Science.gov

Sample records for climatique quelles perspectives

  1. Numerical simulations of the QUELL experiment in SULTAN

    SciTech Connect

    Marinucci, C.

    1995-03-01

    The QUench Experiment on Long Length (QUELL) in the SULTAN Facility is planned to investigate the quench propagation and detection of a conductor with ITER relevant geometry and scaled performance. The objective of this study is to show the ability of QUELL to provide quench conditions relevant for ITER and to simulate the system performance, dealing in particular with the design aspects of the power supply, cryogenic system and heaters. The numerical analysis was performed with GANDALF - a 1-D code to analyze Dual Channel Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. A numerical convergence test and a comparison with another code and with analytical results have confirmed the validity of the simulations.

  2. The quench experiment on long length cable-in-conduit conductor (QUELL) in SULTAN

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, A.

    1995-03-01

    A description of the QUELL experiment at the SULTAN facility, its objectives and plan is given. After reviewing the quench properties of the Cable in Conduit Conductors and a short review of the theoretical background foreseen for the interpretation of the experimental results, information are given concerning the QUELL sample layout, quench sensors, cryogenic system, power supplies, current bus, current leads and data acquisition system. A detailed test plan and information on the experiment time schedule are also presented.

  3. Gestion des ressources hydriques adaptee aux changements climatiques pour la production optimale d'hydroelectricite. Etude de cas: Bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguma, Didier

    Il est dorenavant etabli que les changements climatiques auront des repercussions sur les ressources en eau. La situation est preoccupante pour le secteur de production d'energie hydroelectrique, car l'eau constitue le moteur pour generer cette forme d'energie. Il sera important d'adapter les regles de gestion et/ou les installations des systemes hydriques, afin de minimiser les impacts negatifs et/ou pour capitaliser sur les retombees positives que les changements climatiques pourront apporter. Les travaux de la presente recherche s'interessent au developpement d'une methode de gestion des systemes hydriques qui tient compte des projections climatiques pour mieux anticiper les impacts de l'evolution du climat sur la production d'hydroelectricite et d'etablir des strategies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Le domaine d'etude est le bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan situe dans la partie centrale du Quebec. Une nouvelle approche d'optimisation des ressources hydriques dans le contexte des changements climatiques est proposee. L'approche traite le probleme de la saisonnalite et de la non-stationnarite du climat d'une maniere explicite pour representer l'incertitude rattachee a un ensemble des projections climatiques. Cette approche permet d'integrer les projections climatiques dans le probleme d'optimisation des ressources en eau pour une gestion a long terme des systemes hydriques et de developper des strategies d'adaptation de ces systemes aux changements climatiques. Les resultats montrent que les impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique du bassin de la riviere Manicouagan seraient le devancement et l'attenuation de la crue printaniere et l'augmentation du volume annuel d'apports. L'adaptation des regles de gestion du systeme hydrique engendrerait une hausse de la production hydroelectrique. Neanmoins, une perte de la performance des installations existantes du systeme hydrique serait observee a cause de l'augmentation des

  4. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  5. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Shari; Camerini, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Asylum office. Uses the perspective of two movie producers as they filmed a documentary film, "Well-founded Fear", about asylum and refugee protection. Includes information on how to order a classroom aid and the film. (CMK)

  6. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  7. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  8. Les séquelles de brûlures cervicocéphaliques chez l’enfant

    PubMed Central

    Sankale, A.A.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndoye, A.; Ndiaye, L.; Ndoye, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary La peau, barrière protectrice de l’organisme, est très exposée aux agressions et donc aux brûlures. Le but de ce travail est d’apprécier les particularités des séquelles de brûlure cervicofaciales chez l’enfant en milieu sub-saharien et d’évaluer leur prise en charge. Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective réalisée dans le service de Chirurgie Pédiatrique du Centre Hospitalo-universitaire Aristide Le Dantec de Dakar (Sénégal). Vingt-sept dossiers de patients ont été colligés entre mai 2001 et avril 2008. L’âge moyen lors de la consultation était de 6,7 ans et le sex ratio m:f de 1,7:1. La topographie des séquelles se répartit ainsi: la face (66,7%), le cou (29,6%) et le cuir chevelu (11,1%). Concernant le type de séquelles, les brides prédominaient (33,3%), suivies des cicatrices chéloïdiennes ou hypertrophiques (25,9%), des ectropions de paupières (18,5%), des alopécies du cuir chevelu (11,1%), des ulcérations chroniques (7,4%) et de dyschromie (3,7%). Le traitement a été chirurgical dans 55,7% des cas: plasties en Z suivies ou non d’une greffe de peau pour les brides et libération de bride suivie d’une greffe pour les ectropions de paupières. Pour ce qui concerne les patients opérés, la morbidité opératoire a été de 20% et la mortalité opératoire nulle. Les cicatrices chéloïdiennes ont fait l’objet d’un traitement médical par infiltrations de dermocorticoïdes. Au-delà de l’urgence, les brûlures cervicofaciales de l’enfant entraînent un préjudice esthétique et fonctionnel important. L’amélioration de leur pronostic passe par la qualité des premiers soins et par la sensibilisation des parents aux risques d’accidents domestiques. PMID:21991239

  9. Les perspectives de l'énergie nucléaire dans le cadre des changements climatiquesThe future of nuclear energy in relation with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautray, Robert

    2001-12-01

    Electronuclear energy associated with hydrogen production can replace fossil fuels while emitting as few greenhouse gases as renewable energies. Besides waste management for which a solution has to be rapidly demonstrated, other key issues are to be examined to complete the demonstration of the viability of electronuclear energy. First, waste management and evolution of plutonium and its daughters must be considered together. A basic study has already been performed but what else to be done is huge and cannot be achieved in France (because of its geological and geographic features, because of the rural distribution of its population, etc.), except if a substantial and quite focused endeavour could bring concerned populations and workers, protection and confidence - which requires from the latter, represented by their elected representatives and thus by a public authority, that they work out "a general protection and confidence criterion for concerned populations and workers". The unique solution in order to protect public health from a potential major danger is to bury as soon as possible all of the ultimate waste products, keeping in mind all of the unfavourable factors such as residual power of these products, their mobility in the confining geological beds and then through aquifers. There are so many categories of waste products whose treatment requires different durations, that storing is necessary in order to make them compatible after sorting by means of chemical separation (called reprocessing). Among all of these potential risks, the present-day most serious one, by far, is that of plutonium and its daughters, which are the most potentially radiotoxic. The unique solution consists in a separation of plutonium (and its daughters), followed by its fissions until a rather complete reduction in a product able to be buried after dilution in a matrix (for example, vitrification). But that solution faces serious handicaps. The examination of waste products and especially of the potentially most dangerous and difficult to treat, that is plutonium (and its daughters), leads thus necessarily to a 'plutonium (and its daughters) plan'. Nuclear safety is a major preoccupation. The French electronuclear stock is a recognized success and when it will be necessary to replace the latter, it will be possible to use the European Pressurized Reactor French-German project; the latter includes protections against very unlikely events and its implementation would be a factor of substantial progress for nuclear safety. Radioprotection, as well as its scientific bases, epidemiology and radiobiology, have funding that is not at the level of the funding devoted to the technical and industrial realizations. As for proliferation, it can be noticed that the countries that have recently at their disposal nuclear weapons have done it independently of their eventual electronuclear stock and furthermore each of the latter used a different scientific and technical process. As for the eventual relations between reprocessing and proliferation, the problem should be solved if the total produced plutonium could be denatured in the reactors of the electronuclear stock. It must be noticed that the major potential danger would rather be the dispersion of radiotoxic products about which the department of ONU in charge of all of these questions is aware of increasing contraband from eastern Europe since some years.

  10. EDITORIAL: Perspectives Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhurst, Richard

    2011-05-01

    In this issue, we are delighted to publish the second in a series of articles under the banner of Perspectives. The series commenced in late 2008, when Udo Kaatze [1] published an article about the powerful technique of dielectric spectrometry for liquid measurements. In addition to examining the very wide frequency range from 10-6 Hz to 10-13 Hz, an outline of possible future developments was presented. Some challenging tasks for the future were briefly outlined. The format of the article was different to the usual style of a contributed paper or review article. Instead, it represented a short summary of recent work in the field and offered a viewpoint of an expert in the area. Its commentary noted several milestones that had been recently achieved, and then looked to the future. The Perspective format allowed the author to provide some opinion about the challenges of the future not normally permitted in a Topical Review. The journal now intends to publish several more Perspectives. For example, in this issue David Birch [2] presents a Perspective about another important measurement science, namely fluorescence detections and their future directions. These are based on an old technique which provided the basis for detecting the presence of molecular species. Successful research led to an understanding and description of the phenomenon of molecular fluorescence in terms of excited state energies, transitions, symmetries and rate parameters. More recently, using fluorescence as a probe, and with the exploitation of new technologies, new applications have included the study of protein, vision, photosynthesis, membranes and DNA. Indeed nowhere has fluorescence had more impact than in the biosciences. Once again, the intention of the Perspective article has been to highlight recent milestones within the field. Importantly, it also indicates some of the future challenges. Such Perspectives are an occasional series. They are not intended to deflect from the balance of

  11. Les séquelles de brûlures cervicales: aspects épidémiologique, clinique et thérapeutique au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Rafik, Amine; Chabak, Hakim; Diouri, Mounia; Bahechar, Naïma; Chlihi, Abdessamad

    2015-01-01

    Les séquelles de brûlures cervicales représentent une entité fréquente des séquelles de brûlure, elles affectent la fonction, l'esthétique et l’état psychologique des patients et peuvent être de traitement difficile. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur 5 ans de Mars 2009 au Octobre2014, réalisée au centre national des brûlés et de chirurgie plastique au CHU Ibn Rochd Casablanca. Nous avons analysé les caractéristiques épidémiologiqueset cliniques ainsi que les indications et les résultats thérapeutiques chez 300 patients présentant des rétractions cervicales post-brûlure, suivis dans notre formation. Les jeunes femmes étaient le plus souvent touchées (56%). la brûlure thermique par flamme de butane dans le cadre d'accident domestique était l’étiologie la plus fréquente (91%).75% des patients ont été pris en charge dans un délai de 18 mois après avoir présenté une incapacité fonctionnelle. Les brides cervicales modérées et sévères sont les plus fréquentes et représentent respectivement 60% et 16% des cas. Le traitement chirurgical a fait appel aux greffes cutanées dans 67%des cas, aux plasties locales dans 24%des cas et aux lambeaux dans 24% des cas, les résultats sont jugés bons dans 75%des cas et moyens dans 18% des cas, tandis que les cas restants (7%) ont nécessité une reprise chirurgicale. Le traitement des brides cervicales doit être associé à un programme de rééducation adapté, afin d'assurer la pérennité des résultats fonctionnels et esthétiques. PMID:26301017

  12. Sociological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  13. International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  14. Éthique de la recherche en santé mondiale : la relation Nord-Sud, quel partenariat pour quelle justice sociale ?

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Hunt, Matthew; Moube, Zéphirin

    2014-03-01

    La recherche en santé mondiale s'inscrit dans une volonté de mobiliser des connaissances au service d'interventions et de politiques publiques pour l'atteinte équitable du bien-être commun, notamment en matière de santé. Elle joue un rôle primordial en ce sens, en favorisant l'implication des communautés et leur autonomisation et de nombreuses lignes directrices supportent un tel partenariat. Néanmoins, certains enjeux éthiques sont liés au financement de la recherche, aux environnements de recherche, à la priorisation des problématiques de recherche, aux mécanismes d'évaluation éthique posent souvent un problème de justice sociale au niveau de la redistribution des ressources et de la reconnaissance des différences culturelles. Comment alors déterminer quelle est la façon « idéale » d'agir en tenant compte de la globalité des individus et du pluralisme culturel des sociétés pour « bien faire », pour satisfaire l'exigence de l'équité? Une réflexion et une démarche éthique demeurent essentielles, ainsi qu'un dialogue entre les chercheurs du Nord et du Sud, et leurs autres partenaires que sont les décideurs, les responsables locaux et les communautés. Un tel dialogue, établi dans un continuum du développement de projets de recherche à leur pérennité, peut grandement contribuer à limiter les problèmes de justice sociale et à viser un développement plus égalitaire des savoirs scientifiques. Plusieurs chercheurs se sont déjà engagés dans cette voie, et leurs initiatives devraient être encouragées pour mettre les nouveaux savoirs au service des populations. PMID:24594489

  15. Evolution post-opératoire des séquelles de tuberculose pulmonaire chez les séropositifs VIH

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Ayegnon Kouakou; Flavien, Kendja Hypolite; Raphaël, Ouédé; Démine, Blaise; Christophe, Ménéas Gueu; Marie, Ano Kounangui; Hervé, Yangni-Angaté Koffi; Yves, Tanauh

    2014-01-01

    Cette étude rapporte les aspects cliniques et évolutifs des séquelles pulmonaires tuberculeuses (SPT) opérées chez les séropositifs (VIH+). Il s'agit d'une étude prospective transversale réalisée entre Novembre 2005 et Octobre 2012. Elle a porté sur 20 patients VIH+, ayant dans leurs antécédents, une tuberculose pulmonaire (TP) traitée et déclarée guérie, et admise dans ladite période pour une chirurgie de la SPT secondaire. Une enquête sérologique VIH a été réalisée systématiquement au cours du bilan pré-opératoire. Le diagnostic pré-opératoire de la SPT, la mortalité, les complications post- opératoires (CPOP), le séjour hospitalier, le suivi à moyen terme des STP opérées ont été évalués. Les séropositifs étaient VIH1+ (n = 12; 60%), VIH1&2+ (n = 4; 20%) et VIH2+ (n = 4; 20%). La durée moyenne d’évolution des STP était de 26,22 ± 21,3 mois. Les STP étaient les pyothorax ou pleurésies enkystées (n = 16; 80%), le poumon détruit (n = 2;10%) et les dilatations de bronches (n = 2;10%). Les VIH+ ne présentaient pas d'aspergillome pulmonaire. Le séjour hospitalier moyen était 13,1 ± 10,2 jours. Le suivi total était de 82 patients-année avec une moyenne de suivi de 4,2 ± 2,3 ans (extrêmes: 1 et 7 ans). Le taux de mortalité à court et moyen terme était nul. Aucun décès post-opératoire immédiat n'a été noté. Les CPOP immédiates étaient les bullages prolongés chez 75% des immunodéprimés. Les CPOP tardives (n = 3) étaient un syndrome restrictif pulmonaire, un pyothorax persistant et une pachypleurite résiduelle restrictive. A court terme, le taux de guérison radiologique était de 80% (n = 16). PMID:24932331

  16. Community perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    General aviation is considered from the perspective of the local community's decision-making process in determining its needs for access to general aviation services. The decision-making model, preliminary decision, community characteristics, and planning processes are discussed.

  17. La greffe de peau totale dans le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main et des doigts: A propos de 84 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boukind, S.; Droussi, H.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Dhaidah, O.; Ejjiyar, M.; Quaboul, M.; Dehhaze, A.; Fkhar, S.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective s’étendant de septembre 2004 à septembre 2012 sur les données de à propos de 84 patients présentant des séquelles de brûlure majeures de la main. Ces patients étaient traités chirurgicalement par une greffe de peau totale. Le but de cette étude est, donc, d’insister sur la simplicité de cette technique et surtout son efficacité et sa fiabilité. L’âge moyen de la survenue de la brûlure était de 4 ans. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 18,3 ans (2-62 ans), avec prédominance masculine dans 60% des cas. L’agent causal le plus fréquent était un agent thermique - le plus souvent un liquide chaud (56%). Le délai moyen entre la fin de la cicatrisation et la prise en charge des séquelles était de 36 mois (2 mois - 16 ans). Dans 69 cas (82.5%), les lésions étaient localisées au niveau de la face palmaire de la main. Les séquelles ont été dominées par les rétractions digitales (65%) dont le déficit fonctionnel est évident. Une greffe de peau totale a été réalisée chez tous nos patients après libération des brides et excision des placards cicatriciels. Les rétractions commissurales ont été traitées par des plasties en Z. Dans 95% des cas, le prélèvement de peau totale était réalisé au niveau du pli inguinal. Le recul moyen était de 5,5 ans (1-8 ans). 11 patients ont été perdus de vu. Les résultats après cicatrisation complète et rééducation ont été jugés satisfaisants (bons) dans 62 cas (85%), et assez bons dans 11 cas (15%). Un traitement initial bien conduit et effectué dans les meilleures conditions permet non seulement de réduire le nombre de séquelles des brûlures mais encore de les rendre moins sévères. PMID:26336368

  18. Hungarian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montvay, István; Biró, Tamás

    Rolf Hagedorn is introduced from the personal perspective of two Hungarian physics generations. A colleague (IM) and a student (TB) recount memories and events from the early-70-s to mid-80-s, and evaluate Hagedorn's impact on present particle and nuclear Hungarian physics community.

  19. Perspective Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Joni

    2002-01-01

    One fourth grade class studied Van Gogh by investigating his art and life on the computer, painting still lifes, then learning to draw in perspective, creating colorful images of their own bedrooms using Van Gogh's bedroom as a model. Students extended their learning by examining relevant literature and completing timelines, biographical reports,…

  20. Traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main dans les pays à ressources limitées ; notre expérience en république démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kibadi, K.; Moutet, F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les séquelles de brûlures de la main sont encore fréquentes dans les pays à ressources limitées. Trente-deux patients, représentant 38 mains, ont été admis et traités, entre le 1er décembre 2010 et le 1er mai 2014 aux Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC). nous avons observé 22 patients (69 %) dans le groupe de jeunes (patients âgés de moins de 18 ans), et 10 patients (31 %) chez les adultes (18 à 59 ans). Aucun patient dans le groupe de seniors (60 ans et plus) n’a été observé. Dans le groupe de jeunes, la tranche d’âge de 1 à 5 ans a été la plus atteinte avec 13 malades (40 %). l’accident à la maison était le plus fréquent (72 %). le mécanisme de la brûlure était le plus souvent thermique par flammes (51 %) ou par liquide chaud (34 %). les rétractions et brides sont les lésions le plus observées (84 %). la rétraction dorsale globale « main en griffe» est observée chez 40 % de patients traités, associée à des cicatrices hypertrophiques et chéloïdiennes dans 84 % de cas. Chez les 32 mains traitées chirurgicalement, des excision-greffes ont été réalisées dans 43,7 %, des lambeaux locaux dans 43,7 % et des lambeaux à distance dans 12,5 % de cas. A la sortie de l’hôpital, 84 % de « bons » résultats ont été observés. le suivi a été de 18 mois. le traitement des séquelles de brûlures de la main est possible dans ces pays, exemple de la rDC. Mais les défis à surmonter dans ces pays sont nombreux : la faible accessibilité aux techniques actuelles de la chirurgie plastique, la prise en charge initiale inadéquate des brûlures, la pauvreté. PMID:26668560

  1. Les systèmes éducatifs à la reé et l'île maurice: Quelle efficacité sociale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Moussa, Azzedine; Tupin, Frédéric

    1999-11-01

    The islands of Mauritius and Réunion have contrasting educational policies. This article examines, from a comparative perspective, not only the impact of political decisions on education but also the way in which the different educational systems in the two islands affect the democratisation of learning. In order to do this, the authors compare the educational trajectories of different pupils from a range of schools in Mauritius and Réunion. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches, it is possible to show that the expected social effects are moderated in the course of teaching. While the adoption of mass education is a prerequisite for democratisation, it must be recognised that systems also operate selectively with regard to variables such as sex, age or social origin, depending on what transpires in schools on a daily basis.

  2. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  3. Cosmic Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    2008-07-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  4. Cosmic Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Vishveshwara, C. V.

    1989-09-01

    1. Astronomy in ancient and medieval China Joseph Needham; 2. Indian astronomy: an historical perspective B. V. Subbarayappa; 3. Making of astronomy in ancient India Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya; 4. The impact of astronomy on the development of western science Jean-Claude Pecker; 5. Man and the Universe Hubert Reeves; 6. Understanding the Universe - challenges and directions in modern observational astronomy Harlan Smith, Jr: 7. Frontiers in cosmology Fred Hoyle; 8. Did the Universe originate in a big bang? Jayant Narlikar; 9. The dark matter problem Bernard Carr; 10. Geometry and the Universe C. V. Vishveshwara; 11. The origin and evolution of life Cyril Ponnamperuma; 12. The anthropic principle: self selection as an adjunct to natural selection Brandon Carter; 13. Astrology and science: an examination of the evidence Ivan Kelly, Roger Culver and Peter Loptson; 14. Astronomy and science fiction Allen Janis.

  5. Perspectives of Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, M. Frances; And Others

    A model has been developed that proposes five different perspectives on the curriculum--the ideal, formal, perceived, operational, and experiential. Each perspective has a different data source, and it is hypothesized that each perspective will produce a different picture of "the curriculum." Data collection for a national study of schooling will…

  6. An Attainable Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castaneda, Viann Pedersen

    Concordia College (Minnesota) has established a global studies curriculum that encourages the development of a global perspective in future business leaders. Global perspective is seen as having five dimensions: (1) perspective consciousness; (2) "state of the planet" awareness; (3) cross-cultural awareness; (4) knowledge of global dynamics; and…

  7. Les cyclones tropicaux et le changement climatique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Jean-Claude; Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice

    2008-09-01

    Results from observations and modelling studies, a number of which having been used to support the conclusions of the IPCC fourth assessment report, are presented. For the past and present-day (since 1970) periods, the increase of strong cyclonic activity over the North Atlantic Ocean appears to be in good correlation with increasing temperature of the ocean surface. For regions where observational data are of lesser quality, the increasing trend is less clear. In fact, assessing long-term changes is made difficult due to both the multi-decennial natural variability and the lesser coverage of observations before satellites were made available. Indirect observational data, such as those derived from quantitative estimations of damage caused by tropical cyclones, suffer from many artefacts and do not allow the resolving of the issue either. For the future, only numerical three-dimensional climate models can be used. They nevertheless run presently with too-large grid-sizes, so that their results are still not converging. Various simulations lead indeed to different results, and it is very often difficult to find the physical reasons for these differences. One concludes by indicating some ways through which numerical simulations could be improved, leading to a decrease of uncertainties affecting the prediction of cyclonic activity over the next decades.

  8. Distortion in Perspective Projection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelso, Robert P., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a unique approach in associating perspective projection with the image beheld by the eye and demonstrates that all graphical and photographic perspective projections must contain distortion when compared to the image beheld by the eye. (Contains 8 figures.)

  9. Assessing Individuals' Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kelly Carter; Braskamp, David C.; Braskamp, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Global Perspective Inventory (GPI), a survey instrument that measures participants' global perspective in terms of cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains--each in terms of both development and acquisition. A summary of the recent research on the GPI is provided along with a discussion of potential uses.

  10. The Polyvagal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Porges, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    The Polyvagal Theory introduced a new perspective relating autonomic function to behavior that included an appreciation of autonomic nervous system as a “system,” the identification of neural circuits involved in the regulation of autonomic state, and an interpretation of autonomic reactivity as adaptive within the context of the phylogeny of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system. The paper has two objectives: First, to provide an explicit statement of the theory; and second, to introduce the features of a polyvagal perspective. The polyvagal perspective emphasizes how an understanding of neurophysiological mechanisms and phylogenetic shifts in neural regulation, leads to different questions, paradigms, explanations, and conclusions regarding autonomic function in biobehavioral processes than peripheral models. Foremost, the polyvagal perspective emphasizes the importance of phylogenetic changes in the neural structures regulating the autonomic nervous system and how these phylogenetic shifts provide insights into the adaptive function and the neural regulation of the two vagal systems PMID:17049418

  11. Job Change in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R.; Loughead, Teri A.

    1990-01-01

    Defines current perspectives on voluntary job change, documents its prevalence in North America, lists positive and negative effects, and considers theoretical frameworks, counseling interventions, and research needs. (22 references) (SK)

  12. Disciplinary Perspectives on Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, Stephen C.

    This chapter examines the contributions of major academic disciplines to archaeoastronomy, beginning with a consideration of several indicators of the participation of scholars from various fields. We then consider examples of research from astronomy and the physical sciences; anthropology, archaeology, and the social sciences; and the historical disciplines to see how they reflect their disciplinary perspectives. The questions drawn from these varied disciplinary perspectives stimulate different strands of research, enriching the study of astronomies in cultures.

  13. Perception of Perspective Angles.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Casper J

    2015-06-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  14. Perception of Perspective Angles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We perceive perspective angles, that is, angles that have an orientation in depth, differently from what they are in physical space. Extreme examples are angles between rails of a railway line or between lane dividers of a long and straight road. In this study, subjects judged perspective angles between bars lying on the floor of the laboratory. Perspective angles were also estimated from pictures taken from the same point of view. Converging and diverging angles were judged to test three models of visual space. Four subjects evaluated the perspective angles by matching them to nonperspective angles, that is, angles between the legs of a compass oriented in the frontal plane. All subjects judged both converging and diverging angles larger than the physical angle and smaller than the angles in the proximal stimuli. A model of shallow visual space describes the results. According to the model, lines parallel to visual lines, vanishing at infinity in physical space, converge to visual lines in visual space. The perceived shape of perspective angles is incompatible with the perceived length and width of the bars. The results have significance for models of visual perception and practical implications for driving and flying in poor visibility conditions. PMID:27433312

  15. Perspectives on the profession.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ronald M

    2015-12-01

    In his presidential address to the Southwestern Surgical Congress, he examines surgery as a profession from three different perspectives: his experience as a patient, a surgeon, and a photographer. He uses photography to illustrate the importance of perspective and illumination. He respectfully suggests that we should consciously choose to reframe the profession from a different perspective that accurately reflects its beauty. He also advises that we take effort to shine a gentle, soft light on the profession, a light that will reveal the beauty, the true beauty, of the profession. And finally, he submits that it is our responsibility to consciously and faithfully maintain and defend the profession from enemies inside and outside its borders. PMID:26520870

  16. Old Perspectives on Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Blacquiere-Clarkson, John

    1976-01-01

    Presents a perspective on evolution which includes an explanation of the textbook theory of evolution, a review of evolutionary theory before Darwin, and an outline of Darwin's early theories. Describes a rethinking of evolutionary theory to include natural selection, conservative selection, discontinous evolution, catastrophism, and the…

  17. Families in Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingoldsby, Bron B., Ed.; Smith, Suzanna, Ed.

    Covering contemporary Third World as well as Western families, this teaching text addresses topics essential for developing a multicultural perspective on the family. It is an ideal text for comparative family courses and includes exercises (as well as exercise guidelines for instructors) developed to challenge students' existing viewpoints and…

  18. Perspective, May 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a commentary assessing the meaning of college- and career-readiness. In doing so, it addresses some of the questions Achieve gets asked most frequently, including: What subjects are most important in defining "Readiness"? What does…

  19. An Executive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1985

    1985-01-01

    There is a need for concentrated administrative leadership in planning for computing and information technology in colleges and universities. An executive perspective through three personal interviews with Samuel A. Banks (Dickinson College), Robert H. McCabe (Miami-Dade Community College), and William E. Lavery (Virginia Tech) is presented. (MLW)

  20. From a Parent's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    The series of articles on parenting compiled in this book bridges the gap between educational theory and the everyday problems parents must deal with. The book's perspective encourages parents to be gentle, flexible, observant, and not too attached to expectations. The first chapter, "Surviving Parenthood," discusses topics such as managing…

  1. Hakka in Wellentheorie Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1992-01-01

    A review of some of the interesting aspects of Hakka dialect studies precedes a discussion of areas needing further linguistic study, such as its resemblance to and contacts with other Chinese dialects, tonal correspondences, and the study of Chinese dialects from a Wellentheorie perspective. (53 references) (CB)

  2. Perspective, March 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report stating how over the past five years, since the National Governors Association (NGA) and Achieve co-sponsored the National Education Summit on High Schools, states have made impressive progress in aligning their high school…

  3. Perspective, March 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a commentary on the efforts of the states to adopt college- and career-ready policies. "Closing the Expectations Gap, 2009"--Achieve's fourth annual report--shows that states have continued to make steady progress on adopting policies aimed at…

  4. Perspective, August 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report stating how Achieve commissioned a first-of-its-kind national poll of American voters to determine their views on college and career readiness. The results of the survey show that there is overwhelming support for college-and…

  5. Millennial Perspectives and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrell, James A.; Dunneback, Staci K.

    2015-01-01

    Through prioritizing student voice, this study investigated the perspectives of millennial students in relation to their preferences and priorities for how they desired to experience teaching and learning. While not experts, our assumption was that undergraduate students, because of their relatively long experience as students, would be closely in…

  6. ADDIE: Perspectives in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Elizabeth; Easterling, Wylie V.; Hardre, Patricia L.; Howard, Craig D.; Roman, Tiffany Anne

    2011-01-01

    In an asynchronous forum responding to a prompt positing that ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) might be used in teaching instructional design (ID) as a safety net for designers without native talent, instructors and practitioners of ID revealed mixed perspectives on the role of ADDIE in design. Critical theory…

  7. Applied Linguistics: Brazilian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalcanti, Marilda C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present perspectives in Applied Linguistics (AL) against the background of a historical overview of the field in Brazil. I take the stance of looking at AL as a field of knowledge and as a professional area of research. This point of view directs my reflections towards research-based Applied Linguistics carried out from…

  8. Keeping Barns in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a landscape project using Grant Wood's paintings as an example. As part of the project, the students are required to include a barn in their picture. This project is a great opportunity to study an Iowa artist who did landscape painting and to study perspective. This is also an excellent project for teaching…

  9. Childhood Education: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hujala, Eeva, Ed.

    Education is bound to society, and different educational strategies rise from the society and culture in which people live. This book presents an international perspective on problems and challenges from early education through adult education and highlights teacher education from the point of view of individual cultures and from a cross-cultural…

  10. Perspective, May 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report presenting the recommendations made by Achieve to the Senate HELP (Health, Education, Labor and Pensions) Committee for the improvement of the college and career readiness of all students. This issue also reports: (1) 37…

  11. Perspectives for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Norris

    The operations of an institution can be viewed from three perspectives: (1) the "actual operating measurement" such as income and expenditures of a cost center at a point in time; (2) the "criterion" which reflects the established policy for a time period; and (3) the "efficiency level" wherein a balance between input and output is defined.…

  12. Perspective, April 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a report describing how the American Diploma Project (ADP) Network selected Delaware and Tennessee from among 16 finalists as the winners of the first phase of Race to the Top (RTTT) grants. This issue also reports that: (1) The National Governors…

  13. Perspectives on Organizational Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Daniel J.; Fuhrman, Joanne; Renter, Fred

    2002-01-01

    This article presents perspectives on the expansion of provider organizations with case studies of two Oregon organizations: Independent Environments, which supports approximately 20 people with an annual budget of $1 million and Partnerships in Community Living, which supports approximately 115 people with a budget of $10 million. (Contains…

  14. Perspectives on Family Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Assistance Center, New York, NY.

    This joint publication of the journals of the Literacy Assistance Center (LAC) and the National Even Start Association (NESA) focuses on innovative practices and theory in family literacy education, offers an array of perspectives to members of the literacy community, and critically examines some assumptions about literacy in general, as well as…

  15. Perspectives on Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hank; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Encapsulates several brief articles providing perspectives from the states, the 104th Congress, the Supreme Court, and the White House. Issues covered include the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act and the White House attempts to reduce the federal workforce. Authors include Hank Brown, Rita G. Koman, James L. Martin, and Joseph R. Marbach. (MJP)

  16. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

  17. Perspective, June 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This month's issue commences with a report stating how the number of states that ensure the college and career readiness of their students has increased since Achieve first started tracking progress on the college- and career-ready policy agenda five years ago. This…

  18. Understanding the Parent's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Sally Smith's contribution to the world of children with learning disabilities is well documented, particularly by the other contributors to this journal. An area deserving attention, but one usually overlooked, is Smith's understanding of the parent's perspective--the challenges of parenting a child with learning disabilities. It was a priceless…

  19. Humanism: A Christian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaasa, Harris; And Others

    As part of a four-college project to integrate the religious tradition with humanities teaching, humanism is discussed from a Christian perspective. Definitions of the terms humanism, religion, Christianity, and Christian humanism are provided. The latter is viewed as the issues surrounding the Christian approach to the dichotomy of good and evil…

  20. Teaching Information Skills: Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses "Information Literacy Standards" for school library media specialists that were included in the 1998 edition of "Information Power" and presents a lesson plan for middle school students on global warming that focuses on the standard addressing perspective, or point of view, and incorporates an information process model. (LRW)

  1. Medical Perspectives on Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchadourian, Herant A.

    1976-01-01

    Written for the layman, this article describes the concept of adulthood in human biology as observed from the perspective of the naturally unfolding human life cycle. Specific male and female physical characteristics are examined and psychiatric viewpoints on adulthood are presented. (DDB)

  2. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  3. International HRD Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on international perspectives on human resource development (HRD). The first paper, "Human Resource Development Practices in American and Chinese High-technology Companies in Taiwan" (Hsin-yi Chen), uses quantitative and qualitative data on HRD practices in high-technology companies in the…

  4. Perspective, December 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Perspective" is a monthly e-newsletter presenting news and views from Achieve. This issue includes a feature on the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top (RTTT) competition, which gives states an unprecedented opportunity to build the tools to measure results; guide decision-making and investments; and provoke honest conversations about…

  5. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  6. Perspectives on protein crystallisation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochi, T.; Stojanoff, V.; Bolanos-Garcia, V.M.; Moreno, A.

    2009-12-11

    This final part on 'perspectives' is focused on new strategies that can be used to crystallise proteins and improve the crystal quality of macromolecular complexes using any of the methods reviewed in this focused issue. Some advantages and disadvantages, limitations, and plausible applications to high-resolution X-ray crystallography are discussed.

  7. Perspectives on Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litten, Larry H.

    1986-01-01

    The most provocative perspectives on pricing for colleges and universities have come from the introduction of marketing into higher education. A brief review of these developments is offered to serve as an orientation for the consideration of pricing issues per se. (Author/MLW)

  8. Perspectives. Fall 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2008

    2008-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. This issue focuses on the following topics: (1) PEPNet FAQs on Web, in Print; (2) Some Speech-to-Text FAQs; (3) Speech-to-Text…

  9. Utilizing Foundational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundations, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue of "Educational Foundations" contains five articles that utilize an array of foundational perspectives that give reader insight into the organization of schools, the viewpoints of children and parents, the ideological and political nature of community organizing, and mathematics instruction in the Soviet Union. In "Cooperative…

  10. Perspectives. Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers' individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. PEPNet's mission is to improve transition services and educational access for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, including those…

  11. Perspectives. Fall 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    PEPNet's "Perspectives" is the collaborative newsletter of the four PEPNet regional centers. This newsletter combines each centers individual strengths into a single resource that can be used on a national level. The issue focuses on the following topics: (1) Web Tool Locates Needed Resources; (2) Family Center on Technology and Disability (Ana…

  12. Hyperemesis gravidarum: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Fergus P; Lutomski, Jennifer E; Greene, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a complex condition with a multifactorial etiology characterized by severe intractable nausea and vomiting. Despite a high prevalence, studies exploring underlying etiology and treatments are limited. We performed a literature review, focusing on articles published over the last 10 years, to examine current perspectives and recent developments in hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:25125986

  13. National Cancer Institute Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Rosemary S.L. . E-mail: rw26f@nih.gov; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2006-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Perspectives this year presented information on the systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) research projects: (1) being investigated at the NCI's Intramural Center for Cancer Research; (2) funded by NCI's Radiation Research Program and other extramural programs; and (3) the appropriate National Institutes of Health/NCI funding mechanisms applicable to researchers for obtaining funds for STaRT projects.

  14. The architect's perspective on the tour and map perspective.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Athina

    2015-09-01

    Literature in linguistics suggests that when people are asked to provide an oral spatial description, they usually provide a body-centered narrative; they adopt a Tour Perspective, that is, an imaginary tour of the space rather than a Map Perspective, that is, a description focused on spatial relations as seen from above (Linde and Labov in Language 51(1):924-939, 1975; Howald in Discursive constraints on space in narrative: evidence from guilty plea discourse, eVox 3, 2009). I conducted a pilot experiment to address the following questions: Does the formal knowledge of architects--their familiarity with plan drawings and maps--override the tendency to adopt the tour perspective? Does the tour perspective depend on the actual experience of space? Twenty-two graduate students in architecture were asked to respond to the following questions: (1) "Can you describe the layout of your apartment?" (2) "Can you describe the layout of an ideal apartment?" In the responses to the first question most participants used the tour perspective. In the responses to the second question most participants used the map perspective. The results provide evidence that architects' formal knowledge does not override the preference of the tour perspective in descriptions of experienced space. Moreover, that the tour perspective is associated with the actual experience of space. PMID:26216760

  15. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Camp, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  16. Rowing competitions and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  17. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  18. Perspective: relativistic effects.

    PubMed

    Autschbach, Jochen

    2012-04-21

    This perspective article discusses some broadly-known and some less broadly-known consequences of Einstein's special relativity in quantum chemistry, and provides a brief outline of the theoretical methods currently in use, along with a discussion of recent developments and selected applications. The treatment of the electron correlation problem in relativistic quantum chemistry methods, and expanding the reach of the available relativistic methods to calculate all kinds of energy derivative properties, in particular spectroscopic and magnetic properties, requires on-going efforts. PMID:22519307

  19. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  20. Perspective: Nonadiabatic dynamics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, John C.

    2012-12-01

    Nonadiabatic dynamics—nuclear motion evolving on multiple potential energy surfaces—has captivated the interest of chemists for decades. Exciting advances in experimentation and theory have combined to greatly enhance our understanding of the rates and pathways of nonadiabatic chemical transformations. Nevertheless, there is a growing urgency for further development of theories that are practical and yet capable of reliable predictions, driven by fields such as solar energy, interstellar and atmospheric chemistry, photochemistry, vision, single molecule electronics, radiation damage, and many more. This Perspective examines the most significant theoretical and computational obstacles to achieving this goal, and suggests some possible strategies that may prove fruitful.

  1. Teaching with a Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Percy

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of teaching from a global perspective far outweigh the disadvantages. Teaching from a global perspective provides the employer with global workers. Such teaching produces students who possess the knowledge of languages, culture, social systems, dress, religion, and cultural norms, as well as skills for employment in the global…

  2. Learning Disabilities: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollinger, Ruth H., Ed.; Klein, Nancy K., Ed.

    Presented are six papers originally delivered at a colloquium series on the problems of the learning disabled child, with emphasis on a multidisciplinary perspective. In "One Psychologist's Perspective on Learning Disabilities," J. Kessler provides an overview of the field with sections on definition and identification, etiology, testing as a…

  3. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New Beginnings" (Michael Collins);…

  4. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  5. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  6. Perspectives on Agile Coaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Steven; Lundh, Erik; Davies, Rachel; Eckstein, Jutta; Larsen, Diana; Vilkki, Kati

    There are many perspectives to agile coaching including: growing coaching expertise, selecting the appropriate coach for your context; and eva luating value. A coach is often an itinerant who may observe, mentor, negotiate, influence, lead, and/or architect everything from team organization to system architecture. With roots in diverse fields ranging from technology to sociology coaches have differing motivations and experience bases. This panel will bring together coaches to debate and discuss various perspectives on agile coaching. Some of the questions to be addressed will include: What are the skills required for effective coaching? What should be the expectations for teams or individu als being coached? Should coaches be: a corporate resource (internal team of consultants working with multiple internal teams); an integral part of a specific team; or external contractors? How should coaches exercise influence and au thority? How should management assess the value of a coaching engagement? Do you have what it takes to be a coach? - This panel will bring together sea soned agile coaches to offer their experience and advice on how to be the best you can be!

  7. Diabetes: An Investor's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Total health care expenditure in 2006 was $2.1 trillion. This figure is estimated to double within the next few years as the cost of treating diabetes and other chronic conditions continues to rise. Moreover, the baby boomer demographic is anticipated to place an enormous burden on the health care system and employer-based health insurance premiums were increased at rates as high as 10% per year in 2006. The quest to address these challenges has also created opportunities for investment, particularly in the fields of telemedicine, health care information technology, and medical technology. The author shares his business perspective, informed by years of experience as a physician and astronaut at NASA, and describes new applications of exciting technologies that deliver effective and efficient health care to diabetes patients, no matter where they may be. PMID:19885357

  8. Auditory perspective taking.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Effective communication with a mobile robot using speech is a difficult problem even when you can control the auditory scene. Robot self-noise or ego noise, echoes and reverberation, and human interference are all common sources of decreased intelligibility. Moreover, in real-world settings, these problems are routinely aggravated by a variety of sources of background noise. Military scenarios can be punctuated by high decibel noise from materiel and weaponry that would easily overwhelm a robot's normal speaking volume. Moreover, in nonmilitary settings, fans, computers, alarms, and transportation noise can cause enough interference to make a traditional speech interface unusable. This work presents and evaluates a prototype robotic interface that uses perspective taking to estimate the effectiveness of its own speech presentation and takes steps to improve intelligibility for human listeners. PMID:23096077

  9. Diabetes: an investor's perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, Bernard

    2008-03-01

    Total health care expenditure in 2006 was $2.1 trillion. This figure is estimated to double within the next few years as the cost of treating diabetes and other chronic conditions continues to rise. Moreover, the baby boomer demographic is anticipated to place an enormous burden on the health care system and employer-based health insurance premiums were increased at rates as high as 10% per year in 2006.The quest to address these challenges has also created opportunities for investment, particularly in the fields of telemedicine, health care information technology, and medical technology.The author shares his business perspective, informed by years of experience as a physician and astronaut at NASA, and describes new applications of exciting technologies that deliver effective and efficient health care to diabetes patients, no matter where they may be. PMID:19885357

  10. Generation Y Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Garret; Painting, Kristen; Barrera, Aaron; Skytland, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Are you familiar with the famed Generation Y, or "Gen Yers?" Generation Y is projected to be 47 percent of the workforce by 2014. They were born roughly between 1977 and 2000, but that is definitely not their only defining factor. But who is this group, and what do they have to do with the future of the space program and the Johnson Space Center (JSC)? During 2007, a group of Gen Yers at JSC participated on a committee to address the NASA Headquarters strategic communications plan. Fitzpatrick, along with his co-authors, created a presentation to share the Gen Yers' perspective on their generation in conjunction with the strategic communications strategy released. This knowledge capture (KC) event is that presentation.

  11. Perspectives on ethics

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C

    2007-01-01

    In his recent paper about understanding ethical issues, Boyd suggests that traditional approaches based on principles or people are understood better in terms of perspectives, especially the perspective‐based approach of hermeneutics, which he uses for conversation rather than controversy. However, we find that Boyd's undefined contrast between conversation and controversy does not point to any improvement in communication: disputes occur during conversation and controversy may be conducted in gentle tones. We agree with Boyd, that being prepared to listen and learn are excellent attitudes, but his vague attempts to establish these and similar virtues in hermeneutic theory are not plausible. Additionally, the current controversy about the use of human embryos in stem cell therapy research shows Boyd missing the opportunity to illustrate how conversation would improve understanding. PMID:17209105

  12. Perspectives on health.

    PubMed

    Huch, M H

    1991-01-01

    On May 12, 1989, in Pittsburgh, six nurse leaders participated in a panel discussion on health at Discovery International, Inc.'s Nurse Theorist Conference. The participants were Imogene King, Nola Pender, Betty Neuman, Martha E. Rogers, Afaf Meleis and Rosemarie Rizzo Parse. The goal of the conferences was to present views on the meaning of health from different perspectives. The panel discussion provided the nurse leaders with an opportunity to engage in a dialogue about health. Five of the participants answered the questions posed and the conference keynote speaker Afaf Meleis responded. Four questions were posed to the panel relating to the meaning of health, the uniqueness of nursing, and nurse-person relationships. The dialogue of the panel discussion follows. PMID:2000198

  13. Brain resuscitation. Ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Omery, A; Caswell, D

    1989-03-01

    Brain resuscitation is the newest in a long line of treatment protocols that is designed to aid us in sustaining not just life, but quality life in the critical care setting. Like other, previously established protocols, it is not value free. Its implementation brings ethical considerations that must be addressed. If the issues are not addressed, there is the real danger that the resulting moral dilemmas will overwhelm the nurse. In brain resuscitation, there are at least three ethical issues that must be recognized. These are the role of resuscitation in the life process, allocation of scarce resources, and participation in research. To address these issues, nurses will have to be aware of the ethical principle and/or perspectives involved. For some of these issues, the solutions will have to come from nursing's national organizations, such as the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. Other solutions presented will require the nurse to come to an individual decision regarding the ethics of brain resuscitation. The journey to the conclusion of this discussion will end with disappointment for those who sought an algorhythm or decision tree with which to make definitive decisions in regard to ethical decisions about brain resuscitation. To have assumed that such an absolute discussion in regard to the ethical perspectives related to brain resuscitation is possible or even desirable would have been to deny the moral/ethical responsibilities of the nurse who practices in a critical care setting. While these ethical responsibilities can be overwhelmingly burdensome, they can also be opportunities. They can be positive opportunities for our health care colleagues, our patients, and ourselves. PMID:2803694

  14. Turbulence Modeling: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, T. B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents turbulence modeling from NASA's perspective. The topics include: 1) Hierarchy of Solution Methods; 2) Turbulence Modeling Focus; 3) Linear Eddy Viscosity Models; and 4) Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Algebraic Stress Models.

  15. Career perspective: Peter D Wagner

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This perspective focuses on key career decisions, explaining the basis of those decisions. In so doing, it exemplifies the unexpected influences of serendipity and the interaction between serendipity and planned events in shaping the career of one individual. PMID:24229460

  16. Perspectives in geology. Circular 525

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

  17. Career perspective: Peter D Wagner.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    This perspective focuses on key career decisions, explaining the basis of those decisions. In so doing, it exemplifies the unexpected influences of serendipity and the interaction between serendipity and planned events in shaping the career of one individual. PMID:24229460

  18. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  19. Perspectives on School Energy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    This paper offers a general perspective of school energy use based on national surveys and a state of North Carolina perspective based on the public school laws that can have energy impact. Data from two surveys conducted in 1972-73 and 1974-75 are analyzed. Findings show a shift away from oil and a shift from direct use of coal to use of…

  20. Perspective View, Garlock Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's Garlock Fault, marking the northwestern boundary of the Mojave Desert, lies at the foot of the mountains, running from the lower right to the top center of this image, which was created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown in February 2000. The data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. These mountains are the southern end of the Sierra Nevada and the prominent canyon emerging at the lower right is Lone Tree canyon. In the distance, the San Gabriel Mountains cut across from the leftside of the image. At their base lies the San Andreas Fault which meets the Garlock Fault near the left edge at Tejon Pass. The dark linear feature running from lower right to upper left is State Highway 14 leading from the town of Mojave in the distance to Inyokern and the Owens Valley in the north. The lighter parallel lines are dirt roads related to power lines and the Los Angeles Aqueduct which run along the base of the mountains.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  1. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  2. Astrobiology: Future Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Irvine, W. M.; Owen, T.; Becker, L.; Blank, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Colangeli, L.; Derenne, S.; Dutrey, A.; Despois, D.; Lazcano, A.; Robert, F.

    2004-07-01

    Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space missions. Today’s rich array of new spacecraft, telescopes and dedicated scientists promises a steady flow of discoveries and insights that will ultimately lead us to the answers we seek.

  3. Time in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gorea, Andrei; Hau, Janice

    2013-08-01

    Perceptions of time and space are subject to strong contextual effects. Like their physical counterparts, they appear to be bound together. The perceived spatial extent of a constant retinal extent increases with its perceived distance from the observer. The perceived duration of a moving object increases with its covered angular trajectory. It follows that the perceived duration of moving objects covering identical angular trajectories should also increase with distance. Using three-dimensionally rendered balls rolling for 600 ms, 900 ms, and 1,200 ms and covering 5.5°, 11°, and 22° trajectories in fronto-parallel planes of a linear-perspective scene, we showed that perceived duration dilates by up to 50% as the fronto-parallel plane of the rolling ball recedes from the observer. Such time dilation is mostly contributed to by the smaller size of the distant ball. As in a three-dimensional world, objects' sizes and their covered trajectories per time unit decrease with distance, and as the two factors lead to opposite perceived-duration effects, the results suggest a form of time constancy in a three-dimensional world. PMID:23774463

  4. Employer and consumer perspectives.

    PubMed

    McGhan, W F

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews various published reports from surveys on employer opinion, perception of needs, and trends with regard to healthcare benefits; the consumer perspective regarding healthcare is also discussed. Surveys indicate that businesses want continuous evidence that high-quality healthcare can positively impact company profits. Employers and labor unions are demanding more cost-effective healthcare. At both employer and consumer levels, greater patient education is needed, as well as traditional educational media. Direct-to-consumer advertising and use of the World Wide Web are increasingly important in enabling consumers to participate more fully in their own lipid-related decision-making. Finally, the transition of lipid-lowering drugs to over-the-counter accessibility has great implications with respect to issues of patient preferences and willingness to pay in the evolving healthcare environment. Groups in the United States, such as the National Committee on Quality Assurance and the Foundation for Accountability, are setting standards and beginning to assess both process and outcomes in patient care. Further collaborative efforts are needed that raise standards of care and stimulate more cost-effective healthcare. The pharmacoeconomics and outcomes data gathered will, one hopes, also demonstrate to global businesses the positive financial impact of high-quality healthcare and appropriate lipid therapy. PMID:16674548

  5. Patient perspectives of telemedicine quality

    PubMed Central

    LeRouge, Cynthia M; Garfield, Monica J; Hevner, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the quality attributes required for effective telemedicine encounters from the perspective of the patient. Methods We used a multi-method (direct observation, focus groups, survey) field study to collect data from patients who had experienced telemedicine encounters. Multi-perspectives (researcher and provider) were used to interpret a rich set of data from both a research and practice perspective. Results The result of this field study is a taxonomy of quality attributes for telemedicine service encounters that prioritizes the attributes from the patient perspective. We identify opportunities to control the level of quality for each attribute (ie, who is responsible for control of each attribute and when control can be exerted in relation to the encounter process). This analysis reveals that many quality attributes are in the hands of various stakeholders, and all attributes can be addressed proactively to some degree before the encounter begins. Conclusion Identification of the quality attributes important to a telemedicine encounter from a patient perspective enables one to better design telemedicine encounters. This preliminary work not only identifies such attributes, but also ascertains who is best able to address quality issues prior to an encounter. For practitioners, explicit representation of the quality attributes of technology-based systems and processes and insight on controlling key attributes are essential to implementation, utilization, management, and common understanding. PMID:25565781

  6. Decontamination: a microbiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Graham, G S

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of decontamination is to protect healthcare workers who handle medical devices from infectious diseases that may be present on those devices. Ideally, the decontamination process should provide both cleaning and biocidal activity. A wide range of equipment, from automatic washer/sterilizers to semi-automated washer/sanitizers are commercially available to satisfy this need. The primary difference between these pieces of equipment, from a microbiology perspective, is in the level of safety they provide. A summary comparison of the decontamination methods is shown in Table 1. Without a doubt, steam sterilization as a method of decontamination provides a greater safety level than may be required. However, the question is, "Do disinfection and sanitization provide an adequate safety level?" Although items do not necessarily need to be sterile to be safe to handle, sterilization processes provide the greatest margin of safety because of the significant microbial lethality and the ability to effectively monitor the process via biological indicators. Sterilization effectively eliminates the concern regarding the nearly unanswerable question of bioburden. Unfortunately, not all items are capable of being processed through a washer/sterilizer. Therefore, consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Disinfection processes provide the next level of safety. Unfortunately, there is no recognized or accepted method for quantitatively describing or monitoring a thermal disinfection process. As is the case with sterilization consideration must be given to the process compatibility of each device. Sanitization provides the lowest level of safety for the decontamination process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10285793

  7. Experimental manipulations of perspective taking and perspective switching in expressive writing.

    PubMed

    Seih, Yi-Tai; Chung, Cindy K; Pennebaker, James W

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that those who naturally vary their pronoun use over the course of expressive writing subsequently report the greatest improvements in physical and mental health. To explore possible perspective taking or perspective switching effects, two studies manipulated writing perspectives about emotional events from either a first-person, second-person, or third-person perspective. In Study 1, 55 students were randomly assigned to one of the three writing perspectives and were asked to write from the same perspective for three 5-minute writing sessions. In Study 2, 129 students wrote for three 5-minute sessions, one from each perspective in a counterbalanced order. The results showed that writing from a first-person perspective conferred more perceived benefits and was associated with using more cognitive mechanism words, whether engaged in perspective taking or perspective switching. PMID:21824030

  8. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  9. Growth outcome: nutritionist perspective.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Fattore, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to a fundamental role of early nutrition on rates of growth and development, and later health. We may identify three major fields of scientific interest and clinical application. (1) In developing countries poor growth is associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, mainly lower respiratory infections and diarrhea. In these settings, failure to promote compensatory growth may have negative short-term consequences, and the nutritionist's task is the primary prevention of nutrient deficiencies to promote the full expression of the individual genetic potential, while allowing for recovery of early secondary functional deficiencies. (2) A second challenge for nutritionists is represented by the approach to growth impairments in rare disorders, ranging from congenital disorders to chronic infections. Most disorders are favorably influenced by improved nutritional status and better growth, and patients may satisfactorily reach adolescence, pubertal and reproductive age, up to ageing. Even for the less positive conditions, an improvement in the quality of life for families is in any case a rewarding aim. (3) A third challenge is represented by the definition of the role of nutrition on growth in physiological conditions for all individuals. Concern has been raised about the potential adverse long-term consequences of accelerated child growth rates, possibly resulting in a predisposition to develop non-communicable chronic diseases in the adult age. Accordingly, this hypothesis might explain the benefits of breastfeeding in terms of slower early growth, and the fetal origins hypothesis in terms of adverse postnatal catch-up growth in infants born small. Therefore, growth as viewed by a pediatric nutritionist perspective is a complex matter, ranging from the early stages of intrauterine development up to adult ages and ageing processes. Cost/benefit analyses of interventions on growth such as cost per DALYs

  10. Fructose in perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Whether dietary fructose (as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup) has unique effects separate from its role as carbohydrate, or, in fact, whether it can be considered inherently harmful, even a toxin, has assumed prominence in nutrition. Much of the popular and scientific media have already decided against fructose and calls for regulation and taxation come from many quarters. There are conflicting data, however. Outcomes attributed to fructose — obesity, high triglycerides and other features of metabolic syndrome — are not found in every experimental test and may be more reliably caused by increased total carbohydrate. In this review, we try to put fructose in perspective by looking at the basic metabolic reactions. We conclude that fructose is best understood as part of carbohydrate metabolism. The pathways of fructose and glucose metabolism converge at the level of the triose-phosphates and, therefore, any downstream effects also occur with glucose. In addition, a substantial part of ingested fructose is turned to glucose. Regulation of fructose metabolism per se, is at the level of substrate control — the lower Km of fructokinase compared to glucokinase will affect the population of triose-phosphates. Generally deleterious effects of administering fructose alone suggest that fructose metabolism is normally controlled in part by glucose. Because the mechanisms of fructose effects are largely those of a carbohydrate, one has to ask what the proper control should be for experiments that compare fructose to glucose. In fact, there is a large literature showing benefits in replacing total carbohydrate with other nutrients, usually fat, and such experiments sensibly constitute the proper control for comparisons of the two sugars. In terms of public health, a rush to judgement analogous to the fat-cholesterol-heart story, is likely to have unpredictable outcome and unintended consequences. Popular opinion cannot be ignored in this problem and comparing fructose

  11. Fructose in perspective.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2013-01-01

    Whether dietary fructose (as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup) has unique effects separate from its role as carbohydrate, or, in fact, whether it can be considered inherently harmful, even a toxin, has assumed prominence in nutrition. Much of the popular and scientific media have already decided against fructose and calls for regulation and taxation come from many quarters. There are conflicting data, however. Outcomes attributed to fructose - obesity, high triglycerides and other features of metabolic syndrome - are not found in every experimental test and may be more reliably caused by increased total carbohydrate. In this review, we try to put fructose in perspective by looking at the basic metabolic reactions. We conclude that fructose is best understood as part of carbohydrate metabolism. The pathways of fructose and glucose metabolism converge at the level of the triose-phosphates and, therefore, any downstream effects also occur with glucose. In addition, a substantial part of ingested fructose is turned to glucose. Regulation of fructose metabolism per se, is at the level of substrate control - the lower Km of fructokinase compared to glucokinase will affect the population of triose-phosphates. Generally deleterious effects of administering fructose alone suggest that fructose metabolism is normally controlled in part by glucose. Because the mechanisms of fructose effects are largely those of a carbohydrate, one has to ask what the proper control should be for experiments that compare fructose to glucose. In fact, there is a large literature showing benefits in replacing total carbohydrate with other nutrients, usually fat, and such experiments sensibly constitute the proper control for comparisons of the two sugars. In terms of public health, a rush to judgement analogous to the fat-cholesterol-heart story, is likely to have unpredictable outcome and unintended consequences. Popular opinion cannot be ignored in this problem and comparing fructose to

  12. Facing Global Challenges: A European University Perspective. Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swail, Watson Scott

    2014-01-01

    This EPI Policy Perspectives covers a presentation given at the European University Association Annual Convention (March 20, 2009, in Prague, Czech Republic) that addresses the Bologna process in the European Union. The process raised many questions regarding the role of the university, and the entire tertiary/postsecondary system of education.…

  13. Perspective Taking in Older Age Revisited: A Motivational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xin; Fung, Helene H.; Stanley, Jennifer T.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Ho, Man Yee

    2013-01-01

    How perspective-taking ability changes with age (i.e., whether older adults are better at understanding others' behaviors and intentions and show greater empathy to others or not) is not clear, with prior empirical findings on this phenomenon yielding mixed results. In a series of experiments, we investigated the phenomenon from a…

  14. Hawthorne Academy: The University Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazee, Bruce M.; Frazee, Felicia F.

    2005-01-01

    This article revisits the Trinity University and Hawthorne School partnership since the first case study written 10 years ago. This new perspective analyzes the teacher education program-particularly beliefs and attitudes about it and changes made to the program-with an eye to two primary themes: preparing future teachers and Hawthorne's Core…

  15. Building Pedagogical Intelligence. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat

    2005-01-01

    It is hard to find a campus today that does not collect student evaluations of teaching. Not everyone, it is true, puts full stock in the results, but it is hard to argue with the idea that students have important perspectives to contribute. The writer advocates that listening to students is a good idea that does not go far enough. Describing…

  16. Current Perspectives in Distributive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaurens, Mary K., Ed.; Trapnell, Gail, Ed.

    The volume on current perspectives in distributive education contains 29 individually authored articles organized into three sections. The first section on program conceptualization deals with the following subjects: the evolution of distributive education, program planning, advisory committees, placement services, postsecondary distributive…

  17. International Refugees: A Geographical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demko, George J.; Wood, William B.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the problem of international refugees from a geographical perspective. Focuses on sub-saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Central America, and southeast Asia. Concludes that geographers can and should use their skills and intellectual tools to address and help resolve this global problem. (JDH)

  18. Perspectives from Marketing Internship Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Scott R.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Internship research published in marketing and business education journals primarily examine student perspectives about internships or reports results based on other business disciplines. To more accurately understand how employers perceive marketing interns and internships, 352 managers located in the Midwestern United States were surveyed.…

  19. Educational Leadership: An Islamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Saeeda

    2006-01-01

    Ethnocentric concepts, theories and practices in education, predominantly embedded in western philosophy and values, tend to ignore the growing multicultural nature of educational institutions. This article draws attention to the knowledge gap in mainstream literature regarding diverse perspectives of educational leadership--an issue which is…

  20. HPLC: Early and Recent Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a perspective on what it was like in the early days of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and several of the key developments. Focuses on the advances in HPLC generally, and more specifically for the biological sciences, that were necessary for the method to reach the preeminent stage of today. Contains 20 references. (JRH)

  1. International Perspectives in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Marilyn B.; Wood, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Across the United States, efforts are being made to add an international perspective to teacher education, to expand global awareness. A program at the University of South Dakota, that includes strategies for faculty development, curriculum modification, and locating resources and funding, is described. (MT)

  2. Historical Perspectives on Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    This transcription of the keynote speech delivered at a conference on the black family is a discussion of the black family from an historical perspective. The presentation begins with quotations from ancient African literature and a discussion of the archaeological history of the African continent with references to authors who have used this…

  3. Teachers' Perspectives on Principal Mistreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph; Blase, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Although there is some important scholarly work on the problem of workplace mistreatment/abuse, theoretical or empirical work on abusive school principals is nonexistent. Symbolic interactionism was the theoretical structure for the present study. This perspective on social research is founded on three primary assumptions: (1) individuals act…

  4. Comparative Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Brian V.

    Three possible directions for literacy research in the United Kingdom (UK), in terms of three comparative perspectives are (1) cross-cultural, (2) academic/practitioner, and (3) adult/school. Walter Ong's argument that with the advent of writing human consciousness and ways of thinking were altered fundamentally, underlies many of the claims for…

  5. Intellectual Property: An Academician's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zatz, Joel L.

    1989-01-01

    Issues concerning intellectual property are reviewed from the faculty perspective. General issues discussed include patents and the reason for their pursuit, important dates, patent literature, and handling inventions. Faculty issues include sources of research support, publication, the responsibility of students in research, recordkeeping, and…

  6. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  7. Perspectives on the Anorectic Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papalia, Anthony; Bode, Jacquelyn

    1981-01-01

    Studies the anorectic student who is becoming more evident on the college campus, and who often evokes strong emotional response. Stresses that realistic perspectives be maintained by college counselors and administrators. Explains the characteristics of anorexia nervosa and provides guidelines for responding to the student. (Author)

  8. Online Learning: A Student Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    An instructor taking an online course presents her view from the perspective of student. Discussion includes assuring the online course was acceptable for traditional course transfer credit; registering; e-mailing assignments while the Web conferencing system was down; class demographics; the backlog that occurred from not checking the system…

  9. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  10. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of conference papers explores the application of a range of different disciplinary perspectives to studying literacy, drawing not only on newer linguistic and cognitive psychological orientations, but also on cultural anthropology, sociolinguistics, reader-response theory, critical theory, and poststructuralist theory. The…

  11. Crosscultural Perspectives of Musical Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan

    1990-01-01

    Examines music creativity from a cross-cultural perspective. Delineates the difference between creativity and re-creativity giving cultural examples of each. Discusses the differences between composition and improvisation and analyzes the language of musical expression. Describes the cultural traditions of musical creativity in India, China, Iran,…

  12. Feminist Perspectives on Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla

    Feminist perspectives provide a basis for examining the nature of participation in outdoor experiences, the goals of outdoor leadership, and the meanings associated with the outdoors. Feminism is concerned with the correction of both the invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to social change and removal of social…

  13. Fresh Perspectives on School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, David J.

    2004-01-01

    School choice advocacy is dominated by perspectives that reflect a tendency to regard public schooling as a private service commodity. In recent years, numerous works of Anglo-American political philosophy, sociology and legal theory have attempted to restore a conception of public schooling as an institution that cultivates civic virtue.…

  14. Tau decays: A theoretical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical predictions for various tau decay rates are reviewed. Effects of electroweak radiative corrections are described. Implications for precision tests of the standard model and ``new physics`` searches are discussed. A perspective on the tau decay puzzle and 1-prong problem is given.

  15. Tau decays: A theoretical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical predictions for various tau decay rates are reviewed. Effects of electroweak radiative corrections are described. Implications for precision tests of the standard model and new physics'' searches are discussed. A perspective on the tau decay puzzle and 1-prong problem is given.

  16. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  17. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  18. Faculty Perspectives on Administrator Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L.

    The sources of faculty perspectives on the personal effectiveness of administrators are analyzed. It is proposed that faculty will be predisposed to see administrators in different lights, depending on structural elements in decision making and the orientation of the faculty members. Attention is directed to Talcott Parson's theory for classifying…

  19. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing Effective Adult Education Programs: Needs and Objectives" and "Design,…

  20. Functional Sentence Perspective and Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Kopple, William J.

    Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP) is a theory that predicts how units of information should be distributed in a sentence and how sentences should be related in a discourse. A binary topic-comment structure is assigned to each FSP sentence. For most English sentences, the topic is associated with the subject or the left-most noun phrase, and…

  1. International Perspectives on Technological Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrenfurth, Michael J.

    A study examined international perspectives on the concept of technological literacy and on different attitudes toward the need for technological literacy education in various countries throughout the world. The study was based on interviews with persons in attendance at one or more of five major international conferences and meetings held during…

  2. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  3. Theoretical Perspectives for Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Dana Britt, Ed.; Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.

    This monograph from the University of Minnesota General College (GC) discusses theoretical perspectives on developmental education from both new and established standpoints. GC voluntarily eliminated its degree programs in order to focus on preparing under-prepared students for transfer to the university system. GC's curricular model includes a…

  4. Youth Suicide: A Psychosocial Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Draws on studies in different cultures and subcultures and in different age groups to develop a psychosocial perspective for viewing youthful suicide. Uses disciplines ranging from demography to psychodynamics to discuss relationship of violence to suicide; role of families in producing youngsters who become preoccupied with death and suicide; and…

  5. Lifelong Learning from Ethical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najder-Stefaniak, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    The author reflects upon the specific character of ethics as a domain of knowledge that came into being in order to gather truths, which would help human beings to wisely take care of themselves. She argues that the ethical perspective should be taken into account while planning the lifelong learning activities. Further, she notes that if the goal…

  6. University Rankings in Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  7. Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…

  8. Social Competence: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Harris, Jerry D.

    1984-01-01

    Effective peer relations and the enhancement of social interactions in young children play a central role in the discussion of social competence. Developmental issues relevant to the assessment of social competence including perspective taking, conceptions of friendship, interpersonal strategies and problem solving, moral judgments, and…

  9. Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue offers a collection of articles focusing on support groups for parents of infants and toddlers, including the following: (1) "Gaining Perspective on Parenting Groups" (Nick Carter and Cathie Harvey) which reviews the purposes, history, and essential ingredients of such groups; (2) "The MELD Experience with Parent Groups" (Joyce…

  10. Perspectives on a Torts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Anita

    1993-01-01

    One law professor has added interest to a torts course by asking students to select one of five perspectives (economics, corrective justice, feminism, libertarianism, and practicality) on the course content and study it throughout the course. On the final examination, each student must answer one essay question from that viewpoint. (MSE)

  11. YOUTH EDUCATION, PROBLEMS, PERSPECTIVES, PROMISES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUESSIG, RAYMOND H.

    IN AN ANALYSIS OF CONTEMPORARY ADOLESCENT EDUCATION BY SEVEN MEMBERS OF A YEARBOOK COMMITTEE, FIVE PERSPECTIVES--SOCIAL-PHILOSOPHICAL, PSYCHOPHYSICAL, LITERARY, CURRICULAR, AND METHODOLOGICAL--ARE CONSIDERED, AND CONSTRUCTIVE PROPOSALS FOR SOLVING RELATED PROBLEMS ARE SUGGESTED. AN INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER DISCUSSES THE BASIC TEEN-AGE PROBLEM AREAS OF…

  12. Quelling Cabin Noise in Turboprop Aircraft via Active Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.; Laba, Keith E.; Padula, Sharon L.

    1997-01-01

    Cabin noise in turboprop aircraft causes passenger discomfort, airframe fatigue, and employee scheduling constraints due to OSHA standards for exposure to high levels of noise. The noise levels in the cabins of turboprop aircraft are typically 10 to 30 decibels louder than commercial jet noise levels. However. unlike jet noise the turboprop noise spectrum is dominated by a few low frequency tones. Active structural acoustic control is a method in which the control inputs (used to reduce interior noise) are applied directly to a vibrating structural acoustic system. The control concept modeled in this work is the application of in-plane force inputs to piezoceramic patches bonded to the wall of a vibrating cylinder. The goal is to determine the force inputs and locations for the piezoceramic actuators so that: (1) the interior noise is effectively damped; (2) the level of vibration of the cylinder shell is not increased; and (3) the power requirements needed to drive the actuators are not excessive. Computational experiments for data taken from a computer generated model and from a laboratory test article at NASA Langley Research Center are provided.

  13. Comment on Lance Wallace's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B. )

    1993-04-01

    This personal perspective discusses the policy implications of Lance Wallace's Perspective ( A decade of Studies of Human Exposure: What Have We Learned', Risk Analysis, Vol 12, No. 2, 1993, pp. 135-142) and also briefly emphasizes the scientific aspects of his article. The ultimate viewpoint of the author is that regardless of the immediate or eventual implications of the work of Wallace and his coworkers, they have made a major contribution to the conceptual basis of exposure assessment. The author believes EPA's actions will need to be closely monitored as the new Clean Air Act regulations unfold in order to determine whether of not full advantage in effectively protecting public health will be obtained.

  14. Perspectives on 2014 Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2015-06-01

    In celebration of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, this issue of Hippocampus includes a collection of commentaries from a broad range of perspectives on the significance of position coding neurons in the hippocampal region. From the perspective of this student of hippocampal physiology, it is argued that place cells and grid cells reflect the outcome of experiments that strongly select the information available and correspondingly observe singular "trigger features" of these neurons. Notably, however, in more naturalistic situations where multiple dimensions of information are available, hippocampal neurons have mixed selectivity wherein population-firing patterns reflect the organization of many features of experience. Thus, while discoveries on position coding were major breakthroughs in penetrating the hippocampal code, future studies exploring more complex behaviors hold the promise of revealing the full contribution of the hippocampal region to cognition and memory. PMID:25787853

  15. Commissioning: perspectives from the ground.

    PubMed

    Dawda, Paresh; True, Angelene; Wells, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Primary Health Networks (PHNs) have been tasked with two key objectives to be achieved through commissioning. Public value aims can be achieved by developing operational capability in the context of an authorising environment. Public value will need to focus on system level outcomes from multiple perspectives, including a consumer perspective. The authorising environment will require policymakers to allow time for PHNs to mature into their role. It will require an environment of effective collaboration amongst multiple stakeholders including consumers. The operational capability will need to ensure highly competent managers and clinical leadership working in a symbiotic relationship. Although some Medicare Locals demonstrated commissioning capacity and capability, this will need to be scaled up at-pace in the new healthcare landscape in order for PHNs to optimally fulfil their roles. PMID:27469048

  16. Integrating generational perspectives in nursing.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J

    2006-05-01

    Although nurses from four different generations work closely together, tension may occur as the different generational perspectives result in misinterpretation and misunderstanding. Learning to create integrated and collegial relationships with people from different generations is a critical skill for nurses who work in multigenerational teams. This article will begin with a review of the historical perspective of the four generational cohorts currently in the workplace. This review will set a foundation for understanding each generation's unique set of work and personal values. Then the article will discuss various sources of multigenerational misunderstandings and conclude with a discussion of approaches to strengthen intergenerational work teams. The article will emphasize that learning to appreciate the diverse points of view, leverage the strengths, and value the differences in colleagues from various generations can enable individuals to form creative, adaptable, and cohesive work groups. PMID:17201576

  17. Industry perspectives on biomarker qualification.

    PubMed

    Lavezzari, G; Womack, A W

    2016-02-01

    Biomarkers have the potential to expedite drug development, increase patient safety, and optimize clinical response. Yet few have achieved regulatory qualification. A survey was conducted to clarify industry's perspective on biomarker qualification and identify the most promising biomarkers for drug development. The results across toxicities/clinical areas highlight challenges in regulatory qualification, although early prioritization and alignment on an evidentiary standard framework are key factors in facilitating biomarker development and qualification. PMID:26378777

  18. Intersectional perspective in elderly care.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Marta; Rämgård, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees' well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee's self

  19. Comment on Lance Wallace's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, A.L. )

    1993-04-01

    The author uses Lance Wallace's Perspective ( A Decade of Studies of Human Exposure: What Have We Learned', Risk Analysis, Vol 13, No. 2, 1993, pp. 135-142) as a good case for much greater national attention to indoor air pollution. This article describes the reasons why so little attention has been devoted to indoor air pollution despite convincing evidence of the threats posed to the public by this aspect of pollution.

  20. Intersectional perspective in elderly care

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Marta; Rämgård, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that power relationships at workplaces are constructed by power structures. Processes related to power always influence the working conditions for (in this study in elderly care) the working groups involved. Power structures are central for intersectional analysis, in the sense that the intersectional perspective highlights aspects such as gender and ethnicity (subjective dimensions) and interrelates them to processes of power (objective dimension). This qualitative study aims to explore in what way an intersectional perspective could contribute to increased knowledge of power structures in a nursing home where the employees were mostly immigrants from different countries. By using reflexive dialogues related to an intersectional perspective, new knowledge which contributes to the employees’ well-being could develop. Narrative analysis was the method used to conduct this study. Through a multi-stage focus group on six occasions over 6 months, the staff were engaged in intersectional and critical reflections about power relationship with the researchers, by identifying patterns in their professional activities that could be connected to their subjectivities (gender, ethnicity, etc.). The result of this study presents three themes that express the staff's experiences and connect these experiences to structural discrimination. 1) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of professionalism; 2) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of collaboration; and 3) Intersectionality, knowledge, and experiences of discrimination. The result demonstrates that an intersectional perspective reinforces the involved abilities, during the conversations, into being clear about, for example, their experiences of discrimination, and consequently developing a better understanding of their professionalism and collaboration. Such deeper reflections became possible through a process of consciousness raising, strengthening the employee's self

  1. The Nash equilibrium: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Holt, Charles A; Roth, Alvin E

    2004-03-23

    In 1950, John Nash contributed a remarkable one-page PNAS article that defined and characterized a notion of equilibrium for n- person games. This notion, now called the "Nash equilibrium," has been widely applied and adapted in economics and other behavioral sciences. Indeed, game theory, with the Nash equilibrium as its centerpiece, is becoming the most prominent unifying theory of social science. In this perspective, we summarize the historical context and subsequent impact of Nash's contribution. PMID:15024100

  2. Psychodynamic Perspective on Therapeutic Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Nancy A.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of boundaries in therapeutic work most often focuses on boundary maintenance, risk management factors, and boundary violations. The psychodynamic meaning and clinical management of boundaries in therapeutic relationships remains a neglected area of discourse. Clinical vignettes will illustrate a psychodynamic, developmental-relational perspective using boundary dilemmas to deepen and advance the therapeutic process. This article contributes to the dialogue about the process of making meaning and constructing therapeutically useful and creative boundaries that further the psychotherapeutic process. PMID:10523432

  3. A perspective on nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    North, D W

    1999-08-01

    The management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste has the deserved reputation as one of the most intractable policy issues facing the United States and other nations using nuclear reactors for electric power generation. This paper presents the author's perspective on this complex issue, based on a decade of service with the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board and Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council. PMID:10765433

  4. Ozone attainment: A different perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, W.B. )

    1988-01-01

    Recent attention on the ozone non-attainment issue has been focused on Washington. Both Congress and the EPA have made efforts at addressing the post-1987 crisis in the many non-attainment areas. In contrast to the political activity, this paper presents some interesting technical perspectives on ozone attainment for many areas of the U.S.. Issues such as transport, climate and natural ozone sources are discussed in the context of exceedance frequency for several geographical areas of the country.

  5. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. PMID:25173593

  6. Approaching Adult Education Literature Using the Donlevy Template of Perspectives: A Focus on the Psychological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, James G.; Donlevy, Tia Rice

    1998-01-01

    Provides brief descriptions of adult education from technological, psychological, ideological, and sociological perspectives. Author examines the psychological perspective, highlighting the work of Jack Mezirow (transformation theory), Roger Gould (seven-step adult development process), Patricia Cranton (Understanding and Promoting Transformative…

  7. A Piagetian Constructivist Perspective on Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Clement B. G.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses specifically on Jean Piaget's theory of development. Examines Piaget's ideas about constructivism and explores the application of this theoretical perspective to the conceptualization of curriculum development. (MG)

  8. Perspective switching using theories and interpretations

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, W.M.

    1996-12-31

    An important aspect of intelligence is the ability to switch perspectives. In the course of reasoning about a particular subject matter, it can be convenient to change from one perspective of the subject matter to another perspective, which is often at a different level of abstraction. For example, in some situations it may be advantageous to view a building as a collection of floors and in other situations as a collection of wings. If the arrangement of the rooms is not important for the task at hand, the building might be viewed as simply an unstructured collection of rooms. These are three perspectives on how a building can be decomposed. Utilizing multiple perspectives and freeing moving from one to another is a powerful method for both managing complexity and organizing knowledge. The key idea behind this method is to always employ the {open_quotes}right{close_quotes} perspective for each reasoning task. This talk will address the following two questions: (1) What logical machinery is needed to formalize perspective switching? (2) How can knowledge associated with one perspective be retrieved for use with another perspective?

  9. Science, technology and ethics: from critical perspective to dialectical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Sylvain

    2005-06-01

    It has been agreed upon, according to critical perspective, to distinguish the problems raised by scientific issues on the one hand and the problems raised by moral issues on the other. This distinction, at the genesis of theoretical ideology, postulates that experimental science is mere knowledge which, since it has nothing to do with action, cannot raise a moral problem. Yet the use of experimental techniques turns out to be a necessary means, although an insufficient one, to put to the test and to confirm the theoretical hypothesis of science. Thus, those techniques produce perceptible effects which can be assimilated to genuine transformation and are consequently capable of raising moral problems. It follows that the technical imperative of science can be conditioned by a moral imperative of technique, which leads to modification of the object of the research and dubs it, a dialectical object. It is, however, advisable to effect a demarcation between that which, within the frame work of research in experimental science, can pose a moral problem and which cannot. The criterion of refusability of practical projects, by analogy with Popper's criterion of refutability of theoretical conjectures, allows for this demarcation to be implemented. It postulates that only the technical projects of science, apart from scientific theories, can pose a moral problem or can be recognized as moral, providing that the conditions of a possible ethical refusal can be expressed. From the analysis and the synthesis of heterogeneous possibilities, dialectical perspective thus outlined represents an endeavour to go beyond critical perspective, while trying to seek an intermediary channel between the "progressist dogmatism" of science and the obscurantist scepticism" of morals. PMID:16619430

  10. A Phenomenological Perspective of Educating Students at the Matt Garcia Learning Center: Resiliency Development, Responsibility Development and Relationship Building Development Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Robert Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The professional educators of Matt Garcia Learning Center (MGLC) have undertaken a monumental task of providing education to students considered to be significantly at-risk in a public school of choice. These educators are focusing on quelling the "negative success trajectory" prevalent for each of the students of MGLC. Understanding the…

  11. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  12. Green fluorescent protein: A perspective

    PubMed Central

    Remington, S James

    2011-01-01

    A brief personal perspective is provided for green fluorescent protein (GFP), covering the period 1994–2011. The topics discussed are primarily those in which my research group has made a contribution and include structure and function of the GFP polypeptide, the mechanism of fluorescence emission, excited state protein transfer, the design of ratiometric fluorescent protein biosensors and an overview of the fluorescent proteins derived from coral reef animals. Structure-function relationships in photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and nonfluorescent chromoproteins are also briefly covered. PMID:21714025

  13. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  14. Macroevolutionary perspectives to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Condamine, Fabien L; Rolland, Jonathan; Morlon, Hélène

    2013-05-01

    Predicting how biodiversity will be affected and will respond to human-induced environmental changes is one of the most critical challenges facing ecologists today. Here, we put current environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity in a macroevolutionary perspective. We build on research in palaeontology and recent developments in phylogenetic approaches to ask how macroevolution can help us understand how environmental changes have affected biodiversity in the past, and how they will affect biodiversity in the future. More and more paleontological and phylogenetic data are accumulated, and we argue that much of the potential these data have for understanding environmental changes remains to be explored. PMID:23331627

  15. A user's Perspective on Software

    SciTech Connect

    Isadoro T. Carlino

    2006-10-24

    The user is often the most overlooked component of control system design. At Jefferson Lab the control system is almost entirely digital in nature, with little feedback except that which is deliberately designed into the control system. In the complex control room environment a good design can enhance the user's abilities to preform good science. A bad design can leave the user frustrated and contribute significantly to down time, when science is not being done. Key points of use and design from the user's perspective are discussed, along with some techniques which have been adopted at Jefferson Lab to improve the user experience and produce better, more usable software.

  16. Electrical stimulation: a societal perspective.

    PubMed

    Gater, D R; McDowell, S M; Abbas, J J

    2000-01-01

    Societal perspective on functional electrical stimulation is colored by media influence, popular thought, and political climate as much as by the science that supports it. The purpose of this article is to examine how these influences facilitate or inhibit the application of electrical stimulation in today's world and to describe the challenges facing the use of electrical stimulation in the future. Emphasis will be placed on perceived need, cost, and available resources and how these factors must be addressed to utilize functional electrical stimulation successfully in society. PMID:11067581

  17. Breastfeeding: population-based perspectives.

    PubMed

    Labbok, Miriam H

    2013-02-01

    From a population perspective, the achievement of the goals of exclusive breastfeeding throughout the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding with the introduction of age-appropriate complementary feeding for infant feeding, women and families must be inspired and empowered to overcome health system, sociocultural, and economic/political barriers. This article discusses trends in breastfeeding, influences on the reacceptance of a breastfeeding norm, and breastfeeding as a social and public health issue. The goal is to create an enabling environment for optimal breastfeeding in health care and social norms, and to adjust the social and political realities to support an economic milieu that favors breastfeeding. PMID:23178058

  18. Pregnancy sickness: a biopsychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2012-10-01

    Pregnancy sickness is a universal phenomenon, affecting 70% to 85% of all pregnant women. The primary symptoms of pregnancy sickness are nausea, vomiting, and food aversions. In the past, pregnancy sickness was attributed to psychological disturbances of the pregnant woman. However, recent evolutionary psychological and biopsychological studies have reconsidered pregnancy sickness as an embryo-protective mechanism, an evolutionary adaptation to protect the embryo from phytotoxins and other environmental hazards. The biopsychological perspective of pregnancy sickness as an embryo-protective mechanism is presented. PMID:23112071

  19. Perspectives on tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rosemary; Neiger, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    In light of the recent NCT petition to Health Minister Dr Dan Poulter MP to update guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tongue-tied babies to avoid stress and difficulties feeding for babies and their families, discussion has been sparked amongst mothers, midwives, health visitors and breastfeeding counsellors as to how exactly services could be improved. Access to evidence-based, family-centred care is vital to address this potentially distressing condition. But are we too quick to jump in with a diagnosis that may ultimately be of no clinical significance? This articles presents two professional perspectives on the issue and highlights the pertinent research available. PMID:25571701

  20. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person's cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  1. Quantum Decoherence: A Logical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Sebastian; Vanni, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The so-called classical limit of quantum mechanics is generally studied in terms of the decoherence of the state operator that characterizes a system. This is not the only possible approach to decoherence. In previous works we have presented the possibility of studying the classical limit in terms of the decoherence of relevant observables of the system. On the basis of this approach, in this paper we introduce the classical limit from a logical perspective, by studying the way in which the logical structure of quantum properties corresponding to relevant observables acquires Boolean characteristics.

  2. Taking Perspective: Context, Culture, and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M.; Suárez-Orozco, Carola

    2013-01-01

    There are important lessons to be learned from taking a comparative perspective in considering migration. Comparative examination of immigration experiences provides a way to glean common denominators of adaptation while considering the specificity of sending and receiving contexts and cultures. Equally important is a historical perspective that…

  3. Autonomous Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.

    2006-01-01

    The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…

  4. Governing Tomorrow's Campus. Perspectives and Agendas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jack H.; And Others

    A collection of original essays about who will and should share in governing colleges and universities is presented. Five parts contain 15 chapters as follows: (1) The Context of Contemporary Campus Governance: "Academic Governance: An Evolutionary Perspective," (W. Metzger); (2) New Perspectives on Campus Governance: "Leadership and Followership:…

  5. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  6. Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, W. Graham; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1983-01-01

    Classifies organizational theories, by analytical level and assumptions about human nature, into four perspectives (system-structural, strategic choice, natural selection, collective action), each with different concepts of organizational structure, behavior, change, and managerial roles. Identifies six debates generated among the perspectives and…

  7. Data Sharing from a Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, R. Alan

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses questions of data sharing from the perspective of a former NSF program officer. A brief comparison of policy and research perspectives is made to highlight different values in these two communities. Data sharing is framed as one means to support dialog between researchers and those involved in policy. Other uses of data…

  8. Academic Perspectives on Internationalisation in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertova, Patricie

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of senior academics on internationalisation of higher education across three countries: England, Czech Republic and Australia. In particular, it investigates the perspectives and experiences of academics in a range of leadership positions in university faculties and schools. The research utilises a critical…

  9. Recognizing Privilege: Rural, Urban, and International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Sunny L.; Rinfret, Sara; Davitt, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Forms of White oppression in the United States are hierarchically evaluated through male-dominated society. This paper concentrates on a different perspective--White, female privilege through the experiences and self-reflections of narratives from three geographical perspectives--rural, urban, and international. Within the theoretical frameworks…

  10. Science Teacher Education: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Sandra K., Ed.

    This book presents reform efforts in science teacher education from an international perspective. Chapters include: (1) "International Perspectives on Science Teacher Education: An Introduction" (Sandra K. Abell); (2) "The Development of Preservice Elementary Science Teacher Education in Australia" (Ken Appleton, Ian S. Ginns, and James J.…

  11. The Native American Woman: A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicine, Bea

    Presenting varied perspectives describing the Native American woman, this book is divided into six chapters as follows: (1) Native Americans and Anthropology (this chapter illustrates the way in which anthropologists have helped stereotype American Indian women); (2) The Native American Woman in Ethnographic Perspective (emphasizing role…

  12. ASD Academic Transitions: Trends in Parental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cindy; McCoy, Kathleen M.; Zucker, Stanley H.; Mathur, Sarup R.

    2014-01-01

    Academic transitions are a necessary and important part of an ASD student's life. Parental involvement and perspective is a vital part of each transition planning process. The primary goal of this research was to identify trends in parent perspectives regarding ASD academic transitions through meta-synthesis of current research. The research…

  13. Towards an Irreducible Global Perspective in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, David

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the University of York's Centre for Global Education's four-dimensional model of global education, which includes inner, spatial, temporal, and issues dimensions. Presents the argument that an irreducible global perspective should include: (1) systems consciousness; (2) perspective consciousness; (3) health of planet awareness; (4)…

  14. A Discussion of Future Time Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this…

  15. Analyzing Educational Policies: A Learning Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Paul; Jackson, Kara

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe and illustrate an analytical perspective in which educational policies are viewed as designs for supporting learning. From the learning design perspective, a policy comprises 3 components that we term the what, how, and "why of policy": the goals for the learning of members of the group targeted by the policy, the…

  16. Virtual Learning Environments: Three Implementation Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Universities worldwide offer web-based courses distributed by virtual learning environments (VLEs). A common theoretical framework for implementing VLEs is the pedagogical perspective of instructional design. In this paper, three perspectives of implementation from information systems implementation research and organization theory are presented:…

  17. Negative Effects from Psychological Treatments: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The author offers a 40-year perspective on the observation and study of negative effects from psychotherapy or psychological treatments. This perspective is placed in the context of the enormous progress in refining methodologies for psychotherapy research over that period of time, resulting in the clear demonstration of positive effects from…

  18. Personal Pronouns and Perspective Taking in Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricard, Marcelle; Girouard, Pascale C.; Gouin Decarie, Therese

    1999-01-01

    Examined the evolution of visual perspective-taking skills in relation to comprehension and production of first, second, and third person pronouns among French and English speaking toddlers. Some perceptual perspective-taking capacities were well developed by the time children acquired a full mastery of personal pronouns. Full pronoun acquisition…

  19. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide range of…

  20. Development and Desire: A Postmodern Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    Three theoretical perspectives guide this discussion of teacher development: symbolic interactionism, critical social theory, and theories of postmodernity. Drawing on these perspectives, key dimensions of teacher development can be addressed. Good teaching involves competence in technical skills, but it also involves moral purpose; emotional…

  1. SEARCH and a computational perspective of evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kargupta, H.

    1996-05-01

    This paper develops an alternate perspective of natural evolution using the SEARCH (Search Envisioned As Relation and Class Hierarchizing) framework (Kargupta, 1995). Some problems of existing views about evolutionary computation are noted. An attempt is made to fulfill these deficiencies using a new computational perspective of gene expression based on a decomposition of blackbox optimization in terms of relations, classes, samples, and partial ordering.

  2. Functional Family Therapy: A Life Cycle Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetchler, Joseph L.

    1985-01-01

    Functional family therapy model assesses family behavior from perspectives of interactional process and functional payoffs for the individual family members. Illustrates that functional needs change as a result of development, and that by including a family life cycle perspective in the assessment process, clinicians will get a clearer picture of…

  3. Perspective-Based Learning in Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Robb

    2009-01-01

    An extensive research literature in education and psychology demonstrates positive effects of perspective-taking on various forms of learning. Until recently, perspective-taking has been limited to the mental simulation of how someone with different beliefs, knowledge, physical location, etc., perceives an object or event. Over the last decade…

  4. Perspective-Taking in Classroom Science Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Elaine M.; Warburton, Edward

    A study analyzed the perspectives, as expressed in gestures, of six sixth-grade students in science classes as they either explained in-the-moment or described book-learned or previously thought-out ideas. Student behaviors were analyzed for evidence of three perspectives: (1) outside observer, shown by the observer standing apart from his gesture…

  5. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  6. New Perspectives on an Old Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosania, MaryJo

    2006-01-01

    Since the Renaissance, artists have used one- and two-point perspective to describe space in their work. After the release of artist David Hockney's theory questioning the use of lenses and "Scientific America's" attempt to disprove Hockney's theories, perspective has gotten quite controversial. The art world's perplexity surrounding the concept…

  7. Evolution of Theoretical Perspectives in My Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Valerie K.

    2009-11-01

    Over the past 10 years I have been using socio-cultural theoretical perspectives to understand how people learn physics in a highly interactive, inquiry-based physics course such as Physics and Everyday Thinking [1]. As a result of using various perspectives (e.g. Distributed Cognition and Vygotsky's Theory of Concept Formation), my understanding of how these perspectives can be useful for investigating students' learning processes has changed. In this paper, I illustrate changes in my thinking about the role of socio-cultural perspectives in understanding physics learning and describe elements of my thinking that have remained fairly stable. Finally, I will discuss pitfalls in the use of certain perspectives and discuss areas that need attention in theoretical development for PER.

  8. Patient Perspectives on Biosimilar Insulin.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Alasdair R; Venkat, Manu V; Brown, Adam S; Dong, Jessica P; Ran, Nina A; Hirsch, James S; Close, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Given that a new wave of biosimilar insulins will likely enter the market in coming years, it is important to understand patient perspectives on these biosimilars. A survey (N = 3214) conducted by the market research company dQ&A, which maintains a 10 000-patient panel of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in roughly equal measure, investigated these perspectives. The survey asked whether patients would switch to a hypothetical less expensive biosimilar insulin that was approved by their provider. Approximately 66% of respondents reported that they would "definitely" or "likely" use a biosimilar insulin, while 17% reported that they were "unlikely" to use or would "definitely not use" such a product. Type 2 diabetes patients demonstrated slightly more willingness to use biosimilars than type 1 diabetes patients. Common patient concerns included whether biosimilars would be as effective as reference products (~650 respondents), whether side effect profiles would deviate from those of reference products (~220 respondents), and the design of the delivery device (~50 respondents). While cost savings associated with biosimilar insulins could increase patient uptake, especially among patients without health insurance (some recent estimates suggest that biosimilars will come at a substantial discount), patients may still need assurance that a cheaper price tag is not necessarily associated with substandard quality. Overall, the dQ&A survey indicates that the majority of patients are willing to consider biosimilar insulins, but manufacturers will need to work proactively to address and assuage patient concerns regarding efficacy, safety, drug administration, and other factors. PMID:24876533

  9. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  10. Perspectives on Aging Vestibular Function

    PubMed Central

    Anson, Eric; Jeka, John

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about age-related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities such as standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multisensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper, we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multisensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults. PMID:26779116

  11. Decent Work: A Psychological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Blustein, David L.; Olle, Chad; Connors-Kellgren, Alice; Diamonti, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution, which serves as the lead article for the Research Topic entitled “From Meaning of Working to Meaningful Lives: The Challenges of Expanding Decent Work,” explores current challenges in the development and operationalization of decent work. Based on an initiative from the International Labor Organization [ILO] (1999) decent work represents an aspirational statement about the quality of work that should be available to all people who seek to work around the globe. Within recent years, several critiques have been raised about decent work from various disciplines, highlighting concerns about a retreat from the social justice ethos that had initially defined the concept. In addition, other scholars have observed that decent work has not included a focus on the role of meaning and purpose at work. To address these concerns, we propose that a psychological perspective can help to revitalize the decent work agenda by infusing a more specific focus on individual experiences and by reconnecting decent work to its social justice origins. As an illustration of the advantages of a psychological perspective, we explore the rise of precarious work and also connect the decent work agenda to the Psychology-of-Working Framework and Theory (Blustein, 2006; Duffy et al., 2016). PMID:27047430

  12. Perspectives on Aging Vestibular Function.

    PubMed

    Anson, Eric; Jeka, John

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about age-related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities such as standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multisensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper, we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multisensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults. PMID:26779116

  13. [Growing old differently: Transdisciplinary perspective].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H-P

    2015-04-01

    Growing old differently: the phrase is intended to call something other to mind than merely the fact that images and forms of old age and aging have multiplied and diversified to an enormous extent. The suggestion put forward here is that otherness (as opposed to mere differences) should be positively reinforced. In other words, it is not just a matter of noting different forms of old age and aging but more than this, of seeking out opportunities for aging differently. In order to explore this, the article follows an older strand of theory, which has recently come to be frequently quoted in gerontology: the phenomenology of difference as reasoned analytically by Lévinas and Sartre and applied to gerontology by Améry and de Beauvoir. Here, opportunities for aging crucially depend on the way we look at it, how we observe and describe it and not least, how gerontology frames it. A distinction is made between two perspectives and their associated consequences for old age: alienation and alterity. Alienation means looking at old age above all as a disconcerting "other", as a perplexing, problematic deviation from the norm of vitality. Alterity, by contrast, refers to different options for living life in old age: options to be explored and opened up in contradistinction to cultural or academic alienation. Not least, the article appeals for diversity in scholarly approaches and for cross-disciplinary perspectives. PMID:25801518

  14. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Dance education provides a language that allows students and teachers to express themselves in new ways and to think through ideas differently. All students deserve the opportunity to learn things in new ways, to internalize information and rephrase it, to understand their world and contribute to it. All students deserve the opportunity to…

  15. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Patricia, Ed.

    Designed to encourage informed and critical thinking on contemporary political issues and processes, the articles, case studies, and activities in this student handbook can be incorporated into secondary school social studies units on government or current events. Eight chapters cover the presidency, the federal bureaucracy, the Congress, the…

  16. Perspective.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2015-01-01

    I am a developmental biologist, but I started off as a civil engineer. I did some research on soil mechanics but decided to change to biology. A friend changed my life when he told me about the mechanics of cell division, on which I did my PhD at Kings College. I then worked on the morphogenesis of the sea urchin embryo and became interested in how embryos are patterned, and I proposed positional information as a basic mechanism. I was a professor at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School, where we concentrated on how the chick limb developed. PMID:26393774

  17. The Institutional Perspective on School Improvement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.

    The insights of various theoretical perspectives on school improvement can be integrated in a common framework called "the institutional perspective" when the sensitivity of each theoretical perspective to the nature of decision making for school improvement is taken into account. The institutional perspective thus generated considers the…

  18. Anxiety impairs spontaneous perspective calculation: Evidence from a level-1 visual perspective-taking task.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew R; Simpson, Austin J

    2016-11-01

    Reasoning about other people's mental states is central to social life. Yet, even neuro-typical adults sometimes have perspective-taking difficulties, particularly when another's perspective conflicts with their own. In two experiments, we examined the cognitive mechanisms underlying an affective factor known to hinder perspective taking in adults: anxiety. Using a level-1 visual perspective-taking task, we found that incidentally experiencing anxiety, relative to neutral feelings and anger, impaired the spontaneous calculation of what another social agent can see. Feeling anxious did not, however, impede perspective calculation with a non-social entity, suggesting that anxiety's disruptive effects may be particularly pronounced for social aspects of cognition. These findings help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of incidental emotions on perspective taking and inform debates about "implicit" forms of mentalizing. PMID:27522111

  19. Nursing perspectives for intensive care.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, P

    1997-06-01

    Within health care, market forces increasingly determine what services have economic value. For nursing to survive this economic onslaught, nurses must clarify their values and roles. While nurses working in intensive care develop useful technical skills and normally work within a constructive multi-disciplinary team framework, they have a potentially unique contribution to care, focusing on the patient as a whole person rather than intervening to solve a problem. The need for both physiological and psychological care creates a need for holistic values, best achieved through humanistic perspectives. Humanistic nursing places patients as people at the centre of nursing care, as illustrated by the limitations of reality orientation compared with the potentials of validation therapy. Intensive care nurses asserting and developing such patient-centred roles offer a valuable way forward for nursing to develop into the 21st century. PMID:9287577

  20. A coastal perspective on security.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John

    2003-11-14

    This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with coastal waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in coastal environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations. PMID:14602395

  1. International minerals: a national perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Seven authors bring a variety of perspectives to the subject of minerals availability. In the domestic area, an overview of the US strategic mineral situation is followed by a discussion of changes in one state's mineral policy decisions over a 200-year period. Later chapters describe the potential of Alaska's mineral resources, with a focus on the immediate need for a thorough inventory of this vast area, and the nature and sources of mineral information available to Canadian policymakers as useful models in making inventories. In the international area, there is a discussion of the key role of South Africa in the world mineral picture and the strategic importance to the Soviet Union of the mineral wealth of Afghanistan. The volume concludes with a review of the history of US mineral policies. Separate abstracts were prepared for the seven chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  2. Perspectives on anechoic chamber qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunefare, Kenneth A.; Biesel, Van B.

    2002-11-01

    The qualification of a new anechoic chamber requires demonstration that the chamber produces a free-field environment within some tolerance bounds and over some acceptable volume. At the most basic level, qualification requires measurement of sound levels at increasing distances from a test source, and then comparing the levels to a theoretical free-field decay. While simple in concept, the actual performance of a qualification test is problematic in implementation, with troublesome issues relevant to the nature of the sound source, test signal (broadband or pure tone), spatial resolution of measurements (e.g., measurements at discrete locations or spatially continuous), and comparison of the data to a theoretical decay. This presentation will provide a brief historical perspective on chamber qualification and review current practice. It will demonstrate the inadequacy of broadband noise and widely spaced discrete measurements for qualification purposes. It will demonstrate that pure tone signals and spatially continuous measurements provide a rigorous test of a chambers performance.

  3. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief review of Cosmological Inflation from the personal perspective of the speaker who almost 30 years ago proposed a way of resolving the problem of Cosmological Horizon by employing certain notions and developments from the field of High Energy Physics. Along with a brief introduction of the Horizon and Flatness problems of standard cosmology, this lecture concentrates on personal reminiscing of the notions and ideas that prevailed and influenced the author's thinking at the time. The lecture then touches upon some more recent developments related to the subject including exact solutions to conformal gravity that provide a first principles emergence of a characteristic acceleration in the universe and concludes with some personal views concerning the direction that the cosmology field has taken in the past couple of decades and certain speculations some notions that may indicate future directions of research.

  4. Perspectives on sustainable waste management.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Marco J

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable waste management is a goal that all societies must strive to maintain. Currently nearly 80% of global wastes are sent to landfill, with a significant amount lacking proper design or containment. The increased attention to environmental impacts of human activities and the increasing demand for energy and materials have resulted in a new perspective on waste streams. Use of waste streams for energy and materials recovery is becoming more prevalent, especially in developed regions of the world, such as Europe, the United States, and Japan. Although currently these efforts have a small impact on waste disposal, use of waste streams to extract value very likely will increase as society becomes more aware of the options available. This review presents an overview of waste management with a focus on following an expanded waste hierarchy to extract value specifically from municipal solid waste streams. PMID:24910921

  5. Orbital Debris: A Policy Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing orbital debris from a policy perspective is shown. The contents include: 1) Voyage through near-Earth Space-animation; 2) What is Orbital Debris?; 3) Orbital Debris Detectors and Damage Potential; 4) Hubble Space Telescope; 5) Mir Space Station Solar Array; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Satellite Explosions; 9) Satellite Collisions; 10) NASA Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines; 11) International Space Station Jettison Policy; 12) Controlled/Uncontrolled Satellite Reentries; 13) Return of Space Objects; 14) Orbital Debris and U.S. National Space Policy; 15) U.S Government Policy Strategy; 16) Bankruptcy of the Iridium Satellite System; 17) Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC); 18) Orbital Debris at the United Nations; 19) Chinese Anti-satellite System; 20) Future Evolution of Satellite Population; and 21) Challenge of Orbital Debris

  6. Cell membranes: A subjective perspective.

    PubMed

    Simons, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Cell membranes have developed a tremendous complexity of lipids and proteins geared to perform the functions cells require. The lipids have for long remained in the background and are now regaining their role as important building blocks of cells. Their main function is to form the matrix of our cell membranes where they support a variety of functions essential for life. This 2-dimensional fluid matrix has evolved unexpected material properties that involve both lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions. This perspective is a short summary of the challenges that this field faces and discusses potential ways and means for coming to grips with the properties of this incredible fluid. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg. PMID:26827711

  7. Sparsity and the Bayesian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starck, J.-L.; Donoho, D. L.; Fadili, M. J.; Rassat, A.

    2013-04-01

    Sparsity has recently been introduced in cosmology for weak-lensing and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data analysis for different applications such as denoising, component separation, or inpainting (i.e., filling the missing data or the mask). Although it gives very nice numerical results, CMB sparse inpainting has been severely criticized by top researchers in cosmology using arguments derived from a Bayesian perspective. In an attempt to understand their point of view, we realize that interpreting a regularization penalty term as a prior in a Bayesian framework can lead to erroneous conclusions. This paper is by no means against the Bayesian approach, which has proven to be very useful for many applications, but warns against a Bayesian-only interpretation in data analysis, which can be misleading in some cases.

  8. Aspirin: from a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ugurlucan, Murat; Caglar, Ilker M; Caglar, Fatma N Turhan; Ziyade, Sedat; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Yildiz, Yahya; Zencirci, Ertugrul; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Arslan, Ahmet H; Korkmaz, Semra; Filizcan, Ugur; Cicek, Sertac

    2012-04-01

    Aspirin is one of the oldest medicines. Due to its wide range usage in different fields of medicine, we aimed to present the history, effects and different uses of aspirin in this review. Furthermore, recent patents of novel pharmaceutical interventions in the field of acetylsalicylic acid, expanding treatment options are presented. Literature search was performed in order to reach data and present information about aspirin from a historical perspective. Since its first use as a pain killer, aspirin has found a broad range of use in general medicine, cardiovascular medicine, neurology, obstetrics and gynecology, dentistry, gastroenterology, oncology with its different effects. Aspirin, a painkilling gift of history to mankind, with a history dating back to BC and various healing effects, promises to be of greater use in different fields of medicine with the light of recent studies, inspiring more research and gaining more popularity. PMID:22257089

  9. Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Soli, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Although siblings are a fixture of family life, research on sibling relationships lags behind that on other family relationships. To stimulate interest in sibling research and to serve as a guide for future investigations by family scholars, we review four theoretical psychologically oriented perspectives—(a) psychoanalytic-evolutionary, (b) social psychological, (c) social learning, and (d) family-ecological systems—that can inform research on sibling relationships, including perspectives on the nature and influences on developmental, individual, and group differences in sibling relationships. Given that most research on siblings has focused on childhood and adolescence, our review highlights these developmental periods, but we also incorporate the limited research on adult sibling relationships, including in formulating suggestions for future research on this fundamental family relationship. PMID:21731581

  10. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kafatos, Menas C; Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D

    2015-11-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe. PMID:26665039

  11. Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.; Guerin, Scott A.; St. Jacques, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    Memory is prone to distortions that can have serious consequences in everyday life. Here we integrate emerging evidence that several types of memory distortions – imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors, and post-event misinformation – reflect adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory, but produce distortions as a consequence of doing so. We consider recent cognitive and neuroimaging studies that link these distortions with adaptive processes, including simulation of future events, semantic and contextual encoding, creativity, and memory updating. We also discuss new evidence concerning factors that can influence the occurrence of memory distortions, such as sleep and retrieval conditions, as well as conceptual issues related to the development of an adaptive perspective. PMID:21908231

  12. Critical perspectives on historical collapse

    PubMed Central

    Butzer, Karl W.; Endfield, Georgina H.

    2012-01-01

    Historical collapse of ancient states or civilizations has raised new awareness about its possible relevance to current issues of sustainability, in the context of global change. This Special Feature examines 12 case studies of societies under stress, of which seven suffered severe transformation. Outcomes were complex and unpredictable. Five others overcame breakdown through environmental, political, or socio-cultural resilience, which deserves as much attention as the identification of stressors. Response to environmental crises of the last millennium varied greatly according to place and time but drew from traditional knowledge to evaluate new information or experiment with increasing flexibility, even if modernization or intensification were decentralized and protracted. Longer-term diachronic experience offers insight into how societies have dealt with acute stress, a more instructive perspective for the future than is offered by apocalyptic scenarios. PMID:22371580

  13. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio. PMID:24010857

  14. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  15. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe. PMID:26665039

  16. Practitioner Perspectives on Foundational Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Juliano, Chrissie; Castrucci, Brian C.; Beitsch, Leslie M.; Dilley, Abby; Nelson, Rachel; Kaiman, Sherry; Sprague, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: National efforts are underway to classify a minimum set of public health services that all jurisdictions throughout the United States should provide regardless of location. Such a set of basic programs would be supported by crosscutting services, known as the “foundational capabilities” (FCs). These FCs are assessment services, preparedness and disaster response, policy development, communications, community partnership, and organizational support activities. Objective: To ascertain familiarity with the term and concept of FCs and gather related perspectives from state and local public health practitioners. Design: In fall 2013, we interviewed 50 leaders from state and local health departments. We asked about familiarity with the term “foundational capabilities,” as well as the broader concept of FCs. We attempted to triangulate the utility of the FC concept by asking respondents about priority programs and services, about perceived unique contributions made by public health, and about prevalence and funding for the FCs. Setting: Telephone-based interviews. Participants: Fifty leaders of state and local health departments. Main Outcome Measures: Practitioner familiarity with and perspectives on the FCs, information about current funding streams for public health, and the likelihood of creating nationwide FCs that would be recognized and accepted by all jurisdictions. Results: Slightly more than half of the leaders interviewed said that they were familiar with the concept of FCs. In most cases, health departments had all of the capabilities to some degree, although operationalization varied. Few indicated that current funding levels were sufficient to support implementing a minimum level of FCs nationally. Conclusions: Respondents were not able to articulate the current or optimal levels of services for the various capabilities, nor the costs associated with them. Further research is needed to understand the role of FCs as part of the foundational

  17. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  18. Patient Perspectives on Biosimilar Insulin

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Alasdair R.; Venkat, Manu V.; Brown, Adam S.; Dong, Jessica P.; Ran, Nina A.; Hirsch, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Given that a new wave of biosimilar insulins will likely enter the market in coming years, it is important to understand patient perspectives on these biosimilars. A survey (N = 3214) conducted by the market research company dQ&A, which maintains a 10 000-patient panel of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in roughly equal measure, investigated these perspectives. The survey asked whether patients would switch to a hypothetical less expensive biosimilar insulin that was approved by their provider. Approximately 66% of respondents reported that they would “definitely” or “likely” use a biosimilar insulin, while 17% reported that they were “unlikely” to use or would “definitely not use” such a product. Type 2 diabetes patients demonstrated slightly more willingness to use biosimilars than type 1 diabetes patients. Common patient concerns included whether biosimilars would be as effective as reference products (~650 respondents), whether side effect profiles would deviate from those of reference products (~220 respondents), and the design of the delivery device (~50 respondents). While cost savings associated with biosimilar insulins could increase patient uptake, especially among patients without health insurance (some recent estimates suggest that biosimilars will come at a substantial discount), patients may still need assurance that a cheaper price tag is not necessarily associated with substandard quality. Overall, the dQ&A survey indicates that the majority of patients are willing to consider biosimilar insulins, but manufacturers will need to work proactively to address and assuage patient concerns regarding efficacy, safety, drug administration, and other factors. PMID:24876533

  19. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  20. Textbook Questions in Context-Based and Traditional Chemistry Curricula Analysed from a Content Perspective and a Learning Activities Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    In this study, questions in context-based and traditional chemistry textbooks were analysed from two perspectives that are at the heart of chemistry curricula reforms: a content perspective and a learning activities perspective. To analyse these textbook questions, we developed an instrument for each perspective. In total, 971 textbook questions…

  1. An inside perspective on anabolic steroid abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaive, Chad; Kohler, Tobias S

    2016-04-01

    Steroid abuse is common across gyms across the world. This unique article features an inside perspective/opinion in a question and answer format from a former steroid user/high level body builder. PMID:27141450

  2. Urban transportation: Perspectives on mobility and choice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor); Arnold, G. R.; Bird, J. W.; Brooks, C. M. (Editor); Cobb, W. E.; Cross, J. E.; Darby, L. F.; Erb, N. H.; Ficht, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A study of urban transportation systems are presented characterized by intensive scrutiny of many ideas, philosophies, and academic perspectives. This report is intended to communicate some dimensions of the urban transportation problem to the general public.

  3. Dual Enrollment Participation from the Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanny, M. Allison

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the experiences of five high school students previously enrolled in dual enrollment courses, and discusses the perceived benefits and disadvantages of these experiences from the student perspective.

  4. An inside perspective on anabolic steroid abuse

    PubMed Central

    Schaive, Chad; Kohler, Tobias S.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid abuse is common across gyms across the world. This unique article features an inside perspective/opinion in a question and answer format from a former steroid user/high level body builder. PMID:27141450

  5. Interactivity in Multimedia: Reconsidering Our Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazelenchuk, Todd W.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews perspectives on closed (nonnetworked) multimedia systems, identifies characteristics of meaningful interactions, and outlines some basic considerations for designers of interactive multimedia instruction. Highlights include active learning environments; learner control; feedback; learner response options; adaptability; and engagement and…

  6. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics.

  7. Depression and Higher Education: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehlman, Beth

    1977-01-01

    Calls attention to some of the more obvious and interesting parallels between the 1930s and 1970s and suggests that such comparisons might be fruitful in gaining perspective on the problems faced in higher education today. (Author/IRT)

  8. Violence toward Youth: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1979-01-01

    Studies dealing with the definitions, incidence and prevalence, causes, consequences, and prevention and treatment of violence toward children are briefly reviewed in this argument for the development of a new, constructive perspective on the rights and treatment of children. (EB)

  9. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  10. A Perspective on Physical Organic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A perspective on the development of mechanistic carbene chemistry is presented. The author will point out questions that have been answered, and a next generation of questions will be proposed. PMID:24571434

  11. Changing perspective: The role of vestibular signals.

    PubMed

    Deroualle, Diane; Borel, Liliane; Devèze, Arnaud; Lopez, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Social interactions depend on mechanisms such as the ability to take another person's viewpoint, i.e. visuo-spatial perspective taking. However, little is known about the sensorimotor mechanisms underpinning perspective taking. Because vestibular signals play roles in mental rotation and spatial cognition tasks and because damage to the vestibular cortex can disturb egocentric perspective, vestibular signals stand as important candidates for the sensorimotor foundations of perspective taking. Yet, no study merged natural full-body vestibular stimulations and explicit visuo-spatial perspective taking tasks in virtual environments. In Experiment 1, we combined natural vestibular stimulation on a rotatory chair with virtual reality to test how vestibular signals are processed to simulate the viewpoint of a distant avatar. While they were rotated, participants tossed a ball to a virtual character from the viewpoint of a distant avatar. Our results showed that vestibular signals influence perspective taking in a direction-specific way: participants were faster when their physical body rotated in the same direction as the mental rotation needed to take the avatar's viewpoint. In Experiment 2, participants realized 3D object mental rotations, which did not involve perspective taking, during the same whole-body vestibular stimulation. Our results demonstrated that vestibular stimulation did not affect 3D object mental rotations. Altogether, these data indicate that vestibular signals have a direction-specific influence on visuo-spatial perspective taking (self-centered mental imagery), but not a general effect on mental imagery. Findings from this study suggest that vestibular signals contribute to one of the most crucial mechanisms of social cognition: understanding others' actions. PMID:26311354

  12. Perspectives of “Functional Failure”

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The present dialogue piece briefly examines six perspectives of functional failure (individual-level, societal-level, life spheres impacted, number of severe consequences, attribution of consequences to drug misuse, and socio-environmental generalizability) as they might apply to seven degrees of drug misuse (constant, dependence, heavy, binging, controlled use, “dry,” sober). Variation in judgments of failure is posited across the perspectives and across degrees of drug misuse. PMID:23186439

  13. Perspective production in a savant autistic draughtsman.

    PubMed

    Mottron, L; Belleville, S

    1995-05-01

    This study examines perspective construction in an autistic patient (E.C.) with quasinormal intelligence who exhibits exceptional ability when performing three-dimensional drawings of inanimate objects. Examination of E.C.'s spontaneous graphic productions showed that although his drawings approximate the 'linear perspective' system, the subject does not use vanishing points in his productions. Nevertheless, a formal computational analysis of E.C.'s accuracy in an experimental task showed that he was able to draw objects rotated in three-dimensional space more accurately than over-trained controls. This accuracy was not modified by suppressing graphic cues that permitted the construction of a vanishing point. E.C. was also able to detect a perspective incongruency between an object and a landscape at a level superior to that of control subjects. Since E.C. does not construct vanishing points in his drawings, it is proposed that his production of a precise realistic perspective is reached without the use of explicit or implicit perspective rules. 'Special abilities' in perspective are examined in relation to existing theoretical models of the cognitive deficit in autism and are compared to other special abilities in autism. PMID:7480443

  14. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  15. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is the San Andreas Fault in an image created with data from NASA's shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, California, about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. This area is at the junction of two large mountain ranges, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains on the right. Quail Lake Reservoir sits in the topographic depression created by past movement along the fault. Interstate 5 is the prominent linear feature starting at the left edge of the image and continuing into the fault zone, passing eventually over Tejon Pass into the Central Valley, visible at the upper left.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994

  16. Cryptobiosis: a new theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair

    2006-10-01

    article, I would like to present the idea that although cryptobiosis is obscure from a certain point of view, it makes sense within a scientific perspective suggesting that "organization becomes cause in the matter" [Strohman, R.C., 2000. Organization becomes cause in the matter. Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 575-576]. I present Bateson's idea that organisms have a "recursive hierarchical" form of organization [Neuman, Y., 2004. Meaning making in the immune system. Perspect. Biol. Med. 48, 320-327; Neuman, Y., in press. A theory of meaning. Inform. Sci.] and suggest that this form of organization allows bootstrapping through reversible process of computation as discussed by theoretical physicists [Bennett, C.H., 1982. The thermodynamics of computation-a review. Int. J. Theoret. Phys. 1, 905-940; Landauer and Bennett, 1985]. PMID:16380155

  17. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  18. SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  19. Effect of Computer-Aided Perspective Drawings on Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtulus, Aytac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of computer-aided Perspective Drawings on eighth grade primary school students' achievement in Spatial Orientation and Perspective Drawing. The study made use of pre-test post-test control group experimental design. The study was conducted with thirty 8th grade students attending a primary school…

  20. Evolutionary Perspective in Child Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child’s growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment. PMID:23908815

  1. A Chemical Perspective on Allostery.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andre A S T; Ortiz, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Much work has been done in the past decade to quantify the phenomenon of allosteric communication in proteins. Every new study unveils an extra piece of the puzzle in our search for an understanding of allostery that allows us to make predictions on the response of a protein to medically relevant stimuli such as pathological mutations or drug binding. This review summarizes recent advances in the analysis of mechanisms of allosteric communication in proteins, and combines this new knowledge to offer a perspective of allostery which is consistent with chemical views of molecular processes. First, we review recent work, particularly computational, on the characterization of signal propagation and conformational changes in allosteric proteins. We then compare different models of allostery, and discuss the significance of the concept of an allosteric pathway. We argue that allostery can be rationalized in terms of pathways of residues that efficiently transmit energy between different binding sites. We then provide examples that show how this picture could account for most of the observed data, since energy flow may be manifested as changes in both structure and dynamics. We conclude by acknowledging that the proposed view is still a simplification and should not be taken as a rigorous model of allosteric communication in proteins. Nevertheless, simple pictures like this can go a long way in improving our understanding of many complex phenomena observed in nature. PMID:26741913

  2. Evolutionary perspective in child growth.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child's growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment. PMID:23908815

  3. microRNA: Diagnostic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faruq, Omar; Vecchione, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers are biological measures of a biological state. An ideal marker should be safe and easy to measure, cost efficient, modifiable with treatment, and consistent across gender and ethnic groups. To date, none of the available biomarkers satisfy all of these criteria. In addition, the major limitations of these markers are low specificity, sensitivity, and false positive results. Recently identified, microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNA (about 22–25 nt long), also known as micro-coordinators of gene expression, which have been shown to be an effective tools to study the biology of diseases and to have great potential as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. In fact, it has been demonstrated that miRNAs play a pivotal role in the regulation of a wide range of developmental and physiological processes and their deficiencies have been related to a number of disease. In addition, miRNAs are stable and can be easily isolated and measured from tissues and body fluids. In this review, we provide a perspective on emerging concepts and potential usefulness of miRNAs as diagnostic markers, emphasizing the involvement of specific miRNAs in particular tumor types, subtypes, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, and forensic test. PMID:26284247

  4. Thrombolytic agents: a clinician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Solomon, H A

    1987-08-24

    Clinicians and researchers often have different perspectives: Clinicians deal with patients as individuals; researchers deal with them as members of groups whose characteristics can be defined statistically. Clinicians should be cautious and skeptical about new therapies, therefore, because the applicability of group-successful treatment to individual subjects is not always appropriate. In deciding whether to use the new thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction, clinicians should consider the factors that limit as well as those that support its use. As a clinician, I ultimately favor its use because intracoronary thrombosis is almost ubiquitous in acute infarction, and thrombolytic therapy addresses this basic problem. Fortunately, acute infarction is an evolutionary process, giving us time to take action. Since the extent of necrotic myocardium determines prognosis, and reperfusion can limit infarction size, salvaging myocardium should improve the outcome. Thrombolytic therapy can usually be administered quickly, easily, and safely. It requires minimal laboratory monitoring but careful clinical monitoring. Signs of successful therapy are easily recognized clinically, as are the signs of reocclusion if it occurs. The problem of the best treatment to follow thrombolytic therapy remains unsolved. But the thrombolytic component of overall management of a patient with acute myocardial infarction is worthwhile. PMID:3631115

  5. Cancer Metabolism: A Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Pouyan; Mardinoglu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells alter their metabolism to maintain unregulated cellular proliferation and survival, but this transformation leaves them reliant on constant supply of nutrients and energy. In addition to the widely studied dysregulated glucose metabolism to fuel tumor cell growth, accumulating evidences suggest that utilization of amino acids and lipids contributes significantly to cancer cell metabolism. Also recent progresses in our understanding of carcinogenesis have revealed that cancer is a complex disease and cannot be understood through simple investigation of genetic mutations of cancerous cells. Cancer cells present in complex tumor tissues communicate with the surrounding microenvironment and develop traits which promote their growth, survival, and metastasis. Decoding the full scope and targeting dysregulated metabolic pathways that support neoplastic transformations and their preservation requires both the advancement of experimental technologies for more comprehensive measurement of omics as well as the advancement of robust computational methods for accurate analysis of the generated data. Here, we review cancer-associated reprogramming of metabolism and highlight the capability of genome-scale metabolic modeling approaches in perceiving a system-level perspective of cancer metabolism and in detecting novel selective drug targets. PMID:26733270

  6. Cosmological Inflation: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately twenty five years ago a novel proposal was made to explain two of the outstanding cosmological conundrums, namely those of the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem of the Universe. These are the fact that widely separated parts of the sky that have never been in causal contact during the evolution of the Universe have apparently the same CMB temperature and the fact that the mean density of the Universe is very close to the critical one, i.e. very close to the density that separates the closed and open models. These coincidences implied that the corresponding initial condition of the Universe must have been set to exquisite accuracy. This novel proposal posted that at these very early times, the energy density of the Universe was dominated by a fluid which had the equation state attributed to the vacuum (i.e. dominated by tension rather than pressure) and that this led to an exponential expansion of the Universe which was "inflated" by many orders of magnitude of its original size. It was then shown that this "inflation" could provide a resolution of the above outstanding problems. The talk will cover the speaker's personal perspective and contributions to this idea and the subsequent developments over the following 25 years since its inception.

  7. Novel Perspectives for Hadron Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2012-03-09

    I discuss several novel and unexpected aspects of quantum chromodynamics. These include: (a) the nonperturbative origin of intrinsic strange, charm and bottom quarks in the nucleon at large x; the breakdown of pQCD factorization theorems due to the lensing effects of initial- and final-state interactions; (b) important corrections to pQCD scaling for inclusive reactions due to processes in which hadrons are created at high transverse momentum directly in the hard processes and their relation to the baryon anomaly in high-centrality heavy-ion collisions; and (c) the nonuniversality of quark distributions in nuclei. I also discuss some novel theoretical perspectives in QCD: (a) light-front holography - a relativistic color-confining first approximation to QCD based on the AdS/CFT correspondence principle; (b) the principle of maximum conformality - a method which determines the renormalization scale at finite order in perturbation theory yielding scheme independent results; (c) the replacement of quark and gluon vacuum condensates by 'in-hadron condensates' and how this helps to resolve the conflict between QCD vacuum and the cosmological constant.

  8. Erotomanic stalking in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Brüne, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Erotomania, the delusion of being loved by another person, comprises marked sex differences concerning prevalence rates and behavior. Whereas traditional psychiatry has considered erotomania to be almost entirely restricted to women, recent studies have revealed that criminal offenses associated with the condition occur much more frequently in men. The main hypothesis of this article is that these findings may be explained in terms of evolutionary theory. Erotomania, accordingly, may be viewed as a pathological variant of a specific sexual strategy that evolved under selection pressures of the human environment of evolutionary adaptedness. The overt behavior is related to the pursuit of long-term mating, its potentially beneficial effect on inclusive fitness of the individual, and disparate strategies of the sexes to ensure sexual fidelity of the potential partner. Therefore, the evolutionary approach provides a plausible explanation as to why forensically relevant erotomania prevails in men. The pathological process of delusional misinterpretation of perceived signals from the social environment itself may result from poor reality testing due to a failure of social meta-cognition. The evolutionary perspective may provide additional insights into the nature of sex-specific behaviors and may improve our understanding of forensically relevant behaviors. PMID:12579619

  9. Sustainability Transitions as new perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotmans, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sustainability transitions are radical transformations towards a sustainable society as a response to a number of persistent problems confronting contemporary modern societies. The most striking example of such a persistent problem is the current economic and financial crisis. This crisis is only a symptom of a deeper-lying systems crisis, which is rooted in the disbalance between overly consuming and producing during the last decennia on the one hand and exhausting our natural resources and materials on the other hand. The perverse effects of this disbalance are not accounted for in the economic order that we have created. This means that the economic order is not sustainable in the long run. Without a fundamental shift, a transition, to a new, sustainable economy, we will revert to old patterns and mechanisms that will automatically generate the next crises. In this transition process we are at a turning point. On the verge of a new era, characterized by a battle of the old paradigm against the new one, with a crucial role for sustainable innovation. Such a transition perspective might help to unravel the unprecedented complexity of the interrelated economic, financial, energy and climate crisis and to shed some light on structural, sustainable solutions.

  10. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    PubMed

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia. PMID:14959723

  11. Interprofessional education: the student perspective.

    PubMed

    Lumague, Melodie; Morgan, Alisha; Mak, Diana; Hanna, Mary; Kwong, Joanne; Cameron, Colette; Zener, Dori; Sinclair, Lynne

    2006-06-01

    The Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (Toronto Rehab) is a current leader in the movement of interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives in Ontario, Canada. Nine students from seven different health care disciplines, including medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, social work, and speech language pathology participated in the second IPE clinical placement in the winter of 2005 on Toronto Rehab's Stroke inpatient unit. In an effort to increase interprofessional collaboration, improve communication skills, foster respect and enhance knowledge of the different roles each discipline plays on the health care team, these students met together over a five week period and participated in interprofessional group sessions led by different health care professional leaders from the unit. This paper discusses the students' perspectives on this IPE experience and the corresponding benefits and challenges. All participants in the study recognized the importance of interprofessional teamwork in patient care and agreed that all health care education should include opportunities enabling them to develop the skills, behaviours and attitudes needed for interprofessional collaboration. PMID:16777792

  12. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  13. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  14. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  15. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  16. Male homosexuality: the adolescent's perspective.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G

    1987-03-01

    Although homosexual activity is prevalent among US teenagers, adolescent homosexuality per se has been a poorly understood phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the meaning and experience of homosexuality from the adolescent's perspective. Twenty-nine male teenagers, self-described as gay (79%) or bisexual (21%), volunteered to participate in a structured interview, the purpose of which was to examine the definition of homosexuality, the acquisition of a gay identity, and the impact of sexuality on family, peers, and community. The youths demonstrated well-established sexual identities by the consistency of their sexual fantasies, interests, and behaviors over time. Homosexuality was more frequently described as a general attraction to men (48%) and an indicator of positive personal attributes (33%) than as an isolated sexual behavior. The subjects reported strong negative attitudes from parents (43%) and friends (41%) toward their sexualities. Discrimination (37%), verbal abuse from peers (55%), and physical assaults (30%) were frequently cited problems. These stressors may place the boys at high risk for physical and psychosocial dysfunction. PMID:3822631

  17. Adapting perspectives to facilitate knowledge assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, R.L.; Webster, R.B.

    1998-12-31

    The notion of perspective when supported in knowledge representation can allow the representation of multiple and varying points of view, some of which may even be inconsistent with one another. In an object-based knowledge representation methodology created and used by the authors, a perspective is defined by consolidating a number of objects and a number of those objects` associated attributes and methods into a view. This view can help partition a knowledge domain into separate portions. A separate portion represents an individual`s view of the knowledge domain. Representation of multiple and varying perspectives may add to the existing knowledge as well as reveal paths to additional knowledge. A simple example is presented where perspectives are used to represent game playing strategies and levels of expertise in those strategies. Players` perspectives are adapted and changed to provide additional knowledge and insight into further game playing strategies. Results show improvement in the playing of the games. Additionally, a more complex problem for applying these techniques is introduced.

  18. Perspective taking in children's narratives about jealousy.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Naomi J; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Brooks, Patricia J; Harrison, Karine; Sines, Jennie

    2011-03-01

    This study explored relationships between perspective-taking, emotion understanding, and children's narrative abilities. Younger (23 5-/6-year-olds) and older (24 7-/8-year-olds) children generated fictional narratives, using a wordless picture book, about a frog experiencing jealousy. Children's emotion understanding was assessed through a standardized test of emotion comprehension and their ability to convey the jealousy theme of the story. Perspective-taking ability was assessed with respect to children's use of narrative evaluation (i.e., narrative coherence, mental state language, supplementary evaluative speech, use of subjective language, and placement of emotion expression). Older children scored higher than younger children on emotion comprehension and on understanding the story's complex emotional theme, including the ability to identify a rival. They were more advanced in perspective-taking abilities, and selectively used emotion expressions to highlight story episodes. Subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence were predictive of children's elaboration of the jealousy theme. Use of supplementary evaluative speech, in turn, was predictive of both subjective perspective taking and narrative coherence. PMID:21288255

  19. Protist taxonomy: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Bland J

    2004-01-01

    This is an exploration of contemporary protist taxonomy within an ecological perspective. As it currently stands, the 'morphospecies' does not accommodate the information that might support a truly ecological species concept for the protists. But the 'morphospecies' is merely a first step in erecting a taxonomy of the protists, and it is expected to become more meaningful in the light of genetic, physiological and ecological research in the near future. One possible way forward lies in the recognition that sexual and asexual protists may all be subject to forces of cohesion that result in (DNA) sequence-similarity clusters. A starting point would then be the detection of 'ecotypes'--where genotypic and phenotypic clusters correspond; but for that we need better information regarding the extent of clonality in protists, and better characterization of ecological niches and their boundaries. There is some progress with respect to the latter. Using the example of a community of ciliated protozoa living in the stratified water column of a freshwater pond, it is shown to be possible to gauge the potential of protists to partition their local environment into ecological niches. Around 40 morphospecies can coexist in the superimposed water layers, which presumably represent different ecological niches, but we have yet to discover if these are discrete or continuously variable. It is a myth that taxonomic problems are more severe for protists than for animals and plants. Most of the fundamental problems associated with species concepts (e.g. asexuals, sibling species, phenotypic variation) are distributed across biota in general. The recent history of the status of Pfiesteria provides a model example of an integrated approach to solving what are essentially taxonomic problems. PMID:15253347

  20. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yao, Katharine; Sisco, Mark; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women <40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM's effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon's perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost-effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient's quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM's effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and sexuality. PMID:27382334

  1. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Katharine; Sisco, Mark; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women <40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM’s effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon’s perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost–effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient’s quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM’s effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and sexuality. PMID:27382334

  2. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    PubMed

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines. PMID:16597776

  3. Bright perspectives for nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.

    2014-05-01

    With the advent of new high-power, short-pulse laser facilities in combination with novel technologies for the production of highly brilliant, intense γ beams (like, e.g., Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Bucharest, MEGaRay in Livermore or a planned upgrade of the HIγS facility at Duke University), unprecedented perspectives will open up in the coming years for photonuclear physics both in basic sciences as in various fields of applications. Ultra-high sensitivity will be enabled by an envisaged increase of the γ-beam spectral density from the presently typical 102γ/eVs to about 104γ/eVs, thus enabling a new quality of nuclear photonics [1], assisted by new γ-optical elements [2]. Photonuclear reactions with highly brilliant γ beams will allow to produce radioisotopes for nuclear medicine with much higher specific activity and/or more economically than with conventional methods. This will open the door for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes [3]. The isotopic, state-selective sensitivity of the well-established technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) will be boosted by the drastically reduced energy bandwidth (<0.1%) of the novel γ beams. Together with a much higher intensity of these beams, this will pave the road towards a γ-beam based non-invasive tomography and microscopy, assisting the management of nuclear materials, such as radioactive waste management, the detection of nuclear fissile material in the recycling process or the detection of clandestine fissile materials. Moreover, also secondary sources like low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beams of high intensity and high brilliance [4] or a new type of positron source with significantly increased brilliance, for the first time fully polarized [5], can be realized and lead to new applications in solid state physics or material sciences.

  4. A cognitive perspective on mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Holas, Pawel; Jankowski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness, the core teaching of the Buddhist tradition, has been receiving serious attention from the West in recent decades as evidence of the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for emotional distress have become available. Although traditional Buddhist texts have described the mechanisms of mindfulness and the way to cultivate it in great detail, much is still not known from the perspective of Western science. In particular, there is no general agreement on the conceptualization and operationalization of mindfulness. Several conceptual models of mindfulness (referred to as "state" or "trait") have been put forward to elucidate different aspects of this phenomenon, but none has gained sufficient empirical validation. This article proposes a new cognitive model of mindfulness. It has been our goal to describe and interrelate a relatively comprehensive group of determinants of a state of mindfulness, the consequences of its regular practicing, the mechanisms responsible for its beneficial effects, and the feedback mechanisms operating between the various constituents of the model. Within this model, the primary emphasis has been placed on understanding the cognitive processes shaping a state of mindfulness (i.e., the links between consciousness, meta-awareness and the unconscious), and on their determinants (i.e., the executive functions of attention and the components of working memory). A metacognitive system promoting mindfulness, as well as the general capability of the central executive system, is suggested as a factor explaining individual differences in mindfulness, whereas decentering, self-compassion, and reduction of self-focused attention are proposed as mechanisms mediating beneficial changes. We hope that the model presented will encourage further discussion and orient future studies in the area of mindfulness. PMID:22506609

  5. The Social Role of Engineers: A Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1991-01-01

    The perspectives that distinguish engineers and the public they serve and the educational implications of those perspectives are discussed. The philosophies of utilitarianism, ethical egoism, positivism, and idealism are presented in terms of engineers and the public. (KR)

  6. Further Thoughts on Research Perspectives in Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Laura S.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes several issues concerning research in nutrition education. Examines several research perspectives such as behavior modification, social learning, information-processing, health belief, and ecological system perspectives. Suggests three areas of research directions including assessment, strategies, and evaluation. (DS)

  7. Broader Perspective on Ecosystem Sustainability: Consequences for Decision Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the concept of ecosystem sustainability has a long-term focus, it is often viewed from a static system perspective. Because most ecosystems are dynamic, we explore sustainability assessments from three additional perspectives: resilient systems; systems where tipping poi...

  8. Listening to Their Stories: Students' Perspectives about Campus Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Jim

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores students' perspectives regarding campus gambling by listening to their gambling-related experiences and stories. Similarly, the chapter presents the perspective of a senior student affairs officer regarding campus gambling.

  9. Health Disparities and Discrimination: Three Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Krieger, Janice R.; Warren, Jennifer R.; Hecht, Michael L.; Okuyemi, Kola

    2010-01-01

    This article presents three perspectives on health discrimination and disparities, organized around different conceptualizations of the way “space” perpetuates health disparities. The first two perspectives are grounded in conceptualizing space in a physical sense by exploring the manifestation of discrimination as a problem both among and within nations. The third perspective juxtaposes geographical space with cyberspace. The internet, with its ability to blur sense of place, social demarcations, and behavior is often considered a panacea that can eliminate the health disparities. The internet, however, may not be fulfilling its promise as an equal source of health information for all and disparities related to international and rural geography remain problematic. Solutions are proposed for reducing health disparities based on The Principle of Cultural Grounding (Hecht & Krieger, 2006; Hecht & Miller-Day, in press). PMID:20694161

  10. Nature of Motor Control: Perspectives and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Fonseca, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Four perspectives on motor control provide the framework for developing a comprehensive theory of motor control in biological systems. The four perspectives, of decreasing orthodoxy, are distinguished by their sources of inspiration: neuroanatomy, robotics, self-organization, and ecological realities. Twelve major issues that commonly constrain (either explicitly or implicitly) the understanding of the control and coordination of movement are identified and evaluated within the framework of the four perspectives. The issues are as follows: (1) Is control strictly neural? (2) Is there a divide between planning and execution? (3) Does control entail a frequently involved knowledgeable executive? (4) Do analytical internal models mediate control? (5) Is anticipation necessarily model dependent? (6) Are movements preassembled? (7) Are the participating components context independent? (8) Is force transmission strictly myotendinous? (9) Is afference a matter of local linear signaling? (10) Is neural noise an impediment? (11) Do standard variables (of mechanics and physiology) suffice? (12) Is the organization of control hierarchical? PMID:19227497

  11. Health Disparities and Discrimination: Three Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Krieger, Janice R; Warren, Jennifer R; Hecht, Michael L; Okuyemi, Kola

    2008-10-01

    This article presents three perspectives on health discrimination and disparities, organized around different conceptualizations of the way "space" perpetuates health disparities. The first two perspectives are grounded in conceptualizing space in a physical sense by exploring the manifestation of discrimination as a problem both among and within nations. The third perspective juxtaposes geographical space with cyberspace. The internet, with its ability to blur sense of place, social demarcations, and behavior is often considered a panacea that can eliminate the health disparities. The internet, however, may not be fulfilling its promise as an equal source of health information for all and disparities related to international and rural geography remain problematic. Solutions are proposed for reducing health disparities based on The Principle of Cultural Grounding (Hecht & Krieger, 2006; Hecht & Miller-Day, in press). PMID:20694161

  12. ICT4D: A Computer Science Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, Erkki; Tedre, Matti

    The term ICT4D refers to the opportunities of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an agent of development. Research in that field is often focused on evaluating the feasibility of existing technologies, mostly of Western or Far East Asian origin, in the context of developing regions. A computer science perspective is complementary to that agenda. The computer science perspective focuses on exploring the resources, or inputs, of a particular context and on basing the design of a technical intervention on the available resources, so that the output makes a difference in the development context. The modus operandi of computer science, construction, interacts with evaluation and exploration practices. An analysis of a contextualized information technology curriculum of Tumaini University in southern Tanzania shows the potential of the computer science perspective for designing meaningful information and communication technology for a developing region.

  13. Image Stitching with Perspective-Preserving Warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Tianzhu; Xia, Gui-Song; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-06-01

    Image stitching algorithms often adopt the global transform, such as homography, and work well for planar scenes or parallax free camera motions. However, these conditions are easily violated in practice. With casual camera motions, variable taken views, large depth change, or complex structures, it is a challenging task for stitching these images. The global transform model often provides dreadful stitching results, such as misalignments or projective distortions, especially perspective distortion. To this end, we suggest a perspective-preserving warping for image stitching, which spatially combines local projective transforms and similarity transform. By weighted combination scheme, our approach gradually extrapolates the local projective transforms of the overlapping regions into the non-overlapping regions, and thus the final warping can smoothly change from projective to similarity. The proposed method can provide satisfactory alignment accuracy as well as reduce the projective distortions and maintain the multi-perspective view. Experimental analysis on a variety of challenging images confirms the efficiency of the approach.

  14. Algorithmic Perspectives on Problem Formulations in MDO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2000-01-01

    This work is concerned with an approach to formulating the multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) problem that reflects an algorithmic perspective on MDO problem solution. The algorithmic perspective focuses on formulating the problem in light of the abilities and inabilities of optimization algorithms, so that the resulting nonlinear programming problem can be solved reliably and efficiently by conventional optimization techniques. We propose a modular approach to formulating MDO problems that takes advantage of the problem structure, maximizes the autonomy of implementation, and allows for multiple easily interchangeable problem statements to be used depending on the available resources and the characteristics of the application problem.

  15. Transforming student perspectives through reflective writing.

    PubMed

    Ruland, Judith P; Ahern, Nancy R

    2007-01-01

    One of the primary goals of registered nurse-to-bachelor of science in nursing education is to help registered nurses see things in a new way or to transform their perspective. A package of 4 commonly used reflective writing activities used before, during, and after class is described as it is used for perspective transformation. This learning package goal is to push registered nurse-to-bachelor of science in nursing students in their first course to consider new ways of thinking about their practice and their education. PMID:17496824

  16. Time Perspective and Physical Activity among Central Appalachian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Tauna

    2013-01-01

    Time perspective is a cultural behavioral concept that reflects individuals' orientations or attitudes toward the past, present, or future. Individuals' time perspectives influence their choices regarding daily activities. Time perspective is an important consideration when teaching adolescents about the importance of being physically…

  17. The World Society Perspective: Concepts, Assumptions, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.

    2012-01-01

    For decades the world society perspective has influenced comparative research on a broad range of issues across the social sciences. The perspective emerged to make sense of an empirical puzzle: why did nation-state after nation-state expand mass schooling after World War II? The perspective evolved to address broader issues such as the authority…

  18. The Role of Reader Perspective in Language Comprehension and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, George L., III

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of reader perspective on encoding, storage, and retrieval processes and how this effect differs as a function of cognitive style. In both experiments, subjects read a passage from one of two assigned perspectives (a burglar or a prospective home buyer) or from no assigned perspective. In the…

  19. A Framework for Understanding International Perspectives on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    International perspectives on education have existed since the first world travelers brought stories back from their travels abroad, but the ways these perspectives are presented and understood varies as much as the cultures and communities themselves. This introduction to international perspectives on education provides a framework, which relies…

  20. Accounting for Correlations across Measures of Perspective Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Samuel P.

    This study examined the development of cognitive perspective taking skills and the lack of consistency across perspective taking measures in earlier studies. Four perspective taking measures were administered to 56 children between 4 and 10 years of age under two testing conditions. The high structure condition included multiple presentation of…

  1. Perspectives of Outcome Data from Assistive Technology Developers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Kathy Longenecker; Smith, Roger O.

    2006-01-01

    The assistive technology (AT) field acknowledges that different stakeholders vary in their perspectives of service delivery outcomes. While the literature delineates consumers, caregivers and providers as stakeholders with distinct views, very little research documents these unique perspectives. This study reports on the perspectives of (a)…

  2. Taking versus Confronting Visual Perspectives in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Merzsch, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that 3-year-olds can take other people's visual perspectives not only when they perceive different things (Level 1) but even when they see the same thing differently (Level 2). One hypothesis is that 3-year-olds are good perspective takers but cannot confront different perspectives on the same object (Perner, Stummer,…

  3. Perspective-Shifts in Event Descriptions in Tamil Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Children are able to take multiple perspectives in talking about entities and events. But the nature of children's sensitivities to the complex patterns of perspective-taking in adult language is unknown. We examine perspective-taking in four- and six-year-old Tamil-speaking children describing placement events, as reflected in the use of a…

  4. Piaget and Egocentrism: A Perspective on Recent Developmental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reviews some recent studies of visual perspective taking which preserve many features of the Piagetian three-mountain task, discusses the generality and particularity of children's perspective-taking abilities, and briefly comments on the relationship between perspective taking and social experience. (RH)

  5. Learning and Development: A Global Perspective. Symposium Series 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alan, Ed.; Ploman, Edward W., Ed.

    Fourteen papers presented at the Global Learning Symposium examine the learning perspective and its relationship to problems of world development. The learning perspective is compared and contrasted with the education perspective to reflect the degree to which the distinction reveals new knowledge on existing problems. Papers and presenters are:…

  6. Public and Private School Perspectives on Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Robert L.

    This paper considers factors contributing to the perspectives on educational reform held by educators in the public and private school systems of the United States and suggests a common perspective that can be used by both parties. The paper first defends four assertions: (1) the perspectives of those debating the appropriate roles of public and…

  7. Taking someone else's spatial perspective: Natural stance or effortful decentring?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Gabriel; Spence, Charles; Auvray, Malika

    2016-03-01

    When perceiving stimuli, self-centred and decentred perspectives can be adopted. In the present study, we investigate whether perceivers have a natural perspective that constrains their spatial perception, with some people perceiving better with self-centred than decentred perspectives and vice versa for other people. We used a recognition task of tactile ambiguous letters (b, d, p, and q) presented on the stomach, for which three perspectives can be adopted (trunk-centred, head-centred, and decentred). At first, the participants were free to adopt any perspective they wanted. Then, either the same or a different perspective was imposed on them. Without constraints, 80% of the participants adopted a self-centred perspective (50% trunk-centred, 30% head-centred) and 20% a decentred one. The perspective adopted freely appears to be natural as recognition performance decreases with a different perspective and returns to its previous high level with the same perspective. Thus, to perceive space, some perceivers adopt naturally a perspective centred on themselves whereas others take naturally others' perspective. PMID:26722709

  8. 3-D Perspective Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada, Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U.S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  9. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillippines - Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This perspective view looking toward the east shows the western flank of the volcano where most of these pyroclastic flows were deposited.

    This debris consists of ash and boulders that mix with water after heavy rains to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.

    The topographic data were collected by NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument on November 29, 1996. Colors are from the French SPOT satellite imaging data in both visible and infrared wavelengths collected in February 1996. Areas of vegetation appear red and areas without vegetation appear light blue. River valleys radiate out from the summit of the volcano (upper center). Since the eruption, lahars have stripped these valleys of any vegetation. The Pasig-Potrero River flows to the northeast off the summit in the upper right of the image.

    Scientists have been using airborne radar data collected by the AIRSAR instrument in their studies of the aftereffects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. AIRSAR collected imaging radar data over the volcano during a mission to the Pacific Rim region in late 1996 and on a follow-up mission to the area in late 2000. These data sets

  10. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  11. A Developmental Perspective on College & Workplace Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Laura; Atienza, Astrid; Rivers, Andrew; Keith, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a developmental perspective on what competencies young people need to be ready for college, the workplace, and the transition to adulthood. National hand-wringing about the lack of preparedness of high school graduates for college and the workplace has catalyzed researchers, educators, and policymakers to define the skills and…

  12. Historical perspectives on lipoprotein research and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, F.T.

    1990-03-01

    Since the early history of lipoprotein isolation and characterization dates back more than 60 years, it would be helpful to describe some of the landmarks occurring before about 1965. This document contains historical perspectives and information on lipoprotein research and methodology. 35 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois, Ed.; Dolby, Nadine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives" is the first empirically grounded volume to explore the intersections of class, social structure, opportunity, and education on a truly global scale. Fifteen essays from contributors representing the US, Europe, China, Latin America and other regions offer an unparralleled examination of how social…

  14. How Many Impulsivities? A Discounting Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2013-01-01

    People discount the value of delayed and uncertain outcomes, and how steeply individuals discount is thought to reflect how impulsive they are. From this perspective, steep discounting of delayed outcomes (which fails to maximize long-term welfare) and shallow discounting of probabilistic outcomes (which fails to adequately take risk into account)…

  15. Transforming Middle Level Education: Perspectives and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Judith L., Ed.

    This book addresses the critical issues of curriculum and instruction as they pertain to the restructuring of middle-level education. The first part deals with developing a sense of identity both with the middle-school movement and with young adolescents. Chapters include the following: "Perspectives on the Middle School Movement" (John H.…

  16. Perspectives on Vocational Behavior, 1986: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaney, Robert B.; Russell, Joyce E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Based on perspectives of counseling psychology and industrial/organizational psychology, this article reviews publications relevant to vocational behavior that appeared during 1986. Of the over 700 articles and 70 books or book chapters located, slightly less than one-half are reviewed. (Author/NB)

  17. Research in Teacher Education: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisher, Richard P., Ed.; Wideen, Marvin F., Ed.

    This book was developed in response to audience interest in a symposium sponsored by the American Educational Research Association (annual meeting, Washington, D.C., 1987). The book addresses international perspectives on research in teacher education and offers the following contributions from scholars from 12 countries: "The Role Played by…

  18. Comparative "Glocal" Perspectives on European Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caena, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a PhD study, which offers comparative perspectives on teacher education in a period of reforms, inquiring into stakeholders' perceptions in English, French, Italian and Spanish contexts as case studies. The interaction of needs and constraints in European initial teacher education within higher education…

  19. National Qualification Frameworks: Developing Research Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernie, Scott; Pilcher, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Arguments for National Qualification Frameworks (NQF) are compelling. Indeed, such frameworks are now an international phenomenon. Yet, few studies take a critical perspective and challenge the broad assumptions underpinning NQF. Arguments presented in this paper attempt to open a debate within the higher education community that draws attention…

  20. SLA and Language Pedagogy. An Educational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Argues that an educational perspective is required for examining how second language acquisition (SLA) can contribute to language pedagogy (LP). Different models of application are considered, reflecting different ways of viewing teaching. It is suggested that SLA constitutes a source of "provisional specifications" that practitioners can evaluate…

  1. A Moral Cosmopolitan Perspective on Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obelleiro, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, scholars have turned to cosmopolitanism as a framework for thinking through issues of language and citizenship. In this article, I present Daisaku Ikeda's philosophy of cosmopolitan education and compare it with others' in the extant literature. I examine, from a philosophical perspective, its roots in the Mahayana tradition of…

  2. Perspectives on Learning, Thinking, and Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Greeno, James G.; Reder, Lynne M.; Simon, Herbert A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive and situative research approaches, identifying several points on which they agree (e.g., individual and social perspectives on activity are fundamental in education; learning can be general, and abstractions can be efficacious, but sometimes they are not; and situative and cognitive approaches can cast light on different…

  3. Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This Wallace Perspective paper summarizes key findings of a newly-published book, "Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals: The Secondary Principal's Guide," that argues that school counselors could be much more active players in improving student learning. The book, which bases its conclusions heavily on Wallace's Transforming School…

  4. A Dramaturgical Perspective on Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Although many social sciences theories have been applied to the field of library and information science, one theory that has received relatively little attention is dramaturgy. The dramaturgical perspective posits that social life is inherently theatrical in nature. When applied to the academic library setting, both librarians and library users…

  5. Optimal Age Revisited--A Piagetian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakonas, Frances

    The controversy over the optimal age for learning a second language is discussed, examining, from the perspective of Piagetian theory: (1) the argument which suggests that children have an advantage in language learning; and (2) the arguments which states that adults have an advantage in language learning. The first part provides an overview of…

  6. Active Learning: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marilyn

    The purposes of the first two parts of this literature review are to clarify the concept of active learning and discuss the use and value of active learning models. In Part I, the perspectives of five historical proponents of active learning, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Dewey, Kilpatrick, and Piaget, are discussed. The views of four contemporary…

  7. Comparative Didactic: A New Research Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colomb, Jacques

    Comparative didactic views classroom epistemologies in various disciplines from a comparativist perspective. A diagrammatic model is suggested which takes account of problems posed by different disciplines. The model puts forward four origins of school knowledge: scientific knowledge, reference knowledge, referential praxis, and expert knowledge.…

  8. Perspectives of precipitation science: Part III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, Silas

    2016-03-01

    This Special Issue of Atmospheric Research entitled "Perspectives of Precipitation Science: Part III" encompasses selected papers that were presented at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union, held in Vienna, Austria, from 27 April to 2 May 2014, within the framework of the (General) Session "Precipitation: Measurement, Climatology, Remote Sensing, and Modeling".

  9. Television, Children, and Social Policy: Pedagogical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Dale; Murray, John

    A college-level course about the effects of television on children and the process of social policy formation is described in terms of pedagogical goals, strategies, and perspectives. The proposed course of instruction focuses on three primary areas of study: (1) child-related issues; (2) television-related issues; and (3) policy-related issues.…

  10. Primary-Secondary Transfer: A Science Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is a recurring debate many people have probably been engaged in: why do pupils appear to under-perform in the lower years of secondary school? In the latest in their "Perspectives on education" series, "Primary-secondary transfer in science" (Wellcome Trust, 2009), the Wellcome Trust addresses this problematic area with respect to UK science…

  11. Ethical Perspectives on Evaluating Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumpf, Dan; King, Stephanie; Blendinger, Jack; Davis, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Because the process of faculty evaluation in the community college gives rise to ethical concerns about what is evaluated, who is involved in the process, and how data are collected and used, the purpose of this paper is to provide a meaningful ethical perspective for conducting faculty evaluation. The authors discuss ethical issues that arise in…

  12. Family-Centred Care: A Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorngaard, Tina

    2011-01-01

    This commentary is informed by the author's multiple perspectives as a parent of a 12-year-old girl with cerebral palsy, as a social worker, and as a critical disability advocate and activist. While the author occupies these subject positions simultaneously, they are not necessarily always confluent with one another. She struggles with, and is, at…

  13. Assessing Student Presentations from Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing student presentations from three perspectives--expert, peer, and self--provides extended feedback and opportunities to learn. All three of these are helpful and serve different purposes. The expert (teacher) feedback shows how the teacher views student work and often assigns a grade. Peer analysis provides students doing the analysis an…

  14. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the directives for…

  15. Perspectives on Blended Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, N.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of blended learning in higher education from the perspective of students, faculty, and administration that have had direct experience with this form of course delivery. Students indicate that a blended learning model provides them with greater time flexibility and improved learning outcomes but…

  16. Making Meaning: Children's Perspectives Expressed through Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2009-01-01

    The importance of listening to children's perspectives has been emphasised in a wide range of recent research, using a variety of strategies. This paper explores the use of drawing as a strategy to engage with young children around the topic of starting school. It describes the approaches we have used, examines the benefits and challenges we have…

  17. HRD: International Perspectives on Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Merrick, Ed.; Mann, Pete, Ed.

    This anthology contains 16 papers devoted to 3 aspects of human resources development (HRD): the institutional perspective on learning for development, the key actors in HRD, and the role of HRD in improving individual and organizational performance. The papers are: "Human Resources Development and Adjustment" (Kanawaty); "People-Oriented…

  18. "Bildung" and Music Education: A Finnish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses "Bildung" from a Finnish perspective and asks: Are there specific meanings of Bildung that are typical of a certain time and place? The author applies a multi-layered theory of critical positivism, adapting its three-level structure to music education and the concept of "Bildung." First, she discusses…

  19. The MEG experiment: status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolo, Donato

    2010-03-30

    The MEG experiment, a sensitive search for the mu->egamma decay, has started operating in September 2008. Analysis of data collected during the initial three months of operation is still ongoing and soon to be finalized. The detector performance during Run 2008 is reviewed, with remarks on perspectives for Run 2009.

  20. Makiguchian Perspectives in Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatano, Kazuma

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author applies Makiguchi Tsunesaburo's (1871-1944) perspectives to language policy and planning (LPP). One theoretical question in LPP theory is why individuals opt to use particular languages and varieties of languages in certain contexts. The author contends that Makiguchi's theory of value can be used to systematically…

  1. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  2. The 4 Ps as a Guiding Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps perspective addresses immediate needs: to help institutions gain traction in their retention strategies by framing and reframing the challenges and the possible responses, by challenging some of the traditional mental models about retention that can distract or dilute those strategies, and by offering focus and coherence to institutional…

  3. Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…

  4. Critical Perspectives on Methodology in Pedagogic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emancipatory dimension to higher education represents one of the sector's most compelling characteristics, but it remains important to develop understanding of the sources of determination that shape practice. Drawing on critical realist perspectives, we explore generative mechanisms by which methodology in pedagogic research affects the…

  5. Grief as a Social Emotion: Theoretical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakoby, Nina R.

    2012-01-01

    The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of…

  6. Students Perspectives on Tracking and Detracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Susan; Jones, Makeba

    2006-01-01

    Detracking has been described as an equity minded reform that attempts to level the playing field among students of different socio-economic, racial, and linguistic groups. Yet few people have talked to students about their perspectives regarding this reform, and the challenges students may face when schools reduce the number or levels of…

  7. Special Needs and Dance: An Insider's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Judith

    2015-01-01

    This article is the result of an interview with Judith Nelson conducted by Madeline Cantor. Madeline is the Associate Director of the Dance Program at Bryn Mawr College and a colleague and friend of Judith Nelson. In this article, Judith offers her perspective as a dance educator who teaches students with disabilities, and as a parent of a child…

  8. The European Perspective on Women's Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macha, Hildegard; Bauer, Quirin J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors show the perspective on women's leadership in Europe. The authors present the European data on the educational status of girls and women at schools and universities and in academic careers. Data from Germany is presented as an example to provide evidence of some details. First, the authors point out four contradictions…

  9. A theological perspective on social exchange theory.

    PubMed

    Hill, E W

    1992-06-01

    This article provides a brief review of the basic principles of social exchange theory with an emphasis on a social exchange model of conflict. The key concepts of justice, reciprocity, and equity comprised in social exchange theory are addressed from a social and theological perspective. PMID:24272881

  10. A Hermeneutic Perspective on Supervision Scholarship. Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Patricia E.

    1990-01-01

    Responding to Arthur Blumberg's article, this article claims that Blumberg misses the opportunity to ground his argument in an already existing tradition of interpretive or hermeneutic research in supervision. The hermeneutic perspective studies human intentionality and seeks shared understanding as a goal. Includes eight references. (MLH)

  11. Theoretical Perspectives on Mathematics Teacher Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goos, Merrilyn; Geiger, Vince

    2010-01-01

    In this review essay we critically examine issues raised by authors whose work is published in the two Special Issues of "JMTE" (Part 1, 13.5 and Part 2, 13.6) on Mathematics Teacher and Mathematics Teacher Educator Change--Insight through Theoretical Perspectives. While the authors have drawn on a wide range of theories and approaches, we have…

  12. Competencies and Perspectives for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Dudley B., Jr.; Love, Patrick; Komives, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the traditional competencies that have contributed professional effectiveness in student affairs will continue to be important for success. As higher education continues to transform itself, these traditional competencies will need to be viewed and practiced in different ways. The competencies and perspectives include: entrepreneurship;…

  13. New Perspectives on Teacher Education in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharaf, Adel

    2006-01-01

    This brief paper is part of a larger research project which examined the historical background of teaching in the Kuwaiti educational system before and after the Gulf War in 1990 in order to propose a new perspective on teacher education in Kuwait, particularly with regard to religious education. The author is interested in whether others have a…

  14. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Catholic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lanzone, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The catholic perspective in human reproduction is based on the concept that the human being is to be respected and treated as a person from the moment of conception. In this paper the ethical implications derived from such a principle are discussed. PMID:24020861

  15. Viewing Mobile Learning from a Pedagogical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Matthew; Schuck, Sandra; Burden, Kevin; Aubusson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mobile learning is a relatively new phenomenon and the theoretical basis is currently under development. The paper presents a pedagogical perspective of mobile learning which highlights three central features of mobile learning: authenticity, collaboration and personalisation, embedded in the unique timespace contexts of mobile learning. A…

  16. Supervisees' Perspectives of Power Use in Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Megan J.; Wright, David W.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we examined the use of power in the supervisory relationship from supervisees' perspectives. Semistructured interviews of 11 supervisees in a Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education training program were conducted. From analysis of interview transcripts, themes about the ways in which supervisors and…

  17. Perspectives on Women and Welfare Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition on Women, Work and Welfare Reform, Washington, DC.

    This publication is designed to alert local and state advocates to the presence of the National Coalition on Women, Work, and Welfare Reform. It shares the Coalition's perspective on the welfare employment issue and proposes several initial strategies local advocates or policymakers might use in considering proposed or ongoing welfare employment…

  18. The Futurist Perspective and the Managerial Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodzinski, Frederick R.

    1979-01-01

    The application of future studies to the administration of student services promises to produce more than projections and forecasts; it can affect one's total concept of management and influence the entire institution. This article explains the futurist perspective, its application, and the forces of change that brought it about. (LPG)

  19. Red Scare Rhetoric: A Weaverian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Donald R.

    An analysis of political rhetoric from a perspective suggested by the theories of Richard M. Weaver indicates that during the post-World War I and post-World War II eras, the United States experienced interplays of sociohistorical variables that prevented the nation from rapidly returning to a tension-free experience of peacetime living.…

  20. Native Perspectives on Childbearing and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Heather F.

    This ethnographic study sought to understand, from the native perspective, the traditional childbearing values and practices of Coast Salish peoples and the difficulties in maintaining these in a society that is not oriented to native values and practices. Observations and interviews were carried out over a 4-year period on the Songhees reserve in…

  1. Promoting Rigorous Validation Practice: An Applied Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Camara, Wayne J.

    2012-01-01

    As researchers at a testing organization concerned with the appropriate uses and validity evidence for our assessments, we provide an applied perspective related to the issues raised in the focus article. Newton's proposal for elaborating the consensus definition of validity is offered with the intention to reduce the risks of inadequate…

  2. Teaching Probability: A Socio-Constructivist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sashi

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable and rich literature on students' misconceptions in probability. However, less attention has been paid to the development of students' probabilistic thinking in the classroom. This paper offers a sequence, grounded in socio-constructivist perspective for teaching probability.

  3. Reflecting: Perspectives on the College Presidency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides Stephen J. Nelson's perspectives on challenges faced by college presidents today, how and when to use the bully pulpit of the college presidency, and advice for future college presidents. Nelson recently wrote his fifth book about college presidents, "College Presidents Reflect: Life in and out of the Ivory…

  4. Dynamical Systems Perspective of Wolfram's Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbage, M.; Kamiński, B.

    2013-01-01

    Leon Chua, following Wolfram, devoted a big effort to understand deeply the wealth of complexity of the rules of all elementary one-dimensional cellular automata from the point of view of the nonlinear dynamicist. Here we complete this point of view by a dynamical system perspective, extending them to the limit of infinite number of sites.

  5. Excellent Teachers' Perspectives on Excellent Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Jared W.; Ismail, Emad; Buskist, William

    2016-01-01

    Studies of master teaching have investigated a set of qualities that define excellent teaching. However, few studies have investigated master teachers' perspectives on excellent teaching and how it may differ from other faculty or students. The current study investigated award-winning teachers' (N = 50) ratings of the 28 qualities on the teacher…

  6. A Vygotskian Perspective on Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Huizen, Peter; van Oers, Bert; Wubbels, Theo

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary teacher education demonstrates the continued use of competency-based, personality-based and inquiry-based approaches. These approaches are commonly regarded as representing alternative paradigms for designing curriculum and pedagogy. From a Vygotskian perspective, characterized by the use of bridging concepts relating individual…

  7. Learning to Lead: A Practitioner Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Maddy

    2014-01-01

    This reflective essay presents a personal account of experiences and models that have shaped the development of the author as a leader in tertiary education. It is presented from the perspective of a practitioner whose career has led her through academic and administrative roles in Australian and UK institutions into her current position as…

  8. A Historical Perspective on Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Although much has been written recently about gaps in the achievement of different groups of students, the problem has been with us for many years. This manuscript presents a historical perspective of the problem, viewing it as one of reducing variation in students' achievement. Specifically, it reviews the work of renowned educator Benjamin S.…

  9. Standpoints: Perspectives on Highly Qualified English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gere, Anne Ruggles; Berebitsky, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The issue of teacher quality has emerged with special force recently; between 2000 and 2005, at least 15 reports addressing teacher quality from a public policy perspective have been produced (Cochran-Smith & Fries, 2005). The National Research Council has been charged by the U.S. Congress to do a national study of teacher preparation programs to…

  10. A Chinese Perspective of Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    To avoid the Anglo-Saxon culture mode, which dominates the current study of human communication in all contexts, the concept of communication competence can be examined from the perspective of Chinese culture. The conceptualization and empirical indicators used for the measurement of communication competence strongly reflect a Western cultural…

  11. A spacefaring people: Perspectives on early spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roland, A.

    1985-01-01

    The early years of space flight are discussed. An historical perspective is offered. Satellites and politics, management of large scale technology, the state of the literature of space, the domestic and international ramifications of space activity, and rationales for space exploration are discussed.

  12. Interdisciplinary Experiences: A Postgraduate Geographer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research teams and departments are seen by some as a way of addressing problems that cannot be understood using a traditionally narrow and uniform approach rooted in a particular discipline. This paper presents a postgraduate perspective by discussing the positive and negative impacts on Ph.D. research of this type of work and…

  13. Light sterile neutrinos: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The indications in favor of the existence of light sterile neutrinos at the eV scale found in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments is reviewed. The future perspectives of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and the connections with β-decay measurements of the neutrino masses and with neutrinoless double-β decay experiments are discussed.

  14. Early Sport Specialization: A Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Specializing too early in life can lead to emotional stress, loss of motivation, and burnout, but the research is inadequate to resolve the question of whether early specialization or diversification is more beneficial from a psychological perspective. Nevertheless, some best practices are recommended based on the known benefits and detriments.…

  15. Technology Education: A Perspective on Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This monograph has been developed to give educators a broad perspective of the technology education emphasis that is becoming prevalent in schools today, replacing industrial arts. The report is organized in four sections. The first section presents an overview of education in a highly sophisticated technological society. This section contains the…

  16. Perspectives on Communications Research: An Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Ithiel de Sola; Schiller, Herbert I.

    1981-01-01

    Scholarly exchange of perspectives and beliefs governing the thinking and work of two "productive and principled" scholars. Covers kinds of research they deem important, problems of information overload, and application to Third World Countries. (Took place at 1980 General Assembly of the International Association for Mass Communication Research,…

  17. The Liberal Arts in New International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayford, Elizabeth R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Wingspread Conference (October 1984) presentations are given: "Pilgrims and Immigrants: Liberal Learning in Today's World" (Frank F. Wong); "How Can One Know America, Who Only America Knows?" (Robert L. Nichols); "Internationalizing the Curriculum in the Natural Sciences" (Jack L. Carter); "International Perspectives on Campus" (Franklin M.…

  18. Planning and Implementing Career Education Programs: Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crim, Alonzo A.; And Others

    The collection of six papers offers perspectives on planning and implementing career education programs. The first paper, the Introduction (David Goodwin), deals with program implementation. The second paper, Priorities in Career Education (Alonzo A. Crim), describes the historical origins of career education in the Atlanta school system with a…

  19. Researcher Perspectives on Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, Elizabeth; Rauscher, Erica

    2009-01-01

    This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue's (1999) position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes…

  20. A Perspective on Marketing Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John E.

    1990-01-01

    This document presents a model for program planning and decision making for teacher education in marketing and discusses teacher education policy in the context of the model. The first section explains the document's background and perspective. The second section places marketing teacher education in the context of a larger marketing education…

  1. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These three issues of "Deaf-Blind Perspectives" feature the following articles: (1) "A Group for Students with Usher Syndrome in South Louisiana" (Faye Melancon); (2) "Simply Emily," which discusses a budding friendship between a girl with deaf-blindness and a peer; (3) "Intervener Update" (Peggy Malloy and Betsy Bixler), which summarizes services…

  2. Student Perspectives on Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungblut, Jens; Vukasovic, Martina; Stensaker, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The study provides an insight into student perspectives on quality in higher education, using Harvey and Green conceptualizations as the point of departure, and exploring the linkages between the views on quality, the developments of the Bologna Process and related national reforms, as well as students' motivation for and expectations from higher…

  3. Youth Perspectives of Achievement: Is Money Everything?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matope, Jasmine; Badroodien, Azeem

    2015-01-01

    This article draws from a qualitative research project completed at Victoria High School (pseudonym) in Cape Town in 2012 which explored 13 learners' perspectives of achievement and its influence on their lives and thinking. The piece problematises and analyses taken-for-granted connections between money, achievement, youth aspirations and views…

  4. Jimmy Carter and Playboy: A Sociolinguistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Martha

    1978-01-01

    Research by Martin Joos and John J. Gumperz to develop a perspective for rhetorical analysis. Carter's final remarks in his Playboy interview are shown to reflect an ineffective sociolinguistic code shift to a stylistic level inappropriate to Carter as public personality and as presidential candidate. (JF)

  5. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  6. Discussion from a Mathematics Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas; Sarama, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In a review of the special issue, we conclude that the articles are research gems in the domain of preschool mathematics education. Most share several features, such as their perspective on research methodology and their view of mathematics thinking and learning. They address the cognitive architecture and processes and the developmental levels…

  7. Moral Leadership in Education: An Indian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapre, Padmakar M.; Ranade, Mridula D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses reasons for emergence of management concepts in Indian education. Reviews Western literature on leadership and offers an Indian perspective on leadership. Provides overview of the lives of three famous Indian leaders who demonstrated the essence of moral leadership: Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, and Mahatma Gandhi. Draws…

  8. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  9. Youth Perspectives on Bullying in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Nancy G.; Williamson, Ariel A.; Sadek, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Much of what we know about the causes and prevention of school bullying is based on research with elementary school-aged children. Few studies have captured adolescents' own views about bullying in school and in cyberspace, even though understanding youth perspectives is a critical aspect of prevention programming. Based on focus groups with…

  10. Talk-in-Interaction: Multilingual Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Talk-in-interaction: Multilingual perspectives" offers original studies of interaction in a range of languages and language varieties, including Chinese, English, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Swahili, Thai, and Vietnamese; monolingual and bilingual interactions; and activities designed for second or foreign language learning. Conducted from the…

  11. Journal Editorship: Mentoring, Democratic, and International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    This essay builds on a review of studies in education. Journal editorship is explored from the mentoring, democratic, and international perspectives. Trends are examined within the publishing culture around these three editorial functions. Theoretical groundwork is provided for exploring contemporary journal editorship and its challenges and…

  12. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

  13. Current Perspectives on Chief Residents in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Christopher H.; Rachal, James; Breitbach, Jill; Higgins, Michael; Warner, Carolynn; Bobo, William

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine qualitative data from outgoing chief residents in psychiatry from the 2004-2005 academic year to 1) determine common characteristics between programs, 2) examine the residents' perspectives on their experiences, and 3) determine their common leadership qualities. Method: The authors sent out self-report surveys via…

  14. Multidimensional Perspectives on Principal Leadership Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beycioglu, Kadir, Ed.; Pashiardis, Petros, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Exceptional management skills are crucial to success in educational environments. As school leaders, principals are expected to effectively supervise the school system while facing a multitude of issues and demands. "Multidimensional Perspectives on Principal Leadership Effectiveness" combines best practices and the latest approaches in…

  15. Sociocultural Dislocation: Beyond the Dual Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Hoyos, Genevieve; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Moves beyond the dual perspective model and beyond medical and ecological systems models to suggest a sociocultural approach and presents a three-stage model for practice with minority clients. Suggests that practice with minorities focus on the degree and kind of dislocation--social, cultural, or sociocultural--suffered by individual clients.…

  16. Decolonizing the Curriculum for Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subedi, Binaya

    2013-01-01

    In this article Binaya Subedi explores the multiple ways the idea of "global" is theorized within the school curriculum and suggests the utility of approaching the idea of global perspectives through decolonizing frameworks. In particular, she explores the deficit, accommodation, and decolonization approaches as offering three ways that…

  17. The Ambushed Spirit: Perspective, Violence and Downsizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truty, Daniela

    A study explored downsizing from the perspective of the person separated from the job and its connection to violence and peace studies. Literature on downsizing, violence, peace studies, and organizational studies was reviewed. Participants were 28 white-collar employees, including the researcher, separated from the same organization. Data were…

  18. Investigating School Leadership Practice: A Distributed Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Halverson, Richard; Diamond, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Argues for scholarship that investigates leadership practice; specifically, the practice of leading classroom instruction. Articulates a distributed perspective, grounded in activity theory and distributed cognition, to frame such investigations. Suggests that school leadership is best understood as a distributed practice stretched over the…

  19. Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaccaro, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The trait-based perspective of leadership has a long but checkered history. Trait approaches dominated the initial decades of scientific leadership research. Later, they were disdained for their inability to offer clear distinctions between leaders and nonleaders and for their failure to account for situational variance in leadership behavior.…

  20. Workers' Perspectives on Vocational Rehabilitation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Wessel, Julie M.; Harder, Henry G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to consider the vocational rehabilitation (VR) process from the perspective of VR consumers. To better understand the experiences of workers who were injured on the job and participated in VR rehabilitation services, 27 semistructured interviews were completed; 24 were completed face-to-face and 3 were…

  1. A new perspective with weed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems are increasing land productivity. Herbicides are a crucial tool for weed management in no-till, but weed resistance is decreasing control efficacy and increasing input costs. Producers are seeking a broader perspective with weed management. One approach is to disrupt weed...

  2. Women-Family in Quality Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatimah, Rika P. L.; Aziz, J. Abdul; Ibrahim, K.

    2008-01-01

    Bringing together women and family in quality perspective brings about interesting discussions in this paper. By integrating previous studies and considering expert opinions, we determine the variables and dimensions with respect to women's existence regarding their roles both in the family and at work. Many activities carried out by women…

  3. Employers' Perspectives of Employees' Personal Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Rita; Carnes, Lana

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine employers' perspectives of employees' personal financial literacy. Executives rated credit card use and budgeting as the most important personal financial literacy skills that employees should have. They stated that strong personal financial literacy skills allow an employee to focus on work activity…

  4. Voluntary Environmental Programs: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Aseem; Potoski, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) are institutions for inducing firms to produce environmental goods beyond legal requirements. A comparative perspective on VEPs shows how incentives to sponsor and participate in VEPs vary across countries in ways that reveal their potential and limitations. Our brief survey examines conditions under which…

  5. The Large Public University. CFO Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessell, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    "CFO Perspectives" is a series of white papers that examines at role of the CFO within different institutional or operational settings. Each white paper, available free from the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) and released periodically during 2012, NACUBO's 50th anniversary year, focuses on the…

  6. Early Interventionists' Perspectives on Teaching Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Campbell, Philippa H.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of early interventionists as teachers of caregivers. The current study was conducted to better understand interventionists' perspectives about teaching caregivers. A national sample of 1,525 multidisciplinary interventionists completed an online questionnaire, which elicited information about…

  7. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  8. Holism in Teacher Development: A Goethean Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberski, Iddo; McNally, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Teaching has moved gradually from being seen as an art or craft to an evidence-based techno-rational profession. However, within Steiner-Waldorf schools, teachers are largely autonomous and seen, like their pupils, as always "coming into being", through the development of an objective imaginative faculty. This perspective is derived from Steiner's…

  9. Lifelong Learning--A Public Library Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlert, Maureen

    This paper presents a public library perspective on lifelong learning. The first section discusses the lifelong learning challenge, including the aims of the Australian National Marketing Strategy for Skills and Lifelong Learning, and findings of a national survey related to the value of and barriers to learning. The second section addresses the…

  10. Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

  11. Researching Educational Praxis: Spectator and Participant Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmis, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes two parallel research programmes exploring educational practice/praxis. The first, including a theory of "practice architectures", aims to contribute to contemporary practice theory that views practice from the perspective of a spectator. The second aims to contribute to an emerging (practical philosophy) tradition of…

  12. Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives on Test Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, James W., Ed.; Goodyear, Rodney K., Ed.

    The focus of this book is on the way professionals use and make sense of test assessment data in their counseling. The book is oriented specifically toward those training to be psychologists or counselors, especially those interested in a scientist-practitioner orientation to clinical practice. Each of the chapters presents a perspective on test…

  13. Historical Perspectives on the Current Education Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.; Vinovskis, Maris, Ed.

    This document contains 14 individual papers by prominent scholars who provide a historical perspective on current educational reforms. The three essays in part 1 examine some of the major changes in educational development and reform. These include: (1) "Antiquarianism and American Education: Assimilation, Adjustment, Access" (Patricia Graham);…

  14. A Feminist Multicultural Perspective on Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary Lee; Gizara, Sharon; Hope, Anna Crombach; Phelps, Rosemary; Steward, Robbie; Weitzman, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen members of the Section for the Advancement of Women conference work group identified themes and issues relevant to a feminist multicultural perspective on supervision. Issues raised included feminist silence and White privilege, the importance of self-examination, the courage to be anxious, personal commitment to uncertainty, and isolation…

  15. Alumni Perspectives Survey. 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Alumni are a powerful force in building a business school's brand. They recommend programs to prospective students, they connect current students to job opportunities, and they contribute significantly to building a school's legacy. The findings in the 2014 Alumni Perspectives Survey Report provide a current snapshot of nearly 21,000 business…

  16. 2012 Alumni Perspectives Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Conducted in September 2011, this Alumni Perspectives Survey by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) is a longitudinal study of respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey, the annual GMAC[R] exit survey of graduate management students in their final year of business school. This 12th annual report includes responses…

  17. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2011-01-01

    Since the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) first began conducting its Alumni Perspectives Surveys 11 years ago, several "truths" about graduate business school alumni have consistently stood the test of time: They are and remain eminently employable. They constantly rate the value of the degree highly. This year's results are…

  18. A Systemic Perspective of Communication and Sexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drecksel, Debra

    Communication and sexism are analyzed from a systemic perspective, illustrating how sexism is perpetuated through sexist interaction and symbol systems. Sexism is shown to be a disease in our society, which creates a societal situation with double-binding sex-role symbols which limit our adaptability. A remedy for sexism is suggested which…

  19. Child Language Disability: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Montfort Supple, Marie; Soderpalm, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the historical foundations of the identification of language disorders in childhood through an international perspective. It describes the development of the profession of speech-language pathology, initially in Western Europe and later in North America. The roles played by key researchers in the area of child language are…

  20. Teachers' Knowledge: Review from Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siping

    2010-01-01

    Background: The international science competitions show that students from different countries perform differently in subjects such as mathematics, physics and chemistry. In the literature comparative empirical studies tried to address the reasons for cross-national students' differences in performance from different perspectives such as teaching…

  1. Intuitive vs Analytical Thinking: Four Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leron, Uri; Hazzan, Orit

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to place mathematical thinking in the context of more general theories of human cognition. We describe and compare four perspectives--mathematics, mathematics education, cognitive psychology, and evolutionary psychology--each offering a different view on mathematical thinking and learning and, in particular, on the…

  2. Perspectives on Change of Custody among Stepsiblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihinger-Tallman, Marilyn

    In an attempt to understand perceptions of custody arrangements from the perspective of children with a focus on sibling and stepsibling relationships, exploratory research was conducted. Lengthy, unstructured interviews were conducted with 12 college students who ranged in age from 18 to 37. Data were gathered on family communication and…

  3. Theorizing Democratic Education from a Senian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCesare, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature and general interest in the intersection between the capabilities approach (CA) and education, little work has been done so far to theorize democratic education from a CA perspective. This essay attempts to do so by, first, getting clear about the theory of democracy that has emerged from Amartya Sen's…

  4. Indigenous Education and Empowerment: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Saad, Ismael, Ed.; Champagne, Duane, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Indigenous people have often been confronted with education systems that ignore their cultural and historical perspectives. This insightful volume contributes to the understanding of indigenous empowerment through education, and creates a new foundation for implementing specialized indigenous/minority education worldwide, engaging the simultaneous…

  5. Developing Global Perspectives through International Management Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Maureen; Becket, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation has risen high on the agenda of many higher education institutions, and the need to develop graduates with global perspectives is well recognised. Much attention has been given to institutional strategies for internationalisation, international students, and dealing with culturally diverse learning styles. To date, however,…

  6. Teaching for Global Perspective: A Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Patricia Betts, Ed.

    This state resource guide of approximately 250 lesson units for teaching global studies provides 18 topics and from 3-12 lessons for each topic. The topics include global perspective, using models, balance of power, conflict, development, global environment, global resources, global trade, human rights, hunger, ideologies, international…

  7. Expanding Perspectives on HRD Research. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on expanding perspectives in human resource development (HRD) research. "The Concept of Culture in International and Comparative HRD Research: Methodological Problems and Possible Solutions" (Alexander Ardichvili, K. Peter Kuchinke) discusses the following topics: (1) alternative approaches to…

  8. Ethical Perspectives: Leadership Subscales Applied to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.

    Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…

  9. Classroom Management: Students' Perspectives, Goals and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, James D.

    A study investigated classroom management from the students' perspective. Ninety-seven high school students (primarily ninth graders) were observed in one school for 15 weeks in five different classes. Data were collected from this observation, as well as from student and teacher interviews. The guidelines of the Constant-Comparative Method of…

  10. Another Perspective: An Interview with David Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ruth A.; Johnson, Kelli

    2005-01-01

    To provide another perspective on evaluation within nonformal settings, "New Directions for Evaluation" recently interviewed David Smith, the coordinator of the Professional Learning to Close the Achievement Gap program for the Kansas City, Kansas, Public Schools, who has extensive background in education and educational research. He formerly held…

  11. Perspectives on Communicating with the Net Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Lynn; Milligan, Anastasia Trekles

    2008-01-01

    Lynn Zimmerman and Anastasia Trekles Milligan examine technological communication from the perspectives of two instructors, one a digital immigrant and the other a digital native. Today's students are digital natives, reared in a world permeated by interactive technology; as a result, they are used to a model of communication that is significantly…

  12. Adolescent Perspectives on Law and Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Joseph

    English, German, and American youth from pubescence to late adolescence were interviewed in order to discern the maturation of political perspectives. By comparing youngsters in three countries with different political traditions, the differential impact of social ideas was examined. At each age level subjects were matched for sex and I.Q. and,…

  13. Science Parks from a University Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Malcolm

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the establishment and development of science parks in the United Kingdom from the universities' perspective. Discusses their impact on the processes of invention, innovation, technology transfer, commercialization, and enterprise and outlines strategies available to universities for involvement in science park development. (Contains 22…

  14. Hiroshima: Perspectives on the Atomic Bombing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy

    In this curriculum module students analyze both U.S. and Japanese perspectives of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The activities integrate Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences. The module is recommended as a supplement to textbook coverage of the war in the Pacific and of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. It can be used to support both…

  15. Light elements - one observer's historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, David L.

    2010-04-01

    This essay attempts to provide a historical perspective on some of the key questions that engaged the attention of participants at the symposium. In particular, the writer offers and comments on a personal list of milestones in the literature published between 1957 and 1982.

  16. EXETRA Perspectives: Concepts in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.; Edginton, Christopher R.

    Fifteen papers address issues in therapeutic recreation for disabled persons from the perspectives of practitioners, educators, and students. The following papers are presented. "Therapeutic Recreation Service: The Past and Challenging Present" (H. Sessoms); "Therapeutic Recreatiion in an Era of Limits: A Crisis...A Challenge... An Opportunity"…

  17. Catholic Higher Education: One Bishop's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilarczyk, Daniel E.

    2007-01-01

    I have written this paper in response to a request for a bishop's perspective of Catholic higher education in the United States in the 21st century. My response contains four parts: (1) What is the nature and the purpose of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States at this point in our history? (2) What is a Catholic university in this…

  18. Perspectives on Knowledge Utilization in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Paul

    This paper explains why knowledge utilization has become so important and why so many perspectives on knowledge utilization exist. The field of research on knowledge utilization is immense and continues to grow rapidly. The reason for this, according to the paper, is that developed nations around the world are now in the so-called Knowledge Age.…

  19. Perspectives of College Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of college students with Asperger's syndrome (AS) concerning their primary social needs, and their experiences of how those social needs are met at the higher education level. Individuals with AS who were enrolled in or had completed at least one semester of an undergraduate program, or graduated from a college…

  20. Bringing a Global Perspective to World Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyach, Robert B.; And Others

    Nine units of study to help high school social studies teachers introduce a global perspective are contained in this booklet. Stressing interactions among regions economically, politically, and socially, the lessons are intended to help teachers reinforce basic skills and introduce new images of the world. Each lesson contains the following…

  1. Language Competence in Movement: A Child's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus is shifted from viewing the individual's language…

  2. Software Development Management: Empirical and Analytical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Keumseok

    2011-01-01

    Managing software development is a very complex activity because it must deal with people, organizations, technologies, and business processes. My dissertation consists of three studies that examine software development management from various perspectives. The first study empirically investigates the impacts of prior experience with similar…

  3. Children's Perspectives in a Game Programming Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tholander, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    In the Playground project, we applied a constructionist learning perspective in order to build a computational learning environment in which children could design and build their own video games. In this paper, we present results from a study where children were given semi-structured programming tasks in an adventure game designed to investigate…

  4. Student Perspectives of Grading in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe

    2015-01-01

    Recent state and federal legislations on educational accountability push evaluation and grading to the frontline. This study examined students' perspectives of grading in physical education. The participants included students (N = 39) from two middle schools. Data were collected through observation, student profile grading sheets and interviews.…

  5. Overview of PVQAT: Update and Perspectives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Yamamichi, M.; Sample, T.; Kelly, G.; Govind, R.

    2015-02-01

    The presentation provides an overview of PVQAT: International PV Quality Assurance Task Force - historical perspective, projects, climate - specific (use - environment -specific) durability testing, consistency of manufacturing, system verification, IECRE vs PVQAT, how to become involved, current status and multiyear targets, goals for today.

  6. Undergraduate Consumer Affairs Program Needs: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kathryn; Saboe-Wounded Head, Lorna; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six Consumer Affairs (CA) internship supervisors were surveyed to identify critical knowledge and skills demonstrated by interns and to examine the importance of knowledge and skills needed in the workplace from the supervisors' perspectives.The knowledge and skills measured were identified through program goals. Results revealed that CA…

  7. Popcorn Story Frames from a Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    Popcorn story frames from a multicultural perspective are holistic outlines that in the reading/writing process facilitate comprehension for all cultures learning to read and write stories. Popcorn story frames are structured and modeled in a horizontal fashion just like popcorn pops in a horizontal fashion. The frames are designed for learners…

  8. A Theory of Learning (?) in Confucian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chung-ying

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I present a model of four dimensions for the idea of learning in the classical Confucian perspective. This model is intended to capture the most essential four aspects of learning which explain why self-cultivation of a human person toward an end of self-fulfillment and social transformation of humanity is possible. I shall also…

  9. Perspectives on Elder Abuse in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konig, Julia; Leembruggen-Kallberg, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This study of 74 German citizens analyzed perspectives on the behaviors of adult children toward their elderly parents, with a focus on the behaviors that were considered to be extremely, moderately, or mildly abusive. Physical and psychological aggression, psychological neglect, and neglect/abandonment were most frequently cited as examples of…

  10. What Teens Are Reading: A Publisher's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, David

    1999-01-01

    Presents a publisher's perspective on new young adult books being published and on reaching the young adult audience. Discusses reasons for publishing simultaneous hardcover and softcover editions; the more attractive and slightly more expensive trade paperback reprints; marketing and promotion; and establishment of a young adult book award. (AEF)

  11. Counseling the Mentally Retarded: A Psychoeducational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spragg, Paul A.

    The paper suggests that a cognitive or psychoeducational perspective is valuable in counseling mentally retarded individuals. Psychoeducational considerations in pretreatment assessment, with an emphasis on process rather than product, are noted; and it is explained that counseling of mentally retarded persons can be enhanced through the use of…

  12. Stakeholder Perspectives: CLIL Programme Management in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehisto, Peeter; Asser, Hiie

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, Estonia launched a voluntary Estonian language CLIL programme for seven year-olds in four Russian-medium schools. The programme has expanded rapidly to a total of 48 kindergartens and schools. This paper reports on research into stakeholder perspectives on programme management. In addition to surveying parents, teachers, vice-principals…

  13. Criticality safety evaluation - an endusers's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S T

    1999-05-06

    This paper presents criticality safety evaluations from an enduser's perspective. Overall issues related to a criticality safety evaluation in an operations support setting are discussed. A work flow process is presented which shows the key steps in conducting an effective criticality evaluation. Finally, a few suggestions are given to assist newcomers to this field.

  14. Perspectives: Sexuality and Dance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dance Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a collection of shorter pieces from current and former dance chairpersons which addresses concerns and questions about sexuality in dance education from a variety of perspectives. Although each essay stands alone (and was written as such), the conversation that develops helps one to see the larger geography mapped by…

  15. Cyberbullying: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Jieun; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted in different countries have focused on empirical research and literature reviews on prevalence, consequences, and strategies relative to cyberbullying; however, there is a lack of research regarding cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. This article reviews recent research on cyberbullying and presents…

  16. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  17. Revisiting Metaphors for Education: A Student's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, Larisa; Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2011-01-01

    This study examines metaphors about learning produced by a group of eighteen students at a big public university in Malaysia. The learner perspective is placed within a wider discourse on education in order to explore whether the images employed by the learners to describe their learning reflect the dominant conception of education as…

  18. European Universities and Their International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Robin H.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation was prepared in response to a request from the European University Association for a brief comparative analysis of higher education internationalization in Europe and North America from a North American perspective. After adapting de Wit's four-category definition of internationalization (academic programs, technical assistance,…

  19. Defining Quality Child Care: Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Thompson, Stacy D.; Norris, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple perspectives regarding the definition of quality child care, and how child care quality can be improved, were examined using a focus group methodology. Participants were representatives from stakeholder groups in the child care profession, including child care center owners and directors (3 groups), parents (3 groups), child caregivers (3…

  20. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  1. Five Perspectives for Teaching the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Studying the Holocaust provides an opportunity to explore a fascinating historical topic whose impact on the contemporary world cannot be overstated. As such, the topic is now an accepted part of the American secondary school curriculum. For such curricula to be of maximum benefit to students, clearly defined perspectives that direct the students'…

  2. New Perspectives in Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    These three papers are from a symposium on new perspectives in human resource development (HRD). "Developing an Instrument to Measure the Use of Play-Based Training Methods in Healthcare Education" (Rebecca J. Adams, Karen E. Watkins, Tom Valentine) reports preliminary findings from a pilot study that tested data collection procedures and the…

  3. Theoretical Perspectives of How Digital Natives Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivunja, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Marck Prensky, an authority on teaching and learning especially with the aid of Information and Communication Technologies, has referred to 21st century children born after 1980 as "Digital Natives". This paper reviews literature of leaders in the field to shed some light on theoretical perspectives of how Digital Natives learn and how…

  4. Language Origin from an Emergentist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Jinyun; Holland, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a surge of interest in the origin of language across a wide range of disciplines. Emergentism provides a new perspective to integrate investigations from different areas of study. This paper discusses how the study of language acquisition can contribute to the inquiry, in particular when computer modeling is…

  5. Curriculum-Based Measures: Development and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deno, Stanley L.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of curriculum-based measurement (CBM), clarifies its relationship to curriculum-based assessment, summarizes the primary features of CBM, and gives a rationale for its design. Extensions of CBM to new research domains are identified, and a perspective is provided in the place of CBM in the broader context of…

  6. Test Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodas, Jaee; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper examines test anxiety from a cross-cultural perspective with specific reference to the Indian and American cultures. The construct of test anxiety has been examined in many cultures all over the world. In this review, the importance of understanding and incorporating contextual factors in cross-cultural research is emphasized.…

  7. Water Birth at Home: Two Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Angha, Amanda M.; Scaer, Roberta M.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, a grandmother, with a long history as an author and activist for normal birth, and her daughter, a new mother, offer their unique experiences of a water birth at home, attended by family members and midwives. Their unique perspectives demonstrate the trust in the normal birth process that is possible for every birth. PMID:19252682

  8. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Career Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark; Duarte, Maria Eduarda; Glavin, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    The authors present an overview of the discussion and presentations that took place concerning techniques and assessment in educational and vocational guidance at the recent symposium "International Perspectives on Career Development." Two topics were examined. The 1st focused on the theoretical foundations of and psychometric issues in career…

  9. Thinking about Religion from a Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Brant; Smith, Fred

    The Student Text begins with a comparison of Eastern and Western World Religions. The three interrelated Abrahamic faiths are compared with Hindu-Buddhist traditions. Subsequent chapter titles are: "New Religions,""Religion and Morality,""Religion and Science,""Religion and Human Life,""A Historical Perspective" and "Getting Together." An…

  10. Family Psychology from an Israeli Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Esther

    2001-01-01

    Describes family psychology in Israel from the perspective of geopolitical realities, culture texture, and the structure and traditions of families in Israel's multifaceted society (e.g., community disasters, war stress, immigration, and the Holocaust). Discusses the development of family psychology and institutional supports, offering a brief…

  11. Museums and Adults Learning: Perspectives from Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Alan, Ed.; Stannett, Annette, Ed.

    This book contains 28 papers presenting perspectives from Europe on museums and adult learning. The papers, each of which is devoted to a specific country, examine topics such as the following: further education and inservice training; programs for unemployed individuals; lectures and open days; elderly visitors; immigrants; refugees; disabled…

  12. Student Discipline: Legal, Empirical, and Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. John, III, Ed.; Bennett, Christine, Ed.

    This book presents four perspectives on student discipline: legal and historical, empirical, educational, and futuristic. Part I examines the legal history of student discipline in papers by J. John Harris III, Richard E. Fields, and A. Reynaldo Contreras (Chapter 1); Richard E. Fields (Chapter 2); and David G. Carter, Sr. and Cynthia L. Jackson…

  13. Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective 1

    PubMed Central

    De Haas, Hein

    2010-01-01

    The debate on migration and development has swung back and forth like a pendulum, from developmentalist optimism in the 1950s and 1960s, to neo‐Marxist pessimism over the 1970s and 1980s, towards more optimistic views in the 1990s and 2000s. This paper argues how such discursive shifts in the migration and development debate should be primarily seen as part of more general paradigm shifts in social and development theory. However, the classical opposition between pessimistic and optimistic views is challenged by empirical evidence pointing to the heterogeneity of migration impacts. By integrating and amending insights from the new economics of labor migration, livelihood perspectives in development studies and transnational perspectives in migration studies – which share several though as yet unobserved conceptual parallels – this paper elaborates the contours of a conceptual framework that simultaneously integrates agency and structure perspectives and is therefore able to account for the heterogeneous nature of migration‐development interactions. The resulting perspective reveals the naivety of recent views celebrating migration as self‐help development “from below”. These views are largely ideologically driven and shift the attention away from structural constraints and the vital role of states in shaping favorable conditions for positive development impacts of migration to occur. PMID:26900199

  14. East-West Perspectives on Elder Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and conceptualizes the meaning of lifelong learning from two cultural perspectives--East and West. It examines the different principles underpinning lifelong learning that explain why and how elders in the two cultures engage differently in continued learning. Finally, it discusses the cultural impact on elder learning by…

  15. Perspectives [on Library Service Developments] 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookmark, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Bookmark" provides 1991 perspectives on several library service developments, including papers by three New Yorkers who played an important role in the White House Conference on Library and Information Services: Thomas Sobol, Commissioner of Education; Robert Wedgeworth, Dean of the School of Library Service at Columbia…

  16. Perspective of a Reproductive Rights Attorney.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltrow, Lynn M.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the issue of drug-exposed infants from the perspective of a reproductive rights attorney. States genuinely interested in promoting healthy children will stop ignoring women or treating them as potential child abusers and will change the current punitive legal focus to a focus on treatment. (SLD)

  17. Perspectives on Organizing a Workplace Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlington County Public Schools, VA.

    This handbook capsulizes the many steps in developing, implementing, and evaluating a workplace literacy program, and is written from the perspectives of both the educator and the employer. The handbook has been written for business leaders and for adult basic education and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) educators. While the suggestions in the…

  18. Perspectives on Numeracy: Reflections from International Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Dave; Gal, Iddo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines perspectives regarding the mathematical skills expected of adults and school graduates, comparing ideas developed as part of two major multinational comparative assessments of skills: the Programme for International Student Assessment and the Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (also known as the OECD…

  19. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  20. Convexity Bias and Perspective Cues in the Reverse-Perspective Illusion.

    PubMed

    Dobias, Joshua J; Papathomas, Thomas V; Vlajnic, Vanja M

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to examine the roles of painted linear perspective cues, and the convexity bias that are known to influence human observers' perception of three-dimensional (3D) objects and scenes. Reverse-perspective stimuli were used to elicit a depth-inversion illusion, in which far points on the stimulus appear to be closer than near points and vice versa, with a 2 (Type of stimulus) × 2 (Fixation mark position) design. To study perspective, two types of stimuli were used: a version with painted linear perspective cues and a version with blank (unpainted) surfaces. To examine the role of convexity, two locations were used for the fixation mark: either in a locally convex or a locally concave part of each stimulus (painted and unpainted versions). Results indicated that the reverse-perspective illusion was stronger when the stimulus contained strong perspective cues and when observers fixated a locally concave region within the scene. PMID:27482372

  1. Convexity Bias and Perspective Cues in the Reverse-Perspective Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Papathomas, Thomas V.; Vlajnic, Vanja M.

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to examine the roles of painted linear perspective cues, and the convexity bias that are known to influence human observers’ perception of three-dimensional (3D) objects and scenes. Reverse-perspective stimuli were used to elicit a depth-inversion illusion, in which far points on the stimulus appear to be closer than near points and vice versa, with a 2 (Type of stimulus) × 2 (Fixation mark position) design. To study perspective, two types of stimuli were used: a version with painted linear perspective cues and a version with blank (unpainted) surfaces. To examine the role of convexity, two locations were used for the fixation mark: either in a locally convex or a locally concave part of each stimulus (painted and unpainted versions). Results indicated that the reverse-perspective illusion was stronger when the stimulus contained strong perspective cues and when observers fixated a locally concave region within the scene. PMID:27482372

  2. Perspective-Taking Increases Willingness to Engage in Intergroup Contact

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cynthia S.; Kenneth, Tai; Ku, Gillian; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2014-01-01

    The current research explored whether perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with stereotyped outgroup members. Across three studies, we find that perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in contact with negatively-stereotyped targets. In Study 1, perspective-takers sat closer to, whereas stereotype suppressors sat further from, a hooligan compared to control participants. In Study 2, individual differences in perspective-taking tendencies predicted individuals' willingness to engage in contact with a hooligan, having effects above and beyond those of empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated that perspective-taking's effects on intergroup contact extend to the target's group (i.e., another homeless man), but not to other outgroups (i.e., a man of African descent). Consistent with other perspective-taking research, our findings show that perspective-taking facilitates the creation of social bonds by increasing contact with stereotyped outgroup members. PMID:24465648

  3. Perspective effects in nondeontic versions of the Wason selection task.

    PubMed

    Staller, A; Sloman, S A; Ben-Zeev, T

    2000-04-01

    Perspective effects in the Wason four-card selection task occur when people choose mutually exclusive sets of cards depending on the perspective they adopt when making their choice. Previous demonstrations of perspective effects have been limited to deontic contexts--that is, problem contexts that involve social duty, like permissions and obligations. In three experiments, we demonstrate perspective effects in nondeontic contexts, including a context much like the original one employed by Wason (1966, 1968). We suggest that perspective effects arise whenever the task uses a rule that can be interpreted biconditionally and different perspectives elicit different counterexamples that match the predicted choice sets. This view is consistent with domain-general theories but not with domain-specific theories of deontic reasoning--for example, pragmatic reasoning schemas and social contract theory--that cannot explain perspective effects in nondeontic contexts. PMID:10881557

  4. A Current Perspective on Photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Domen, K.

    2011-02-18

    perspective on the field of photocatalysis. It contains invited papers from leading researchers in a wide range of important aspects of the field that address materials, photophysical, photochemical, and electrocatalysis issues. The area remains primarily the domain of basic research studies because progress toward the promise offered by the early work has (at least until recently) been slow, despite its significance having become increasingly recognized. The present collection of papers deals with new semiconductor photocatalysts, molecular catalysts for hydrogen production and water oxidation, dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells, and electrochemical CO{sub 2} reduction. Overall photochemical water splitting without any applied bias potential is achieved in several systems, especially under UV irradiation. Further advances are also achieved in a few semiconductor systems, such as GaZn oxynitrides or two-step (so-called 'Z-scheme') systems to produce H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} without any sacrificial reagent under visible irradiation. When band gaps of semiconductors are narrowed to absorb more visible light for greater efficiency, or when band positions are not suitable for carrying out one-electron redox processes, multielectron catalysts are required to promote proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in producing solar fuels. In homogeneous photocatalysis systems, sacrificial reagents are typically used to investigate the catalytic activity, detailed kinetics, and mechanisms of a half reaction. Photoelectrolysis systems with immobilized catalysts (metals, metal oxides, or molecular catalysts) on electrodes can separate oxidized products, such as O{sub 2}, and reduced products, such as H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 3}OH, and others, by means of proton- or hydroxide-conducting membranes. The following paragraphs briefly summarize these contributions. In the area of UV-driven water splitting, Townsend et al. prepared Pt-and/or IrO{sub x}-coated niobate (Nb{sub 6}O{sub 17}{sup 4

  5. PNNL?s Shared Perspectives Technology

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-06-14

    Shared Perspectives, one of the technologies within the PNNL-developed GridOPTICS capability suite, enables neighboring organizations, such as different electric utilities, to more effectively partner to solve outages and other grid problems. Shared Perspectives provides a means for organizations to safely stream information from different organizational service areas; the technology then combines and aligns this information into a common, global view, enhancing global situation awareness that can reduce the time it takes to talk through a problem and identify solutions. The technology potentially offers applications in other areas, such as disaster response; collaboration in the monitoring/assessment of real-time events (e.g., hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornadoes); as well as military uses.

  6. A perspective on space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Nakatani, Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Yasufumi; Iwata, Tsutomu

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the research and development status and perspective on space robotics in Japan. The R & D status emphasizes the current on-going projects at NASDA including the JEM Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS) to be used on Space Station Freedom and the robotics experiments on Engineering Satellite 7 (ETS-7). As a future perspective, not only NASDA, but also ISAS and other government institutes have been promoting their own research in space robotics in order to support wide spread space activities in the future. Included in this future research is an autonomous satellite retrieval experiment, a dexterous robot experiment, an on-orbit servicing platform, an IVA robot, and several moon/planetary rovers proposed by NASDA or ISAS and other organizations.

  7. A Catholic perspective on organ sales.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, N

    2000-08-01

    In this article, I address the issue of the sale of human organs and the moral implications of a market in human organs under the aegis of Christian Bioethics. I argue that moral issues of this kind cannot be adequately be addressed from the point of view of moral frameworks, which point exclusively to procedural norms. Rather, a moral perspective must embody some substantive norms derived from a particular content-full moral or theological perspective. This substantive norms to which I appeal in this article are those of Roman Catholicism. The most important sources cited include the works of Pius XIi (1956) and the works of John Paul II (1985 and 1991). The conclusion reached is that not only is it morally permissible for Catholics to participate in a market in organ sales but it may also be prudent public policy. PMID:12171074

  8. Designing appropriate blended courses: a students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2010-10-01

    The computing education in Taiwan's vocational schools usually focuses on how to help students enhance their professional skills and pass certified examinations. In addition, due to national education policy and universities' regulations, pure online courses are not permitted in Taiwan. In order to design appropriate blended learning (BL) courses, the author explored the effects of web-mediated self-regulated learning (SRL) with variations in online class frequency on enhancing students' computing skills and their perspective of the blended courses. A total of 172 students, divided into four groups, participated in the experiment. The results showed that students in the SRL and BL group with five online classes had the highest scores for using a database management system (DBMS), and the highest pass rate on certified examinations. Students in this group also expressed their positive perspective on the arrangement of their blended course with the intervention of web-mediated SRL. PMID:20950181

  9. Nuclear waste issues: a perspectives document

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminese, F.J.

    1983-02-01

    This report contains the results of systematic survey of perspectives on the question of radioactive waste management. Sources of information for this review include the scientific literature, regulatory and government documents, pro-nuclear and anti-nuclear publications, and news media articles. In examining the sources of information, it has become evident that a major distinction can be made between the optimistic or positive viewpoints, and the pessimistic or negative ones. Consequently, these form the principal categories for presentation of the perspectives on the radioactive waste management problem have been further classified as relating to the following issue areas: the physical aspects of radiation, longevity, radiotoxicity, the quantity of radioactive wastes, and perceptual factors.

  10. An historical perspective on genetic care.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J F

    2000-01-01

    The outcomes of genetic research endeavors have the potential to transform health care with significant implications for both providers and consumers of clinical services. Professional and public integration of genetics knowledge is key to successful utilization of genetics information. This article will provide an overview of genetics including a historical perspective, examples of genetic health care, the nursing perspective, and ethical considerations and challenges. New scientific explanations for health, disease, responsiveness to treatment, and design of options for care may create personal and professional dilemmas. Nurses have a responsibility to become active participants in confronting the demands resulting from this new knowledge for education, practice, and policy. The purpose of this article is to provide a foundation from which the profession of nursing can build to enhance current skills and knowledge about genetics to prepare for this transformation in health care. PMID:11380267

  11. Embodiment as a unifying perspective for psychology.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M

    2010-07-01

    A basic claim of the embodiment framework is that all psychological processes are influenced by body morphology, sensory systems, motor systems, and emotions. As such, the framework holds the promise of providing a unifying perspective for psychological research. This article begins with a sketch of several arguments, from evolution to philosophy, as to why the embodiment framework is a good bet. These arguments are followed by a review of approaches to embodiment, including those from cognitive linguistics, perceptual symbol theory, and action-based theories. Finally, examples are provided for how a unifying perspective might work for cognition (including language and memory), cognitive and social development, social psychology, neuroscience, clinical psychology, and psychology applied to education. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271505

  12. The Evolution of Galaxies: an Infrared Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Cristina C.; Tuffs, Richard J.

    2010-06-01

    Understanding the infrared emission of galaxies is critical to observational and theoretical investigations of the condensation of galaxies out of the intergalactic medium and the conversion of gas into stars over cosmic time. From an observational perspective, about half of all photons emitted within galaxies are locally absorbed by dust grains, necessitating a self-consistent analysis of the panchromatic emission of galaxies to quantify star-formation and AGN activity as a function of epoch and environment. From a theoretical perspective, physical processes involving dust are expected to play a major role in regulating the accumulation of baryons in galaxies and their condensation into stars on scales ranging from Mpc down to sub-pc. All this requires a quantitative analysis of the interaction between dust, gas and radiation. Here we review progress in the modelling of some of these processes.

  13. Prefrontal cortical dopamine from an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we propose the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) acquired neotenic development as a consequence of mesocortical dopamine (DA) innervation, which in turn drove evolution of the PFC into becoming a complex functional system. Accordingly, from the evolutionary perspective, decreased DA signaling in the PFC associated with such adverse conditions as chronic stress may be considered as an environmental adaptation strategy. Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder may also be understood as environmental adaptation or a by-product of such a process that has emerged through evolution in humans. To investigate the evolutionary perspective of DA signaling in the PFC, domestic animals such as dogs may be a useful model. PMID:25617024

  14. PNNL’s Shared Perspectives Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-25

    Shared Perspectives, one of the technologies within the PNNL-developed GridOPTICS capability suite, enables neighboring organizations, such as different electric utilities, to more effectively partner to solve outages and other grid problems. Shared Perspectives provides a means for organizations to safely stream information from different organizational service areas; the technology then combines and aligns this information into a common, global view, enhancing global situation awareness that can reduce the time it takes to talk through a problem and identify solutions. The technology potentially offers applications in other areas, such as disaster response; collaboration in the monitoring/assessment of real-time events (e.g., hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornadoes); as well as military uses.

  15. Long-Term Perspectives on Interstellar Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, M. A. G.

    Realizing interstellar travel by machines or living beings will require not only scientific and technological progress, but also a shared secular belief among a determined minority that this enterprise is important for the human future. Their efforts may have to extend beyond individual human lifetimes. Historical perspectives, on both the past and the future, are proposed. Interstellar probes could be a more thorough way of searching for alien forms of life and intelligence in nearby systems, particularly if there were intelligent beings there who did not employ technologies our astronomical observing devices can detect from here. Perspectives on the ethical, policy, and design issues of such close encounters with alien life and intelligence are presented. Ways of accelerating the coming of interstellar probes are suggested.

  16. Tau physics 1994: A theoretical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    In this paper I describe some recent advances in tau physics and discuss their implications from a theoretical perspective. The examples I have chosen include e-{mu}-{tau} universality, QCD studies, anomalous electroweak dipole moments, and forbidden decays. That list is by no means exhaustive. It should, however, demonstrate the breath of tau physics, describe some interesting new results, and point out the potential for future advances.

  17. The Evolution of Syntax: An Exaptationist Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of language required elaboration of a number of independent mechanisms in the hominin lineage, including systems involved in signaling, semantics, and syntax. Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The “continuist” perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The “exaptationist” perspective posits evolutionary change of function, so that systems today used for linguistic communication might previously have served quite different functions in earlier hominids. I argue that abundant biological evidence supports an exaptationist perspective, in general, and that it must be taken seriously when considering language evolution. When applied to syntax, this suggests that core computational components used today in language could have originally served non-linguistic functions such as motor control, non-verbal thought, or spatial reasoning. I outline three specific exaptationist hypotheses for spoken language. These three hypotheses each posit a change of functionality in a precursor circuit, and its transformation into a neural circuit or region specifically involved in language today. Hypothesis 1 suggests that the precursor mechanism for intentional vocal control, specifically direct cortical control over the larynx, was manual motor control subserved by the cortico-spinal tract. The second is that the arcuate fasciculus, which today connects syntactic and lexical regions, had its origin in intracortical connections subserving vocal imitation. The third is that the specialized components of Broca’s area, specifically BA 45, had their origins in non-linguistic motor control, and specifically hierarchical planning of action. I conclude by illustrating the importance of both homology (studied via primates) and convergence (typically analyzed in birds) for testing such evolutionary hypotheses. PMID

  18. International Perspectives in Leadership Development: Part II.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    In the second part of this two-part series, leadership development perspectives are shared from the opening of the Penn Wharton China Center in Beijing. The symposium brought national leaders from Chinese academic settings and professional organizations together with thought leaders from the United States to discuss nursing leadership across the care continuum. Highlights of demographic shifts, clinical demands, and policy decisions are presented, with an eye toward future trends in professional development. PMID:26352039

  19. Diabetic Retinopathy: Animal Models, Therapies, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xue; McGinnis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes. Although great efforts have been made to uncover the mechanisms underlying the pathology of DR, the exact causes of DR remain largely unknown. Because of multifactor involvement in DR etiology, currently no effective therapeutic treatments for DR are available. In this paper, we review the pathology of DR, commonly used animal models, and novel therapeutic approaches. Perspectives and future directions for DR treatment are discussed. PMID:26881246

  20. Biomechanical Perspectives on Concussion in Sport.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Bland, Megan L; Campolettano, Eamon T; Press, Jaclyn N; Rowson, Bethany; Smith, Jake A; Sproule, David W; Tyson, Abigail M; Duma, Stefan M

    2016-09-01

    Concussions can occur in any sport. Often, clinical and biomechanical research efforts are disconnected. This review paper analyzes current concussion issues in sports from a biomechanical perspective and is geared toward Sports Med professionals. Overarching themes of this review include the biomechanics of the brain during head impact, role of protective equipment, potential population-based differences in concussion tolerance, potential intervention strategies to reduce the incidence of injury, and common biomechanical misconceptions. PMID:27482775