit us to contrast the ages obtained from numerical dating and biochronology. The very warm and humid climate reconstructed for both Barranco León and Fuente Nueva-3 suggests that, in

  6. Estimation of the daily water consumption by maize under Atlantic climatic conditions (A Coruña, NW Spain) using Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestas-Valero, Roger Manuel; Miras-Avalos, Jose Manuel; Vidal-Vázquez, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Climatic variables, such as rainfall, solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity, present a high spatio-temporal variability. Thus, they are inadequate indicators of soil water content in the root-influenced zone and/or soil water consumption by plants, which are essential parameters for assessing water availability. An interesting alternative to the estimation of these parameters is quantifying soil water dynamics using Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR). This technique allows to describe water dynamics in time and space, to determine the main patterns of soil moisture, the water uptake by roots, the evapotranspiration and the drainage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the soil moisture dynamics in the root-influenced zone and to assess the daily water consumption by the crop. The studied site is located in an experimental field of the Centre for Agricultural Research (CIAM) in Mabegondo located in the province of A Coruña, Spain (43°14'N, 8°15'W; 91 masl). The study was carried out from July to October 2009 in a field devoted to maize (Zea mays, L.). The soil of this site is silt-clay textured. Long-term mean annual temperature and rainfall figures are 13.3 °C and 1288 mm, respectively. During the study period, maize crop was subjected to conventional agricultural practices. A weekly evaluation of the phenological stage of the crop was performed. Evapotranspiration was estimated according to the Penman-Monteith equation using meteorological data from a station located in the experimental site. An EnviroSCAN FDR equipment, comprising six capacitance sensors, was installed in the studied site following the manufacturer's recommendations, thus assuring a proper contact between the probe and the soil. Soil water content in the root-influenced zone (0-60 cm depth were considered) was hourly monitored in 20 cm ranges (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm) using FDR. Evaluations were performed on days with slight or no rainfall. The estimated

  7. Analysis of causes of the eventual increment in climatic episodies in the period 2004-2014 and the consequences on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Lopez, Fernando; Diez, Javier; Veiga, Efren

    2015-04-01

    In recent years has observed an increase in atmospheric and marine events on the coast of Galicia (Spain) which have caused economic losses and human lives; and also an alarm in the population. This work analyse the consequences in order temporal and geographical; and the possible causes and influences which can motivate the presence of these events and their consequences. This work also proposes a strategy to prevent such events and to limit their effects. The generating criteria proposed is a rating system of security, in such way that the society by itself generates the trends for improvement. Keywords: Security, Civil engineering, Marine constructions, Realibility, Insurance, Prevention forensic engineering

  8. Inter-annual variation of carbon uptake by a plantation oak woodland in south-eastern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M.; Eaton, E. L.; Broadmeadow, M. S. J.; Morison, J. I. L.

    2012-07-01

    The carbon balance of an 80 yr old deciduous oak plantation in the temperate oceanic climate of the south-east of Britain was measured by eddy covariance over 12 yr (1999-2010). The mean annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 486 g C m-2 y-1 (95% CI of ±73 g C m-2 y-1), and this was partitioned into a Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) of 2034 ± 145 g C m-2 y-1, over a 165 (±6) day growing season, and an annual loss of carbon through respiration and decomposition (ecosystem respiration, Reco) of 1548 ± 122 g C m-2 y-1. The interannual variation of NEP was large (coefficient of variation (CV) 23%), although the variation for GPP and Reco was smaller (12%) and the ratio of Reco/GPP was relatively constant (0.76 ± 0.02 CI). Some anomalies in the annual patterns of the carbon balance could be linked to particular combinations of anomalous weather events, such as high summer air temperature and low soil moisture content. The Europe-wide heat-wave and drought of 2003 had little effect on the C balance of this woodland on a surface water gley soil. Annual variation in precipitation (CV 18%) was not a main factor in the variation in NEP. The inter-annual variation in estimated intercepted radiation only accounted for ~ 47% of the variation in GPP, although a significant relationship (p<0.001) was found between peak leaf area index and annual GPP which in turn played an important role in modifying the efficiency with which incident radiation was used in net CO2 uptake. Whilst the spring start and late autumn end of the net CO2 uptake period varied substantially (range of 24 and 27 days, respectively), annual GPP was not related to growing season length. Severe outbreaks of defoliating moth caterpillars, mostly Tortrix viridana L. and Operophtera brumata L., caused considerable damage to the forest canopy in 2009 and 2010, resulting in reduced GPP in these years.

  9. Inter-annual variation of carbon uptake by a plantation oak woodland in south-eastern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M.; Eaton, E. L.; Broadmeadow, M. S. J.; Morison, J. I. L.

    2012-12-01

    The carbon balance of an 80-yr-old deciduous oak plantation in the temperate oceanic climate of the south-east of Great Britain was measured by eddy covariance over 12 yr (1999-2010). The mean annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was 486 g C m-2 yr-1 (95% CI of ±73 g C m-2 yr-1), and this was partitioned into a gross primary productivity (GPP) of 2034 ± 145 g C m-2 yr-1, over a 165 (±6) day growing season, and an annual loss of carbon through respiration and decomposition (ecosystem respiration, Reco) of 1548 ± 122 g C m-2 yr-1. Although the maximum variation of NEP between years was large (333 g C m-2 yr-1), the ratio of Reco/GPP remained relatively constant (0.76 ± 0.02 CI). Some anomalies in the annual patterns of the carbon balance could be linked to particular weather events, such as low summer solar radiation and low soil moisture content (values below 30% by volume). The European-wide heat wave and drought of 2003 did not reduce the NEP of this woodland because of good water supply from the surface-water gley soil. The inter-annual variation in estimated intercepted radiation only accounted for ~ 47% of the variation in GPP, although a significant relationship (p < 0.001) was found between peak leaf area index and annual GPP, which modified the efficiency with which incident radiation was used in net CO2 uptake. Whilst the spring start and late autumn end of the net CO2 uptake period varied substantially (range of 24 and 27 days respectively), annual GPP was not related to growing season length. Severe outbreaks of defoliating moth caterpillars, mostly Tortrix viridana L. and Operophtera brumata L., caused considerable damage to the forest canopy in 2009 and 2010, resulting in reduced GPP in these two years. Inter-annual variation in the sensitivity of Reco to temperature was found to be strongly related to summer soil moisture content. The eddy covariance estimates of NEP closely matched mensuration-based estimates, demonstrating that this forest

  10. Lithospheric control on basaltic magma compositions within a long-lived monogenetic magmatic province: the Cainozoic basalts of eastern Victoria, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. C.; Nicholls, I. A.; Maas, R.

    2012-12-01

    Basaltic volcanism, ranging in age from Late Jurassic to Holocene and extending across southern Victoria in south-eastern Australia was initiated ~ 95 Ma ago during the earliest stages of rifting associated with opening of the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean. Volcanic activity has continued sporadically since that time with the only major hiatus being between 18 and 7 Ma (Price et al, 2003). Basaltic rocks with ages in the range 18-90 Ma occur in small lava fields scattered across eastern and south-eastern Victoria and have also been recovered from bore holes in the west of the state. These have in the past been referred to as the "Older Volcanics" to differentiate them from more volumetrically extensive and younger (< 5 Ma) lava fields to the west. Older Volcanics vary in composition from SiO2-undersaturated basanites, basalts and hawaiites through transitional basalts to hypersthene normative tholeiites. Strontium, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions lie between DM and EM 2 in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic space. They are isotopically similar to Samoan OIB but different from intra-plate rocks of the New Zealand-Antarctic diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP). Trace element compositions are generally characterised by enrichment of Cs, Ba, Rb, Th, U, Nb, K and light REE over heavy REE, Ti, Zr and Y but there is subtle diversity within and between particular lava fields. (La/Yb)n and K/Nb ratios show significant variation and some basalts are relatively enriched in Sr, P and Pb. Potassium and Rb show distinctive relative depletions in some samples and this could be indicating low degree melting with residual phlogopite. When Sr isotope data for Older Volcanics are projected onto an east-west profile they outline distinctive discontinuities that can be related to surface and subsurface structural features within the basement. This has previously been identified in the "Newer Volcanics" (< 5 Ma) province of western Victoria (Price et al., 1997, 2003). Both Proterozoic and

  11. Pollen-based paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change at Lake Ohrid (south-eastern Europe) during the past 500 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadori, Laura; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Masi, Alessia; Bertini, Adele; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Francke, Alexander; Kouli, Katerina; Joannin, Sébastien; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Peyron, Odile; Torri, Paola; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sinopoli, Gaia; Donders, Timme H.

    2016-03-01

    Lake Ohrid is located at the border between FYROM (Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia) and Albania and formed during the latest phases of Alpine orogenesis. It is the deepest, the largest and the oldest tectonic lake in Europe. To better understand the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental evolution of Lake Ohrid, deep drilling was carried out in 2013 within the framework of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions (SCOPSCO) project that was funded by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). Preliminary results indicate that lacustrine sedimentation of Lake Ohrid started between 1.2 and 1.9 Ma ago. Here we present new pollen data (selected percentage and concentration taxa/groups) of the uppermost ˜ 200 m of the 569 m long DEEP core drilled in the depocentre of Lake Ohrid. The study is the fruit of a cooperative work carried out in several European palynological laboratories. The age model of this part of the core is based on 10 tephra layers and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters. According to the age model, the studied sequence covers the last ˜ 500 000 years at a millennial-scale resolution ( ˜ 1.6 ka) and records the major vegetation and climate changes that occurred during the last 12 (13 only pro parte) marine isotope stages (MIS). Our results indicate that there is a general good correspondence between forested/non-forested periods and glacial-interglacial cycles of the marine isotope stratigraphy. The record shows a progressive change from cooler and wetter to warmer and drier interglacial conditions. This shift in temperature and moisture availability is visible also in vegetation during glacial periods. The period corresponding to MIS11 (pollen assemblage zone OD-10, 428-368 ka BP) is dominated by montane trees such as conifers. Mesophilous elements such as deciduous and semi-deciduous oaks dominate forest periods of MIS5 (PASZ OD-3, 129-70 ka BP) and MIS1 (PASZ OD-1, 14 ka BP to

  12. Clinical characteristics and molecular genetic analysis of 22 patients with neonatal diabetes from the South-Eastern region of Turkey: predominance of non-KATP channel mutations

    PubMed Central

    Demirbilek, Huseyin; Arya, Ved Bhushan; Ozbek, Mehmet Nuri; Houghton, Jayne A L; Baran, Riza Taner; Akar, Melek; Tekes, Selahattin; Tuzun, Heybet; Mackay, Deborah J; Flanagan, Sarah E; Hattersley, Andrew T; Ellard, Sian; Hussain, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of monogenic diabetes and usually presents in the first 6 months of life. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and molecular genetics of a large Turkish cohort of NDM patients from a single centre and estimate an annual incidence rate of NDM in South-Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey. Design and methods NDM patients presenting to Diyarbakir Children State Hospital between 2010 and 2013, and patients under follow-up with presumed type 1 diabetes mellitus, with onset before 6 months of age were recruited. Molecular genetic analysis was performed. Results Twenty-two patients (59% males) were diagnosed with NDM (TNDM-5; PNDM-17). Molecular genetic analysis identified a mutation in 20 (95%) patients who had undergone a mutation analysis. In transient neonatal diabetes (TNDM) patients, the genetic cause included chromosome 6q24 abnormalities (n=3), ABCC8 (n=1) and homozygous INS (n=1). In permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) patients, homozygous GCK (n=6), EIF2AK3 (n=3), PTF1A (n=3), and INS (n=1) and heterozygous KCNJ11 (n=2) mutations were identified. Pancreatic exocrine dysfunction was observed in patients with mutations in the distal PTF1A enhancer. Both patients with a KCNJ11 mutation responded to oral sulphonylurea. A variable phenotype was associated with the homozygous c.-331C>A INS mutation, which was identified in both a PNDM and TNDM patient. The annual incidence of PNDM in South-East Anatolian region of Turkey was one in 48 000 live births. Conclusions Homozygous mutations in GCK, EIF2AK3 and the distal enhancer region of PTF1A were the commonest causes of NDM in our cohort. The high rate of detection of a mutation likely reflects the contribution of new genetic techniques (targeted next-generation sequencing) and increased consanguinity within our cohort. PMID:25755231

  13. Hanging by a coastal strand: breeding system of a federally endangered morning-glory of the south-eastern Florida coast, Jacquemontia reclinata

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Torres, Elena; Koptur, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Coastal development has led to extensive habitat destruction and the near extinction of the beach clustervine, Jacquemontia reclinata (Convolvulaceae), an endangered, perennial vine endemic to dune and coastal strand communities in south-eastern Florida. We examined the breeding system of this rare species, and observed visitors to its flowers, as part of a larger effort to document its status and facilitate its recovery. Methods Reproductively mature experimental plants were grown from seed collected from wild plants in two of the largest remaining populations. Controlled hand pollinations on potted plants were conducted to determine the level of compatibility of the species and to investigate compatibility within and between populations. Seeds from the hand pollinations were planted in soil, and they were monitored individually, recording time to seed germination (cotyledon emergence). Wild plants were observed in several of the remaining populations to determine which species visited the flowers. Key Results Hand pollination and seed planting experiments indicate that J. reclinata has a mixed mating system: flowers are able to set fruit with viable seeds with self-pollen, but outcross pollen produces significantly greater fruit and seed set than self-pollen (≥50 % for crosses vs. <25 % for self-pollinations). Visitors included a wide array of insect species, primarily of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. All visitors captured and examined carried J. reclinata pollen, and usually several other types of pollen. Conclusions Remnant populations of beach clustervine will have greater reproductive success not only if floral visitor populations are maintained, but also if movement of either pollen or seed takes place between populations. Restoration efforts should include provisions for the establishment and maintenance of pollinator populations. PMID:19797424

  14. Interspecific and Geographic Variation in the Diets of Sympatric Carnivores: Dingoes/Wild Dogs and Red Foxes in South-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Lumsden, Lindy F.

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  15. Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, G.; Morteani, G.

    2008-02-01

    The genesis of gem-quality deep green emeralds of Zabara, Sikait and Umm Kabo (South Eastern Desert, Egypt) is to date a controversial topic. The emerald-bearing biotite schists and quartz lenses are interpreted alternatively as a product of (i) thrust-fault-shear zone - controlled large scale alkali-metasomatism driven by post-magmatic fluid flow or of (ii) a large scale interaction between syntectonic pegmatitic magma or hydrothermal fluids with pre-existing basic to ultrabasic rocks, or of (iii) a syn- to post-tectonic regional metamorphism and small scale blackwall metasomatism. Detailed microstructural and chemical analyses of the Egyptian emeralds and their host rocks show that three generations of beryl can be distinguished: a colourless pegmatitic beryl; a pale green Cr-poor beryl crystallized from pegmatite-related hydrothermal fluids; and a deep green Cr- and Mg-rich emerald. The crystallization of the Cr- and Mg-rich emerald was controlled by the very local availability of Cr, Mg and Be-rich metamorphic fluids during the Pan-African tectono-thermal event. Emerald-rich quartz lenses demonstrate that those fluids locally did mobilize quartz, too. The pale green emeralds found within the pegmatites in association with colourless beryl are the product of a mobilization of colourless pegmatitic beryl and/or phenakite by late pegmatitic fluids slightly enriched in Cr by an interaction with the Cr-rich country rocks. The late pegmatitic fluids are typically Na-rich as is demonstrated by the pervasive albitization of the pegmatites. The complex interplay of magmatic and regional metamorphic events during the genesis of the Egyptian emeralds/beryls makes it impossible through stable oxygen isotope data to relate their genesis to the one or the other event.

  16. Integrating geologic and satellite imagery data for high-resolution mapping and gold exploration targets in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoheir, Basem; Emam, Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    The granitoid-greenstone belts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield are well-endowed with lode gold and massive sulfide ores. Although generally characterized by excellent outcrops and arid desert realm, poor accessibility and lack of finance have been always retardant to detailed geologic mapping of vast areas of the shield. Lack of comprehensive geological information and maps at appropriate scales would definitely hinder serious exploration programs. In this study, band ratioing, principal component analysis (PCA), false-color composition (FCC), and frequency filtering (FFT-RWT) of ASTER and ETM+ data have substantially improved visual interpretation for detailed mapping of the Gebel Egat area in South Eastern Desert of Egypt. By compiling field, petrographic and spectral data, controls on gold mineralization have been assessed in terms of association of gold lodes with particular lithological units and structures. Contacts between foliated island arc metavolcanics and ophiolites or diorite are likely to be favorable loci for auriferous quartz veins, especially where the NW-SE foliation is deflected into steeply dipping NNW-trending shear planes. High-resolution mapping of the greenstone belt, structures and alteration zones associated with gold lodes in the study area suggests that dilatation by foliation deflection was related to emplacement of the Egat granitic intrusion, attendant with a sinistral transpression regime (i.e., ˜640-550 Ma?). Gold mineralization associated with granitoid intrusions in transpression-induced pull-apart structures elsewhere in the Eastern Desert (e.g., Fawakhir, Sukari and Hangaliya mines) emphasize the reliability of this setting as a model for gold exploration targets in greenstone terrains of Egypt, and may be elsewhere in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  17. Contrasting definitive hosts as determinants of the genetic structure in a parasite with complex life cycle along the south-eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    López, Z; Cárdenas, L; Runil, F; González, M T

    2015-03-01

    The spatial genetic structure (and gene flow) of parasites with complex life cycles, such as digeneans, has been attributed mainly to the dispersion ability of the most mobile host, which most often corresponds to the definitive host (DH). In this study, we compared the genetic structure and diversity of adult Neolebouria georgenascimentoi in two fish species (DHs) that are extensively distributed along the south-eastern Pacific (SEP). The analysis was based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequences of parasites collected between 23°S and 45°S. In total, 202 sequences of N. georgenascimentoi in Pinguipes chilensis isolated from nine sites and 136 sequences of Prolatilus jugularis from five sites were analysed. Our results showed that N. georgenascimentoi is a species complex that includes three different parasite species; however, in this study, only lineage 1 and 2 found in P. chilensis and P. jugularis, respectively, were studied because they are widely distributed along the coastline. Lineage 1 parasites had two common haplotypes with wide distribution and unique haplotypes in northern sites. Lineage 2 had only one common haplotype with wide distribution and a large number of unique haplotypes with greater genetic diversity. Both lineages have experienced recent population expansion. Only lineage 1 exhibited a genetic structure that was mainly associated with a biogeographical break at approximately 30°S along the SEP. Our finding suggests that host access to different prey (=intermediate hosts) could affect the genetic structure of the parasite complex discovered here. Consequently, difference between these patterns suggests that factors other than DH dispersal are involved in the genetic structure of autogenic parasites. PMID:25602037

  18. Evaluation of changes in macrobenthic standing stock and polychaete community structure along the south eastern Arabian Sea shelf during the monsoon trawl-ban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Jaleel, K. U.; Parameswaran, Usha V.; Gopal, Aiswarya; Khader, Chippy; Ganesh, T.; Sanjeevan, V. N.; Shunmugaraj, T.; Vijayan, Anil Kumar; Gupta, G. V. M.

    2015-07-01

    The south eastern Arabian Sea is characterized by moderate coastal upwelling, high biological production and subsurface oxygen depletion during the southwest monsoon (June-September). Concurrently, a seasonal closure to trawling activities (15th June-31st July) is implemented here, as a sustainable ecosystem management practise. The effects of monsoon driven environmental changes and consequences of trawling cessation on macrofauna were assessed, based on surveys at 12 sites (30-200 m) preceding and during different phases of the southwest monsoon. Macrofaunal density and biomass increased considerably towards the mid and late monsoon along the inner shelf (30-50 m) where trawling is intense, while no temporal changes were observed along the outer shelf (100-200 m). Density increased four-folds at the 30 m contour and three-folds at 50 m, while biomass nearly doubled at both depths, reflecting a marked increase in density of polychaetes (61-87% of macrofauna). The disproportionate increase in faunal density and biomass along the inner shelf (30-50 m) was due to abundance of juvenile polychaetes and dominance of small-sized opportunists towards late monsoon (August-September). A concurrent hike in nominal species count of polychaetes was also observed in the study area. The increase in polychaete standing stock and high density of planktonic larvae during onset and peak monsoon, coupled with occurrence of juveniles as well as gamete-bearing adults in sediments, indicates that the southwest monsoon is a peak breeding season for the dominant polychaetes in the region. The trawl-ban during this period facilitates the recoupment of benthos by maximising spawning success and larval settlement, thereby enhancing overall ecosystem integrity.

  19. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  20. What Determines Habitat Quality for a Declining Woodland Bird in a Fragmented Environment: The Grey-Crowned Babbler Pomatostomus temporalis in South-Eastern Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kate P.; Holland, Greg J.; Clarke, Rohan H.; Cooke, Raylene; Bennett, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding what constitutes high quality habitat is crucial for the conservation of species, especially those threatened with extinction. Habitat quality frequently is inferred by comparing the attributes of sites where a species is present with those where it is absent. However, species presence may not always indicate high quality habitat. Demographic parameters are likely to provide a more biologically relevant measure of quality, including a species’ ability to successfully reproduce. We examined factors believed to influence territory quality for the grey-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus temporalis), a cooperatively breeding woodland bird that has experienced major range contraction and population decline in south-eastern Australia. Across three broad regions, we identified active territories and determined the presence of fledglings and the size of family groups, as surrogates of territory quality. These measures were modelled in relation to habitat attributes within territories, the extent of surrounding wooded vegetation, isolation from neighbouring groups, and the size of the neighbourhood population. Fledgling presence was strongly positively associated with group size, indicating that helpers enhance breeding success. Surprisingly, no other territory or landscape-scale variables predicted territory quality, as inferred from either breeding success or group size. Relationships between group size and environmental variables may be obscured by longer-term dynamics in group size. Variation in biotic interactions, notably competition from the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala), also may contribute. Conservation actions that enhance the number and size of family groups will contribute towards reversing declines of this species. Despite associated challenges, demographic studies have potential to identify mechanistic processes that underpin population performance; critical knowledge for effective conservation management. PMID:26098355

  1. Clinical and Molecular Diagnostic Evaluation of Systemic Mastocytosis in the South-Eastern Hungarian Population Between 2001-2013 - A Single Centre Experience.

    PubMed

    Marton, Imelda; Krenács, László; Bagdi, Enikő; Bakos, Annamária; Demeter, Judit; Borbényi, Zita

    2016-04-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a rare chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm with only limited epidemiologic data published so far. We aimed to analyze the clinical and molecular diagnostic features, and the prognosis and cumulative incidence of SM cases in a cohort of south-eastern Hungarian patients of 13 year follow up. In the period 2001-2013, 35 consecutive SM cases were diagnosed in our regional centre. Immunophenotype, KIT D816V mutation frequency and clinical characteristics, and the prognosis impact of clinical subtypes were tested and compared with published data. Indolent SM (ISM) was diagnosed in 14 patients, SM with an associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD) in 15 patients and aggressive SM (ASM) in 6 patients. The KIT D816V mutation was found in 11/14 (78 %) of the ISM cases, in 12/15 (80 %) of the SM-AHNMD cases and in 5/6 (83 %) of the ASM cases. The life expectancy of ISM patients was better, whereas the SM-AHNMD and ASM groups exhibited a reduced median survival. The cumulative incidence for 13 year of the SM was 0.27/10,000. We detected lower 13 year cumulative SM incidence than of published epidemiologic data due to in our analyses involved only those patients who had bone marrow biopsy and histopathologically confirmed SM. This clinical overview clearly showed that the clinical characteristics differ between ISM (UP, anaphylaxis and osteoporosis) and SM-AHNMD/ASM (cytopenia, eosinophilia and splenomegaly). PMID:26545382

  2. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts, as derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, AD 1751-1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2011-12-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period AD 1751-1900. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), and flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  3. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi E; Forsyth, David M; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G; Nimmo, Dale G; Lumsden, Lindy F

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  4. Lithospheric influences on magma compositions of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic intraplate basalts (the Older Volcanics) of Victoria, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Richard C.; Nicholls, Ian A.; Day, Arthur

    2014-10-01

    Basaltic volcanism, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and extending across the southern part of the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia was initiated during the earliest stages of rifting associated with opening of the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean. Volcanism has continued sporadically since that time with major breaks in activity occurring between 77 and 62 Ma and 18 and 7 Ma. Basaltic rocks with ages in the range 95 to 18 Ma occur in small lava fields scattered across eastern and south-eastern Victoria and they have also been recovered from bore holes in the west of the state. They have been referred to as the “Older Volcanics” to differentiate them from more volumetrically extensive and younger (mainly < 4.6 Ma) lava fields comprising the “Newer Volcanics” of the Western District Province to the west. Older Volcanics vary in composition from SiO2-undersaturated nephelinites, basanites, basalts and hawaiites through transitional basalts to hypersthene and quartz normative tholeiites. Strontium, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions lie between depleted (DM) and enriched (EM1 and EM2) end member mantle components in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic space. Trace element compositions are generally characterised by enrichment of Cs, Ba, Rb, Th, U, Nb, K and light REE over heavy REE, Ti, Zr and Y and the overall patterns of major and trace element behaviour can be explained in general terms by petrogenetic models involving partial melting of a complex spectrum of mantle compositions with subsequent but limited additional modification by fractional crystallisation with or without assimilation of crust. Among basalts with relatively high Mg# [100 ∗ Mol. MgO/(MgO + FeO) > 65], two distinct end member compositions can be differentiated using primitive mantle normalised extended element patterns. Group 1 basalts have convex upward patterns with enrichment of light over heavy REE and depletion of Rb, Ba, Th and U relative to Nb. Group 2 basalts also have

  5. Petrogenesis of carbonated meta-ultramafic lenses from the Neoproterozoic Heiani ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: A natural analogue to CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlan, Hisham A.; Arai, Shoji; Almadani, Sattam A.

    2015-02-01

    Among a set of peculiar meta-ultramafics, carbonate-orthopyroxenites are observed for the first time in the Heiani ophiolite belt, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. They form massive lensoidal masses up to 50 m long and 20 m wide. The lenses show a marked structural concordance with their neighboring country rocks. The typical country rocks are represented by the following high-grade metamorphic rocks: kyanite-muscovite schists, amphibolites, kyanite-bearing biotite gneisses, migmatites, granite gneisses and mobilizates. The studied carbonate-orthopyroxenites consist mainly of metamorphic orthopyroxene + magnesite, among other metamorphic, relict primary and retrograde secondary minerals. According to primary chromian spinel (Cr#, 0.7-0.84) chemistry and morphology, absence of clinopyroxene and presence of primary mantle olivine (Fo89-91) as relicts in the metamorphic orthopyroxene, the Heiani carbonate-orthopyroxenites seem to have formed from a highly depleted mantle peridotite precursor. At a late collisional stage during the Pan-Africa terrane accretion and the E-W crustal shortening (ca. 650-620 Ma), high-grade (upper amphibolite facies) low-P/high-T regional metamorphism (ca. 660 Ma) accompanied by CO2-metasomatism resulted in formation of the Heiani carbonate-orthopyroxenites. Mostly the carbonate-bearing shelf sediments beneath and/or in juxtaposition with the Heiani ophiolite are considered to be the proven source of the CO2-rich fluids. Although, a mixed sedimentary-mantle C source is not unlikely. A mineral paragenetic correlation with experimental data for the system MgO-SiO2-H2O-CO2 suggests metamorphic conditions consistent with those of the high-grade country rocks; i.e. 630-650 °C, 6-7 kbar (20-23 km depth) and high-XCO2 (0.6-0.7). The CO2-bearing fluids discharging along faults gave rise to regionally widespread carbonate-bearing assemblages. Accordingly, the Heiani carbonate-orthopyroxenites are considered the by-products of natural carbon

  6. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) in south-eastern Mexico: implications for invasion and dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capps, Krista A.; Nico, Leo G.; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Arevalo-Frias, Wendi; Ropicki, Andrew J.; Heilpern, Sebastian A.; Rodiles-Hernandez, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    1. Salinity tolerance is one of several important physiological attributes that determine invasion success and the pattern of dispersal of introduced aquatic organisms. Introduced freshwater fishes able to tolerate elevated salinities have the potential to invade and exploit brackish-water (mixohaline) environments and use estuaries and coastal waters as 'bridges' for dispersing from one coastal river system to another. 2. Several members of the neotropical suckermouth armoured catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) have established non-native populations in inland waters of North and Central America, Asia and islands in the Caribbean, and Pacific and Indian oceans. Loricariids are generally considered to be strictly freshwater; but a few naturally occur in mesohaline habitats. 3.Catch and habitat data from 2004–2005 and 2009–2011 fish surveys in the Grijalva–Usumacinta River delta region (south-eastern Mexico) confirmed that introduced Pterygoplichthys populations established in upstream freshwater sites (where these catfish are abundant) have recently dispersed into downstream oligohaline and mesohaline estuarine habitats. During 2009–2011 surveys, these non-native catfish — tentatively identified as P. pardalis or its hybrids — were found in sites with salinities ranging from 1 to 8 ppt (mean 5.2 ppt). 4.Acute-salinity experiments were conducted with Pterygoplichthys (110–302 mm standard length, N=140) captured in the Grijalva–Usumacinta Basin to determine upper salinity tolerance levels. Tests demonstrated that individuals maintained in salinities of 0.2 ppt were able to survive abrupt (acute) exposure to salinities up to 10 ppt with little mortality over 10 days (240 h experimental endpoint). A few individuals survived abrupt exposure to 11 and 12 ppt for 20 or more hours, although none survived more than a few hours at 16 ppt or greater. 5.These field and experimental results provide quantitative evidence that non

  7. The October 2015 flash - floods in south eastern France: first discharge estimations and comparison with other flash-floods documented in the framework of the Hymex project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payrastre, Olivier; Lebouc, Laurent; Ayral, Pierre Alain; Brunet, Pascal; Delrieu, Guy; Douvinet, Johnny; Dramais, Guillaume; Javelle, Pierre; Johannet, Anne; Adamovic, Marko; Adnes, Cyriel; Cantet, Philippe; Chapuis, Margot; Coutouis, Adrien; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Gonzalez-Sosa, Enrique; Ruin, Isabelle; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Shabou, Saif; Whilhelm, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    On the 3rd of October 2015, an outstanding hydrometeorological event hit the Mediterranean coast in the Alpes-Maritimes region in south-eastern France. Despite this rainstorm event was very short in time (approximatively 2 hours of intense rainfall), it caused a large rainfall accumulation reaching up to 180 mm. Intense flash floods were observed on all rivers of the affected area, including mostly small watersheds of less than 60 km². They caused 21 fatalities and particularly high damages because of the density of urban areas located in the downstream coastal part of the affected area. The towns of Mandelieu, Cannes, and Antibes were particularly affected. On several watersheds, the reported floods seem be the largest observed from human memory, and may therefore become reference events for flood risk prevention. A post event survey was organised in the framework of the Hymex project in order to document the characteristics of the floods which occurred in a large majority on ungauged rivers, and also destroyed some of the existing stream gauges. A total of 36 peak discharge values were estimated, enabling a detailed description of observed hydrological reactions. This dataset confirms the very large peak discharge values, which remain however significantly below the magnitude of other recent floods observed in other regions of France, and below the existing envelope curves. It may also be observed that the magnitude of this new event is relatively close to what was observed in june 2010 in the nearby Var region. These two events, both being among the largest observed locally from human memory, suggest that the position of the envelope curve should be lower in this eastern part of the French Mediterranean coast, if compared to the Cevennes region which fixes up to now the position of the envelope curve for the whole French territory. A rainfall-runoff analysis of this flood is now in progress to confirm that the runoff rates are not particularly high if compared

  8. Evidence of Variscan and Alpine tectonics in the structural and thermochronological record of the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (south-eastern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Spikings, Richard; Wetzel, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a composite crystalline belt within the Eastern European Alpine orogen, outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south. The central parts of this massif (south-eastern Serbia) consist of the medium- to high-grade Lower Complex and the low-grade Vlasina Unit. Outcrop- and micro-scale ductile structures in this area document three major stages of ductile deformation. The earliest stage D1 is related to isoclinal folding, commonly preserved as up to decimetre-scale quartz-feldspar rootless fold hinges. D2 is associated with general south-eastward tectonic transport and refolding of earlier structures into recumbent metre- to kilometre-scale tight to isoclinal folds. Stages D1 and D2 could not be temporally separated and probably took place in close sequence. The age of these two ductile deformation stages was constrained to the Variscan orogeny based on indirect geological evidence (i.e. ca. 408-ca. 328). During this period, the SMM was involved in a transpressional amalgamation of the western and eastern parts of the Galatian super-terrane and subsequent collision with Laurussia. Outcrop-scale evidence of the final stage D3 is limited to spaced and crenulation cleavage, which are probably related to formation of large-scale open upright folds as reported previously. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology was applied on hornblende, muscovite, and biotite samples in order to constrain the age of tectonothermal events and activity along major shear zones. These 40Ar/39Ar data reveal three major cooling episodes affecting the central SMM. Cooling below greenschist facies conditions in the western part of the Vlasina Unit took place in a post-orogenic setting (extensional or transtensional) in the early Permian (284 ± 1 Ma). The age of activity along the top-to-the-west shear zone formed within the orthogneiss in the Božica area of the Vlasina Unit was constrained to Middle Triassic (246 ± 1 Ma). This

  9. Traditional eye medicine use by newly presenting ophthalmic patients to a teaching hospital in south-eastern Nigeria: socio-demographic and clinical correlates

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Boniface Ikenna; Chuka-Okosa, Chimdi Memnofu; Uche, Judith Nkechi

    2009-01-01

    Background This study set out to determine the incidence, socio-demographic, and clinical correlates of Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use in a population of newly presenting ophthalmic outpatients attending a tertiary eye care centre in south-eastern Nigeria. Methods In a comparative cross-sectional survey at the eye clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, between August 2004 - July 2006, all newly presenting ophthalmic outpatients were recruited. Participants' socio-demographic and clinical data and profile of TEM use were obtained from history and examination of each participant and entered into a pretested questionnaire and proforma. Participants were subsequently categorized into TEM- users and non-users; intra-group analysis yielded proportions, frequencies, and percentages while chi-square test was used for inter-group comparisons at P = 0.01, df = 1. Results Of the 2,542 (males, 48.1%; females, 51.9%) participants, 149 (5.9%) (males, 45%; females, 55%) used TEM for their current eye disease. The TEMs used were chemical substances (57.7%), plant products (37.7%), and animal products (4.7%). They were more often prescribed by non-traditional (66.4%) than traditional (36.9%) medicine practitioners. TEMs were used on account of vision loss (58.5%), ocular itching (25.4%) and eye discharge (3.8%). Reported efficacy from previous users (67.1%) and belief in potency (28.2%) were the main reasons for using TEM. Civil servants (20.1%), farmers (17.7%), and traders (14.1%) were the leading users of TEM. TEM use was significantly associated with younger age (p < 0.01), being married (p < 0.01), rural residence (p < 0.01), ocular anterior segment disease (p < 0.01), delayed presentation (p < 0.01), low presenting visual acuity (p < 0.01), and co-morbid chronic medical disease (p < 0.01), but not with gender (p = 0.157), and educational status (p = 0.115). Conclusion The incidence of TEM use among new ophthalmic outpatients at UNTH is low

  10. Utilization of airborne gamma ray spectrometric data for geological mapping, radioactive mineral exploration and environmental monitoring of southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.; Elkhodary, Shadia T.

    2013-12-01

    The present work utilizes airborne gamma ray spectrometric data in a trial to refine surface geology of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, detect any radioactive mineralization and monitor environment at southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. This area is mainly covered with igneous rocks (younger granites, older granites, metasediments, metavolcanics, metagabbro, Tertiary basalt and ring complex), metamorphic rocks as well as sedimentary rocks (Um Barmil Formation, Timsah Formation, Abu Aggag Formation and wadi sediments). Airborne gamma ray spectrometry can be very helpful in mapping surface geology. This provides estimates of the apparent surface concentrations of the most common naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as potassium (K), equivalent uranium (eU) and equivalent thorium (eTh). This is based on the assumption that, the absolute and relative concentrations of these radioelements vary measurably and significantly with lithology. The composite image technique is used to display simultaneously three parameters of the three radioelement concentrations and their three binary ratios on one image. The technique offers much in terms of lithological discrimination, based on colour differences and showed efficiency in defining areas, where different lithofacies occur within areas mapped as one continuous lithology. The integration between surface geological information and geophysical data led to detailing the surface geology and the contacts between different rock units. Significant locations or favourable areas for uranium exploration are defined, where the measurements exceed (X + 2S), taking X as the arithmetic mean of eU, eU/eTh and eU/K measurements and S as the standard deviation corresponding to each variables. The study area shows the presence of four relatively high uraniferous zones. These zones cannot be ignored and need further ground follow-up. In addition, the trend analysis based on the three radioelement maps and

  11. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) in the period 1751-1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, K.; Brázdil, R.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrometeorological extremes always influenced human activities and caused great material damage or even loss of human lives. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. In order to create long-term series of hydrometeorological extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information for their study before 1850. In this study, written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900. The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, and the impacts on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860. The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), and flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about

  12. The dynamics of grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus) off Amrum in the south-eastern North Sea — evidence of an open population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Kai F.; Hoyer, Nils; Koch, Lothar; Adelung, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus) have been extinct in the south-eastern North Sea for centuries. Only in recent decades have they re-established a few colonies, the first of which was located on a group of sand bars off the German island of Amrum. Based on frequent counts from aircraft and boats in 1976-2000, and a photo-identification program in 1997, we investigated seasonal dynamics, trends in abundance, pup production, and pup survival in this population. Numbers of hauled-out seals were highest in spring, with a peak of 70-100 in late March or early April, and usually lower than 40 from late May to late January, including the winter breeding season. Both spring and summer counts indicated an average increase of 4-5% per year. Annual pup production was 3-10 in 1988-1995 and 9-13 in 1996-1999, suggesting a breeding stock of only about half the minimum total population size, i.e. 137 individually recognised seals in 1997. The estimated survival of pups until weaning seemed high enough to support autochthonous increase, and hence suggested a self-sustaining breeding stock at least until the late 1990s. Pup survival declined, however, from 95-100% in 1988-1991 to 60-70% in 1992-1999, probably due to erosion of the sand bars. From (i) the relative excess of hauled-out seals in spring, as compared to the phenology of stocks in the western North Sea, (ii) turnover and net loss of individuals during the spring and summer of 1997, as indicated by photo-ID records, and (iii) the low apparent per capita birth rate, we suggest that grey seals off Amrum split into a resident breeding stock and a similar or higher number of seals immigrating outside the breeding season. The latter may originate from larger colonies in the southern and western North Sea, and return there for breeding. In the future, grey seals currently breeding off Amrum may eventually leave the area because of deteriorating conditions. However, a decline of numbers occurring in spring and summer would not

  13. Barium variation in Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) otoliths: A potential indicator of migration between an embayment and ocean waters in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamer, Paul A.; Jenkins, Gregory P.; Coutin, Patrick

    2006-07-01

    Chronological variation in otolith chemistry can be used to reconstruct migration histories of fish. The use of otolith chemistry to study migration, however, requires knowledge of relationships between the chemical properties of the water and elemental incorporation into otoliths, and how water chemistry varies in space and time. We explored the potential for otolith chemistry of snapper, Pagrus auratus, to provide information on movement history between a large semi-enclosed bay, Port Phillip, and coastal waters in south-eastern Australia. Comparisons of water chemistry across two years demonstrated that ambient barium (Ba) levels in Port Phillip Bay were approximately double those in coastal waters (11 μg L -1 versus 6 μg L -1). Ba levels in otolith margins of wild juvenile snapper were highly positively correlated with ambient levels across 17 sampling locations, and levels in otolith margins of adult snapper collected from Port Phillip Bay were approximately double those of snapper collected in coastal waters. Mean partition coefficients for Ba ( DBa) were similar for juvenile (0.43) and adult (0.46) otoliths, suggesting that otolith Ba incorporation relative to ambient levels was similar across life-stages. Low Ba variation across otoliths from adult snapper maintained in tanks for three years indicated that annual temperature and/or growth cycles did not strongly influence otolith Ba variation. We concluded that chronological Ba variation in snapper otoliths would be a reliable proxy for life-history exposure to variable ambient Ba. We used water chemistry data and Ba levels across otoliths of ocean resident snapper to estimate otolith Ba levels indicative of residence in Port Phillip Bay (>10 μg g -1) or coastal waters (<6 μg g -1). Peaks in Ba exceeding 10 μg g -1 were common across otoliths of snapper collected in Port Phillip Bay and a nearby coastal region. The location of strong Ba peaks within otoliths was consistent with residence in Port

  14. Role of vegetation cover on soil water balance in two Mediterranean areas: semiarid and dry at southeastern of Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, Àngela; Ruiz, Samantha; Chirino, Esteban; Bellot, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Water is a limited resource in the semiarid areas, which affects both, the population services, the economic growth, like the natural ecosystems stability. In this context, an accurate knowledge of soil water balance and role of the vegetation cover contribute to improve the management of resources water and forest. These studies are increasingly important, if we consider the latest Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In this paper the main objectives were focused on:(1)To determine the soil water balance on two different climatic conditions, semiarid and dry climate and(2) Assess the effect of vegetation (structure and cover) on soil water balance under the studied climatic conditions. For this purpose we used HYDROBAL ecohydrological model, which calculates at a daily resolution the water flows through of the vegetation canopy, estimates daily soil moisture and predicts deep drainage from the unsaturated soil layer into the aquifer. In order to achieve these objectives, we have selected two sites in the south-eastern of Spain, on soils calcareous and different climatic conditions. Ventós site in a semiarid Mediterranean area and Confrides site in a dry Mediterranean area, with 303 and 611 mm of annual precipitation respectively. Both sites, the predominant vegetation are afforestations with Pinus halepensis on dry grasslands with some patches of thorn shrublands and dwarf scrubs; but it show difference on trees density, cover and height of pines.Soil water balance was determined in each site using HYDROBAL ecohydrological model on one hydrological year (October 2012 and September 2013).Model inputs include climatic variables (daily rainfall and temperature), as well as soil and vegetation characteristics (soil field capacity, soil wilting point, initial soil water content and vegetation cover index). Model outputs are interception, net rainfall, runoff, soil water reserves, actual evapotranspiration, direct percolation, and deep

  15. Improving the climate safety of workers in Almería-type greenhouses in Spain by predicting the periods when they are most likely to suffer thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Callejon-Ferre, Angel Jesus; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco; Diaz-Perez, Manuel; Carreno-Sanchez, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The humidex and wind-chill indices were used to determine the periods in which labourers working in Almería-type greenhouses in southeastern Spain are most likely to suffer conditions able to induce heat and cold stress. Over 500,000 pieces of data for wet and dry bulb temperatures and relative humidity, recorded over a period in excess of five years by a weather station located in an Almería-type greenhouse containing a grass crop, were used in the calculation of these indices. The wind-chill index results showed cold stress never to be a problem, but the humidex index results showed that conditions under which heat stress could develop were common in the warmer months. A clock diagram was produced showing the hours when heat stress is likely to occur in each month of the year. This information could be used to improve the conditions of labourers working in this type of greenhouse; some ways of reducing their exposure to heat stress-inducing conditions are discussed. PMID:20850108

  16. On the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin basin (SE-Spain): Towards comprehensive understanding for effective remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, J.; Solé-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.

    2009-04-01

    During the last two decades, the Guadalentin basin in south-eastern Spain has been the study area for many national- and international studies dealing with land degradation and desertification. One of the reasons for such a broad interest in the Guadalentin basin is that land degradation is generally considered severe in large parts of the basin due to a combination of the Mediterranean climate characterised by dry summers followed by intense autumn rainfall, steep topography that marks most parts of the landscape, and fragile soils on erodible lithologies. The main types of degradation are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. Moreover, triggered by various political and socioeconomic drivers, important land use and management changes have taken place over the last centuries, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. Examples of such changes are large-scale land abandonment, a shift from dryland cereals production to large almond plantations, large scale land levelling for irrigated horticulture and urban expansions, and several types of agricultural subsidies. Numerous publications have been produced based on works done to address land degradation in the Guadalentin. However, until now there is no concise and integrated overview of what has been done and what is still missing regarding the study of the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation and conservation. This is in fact crucial to assist policy makers in making decisions that would effectively navigate land management in the area to a sustainable way. Here, we aim to provide such an overview by listing and discussing the main studies performed in this area, and by providing an integrated synthesis of the main physical- and socioeconomic factors identified in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. In overall, there has been a strong

  17. Are regional projections of extreme sea levels based on uncertain future MSL scenarios reliable? A case study for the south-eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, S.; Mudersbach, C.; Jensen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recently a number of authors applied a method (offset method) to combine observations of present sea level extremes with projections of future sea level rise during the 21st century. The method provides a technique for estimating potential future exceedence probabilities based on the assumption that both variability and trends of extreme sea levels have been and will be driven by changes in MSL. This assumption has been confirmed for quasi-global (Woodworth et al. 2011) and regional data-sets (Marcos et al. 2009). However, if the assumption fails, the application of the method will result in large inaccuracies. In the present study, records from 13 tide gauges located in the German Bight, a part of the south-eastern North Sea, are investigated. Time series of extreme high sea levels, covering a period from 1900 to 2008, are analyzed relative to simultaneous changes in MSL. For that purpose in a first step only extreme sea levels have been analyzed, while in a second step MSL time series have been subtracted from the extremes to prove the evidence of trend and variability differences. The results point to a significantly stronger increase in extreme sea levels during the second half of the 20th century. While in the first half of the 20th century the evolution of extreme sea levels follows changes in MSL, in the second half a significant rise with values between 10 and 60 cm per century relative to the MSL has been observed. The divergent development varies seasonally. The largest deviations between extreme sea levels and the MSL have been detected during Season 1 [January to March], while considerably smaller but statistically significant changes have been observed during the remaining seasons. An investigation of reanalyzed datasets from the 20th century reanalysis project (20thCR) shows that large parts of the observed deviations are in phase with simultaneous changes in the local zonal extreme wind conditions and only small deviations remain. Using the above

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of cv. Tempranillo phenology and grape quality within the Ribera del Duero DO (Spain) and relationships with climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. C.; Jones, G. V.; Yuste, J.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze spatial phenology and grape quality variability related to the climatic characteristics within the Ribera del Duero Designation of Origin (DO). Twenty plots planted with cv. Tempranillo and distributed within the DO were analyzed for phenology from 2004 to 2013. Grape quality parameters at ripening (berry weight, sugar content, acidity and pH, and anthocyanins) were analyzed in 26 plots for the period 2003-2013. The relationships between phenology and grape parameters with different climatic variables were confirmed with a multivariate analysis. On average, bud break was April 27th, bloom June 17th, and veraison August 12th. However, phenology during the time period showed high variability, with differences between years of up to 21 days for a phenology stage. The earliest dates were observed in dry years (2005, 2006, and to a lesser degree in 2009) while the later phenology dates occurred in the wettest year of the period (2008). High correlations were found between veraison date and temperature variables as well as with precipitation-evapotranspiration recorded during the bloom-veraison period. These effects tended to be higher in the central part of the DO. Grape quality parameters also showed high variability among the dry and the wet years, and the influence of extreme temperatures on color development as well as the effect of available water on acidity were observed.

  19. Quantitation of major allergens in dust samples from urban populations collected in different seasons in two climatic areas of the Basque region (Spain).

    PubMed

    Echechipía, S; Ventas, P; Audícana, M; Urrutia, I; Gastaminza, G; Polo, F; Fernández de Corres, L

    1995-06-01

    We present the results of allergen content evaluation in 80 dust samples from 31 homes of atopic patients from two climatic areas (humid and subhumid), collected in two seasons of the year (autumn and winter). Monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays were used to quantify Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, Lep d 1, and Fel d 1. The results were compared according to climate, season, and the type of sensitization (Pyroglyphidae mites, storage mites, or grass pollens). We underline the predominance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (89% of samples) over D. farinae (16% of samples) in our environment. Der p 1 rates were higher in the humid area (Mann-Whitney P < 0.001), especially in the autumn (Wilcoxon P < 0.05). Lep d 1 was detected in 23% of samples and Lep d 1 levels were higher in the homes of patients sensitized to storage mites (Mann-Whitney P < 0.05), whereas this allergen was not detected in the homes of pollen-allergic patients. Fel d 1 was detected in nine of the 31 homes (16% of samples) although there was a cat in only one home. PMID:7573840

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of cv. Tempranillo phenology and grape quality within the Ribera del Duero DO (Spain) and relationships with climate.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M C; Jones, G V; Yuste, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze spatial phenology and grape quality variability related to the climatic characteristics within the Ribera del Duero Designation of Origin (DO). Twenty plots planted with cv. Tempranillo and distributed within the DO were analyzed for phenology from 2004 to 2013. Grape quality parameters at ripening (berry weight, sugar content, acidity and pH, and anthocyanins) were analyzed in 26 plots for the period 2003-2013. The relationships between phenology and grape parameters with different climatic variables were confirmed with a multivariate analysis. On average, bud break was April 27(th), bloom June 17(th), and veraison August 12th. However, phenology during the time period showed high variability, with differences between years of up to 21 days for a phenology stage. The earliest dates were observed in dry years (2005, 2006, and to a lesser degree in 2009) while the later phenology dates occurred in the wettest year of the period (2008). High correlations were found between veraison date and temperature variables as well as with precipitation-evapotranspiration recorded during the bloom-veraison period. These effects tended to be higher in the central part of the DO. Grape quality parameters also showed high variability among the dry and the wet years, and the influence of extreme temperatures on color development as well as the effect of available water on acidity were observed. PMID:25906047

  1. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis - The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events.

    PubMed

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A; Longares, Luis A; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  2. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis – The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A.; Longares, Luis A.; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  3. The glaciers of Sierra Segundera (Zamora, NW Spain) during their Maximum Ice Extent: area, volume, Glacial Equilibrium Line Altitude and paleo-climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, Jose; Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    the ELAs, which are different from the values obtained by the methods mentioned above. AABR and AAR are shown to be the most reliable methods as they do not depend on the conservation level of geomorphological features. The estimated paleoELA in our case study is in an intermediate position between those estimated in nearby glaciers of the same type during the MIE in the Serra da Estrela and la Sierra de Béjar, at 1650 and 2010 m. The contrast is more difficult, however, with the Cordillera Cantábrica, with ELAs ranging from 1100 to 2000 m, depending on orientation. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain

  4. The end of scarcity? Water desalination as the new cornucopia for Mediterranean Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Hug; Saurí, David; Rico-Amorós, Antonio M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we explore the new orientation taken by Spanish water policy since the beginning of the 21st century and very specifically the shift towards desalination as an alternative to other water supply options such as river regulation or inter-basin water transfers. Desalination has been seen as the cure for everything that dams and inter-basin water transfers were unable to solve, including droughts, scarcities, social conflicts, environmental impacts, and political rivalries among the different Spanish regions. Desalination also means a new and powerful element in water planning and management that could provide water for the continuous expansion of the urban and tourist growth machine in Mediterranean Spain and thus relax possible water constraints on this growth. However, by 2012 most new desalination plants along the Mediterranean coast remained almost idle. Focusing on the case of the Mancomunidad de los Canales del Taibillla in South-eastern Spain, our aim is to develop a critical, integrated and reflexive perspective on the use of desalination as a source of water for urban and regional growth.

  5. Fluvial system response to abrupt climate change: sedimentary record example of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the South-Pyrenean foreland basin, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Castelltort, Sebastien; Foreman, Brady; Hassenruck-Gudipati, Hima J.

    2015-04-01

    The "Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum" (PETM), is understood to be an extreme and short-lived (ca.150-220kya) global warming event that occurred 55.8 million years ago and during which global annual temperatures are estimated to have increased by ca. 5-8°C, with respect to sea surface temperatures and ca. 4-5°C, with respect to the deep sea. A remaining outstanding question is: in addition to the global increase in temperature, how was precipitation perturbed during the event, and how did fluvial surface processes respond to the perturbation? In the southern Spanish Pyrenees, the Paleocene succession of the Tremp-Graus Basin is made up of the Talarn (Danian) and Esplugafreda (Thanetian) red bed formations. The Esplugafreda section is composed of approximately 250m of reddish paleosols and contains numerous lenticular bodies of calcareous conglomerates, which are interpreted as braided channels. The Esplugafreda Formation is overlain by the Claret Conglomerate -- an extensive sheet-like unit which ranges in thickness between 1m and 4m of clast-supported calcareous conglomerate and pebbly calcarenites and is interpreted as marking the fluvial response to a dramatic climate change, in the form of the transformation of a braided river and floodplain system into an enormous conglomeratic braided plain (formed over at least 2000km2 conservatively) due to dramatic change in the hydrologic cycle. The conglomerate unit ends abruptly and is overlaid by fine-grained yellowish soils which are mainly made up of silty mudstones with abundant small size carbonate nodules suggesting another shift in the hydrological cycle after the PETM. Here we present paleo-channel geometry and grain size data collected in the southern Pyrenees (Tremp, Aren, and Serraduy sections) that we invert to reconstruct paleoflow conditions during the Paleocene and during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Event. We confront paleohydraulic results with sea level, isotope and lithological records in order to

  6. Neotectonic stress field of the south-eastern East European platform as related to the Late Alpine collision deformation of the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Mikhail L.; Kolesnichenko, Aleksei; Vassiliev, Nikita; Mostryukov, Alexandre

    2013-04-01

    In the south-eastern East European platform and Urals, as well as the young Scythyan platform, the Late Alpine collision deformations are widely spread. First of all, these are crumbled aulacogen covers (the Azov Sea, Dnieper-Donets, and Pachelma aulacogens). In some places the covers were dislocated conformably with platform basements but commonly they were partly detached from it with formation of inversion foldbelts (such as the Donets coal basin in the Alpine stage, Saratov and Kerensk-Chembar dislocations). Basements of some anteclises (the Voronezh, Tokmovo, and Volga-Urals ones) dividing the aulacogens were also involved into deformations. There the greatest upthrusting of basement onto cover can be observed (e.g., the Zhigouli upthrust). In general the thrusting and folding occurred during the Early Miocene-Quaternary, with its periodicity strictly corresponding to that of the Late Alpine tectonic phases in the Greater Caucasus: Early Miocene (the H. Stille,s Styrian phase), terminal Miocene-initial Pliocene (the Attic and Rhodanian phases), Eo-Pleistocene (the Valachian phase). Beside the synchronous occurrences, there are some other evidences of relation of intraplate deformations to the Arabia-Eurasa collision in its Caucasian region: (i) sublatitudinal (up to WNW-ESE strike) orientation of the intraplate upthrusts and folds, (ii) wide distribution of structurally manifested strike-slip zones as well as similarity in orientation and location between the right and left strike-slips considered with those of the Greater Caucasus: domains of the formers are built up to the north the domains of the latters, (iii) directed southward increasing basement involvement into the neotectonic deformations. For example, in the Donets-Azov region a basement neotectonic megafold was imposed not only onto Donets Herzinian foldbelt but also on the Precambrian basement of the Rostov high of the Ukrainian shield. To some extent, this megafold resembles a northern wing of the

  7. Metal and metalloid concentrations in the tissues of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters, and the implications for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jann M; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Bowling, Alison C; Christidis, Les

    2015-03-15

    Shark fisheries have expanded due to increased demand for shark products. As long-lived apex predators, sharks are susceptible to bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids, and biomagnification of some such as Hg, primarily through diet. This may have negative health implications for human consumers. Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn were analysed in muscle, liver and fin fibres (ceratotrichia) from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters. Concentrations of analytes were generally higher in liver than in muscle and lowest in fin fibres. Muscle tissue concentrations of Hg were significantly correlated with total length, and >50% of sampled individuals had concentrations above Food Standards Australia New Zealand's maximum limit (1 mg kg(-1) ww). Arsenic concentrations were also of concern, particularly in fins. Results warrant further investigation to accurately assess health risks for regular consumption of shark products. PMID:25656241

  8. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians.

    PubMed

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3. PMID:27106481

  9. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3.

  10. Combining Climatic Projections and Dispersal Ability: A Method for Estimating the Responses of Sandfly Vector Species to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Dominik; Moeller, Philipp; Thomas, Stephanie M.; Naucke, Torsten J.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Old World, sandfly species of the genus Phlebotomus are known vectors of Leishmania, Bartonella and several viruses. Recent sandfly catches and autochthonous cases of leishmaniasis hint on spreading tendencies of the vectors towards Central Europe. However, studies addressing potential future distribution of sandflies in the light of a changing European climate are missing. Methodology Here, we modelled bioclimatic envelopes using MaxEnt for five species with proven or assumed vector competence for Leishmania infantum, which are either predominantly located in (south-) western (Phlebotomus ariasi, P. mascittii and P. perniciosus) or south-eastern Europe (P. neglectus and P. perfiliewi). The determined bioclimatic envelopes were transferred to two climate change scenarios (A1B and B1) for Central Europe (Austria, Germany and Switzerland) using data of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM. We detected the most likely way of natural dispersal (“least-cost path”) for each species and hence determined the accessibility of potential future climatically suitable habitats by integrating landscape features, projected changes in climatic suitability and wind speed. Results and Relevance Results indicate that the Central European climate will become increasingly suitable especially for those vector species with a current south-western focus of distribution. In general, the highest suitability of Central Europe is projected for all species in the second half of the 21st century, except for P. perfiliewi. Nevertheless, we show that sandflies will hardly be able to occupy their climatically suitable habitats entirely, due to their limited natural dispersal ability. A northward spread of species with south-eastern focus of distribution may be constrained but not completely avoided by the Alps. Our results can be used to install specific monitoring systems to the projected risk zones of potential sandfly establishment. This is urgently needed for adaptation

  11. Spain to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  12. Generation of high-resolution wind fields from the dense meteorological station network WegenerNet in South-Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Christoph; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Fuchsberger, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    To investigate weather and climate on a local scale as well as for evaluating regional climate models (RCMs) the Wegener Center at the University of Graz established the long-term field experiment WegenerNet Feldbach region, a dense grid of 153 meteorological stations. The observations of these stations are managed by an automatic WegenerNet Processing system. This system includes a quality check of collected observations and a Data Product Generator (DPG), among other subsystems. Products already implemented in the DPG are gridded weather and climate products, generated from the main parameters temperature, precipitation and relative humidity (Kirchengast et. al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 227-242, 2014). Missing elements are gridded wind fields from wind observations. Wind is considered as one of the most difficult meteorological variables to model and depends on many different parameters such as topography and surface roughness. Therefore a simple interpolation can only be performed in case of uniform characteristics of landscape. The presentation introduces our method of generation of wind fields from near real-time observations of the WegenerNet. Purpose of this work is to provide a database with 3D wind fields in a high spatial and time resolution as addition to the existing products, for evaluating convection permitting climate models as well as investigating weather and climate on a local scale. Core of the application is the diagnostic California Meteorological Model (CALMET). This model computes 3D wind fields based on meteorological observational data, a digital elevation model and land use categories. The application generates the required input files from meteorological stations of the WegenerNet Feldbach region and triggers the start of the CALMET model with these input files. In a next step the modeled wind fields are stored automatically every 30 minutes with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 m in the WegenerNet database. To verify the

  13. Health and vitality assessment of two common pine species in the context of climate change in southern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sicard, Pierre; Dalstein-Richier, Laurence

    2015-02-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is expected to be more strongly affected by ongoing climate change than most other regions of the earth. The South-eastern France can be considered as case study for assessing global change impacts on forests. Based on non-parametric statistical tests, the climatic parameters (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, global radiation) and forest-response indicators (crown defoliation, discoloration and visible foliar ozone injury) of two pine species (Pinus halepensis and Pinus cembra) were analyzed. In the last 20 years, the trend analyses reveal a clear hotter and drier climate along the coastline and slightly rainier inland. In the current climate change context, a reduction in ground-level ozone (O{sub 3}) was found at remote sites and the visible foliar O{sub 3} injury decreased while deterioration of the crown conditions was observed likely due to a drier and warmer climate. Clearly, if such climatic and ecological changes are now being detected when the climate, in South-eastern France, has warmed in the last 20 years (+0.46–1.08 °C), it can be expected that many more impacts on tree species will occur in response to predicted temperature changes by 2100 (+1.95–4.59 °C). Climate change is projected to reduce the benefits of O{sub 3} precursor emissions controls leading to a higher O{sub 3} uptake. However, the drier and warmer climate should induce a soil drought leading to a lower O{sub 3} uptake. These two effects, acting together in an opposite way, could mitigate the harmful impacts of O{sub 3} on forests. The development of coordinated emission abatement strategies is useful to reduce both climate change and O{sub 3} pollution. Climate change will create additional challenges for forest management with substantial socio-economic and biological diversity impacts. However, the development of future sustainable and adaptive forest management strategies has the potential to reduce the vulnerability of forest species to climate

  14. Test Reviewing in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  15. “Pressured to prescribe” The impact of economic and regulatory factors on South-Eastern ED physicians when managing the drug seeking patient

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sharon; Johnson, Giffe T.; Harbison, Raymond D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to elicit the opinions of Emergency Department (ED) physicians, currently practicing in the United States, regarding the impact of economic and regulatory factors on their management of patients exhibiting “drug seeking” behavior. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study, utilizing a convenience sample of ED physicians located in Florida and Georgia was conducted for a period of 2 months. The inclusion criteria specified that any ED physician, currently practicing within the United States, could participate. Results: Of the ED physicians surveyed (n = 141), 71% reported a perceived pressure to prescribe opioid analgesics to avoid administrative and regulatory criticism and 98% related patient satisfaction scores as being too highly emphasized by reimbursement entities as a means of evaluating their patient management. Rising patient volumes and changes in the healthcare climate were cited by ED physicians as impacting their management of patients exhibiting “drug seeking” behavior. Conclusions: The ED physician faces unique challenges in changing healthcare and economic climates. Requirements to address pain as the “fifth vital sign,” patient satisfaction based reimbursement metrics and an economically driven rise in ED patient volume, may have inadvertently created an environment conducive to exploitation by prescription opioid abusers. There is an identified need for the development of continuing medical education and standardized regulatory and legislative protocols to assist ED physicians in the appropriate management of patients exhibiting “drug seeking” behavior. PMID:27162437

  16. Mesoscale convective systems in Spain: instability conditions and moisture sources involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queralt, S.; Hernandez, E.; Gallego, D.; Lorente, P.

    2008-04-01

    Source-receptor water vapor content areas are analyzed for a particular case of deep mesoscale convective system (MCS) developed over the Mediterranean margin of Spain in October 1982. The aim of this work is to study simultaneously the atmospheric instability conditions and water vapour fluxes which finally resulted in very severe precipitation rates, reaching up to 600 mm in a single day. Humidity amounts and transport are quantified along the trajectories computed from a lagrangian particle simulation model (FLEXPART6.2). To evaluate the precipitation probability, the water vapor content and both thermodynamic and dynamic atmospheric instability components were assessed. The October 1982 Iberian MCS occurred as a consequence of a deep cutoff low detected between 500 and 200 hPa levels. The dynamical instability was measured through potential vorticity anomalies and Q vector divergence, which presented their maximum and minimum centers respectively over south-eastern Iberia. Synoptic and dynamic instability conditions were obtained from the ERA-40 reanalysis dataset. It is observed that during this severe weather episode, the specific humidity increased along the lowest and easternmost trajectories, which are mainly spread over the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Active synchronous counterclockwise rotation and northwards translation of Africa toward Eurasia during the Late Cretaceous: A paleomagnetic study on the Alkaline volcanic field of Wadi Natash (ca. 100-86Ma), South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, H.

    2009-04-01

    In order to shed light on the paleo-tectonic movement of Africa during the Late Cretaceous, the two end members of the alkaline volcanic field of Wadi Natash (ca. 100-86Ma) in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt were studied paleomagnetically. The Wadi Natash volcanic field (24.5°N-34.25°E) is made up of a succession of differentiated flows grading from alkali olivine basalt [AOB] to trachyte-phonolite [Tr/Ph]. The oldest flows of the AOB (104±7 Ma) and the youngest Tr/Ph plugs and ring dykes (86Ma) as well as the interflows sandstones [ previously know as Nubian sandstone were sampled allover the field > 400km2. The isothermal remanent magnetization [IRM] study revealed that the remanence in Wadi Natash volcanics reside mainly in magnetite with some subsidiary goethite/hematite sites. On the other hand, goethite/hematite are the sole remanence carriers in the Nubian-type interflow sandstone. After the progressive stepwise thermal demagnetization of all samples, the visual isolation and subsequent calculation of the best-fit line of the characteristic remanence [ChRM] direction of each sample, followed by the calculation of the site and rock-unit means revealed that: 1- In the tilt-corrected coordinates, the mean ChRM of the oldest AOB flows [N=12 sites

  18. Regional hydro-meteorological thresholds for shallow and deep-seated mass movements triggering in the South Eastern French Alps (Queyras, Ubaye, Mercantour)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remaitre, Alexandre; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Rigoudy, Gaëlle

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is recognized worldwide as the main triggering factor of landslides. Numerous studies were conducted in order to (1) define qualitatively the relationships between the precipitations and the triggering or the reactivation of landslides and (2) determine quantitatively the amount of precipitation needed to trigger slopes failures. For rainfall-induced landslides, hydro-meteorological thresholds (expressed in terms of antecedent rain, intensity of the precipitation, soil moisture or ground water levels within the slope) can be defined as the rainfall, soil moisture or hydrological conditions that, when reached or exceeded, are likely to trigger landslides. Usually, the thresholds are based on the analysis of statistical relations among historical landslide catalogues (event dates) and antecedent hydro-meteorological conditions; other approaches based on conceptual or process-based models can also be used in specific cases such as limited information in landslide catalogues. Further, both the large variety of landslide types and the extreme variability of climatic conditions in mountain regions limit the definition of regional relationships between landslide occurrence and the associated hydro-meteorological conditions. The purpose of this work is to propose hydro-meteorological thresholds for the triggering of shallow (slides, debris/mud flows) and deep-seated mass movements for three mountainous massifs regions of the Southeast French Alps (Queyras, Mercantour, Ubaye) characterized by different rainfall patterns. For this purpose, we exploit for each study sites an historical landslide catalogue and rainfall data series to define a typology of rainfall induced-landslides for the relevant landslide types. For the analysis of the triggering of the deep-seated mass movements, slope hydrological time series (ground water levels, soil moisture) and simple water balance models are used to define hydrological thresholds for landslide reactivation. The results of

  19. Health and vitality assessment of two common pine species in the context of climate change in southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Pierre; Dalstein-Richier, Laurence

    2015-02-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is expected to be more strongly affected by ongoing climate change than most other regions of the earth. The South-eastern France can be considered as case study for assessing global change impacts on forests. Based on non-parametric statistical tests, the climatic parameters (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, global radiation) and forest-response indicators (crown defoliation, discoloration and visible foliar ozone injury) of two pine species (Pinus halepensis and Pinus cembra) were analyzed. In the last 20 years, the trend analyses reveal a clear hotter and drier climate along the coastline and slightly rainier inland. In the current climate change context, a reduction in ground-level ozone (O3) was found at remote sites and the visible foliar O3 injury decreased while deterioration of the crown conditions was observed likely due to a drier and warmer climate. Clearly, if such climatic and ecological changes are now being detected when the climate, in South-eastern France, has warmed in the last 20 years (+0.46-1.08°C), it can be expected that many more impacts on tree species will occur in response to predicted temperature changes by 2100 (+1.95-4.59°C). Climate change is projected to reduce the benefits of O3 precursor emissions controls leading to a higher O3 uptake. However, the drier and warmer climate should induce a soil drought leading to a lower O3 uptake. These two effects, acting together in an opposite way, could mitigate the harmful impacts of O3 on forests. The development of coordinated emission abatement strategies is useful to reduce both climate change and O3 pollution. Climate change will create additional challenges for forest management with substantial socio-economic and biological diversity impacts. However, the development of future sustainable and adaptive forest management strategies has the potential to reduce the vulnerability of forest species to climate change. PMID:25577188

  20. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  1. Rock-magnetic signature of precipitation and extreme runoff events in south-eastern Patagonia since 51,200 cal BP from the sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisé-Pronovost, A.; St-Onge, G.; Gogorza, C.; Jouve, G.; Francus, P.; Zolitschka, B.

    2014-08-01

    A 106-m long sediment sequence from the maar lake Laguna Potrok Aike in southern Patagonia was recovered in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Potrok Aike maar lake Sediment Archive Drilling prOject (PASADO). About half of the sedimentary sequence is composed of mass movement deposits (MMDs) and the event-corrected record reaches back to 51,200 cal BP. Here we present a high-resolution rock-magnetic study revealing two sedimentary facies associated with MMDs and characterized by two different types of spurious gyroremanent magnetization (GRM) acquired during static alternating field demagnetization. The first rock-magnetic signature is detected in MMDs composed of reworked sand and tephra material. The signature consists of GRM acquired during demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and other rock-magnetic properties typical of iron sulfides such as greigite. We interpret these intervals as authigenic formation of iron sulfides in suboxic conditions within the MMD. The second rock-magnetic signature consists of a series of 10 short intervals located on the top of MMDs characterized by GRM acquisition during demagnetization of the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM). Based on geological, limnological, stratigraphic and climatic evidence these layers are interpreted as reflecting pedogenic hematite and/or goethite brought to the lake by runoff events related to precipitation and permafrost melt. The pedogenic iron minerals mobilized from the catchment most likely settled out of suspension on top of MMDs after a rapid remobilization event. The series of runoff events corresponds to periods of increased lacustrine productivity in Laguna Potrok Aike and are coeval within the limit of the chronology to warm periods of the Last Glacial as recorded in Antarctica, the deglaciation in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere and enhanced precipitation during the Early Holocene in southeastern

  2. The Triglav Glacier (South-Eastern Alps, Slovenia): Volume Estimation, Internal Characterization and 2000-2013 Temporal Evolution by Means of Ground Penetrating Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gobbo, Costanza; Colucci, Renato R.; Forte, Emanuele; Triglav Čekada, Michaela; Zorn, Matija

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that small glaciers of mid latitudes and especially those located at low altitude respond suddenly to climate changes both on local and global scale. For this reason their monitoring as well as evaluation of their extension and volume is essential. We present a ground penetrating radar (GPR) dataset acquired on September 23 and 24, 2013 on the Triglav glacier to identify layers with different characteristics (snow, firn, ice, debris) within the glacier and to define the extension and volume of the actual ice. Computing integrated and interpolated 3D using the whole GPR dataset, we estimate that at the moment of data acquisition the ice area was 3800 m2 and the ice volume 7400 m3. Its average thickness was 1.95 m while its maximum thickness was slightly more than 5 m. Here we compare the results with a previous GPR survey acquired in 2000. A critical review of the historical data to find the general trend and to forecast a possible evolution is also presented. Between 2000 and 2013, we observed relevant changes in the internal distribution of the different units (snow, firn, ice) and the ice volume reduced from about 35,000 m3 to about 7400 m3. Such result can be achieved only using multiple GPR surveys, which allow not only to assess the volume occupied by a glacial body, but also to image its internal structure and the actual ice volume. In fact, by applying one of the widely used empirical volume-area relations to infer the geometrical parameters of the glacier, a relevant underestimation of ice-loss would be achieved.

  3. The Triglav Glacier (South-Eastern Alps, Slovenia): Volume Estimation, Internal Characterization and 2000-2013 Temporal Evolution by Means of Ground Penetrating Radar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Gobbo, Costanza; Colucci, Renato R.; Forte, Emanuele; Triglav Čekada, Michaela; Zorn, Matija

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that small glaciers of mid latitudes and especially those located at low altitude respond suddenly to climate changes both on local and global scale. For this reason their monitoring as well as evaluation of their extension and volume is essential. We present a ground penetrating radar (GPR) dataset acquired on September 23 and 24, 2013 on the Triglav glacier to identify layers with different characteristics (snow, firn, ice, debris) within the glacier and to define the extension and volume of the actual ice. Computing integrated and interpolated 3D using the whole GPR dataset, we estimate that at the moment of data acquisition the ice area was 3800 m2 and the ice volume 7400 m3. Its average thickness was 1.95 m while its maximum thickness was slightly more than 5 m. Here we compare the results with a previous GPR survey acquired in 2000. A critical review of the historical data to find the general trend and to forecast a possible evolution is also presented. Between 2000 and 2013, we observed relevant changes in the internal distribution of the different units (snow, firn, ice) and the ice volume reduced from about 35,000 m3 to about 7400 m3. Such result can be achieved only using multiple GPR surveys, which allow not only to assess the volume occupied by a glacial body, but also to image its internal structure and the actual ice volume. In fact, by applying one of the widely used empirical volume-area relations to infer the geometrical parameters of the glacier, a relevant underestimation of ice-loss would be achieved.

  4. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The seasonality of woody plants in cold and temperate climates is adapted to the annual course of temperature and photoperiod in order to maximise the length of the active growing season and, at the same time, avoid damages by frost events, especially by late spring frosts. Winter chilling, spring warming and finally photoperiod trigger the timely bud burst of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) which as a climax species is quite sensitive to winter frost and also as seedling to late spring frosts. However, due to relatively late and less varying dates of leaf unfolding, damages by late spring frosts should not occur each year. In case of a total loss due to a late frost event, F. sylvatica trees produce a new set of leaves which guarantees survival, but diminishes carbon reserves. With a phenological camera we observed the phenological course of such an extreme event in the Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald in May 2011: Spring leaf unfolding, an almost complete loss of fresh green leaves after the frost event in the night 3rd to 4th May, a subsequent leafless period followed by re-sprouting. We modeled this special leaf development from day 80 to 210, observed as green% from the repeated digital camera pictures, using the Bayesian multiple change point approach recently introduced by Henneken et al. (2013). The results for more than 30 trees predominantly suggested a model with five change points: firstly, start of the season, abrupt ending before the frost event, the loss by the frost event and after a longer period of recovery the second leaf unfolding (St. John's sprout) ending in full leaf maturity. Analyzing the results of these models the following questions were answered (1) how long is the period of recovery till the second green-up? (2) does the temporal course of the second leafing differ from the first one? (3) what are the individual factors influencing damage and recovery? (4) are individuals with early or late bud burst more prone to damage? The five

  5. ISEA (International geodetic project in SouthEastern Alaska) for rapid uplifting caused by glacial retreat: (1) Outline of the project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S.; Sato, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Sun, W.; Freymueller, J. T.; Kaufman, A. M.; Cross, R.

    2006-12-01

    Glaciers at high latitudes are considered to be extremely sensitive to climate change and thus monitoring of glaciers is a clue to evaluate the future effect of global warming and the related phenomena. Ice mass changes also produce a time-variable surface load and give us useful data to investigate subsurface structure of the earth, especially to constrain the flow characteristics of the mantle. Larsen et al. (JGR03, GJI04, EPSL05) have extensively studied on vertical crustal movement in SE Alaska by means of raised shorelines, tide gauge measurements, and GPS to reveal the world's fastest glacial isostatic uplifting, which can be attributed to the response associated with glacier retreat. Displacement data, however, can only be used to constrain the sum of the elastic response to present-day ice melting (PDIM) and the viscoelastic one to past changes in ice. Wahr et al. (GRL95) proposed a method to distinguish the one from the other by combining surface displacement and absolute gravity measurements, though the approach may have limited spatial resolution. A Japan-US joint research project, ISEA (International geodetic research project in SouthEast Alaska), was initiated in 2005 to add new geodetic data sets and to refine the viscoelastic model derived by the previous studies. In June, 2006 three kinds of field work were carried out. Absolute gravity (AG) surveys (Sun et al., this meeting) were performed at five sites in and around Glacier Bay. Gravity tide (GT) observation using Scintrex's CG3M gravimeter was started in the campus of University of Alaska, Southeast (Sato et al., this meeting) to give precise corrections for the effect of ocean tide loading, which are the keys to increase the observation accuracy of AG and GPS,. Finally, new continuous GPS (CGPS) sites were established (Kaufman et al., this meeting) to examine not only the secular uplifting but the possible seasonal variation due to snow loading in the winter and ice loss in the summer. This

  6. Fifteen from one: a revision of the Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866 complex (Teleostei, Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia recognises three previously described taxa and describes 12 new species.

    PubMed

    Raadik, Tarmo A

    2014-01-01

    The systematics of the Galaxias olidus hyper-species complex from freshwater habitats in south-eastern, mainland Australia is revised. Galaxias olidus Günther 1866 is redescribed, Galaxias fuscus Mack 1936 and Galaxias ornatus Castelnau 1873, previously synonymised with G. olidus (sensu lato), are reinstated as valid taxa and redescribed, and 12 taxa are described as new: Galaxias aequipinnis sp. nov., Galaxias arcanus sp. nov., Galaxias brevissimus sp. nov., Galaxias gunaikurnai sp. nov., Galaxias lanceolatus sp. nov., Galaxias longifundus sp. nov., Galaxias mcdowalli sp. nov., Galaxias mungadhan sp. nov., Galaxias oliros sp. nov., Galaxias supremus sp. nov., Galaxias tantangara sp. nov., and Galaxias terenasus sp. nov. These species are morphologically similar and, whilst there is extensive overlap in meristic counts and morphometric characters, each can be diagnosed by unique combinations of characters, including allozyme loci and colour pattern; morphological diagnosis is improved greatly if based on freshly formalin-fixed material. Galaxias schomburgkii Peters 1868, Galaxias bongbong Macleay 1881, Galaxias kayi Ramsay & Ogilby 1886 and Galaxias oconnori Ogilby 1912 are retained as junior synonyms of G. olidus (sensu stricto). The types for Galaxias findlayi Macleay 1882 are lost and no specimens matching its description were collected or examined from the Mt. Kosciuszko region; it is also currently retained as a junior synonym of Galaxias olidus s.s. The species G. terenasus sp. nov. and G. arcanus sp. nov. are the most morphologically specialised in the complex and G. olidus s.s remains the most morphologically variable species. It also remains the most widespread taxon, though its previously known distribution is reduced, particularly in the south-west of its range. Nine species are narrow-range endemics, known from one, or only a few, locations, and these restricted distributions most probably reflect the fragmentation and reduction of former ranges caused

  7. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  8. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  9. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  10. Liver transplantation in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Gloria; Fondevila, Constantino; Navasa, Miquel

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) activity started in Spain in 1984 and has exceeded 23,700 interventions, with more than 1000 transplants performed yearly. Every hospital needs official authorization to perform a LT, which implies the obligation to register all patients on the national waiting list. The Spanish National Transplant Organization (ONT) provides essential support for organ procurement, allocation, and management of the waiting list at a national level. Liver allocation is center-oriented as all available organs are referred to the ONT for the whole country. The allocation rules for LT are made according to disease severity after consensus among professionals from every transplant center and ratified by representatives of the regional health authorities. Authorization and location/distribution of transplant centers are regulated by the country (Spain) and by the different regions according to the Real Decreto 1723/2012. For a total population of 47,850,795 inhabitants, there are 24 centers for LT for adults (1 team/2 million people) and 5 for LT for children (1 team/9.5 million people). Nonbiliary cirrhosis, particularly alcohol- and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis (60%), and tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (19%), are the most common indications for LT in Spain. Unusual causes of LT include metabolic diseases like Wilson's disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and hyperoxaluria type I, polycystic kidney and liver disease, and some tumors (epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and neuroendocrine tumors). Important efforts are now being undertaken to improve the quality and transplantability of extended criteria livers, in particular those arising from DCD, which represent the greatest opportunity to expand the donor pool. These efforts have to be addressed to adapt the organ preservation procedures, be it through the application of regional perfusion in situ or the use of machine perfusion preservation ex situ. Liver Transplantation 22 1259-1264 2016

  11. Negotiated Program Evaluation in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez Brezmes, Maria J.; Carretero, Antonio J.

    A concise overview is provided of the history of evaluation, focusing on educational evaluation, followed by some observations on program evaluation in Spain and possible future developments. Evaluation was a new concept in Spain at the end of the Franco era, at a time when its development was beginning to gain momentum in the United States. The…

  12. Climate change and hydropower generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Peter J.

    1997-07-01

    Many electric utilities use small reservoirs in mountainous regions to generate hydropower to meet peak energy demands. Water input depends on the water budget of the catchment, whereas output depends on user demand, which is influenced by temperature. Hence reservoir performance depends on climatic factors and is sensitive to climate change. A model, based on the systems of Duke Power and Virginia Power in the south-eastern USA, was developed to simulate performance. The annual maximum draw-down of the reservoir, which represents the minimum dam size needed to maintain continuous energy generation, is considered here. The model was tested for four regions in the eastern USA using 1951-1995 observations. The amount of draw-down depended on the linked daily sequences of precipitation and temperature, the former dictating the water available, the latter influencing both evaporation and energy demand. The time and level of the annual extreme emphasized that small changes in the timing of a dry spell had a major impact on the draw-down. Climatic changes were simulated by uniformly increasing temperatures by 2°C and decreasing precipitation by 10 per cent. The resultant draw-down increased from current simulated values by about 10 per cent to 15 per cent with extremes up to 50 per cent. This was of the same order, but in the opposite direction, as the change created by a 10 per cent increase in the efficiency of energy generation. Without such an efficiency increase, many utilities will face the prospect of reduced or less reliable hydroelectric generation if climate changes in the manner examined here.

  13. [Hepatitis C in Spain].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel; Forns, Xavier

    2006-06-17

    Spain has a medium endemicity of hepatitic C infection among central Europe countries and Italy. Prevalence of anti-HCV varies among regions and it ranges from 1.6 to 2.6%, which means that there may be between 480,000 and 760,000 people infected with hepatitis C virus in Spain. The prevalence is very low in people under 20 years of age and it increases from age 30 years. Prisoners and drug addicts have the highest infectious rates, between 40 and 98%. Some populations of immigrants also have a high prevalence of HCV infection, especially people from Asia and sub-Saharan countries, whereas people from Latin America have rates lower than those in the autochtones population. Spanish people with chronic hepatitis C were mainly infected via blood transfusions, IV drug use, or during some medical and surgical hospitalization. The reduction in the use of IV drugs and the programs of needle sharing, as well as the eradication of post-transfusional hepatitis, have led to a progressive reduction in the incidence of new infections (from 6.8 per 100,000 in-habitants in 1997 to 2.3 in 2003). Preliminary data suggest that an important rate of new hepatitis C cases owe to nosocomial transmission. Transmission is almost exclusively vertical in children. In spite of a two-third reduction of incident cases of hepatitis C in Spain in last few years, it is foreseeable that the number of patients with advanced HCV liver disease attended in the health-care system will increase in forthcoming years. This is due to the fact that many, still undiagnosed patients will be likely recognized for the first time as a result of some complication of the disease. All efforts to increase the screening of hidden cases of hepatitis C in primary health-care centers, allowing a prompt treatment before an advanced stage, will have a beneficial impact both in economic and social terms. PMID:16828003

  14. Habitat Fragmentation in Arid Zones: A Case Study of Linaria nigricans Under Land Use Changes (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñas, Julio; Benito, Blas; Lorite, Juan; Ballesteros, Miguel; Cañadas, Eva María; Martinez-Ortega, Montserrat

    2011-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to human activities is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss. In Mediterranean areas the species have co-evolved with traditional farming, which has recently been replaced for more severe and aggressive practices. We use a methodological approach that enables the evaluation of the impact that agriculture and land use changes have for the conservation of sensitive species. As model species, we selected Linaria nigricans, a critically endangered plant from arid and semiarid ecosystems in south-eastern Spain. A chronosequence of the evolution of the suitable habitat for the species over more than 50 years has been reconstructed and several geometrical fragmentation indices have been calculated. A new index called fragmentation cadence (FC) is proposed to quantify the historical evolution of habitat fragmentation regardless of the habitat size. The application of this index has provided objective forecasting of the changes of each remnant population of L. nigricans. The results indicate that greenhouses and construction activities (mainly for tourist purposes) exert a strong impact on the populations of this endangered species. The habitat depletion showed peaks that constitute the destruction of 85% of the initial area in only 20 years for some populations of L. nigricans. According to the forecast established by the model, a rapid extinction could take place and some populations may disappear as early as the year 2030. Fragmentation-cadence analysis can help identify population units of primary concern for its conservation, by means of the adoption of improved management and regulatory measures.

  15. Tornadoes and severe storms in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayà, Miquel

    2011-06-01

    A climatology of tornadoes, waterspouts, and straight winds linked to convection in Spain is presented. The database is divided into three periods according to the main source of information. The three distributions of severe weather are very sensitive to the sources of information, much more than to a possible change in climate. The early period, up to 1825, comprises cases that contain the real facts together with spurious inputs such as religion, myths, beliefs, etc, mixed in an unknown proportion. The period between 1826 and 1975, and the most recent one, up to 2009, enable us to observe geographical and temporal variations as a function of societal changes. The analysis of temporal and geographical distributions allows us to frame the risk in the face of severe storms, and the changes in their perception and management that have come about over time. Although the most recent tornadoes have been weak or strong, the Cádiz tornado of 1671 demonstrates that an extremely rare and violent event can occur in Spain. The large number of victims claimed by this tornado makes it one of the most important in the world.

  16. Aleppo pine afforestation in the Massis del Caroig, Eastern Spain. The impact on soil water repellency and infiltration rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Jordán, Antonio; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    organic matter content and the production of water repellent substances by the vegetation. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Barbera, V., Poma, I., Gristina, L., Novara, A., Egli, M. 2012. Long-term cropping systems and tillage management effects on soil organic carbon stock and steady state level of C sequestration rates in a semiarid environment. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 82- 91. Bellot, J., Maestre, F. T., Chirino, E., Hernández, N., de Urbina, J. O. 2004. Afforestation with< i> Pinus halepensis reduces native shrub performance in a Mediterranean semiarid area. Acta oecologica, 25(1), 7-15. Cerdà, A. & Doerr, S.H. 2007. Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils. Hydrological Processes, 21, 2325-2336. (doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.010) Cerdà, A. y Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256- 263. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00027-9 Chirino, E., Bonet, A., Bellot, J., Sánchez, J. R. 2006. Effects of 30-year-old Aleppo pine plantations on runoff, soil erosion, and plant diversity in a semi-arid landscape in south eastern Spain. Catena, 65(1), 19-29. García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A.,Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., Caravaca. F. 2010. Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil and Tillage Research 109, 110-115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A

  17. Modelling climate impact on water in Australia: issues, methods and uncertainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiew, F. H.

    2010-12-01

    Australia is going through a significant period of water reform. The increasing demand for water for cities, industries, irrigation and the environment, and the current prolonged drought in southern Australia and predictions of a drier future are putting immense pressure on water resources. The management challenge in Australia is compounded by the low runoff coefficient and high river flow variability in Australia compared to elsewhere in the world. To underpin water planning and management, several large modelling studies to assess historical and future water availability were recently completed. This paper will discuss the different methods that can be used to estimate future water availability. Simple rules of thumb based on climate elasticities of streamflow and Budyko-type energy and water balance equations can be used for data limited regions or where only mean annual estimates are required. More detailed studies will combine projections from global and regional climate models, methods to downscale climate model projections to catchment-scale climate series and hydrological models that properly consider potential changes in dominant hydrological processes in a warmer, drier and higher CO2 environment. This paper will show that the largest uncertainty in predicting future water availability is in the projections of regional climate, in particular rainfall. For example, there is little agreement between the different global climate models on the direction of change in rainfall in the northern half of continental Australia. However, over the highly populated and important agricultural regions of south-eastern Australia, a large majority of climate models indicate a drier future. The median result from hydrological modelling with future climate projections from more than 20 global climate models indicate that averaged across south-eastern Australia, there will be 10 percent less water (range of result from -30 percent to +10 percent) for a 1oC global warming

  18. Seismic response to power production at the Coso Geothermal field, south-eastern CA: using operational parameters and relocated events to study anthropogenic seismicity rates and reservoir scale tectonic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajoie, L. J.; O'Connell, D. R.; Creed, R. J.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    The United States is increasing its dependence on renewable energies and with that has come an interest in expanding geothermal operations. Due to the proximity of many existing and potential geothermal sites to population centers and seismically active regions, it is important to understand how geothermal operations interact with local (and regional) seismicity, and to determine if seismicity rates are predictable from operational parameters (i.e. fluid injection, production, and net fluid extraction) alone. Furthermore, geothermal injection and production strategies can be improved by identifying, locating and characterizing related earthquakes within the tectonic related background seismicity. As the geothermal production related seismic source focal mechanisms, moment, and location are better characterized, important pragmatic questions (such as the improvement of injection strategies and 3-d thermohydromechanical model validation) and research issues (such as the relationship between far field seismic signals, local rheology changes, and native state reservoir stress evolution as a function of injection and production transients) can be more systematically addressed. We focus specifically on the 270 MW Coso geothermal field in south-eastern California, which is characterized by both high seismicity rates and relatively high aftershock triggering. After performing statistical de-clustering of local seismicity into background and aftershock rates, we show that the background rate (at both the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal fields) can be approximated during many time intervals at the 90% + confidence level by a linear combination of injection volume and the net extracted volume (difference between production and injection). Different magnitude ranges are sampled to determine if the response is constant with respect to magnitude. We also use relative relocations and focal mechanisms from Yang et al. (2012) to map fault planes within the Coso geothermal field. We

  19. Modeling the Martian Atmosphere with the LMD Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Lebonnois, S.; Madeleine, J.-B.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Montabone, L.; Spiga, A.; Hourdin, F.; Lefevre, F.; Montmessin, F.; Lewis, S. R.; Read, P.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Gilli, G.

    2008-11-01

    The Global Climate Model developed at LMD (Paris) in collaboration with IAA (Spain), AOPP and the OU (UK) has been improved. It is used for many applications (water, dust, CO2, radon cycles, photochemistry, thermosphere, ionosphere, etc.).

  20. Detection and attribution of flood trends in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillan, David; Garrote, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Flood frequency analyses usually assume stationarity in observed series. However, non-stationarity assumptions question the results of traditional flood frequency analyses. Several factors can cause either trends or abrupt changes in flood time series, such as climate change, wildfires, volcanic eruptions, land-use changes, anthropogenic actions or relocation of gauging stations. Most of trend studies in Spain have been focused on annual, seasonal and monthly flows, which can be applied to water resources and droughts management. Nevertheless, a few local studies have analysed trends in floods in Spain at instantaneous or daily scales. A study to detect flood trends regarding magnitude, frequency and timing is carried out in Spain at a larger spatial scale. A representative hydrological network of gauging stations where near-natural flow regimes can be considered was obtained. Both annual maximum and peak over threshold series were extracted. Three periods of time were selected: 1942-2009, 1949-2009 and 1959-2009, to account for a smaller data set with a longer temporal scale and vice versa. The Mann-Kendall test was used to detect trends in flood series. An attempt to relate detected flood trends to precipitation trends was conducted. As result, a general decreasing trend in magnitude and frequency of floods was detected throughout Spain. Regarding flood timing, floods tend to occur later in the northwest of Spain. Most of flood trends in magnitude could be related to decreasing trends in precipitation and changes that modify rainfall-runoff processes at the catchment scale. Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge support from the MODEX project (CGL2011-22868) "Physically-based modelling for characterisation of extreme hydrologic response under a probabilistic approach. Application to dam safety analysis and optimisation of reservoir operation during floods", funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness.

  1. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  2. Determining optimum climate drivers for weather risk projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Erik; Kilian, Markus; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    In spite of the exponential increase of available data, the uncertainties of projections of weather variability, especially at local scale, have not decreased. This poses important challenges for the design of weather risk management strategies in various vulnerable sectors such as energy or agricultural production. This paper focuses on a two step methodology to enable projection of local weather risk in future climate scenarios. First, we focus on the optimum selection of drivers of regional weather patterns in order to project local weather variability risk estimates in future climate scenarios. This is carried out through the use of stochastic downscaling enabling conditional modelling of pixel-level distributions of weather variables as a function of inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability drivers. Secondly, a statistical and physically-based climate model selection methodology is developed in order to produce a sub-ensemble of inter-annual and decadal variability drivers dataset that allows accurate and robust projection of weather variability. The case study of South Eastern Africa will be used. Datasets retrieved from CMIP5 repository in three RCP scenarios (historical, 8.5 and 2.5) are used as well as observed historical weather data.

  3. In Spain, Inbreeding Threatens Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    With 25 years of teaching experience at Spain's top-ranked veterinary school, 58 articles in prestigious international journals, and numerous patents to her name, Victoria Lopez Rodas would be a strong candidate for any academic job in her field. So when she took a national qualifying examination for a full professorship in animal science last…

  4. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Sonia Vázquez; Berciano, José M.; Nicolás, Olga; López, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodríguez; Setién, Álvaro Aguilar; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus. PMID:23648051

  5. Comparison of water-level, extensometric, DInSAR and simulation data for quantification of subsidence in Murcia City (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, S.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Herrera, G.; Tomás, R.; Ramondini, M.; Sanabria, M.; Duro, J.; Mulas, J.; Calcaterra, D.

    2016-02-01

    Subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation has been recognized in the metropolitan area of Murcia (25 km2) in south-eastern Spain since the early 1990s. Previous published works have focused their attention on land subsidence that occurred during the drought period between 1995 and 2008. This work first analyzes the groundwater recovery that has occurred since 2008 and then determines the kind of associated ground deformation detected by the new extensometric data. Subsequently, subsidence time series are computed on 24 geotechnical boreholes scattered throughout the study area by means of a hydro-mechanical finite element code and a linear-elastic constitutive law. A spatio-temporal interpolation of the numerically modeled surface displacements is performed over the whole domain and compared with extensometers and DInSAR-derived displacement maps in two different periods: the drought period from 2004 to 2008, and the recovery period from 2008 to 2012. In spite of the limited information on the geomechanical parameters characterizing the modelled geological formations, the proposed approach is able to discriminate areas where the soils have an elastic behavior (small differences in the comparisons) or an elasto-plastic behavior (large differences in the comparisons). This zonation enhances the understanding of the subsidence phenomenon in Murcia City and could prevent, from a quantitatively point of view, future severe subsidence due to aquifer overexploitation.

  6. Comparison of water-level, extensometric, DInSAR and simulation data for quantification of subsidence in Murcia City (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessitore, S.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Herrera, G.; Tomás, R.; Ramondini, M.; Sanabria, M.; Duro, J.; Mulas, J.; Calcaterra, D.

    2016-05-01

    Subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation has been recognized in the metropolitan area of Murcia (25 km2) in south-eastern Spain since the early 1990s. Previous published works have focused their attention on land subsidence that occurred during the drought period between 1995 and 2008. This work first analyzes the groundwater recovery that has occurred since 2008 and then determines the kind of associated ground deformation detected by the new extensometric data. Subsequently, subsidence time series are computed on 24 geotechnical boreholes scattered throughout the study area by means of a hydro-mechanical finite element code and a linear-elastic constitutive law. A spatio-temporal interpolation of the numerically modeled surface displacements is performed over the whole domain and compared with extensometers and DInSAR-derived displacement maps in two different periods: the drought period from 2004 to 2008, and the recovery period from 2008 to 2012. In spite of the limited information on the geomechanical parameters characterizing the modelled geological formations, the proposed approach is able to discriminate areas where the soils have an elastic behavior (small differences in the comparisons) or an elasto-plastic behavior (large differences in the comparisons). This zonation enhances the understanding of the subsidence phenomenon in Murcia City and could prevent, from a quantitatively point of view, future severe subsidence due to aquifer overexploitation.

  7. Anophelism in a Former Malaria Area of Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Marí, Rubén; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: A field study on diversity and distribution of anophelines currently present in a past endemic malaria area of Spain was carried out in order to identify possible risk areas of local disease transmission. Methods: Multiple larval sites were sampled from June to October of 2011 in the Region of Somontano de Barbastro (Northeastern Spain). The sampling effort was fixed at 10 minutes which included the active search for larvae in each biotope visited. Results: A total of 237 larval specimens belonging to four Anopheles species (Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, An. maculipennis and An. petragnani) were collected and identified. Conclusions: Malaria receptivity in the study area is high, especially in the area of Cinca river valley, due to the abundance of breeding sites of An. atroparvus very close to human settlements. Although current socio-economic conditions in Spain reduce possibilities of re-emergence of malaria transmission, it is evident that certain entomological and epidemiological vigilance must be maintained and even increased in the context of current processes of climate change and globalization. PMID:24409440

  8. Climate Twins - a tool to explore future climate impacts by assessing real world conditions: Exploration principles, underlying data, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loibl, Wolfgang; Peters-Anders, Jan; Züger, Johann

    2010-05-01

    useful Climate Twins regions search. The Climate Twins tool works actually comparing future climate conditions of a certain source area in the Greater Alpine Region with current climate conditions of entire Europe and the neighbouring southern as well south-eastern areas as target regions. A next version will integrate web crawling features for searching information about climate-related local adaptations observed today in the target region which may turn out as appropriate solution for the source region under future climate conditions. The contribution will present the current tool functionally and will discuss which indicator sets, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges work best to deliver scientifically sound climate comparisons and distinct mapping results.

  9. Environmental engineering education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years. PMID:15193100

  10. Hydraulics of sub-superficial flow constructed wetlands in semi arid climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, E

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of the hydraulics of two constructed wetland (cw(s)) plants located in Apulia (the South Eastern Italy region characterized by semi arid climate conditions). These fields were planted with Phragmites australis hydrophytes and are supplied with local secondary wastewater municipal treatment plant effluent. Each plant--Kickuth Root-Zone method based--covers an area of approx. 2,000 m2. The evapotranspiration phenomenon has been evaluated within perforated tubes fixed to the field bottom and very high values--up to 40 mm/d--were found. Hydraulic conductivity has been evaluated by in situ measurements at different field points. Hydraulic gradients and the piezometric curve within the field are also reported. PMID:12793661

  11. Response of wheat yield in Spain to large-scale patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Barrera, Sara; Rodriguez-Puebla, Concepcion

    2016-04-01

    Crops are vulnerable to extreme climate conditions as drought, heat stress and frost risk. In previous study we have quantified the influence of these climate conditions for winter wheat in Spain (Hernandez-Barrera et al. 2015). The climate extremes respond to large-scale atmospheric and oceanic patterns. Therefore, a question emerges in our investigation: How large-scale patterns affect wheat yield? Obtaining and understanding these relationships require different approaches. In this study, we first obtained the leading mode of observed wheat yield variability to characterize the common variability over different provinces in Spain. Then, the wheat variability is related to different modes of mean sea level pressure, jet stream and sea surface temperature by using Partial Least-Squares, which captures the relevant climate drivers accounting for variations in wheat yield from sowing to harvesting. We used the ERA-Interim reanalysis data and the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (SST) (ERSST v3b). The derived model provides insight about the teleconnections between wheat yield and atmospheric and oceanic circulations, which is considered to project the wheat yield trend under global warming using outputs of twelve climate models corresponding to the Coupled Models Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Hernandez-Barrera S., C. Rodríguez-Puebla and A.J. Challinor. Effects of diurnal temperature range and drought on wheat yield in Spain. Theoretical and Applied Climatology (submitted)

  12. Effects of diurnal temperature range and drought on wheat yield in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Barrera, S.; Rodriguez-Puebla, C.; Challinor, A. J.

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to provide new insight on the wheat yield historical response to climate processes throughout Spain by using statistical methods. Our data includes observed wheat yield, pseudo-observations E-OBS for the period 1979 to 2014, and outputs of general circulation models in phase 5 of the Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for the period 1901 to 2099. In investigating the relationship between climate and wheat variability, we have applied the approach known as the partial least-square regression, which captures the relevant climate drivers accounting for variations in wheat yield. We found that drought occurring in autumn and spring and the diurnal range of temperature experienced during the winter are major processes to characterize the wheat yield variability in Spain. These observable climate processes are used for an empirical model that is utilized in assessing the wheat yield trends in Spain under different climate conditions. To isolate the trend within the wheat time series, we implemented the adaptive approach known as Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. Wheat yields in the twenty-first century are experiencing a downward trend that we claim is a consequence of widespread drought over the Iberian Peninsula and an increase in the diurnal range of temperature. These results are important to inform about the wheat vulnerability in this region to coming changes and to develop adaptation strategies.

  13. Modeling soil organic carbon stocks and changes in Spain using the GEFSOC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Easter, Mark; Cantero-Martínez, Carlos; Paustian, Keith

    2010-05-01

    Currently, there is little information about soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Spain. To date the effects of land-use and soil management on SOC stocks in Spain have been evaluated in experimental fields under certain soil and climate conditions. However, these field experiments do not account for the spatial variability in management, cropping systems and soil and climate characteristics that exist in the whole territory. More realistic approaches like ecosystem-level dynamic simulation systems linked to geographic information systems (GIS) allow better assessments of SOC stocks at a regional or national level. The Global Environmental Facility Soil Organic Carbon (GEFSOC) system was recently built for this purpose (Milne et al., 2007) and it incorporates three widely used models for estimating SOC dynamics: (a) the Century ecosystem model; (b) the RothC soil C decomposition model; and (c) the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method for assessing soil C at regional scales. We modeled 9.5 Mha in northeast Spain using the GEFSOC system to predict SOC stocks and changes comprising: pasture, forest, cereal-fallow, cereal monoculture, orchards, rice, irrigated land and grapes and olives. The spatial distribution of the different land use categories and their change over time was obtained from the European Corine database and from Spanish census data on land use from 1926 to 2007. At the same time, current and historical management information was collected from different sources in order to have a fairly well picture of changes in land use and management for this area. Soil parameters needed by the system were obtained from the European soil map (1 km x 1 km) and climate data was produced by the Meteorology State Agency (Ministry of the Environment and Rural and Marine Environs of Spain). The SOC stocks simulated were validated with SOC values from the European SOC map and from other national studies. Modeled SOC results suggested that spatial

  14. Not so deserted…paleoecology and human subsistence in Central Iberia (Guadalajara, Spain) around the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yravedra, José; Julien, Marie-Anne; Alcaraz-Castaño, Manuel; Estaca-Gómez, Verónica; Alcolea-González, Javier; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Lécuyer, Christophe; Marcel, Claude Hillaire; Burke, Ariane

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to the coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula, the Upper Palaeolithic settlement of central Iberia, dominated by the Spanish plateau, is poorly known. Traditional models assume a total or virtual depopulation of the interior of the Iberian Peninsula during the Last Glacial. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of human-environment interactions through the first zooarchaeological, taphonomic and isotopic study of the key site of Peña Capón, a rock shelter located in the south-eastern foothills of the Central System range that contains a multi-layered deposit dated to marine isotope stage 2 (MIS 2). Analyses of the faunal assemblages of the Proto-Solutrean (3) and Middle Solutrean (2) layers show that human preferentially hunted horse, deer and iberian ibex living in the vicinity of the rock shelter. Isotope geochemistry of the animal remains of Peña Capón provides us with the first detailed intra-tooth multi-proxy analysis for this time period in south-western Europe, providing estimates of climatic conditions, seasonal flucturation of diet, as well as patterns of seasonal mobility. Our results indicate that human presence at Peña Capón was apparently restricted to relatively warm intervals around the LGM or reflects the presence of an ecological refuge, and provide us with evidence of recurrent human presence in the Iberian interior during the Upper Paleolithic prior to the Magdalenian.

  15. Use of Seasonal Forecasts for Dams Management in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voces, Jose; Sanchez, Eroteida; Navascues, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Camino, Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    This presentation describes the potential use of seasonal climate predictions for water management in Spain. Given the low skill provided by seasonal forecasting systems based on the current operational models, and after analyzing the response to the climate drivers at different time scales for selected river basins in Spain, a two steps empirical forecasting technique has been developed and tested as a pilot study in the framework of the Euporias project. In the first step the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index is forecasted from the observed Eurasian Snow Advance Index in October taking advantage of the high correlation between them. Then, a synthetic probability distribution function is generated to sample the NAO index in order to assess the forecasting uncertainty. In the second step, a KNN algorithm is used to retrieve a set of reservoir inflows associated with each of the NAO index samples. The final result is an ensemble of possible scenarios (reservoir inflows) which are used as input for the water allocation decision support models.

  16. Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes As climate change has been considered a research priority in the European Strategy for enduring development , I have done a detailed research with my students of the new climate change that has been going on in Romania for the past decade. More precisely I have studied together with my students the phenomenon of tornadoes that have seriously affected on some occasions some our our country's locations, such as Facaeni, in the county of Ialomita, in August 2002. A quite unusual phenomenon occurred on that location situated at 44.56 degrees northern latitude and at 27.89 degrees eastern longitude, that caused severe damage to the local environment and three persons lost their lives in the process, as well as other thirty people suffering from bad injuries. The magnitude of that strong phenomenon rose on the Fujita scale at level F3 which implied wing gusts between 252-300 km/ hour . A main cause of occurrence of such a severe weather was the difference in temperature of two huge air masses, one of Polar origin, and other coming from tropical latitudes . Their crossroads was on that precise territory of Romania. The duration of the worst part of the tornado path lasted only for two minutes, but the consequences of its passage were colossal : total destruction of 33 households, and other 395 were partially damaged, 1,000 people afflicted by the devastation and 100 acres of acacia tree forest ripped off the ground. The first ever recorded tornado phenomenon in Romania was around 1894-1896, considered at that time " a freak of nature" was seen as a cloud formation abnormality , an uncontrolled force of nature that had a huge impact , and at the same time, it vanished into "thin air " fast. The most affected areas in Romania by tornadoes are the south-eastern planes where the cloud formations can create fast columns of air rotating up to 500 km/hour. The local people compared the cloud funnels created on the planes to "serpents

  17. Understanding Antarctic Climate and Glacial History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeConto, Rob; Escutia, Carlota

    2010-01-01

    First Antarctic Climate Evolution Symposium; Granada, Spain, 7-11 September 2009; Antarctic Climate Evolution (ACE; http://www.ace.scar.org), a scientific research project of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research and a core International Polar Year project, held its first international symposium in Spain in September 2009. ACE's mission is to facilitate the study of Antarctic climate and glacial history through integration of numerical modeling with geophysical and geological data. Nearly 200 international scientists from the fields of climate, ocean, and ice modeling joined geologists, geophysicists, and geochemists for 5 days of intense interaction. Oral sessions were plenary and were limited to allow time for poster viewing, discussion, and workshops (http://www.acegranada2009.com/).

  18. [Criminologic problems of political change in Spain].

    PubMed

    Gómez, A S

    1981-01-01

    In this article the Author considers the modern-day and historical situation as regards the administration of justice in Spain, pausing to make a particularly careful analysis of those crimes whose rate of increase, over the past few years, has been the greatest. He runs back over the various stages of Spain's recent history: from the period preceding Franco's regime, during which a multiplicity of criminological theories were developed by Spanish authors, leading to the creation of a school of jurisprudence, in which theory and practice tended toward seeking a balance between freedom and security; through the period of the dictatorship, in which there was a tightening-up of the preceding trend, with a definite predisposition towards security, whether within the State or external to it (to be noted--the Author observes--is that this security in reality is not a guarantee of the lives and liberties of the citizens, but rather only a safeguarding of the State from attacks on its supremacy and power); to the successive period of the democracy, which came about without cruel and revolutionary upsets, but nonetheless has felt for many years the effects of the preceding political climate; criminality is increasing considerably, but the administration of justice is not able to soundly and accurately evaluate it, it having functioned at only 45% efficiency--or so says the Author--up until 1978: the imbalances in the society that can be seen in its passage through the various political regimes are, therefore, present too in the field of criminality; this, in fact, is apparently decreasing (since crimes against the external and internal security of the State are decreasing, as the number of convictions are decreasing); but in reality this criminality is undergoing a strong evolutionary movement, due more than anything else to the fact that the tendency is to give priority to liberty, and no longer to security, as is true in fact of every democratic regime. Even in 1978, when

  19. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  20. Cotton and Climate Change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ton, P.

    2012-04-01

    Cotton & Climate change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt. Climate change will have major impacts on cotton production and trade depending on production location. This report to be presented analyses the impacts of climate change on cotton production and trade in the main producing areas world-wide, and the options available to mitigate and to adapt to these impacts. Cotton production is both a contributor to climate change and subject to its impacts. Agricultural production, processing, trade and consumption contribute up to 40% of the world's emissions when forest clearance is included in the calculation. Cotton production contributes to between 0.3% and 1% of total global GHG emissions. Cotton has a certain resilience to high temperatures and drought due to its vertical tap root. The crop is, however, sensitive to water availability, particularly at the height of flowering and boll formation. Rising temperatures favour plant development, unless day temperatures exceed 32°C. New production areas may be established where cotton was not grown before. Increases in atmospheric CO2 will also favour plant development. In turn, increased pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges. Overall, the negative impacts of climate change on cotton production relate to the reduced availability of water for irrigation, in particular in Xinjiang (China), Pakistan, Australia and the western United States. Heat stress risks creating depressed yields in Pakistan in particular, while in other countries limited increases in temperatures could favour cotton plant growth and lengthen the cotton growing season. The impacts of climate change on rainfall will likely be positive in the Yellow River area (China), in India, the south-eastern United States and south-eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Impacts on rainfall in Brazil and West and Central Africa are unclear. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change in cotton production, as in agriculture

  1. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    PubMed

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. PMID:25242173

  2. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Recent reforms affecting every aspect of Spain's educational system are reviewed in this report. The first part presents the observations of three educators from other European countries ("The Examiners' Report"). Part 2 is a "Record of the Review Meeting" held in Paris in December of 1985 10 months after the examiners' visit to Spain. Questions…

  3. The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Clifford J.

    A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of flamenco…

  4. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  5. The Politics of Language: Spain's Minority Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic and legal framework in Spain and its attempts to define nationhood and a collective identity that encompasses its three major linguistic minority groups. The four major language groups of Spain are discussed with regard to official language policy and legislation. Article 3 of the 1978 Spanish constitution was…

  6. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  7. Phylogeography of the Cape velvet worm (Onychophora: Peripatopsis capensis) reveals the impact of Pliocene/Pleistocene climatic oscillations on Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    McDonald, D E; Daniels, S R

    2012-05-01

    Habitat specialists such as soft-bodied invertebrates characterized by low dispersal capability and sensitivity to dehydration can be employed to examine biome histories. In this study, the Cape velvet worm (Peripatopsis capensis) was used to examine the impacts of climatic oscillations on historical Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa. Divergence time estimates suggest that the P. capensis species complex diverged during the Pliocene epoch. This period was characterized by dramatic climatic and topographical change. Subsequently, forest expansion and contraction cycles led to diversification within P. capensis. Increased levels of genetic differentiation were observed along a west-to-south-easterly trajectory because the south-eastern parts of the Cape Fold Mountain chain harbour larger, more stable fragments of forest patches, have more pronounced habitat heterogeneity and have historically received higher levels of rainfall. These results suggest the presence of three putative species within P. capensis, which are geographically discreet and genetically distinct. PMID:22409213

  8. Spatiotemporal fuzzy based climate forecasting for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, M.; Vervoort, R. W.; Minasny, B.; McBratney, A.

    2012-12-01

    Variation in weather and climate events impacts agriculture production processes, and profits across years. Therefore, seasonal rainfall prediction is an important factor for strategic and tactical decision making in agricultural, land and water resource management. This study aims to apply optimal data-driven techniques for fine resolution climate classification and forecasting over South-eastern Australia. Data were used in this study were included daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature data collected over 40 years from 107 weather stations in Southeast Australia acquired from the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). Fuzzy-k means clustering techniques (FKM) were applied on one year weekly time series. Cluster centroids and memberships of rainfall and temperature weekly time series for one year period provide meaningful and insight into weather variability in time and space over the study. Stations are grouped based on their memberships in rainfall and temperature classes. The result showed that FKM is a useful method for trend analysis and pattern discovery in space and time. Outcomes indicate improvement in the climate classification of the area at the station level. An associate project is gathering higher spatial density on-farm data. This high-resolution climate data collected at the farm scale will be analyzed similarly in the future to improve spatial resolution of our classification. The second stage of this study consists of development of a fine-resolution forecasting model for predicting rainfall. FKM was applied on a metrics which included input and output time series to extract rules and relationships between them. After classification, rules were extracted within each class based on forecasting time, space and extreme climate events followed by effective sea surface temperature anomalies. These rules and a lookup table of input and output centroids were used for rainfall prediction in the form of weekly time series for the next six months. One

  9. Environmental impact from mountainous olive orchards under different soil-management systems (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Francia Martínez, José R; Durán Zuazo, Víctor H; Martínez Raya, Armando

    2006-04-01

    Soil erosion, runoff and nutrient-loss patterns over a two-year period (1999-2000) were monitored in erosion plots on a mountainside with olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual) trees under three different types of soil management: (1) non-tillage with barley (Hordeum vulgare) strips of 4 m width (BS); (2) conventional tillage (CT); (3) non-tillage without plant strips (NT). The erosion plots, located in Lanjaron (Alpujarras) on the southern flank of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in south-eastern Spain, had 30% slope at an altitude of 565 m and 192 m(2) (24x8 m) in area. The highest erosion and runoff values, ranging from 10.5 to 40.7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and from 26.5 to 51.5 mm yr(-1), respectively, over the entire study period, were measured under NT. In CT, erosion ranged from 1.0 to 10.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and runoff from 6.7 to 15.2 mm yr(-1), while under BS, erosion ranged from 1.7 to 2.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and runoff from 19.6 to 20.0 mm yr(-1). It is concluded that the BS and CT reduced the soil erosion by 92% and 78%, with respect to the NT, and the runoff by 49% and 72%, respectively. The total NPK losses (sediments and runoff) from BS averaged 0.87, 0.07 and 0.72 kg ha(-1), from CT 1.82, 0.11 and 0.97 kg ha(-1) and from NT 3.15, 0.29 and 2.45 kg ha(-1), respectively. In addition, nutrient concentrations in the surface runoff were higher than the recommended level for standard water quality for N-NO(3), N-NH(4) and soluble P, particularly from NT and CT. These results support the recommendation of non-tillage with barley strips for sloped agricultural land in order to reduce erosion and pollution. PMID:15990157

  10. Projecting the range of potential future climate change as an aid in the assessment of the effectiveness of the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, K.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program was organized to develop an in-place disposal capability for low-level nuclear waste for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in south-eastern Washington. Layered earthen and engineered barriers are being developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory that will function in what is presently a semiarid environment (annual precipitation 150 mm) for at least 1,000 yr by limiting the infiltration of water through the waste. The Long-Term Climate Change Task is one of several key barrier tasks. Based on the recommendation of a panel of internationally recognized climate and modeling experts, climatic data for this task is being acquired in a step-wise and multi-disciplinary manner. The specific research strategy includes literature review and specialized studies to obtain pollen-derived climatic reconstruction, documented historic weather patterns, and Global Circulation Model output of potential future climate changes related to both the greenhouse effect and the cycling into the next ice age. The specific goals of the task are to: (1) obtain defensible probabilistic projections of the long-term climate variability in the Hanford Site region at many different time scales into the future, (2) develop several test case climate scenarios that bracket the range of potential future climate, and (3) use the climate scenarios both to test and to model protective barrier performance.

  11. Climate and the eastern repository: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Stenger, Philip J.; Sappington, David E.

    1987-09-01

    We present a comparison of the climate in prospective states or sites under consideration for the eastern repository for high-level nuclear waste in the United States. We found that atmospheric conditions over several south-eastern sites rank lower than the other prospective areas in effective dispersal, as per Federal Register 10CFR 960.5-2-3 (1984). Also, damage rates in North Carolina and Virginia, and death rates in Virginia, from tropical storms and hurricanes exceed those of the other candidate states. These storms, as well as other mechanisms, subject piedmont Virginia and North Carolina to a high frequency of flash flooding. Death rates from all weather-related causes (including winter storms, tornadoes, and weather-related vehicle accidents) are also highest in Virginia and North Carolina. This finding is rather surprising in light of tornado and blizzard frequencies in northern candidate states. Based upon a 20-year study of damage and mortality figures from the US Department of Commerce publication Storm Data for all weather-related causes, Virginia and North Carolina rank highest. If this is taken as a measure of relative compliance with Federal Register “potentially adverse condition” 960.5-2-3[c][2] pertaining to the history of severe weather phenomena in relation to repository siting, then these states are the least favorable from a climatic viewpoint.

  12. Climate Change Impacts on the Future Distribution of Date Palms: A Modeling Exercise Using CLIMEX

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit; Taylor, Subhashni

    2012-01-01

    Climate is changing and, as a consequence, some areas that are climatically suitable for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivation at the present time will become unsuitable in the future. In contrast, some areas that are unsuitable under the current climate will become suitable in the future. Consequently, countries that are dependent on date fruit export will experience economic decline, while other countries’ economies could improve. Knowledge of the likely potential distribution of this economically important crop under current and future climate scenarios will be useful in planning better strategies to manage such issues. This study used CLIMEX to estimate potential date palm distribution under current and future climate models by using one emission scenario (A2) with two different global climate models (GCMs), CSIRO-Mk3.0 (CS) and MIROC-H (MR). The results indicate that in North Africa, many areas with a suitable climate for this species are projected to become climatically unsuitable by 2100. In North and South America, locations such as south-eastern Bolivia and northern Venezuela will become climatically more suitable. By 2070, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and western Iran are projected to have a reduction in climate suitability. The results indicate that cold and dry stresses will play an important role in date palm distribution in the future. These results can inform strategic planning by government and agricultural organizations by identifying new areas in which to cultivate this economically important crop in the future and those areas that will need greater attention due to becoming marginal regions for continued date palm cultivation. PMID:23110162

  13. Modeling a complex system of multipurpose reservoirs under prospective scenarios (hydrology, water uses, water management): the case of the Durance River basin (South Eastern France, 12 800 km2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, Céline; Hendrickx, Frédéric; Samie, René; Sauquet, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Durance River and its main tributary, the Verdon River, are two major rivers located in the Southern part of France. Three large dams (Serre-Ponçon, Castillon and Sainte-Croix) were built on their streams during the second half of the 20th century for multiple purposes. Stored water is used for hydropower, recreational, industry, drinking water and irrigation. Flows are partly diverted to feed areas outside the basin. On average 30 plants located in the Durance and Verdon valleys currently produce a total of 600 million kWh per year, equal to the annual residential consumption of a city with over 2.5 million inhabitants. The Southern part of France has been recently affected by severe droughts (2003, 2007 and 2011) and the rules for water allocation and reservoir management are now questioned particularly in the light of global change. The objective of the research project named "R²D²-2050" was to assess water availability and risks of water shortage in the mid-21st century by taking into account changes in both climate and water management. Therefore, a multi-model multi-scenario approach was considered to simulate regional climate, water resources and water demands under present-day (over the 1980-2009 baseline period) and under future conditions (over the 2036-2065 period). In addition, a model of water management was developed to simulate reservoir operating rules of the three dams. This model was calibrated to simulate water released from reservoir under constraints imposed by current day water allocation rules (e.g. downstream water requirements for irrigation, minimum water levels in the reservoirs during summer time for recreational purposes). Four territorial socio-economic scenarios were also elaborated with the help of stake holders to project water needs in the 2050s for the areas supplied with water from the Durance River basin. Results suggest an increase of the average air temperature with consequences on snow accumulation, snowmelt processes

  14. [Viper bite treatment in Spain].

    PubMed

    Estefanía Díez, M; Alonso Peña, D; García Cano, P; López Gamo, A

    2016-01-01

    Viper snake bite is, by far, the most common ophidian accident in Spain. It is responsible for between 100 and 150 hospitalizations per year in this country, although it is difficult to determine the frequency of emergency admissions due to this cause. The cornerstone to their approach rests on the correct evaluation of the possible effects derived from envenomation and the use of anti-venoms. In spite of all the controversies surrounding the use of anti-venoms, they have become a powerful therapeutic weapon ever since the serum has been highly purified and the great decrease of related anaphylactic reactions. The aim of this article is to update the emergency room procedures when viper bites are suspected, and to clarify the main therapeutic recommendations. PMID:25440968

  15. Is the impact of future climate change on hydro-climatic conditions significant? - A climate change study for an Eastern European catchment area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlik, Dirk; Söhl, Dennis; Bernhofer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The future change of climatic conditions is, among others, closely linked to future hydrological changes. One important aspect of these issues is the question of future availability of water resources. A changed climatic water balance, as indicator for potential water availability, has far-reaching consequences for the water cycle, hydrological conditions, ecology, water management, the energy business, agriculture and forestry, and for anthropogenic use of the river. We generated regional climate projections via dynamic downscaling for the catchment area of the Western Bug river in the border area of Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine. The hydro-climatic conditions of the past and their projected future changes in the catchment were analyzed based on 2m-temperature, precipitation, potential evaporation and climatic water balance. Up to the end of the century, the used IPCC scenarios B1 and A2 lead to warming for each month in the long-term mean, with highest warming rates in winter. Instead, precipitation does not change in the long-term yearly mean. However, the intra-annual distribution of monthly precipitation sums shifts with an increase in winter and a strong decrease in summer. Combined, this leads to a changed climatic water balance with a stronger deficit in summer and a higher gain in winter. Particular in the south-eastern part of the catchment, the summer deficit cannot be compensated within the annual cycle. It raised the question: are these changes statistically significant and thus robust for use in further impact studies? Using a significance analysis, we found, that climatic changes in temperature, precipitation and potential evaporation and thus the climatic water balance change is most significant for scenario A2 from 2071 to 2100. The temperature changes are significant throughout the year. For the other variables changes are most significant in the late summer months (July, August, and September) and the winter months (December, January, and February

  16. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  17. Analysis of the impact of water shortage on irrigated fruit yields in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielza, M.; Maestro, T.; Algarra, A.; Garrido, A.

    2012-04-01

    Fruit production is strongly dependent on irrigation water in Spain. In contrast with annual crops, fruit producers are concerned not only with current year yields but also with future years' production or even with the potential loss of a strong investment in the case of death of the plantation. According to climate change predictions, extreme precipitation events -- floods and droughts -- are likely to increase in the future. This means that there might be a potential demand for hydrological drought insurance among fruit producers. This study tests whether hydrological drought has effectively affected fruit yields in the last 30 years in Spain. Water management decisions are taken in Spain according to drought indicators, called State Indices, established in the Drought Action Plans in the different river basins in Spain. These indicators are mainly based on reservoir stocks and inflows in regulated sub-basins and on river flows in non-regulated sub-basins. However, in some cases they are also based on ground water stocks and on water transfers between basins depending on the case. We analyze the relationship between the State Indices at their lowest levels and the yields of non-citrus fruit (apples, pears, peaches, apricots, plums and cherries) in the most important producing areas in Spain (Cuenca del Ebro, del Segura, del Júcar y del Guadiana). Preliminary results in some of the regions suggest that hydrological drought has caused some yield decrease, but it has not been so far so strong as to compromise fruit plantations. Keywords: Hydrological drought, drought indicators, fruit yields, Spain

  18. Decomposing climate dependency of forest dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lines, Emily

    2016-04-01

    Forest simulation models have proved extremely useful in understanding forest dynamics by scaling from tree-level processes to landscape scales, but typically contain no climate dependency in their subprocesses. Forest inventory databases may be used to investigate the role of climate on tree-level processes, and the climate drivers of geographical ranges of different species, by making a space-for-time substitution. We demonstrate the value of inventory data for determining the climate drivers of forest processes. By scaling up from individual demographic rates using a forest simulation model, parameterised for mainland Spain, we determine the key climate dependencies driving emergent forest properties, allowing defensible predictions of the impacts of climate change.

  19. The summit erosion surfaces of the inner Betic Cordillera: Their value as tools for reconstructing the chronology of topographic growth in southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farines, Bernard; Calvet, Marc; Gunnell, Yanni

    2015-03-01

    Erosion surfaces at the top of mountain ranges have suggested to geomorphologists that the Earth's crust can undergo rapid pulses of uplift during which rates of denudation fail to balance with rates of crustal uplift, thereby preserving much of the initial plateau topography as it rises to greater elevations. Here we analyze a regionally extensive population of mappable planar surfaces, which crown several major, tectonically active sierras of the inner south-eastern Betic Cordillera, SE Spain. Based on a synthesis of long-term landscape evolution involving landform reconnaissance, DEM-based morphometric analysis, structural geology, sediment provenance analysis, and field stratigraphy, we conclude that the summit surfaces are a mosaic of discrete, post-orogenic erosion surfaces that each developed in relation to Mediterranean marine base levels at a time when the sierras formed a series of low-elevation islands. They are not, therefore, fragments of a once regionally continuous paleoplain. The summit surfaces were partly the result of shallow-angle detachment faulting during the middle Miocene in response to lithospheric slab detachment. Where evidence exists that the resulting low-relief topography was reworked by marine abrasion during the Tortonian sea-level rise, the terminal age of the surfaces is latest Miocene. Age-bracketing based on stratigraphic correlations among the many depocentres of the region and on published thermochronological data indicates that some erosion surfaces locally formed in less than 3 million years (~ 8 Ma-5.7 Ma). They were subsequently uplifted to their current elevations (1.7 to > 2 km) by Pliocene to Quaternary neotectonics in at least two major pulses.

  20. Incidence of obliquity and precession-forced Milankovitch cycles in the western Mediterranean: early Messinian sedimentation in the Sorbas Basin (Almería, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Tovar, F. J.; Sánchez-Almazo, I.; Pardo-Igúzquiza, E.; Braga, J. C.; Martín, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Spectral analysis of the Messinian Abad marls in the Cariatiz section (Sorbas Basin, south-eastern Spain) reveals three relevant orders of cyclicity. The most significant cycle is in the lowest frequency (average thickness of 365 cm, 4-5 cycles in the section). It is recorded in the composition of planktic foraminiferal assemblages indicative of surface-water temperature, planktic and benthic stable isotope signals, and carbonate proportions. The planktic assemblages, isotope values and carbonate proportions also record a middle-frequency cycle with an average of 177 cm (9-10 cycles in the section). The highest frequency cycle (average of 132 cm, 12-13 cycles in the section) is mainly reflected in siliciclastic and calcite proportions. Age constraints and cycle patterns suggest that the lowest frequency cycle was forced by orbital obliquity, whereas the two higher-frequency ones are related to precession. Obliquity seems to have controlled major changes in surface-water temperature in the Sorbas Basin during the early Messinian. Surface-water temperature was also affected by precession, with changes in weathering and run-off. Spectral analysis has also been applied to vertical shifts of reef facies throughout the progradation of the Cariatiz reef. This reef is coeval with the Cariatiz section. Vertical shifts of reef talus breccias point to the existence of 4-5 major cycles of sea-level change, whereas 7-9 higher-frequency cycles are reflected in the repeated occurrence of lowstand, non-reefal deposits. Correlation with the cycles observed at the Cariatiz section suggests that obliquity forced glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations in the western Mediterranean during the Late Miocene.

  1. Doctorate nursing degree in Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Montesinos, Mª José; Maciá-Soler, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Analytical and descriptive study of the process of change being experienced in the Spanish university system over the last decade (2005-2014). OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural changes occurring in Nursing Education in Spain, reaching access to doctoral studies from the European Convergence Process and the subsequent legislative development. METHODOLOGY: Bibliographical review of royal decrees and reference literature on the subject of study and descriptive analysis of the situation. RESULTS: Carries various changes suffered in the curricula of nursing education in the last decade, the legislation of the European Higher Education sets the guidelines for current studies of Masters and Doctorates. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the Master and Doctorate stages after a basic degree, which is now possible with the new legislation. A formal beginning made of scientific nursing in order to generate their own lines of research led by Doctors of nursing who can integrate in research groups under the same condition as other researcher, yet now, from the nursing discipline itself. PMID:26312628

  2. Climate as a driver of phenological change in southern seabirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Dann, Peter; Cannell, Belinda; Woehler, Eric J.

    2014-05-01

    Seabirds are one of the most threatened groups of birds globally and, overall, their conservation status is deteriorating rapidly. Southern hemisphere countries are over-represented in the number of species of conservation concern yet long-term phenological data on seabirds in the southern hemisphere is limited. A better understanding of the implications of changes in the marine and terrestrial environments to seabird species is required in order to improve their management and conservation status. Here we conducted a meta-analysis of the phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere seabirds. Overall there was a general trend towards later phenological events over time (34 % of all data series, N = 47; 67 % of all significant trends), though this varied by taxa and location. The strongest trends towards later events were for seabirds breeding in Australia, the Laridae (gulls, noddies, terns) and migratory southern polar seabirds. In contrast, earlier phenologies were more often observed for the Spheniscidae (penguins) and for other seabirds breeding in the Antarctic and subantarctic. Phenological changes were most often associated with changes in oceanographic conditions, with sea-ice playing an important role for more southerly species. For some species in some locations, such as the Little Penguin Eudyptula minor in south-eastern Australia, warmer oceans projected under various climate change scenarios are expected to correspond to increased seabird productivity, manifested through earlier breeding, heavier chicks, an increased chance of double brooding, at least in the short-term.

  3. Climate as a driver of phenological change in southern seabirds.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lynda E; Dann, Peter; Cannell, Belinda; Woehler, Eric J

    2014-05-01

    Seabirds are one of the most threatened groups of birds globally and, overall, their conservation status is deteriorating rapidly. Southern hemisphere countries are over-represented in the number of species of conservation concern yet long-term phenological data on seabirds in the southern hemisphere is limited. A better understanding of the implications of changes in the marine and terrestrial environments to seabird species is required in order to improve their management and conservation status. Here we conducted a meta-analysis of the phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere seabirds. Overall there was a general trend towards later phenological events over time (34 % of all data series, N = 47; 67 % of all significant trends), though this varied by taxa and location. The strongest trends towards later events were for seabirds breeding in Australia, the Laridae (gulls, noddies, terns) and migratory southern polar seabirds. In contrast, earlier phenologies were more often observed for the Spheniscidae (penguins) and for other seabirds breeding in the Antarctic and subantarctic. Phenological changes were most often associated with changes in oceanographic conditions, with sea-ice playing an important role for more southerly species. For some species in some locations, such as the Little Penguin Eudyptula minor in south-eastern Australia, warmer oceans projected under various climate change scenarios are expected to correspond to increased seabird productivity, manifested through earlier breeding, heavier chicks, an increased chance of double brooding, at least in the short-term. PMID:23934162

  4. Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    Climate is the average weather in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. ...

  5. Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

  6. An unrecognised Holocene palaeo-lake at the terminus of the Murray-Darling Basin: a palaeo-discharge record and implications for current climate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Carli, E.; Hubble, T.; Penny, D.; Petley, D. N.; Clarke, S. L.; Hamilton, R. J.; Gadd, P.; Brand, H.

    2015-12-01

    The 1.073 million km2 Murray-Darling River Basin (MDB) drains 14% of Australia's landmass, incorporates Australia's most economically important agricultural region, and presents one of Australia's most important and contentious water security challenges. The twin Murray and Darling catchments extend from the sub-tropics to the mid latitudes, with catchment precipitation driven by synoptic-scale oceanic-atmospheric processes that include the Australian Monsoon, SAM, IPO, PDO, IOD and ENSO. In this study we report the discovery of a hitherto unrecognised terminal palaeo-lake system 'Lake Mannum' that existed during the middle to late Holocene, as evidenced by an extensive sequence of laminated muds. The deposit contains gray laminae enriched in smectite and Nd/Ti, diagnostic of palaeo-discharges originating from the Darling catchment. These gray laminae are set within olive-black background muds enriched in illite, K and Rb, diagnostic of palaeo-discharges originating from the Murray Catchment. The deposit reflects the hydrological regime of the MDB, representing the first in-situ palaeo-discharge record for the MDB and a proxy record for south-eastern Australia's precipitation and hydroclimate. Given the strong influence of major oceanic-atmospheric synoptic circulation over the river system, variability in MDB discharge and delivery of suspended sediment flux to the continental shelf have been used as proxy indicators for south-eastern Australia's palaeo-climate during the Holocene. The existence of palaeo-lake Mannum at the terminus of the MDB suggests that discharge of terrigenous sediment to the Southern Ocean was strongly suppressed during this time, meaning that Holocene climate reconstructions which rely on the marine sediment record require re-evaluation.

  7. Nursing Education in Spain--Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnoz, Adelaida Zabalegui

    2002-01-01

    In Spain, the nursing diploma is inadequate for current health care needs. To meet the demand, Spain is developing baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral programs using European Union guidelines to ensure the preparation of a professional nursing work force. (SK)

  8. A biomarker isotope record of hydrologic change in NE Spain from the late Eocene to early Oligocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patros, K.; Hren, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) (34-33.5 Ma) is one of the most dramatic climatic changes in the Cenozoic and represents a shift from global "hothouse" to "icehouse" conditions. Climatic and hydrologic data from across the globe indicate a high degree of heterogeneity in the terrestrial climatic response to this global cooling, with the largest changes observed at high latitudes. Recent data from northern Europe shows cooling across this interval associated with major faunal turnover. However, paleosol data from northeastern Spain suggests only modest changes to temperature and precipitation associated with this transition. We measured the hydrogen isotopic composition of higher plant-derived normal alkanes in Eocene to Oligocene sediments of Northeastern Spain to quantify changes to climate and isotope hydrology across this transition. Hydrogen isotopes of plant waxes provide a record of isotopes of precipitation and/or factors that influence stomatal regulation. Our data show a small increase in the average chain length of higher plant waxes across the EOT cooling event, which may reflect changes in water availability or ecosystem type. Hydrogen isotopes of higher plant waxes show a small positive shift in δD from the late Eocene to early Oligocene, but high-frequency variability prior to and after the Eocene-Oligocene transition. In total, when coupled with other paleoclimate proxy data, these suggest minimal changes to the hydrologic cycle in NE Spain from the late Eocene to early Oligocene.

  9. Afforestation contribution to Carbon and Nitrogen budgets of forest in a natural park in south Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Forests are important ecosystems because they provide wood products to society as well as many services (recreation, habitat functions, the regulation of water, erosion, and air quality). However, the society has recently focused its attention on forests for two reasons; sequestration of carbon, on the one hand, and provision of biomass for bioenergy, on the other, also illustrates the possible trade-off even within the theme of climate change mitigation. Due to this fact, the forest surface has increased in Spain, as well in Europe in the last decades. The area covered by forest represents 34% in Europe and 35.6% in Spain compared to the total surface. A powerful afforestation policy was carried out in Spain from the 40's decade in forward. The main objective was to increase the forest surface with trees. Two main actions were developed under these repopulations, the transformation of pasture land in forest, on the one hand, and the introduction of fast-growing tree species, on the second hand. Therefore, currently, there are a lot of forest areas in Spain in which the introduced species coexist with native. In addition, the spatial variation of soil properties is significantly influenced by some environmental factors such as topographic aspect that induced microclimate differences, topographic (landscape) positions, parent materials, and vegetation communities. Topographic aspect induces local variation in temperature and precipitation solar radiation and relative humidity, which along with chemical and physical composition of the substrate, are the main regulators of decomposition rates of organic matter. The aim of this study were, i) to evaluate the effect of afforestation policies on carbon and nitrogen budgets in a natural park in Spain and ii) to study the topographic aspect effect on the capacity of SOC and N storage. Our results show how the afforestated areas (in which there are simultaneously both, natural species and introduced species) had higher soil

  10. Assessment of Quercus flowering trends in NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jato, V.; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J.; Fernandez-González, M.; Aira, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper sought to chart airborne Quercus pollen counts over the last 20 years in the region of Galicia (NW Spain) with a view to detecting the possible influence of climate change on the Quercus airborne pollen season (APS). Pollen data from Ourense, Santiago de Compostela, Vigo and Lugo were used. The Quercus airborne pollen season was characterized in terms of the following parameters: pollen season start and end dates, peak pollen count, pollen season length and pollen index. Several methods, dates and threshold temperatures for determining the chill and heat requirements needed to trigger flowering were applied. A diverse APS onset timing sequence was observed for the four cities as Quercus flowers few days in advance in Vigo. The variations observed could be related to differences in the meteorological conditions or the thermal requirements needed for flowering. Thermal requirements differed depending on local climate conditions in the study cities: the lowest values for chilling accumulation were recorded in Vigo and the highest in Lugo, whereas the lowest heat accumulation was achieved in Vigo. Differences in APS trends between cities may reflect variations in weather-related trends. A significant trend towards rising Quercus pollen indices and higher maximum daily mean pollen counts was observed in Ourense, linked to the more marked temperature increase across southern Galicia. A non-uniform trend towards increased temperatures was noted over the study period, particularly in late summer and early autumn in all four study cities. Additionally, an increase in spring temperatures was observed in south-western Galicia.

  11. Extense historical droughts in Spain derived from documentary sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-Castro, F.; García-Herrera, R.; Barriendos, M.

    2009-09-01

    Documentary records, specially those from rogation ceremonies have been extensively used to build proxy series of droughts and floods in Spain. Most of the work done previously has focused in the abstraction of the documents and building of the individual series, but less attention has been paid to the joint analysis of this type of records. This is problematic because, due to the diversity of Spanish climates, the climatological meaning of the rogation ceremonies changes depending on the considered region. This paper aims to analyse the spatial extension of drought events from the rogation records from Barcelona, Bilbao, Gerona, Murcia, Seville, Tarragona, Toledo, Tortosa and Zamora, which cover the 16th to 19th centuries. The representativeness of each of them is analysed taking into account the local climate and the series variability. Then the spatial scale of the recorded droughts is examined at seasonal scale. The results show high multidecadal variability, with the driest periods at national scale recorded during the 1680s, 1730s and 1780s. Finally, the dry years of 1680, 1683 and 1817 are analysed in detail.

  12. Drivers influencing streamflow changes in the Upper Turia basin, Spain.

    PubMed

    Salmoral, Gloria; Willaarts, Bárbara A; Troch, Peter A; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-15

    Many rivers across the world have experienced a significant streamflow reduction over the last decades. Drivers of the observed streamflow changes are multiple, including climate change (CC), land use and land cover changes (LULCC), water transfers and river impoundment. Many of these drivers inter-act simultaneously, making it difficult to discern the impact of each driver individually. In this study we isolate the effects of LULCC on the observed streamflow reduction in the Upper Turia basin (east Spain) during the period 1973-2008. Regression models of annual streamflow are fitted with climatic variables and also additional time variant drivers like LULCC. The ecohydrological model SWAT is used to study the magnitude and sign of streamflow change when LULCC occurs. Our results show that LULCC does play a significant role on the water balance, but it is not the main driver underpinning the observed reduction on Turia's streamflow. Increasing mean temperature is the main factor supporting increasing evapotranspiration and streamflow reduction. In fact, LULCC and CC have had an offsetting effect on the streamflow generation during the study period. While streamflow has been negatively affected by increasing temperature, ongoing LULCC have positively compensated with reduced evapotranspiration rates, thanks to mainly shrubland clearing and forest degradation processes. These findings are valuable for the management of the Turia river basin, as well as a useful approach for the determination of the weight of LULCC on the hydrological response in other regions. PMID:25115604

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  14. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    PubMed

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training

  15. Runoff generation in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalen, E. N.; Kirkby, M. J.; Chapman, P. J.; Bracken, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    We are working to improve a hydrological model for prediction of runoff in medium-scale semi-arid catchments in SE Spain. The aim is to develop and improve understandings of runoff generation in semi-arid areas and to improve modelling of runoff. Objectives are to investigate the influence of geology, landuse and seasonality on infiltration rates and use remonte sensing (RS) and GIS to classify an area into Hydrologically Similar Surfaces (HYSS) categories. The research includes investigating the impact of different landscape elements on runoff within two 150 km2 catchments, the Rambla Nogalte and the Rambla de Torrealvilla. Most storms within these catchments are of short duration. HYSS are defined as areas with similar1-D (vertical) partitioning of net rainfall between infiltration and overland flow. HYSS are identified from field measurements of soils, micro and macro- topography and infiltration rates; then combined with analysis of multi-spectral airborne RS images. HYSS are selected to minimise internal variability in the relationship between rainfall and local runoff generation and are scaled up to cover larger areas. The overall sampling strategy for measurements has been to undertake constant intensity rainfall simulator measurements within provisional HYSS categories, and to augment this with a large number of minidisk infiltrometer measurements. This strategy captures as much of the variability in the landscape as possible. The wide variability within even small areas has led to the final adoption of only a few large classes that can be effectively distinguished. The final part of the research is to link the spatial partitioning of the two catchments into HYSS with the detailed rainfall records for the areas, and combine these two sets of data into a grid-based model for runoff generation across the area. The applied Green-Ampt modelling approach gave 63 possible combinations of surface properties (9 HYSS) and areas in the Rambla Nogalte each represented

  16. Matorral and reclamation. The contribution of scrubs and dwarf shrubs to soil and water conservation in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Hidalgo, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    The Mediterranean Matorral (scrubs and dwarf shrubs) was seen by John Thornes as a protective vegetative cover of semiarid lands. His studies on matorral triggered the research, vocations and scientific work of researchers and contributed with a relevant knowledge to the environmental studies in Spain. This research reviews the changes in land use and the use of matorral in Spain. A review of the research done on the effect of matorral on soil and water losses is presented. Books, scientific papers, book chapters and research reports are being reviewed to report how matorral control the soil and water losses under different climatic conditions in Spain. The main conclusion is that scrubs and dwarf shrubs are very efficient in controlling the soil and water losses under semiarid climatic conditions were trees are rare. Nevertheless, scrub has been neglected by the Spanish forestry policy-makers and sometimes the shrubs cover is removed to develop afforestations, mainly with Aleppo pine. Palabras clave: Matorral, Soil, Water, Losses, Spain, Land use, Land management.

  17. Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…

  18. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    The Baia Mare Urban System is located in the north-western part of Romania, with around 200,000 inhabitants and represents one of the most important former mining areas in the country, whose socioeconomic profile and environmental conditions have greatly changed over the last 20 years during the transition and post-transition period. Currently the mining is closed in the area, but the historical legacy of this activity has implications in terms of economic growth, social and cultural developments and environmental quality. Baia Mare city lies in an extended depression, particularly sheltered by the mountain and hilly regions located in the north and respectively, in the south-south-eastern part of it, which explains the high frequency of calm conditions and low airstream channeling occurrences. This urban system has a typically moderate temperate-continental climate, subject to frequent westerly airflows (moist), which moderate the thermal regime (without depicting severe extremes, both positive and negative) and enhance the precipitation one (entailing a greater frequency of wet extremes). During the reference period (1971-2000), the climate change signal in the area is rather weak and not statistically significant. However, since the mid 1980s, the warming signal became more evident from the observational data (Baia Mare station), showing a higher frequency of dry spells and positive extremes. The modelling experiments covering the 2021-2050 time horizon using regional (RM5.1/HadRM3Q0/RCA3) and global (ARPEGE/HadCM3Q0/BCM/ECHAM5) circulation models carried out within the ECLISE FP7 project suggest an ongoing temperature rise, associated to an intensification of temperature and precipitation extremes. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate how the local authorities consider and include climate change in their activity, as well as in the development plans (e.g. territorial, economic and social development plans). Individual interviews have been

  19. Assessing the performance and reliability of PERSIANN-CDR satellite-based rainfall estimates over Spain: case study of rainfall Dry Spell Lengths (DSL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Galiano, S. G.; Giraldo Osorio, J. D.; Nguyen, P.; Hsu, K. L.; Braithwaite, D.; Olmos, P.; Sorooshian, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studying Spain's long-term variability and changing trends in rainfall, due to its unique position in the Mediterranean basin (i.e., the latitudinal gradient from North to South and its orographic variation), can provide a valuable insight into how hydroclimatology of the region has changed. A recently released high resolution satellite-based global daily precipitation climate dataset PERSIANN-CDR (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network - Climate Data Record), provided the opportunity to conduct such study. It covers the period 01/01/1983 - to date, at 0.25° resolution. In areas without a dense network of rain-gauges, the PERSIANN-CDR dataset could be useful for identifying the reliability of regional climate models (RCMs), in order to build robust RCMs ensemble for reducing the uncertainties in the climate and hydrological projections. However, before using this data set for RCM evaluation, an assessment of performance of PERSIANN-CDR dataset against in-situ observations is necessary. The high-resolution gridded daily rain-gauge dataset, named Spain02, was employed in this study. The variable Dry Spell Lengths (DSL) considering 1 mm and 10 mm as thresholds of daily rainfall, and the time period 1988-2007 was defined for the study. A procedure for improving the consistency and homogeneity between the two datasets was applied. The assessment is based on distributional similarity and the well-known statistical tests (Smirnov-Kolmogorov of two samples and Chi-Square) are used as fitting criteria. The results demonstrate good fit of PERSIANN-CDR over whole Spain, for threshold 10 mm/day. However, for threshold 1 mm/day PERSIANN-CDR compares well with Spain02 dataset for areas with high values of rainfall (North of Spain); while in semiarid areas (South East of Spain) there is strong overestimation of short DSLs. Overall, PERSIANN-CDR demonstrate its robustness in the simulation of DSLs for the highest thresholds.

  20. Soil moisture under contrasted atmospheric conditions in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, César; Cerdà, Artemi; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2014-05-01

    , Intraannual changes, Atmospheric parameters, Eastern Spain Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Azorin-Molina, C., Connell, B.H., Baena-Calatrava, R. 2009. Sea-breeze convergence zones from AVHRR over the Iberian Mediterranean Area and the Isle of Mallorca, Spain. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48 (10), 2069-2085. Azorin-Molina, C., Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Cerdà, A. 2013. Soil moisture changes in two experimental sites in Eastern Spain. Irrigation versus rainfed orchards under organic farming. EGU, Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU2013-13286. Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. & Cerdà, A. 2011. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. 10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.11.009 Cerdà, A. 1995. Soil moisture regime under simulated rainfall in a three years abandoned field in Southeast Spain. Physics and Chemistry of The Earth, 20 (3-4), 271-279. Cerdà, A. 1999. Seasonal and spatial variations in infiltration rates in badland surfaces under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Water Resources Research, 35 (1) 319-328. Cerdà, A. 2002. The effect of season and parent material on water erosion on highly eroded soils in eastern Spain. Journal of Arid Environments, 52, 319-337. García-Fayos, P. García-Ventoso, B. Cerdà, A. 2000. Limitations to Plant establishment on eroded slopes in Southeastern Spain. Journal of Vegetation Science, 11- 77- 86. Ghafoor, A., Murtaza, G., Rehman, M. Z., Saifullah Sabir, M. 2012. Reclamation and salt leaching efficiency for tile drained saline-sodic soil using marginal quality water for irrigating rice and wheat crops. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 1 -9. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1033 Johnston, C. R., Vance, G. F., Ganjegunte, G. K. 2013. Soil properties changes following irrigation with coalbed natural

  1. Pain in Spain as research cuts bite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2012-02-01

    Researchers in Spain are bracing themselves for heavy budget reductions that could even see institutes being closed after the new right-wing government led by the People's Party's Mariano Rajoy announced that the country's 2012 budget will be €8bn - a 7% decrease on last year.

  2. Vocational Education and Training in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quero, Manuel Lopez; Elorriaga y Uzquiano, Francisco Javier Lopez; Reyes, Julian Blanco; Lausin, Felix Garcia; Lopez, Felix Martinez; Rodriguez, Ines Touza

    This document describes the vocational education and training system in Spain, beginning in chapter 1 with the administrative, demographic, and economic background in which the training system exists. Chapter 2 provides a brief historical review of the development of the training systems; discusses regulated vocational education and training;…

  3. Educational Reform and Renewal in Contemporary Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    This study is one of a series of Office of Education publications on educational developments in other countries. It describes and analyzes in social, economic, and historical context the educational changes mandated in Spain by the Education Reform Law of 1970, one of contemporary Europe's most far-reaching plans for educational reform and…

  4. Foundations of Laic Moral Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Juan Manuel Fernandez

    2008-01-01

    This article studies the foundations of laic moral education in Spain. Some aspects of laic moral education can also be found in other nations, including the emergence of the laic man or the need for an educating State; other aspects of laic moral education, however, are peculiar to the Spanish case, such as the influence of Krausoinstitutionism…

  5. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  6. Changes in Medical Education in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Jose Manuel; Pujol, Ramon

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of medical education in Spain looks briefly at history and early reforms, then examines the current system, including emphasis on traditional teaching methods, focus on faculty research over teaching, inadequate resident assessment, and lack of coordination among continuing medical education providers. Ongoing reform efforts are also…

  7. Classification of four ordinary chondrites from Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, T. J.; Keil, Klaus; Casanova, I.; Wieler, R.

    1990-01-01

    Based on optical microsocpy and electron microprobe analysis of mafic minerals, four previously poorly described ordinary chondrites from Spain are classified. The classifications of Guarena (H6), Olmedilla de Alarcon (H5) and Reliegos (L5) are confirmed. Molina is reclassified as H5, based on new data.

  8. Continental scale analysis of bird migration timing: influences of climate and life history traits—a generalized mixture model clustering and discriminant approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Beaumont, Linda J.; Hudson, Irene L.

    2014-08-01

    There is substantial evidence of climate-related shifts to the timing of avian migration. Although spring arrival has generally advanced, variable species responses and geographical biases in data collection make it difficult to generalise patterns. We advance previous studies by using novel multivariate statistical techniques to explore complex relationships between phenological trends, climate indices and species traits. Using 145 datasets for 52 bird species, we assess trends in first arrival date (FAD), last departure date (LDD) and timing of peak abundance at multiple Australian locations. Strong seasonal patterns were found, i.e. spring phenological events were more likely to significantly advance, while significant advances and delays occurred in other seasons. However, across all significant trends, the magnitude of delays exceeded that of advances, particularly for FAD (+22.3 and -9.6 days/decade, respectively). Geographic variations were found, with greater advances in FAD and LDD, in south-eastern Australia than in the north and west. We identified four species clusters that differed with respect to species traits and climate drivers. Species within bird clusters responded in similar ways to local climate variables, particularly the number of raindays and rainfall. The strength of phenological trends was more strongly related to local climate variables than to broad-scale drivers (Southern Oscillation Index), highlighting the importance of precipitation as a driver of movement in Australian birds.

  9. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  10. Trends in the aerosol load properties over south eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orza, J. A. G.; Perrone, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The long-term (2003-2013) variations in columnar aerosol properties at Lecce, a site representative of the central Mediterranean, have been analysed for trend assessment. The study focuses on aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 340, 440, 500 and 1020 nm and Ångström exponent (AE) for the pair 440-870 nm, retrieved from a sun photometer operating within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). A non-parametric trend analysis of the monthly mean, median and upper and lower tails (90th and 10th percentiles) suggests that the aerosol load has decreased during the study period, while the mean particle size remained unchanged. The characteristic advections reaching the study site were found by clustering analysis of back trajectories at 500, 1500 and 3000 m. Despite the strong influence they have on aerosol load and particle size, neither of the trends in advection routes could explain the tendencies found in the columnar aerosol properties. However, trends in aerosol data by advection type allow understanding the overall trends. Aerosol properties under flows with high residence time over continental Europe present differences according to the specific residing area. More specifically, no trend is found when flows arrive from Ukraine and the Balkans, while under advections from north-western/central Europe there are downward trends in the background levels and a reduction of the fine fraction. Negative trends are also found under flows with high residence time over the Mediterranean and northern Africa, again with differences according to the residing area.

  11. High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in south-eastern Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The WHO has reported that RDT and microscopy-confirmed malaria cases have declined in recent years. However, it is still unclear if this reflects a real decrease in incidence in Bangladesh, as particularly the hilly and forested areas of the Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT) Districts report more than 80% of all cases and deaths. surveillance and epidemiological data on malaria from the CHT are limited; existing data report Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax as the dominant species. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the District of Bandarban, the southernmost of the three Hill Tracts Districts, to collect district-wide malaria prevalence data from one of the regions with the highest malaria endemicity in Bangladesh. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect blood samples from febrile and afebrile participants and malaria microscopy and standardized nested PCR for diagnosis were performed. Demographic data, vital signs and splenomegaly were recorded. Results Malaria prevalence across all subdistricts in the monsoon season was 30.7% (95% CI: 28.3-33.2) and 14.2% (95% CI: 12.5-16.2) by PCR and microscopy, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections accounted for 58.9%, P. vivax mono-infections for 13.6%, Plasmodium malariae for 1.8%, and Plasmodium ovale for 1.4% of all positive cases. In 24.4% of all cases mixed infections were identified by PCR. The proportion of asymptomatic infections among PCR-confirmed cases was 77.0%, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic cases accounted for only 19.8 and 3.2%, respectively. Significantly (p < 0.01) more asymptomatic cases were recorded among participants older than 15 years as compared to younger participants, whereas prevalence and parasite density were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in patients younger than 15 years. Spleen rate and malaria prevalence in two to nine year olds were 18.6 and 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference in malaria prevalence and parasite density was observed between dry and rainy season. Conclusions A large proportion of asymptomatic plasmodial infections was found which likely act as a reservoir of transmission. This has major implications for ongoing malaria control programmes that are based on the treatment of symptomatic patients. These findings highlight the need for new intervention strategies targeting asymptomatic carriers. PMID:24406220

  12. Designing Adult Learning Strategies: The Case of South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunny, Madeleine; Viertel, Evelyn

    2006-01-01

    The importance of lifelong learning is generally well understood and few people today would query the need for adults to regularly update their skills in line with labour market needs, and for governments and social partners to provide an environment that supports skills acquisition and updating. However, it is clear when we look at data from the…

  13. Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, A. S.; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-05-01

    Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling was used to predict the potential climatic niches of three medicinally important Asclepiad species: Pentatropis spiralis, Tylophora hirsuta, and Vincetoxicum arnottianum. All three species are members of the Asclepiad plant family, yet they differ in ecological requirements, biogeographic importance, and conservation value. Occurrence data were collected from herbarium specimens held in major herbaria of Pakistan and two years (2010 and 2011) of field surveys. The Maxent model performed better than random for the three species with an average test AUC value of 0.74 for P. spiralis, 0.84 for V. arnottianum, and 0.59 for T. hirsuta. Under the future climate change scenario, the Maxent model predicted habitat gains for P. spiralis in southern Punjab and Balochistan, and loss of habitat in south-eastern Sindh. Vincetoxicum arnottianum as well as T. hirsuta would gain habitat in upper Peaks of northern parts of Pakistan. T. hirsuta is predicted to lose most of the habitats in northern Punjab and in parches from lower peaks of Galliat, Zhob, Qalat etc. The predictive modeling approach presented here may be applied to other rare Asclepiad species, especially those under constant extinction threat.

  14. Multi-model drought estimation using regional climate model output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, M. F.; Sung, B.; Evans, J. P.; Sheffield, J.

    2012-12-01

    Drought is a recurring climatic phenomenon in Australia and many other regions of the world. Apart from the considerable social and health repercussions that widespread drought has at a community level, there are major implications to the landscape, economy and water resources sectors. One of the key outputs in drought characterisation is determining the degree, extent and severity of the actual drought. However, there exist a range of techniques to quantify drought (each with its own definition) that adds to the level of uncertainty in accurate estimation. To examine the range and variability in multi-model drought prediction, a study of drought characteristics is undertaken, focusing on one of Australia's most significant agricultural regions: the Murray Darling Basin (MDB). Common drought indices including the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Standard Runoff Index (SRI), Soil Moisture Percentiles (SMP) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) were derived using output from a high resolution regional climate simulation of the MDB for the period from 1985 to 2008. Spatial and temporal analyses were conducted by comparing these indices across regional scales. A severity-area-duration analysis and drought clustering approach were also used to characterize the extent and severity of these events across south-eastern Australia. Overall it was found that the four drought indices responded similarly to precipitation anomalies and successfully captured the major droughts over the nearly 25 years of simulation. The recent Australian drought from 2002-2008 was the most severe as shown by various analyses. Indeed, the Murray Darling Basin experienced contiguous moderate to extreme drought conditions for long per