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Sample records for clinical chemistry haematology

  1. The use of hirudin as universal anticoagulant in haematology, clinical chemistry and blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Melber, K; Brandt, N; Thiel, E

    2001-12-01

    Undesirable interactions between anticoagulants and diagnostic test kit procedures so far have prevented the development of a single uniform blood sampling tube. Contrary to K2-EDTA, heparin and other anticoagulants, hirudin only minimally alters blood cells and dissolved blood constituents, thus qualifying as a universal anticoagulant for diagnostic purposes. Automated complete blood counts, automated analyses of clinical chemistry analytes and immunohaematology were performed from hirudinised and routinely processed blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n=35) and hospitalised patients (n=45). Hirudin (400 ATU/ml blood) sufficiently anticoagulated blood for diagnostic purposes. The measurements of automated complete blood counts obtained from K2-EDTA-anticoagulated and hirudinised blood correlated significantly as did the measurements of 24 clinical chemistry analytes from hirudinised plasma and serum. Regression analysis revealed that the results of complete blood counts and clinical chemistry tests were predictable from the respective measurements from hirudinised blood (p=0.001). Immunohaematological tests and cross-matching from hirudinised and native blood of the same donors gave identical results. Single clotting factors, but not global coagulation analytes, could be measured from hirudinised blood. Therefore, a universal hirudin-containing blood sampling tube could be designed for automated analysis of haematological, serological and clinical chemistry analytes. PMID:11798089

  2. Effects of probiotic supplementation over 5 months on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; West, N P; Horn, P L; Lehtinen, M J; Koerbin, G; Pyne, D B; Lahtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W

    2014-11-01

    Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues. PMID:25052229

  3. Parameters of haematology, clinical chemistry and lipid metabolism in the common marmoset and alterations under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuehnel, F; Grohmann, J; Buchwald, U; Koeller, G; Teupser, D; Einspanier, A

    2012-08-01

    Common marmosets are suitable non-human primate models for many human diseases. Standard values for blood parameters are required to evaluate physiological and pathological situations. Two studies were conducted: study I to determine standard values and study II to examine these under changed housing conditions. In study I, all parameters for clinical chemistry were similar in range for both genders with these specifics: male marmosets had significantly higher total and LDL cholesterol levels than females, whereas the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin were significantly lower than in females. In study II, glucose, lymphocytes and salivary cortisol were significantly lower, and faecal cortisol was increased during the change of housing conditions. In conclusion, standard values for haematology and clinical chemistry for the common marmoset were determined. Further on, parameters that are influenced by relocation stress and its importance for experimental results are described. PMID:22765494

  4. Haematology and blood chemistry of Cebus apella in relation to sex and age.

    PubMed

    Riviello, M C; Wirz, A

    2001-12-01

    An effective health care program entails the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of medical problems. A knowledge of baseline values in clinically normal individuals is essential for determining the limits between good health and disease and for understanding the changes produced by pathogenic agents. However, very little information is currently available concerning the blood chemistry and haematological values of different species of monkeys, particularly new-world primates. The values of some haematological and chemical parameters in Cebus apella were determined. The aim of the present work was to verify the effect of age and sex on normal blood values. Blood samples were collected once a year for two successive years from 36 monkeys living in large captive social groups. Significant differences between males and females were found for AST, GGT, urea nitrogen and creatinine, erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Significant differences between juveniles and adults were found for calcium, AST, alkaline phosphatase, inorganic phosphorus, glucose, neutrophils, lymphocytes and serum protein parameters. PMID:11990530

  5. Haematology and plasma chemistry of the red top ice blue mbuna cichlid (Metriaclima greshakei).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Clinical haematology and blood plasma chemistry can be used as a valuable tool to provide substantial diagnostic information for fish. A wide range of parameters can be used to assess nutritional status, digestive function, disease identification, routine metabolic levels, general physiological status and even the assessment and management of wild fish populations. However to evaluate such data accurately, baseline reference intervals for each measurable parameter must be established for the species of fish in question. Baseline data for ornamental fish species are limited, as research is more commonly conducted using commercially cultured fish. Blood samples were collected from sixteen red top ice blue cichlids (Metriaclima greshakei), an ornamental freshwater fish, to describe a range of haematology and plasma chemistry parameters. Since this cichlid is fairly large in comparison with most tropical ornamental fish, two independent blood samples were taken to assess a large range of parameters. No significant differences were noted between sample periods for any parameter. Values obtained for a large number of parameters were similar to those established for other closely related fish species such as tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). In addition to reporting the first set of blood values for M. Greshakei, to our knowledge, this study highlights the possibility of using previously established data for cultured cichlid species in studies with ornamental cichlid fish. PMID:22005416

  6. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... indispensable patient care tool. Learn more IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY ddPCR Quantification of Lymphoma Mutations Researchers have developed ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  7. Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8 months old sheep, weighing on average 30 kg, from which 15 mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8 days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p < 0.05). Haematological variables including globular volume and erythrocyte counts showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) at all time points after collection and increased (p < 0.01) at all time points after reinfusion. There was a significant increase in total protein and calcium at all time points after reinfusion (p < 0.05). Conclusion Autologous transfusion in sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection. PMID:22607611

  8. Cerebrovascular disease as the initial clinical presentation of haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Arboix, A; Besses, C

    1997-01-01

    We describe 14 patients (mean age 57 years) in whom stroke or TIA was the presenting manifestation of a haematologic disorder. Twelve patients had an ischaemic stroke and 2 a haemorrhagic stroke. This group represented 1.27% (14/1,099) of the total number of patients with first-ever stroke diagnosed from 1986 to 1992 at our institution, accounted for 1.32% (12/906) of all brain infarcts and 1.03% (2/193) of all haemorrhagic strokes, and was the most common aetiology (25%) of ischaemic stroke of unusual cause. Haematological disorders included essential thrombocythaemia (6), polycythaemia vera (1), smoker's polycythaemia (1), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (1), IgA lambda myeloma (1), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (1), Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (1), chronic granulocytic leukaemia (1) and IgG lambda myeloma (1). Stroke subtypes included definitive cerebral infarct (10), TIA (2), parenchymal haemorrhage (1) and spontaneous subdural haematoma (1). Vascular territories in ischaemic stroke were the carotid in 7 patients, the vertebrobasilar in 1 and undetermined in 4. Mean follow-up was 40 months (range, 1-96 months). The mortality rate was 18.7%. PMID:9208259

  9. Virologic response and haematologic toxicity of boceprevir- and telaprevir-containing regimens in actual clinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Butt, A. A.; Yan, P.; Shaikh, O. S.; Freiberg, M. S.; Re, V. Lo; Justice, A. C.; Sherman, K. E.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Effectiveness, safety and tolerability of boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TPV) in actual clinical settings remain unknown. We determined rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and haematologic adverse effects among persons treated with BOC- or TPV-containing regimens, compared with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PEG/RBV). Using an established cohort of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons, Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), we identified those treated with a BOC- or TPV-containing regimen and HCV genotype 1-infected controls treated with PEG/RBV. We excluded those with HIV co-infection and missing HCV RNA values to determine SVR. Primary endpoints were SVR (undetectable HCV RNA ≥12 weeks after treatment completion) and haematologic toxicity (grade 3/4 anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia). We evaluated 2288 persons on BOC-, 409 on TPV-containing regimen and 6308 on PEG/RBV. Among these groups, respectively, 31%, 43% and 9% were treatment-experienced; 17%, 37% and 14% had baseline cirrhosis; 63%, 54% and 48% were genotype 1a. SVR rates among noncirrhotics were as follows: treatment naïve: 65% (BOC), 67% (TPV) and 31% (PEG/RBV); treatment experienced: 57% (BOC), 54% (TPV) and 13% (PEG/RBV); (P-value not significant for BOC vs TPV; P < 0.0001 for BOC or TPV vs PEG/RBV). Haematologic toxicities among BOC-, TPV- and PEG/RBV-treated groups were as follows: grade 3/4 anaemia 7%, 11% and 3%; grade 4 thrombocytopenia 2.2%, 5.4% and 1.7%; grade 4 neutropenia 8.2%, 5.6% and 3.4%. SVR rates are higher and closer to those reported in pivotal clinical trials among BOC- and TPV-treated persons compared with PEG/RBV-treated persons. Haematologic adverse events are frequent, but severe toxicity is uncommon. PMID:25524834

  10. Audit of clinical-laboratory practices in haematology and blood transfusion at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Makubi, Abel N; Meda, Collins; Magesa, Alex; Minja, Peter; Mlalasi, Juliana; Salum, Zubeda; Kweka, Rumisha E; Rwehabura, James; Quaresh, Amrana; Magesa, Pius M; Robert, David; Makani, Julie; Kaaya, Ephata

    2012-10-01

    In Tanzania, there is paucity of data for monitoring laboratory medicine including haematology. This therefore calls for audits of practices in haematology and blood transfusion in order to provide appraise practice and devise strategies that would result in improved quality of health care services. This descriptive cross-sectional study which audited laboratory practice in haematology and blood transfusion at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) aimed at assessing the pre-analytical stage of laboratory investigations including laboratory request forms and handling specimen processing in the haematology laboratory and assessing the chain from donor selection, blood component processing to administration of blood during transfusion. A national standard checklist was used to audit the laboratory request forms (LRF), phlebotomists' practices on handling and assessing the from donor selection to administration 6f blood during transfusion. Both interview and observations were used. A total of 195 LRF were audited and 100% of had incomplete information such as patients' identification numbers, time sample ordered, reason for request, summary of clinical assessment and differential diagnoses. The labelling of specimens was poorly done by phlebotomists/clinicians in 82% of the specimens. Also 65% (132/202) of the blood samples delivered in the haematology laboratory did not contain the recommended volume of blood. There was no laboratory request form specific for ordering blood and there were no guidelines for indication of blood transfusion in the wards/ clinics. The blood transfusion laboratory section was not participating in external quality assessment and the hospital transfusion committee was not in operation. It is recommended that a referral hospital like MNH should have a transfusion committee to provide an active forum to facilitate communication between those involved with transfusion, monitor, coordinate and audit blood transfusion practices as per national

  11. Effects of doxycycline on haematology, blood chemistry and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of healthy dogs and dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Villaescusa, A; García-Sancho, M; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M Á; Sainz, Á

    2015-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and α2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E. canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME. PMID:25957920

  12. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  13. Towards optimal clinical and epidemiological registration of haematological malignancies: Guidelines for recording progressions, transformations and multiple diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Anna; Rous, Brian; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Middleton, Richard; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Maynadie, Marc; Zanetti, Roberto; Visser, Otto

    2015-06-01

    Haematological malignancies (HM) represent over 6% of the total cancer incidence in Europe and affect all ages, ranging between 45% of all cancers in children and 7% in the elderly. Thirty per cent of childhood cancer deaths are due to HM, 8% in the elderly. Their registration presents specific challenges, mainly because HM may transform or progress in the course of the disease into other types of HM. In the context of cancer registration decisions have to be made about classifying subsequent notifications on the same patient as the same tumour (progression), a transformation or a new tumour registration. Allocation of incidence date and method of diagnosis must also be standardised. We developed European Network of Cancer Registries (ENCR) recommendations providing specific advice for cancer registries to use haematology and molecular laboratories as data sources, conserve the original date of incidence in case of change of diagnosis, make provision for recording both the original as well as transformed tumour and to apply precise rules for recording and counting multiple diagnoses. A reference table advising on codes which reflect a potential transformation or a new tumour is included. This work will help to improve comparability of data produced by population-based cancer registries, which are indispensable for aetiological research, health care planning and clinical research, an increasing important area with the application of targeted therapies. PMID:24630945

  14. Continuing Education Instrumentation Training in Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Jacqueline; Frankel, Saundra

    1980-01-01

    Describes the continuing education program for clinical chemistry instrumentation training established at The College of Staten Island, New York. A course consisting of 14 sessions is outlined and discussed. (CS)

  15. Using Clinical Cases to Teach General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…

  16. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  17. Potential of descriptive linear discriminant analysis for studying clinical chemical and haematological data from persons with heterozygous sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Volmer, M; Muskiet, F A; Hindriks, F R; van der Slik, W

    1991-07-01

    To study the potential of multivariate classification methods in order to obtain more insight into abnormal laboratory data from patients with sickle cell disease, we investigated standard haematological and clinical chemical variables of 18 controls and 37 apparently healthy persons with heterozygous sickle cell disease (Hb AS), all women, using both univariate and multivariate classification methods. In the univariate method, those with Hb AS showed decreased serum log aspartate aminotransferase (log AST) activity, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and increased sodium concentration. The multivariate method identified sodium, potassium, urea, uric acid, log AST, alanine aminotransferase and MCH as the variables that produced maximal separation between persons with Hb As and controls. It increased the 'non-error rate' for classification of persons with Hb AS by 16.4% compared with classification based on the variable, MCH, that produced maximal separation by the univariate method. The frequency distribution of percentage Hb S in the Hb AS group proved bimodal with maximal separation at 37.0% Hb S. The subgroup with 37.0% or less (n = 16) was considered to have concomitant heterozygous alpha-thalassaemia-2. In the univariate method the subgroup characterized by greater than 37.0% Hb S (n = 21) had increased serum sodium and uric acid concentrations, perhaps related to sickle cell nephropathy, whereas the subgroup with less than or equal to 37% Hb S did not. The multivariate method added information to the univariate method by additionally identifying abnormalities in serum potassium and urea concentrations in the former subgroup.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1892349

  18. Clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in milk-fed calves with chronic indigestion.

    PubMed

    Stocker, H; Lutz, H; Rüsch, P

    1999-09-11

    The principal clinical signs in 59 milk-fed calves with chronic indigestion were general malaise and depression, poor appetite, poor body condition, dehydration, a dull and scaly hair coat, alopecia and clay-like faeces. All the calves had metabolic acidosis, which was associated with an inability to stand up in more than half of them. There were significant differences in the severity of acidosis between the calves that could stand and those that could not. Other signs in some of the calves were dehydration, leucocytosis, and increased activities of liver enzymes. PMID:10515617

  19. [Haematological adverse effects caused by psychiatric drugs].

    PubMed

    Mazaira, Silvina

    2008-01-01

    Almost all clases of psychiatric drugs (typical and atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines) have been reported as possible causes of haematological toxicity. This is a review of the literature in which different clinical situations involving red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and impaired coagulation are detailed and the drugs more frequently involved are listed. The haematological adverse reactions detailed here include: aplastic anemia, haemolitic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, disordered platelet function and impaired coagulation. The haematologic toxicity profile of the drugs more frequently involved: lithium, clozapine, carbamazepine, valproic acid and SSRI antidepressants is mentioned. PMID:19424521

  20. Clinical trial designs to obtain marketing authorization of drugs for haematological malignancy in Japan, the EU and the US.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Sumimasa; Ozawa, Keiya

    2016-07-01

    Differences in regulatory actions between Japan, the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) regarding the approval date and primary endpoints of pivotal trials have never been analysed comprehensively. This study aimed to examine such differences in haematological malignancy indications not only in applications for new molecular entity agents but also in supplemental applications for additional indications. A total of 101 haematological malignancy indications were examined for 58 drugs. Only 30 indications were approved by the regulatory agencies of all three regions with 25, 9 and 67 indications being first approved in Japan, the EU and the US, respectively. Regarding the 18 indications approved only in the US, 13 were approved based on results of single-arm trials. The approval of all nine indications approved first in the EU was based on results of comparative trials. The primary endpoints were different between the EU and the US in 4 of 49 indications approved by both regulatory agencies, all of which were approved earlier in the US than in the EU. This analysis shows that the US Food and Drug Administration has taken the most active attitude to acceptance of surrogate endpoints in single-arm trials. Therefore, not only shorter review time but also this attitude may lead to earlier approval in US. PMID:27018163

  1. Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BET) as a potential therapeutic approach in haematological malignancies: emerging preclinical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chaidos, Aristeidis; Caputo, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of the nucleosomal histone proteins orchestrate chromatin organization and gene expression in normal and cancer cells. Among them, the acetylation of N-terminal histone tails represents the fundamental epigenetic mark of open structure chromatin and active gene transcription. The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic readers which utilize tandem bromodomains (BRD) modules to recognize and dock themselves on the acetylated lysine tails. The BET proteins act as scaffolds for the recruitment of transcription factors and chromatin organizers required in transcription initiation and elongation. The recent discovery of small molecules capable of blocking their lysine-binding pocket is the first paradigm of successful pharmacological inhibition of epigenetic readers. JQ1 is a prototype benzodiazepine molecule and a specific BET inhibitor with antineoplastic activity both in solid tumours and haematological malignancies. The quinolone I-BET151 and the suitable for clinical development I-BET762 benzodiazepine were introduced in parallel with JQ1 and have also shown potent antitumour activity in preclinical studies. I-BET762 is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials, along with a rapidly growing list of other BET inhibitors. Unlike older epigenetic therapies, the study of BET inhibitors has offered substantial, context-specific, mechanistic insights of their antitumour activity, which will facilitate optimal therapeutic targeting in future. Here, we review the development of this novel class of epigenetic drugs, the biology of BET protein inhibition, the emerging evidence from preclinical work and early phase clinical studies and we discuss their potential role in the treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:26137204

  2. Effect of the infection with the nematode Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida: Trichostrongylidae) on the haematological, biochemical, clinical and reproductive traits in rams.

    PubMed

    Rouatbi, Mariem; Gharbi, Mohamed; Rjeibi, Mohamed R; Ben Salem, Imen; Akkari, Hafidh; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of Haemonchus contortus infection on rams' haematological, biochemical and clinical parameters and reproductive performances. A total number of 12 Barbarine rams (control and infected) were included in the experiment. The infected group received 30 000 H. contortus third-stage larvae orally. Each ram's ejaculate was immediately evaluated for volume, sperm cell concentration and mortality rate. At the end of the experiment (day 82 post-infection), which lasted 89 days, serial blood samples were collected in order to assess plasma testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH) concentrations. There was an effect of time, infection and their interaction on haematological parameters (p < 0.001). In infected rams, haematocrit, red blood cell count and haemoglobin started to decrease from 21 days post-infection. There was an effect of time and infection for albumin. For total protein, only infection had a statistically significant effect. For glucose, only time had a statistically significant effect. Concentrations were significantly lower in infected rams compared to control animals. A significant effect of infection and time on sperm concentrations and sperm mortality was observed. The effect of infection appears in time for sperm concentrations at days 69 and 76 post-infection. Sperm mortality rate was significantly higher in infected animals at day 46 post-infection when compared to control group (p < 0.05). Finally, plasma testosterone traits (average concentration, cumulated levels during the sampling period and pulse frequency) were depressed in infected rams when compared to control counterparts; none of these endocrine traits were affected for plasma LH. PMID:27608504

  3. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of infection in patients with an absent or dysfunctional spleen. Working Party of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology Clinical Haematology Task Force.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection should be preventable if simple precautions are taken. An ad hoc working party of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology has reviewed recommendations for patients without a spleen and drawn up a consensus. Members of the working party were selected for their personal expertise and to represent relevant professional bodies. The guidelines, which are set out below, include and extend the chief medical officer's 1994 update. PMID:8601117

  4. Comparative pathogenicity of three genetically distinct types of Trypanosoma congolense in cattle: clinical observations and haematological changes.

    PubMed

    Bengaly, Z; Sidibe, I; Ganaba, R; Desquesnes, M; Boly, H; Sawadogo, L

    2002-08-30

    The pathology of African bovine trypanosomosis was compared in Zebu cattle subcutaneously inoculated with three clones of trypanosomes corresponding to the three genetically distinct types of Trypanosoma congolense; savannah-type, west African riverine/forest-type and kilifi-type. All inoculated animals became parasitaemic between 7 and 11 days post-infection (dpi). The savannah-type showed consistently higher levels of parasitaemia and lower packed red cell volume percentages and leukocyte counts than the other two types. The syndrome was also more severe in the savannah-type and led inexorably to death between 29 and 54 dpi while animals with the forest or the kilifi-types recovered from earlier symptoms and haematological alterations after 3 months of infection. By the end of the experiment, the animals self-cured from the forest-type infection and the kilifi-type passed under control. The results of the present study indicated clear difference in pathogenicity between the three types of T. congolense; the savannah-type was virulent while the forest-type was of low pathogenicity and the kilifi-type was non-pathogenic. PMID:12191895

  5. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation)

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory

  6. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation).

    PubMed

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-08-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory

  7. Looking for prognosticators in ovine anaplasmosis: discriminant analysis of clinical and haematological parameters in lambs belonging to differently susceptible breeds experimentally infected with Anaplasma ovis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was carried out to evaluate the response of different native sheep breeds to experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis, the most prevalent sheep tick-borne pathogen in Apulia (Southern Italy). Thirty-four lambs belonging to a Northern European breed (Suffolk) and two Southern Italian breeds (Comisana and Altamurana) were infected. Eleven clinical as well as haematological parameters were monitored at different temporal resolutions on the same subjects before and after the infection, resulting in a data set of 435 observations. The present work, aiming to further the research, presents the results of a multivariate analysis carried out to identify which parameters out of the eleven considered are the most reliable parameters to be considered as markers of the disease phenotype as well as prognosticators of practical clinical importance. Results Data were analysed by discriminant analysis. Out of the eleven considered variables (red blood cells, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin content, haemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, neutrophils, leukocytes, platelets, rectal temperature), only seven were included in the step-wise model since significantly increasing the Mahlanobis distance between the two closest groups. Both discriminant functions resulted to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) and the percentage of variation accounted for by the first discriminant function was 63.6% of the variance in the grouping variable. Conclusions Taken together, the observed results stress the marked differentiation among the three breeds in terms of physio-pathological phenotypes indicating packed cell volume and red blood cell count as the most informative parameters in the routine clinical practice for A. ovis infection in sheep. PMID:24053615

  8. Radionuclides in haematology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, S.M.; Bayly, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Some prerequisites to the use of radionuclides in haematology; Instrumentation and counting techniques; In vitro techniques; Cell labelling; Protein labelling; Autoradiography; Imaging and quantitative scanning; Whole body counting; Absorption and excretion studies; Blood volume studies; Plasma clearance studies; and Radionuclide blood cell survival studies.

  9. 78 FR 13347 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of... Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General...

  10. Cardiac remodelling, blood chemistry, haematology and oxygen consumption of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., induced by experimental haemolytic anaemia with phenylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mark D; Burke, Melissa S; Dahle, Dalia

    2011-03-01

    Anaemia is a common pathology associated with many infectious and non-infectious diseases. The effects of haemolytic anaemia induced by i.p. injection of phenylhydrazine (PHZ) were studied in Atlantic cod. Phenylhydrazine injection (0.3 mg kg(-1)) in a DMSO and saline vehicle induced a reproducible and stable anaemia reducing haematocrit, (Hct) by 62% over 3 weeks. Controls consisted of fish injected with saline and DMSO/saline vehicle with minimal effects on Hct or whole blood haemoglobin (Hb). Although anaemia resulted in reduced blood lactate and glucose in PHZ injected fish, there were no effects of anaemia on blood, sodium, chloride or potassium. Similarly, there were no changes in the relative proportions of leucocytes in the blood although an increase in the number of immature erythrocytes was observed in the anaemic fish. Anaemic fish showed a 29 and 22% increase in cardiac somatic index (CSI) relative to saline and vehicle controls, respectively, although there were no significant differences in the linear dimensions of the ventricle. Changes in cardiac somatic and ventricular somatic index correlated positively and significantly with Hct but not with whole blood Hb concentration. Anaemic fish had significantly reduced resting routine oxygen consumption compared with vehicle controls but were not able to increase oxygen consumption following a bout of exhaustive exercise. Plasma lactate concentrations increased significantly after exercise to a greater extent in anaemic fish compared with vehicle control fish. Phenylhydrazine is a useful model for studying haemolytic anaemia in Atlantic cod with minimal effects on blood biochemistry and haematology and clearly reduces the aerobic capacity in Atlantic cod. PMID:20585853

  11. Contributions of Analytical Chemistry to the Clinical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogerboe, Kristen J.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical…

  12. Cellular therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Roddie, P H; Turner, M L

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the recent progress made in the field of cellular therapeutics in haematological malignancy. The review also examined the role that the National Transfusion Services might play in the manufacture of new cellular therapeutic agents, given both their expertise in the safe provision of blood products and their possession of accredited cell manipulation facilities. Cellular therapy is entering an era in which novel cellular products will find increasing clinical use, particularly in the areas of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and immunotherapy. The production of novel cell-based therapies, both in Europe and North America, is now under strict regulatory control and therefore collaboration with the National Transfusion Services in the manufacture of these agents may well be beneficial if the production standards demanded by the regulatory authorities are to be fulfilled. PMID:12437515

  13. Clinical and haematological risk factors for cerebral macrovasculopathy in a sickle cell disease newborn cohort: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sommet, Julie; Alberti, Corinne; Couque, Nathalie; Verlhac, Suzanne; Haouari, Zinedine; Mohamed, Damir; François, Martine; Missud, Florence; Holvoet, Laurent; Elmaleh, Monique; Ithier, Ghislaine; Denjean, André; Elion, Jacques; Baruchel, André; Benkerrou, Malika

    2016-03-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a significant vascular morbidity, especially cerebral macrovasculopathy (CV), detectable by transcranial Doppler. This study aimed to identify risk factors for CV using longitudinal biological and clinical data in a SCD newborn cohort followed at the Robert Debre Reference centre (n = 375 SS/Sβ(0) ). Median follow-up was 6·8 years (2677 patient-years). Among the 59 children presenting with CV, seven had a stroke. Overall, the incidence of CV was 2·20/100 patient-years [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1·64-2·76] and the incidence of stroke was 0·26/100 patient-years (95% CI: 0·07-0·46). The cumulative risk of CV by age 14 years was 26·0% (95% CI: 20·0-33·3%). Risk factors for CV were assessed by a Cox model encompassing linear multivariate modelling of longitudinal quantitative variables. Years per upper-airway obstruction [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1·47; 95% CI: 1·05-2·06] or bronchial obstruction (HR = 1·76; 95% CI: 1·49-2·08) and reticulocyte count (HR = 1·82 per 50 × 10(9) /l increase; 95% CI: 1·10-3·01) were independent risk factors whereas fetal haemoglobin level (HR = 0·68 per 5% increase; 95% CI: 0·48-0·96) was protective. Alpha-thalassaemia was not protective in multivariate analysis (ancillary analysis n = 209). Specific treatment for upper or lower-airway obstruction and indirect targeting of fetal haemoglobin and reticulocyte count by hydroxycarbamide could potentially reduce the risk of CV. PMID:26728571

  14. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo Bubalus bubalis heifers.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Hamed, Maha I; Ibrahim, Derar R; Rateb, Hassan Z

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. PMID:24831856

  15. Cell-based biosensors in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kintzios, Spiridon E

    2007-10-01

    Cell-based biosensors represent the next revolution in medical diagnostics, offering a number of significant advantages, such as high speed, portability and low cost. The present review focuses on the most successful technologies used for the detection of ultra-low concentrations of bioactive analytes (such as metabolic markers and pathogens) in clinical samples. PMID:17979804

  16. Automated haematology analysis to diagnose malaria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, flow cytometry-based automated haematology analysers have been studied for malaria diagnosis. Although current haematology analysers are not specifically designed to detect malaria-related abnormalities, most studies have found sensitivities that comply with WHO malaria-diagnostic guidelines, i.e. ≥ 95% in samples with > 100 parasites/μl. Establishing a correct and early malaria diagnosis is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment and to minimizing adverse outcomes. Expert light microscopy remains the 'gold standard' for malaria diagnosis in most clinical settings. However, it requires an explicit request from clinicians and has variable accuracy. Malaria diagnosis with flow cytometry-based haematology analysers could become an important adjuvant diagnostic tool in the routine laboratory work-up of febrile patients in or returning from malaria-endemic regions. Haematology analysers so far studied for malaria diagnosis are the Cell-Dyn®, Coulter® GEN·S and LH 750, and the Sysmex XE-2100® analysers. For Cell-Dyn analysers, abnormal depolarization events mainly in the lobularity/granularity and other scatter-plots, and various reticulocyte abnormalities have shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 49% to 97% and 61% to 100%, respectively. For the Coulter analysers, a 'malaria factor' using the monocyte and lymphocyte size standard deviations obtained by impedance detection has shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 82% to 98% and 72% to 94%, respectively. For the XE-2100, abnormal patterns in the DIFF, WBC/BASO, and RET-EXT scatter-plots, and pseudoeosinophilia and other abnormal haematological variables have been described, and multivariate diagnostic models have been designed with overall sensitivities and specificities of 86% to 97% and 81% to 98%, respectively. The accuracy for malaria diagnosis may vary according to species, parasite load, immunity and clinical context where the method is applied. Future

  17. Selenium in oncology: from chemistry to clinics.

    PubMed

    Micke, Oliver; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Muecke, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with selenium does not

  18. Clinical experience of the use of voriconazole, caspofungin or the combination in primary and salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Raad, Issam I; Zakhem, Aline El; Helou, Gilbert El; Jiang, Ying; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Hachem, Ray

    2015-03-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection in severely immunocompromised haematological malignancy patients. In this study, the efficacy and safety of caspofungin, voriconazole or the combination as primary and salvage therapy in patients with IA were compared. The study included 181 patients with haematological malignancies and IA who received primary or salvage therapy with caspofungin, voriconazole or the combination. In total, 138 patients who received treatment for ≥7 days were analysed; 86 underwent primary antifungal therapy (15 with caspofungin, 38 with voriconazole and 33 with both). Among the salvage therapy patients, 17 received caspofungin, 24 received voriconazole and 35 received both. In the primary therapy group, no difference in therapy response was found, but caspofungin was associated with higher IA mortality rates. A multivariate competing risk analysis of primary antifungal therapy revealed that voriconazole was independently associated with lower IA-associated mortality rates than caspofungin (hazard ratio=0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.96; P=0.04). In the salvage therapy group, the three treatment groups had similar responses and IA-associated mortality rates. The combination of voriconazole and caspofungin did not result in better outcomes compared with voriconazole alone, as primary or salvage therapy, in haematological malignancy patients. However, voriconazole was associated with a lower Aspergillus-associated mortality rate compared with caspofungin monotherapy. PMID:25455847

  19. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  4. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  5. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  6. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  9. Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gochman, Nathan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

  10. Influence of a Regular, Standardized Meal on Clinical Chemistry Analytes

    PubMed Central

    Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Background Preanalytical variability, including biological variability and patient preparation, is an important source of variability in laboratory testing. In this study, we assessed whether a regular light meal might bias the results of routine clinical chemistry testing. Methods We studied 17 healthy volunteers who consumed light meals containing a standardized amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. We collected blood for routine clinical chemistry tests before the meal and 1, 2, and 4 hr thereafter. Results One hour after the meal, triglycerides (TG), albumin (ALB), uric acid (UA), phosphatase (ALP), Ca, Fe, and Na levels significantly increased, whereas blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and P levels decreased. TG, ALB, Ca, Na, P, and total protein (TP) levels varied significantly. Two hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, and Na levels remained significantly high, whereas BUN, P, UA, and total bilirubin (BT) levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were recorded for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Fe, Na, P, BT, and direct bilirubin (BD) levels. Four hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, Na, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), P, Mg, and K levels significantly increased, whereas UA and BT levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were observed for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Na, Mg, K, C-reactive protein (CRP), AST, UA, and BT levels. Conclusions A significant variation in the clinical chemistry parameters after a regular meal shows that fasting time needs to be carefully considered when performing tests to prevent spurious results and reduce laboratory errors, especially in an emergency setting. PMID:22779065

  11. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  12. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  13. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  14. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  15. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  16. Role of tumour angiogenesis in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Medinger, Michael; Passweg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of haematological malignancies. Thereby, pro- and anti-angiogenic growth factors and cytokines regulate the angiogenic process. The most important growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its signaling through its receptors 1 and 2, is not only involved in solid tumours, but there is also emerging evidence that tumour progression in haematological malignancies also depends on the induction of new blood vessel formation. The evidence supporting this theory includes the finding of increased bone marrow microvessel density and increased levels of plasma pro-angiogenic cytokines. Leukaemia cells interact with surrounding host cells and extracellular matrix, this crosstalk affecting the most important aspects of the malignant phenotype. The pathophysiology of leukaemia induced angiogenesis involves both direct production of angiogenic cytokines by leukaemia cells and their interaction with bone marrow microenvironment. The inhibition of VEGF signalling by monoclonal antibodies or small molecules (kinase inhibitors) has already been successfully used for the treatment of different cancer entities, and multiple new drugs are being tested. This review summarises recent advances in the basic understanding of the role of angiogenesis in haematological malignancies and the translation of such basic findings into clinical studies. PMID:25375891

  17. [Toward pertinent analytical objectives for haematological parameters].

    PubMed

    Iobagiu, Cristina; Nehar, Diane; Denis, Isabelle; de Saint-Trivier, Aurélie; Boyer, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Usually, the blood cell counting activity in haematology laboratory uses the comparison of IQC values to the target values proposed by the manufacturer. We intended to improve the monitoring of the proper functioning of our analytical measure system for 17 main haematologic parameters. To set the allowable critical limits of IQC, we propose our reflection based on several elements: benchmark and expert recommendation, clinical requirements, statistical indicators of the laboratory calculated using IQC values (3 levels, 2 different lots, 2 haematology analysers and 2 passage modes) and the EEQ values, during four months. We exploited the reports obtained from the middleware (our own IQC values), and the interlaboratory comparison reports (obtained from SNCS and EuroCell websites) and we compared our performances to the Ricos objectives, to set clearly argued allowable limits for IQC values. Finally, the allowable limits correspond to the imprecision limits stated by Ricos for 14 parameters (desirable for 11 parametres and minimal for 3 parameters) and personalized limits (more exigent than desirable Ricos limits) for 3 parameters of blood cell counting. PMID:25486666

  18. 78 FR 19717 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... notice that appeared in the Federal Register of Wednesday, February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13347). The meeting... for up-to-date information on this meeting. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR doc. 2013-04543... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel...

  19. Haematological manifestations of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz, Anum; Igoe, Ann; Kurien, Biji T; Danda, Debashish; James, Judith A; Stafford, Haraldine A; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to compile information on the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), namely leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and myelofibrosis. During our search of the English-language MEDLINE sources, we did not place a date-of-publication constraint. Hence, we have reviewed previous as well as most recent studies with the subject heading SLE in combination with each manifestation. Neutropenia can lead to morbidity and mortality from increased susceptibility to infection. Severe neutropenia can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. While related to disease activity, there is no specific therapy for lymphopenia. Severe lymphopenia may require the use of prophylactic therapy to prevent select opportunistic infections. Isolated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura maybe the first manifestation of SLE by months or even years. Some manifestations of lupus occur more frequently in association with low platelet count in these patients, for example, neuropsychiatric manifestation, haemolytic anaemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and renal disease. Thrombocytopenia can be regarded as an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with SLE. Medical, surgical and biological treatment modalities are reviewed for this manifestation. First-line therapy remains glucocorticoids. Through our review, we conclude glucocorticoids do produce a response in majority of patients initially, but sustained response to therapy is unlikely. Glucocorticoids are used as first-line therapy in patients with SLE with AIHA, but there is no conclusive evidence to guide second-line therapy. Rituximab is promising in refractory and non-responding AIHA. TTP is not recognised as a criteria for classification of SLE, but there is a considerable overlap between the presenting features of TTP and SLE, and a few patients with SLE have concurrent

  20. The Potential Role of Aurora Kinase Inhibitors in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Sherif S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aurora kinases play an important role in the control of the cell cycle and have been implicated in tumourigenesis in a number of cancers. Among the haematological malignancies, overexpression of Aurora kinases has been reported in acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, multiple myeloma, aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. A large number of Aurora kinase inhibitors are currently in different stages of clinical development. In addition to varying in their selectivity for the different Aurora kinases, some also have activity directed at other cellular kinases involved in important molecular pathways in cancer cells. This review summarizes the biology of Aurora kinases and discusses why they may be good therapeutic targets in different haematological cancers. We describe preclinical data that has served as the rationale for investigating Aurora kinase inhibitors in different haematological malignancies, and summarize published results from early phase clinical trials. While the anti-tumour effects of Aurora kinase inhibitors appear promising, we highlight important issues for future clinical research and suggest that the optimal use of these inhibitors is likely to be in combination with cytotoxic agents already in use for the treatment of various haematological cancers. PMID:21980926

  1. Preanalytical management: serum vacuum tubes validation for routine clinical chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The validation process is essential in accredited clinical laboratories. Aim of this study was to validate five kinds of serum vacuum tubes for routine clinical chemistry laboratory testing. Materials and methods: Blood specimens from 100 volunteers in five diff erent serum vacuum tubes (Tube I: VACUETTE®, Tube II: LABOR IMPORT®, Tube III: S-Monovette®, Tube IV: SST® and Tube V: SST II®) were collected by a single, expert phlebotomist. The routine clinical chemistry tests were analyzed on cobas® 6000 module. The significance of the diff erences between samples was assessed by paired Student’s t-test after checking for normality. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.005. Finally, the biases from Tube I, Tube II, Tube III, Tube IV and Tube V were compared with the current desirable quality specifications for bias (B), derived from biological variation. Results and conclusions: Basically, our validation will permit the laboratory or hospital managers to select the brand’s vacuum tubes validated according him/her technical or economical reasons, in order to perform the following laboratory tests: glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, alkaline phosphatise, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, calcium, iron, sodium and potassium. On the contrary special attention will be required if the laboratory already performs creatinine, amylase, phosphate and magnesium determinations and the quality laboratory manager intend to change the serum tubes. We suggest that laboratory management should both standardize the procedures and frequently evaluate the quality of in vitro diagnostic devices. PMID:22838184

  2. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  3. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  4. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  5. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  6. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  7. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Raffick A.R.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays. PMID:24627713

  8. Interference of cationic polymeric nanoparticles with clinical chemistry tests--clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Shcharbina, Natallia; Milowska, Katarzyna; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; Mignani, Serge; Gomez-Ramirez, Rafael; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-10-01

    The development of medical nanosystems requires knowledge of their behavior in vivo. Clinical chemistry tests are widely used to estimate the systemic toxicity of nanoparticles. In this paper we have explored the impact of small positively charged nanoparticles-poly(amidoamine), phosphorous and carbosilane dendrimers - on biochemical parameters of standardized serum in vitro. All the dendrimers could shift the main biochemical parameters. Thus, in the case of patients having the normal, but 'boundary', values of biochemical parameters, nanoparticle-induced changes can be wrongly interpreted as evidence of some dysfunctions (hepatic, renal, etc.). Moreover, the effects of nanoparticles of metals, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, fullerenes, dendrimers having been sized up to 4000 nm and the hundreds of reactive groups, can be significantly higher. Thus, preliminary evaluation of any nanomaterial in vitro is required in clinical chemistry tests before its application in vivo to draw the correct conclusions and benefit animals. PMID:25091374

  9. Improving haematology care in Wales.

    PubMed

    Perett, Shelagh

    2002-04-17

    Care for patients with a malignant haematological disorder in Wales has been revised significantly since the mid-1990s. Recommendations from expert groups stated that a uniformly high standard of care should be provided as close to the patient's home as possible and variations in practice that had been causing concern and distress to patients and their families be reduced. The All Wales Haematology Nurses Group was established to promote and disseminate standards and guidelines that would contribute to achieving these aims. The basis for the group's work was transformational leadership and collaborative practice. Work is ongoing and the group is planning to consolidate achievements to date through country-wide audit and professional education. PMID:11998241

  10. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  11. Laboratory Exercises to Teach Clinically Relevant Chemistry of Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chelette, Candace T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To design, implement, and evaluate student performance on clinically relevant chemical and spectral laboratory exercises on antibiotics. Design. In the first of 2 exercises, second-year pharmacy students enrolled in an integrated laboratory sequence course studied the aqueous stability of ß-lactam antibiotics using a spectral visual approach. In a second exercise, students studied the tendency of tetracycline, rifamycins, and fluoroquinolones to form insoluble chelate complexes (turbidity) with polyvalent metals. Assessment. On a survey to assess achievement of class learning objectives, students agreed the laboratory activities helped them better retain important information concerning antibiotic stability and interactions. A significant improvement was observed in performance on examination questions related to the laboratory topics for 2012 and 2013 students compared to 2011 students who did not complete the laboratory. A 1-year follow-up examination question administered in a separate course showed >75% of the students were able to identify rifamycins-food interactions compared with <25% of students who had not completed the laboratory exercises. Conclusion. The use of spectral visual approaches allowed students to investigate antibiotic stability and interactions, thus reinforcing the clinical relevance of medicinal chemistry. Students’ performance on questions at the 1-year follow-up suggested increased retention of the concepts learned as a result of completing the exercises. PMID:24672070

  12. The European Register for Clinical Chemists. (European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry, Working Group on Registration).

    PubMed

    Sanders, G T; Kelly, A M; Breuer, J; Kohse, K P; Mocarelli, P; Sachs, C

    1997-10-01

    To ensure freedom of movement in the European Union, a limited number of professions is regulated by a so-called Sectorial Directive; all other disciplines, including clinical chemistry, fall under a General Directive. However, clinical chemists in the EU wish their specialty to be more specifically regulated; this means that common standards of education, training, experience and compliance with continuing professional developments must be guaranteed. Therefore, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) is about to implement the European Register for clinical chemists, and has composed a guide to this Register. The document describes the conditions for entry to specialty training, the minimum standards for registration (university education and postgraduate vocational training with a minimum total of eight years), the competencies of those qualifying for registration, and the operation of the register. Registration guarantees professional and managerial competencies; the title conferred is "European Clinical Chemist". EC4 recognises the existing national registers as far as they are based on the minimal requirements as indicated. An EC4 Register Commission (EC4RC) will maintain and control the European Register, supported by National Clinical Chemistry Registration Committees (NCCRC). An NCCRC controls the quality of the education in each country and assesses candidates. An individual (EU citizen or non-EU citizen trained in an EU country) applies privately for the European Register to EC4RC and, where applicable, the application is accompanied by a document from the NCCRC of the country of registration, stating that the applicant has the necessary qualifications. For EU citizens trained outside the EU the final decision is with EC4RC; non-EU citizens not trained in an EU country are not eligible for registration. Registration is renewed once every five years. PMID:9368800

  13. Managing haematological disorders during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Koh, Mickey B C; Lao, Zhen Tang; Rhodes, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    The management of patients with pre-existing haematological diseases during pregnancy can be particularly challenging. The potential maternal and foetal toxicities from treatment regimens including chemotherapy for malignant haematological disorders mean that joint management between obstetricians and haematologists is essential for achieving good outcomes for both mother and baby. Patients with inherited or acquired disorders of haemostasis including platelets (essential thrombocythaemia) and coagulation (antiphospholipid syndrome) resulting in a pro-thrombotic state also require special consideration as pregnancy is generally considered to be a pro-thrombotic condition which could exacerbate the pre-existing disorder. The choice, timing and duration of anticoagulation or anti-platelet therapy require careful coordination during the antenatal, perinatal as well as postnatal periods to ensure that both maternal and foetal risks are taken into consideration. Pregnancy in women with sickle cell disease has long been identified as high risk with medical and pregnancy related risks being more common compared to women without it. A range of foetal risks have also been reported but improvement in outcomes has been seen with better obstetric and haematological care and the emphasis on multidisciplinary teamwork. The meticulous management of iron overload and risks associated with repeated blood transfusions extends into the care of pregnant women with other haemoglobinopathies like thalassemias. PMID:24060203

  14. Evaluation of the clinical chemistry analyser Olympus AU400.

    PubMed

    Lasnier, E; Mario, N; Boque, M C; You, S N; Vaubourdolle, M

    2000-10-01

    The Olympus AU400 analyser (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) is an automated chemistry instrument for turbidimetric, spectrophotometric and ion selective electrode measurements. Overall analytical performances of the AU400 and the reagents provided by Olympus were evaluated according to the French Society of Clinical Biology guidelines. Twenty parameters including specific proteins, substrates, enzyme activities and electrolytes were tested. The linearity exceeded the specifications given by the manufacturer. Within- and between-run imprecision (CV%), evaluated at two levels, was below 1.5% for ion selective electrode parameters and 3% for other analytes, except for CO2, alkaline phosphatase at low levels and magnesium. Results compared well with those obtained with the analysers routinely used in our laboratory (Behring BNII, Olympus AU800 and Beckman CX3 Delta). The usual positive interferences from lipaemia and haemoglobin on total protein measurement were observed. Creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase assays were the subject of positive and negative interference by haemoglobin, respectively. There was a negative interference by bilirubin in the uric acid, aspartate-amino transferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase assays and a positive interference in the calcium assay. The system was found to be very easy to use and the workstation is user-friendly. PMID:11140621

  15. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

  16. Guidelines for timely initiation of chemotherapy: a proposed framework for access to medical oncology and haematology cancer clinics and chemotherapy services.

    PubMed

    Alexander, M; Beattie-Manning, R; Blum, R; Byrne, J; Hornby, C; Kearny, C; Love, N; McGlashan, J; McKiernan, S; Milar, J L; Murray, D; Opat, S; Parente, P; Thomas, J; Tweddle, N; Underhill, C; Whitfield, K; Kirsa, S; Rischin, D

    2016-08-01

    These guidelines, informed by the best available evidence and consensus expert opinion, provide a framework to guide the timely initiation of chemotherapy for treating cancer. They sit at the intersection of patient experience, state-of-the-art disease management and rational efficient service provision for these patients at a system level. Internationally, cancer waiting times are routinely measured and publicly reported. In Australia, there are existing policies and guidelines relating to the timeliness of cancer care for surgery and radiation therapy; however, until now, equivalent guidance for chemotherapy was lacking. Timeliness of care should be informed, where available, by evidence for improved patient outcomes. Independent of this, it should be recognised that shorter waiting periods are likely to reduce patient anxiety. While these guidelines were developed as part of a proposed framework for consideration by the Victorian Department of Health, they are clinically relevant to national and international cancer services. They are intended to be used by clinical and administrative staff within cancer services. Adoption of these guidelines, which are for the timely triage, review and treatment of cancer patients receiving systemic chemotherapy, aims to ensure that patients receive care within a timeframe that will maximise health outcomes, and that access to care is consistent and equitable across cancer services. Local monitoring of performance against this guideline will enable cancer service providers to manage proactively future service demand. PMID:27553996

  17. Seasonal variations of haematological parameters in athletes.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The influence of training and competition workloads is crucial for evaluation of longitudinal haematological data in athletes. There are only a few papers on the variation of haematological parameters during long-lasting periods and, especially, during an entire competitive season. We summarized that some haematological parameters can be influenced by long-term training and competition periods. Haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Ht) are decreased during the more intense periods of training, throughout the season. In different sport disciplines, the decline of Hb ranges from 3 to 8% during the competition season, while the range of reticulocytes (Ret%) varies from 5 to 21%. Reticulocytes are also decreased after long periods of training and competitions, but their variation is not necessarily associated with that of Hb. The qualitative variations (trend of modifications) of haematological parameters are roughly independent of the sport discipline, but quantitatively (amount of modifications) dependent on sport discipline. The modifications are more evident in cycling, running, swimming than they are in football and rugby. The variations of haematological parameters within the same sport discipline are qualitatively concordant and quantitatively different among separate but consecutive competitive seasons. These findings are described in aerobic and team sports sportsmen. The definition of reliable reference ranges in sportsmen would only be possible by following the best laboratory practices. For antidoping purposes more studies investigating haematological modifications during the season are advisable. PMID:20842374

  18. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HAEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES

    PubMed Central

    Kulhara, P.; Verma, S.C.; Bambery, P.; Nehra, R.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMMARY Sixty nine patients with various types of haematological malignancies were studied. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (n =32) was the commonest diagnosis. The patients were assessed on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, PGI-N2 Health Questionnaire and Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale and those who had scores above the cut off points for Hamilton Rating Scale and/or PGI-N2 Health Questionnaire were assessed on Present State Examination. The patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months interval. At 3 months 51 patients were re-assessed whilst at 6 months only 26 could be re-evaluated. There were no significant changes in scores of Hamilton Rating scale and PGI-N2 Health Questionnaire at intake and subsequent follow-up assessments. No significant correlations between stressful life experience and severity of illness emerged. Twenty nine patients were interviewed on Present State Examination and of these 20 had diagnosable depressive neuroses- From consultation liaison psychiatric point of view, provision of psychiatric help to these patients is discussed. PMID:21927472

  20. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: still a concern in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, Catherine; Cesaro, Simone; Maschmeyer, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Donnelly, J Peter; Alanio, Alexandre; Hauser, Philippe M; Lagrou, Katrien; Melchers, Willem J G; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Matos, Olga; Bretagne, Stéphane; Maertens, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii can cause life-threatening pneumonia following treatment for haematological malignancies or after HSCT. The mortality rate of P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in these patients is 30%-60%, especially after HSCT. The clinical presentation of PCP in haematology differs from that associated with HIV infection, with the disease being acute and more often severe, having a lower fungal burden and being more frequently linked to treatment with corticosteroids. Most cases occur in patients not receiving adequate prophylaxis. The development of new therapies, including targeted treatments and monoclonal antibodies in various haematological diseases, justifies constant vigilance in order to identify new at-risk populations and give prophylaxis accordingly. The fifth and sixth European Conferences on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5 and ECIL-6) aimed to review risk factors for PCP in haematology patients and to establish evidence-based recommendations for PCP diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. This article focuses on the magnitude of the problem, the main differences in clinical presentation between haematology patients and other immunocompromised populations, especially HIV-infected patients, and the main risk factors. PMID:27550990

  1. Recent activities of EC4 in the harmonization of clinical chemistry in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sanders, G T; Jansen, R T; Beastall, G; Gurr, E; Kenny, D; Kohse, K P; Zérah, S

    1999-04-01

    This article describes the recent activities of the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4). Main goal of EC4 is harmonization of clinical chemistry in the European Union and Europe. EC4's actions connected to that are training and registration of professionals, and accreditation of laboratories. The 35000 professionals practising clinical chemistry in the EU have different backgrounds (medical, pharmaceutical, science-oriented, veterinary, or microbiological). Thus, for the harmonization of training of clinical chemists, EC4 has published a European Syllabus for Postgraduate Training, and instituted a European Union Register for Clinical Chemists. The Syllabus is an indication of the level of requirements in postgraduate training. The EC4 initiative to implement the European Register for Clinical Chemists is based on the 8 years vocational training necessary to obtain sufficient knowledge in clinical chemistry according to the European Syllabus. A guide to the EC4 Register has been published; registration leads to the title European Clinical Chemist (EurClinChem). The accreditation of laboratories must be based on a total quality management system. EC4 has described guidelines (essential criteria) which it judges appropriate for establishing the quality of medical laboratory service; it does not wish to fulfil the role of an accrediting body. Moreover, a working group has been set up to seek to harmonize the work of national accrediting bodies. Therefore, it is logical that EC4 monitors the activities of the different standardizing bodies that might influence the practice of clinical chemistry in the EU. Finally, some aspects concerning the future strategy of EC4 are brought forward. PMID:10369121

  2. Zygomycosis in Immunocompromised non-Haematological Patients

    PubMed Central

    Petrikkos, George; Drogari-Apiranthitou, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Zygomycoses caused by fungi of the mucorales order (mucormycoses) are emerging fungal diseases with a high fatality rate. The most important risk factors include neutropenia or functional neutropenia, diabetic ketoacidosis, iron overload, major trauma, prolonged use of corticosteroids, illicit intravenous drug (ID) use, neonatal prematurity, malnourishment, and maybe a previous exposure to antifungal agents with no activity against zygomycetes, such as voriconazole and echinocandins. A high index of suspicion is crucial for the diagnosis, as prompt and appropriate management can considerably reduce morbidity and mortality. Suspicion index can be increased through recognition of the differential patterns of clinical presentation. In the non- haematological immunocompromised patients, mucormycosis can manifest in various clinical forms, depending on the underlying condition: mostly as rhino-orbital or rhino-cerebral in diabetes patients, pulmonary infection in patients with malignancy or solid organ transplantation, disseminated infection in iron overloaded or deferoxamine treated patients, cerebral - with no sinus involvement - in ID users, gastrointestinal in premature infants or malnourishment, and cutaneous after direct inoculation in immunocompetent individuals with trauma or burns. Treating a patient’s underlying medical condition and reducing immunosuppression are essential to therapy. Rapid correction of metabolic abnormalities is mandatory in cases such as uncontrolled diabetes, and corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs should be discontinued where feasible. AmphotericinB or its newer and less toxic lipid formulations are the drugs of choice regarding antifungal chemotherapy, while extensive surgical debridement is essential to reduce infected and necrotic tissue. A high number of cases could be prevented through measures including diabetes control programmes and proper pre- and post-surgical hygiene. PMID:21625316

  3. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  4. Communication during haematological consultations; patients' preferences and professionals' performances.

    PubMed

    van Bruinessen, Inge R; van der Hout, Lotte E; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Many patients with haematological malignancies experience barriers in clinical communication. Reaching effective communication is of great importance as it has been linked to a range of improved patient outcomes such as satisfaction, compliance to treatment, perceived quality of life and physical and mental health. To get a better understanding how communication in haematological consultations can be improved, the current study focussed on patients' preferences and perceived performances regarding the communicative behaviour of their health care professional. Secondly, the mediation of an online communication tool for patients was analysed. Within a controlled pre- post-test design, 78 datasets of clinical consultations could be analysed. Patients considered both affective and instrumental communication aspects important. The affective communication behaviour of the health care professional met the patients' pre-visit preferences well. In the information exchange, more variability and discrepancies were found. Overall, the online intervention did not seem to influence the patients' perceived communication performance of their health care professional much. To further improve the communication during clinical consultations, health care professionals should inquire about patients' expectations, especially during the exchange of information and advices. At the same time, patients should be supported to express their preferences at the start of the consultation. The study was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register, number 3779. PMID:27091348

  5. The haematology of hyperthyroidism: abnormalities of erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes and haemostasis.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, H. C.; Carter, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The abnormalities of erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes and coagulation that have been reported, particularly in more recent years, to be associated with hyperthyroidism are surveyed. Several areas are highlighted where further investigations could lead to clinically useful insights, improved information about the haematological processes involved or to a better understanding of thyroid hormone action. PMID:3076660

  6. Stability of human sera collected for clinical chemistry determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, F. M.

    1969-01-01

    Problems in collecting and shipping human sera for clinical chemical analyses affect their stability and require proper preservation methods. It is shown that glutamic pyruvate transaminase is very unstable and serum cannot be shipped unless the shipping time is carefully controlled and is less than two days under refrigeration. A limit of four days handling time and avoidance of light exposure are required in bilirubin testing of specimens. Addition of 11 mg of a 10 to 1 mixture of finely powdered sodium fluoride and thymol per ml of blood to preserve specimen stability en route to a central laboratory prevents glycolysis. A citrate buffer at pH 6.2 in serum to be tested for alkaline phosphatase lessens decline at room temperature.

  7. Immunophenotyping of Posttraumatic Neutrophils on a Routine Haematology Analyser

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, Kathelijne Maaike; Heeres, Marjolein; Leenen, Loek Petrus Hendrikus; Huisman, Albert; Koenderman, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Flow cytometry markers have been proposed as useful predictors for the occurrence of posttraumatic inflammatory complications. However, currently the need for a dedicated laboratory and the labour-intensive analytical procedures make these markers less suitable for clinical practice. We tested an approach to overcome these limitations. Material and Methods. Neutrophils of healthy donors were incubated with antibodies commonly used in trauma research: CD11b (MAC-1), L-selectin (CD62L), FcγRIII (CD16), and FcγRII (CD32) in active form (MoPhab A27). Flow cytometric analysis was performed both on a FACSCalibur, a standard flow cytometer, and on a Cell-Dyn Sapphire, a routine haematology analyser. Results. There was a high level of agreement between the two types of analysers, with 41% for FcγRIII, 80% for L-selectin, 98% for CD11b, and even a 100% agreement for active FcγRII. Moreover, analysis on the routine haematology analyser was possible in less than a quarter of the time in comparison to the flow cytometer. Conclusion. Analysis of neutrophil phenotype on the Cell-Dyn Sapphire leads to the same conclusion compared to a standard flow cytometer. The markedly reduced time necessary for analysis and reduced labour intensity constitutes a step forward in implementation of this type of analysis in clinical diagnostics in trauma research. PMID:22523451

  8. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry: the case of newborn screening.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo

    2014-12-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) program is a complex and organized system consisting of family and personnel education, biochemical tests, confirmatory biochemical and genetic tests, diagnosis, therapy, and patient follow up. The program identifies treatable metabolic disorders possibly when asymptomatic by using dried blood spot (DBS). During the last 20 years tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) has become the leading technology in NBS programs demonstrating to be versatile, sensitive and specific. There is consistent evidence of benefits from NBS for many disorders detected by TMS as well as for congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia by immune-enzymatic methods. Real time PCR tests have more recently been proposed for the detection of some severe combined immunodeficiences (SCID) along with the use of TMS for ADA and PNP SCID; a first evaluation of their cost-benefit ratio is still ongoing. Avoiding false negative results by using specific biomarkers and reducing the false positive rate by using second tier tests, is fundamental for a successful NBS program. The fully integration of NBS and diagnostic laboratories with clinical service is crucial to have the best effectiveness in a comprehensive NBS system. PMID:24844843

  9. [Massage and sophrology workshops for haematology professionals].

    PubMed

    Bannier, Christine; Sachot, Claudine; Simon, Armelle

    2014-04-01

    In haematology, the caregivers are confronted with the death of patients and the distress of their families. It is a working environment in which it is essential for the professionals to be taken care of in order to optimise the care provided to patients. At Nantes general hospital, massage and sophrology workshops enable the caregivers to recharge their batteries. PMID:24881242

  10. Haematological investigation of a multiple case leucosis herd.

    PubMed

    Dimmock, C K; Waugh, P D; Rogers, R J

    1979-06-01

    Adult cattle in a Queensland dairy herd with a history of deaths from lymphosarcoma were sampled regularly over a 4 year period for the identification of animals with persistent lymphocytosis (PL). Twenty-one of 94 animals that were sampled at least 6 times had PL. At the initial sampling 27% of the animals had lymphocytosis. Culling of haematologically positive animals in the first 18 months of the investigation reduced this to 5.3%, but cessation of the culling programme resulted in a gradual increase in the percentage of animals with lymphocytosis. Four deaths from lymphosarcoma occurred in adult animals, but only in the first 18 months of the investigation. Two of these animals had lymphocytosis and two lymphoblastic leukaemia. The calf of one of the latter cows developed lymphoblastic leukaemia and lymphosarcoma by the time it was 6 months of age. Although histological evidence of lymphosarcoma was lacking in a number of clinically normal animals with lymphocytosis, haematological investigation identified a group of animals within the herd that may develop lymphosarcoma. PMID:293162

  11. Cancer stem cells in haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Golab, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    At least several types of human haematological malignancies can now be seen as ‘stem-cell diseases’. The best-studied in this context is acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). It has been shown that these diseases are driven by a pool of ‘leukaemia stem cells (LSC)’, which remain in the quiescent state, have the capacity to survive and self-renew, and are responsible for the recurrence of cancer after classical chemotherapy. It has been understood that LSC must be eliminated in order to cure patients suffering from haematological cancers. Recent advances in LSC research have allowed for description of LSC phenotype and identification of potential targets for anti-LSC therapies. This concise review summarises the current view on LSC biology and targeted approaches against LSC. PMID:25691816

  12. Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of GOB Chemistry Knowledge Relevant to Clinical Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the…

  13. Biosimilar Epoetin Zeta in Oncology and Haematology: Development and Experience following 6 Years of Use.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Losem, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced anaemia is frequent in cancer patients, with severity depending on the extent of the disease and intensity of treatment. Clinical guidelines recommend erythropoietin therapy to treat or prevent anaemia in some oncology/haematology patients being treated with chemotherapy. The patent expiry of the first-generation erythropoietins has led to the development of biosimilar products, i.e. therapeutic proteins exhibiting comparable quality, safety and efficacy to an existing reference biological medicine, the patent of which has expired. This review summarises the available data set supporting the use of one such biosimilar product, epoetin zeta (Retacrit™) in oncology/haematology. The body of evidence supporting the use of epoetin zeta continues to grow, with post-marketing clinical studies underway to evaluate its longer-term clinical efficacy and safety. Biosimilar medicines have the potential to offer cost savings to health care providers, with the assurance of ongoing risk management programmes to ensure patient safety. PMID:26426164

  14. Reference Intervals of Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Analytes for 1-Year-Old Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Roh, Eun Youn; Chang, Ju Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference intervals need to be established according to age. We established reference intervals of hematology and chemistry from community-based healthy 1-yr-old children and analyzed their iron status according to the feeding methods during the first six months after birth. Methods A total of 887 children who received a medical check-up between 2010 and 2014 at Boramae Hospital (Seoul, Korea) were enrolled. A total of 534 children (247 boys and 287 girls) were enrolled as reference individuals after the exclusion of data obtained from children with suspected iron deficiency. Hematology and clinical chemistry analytes were measured, and the reference value of each analyte was estimated by using parametric (mean±2 SD) or nonparametric methods (2.5-97.5th percentile). Iron, total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin were measured, and transferrin saturation was calculated. Results As there were no differences in the mean values between boys and girls, we established the reference intervals for 1-yr-old children regardless of sex. The analysis of serum iron status according to feeding methods during the first six months revealed higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation levels in children exclusively or mainly fed formula than in children exclusively or mainly fed breast milk. Conclusions We established reference intervals of hematology and clinical chemistry analytes from community-based healthy children at one year of age. These reference intervals will be useful for interpreting results of medical check-ups at one year of age. PMID:27374715

  15. Comprehensive Reference Ranges for Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Parameters Derived from Normal Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash’le

    2014-01-01

    Background Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. Methods and findings Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors’ questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4%) males, 125 (32.6%) non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2%) with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB) and Hematocrit (HCT) had significant gender difference (p = 0.000) but not for total white blood count (p>0.05) which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000). Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001) but lower in pregnant women (p = 0.001) with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05) but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p<0.05). Total bilirubin was significantly higher in males than females (p = 0.000). Significant differences exist for all chemistry parameters between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study (p<0.05), except Amylase and total cholesterol (p>0.05). Conclusions Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non

  16. Haematological malignancies: the rationale for integrated haematopathology services, key elements of organization and wider contribution to patient care.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) defined the process of care for haematological malignancies in Improving outcomes in haematological cancers. The manual in 2003. The most challenging recommendation has been the requirement to develop integrated laboratory services for accurate diagnosis. This is an aim that has not been fully achieved. The unified concept of haematological malignancy is recent and based on an understanding of the cellular pathology of the bone marrow and immune systems. Historical UK pathology practice has previously resulted in the separation of laboratory haematology from histopathology and of liquid and tissue specimens. Proposals for reintegration and centralization with specialist-led, centralized diagnostic and reporting services challenge the fragmented historical model. Accuracy and certainty of diagnosis remains problematic, particularly for lymphomas, with evidence that the accuracy of diagnosis is slowly improving but still only approaches 85%. There is a potentially significant human and financial cost of diagnostic errors. No nationwide, validated and comparable epidemiology/population-based data exist for accurate and complete ascertainment of new cases of haematological cancer, service planning or clinical outcomes monitoring. This article examines the original rationale behind the NICE guidance and outlines the key components and processes of an integrated diagnostic service. PMID:21261689

  17. Guidelines for genomic array analysis in acquired haematological neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Schoumans, Jacqueline; Suela, Javier; Hastings, Ros; Muehlematter, Dominique; Rack, Katrina; van den Berg, Eva; Berna Beverloo, H; Stevens-Kroef, Marian

    2016-05-01

    Genetic profiling is important for disease evaluation and prediction of prognosis or responsiveness to therapy in neoplasia. Microarray technologies, including array comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-detecting arrays, have in recent years been introduced into the diagnostic setting for specific types of haematological malignancies and solid tumours. It can be used as a complementary test or depending on the neoplasia investigated, also as a standalone test. However, comprehensive and readable presentation of frequently identified complex genomic profiles remains challenging. To assist diagnostic laboratories, standardization and minimum criteria for clinical interpretation and reporting of acquired genomic abnormalities detected through arrays in neoplastic disorders are presented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26774012

  18. The chemistry of acrylic bone cements and implications for clinical use in image-guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, David A; Gailloud, Philippe; Murphy, Kieran

    2004-02-01

    Advances in image-guided therapy for vertebral fractures and other bone-related disorders have made acrylic bone cement an integral part of the interventional armamentarium. Unfortunately, information on the properties and chemistry of these compounds is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the interventional community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the properties of components in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based polymers, the most commonly used bone cements in interventional procedures such as percutaneous vertebroplasty. The effects of altering the concentration of components such as methylmethacrylate monomers, PMMA beads, benzoyl peroxide activator, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) initiator, and radiopacifiers on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also considered. This information will allow interventional radiologists to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific applications and maximize the clinical potential of image-guided interventions. PMID:14963178

  19. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  20. Autoverification in a core clinical chemistry laboratory at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Davis, Scott R.; Drees, Denny; Morris, Cory; Kulhavy, Jeff; Crone, Cheri; Bebber, Tami; Clark, Iwa; Nelson, David L.; Teul, Sharon; Voss, Dena; Aman, Dean; Fahnle, Julie; Blau, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinical chemistry core laboratory. Subjects and Methods: At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS) to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs), delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and ‘absurd’ (physiologically improbable) values. Results: The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinical chemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%), albumin (99.8%), and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%). The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate) and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda), mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection) and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy

  1. Correspondence of linearity evaluations to the performance of clinical chemistry instrument and reagent systems.

    PubMed

    Shires, G W

    1992-07-01

    The importance of demonstrating linearity for a clinical chemistry analytical system has caused considerable debate. Disagreement about the way linearity is demonstrated has led to some misunderstanding about just what linearity means to the analytical goals. In many cases where linearity is evaluated by statistical means, the outcome will indicate a nonlinear condition. A subsequent graph plot of the same data usually produces a line that is virtually straight. Confusion over which linearity evaluation outcome to accept creates a lack of confidence in either approach owing to the sometimes obvious disagreement between the two outcomes and the ill-defined impact linearity has on analytical error or clinical usefulness. Models of analytical performance can be constructed in such a way that the paradox of conflicting linearity evaluations can be examined through their effects on the analytical goals. PMID:1497450

  2. Invasive aspergillosis: epidemiology and environmental study in haematology patients (Sfax, Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Hadrich, I; Makni, F; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Sellami, A; Bouaziz, H; Hdiji, S; Elloumi, M; Ayadi, A

    2010-09-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major opportunistic infection in haematology patients. Preventive measures are important to control IA because diagnosis is difficult and the outcome of treatment is poor. We prospectively examined the environmental contamination by Aspergillus and other fungal species and evaluated the prevalence of invasive aspergillosis in the protect unit of haematology. A three-year prospective study (December 2004-September 2007) was carried out in the department of haematology of Hedi Chaker Hospital. Suspected invasive aspergillosis cases were reviewed and classified as proven, probable and possible invasive aspergillosis using the EORTC criteria. During the study period, we collected weekly environmental samples (patient's rooms, tables and acclimatisers) and clinical samples from each patient (nasal, expectoration and auricular). Among 105 neutropenic patients, 16 had probable and 13 had possible IA. A total of 1680 clinical samples were collected and A. flavus was most frequently isolated (79.2%). Analysis of 690 environmental samples revealed that Penicillium (44%) was the most frequent followed by Cladosporium (20%), Aspergillus spp. (18%) and Alternaria (13%). The PCR-sequencing of 30 A. flavus isolates detected from clinical and environmental samples confirmed the mycological identification. Our findings underline the importance of environmental surveillance and strict application of preventive measures. PMID:19500260

  3. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft... Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September...

  4. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Croatia: regulation of the profession.

    PubMed

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Topic, Elizabeta; Cvoriscec, Dubravka; Cepelak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity exists across Europe in the definition of the profession of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine and also in academic background of specialists in this discipline. This article provides an overview of the standards of education and training of laboratory professionals and quality regulations in Croatia. Clinical chemistry in Croatia is almost exclusively practiced by medical biochemists. Although term Medical biochemist often relates to medical doctors in other European countries, in Croatia medical biochemists are not medical doctors, but university degree professionals who are qualified scientifically. Practicing the medical biochemistry is regulated by The Health Care Law, The Law of the Medical Biochemistry Profession and The Law of the State and Private Health Insurance. According to the law, only medical biochemists are entitled to run and work in the medical biochemistry laboratory. University degree is earned after the 5 years of the studies. Register for medical biochemists is kept by the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists. Licensing is mandatory, valid for 6 years and regulated by the government (Law on the Health Care, 1993). Vocational training for medical biochemists lasts 44 months and is regulated by the national regulatory document issued by the Ministry of Health. Accreditation is not mandatory and is provided by an independent, non-commercial national accreditation body. The profession has interdisciplinary character and a level of required competence and skills comparable to other European countries. PMID:22141201

  5. Prognostic significance of neoplastic cell proliferation parameters in human haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikov, V M

    1990-01-01

    High percentage of neoplastic cells in S, G2 and M phases of cell cycle is unfavourable prognostic sign in human haematological malignancies. In chronic leukaemias (CML and CLL) it is true for peripheral blood leukaemic cells, in non-Hodgkin lymphomas--for lymph node cells, in multiple myeloma--for bone marrow plasma cells. In acute leukaemia results are controversial: some authors found a correlation between proliferation parameters of bone marrow blast cells while others did not. These parameters correlate positively with the rate of complete remission and negatively with its duration. It is concluded that proliferation parameters of neoplastic cells may be used for individual prognosis in patients with haematological tumours especially in combination with other biological and clinical prognostic markers. PMID:1703108

  6. The value of haematological screening for AIDS in an at risk population.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, J N; Walker, D; Engelkins, H; Bain, B; Harris, J R

    1985-01-01

    The haematological variables measured by automated full blood count in matched homosexual and heterosexual men attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) were compared with those of normal controls and patients infected with the human T lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III). Homosexual and heterosexual men were statistically identical for all variables, but both differed noticeably from patients with clinical diagnoses of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related disease. A full blood count as a screening test for AIDS is only interpretable in the context of clinical assessment. PMID:2995238

  7. Comparison of automated haematology analysers for detection of apoptotic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Taga, K; Sawaya, M; Yoshida, M; Kaneko, M; Okada, M; Taniho, M

    2002-06-01

    Automated haematology analysers can rapidly provide accurate blood cell counts and white blood cell differentials. In this study, we evaluated four different haematology analysers for the detection of apoptotic lymphocytes in peripheral blood: MAXM A/L Retic, H*2, Cell-Dyn 3500 and NE-8000. With the MAXM A/L Retic haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared below the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF1, and to the right under the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF2 scattergrams. With the H*2 haematology analyser, the apoptotic polymorphonuclear lymphocytes produced a higher lobularity index on the BASO channel. With the Cell-Dyn 3500 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared to the right side of the original lymphocyte cluster on the 0D/10D scattergram and to the left side of the polymorphonuclear cluster on the 90D/10D scattergram. With the NE-8000 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster was not distinguishable. Thus, apoptotic lymphocytes are readily detected on scattergrams generated by selected haematology analysers. PMID:12067276

  8. Protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis: Medicinal chemistry/clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Malemud, Charles J; Blumenthal, David E

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry strategies have contributed to the development, experimental study of and clinical trials assessment of the first type of protein kinase small molecule inhibitor to target the Janus kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. The orally administered small molecule inhibitor, tofacitinib, is the first drug to target the JAK/STAT pathway for entry into the armamentarium of the medical therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of tofacitinib into general rheumatologic practice coupled with increasing understanding that additional cellular signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways as well as spleen tyrosine kinase also contribute to immune-mediated inflammatory in rheumatoid arthritis makes it likely that further development of orally administered protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis will occur in the near future. PMID:25232525

  9. Current status of chimeric antigen receptor therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Maude, Shannon; Barrett, David M

    2016-01-01

    The field of adoptive cell transfer includes chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineered T cells, constructs that emerged from basic research into principles of immunology and have transformed into clinically effective therapies for haematological malignancies. T cells engineered to express these artificial receptors hold great promise, but also carry significant risk. While permanent genetic modification of mature T cells appears safe, modulating their in vivo function is difficult, partly because the robust response can trigger other arms of the immune system. Suicide systems and toxicity management with cytokine blockade or signal transduction modulators have emerged as a new frontier in this field, a far cry from early problems getting CAR T cells to work at all. Currently, clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory B cell malignancies treated with CD19-specific CAR T cells have induced durable remissions in adults and children. Results from these trials indicate that more work needs to be done to understand biomarkers of efficacy, the role of T cell persistence and how to integrate this care into standard practice. Cell therapy will not be a 'one size fits all' class of medicine, and here we will discuss the development of this therapy and important questions for its future. PMID:26560054

  10. Haematological cancer and quality of life: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Allart-Vorelli, P; Porro, B; Baguet, F; Michel, A; Cousson-Gélie, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of haematological cancers on quality of life (QoL). A review of the international literature was conducted from the databases 'PsycInfo' and 'Medline' using the keywords: 'haematological cancer', 'quality of life', 'physical', 'psychological', 'social', 'vocational', 'professional', 'economic', 'cognitive', and 'sexual'. Twenty-one reliable studies were analysed. Among these studies, 12 showed that haematological cancer altered overall QoL, 8 papers found a deterioration of physical dimension, 8 papers reported on functional and role dimensions, 11 papers reported on the psychological component and 9 on the social component. Moreover, one study and two manuscripts, respectively, reported deteriorated sexual and cognitive dimensions. Our review demonstrates that the different dimensions of QoL are deteriorated by haematological malignancies and, probably, by the side effects of treatment. PMID:25909835

  11. Haematological cancer and quality of life: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Allart-Vorelli, P; Porro, B; Baguet, F; Michel, A; Cousson-Gélie, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of haematological cancers on quality of life (QoL). A review of the international literature was conducted from the databases ‘PsycInfo' and 'Medline' using the keywords: 'haematological cancer', 'quality of life', 'physical', 'psychological', 'social', 'vocational', 'professional', 'economic', 'cognitive', and 'sexual'. Twenty-one reliable studies were analysed. Among these studies, 12 showed that haematological cancer altered overall QoL, 8 papers found a deterioration of physical dimension, 8 papers reported on functional and role dimensions, 11 papers reported on the psychological component and 9 on the social component. Moreover, one study and two manuscripts, respectively, reported deteriorated sexual and cognitive dimensions. Our review demonstrates that the different dimensions of QoL are deteriorated by haematological malignancies and, probably, by the side effects of treatment. PMID:25909835

  12. Trial of Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for Haematological Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Acute Myeloid Leukaemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia; Acquired Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes; Other Haematological Malignancies; Unrelated HSCT Indicated

  13. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  14. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  15. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  16. Clinical chemistry profiles in injection heroin users from Coastal Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug users. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the clinical chemistry profiles and identifying the key laboratory markers of HIV infection during ART in injection heroin users (IHUs). Methods Clinical chemistry measurements were performed on serum samples collected from HIV-1 infected ART-experienced (n = 22), naive (n = 16) and HIV-1 negative (n = 23) IHUs, and healthy controls (n = 15) from Mombasa, coastal Kenya. Results HIV uninfected IHUs had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P = 0.023) as ART-exposed IHUs exhibited lower albumin (P = 0.014) and higher AST to platelet index (APRI) (P < 0.0001). All IHUs presented with lower aspartate aminotransferase to ALT values (P = 0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P = 0.002). ART-naive IHUs had higher globulin levels (P = 0.013) while ART-experienced and naive IHUs had higher albumin to total protein (P < 0.0001) and albumin to globulin (P < 0.0001) values. In addition, CD4+ T cells correlated with ALT (ρ = −0.522, P = 0.011) and CRP (rho, ρ = 0.529, P = 0.011) in HIV negative and ART-experienced IHUs, respectively. HIV-1 viral load correlated with albumin to globulin index in ART-experienced (ρ = −0.468, P = 0.037) and naive (ρ = −0.554, P = 0.040) IHUs; and with albumin to total protein index (ρ = −0.554, P = 0.040) and globulin (ρ = 0.570, P = 0.033) in ART-naive IHUs. Conclusion Absolute ALT, albumin, globulin, and CRP measurements in combination with APRI, AST to ALT, albumin to total protein and albumin to globulin indices may be useful laboratory markers for screening IHUs for initiating and monitoring treatment. PMID:25057262

  17. Effect of repeated freezing and thawing on 18 clinical chemistry analytes in rat serum.

    PubMed

    Kale, Vijay P; Patel, Sweta G; Gunjal, Prashant S; Wakchaure, Santosh U; Sundar, Rajesh S; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Jain, Mukul R

    2012-07-01

    In a preclinical research laboratory, using serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly is sometimes unavoidable when needing to confirm previous results or perform additional analysis. Here we determined the effects of multiple cycles of refrigeration or freezing and thawing of rat serum at 3 temperature conditions for different storage times on clinical chemistry analytes. Serum samples obtained from adult Wistar rats were stored at 2 to 8 °C and -10 to -20 °C for as long as 72 h and at -70 °C for as long as 30 d. At different time points (24, 48, and 72 h for samples stored at 2 to 8 °C or -10 to -20 °C and 1, 7, and 30 d for samples stored at -70 °C), the samples were brought to room temperature, analyzed, and then stored again at the designated temperature. The results obtained after each storage cycle were compared with those obtained from the initial analysis of fresh samples. Of the 18 serum analytes evaluated, 14 were stable without significant changes, even after 3 freeze-thaw cycles at the tested temperature ranges. Results from this study will help researchers working with rat serum to interpret the biochemical data obtained from serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly. PMID:23043814

  18. Chemokine Receptor CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc: Medicinal Chemistry and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immumodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the worst global pandemic. The virus infects human CD4 T cells and macrophages, and causes CD4 depletion. HIV enters target cells through the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein to CD4 and the chemokine coreceptor, CXCR4 or CCR5. In particular, the CCR5-utilizing viruses predominate in the blood during the disease course. CCR5 is expressed on the surface of various immune cells including macrophages, monocytes, microglia, dendric cells, and active memory CD4 T cells. In the human population, the CCR5 genomic mutation, CCR5Δ32, is associated with relative resistance to HIV. These findings paved the way for the discovery and development of CCR5 inhibitors to block HIV transmission and replication. Maraviroc, discovered as a CCR5 antagonist, is the only CCR5 inhibitor that has been approved by both US FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for treating HIV/AIDS patients. In this review, we summarize the medicinal chemistry and clinical studies of Maraviroc. PMID:25159165

  19. Influence of trypanocidal therapy on the haematology of vervet monkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, John M; Kariuki, Christopher; Maina, Naomi; Thuita, John K; Mwangangi, David M; Farah, Idle O; Hau, Jann

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the sequential haematological changes in vervet monkeys infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and subsequently treated with sub-curative diminazene aceturate (DA) and curative melarsoprol (MelB) trypanocidal drugs. Fourteen vervet monkeys, on a serial timed-kill pathogenesis study, were infected intravenously with 10(4) trypanosomes of a stabilate T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537. They were treated with DA at 28 days post infection (dpi) and with MelB following relapse of infection at 140 dpi. Blood samples were obtained from the monkeys weekly, and haematology conducted using a haematological analyser. All the monkeys developed a disease associated with macrocytic hypochromic anaemia characterised by a reduction in erythrocytes (RBC), haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), platelet count (PLT), and an increase in the red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV). The clinical disease was characteristic of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) with a pre-patent period of 3 days. Treatment with DA cleared trypanosomes from both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The parasites relapsed first in the CSF and later in the blood. This treatment normalised the RBC, HCT, HB, PLT, MCV, and MPV achieving the pre-infection values within two weeks while RDW took up to 6 weeks to attain pre-infection levels after treatment. Most of the parameters were later characterised by fluctuations, and declined at one to two weeks before relapse of trypanosomes in the haemolymphatic circulation. Following MelB treatment at 140 dpi, most values recovered within two weeks and stabilised at pre-infection levels, during the 223 days post treatment monitoring period. It is concluded that DA and MelB treatments cause similar normalising changes in the haematological profiles of monkeys infected with T. b. rhodesiense, indicating the efficacy of the drugs. The infection related changes in haematology

  20. Haematological toxicity of drugs used in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Robert J; Dunk, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    Almost all classes of psychotropic agents have been reported to cause blood dyscrasias. Mechanisms include direct toxic effects upon the bone marrow, the formation of antibodies against haematopoietic precursors or involve peripheral destruction of cells. Agranulocytosis is probably the most important drug-related blood dyscrasia. The mortality from drug-induced agranulocytosis is 5-10% in Western countries. The manifestations of agranulocytosis are secondary to infection. Aggressive treatment with intravenous broad-spectrum antimicrobials and bone marrow stimulants may be required. Of drugs encountered in psychiatry, antipsychotics including clozapine (risk of agranulocytosis approximately 0.8%, predominantly in the first year of treatment) and phenothiazines (chlorpromazine agranulocytosis risk approximately 0.13%), and antiepileptics (notably carbamazepine, neutropenia risk approximately 0.5%) are the most common causes of drug-related neutropenia/agranulocytosis. Drugs known to cause neutropenia should not be used concomitantly with other drugs known to cause this problem. High temperature and other indicators of possible infection should be looked for routinely during treatment. Clozapine is well known as a drug that can cause blood dyscrasias, but olanzapine and other atypicals may also cause similar problems. In addition to genetic factors, there are likely to be dose-related and immunological components to these phenomena. Important lessons have been learnt from the haematological monitoring that is necessary with clozapine and the monitoring has been very successful in preventing deaths related to clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Continuing research into the mechanisms of drug-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis may serve to further enhance the safe use not only of clozapine, but also of other agents. PMID:18098216

  1. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... otherwise. In the Federal Register of October 14, 2010 (75 FR 63188), FDA announced the availability of the... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information '' dated February 2012. The guidance...

  2. Implementation of monoclonal antibody fluorescence on the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire haematology analyser: evaluation of lymphoid, myeloid and platelet markers.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, B; Roemer, B; Flatmoen, L; Just, T; Aarsand, A K; Scott, C S

    2006-04-01

    Apart from qualitative flags, that are typically inefficient and uninformative, haematology instruments provide little meaningful information about lymphocyte populations or the lineage of atypical or immature elements, The CELL-DYN Sapphire haematology analyser uses integrated optical and fluorescence (488 nm) measurements, with FL1 (FITC) and FL2 (PE) detectors being configured for fluorescent analysis. As monoclonal antibodies (Mab) are widely used as cellular probes, and are likely to constitute the future basis for immunodifferentials, we explored the feasibility of implementing immunofluorescence on this routine haematology analyser. An extensive series of Mab (CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11b, CD13, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD22, CD33, CD34, CD41, CD42b, CD45, CD56, CD61, CD64, CD235a and HLA-DR) were tested singly or in FITC/PE combinations. Analyser processing and data acquisition was achieved using CD-Sapphire automated CD61 immunoplatelet or CD3/4/8 assay procedures and, apart from mixing EDTA-blood and antibody, no further sample manipulation was required. Downloaded raw files were processed with cytometry software, and all evaluated reagents showed population discrimination analogous to flow cytometry. Practical procedures were straightforward and required minimal operator training. Extended information that can be obtained from monoclonal antibodies with a routine haematology analyser has the potential to extend haematology laboratory practices and positively impact laboratory and clinical efficiency. PMID:16630212

  3. Accreditation and postgraduate training in European countries: an FESCC survey. Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Blaton, V

    2001-07-20

    The mission of the Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry is to support and promote clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Europe, to aid communication between the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) and National Scientific Societies, to develop education and quality in the discipline, and to encourage young scientists to take an active role in these activities. One recent initiative of the Federation was a survey on accreditation of medical laboratories and training in laboratory medicine in Europe. Among European countries, three promote accreditation according to EN 45001, several countries apply systems based on professional and nationally defined standards (e.g. CPA in the UK) and other countries are moving to define accreditation standards at a national level. Data on vocational training demonstrate that this is based on a postgraduate education with duration ranging from 6 months to 11 years; in most countries the average length of university education is 5 years and that of postgraduate training is 4 years. A great difference, moreover, exists regarding the polyvalent versus monovalent training. Taken together, these data indicate that a great effort should be made by the Federation for promoting harmonization and coordination in Europe. PMID:11438289

  4. Effect of sampling site and collection method on variations in baseline clinical pathology parameters in Fischer-344 rats. 1. Clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Neptun, D A; Smith, C N; Irons, R D

    1985-12-01

    An analysis of the influence of blood sampling site and collection method on clinical chemistry parameters was conducted in male Fischer-344 rats. Sampling sites compared included the right ventricle, aorta, vena cava, retroorbital sinus, and tail. Methods of collection included Vacutainer (3 ml sample), syringe (exsanguination), and capillary tube. Nineteen frequently measured clinical chemistry procedures were determined, including serum enzymes, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Significant differences were noted for almost every parameter as a function of sampling site. Samples collected from the right ventricle with a Vacutainer produced the most representative results for most but not all procedures when compared to the overall mean (for all methods). The largest differences were encountered in samples obtained from tail and retroorbital plexus. Exanguination also resulted in significant differences for some parameters when compared to smaller sample volumes obtained from the same site. It was concluded that sampling site and collection method can be a major source of variation in clinical chemistry measurements, and in selection of an appropriate method, one should consider which parameters are likely to be of major interest. PMID:4092880

  5. Absence of ocular manifestations in autosomal dominant Alport syndrome associated with haematological abnormalties.

    PubMed

    Colville, D; Wang, Y Y; Jamieson, R; Collins, F; Hood, J; Savige, J

    2000-12-01

    Most patients with Alport syndrome have X-linked or autosomal recessive disease that is characterised by renal failure, hearing loss, and, in nearly 75% of the cases, a dot-and-fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus. There are only case reports of individuals with the rare autosomal dominant form, who can have haematuria or renal failure, deafness, and, in addition, low platelet counts and neutrophil inclusions. The ocular features of autosomal dominant inheritance have not been described. We have examined the eyes in the members of two families where Alport syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical features and family history, and where autosomal dominant inheritance was confirmed by father-to-son disease transmission, the associated haematological abnormalities, and haplotypes that segregated with the recently described locus at chromosome 22q. In Family A, the eyes of two individuals with haematuria, hearing loss, and haematological abnormalities and of nine unaffected family members were examined. In Family B, the eyes of two individuals with renal failure, normal hearing, and haematological abnormalities were examined. None of the affected or unaffected members in either family had a dot-and-fleck retinopathy, anterior lenticonus, a history suggesting recurrent corneal erosions, or corneal dystrophy. These results indicate that the protein abnormality in autosomal dominant Alport syndrome does not produce the retinopathy and lenticonus typical of X-linked and autosomal recessive disease. This may be because the abnormal protein is not present or is less important in the ocular basement membranes than elsewhere, or because the presence of a normal allele in autosomal dominant disease compensates for the defective allele. PMID:11135492

  6. Systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal haematological non-mast cell lineage diseases: a histopathological challenge

    PubMed Central

    Horny, H-P; Sotlar, K; Sperr, W R; Valent, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims: Although systemic mastocytosis (SM) with an associated clonal haematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD) is a major subtype of SM, little is known about its frequency among myelogenous neoplasms, and mastocytosis in particular, or about AHNMD subtype frequencies. Methods: Approximately 19 500 routine bone marrow biopsies were evaluated. Immunostaining with antibodies against tryptase, KIT, and CD25 and molecular analysis for detection of C-KIT point mutations were performed in approximately 550/4100 myelogenous malignancies including mastocytosis, almost all subtypes of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndrome (MDS/MPD), MPD, and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Results: SM was rare—it was diagnosed in only 64 bone marrows (0.3%) and made up 1.5% of myelogenous tumours. SM-AHNMD was the second most frequent subtype (20). SM-AHNMD was never included in the clinical differential diagnoses and was confirmed histologically in most cases only after appropriate immunostaining. The abnormal mast cell phenotype was confirmed by immunohistochemical demonstration of tryptase and CD25 coexpression. The following associated haematological neoplasms were found: MDS/MPS, AML, MPS, MDS, plasma cell myeloma, and unclassifiable myelogenous malignancy. C-KIT point mutations were detected in 16 of 20 cases. Conclusions: SM-AHNMD can be diagnosed histologically in bone marrow trephines only after immunostaining with antibodies against tryptase, KIT, and CD25. Eighteen of 20 AHNMDs were of myeloid origin. C-KIT point mutations were present in 16 of 20 cases. The prognostic relevance of detecting SM associated with another haematological neoplasm remains unclear, but mast cell resistance to most cytoreductive agents is of major importance for treatment planning. PMID:15166264

  7. Curriculum Design of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Haematology Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porcaro, Pauline A.; Jackson, Denise E.; McLaughlin, Patricia M.; O'Malley, Cindy J.

    2016-01-01

    A common trend in higher education is the "flipped" classroom, which facilitates active learning during class. The flipped approach to teaching was instituted in a haematology "major" class and the students' attitudes and preferences for the teaching materials were surveyed. The curriculum design was explicit and involved four…

  8. Can exome scans be expected to be part of real-time decision-making in patients with haematological cancers?

    PubMed

    Hokland, Peter; Cotter, Finbarr E; Hansen, Marcus C

    2016-08-01

    The laboratory aspects of diagnosis of patients with haematological malignancies are forever changing. Microscopic examination of blood and bone marrow smears, cytogenetics, flow cytometry and single-assay molecular diagnostics have been and are still essential tools in cancer diagnostics. Flow cytometry has brought the unprecedented possibility of rapid multiplexing and characterization of complex immunophenotypic patterns. However, the advent of next generation sequencing in the haematology laboratory brings a whole new perspective on multiplexing and potentially lowers the cost per analysis effectively. These informative methods still require skilled technicians and bioinformaticians, evolve at a rapid pace, and call for clinical guidelines and best practice. Here, we discuss the potential and caveats of whole exome sequencing as it moves closer to routine laboratory practice. The question is: Will exome sequencing be performed, real-time, in the standard haemodiagnostic laboratory? PMID:27351467

  9. Cellular therapy to treat haematological and other malignancies: progress and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Phillip D; Gottlieb, David; Bradstock, Kenneth F; Hart, Derek N J

    2011-10-01

    The recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a cellular therapy to treat castration resistant prostate cancer has reinforced the potential of cellular therapy to consolidate current pharmacological approaches to treating cancer. The emergence of the cell manufacturing facility to facilitate clinical translation of these new methodologies allows greater access to these novel therapies. Here we review different strategies currently being explored to treat haematological malignancies with a focus on adoptive allogeneic or autologous transfer of antigen specific T cells, NK cells or dendritic cells. These approaches all aim to generate immunological responses against overexpressed tissue antigens, mismatched minor histocompatability antigens or tumour associated antigens. Current successes and limitations of these different approaches will be discussed with an emphasis on challenges encountered in generating long term engraftment, antigen selection and implementation as well as therapeutic immune monitoring of clinical responses, with examples from recent clinical trials. PMID:21897329

  10. Learning Nuclear Chemistry through Practice: A High School Student Project Using PET in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT…

  11. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  12. A contribution for the definition of serum chemistry values in captive adults Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Silva, F M O; Vergara-Parente, J E; Gomes, J K N; Teixeira, M N; Lima, R P

    2007-04-01

    Serum chemistry analyses represents a fundamental tool for the diagnosis and understanding of diseases in marine mammals. Although several studies are being conducted within the field of clinical pathology, haematological and serum chemistry data for Antillean manatees are deficient. The purpose of this study was to determine serum chemistry values for captive Antillean manatees within the CMA/Ibama facility in Brazil. Serum samples were obtained from five captive adult Antillean manatees fed with seagrass and analysed for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, urea, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, phosphate, chloride, calcium and uric acid. Blood chemistry parameters were determined using a semi-automatic analyzer. Maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviations were calculated for each serum chemistry parameter. Differences on the values of males and females were verified using an unpaired Student's t-test. All the parameters analysed were similar between sexes, with exception of AP, which was higher in females (191.43 +/- 31.86 U/l). Alanine aminotransferase and uric acid values for Trichechus manatus manatus are reported for the first time in this paper. This study is the first to report serum chemistry parameter values for long-term captive male and female Antillean manatees. Therefore, the lower values of albumin, phosphate, chloride, cholesterol and triglycerides obtained here highlight the importance of clinical pathology during health monitoring of captive marine mammals. PMID:17381673

  13. Development and analysis of an instrument to assess student understanding of GOB chemistry knowledge relevant to clinical nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Corina E; Hyslop, Richard M; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the final version of the items and instrument. In developing items for the GOB-CKA, essential topics were identified through a series of expert interviews (with practicing nurses, nurse educators, and GOB chemistry instructors) and confirmed through a national survey. Individual items were tested in qualitative studies with students from the target population for clarity and wording. Data from pilot and beta studies were used to evaluate each item and narrow the total item count to 45. A psychometric analysis performed on data from the 45-item final version was used to provide evidence of validity and reliability. The final version of the instrument has a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.76. Feedback from an expert panel provided evidence of face and content validity. Convergent validity was estimated by comparing the results from the GOB-CKA with the General-Organic-Biochemistry Exam (Form 2007) of the American Chemical Society. Instructors who wish to use the GOB-CKA for teaching and research may contact the corresponding author for a copy of the instrument. PMID:25418988

  14. Application to cows and horses of Spotchem, a dry-chemistry blood analyzer for use in veterinary clinics.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, F; Satho, M; Koyama, S; Nakadaka, K; Chiba, M; Ikeda, N; Hakamada, R; Higuchi, S; Kawamura, S

    1994-02-01

    The usefulness of a dry-chemistry blood analyzer, Spotchem SP-4410 (SP-4410) in a veterinary clinic for analysis of bovine and equine blood chemistry was studied. We quantitated total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), total bilirubin (T-Bil), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total cholesterol (T-Cho), glucose (Glu), calcium (Ca), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in bovine sera. Each sample was assayed with both the SP-4410 and an automated blood analyzer which served as a wet-chemistry reference system, and the data were analyzed with regression analysis. The correlation coefficient for AST was 0.997 being the highest for all the parameters, and all the correlation coefficients were 0.93 or higher. The coefficients of variation were lower than 5.0 except in the case of bovine T-Bil where it was 5,756. The ranges of normal reference values measured by SP-4410 were the same as those reported by other investigators in most cases, but those for GGT and CPK were slightly higher. The strongest interference was observed with hemoglobin. It seems that dry-chemical-analysis of blood serum using the SP-4410 is useful for analysis of bovine and equine blood. PMID:8085395

  15. Tales from the Jazz ASH: highlights from the 2013 American Society of Haematology meeting.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A 'bench-to-bedside and back' attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345

  16. Iron requirements based upon iron absorption tests are poorly predicted by haematological indices in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Lomer, Miranda C E; Cook, William B; Jan-Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Hutchinson, Carol; Liu, Ding Yong; Hider, Robert C; Powell, Jonathan J

    2012-06-01

    Fe deficiency and Fe-deficiency anaemia are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional clinical markers of Fe status can be skewed in the presence of inflammation, meaning that a patient's Fe status can be misinterpreted. Additionally, Fe absorption is known to be down-regulated in patients with active IBD. However, whether this is the case for quiescent or mildly active disease has not been formally assessed. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between Fe absorption, Fe requirements and standard haematological indices in IBD patients without active disease. A group of twenty-nine patients with quiescent or mildly active IBD and twenty-eight control subjects undertook an Fe absorption test that measured sequential rises in serum Fe over 4 h following ingestion of 200 mg ferrous sulphate. At baseline, serum Fe, transferrin saturation, non-transferrin-bound Fe (NTBI), ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor were all measured. Thereafter (30-240 min), only serum Fe and NTBI were measured. Fe absorption did not differ between the two groups (P = 0·9; repeated-measures ANOVA). In control subjects, baseline haematological parameters predicted Fe absorption (i.e. Fe requirements), but this was not the case for patients with IBD. Fe absorption is normal in quiescent or mildly active IBD patients but standard haematological parameters do not accurately predict Fe requirements. PMID:22152498

  17. A cluster of Geotrichum clavatum (Saprochaete clavata) infection in haematological patients: a first Italian report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Sarmati, Loredana; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; Fontana, Carla; De Santis, Giovanna; Buccisano, Francesco; Maurillo, Luca; De Bellis, Eleonora; Postorino, Massimiliano; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Amadori, Sergio; Pagano, Livio; Venditti, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    Invasive fungal infections, usually Aspergillus and Candida, represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with malignant haematological diseases, but in the last years rare fungal infections have more frequently been reported. Here, we report the clinical history of three patients affected with haematological malignancies who developed an infection caused by Geotrichum (G.) clavatum. Two out of three patients were affected by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and one by mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). All patients received cytarabine-based chemotherapeutic regimens and developed G. clavatum infection within 3 weeks from therapy initiation. In all cases, G. clavatum was isolated from central venous catheter and peripheral blood cultures. In vitro susceptibility test confirmed an intrinsic resistance to echinocandins and, in all cases, visceral localisations (spleen, liver and lung) were documented by total body computed tomography (CT) scan. A prolonged antifungal therapy with high doses liposomal amphotericin-B was necessary to obtain fever resolution. Only the patient with MCL died while the other two AML recovered, and one of them after received an allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We consecutively reviewed all published cases of infection caused by G. clavatum. Our experience and literature review indicate that G. clavatum can cause invasive infection in haematological patients, mainly in those with acute leukaemia. PMID:27061932

  18. Health assessment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect of haematophagous parasites on haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of the health status of free-ranging populations is important for understanding the impact of disease on individuals and on population demography and viability. In this study, haematological reference intervals were developed for free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups within the context of endemic hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection and the effects of pathogen, host, and environment factors on the variability of haematological parameters were investigated. Uncinaria sanguinis was identified as an important agent of disease, with infection causing regenerative anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, and a predominantly lymphocytic-eosinophilic systemic inflammatory response. Conversely, the effects of sucking lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) were less apparent and infestation in pups appears unlikely to cause clinical impact. Overall, the effects of U. sanguinis, A. microchir, host factors (standard length, body condition, pup sex, moult status, and presence of lesions), and environment factors (capture-type and year of sampling) accounted for 26-65% of the total variance observed in haematological parameters. Importantly, this study demonstrated that anaemia in neonatal Australian sea lion pups is not solely a benign physiological response to host-environment changes, but largely reflects a significant pathological process. This impact of hookworm infection on pup health has potential implications for the development of foraging and diving behaviour, which would subsequently influence the independent survival of juveniles following weaning. The haematological reference intervals developed in this study can facilitate long-term health surveillance, which is critical for the early recognition of changes in disease impact and to inform conservation management. PMID:25724096

  19. Consensus guidelines for optimising antifungal drug delivery and monitoring to avoid toxicity and improve outcomes in patients with haematological malignancy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chau, M M; Kong, D C M; van Hal, S J; Urbancic, K; Trubiano, J A; Cassumbhoy, M; Wilkes, J; Cooper, C M; Roberts, J A; Marriott, D J E; Worth, L J

    2014-12-01

    Antifungal agents may be associated with significant toxicity or drug interactions leading to sub-therapeutic antifungal drug concentrations and poorer clinical outcomes for patients with haematological malignancy. These risks may be minimised by clinical assessment, laboratory monitoring, avoidance of particular drug combinations and dose modification. Specific measures, such as the optimal timing of oral drug administration in relation to meals, use of pre-hydration and electrolyte supplementation may also be required. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal agents is warranted, especially where non-compliance, non-linear pharmacokinetics, inadequate absorption, a narrow therapeutic window, suspected drug interaction or unexpected toxicity are encountered. Recommended indications for voriconazole and posaconazole TDM in the clinical management of haematology patients are provided. With emerging knowledge regarding the impact of pharmacogenomics upon metabolism of azole agents (particularly voriconazole), potential applications of pharmacogenomic evaluation to clinical practice are proposed. PMID:25482746

  20. Blood gases, biochemistry and haematology of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    PubMed

    Lewbart, Gregory A; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Brothers, J Roger; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan Pablo; Denkinger, Judith; Vinueza, Luis; García, Juan; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    The marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is an iconic lizard endemic to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador, but surprisingly little information exists on baseline health parameters for this species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 35 marine iguanas captured at three locations on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, lactate, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)), percentage O2 saturation, haematocrit, haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium and glucose. Parameter values affected by temperature were auto-corrected by the iSTAT. Standard laboratory haematology techniques were employed for differential white blood cell counts and haematocrit determination; resulting values were also compared with the haematocrit values generated by the iSTAT. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and body measurements were also recorded. Body length was positively correlated with several blood chemistry values (HCO3 (-) and glucose) and two haematology parameters (haemoglobin and manually determined haematocrit). A notable finding was the unusually high blood sodium level; the mean value of 178 mg/dl is among the highest known for any reptile. This value is likely to be a conservative estimate because some samples exceeded the maximal value the iSTAT can detect. For haematocrit determination, the iSTAT blood analyser yielded results significantly lower than those obtained with high-speed centrifugation. The values reported in this study provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among marine iguanas affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic threats. The findings might also be helpful in future efforts to demonstrate associations between specific biochemical parameters and disease. PMID:27293719

  1. The role of extracellular histones in haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Alhamdi, Yasir; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, chromosomal alterations have been extensively investigated for their pathophysiological relevance in haematological malignancies. In particular, epigenetic modifications of intra-nuclear histones are now known as key regulators of healthy cell cycles that have also evolved into novel therapeutic targets for certain blood cancers. Thus, for most haematologists, histones are DNA-chained proteins that are buried deep within chromatin. However, the plot has deepened with recent revelations on the function of histones when unchained and released extracellularly upon cell death or from activated neutrophils as part of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Extracellular histones and NETs are increasingly recognized for profound cytotoxicity and pro-coagulant effects. This article highlights the importance of recognizing this new paradigm of extracellular histones as a key player in host defence through its damage-associated molecular patterns, which could translate into novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in various haematological and critical disorders. PMID:27062156

  2. Role of Haematological Changes in Predicting Occurrence of Leishmaniasis- A Study in Kumaon Region of Uttarakhand

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Prabhat; Chachra, Upasna; Singh, Paramjeet; Thapliyal, Naveen; Rawat, Vinita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A number of cases of Leishmaniasis have been reported from non-endemic sub-himalayan regions of India. Due to low clinical suspicion and atypical presentation, cases may go undetected or there may be a delay in diagnosis. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate clinico-haematological parameters and bone marrow findings so that a high degree of suspicion could be made in unsuspected cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) and Leishman Donovan (LD) body negative bone marrow smears. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care centre serving the kumaon region of Uttarakhand from 2010 to 2014. Forty bone marrow aspirates were included, which were sent on clinical suspicion of VL. Twenty cases were positive for LD bodies. Their clinico-haematological features including bone marrow findings were studied in detail and compared with rest of the 20 LD negative cases. Five LD negative cases were also positive for rk39. Results Twenty LD positive cases were evaluated. Splenomegaly was the most common sign present in 17 cases (85%). Anaemia, leucopenia and lymphocytosis were present in all the cases (100%). Pancytopenia was seen in 17 cases (85%). Microcytic hypochromic blood picture was the most common finding in 11 cases (55%). Bone marrow was normocellular in 7 cases (35%), hypercellular in 7 cases (35%). Erythropoesis was micro-normoblastic in 11 cases (55%). Overall, there were 25 cases of VL (20 LD positive, 5 LD negative). Increased plasma cells, lymphocytes and histiocytes were seen in 17 cases (68%) of VL. Conclusion In non-endemic region where clinical suspicion is low, bone marrow findings can be a strong indicator for VL even though marrow is negative for LD bodies. If required other ancillary investigations can also be ordered. This study also emphasizes the need for epidemiological work up in this region.

  3. Yoga in addition to standard care for patients with haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Felbel, Steffen; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas; Skoetz, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Haematological malignancies are malignant neoplasms of the myeloid or lymphatic cell lines including leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma. In order to manage physical and psychological aspects of the disease and its treatment, complementary therapies like yoga are coming increasingly into focus. However, the effectiveness of yoga practice for people suffering from haematological malignancies remains unclear. Objectives To assess the effects of yoga practice in addition to standard cancer treatment for people with haematological malignancies. Search methods Our search strategy included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1950 to 4th February 2014), databases of ongoing trials (controlled-trials.com; clinicaltrials.gov), conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society of Hematology, the European Haematology Association, the European Congress for Integrative Medicine, and Global Advances in Health and Medicine. We handsearched references of these studies from identified trials and relevant review articles. Two review authors independently screened the search results. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga in addition to standard care for haematological malignancies compared with standard care only. We did not restrict this to any specific style of yoga. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data for eligible studies and assessed the risk of bias according to predefined criteria. We evaluated distress, fatigue, anxiety, depression and quality of sleep. Further outcomes we planned to assess were health-related quality of life (HRQoL), overall survival (OS) and adverse events (AE), but data on these were not available. Main results Our search strategies led to 149 potentially relevant references, but only a single small study met our inclusion criteria. The included study was published as a full text article and

  4. A brief history of lipid and lipoprotein measurements and their contribution to clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Judith R; Warnick, G Russell; Cooper, Gerald R

    2006-07-23

    The study of modern lipid chemistry began in the 17th and 18th centuries with early observations by Robert Boyle, Poulletier de la Salle, Antoine François de Fourcroy and others. The 19th century chemist, Chevreul, identified several fatty acids, suggested the name 'cholesterine' for the fatty substance in gallstones, coined the word 'glycerine', and showed that fats were comprised of glycerol and fatty acids. The 20th century brought many advances in the understanding of lipoprotein structure and function, and explored relationships between lipoproteins and disease states. The development of the ultracentrifuge and other lipoprotein separation techniques, and reagents for accurate, standardized quantitative measurement have steadily increased our understanding of the important role of lipoprotein metabolism in both healthy and disease states. PMID:16740255

  5. Intensify, resuscitate or palliate: decision making in the critically ill patient with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Quentin A

    2010-01-01

    The survival prospects of critically ill patients with haematological malignancy (HM) are reviewed, as are the variables which might influence decisions about the limitation of life sustaining therapies (LLST). Approximately 40% of patients with HM admitted to ICU survive to hospital discharge and a broad admission policy is warranted. Short term survival is predicted by the severity of the underlying physiological disturbance rather than cancer specific characteristics, although the prognostic importance of neutropenia and prior stem cell transplantation remains to be clarified. Survival to hospital discharge in cancer patients following cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is only 6-8%. Poor performance status and progressive deterioration despite ICU support appear to predict worse outcome. Patients should be provided with realistic information in order to make an informed decision about CPR. Decisions about LLST must be individualised. Consideration should be given to the patient's wishes and prognosis, the immediate clinical circumstances and their potential reversibility. PMID:19913962

  6. Comparison of plastic vs. glass evacuated serum-separator (SST) blood-drawing tubes for common clinical chemistry determinations.

    PubMed

    Hill, B M; Laessig, R H; Koch, D D; Hassemer, D J

    1992-08-01

    We evaluated a plastic evacuated blood-drawing tube containing an integral serum-separating barrier gel, by direct comparison with a glass counterpart. The plastic tube demonstrated no differences when compared for common clinical chemistry analytes with multiple types of instruments and systems. A total of 260 such different combinations were studied with emphasis on tests sensitive to drawing and handling indexes such as lactate dehydrogenase and potassium. A total of six separate blood drawings were tested with no significant differences noted in these tests. The total study included subjective evaluations of the plastic tube's use as a blood-drawing device and objective studies based on quantitative test results from normal and hospitalized patients and use of the primary sampling tubes (both plastic and glass) for 48-h storage. PMID:1643717

  7. Design and development of microcontroller-based clinical chemistry analyser for measurement of various blood biochemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Taneja, S R; Gupta, R C; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K K; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments. PMID:18924737

  8. Effect of Probiotic Dietary Intervention on Calcium and Haematological Parameters in Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Jashbhai B.; Mudgal, Sreeja V.; Pandya, Himanshu V.; Singh, Uday Shankar; Trivedi, Sunil S.; Phatak, Ajay G.; Patel, Rupal M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Sufficient calcium intake has been reported to support bone growth and prevent bone loss during the ageing process. Aim To determine the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 probiotic dietary intervention on serum calcium & haematological parameters in geriatric population. Materials and Methods Healthy volunteers with age ranging from 64-74 years were recruited from the nearby residential areas in and around Anand, Gujarat. Study duration was from 2012 to 2015. Of the 112 subjects initially enrolled in the trial, 36 withdrew before the intervention because of not matching with criterias. Of the 76 participants, 5 subjects (4%) under test group and 12 subjects (11%) under placebo left the study. We had 59 subjects who successfully completed a double blind cross over trial. Probiotic fermented milk products (in form of “Lassi”) was prepared by supplementing toned milk with honey and fermenting with probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 and Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460. The final product had at least 108 CFU/ml of viable Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 at the time of feeding. During feeding period, 200 ml of fermented product containing the test strain to one group and a similar product but without the test strain as placebo were fed regularly at the time of breakfast in morning for 4 weeks. Subjects of each group were given a washout period of 4 weeks before they were crossed over and included to the other group. The study was approved by institutional ethics committee. Results The socio-demographic and clinical profiles were similar at baseline. The mean (SD) calcium level improved significantly in test {9.36 (0.45) vs 8.45 (0.61), p<0.001}. No significant effect was observed with respect to haemoglobin & haematological parameters. Conclusion The well-documented probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463

  9. Atlas of genetics and cytogenetics in oncology and haematology in 2013.

    PubMed

    Huret, Jean-Loup; Ahmad, Mohammad; Arsaban, Mélanie; Bernheim, Alain; Cigna, Jérémy; Desangles, François; Guignard, Jean-Christophe; Jacquemot-Perbal, Marie-Christine; Labarussias, Maureen; Leberre, Vanessa; Malo, Anne; Morel-Pair, Catherine; Mossafa, Hossein; Potier, Jean-Claude; Texier, Guillaume; Viguié, Franck; Yau Chun Wan-Senon, Sylvie; Zasadzinski, Alain; Dessen, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology (http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org) is a peer-reviewed internet journal/encyclopaedia/database focused on genes implicated in cancer, cytogenetics and clinical entities in cancer and cancer-prone hereditary diseases. The main goal of the Atlas is to provide review articles that describe complementary topics, namely, genes, genetic abnormalities, histopathology, clinical diagnoses and a large iconography. This description, which was historically based on karyotypic abnormalities and in situ hybridization (fluorescence in situ hybridization) techniques, now benefits from comparative genomic hybridization and massive sequencing, uncovering a tremendous amount of genetic rearrangements. As the Atlas combines different types of information (genes, genetic abnormalities, histopathology, clinical diagnoses and external links), its content is currently unique. The Atlas is a cognitive tool for fundamental and clinical research and has developed into an encyclopaedic work. In clinical practice, it contributes to the cytogenetic diagnosis and may guide treatment decision making, particularly regarding rare diseases (because they are numerous and are frequently encountered). Readers as well as the authors of the Atlas are researchers and/or clinicians. PMID:23161685

  10. Haematological profile in leprosy. Part I--general findings.

    PubMed

    Karat, A B; Rao, P S

    1977-04-01

    Haematological studies in 904 adult leprosy patients with different types of leprosy, in various stages of the disease and treatment are described. Haemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum albumin and serum iron are significantly lower among lepromatous leprosy patients as compared with non-lepromatous patients. The serum B12 levels were significantly higher among the lepromatous group. Acid fast bacilli have been demonstrated in skin smear negative leprosy patients with indeterminate and tuberculoid leprosy, suggesting occurrence of bacillaemia in these groups of patients. PMID:909286

  11. Transition of care from paediatric to adult services in haematology

    PubMed Central

    Bolton‐Maggs, Paula H B

    2007-01-01

    The need for adequate preparation for transition for young people with health care needs who require long term follow‐up in the adult sector has long been recognised and is a required part of the national service framework for children. The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and the Royal College of Nursing have endorsed this need for improvement in services for adolescents. In 2006 the Department of Health launched guidelines with a wealth of recommendations. Despite these initiatives only slow progress has been made (usually by enthusiasts) and much work is needed to develop good programmes in many specialties, including non‐malignant haematology. PMID:17715443

  12. Haematological parameters as bioindicators of insecticide exposure in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Srivastava, Anil Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Haematological parameters, such as erythrocyte and leucocyte count, erythrocyte indices and thrombocyte number vis-a-vis coagulation of blood has been considered bioindicators of toxicosis in fish following exposure to organochlorine, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides. This review deals with the effects of insecticides on the morphology of red blood cells, total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, total and differential leucocyte counts, thrombocyte count and clotting time in the peripheral blood of a number of teleosts. The review also takes stock of knowledge of the subject and explores prospects of additional research in the related area. PMID:20177774

  13. The clinical chemistry and immunology of long-duration space missions.

    PubMed

    Wu, A H; Taylor, G R; Graham, G A; McKinley, B A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical laboratory diagnostic capabilities are needed to guide health and medical care of astronauts during long-duration space missions. Clinical laboratory diagnostics, as defined for medical care on Earth, offers a model for space capabilities. Interpretation of laboratory results for health and medical care of humans in space requires knowledge of specific physiological adaptations that occur, primarily because of the absence of gravity, and how these adaptations affect reference values. Limited data from American and Russian missions have indicated shifts of intra- and extracellular fluids and electrolytes, changes in hormone concentrations related to fluid shifts and stresses of the missions, reductions in bone and muscle mass, and a blunting of the cellular immune response. These changes could increase susceptibility to space-related illness or injury during a mission and after return to Earth. We review physiological adaptations and the risk of medical problems that occur during space missions. We describe the need for laboratory diagnostics as a part of health and medical care in space, and how this capability might be delivered. PMID:8419055

  14. Progress in the Discovery of Treatments for C. difficile Infection: A Clinical and Medicinal Chemistry Review

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Lissa S.; Owusu, Yaw B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Sun, Dianqing

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes C. difficile infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in developed countries has become increasingly high due to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, a growing elderly population, extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and limited therapies for this diarrheal disease. Because treatment options currently available for C. difficile infection have some drawbacks, including cost, promotion of resistance, and selectivity problems, new agents are urgently needed to address these challenges. This review article focuses on two parts: the first part summarizes current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection; the second part reviews newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years and are in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Antibiotics are divided into natural product inspired and synthetic small molecule compounds that may have the potential to be more efficacious than currently approved treatments. This includes potency, selectivity, reduced cytotoxicity, and novel modes of action to prevent resistance. PMID:24236721

  15. A Competency-Based Clinical Chemistry Course for the Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technician Graduate in a Medical Technology Baccalaureate Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buccelli, Pamela

    Presented is a project that developed a competency-based clinical chemistry course for associate degree medical laboratory technicians (MLT) in a medical technology (MT) baccalaureate program. Content of the course was based upon competencies expected of medical technologists at career-entry as defined in the statements adopted in 1976 by the…

  16. Self-organizing neural networks--an alternative way of cluster analysis in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Reibnegger, G; Wachter, H

    1996-04-15

    Supervised learning schemes have been employed by several workers for training neural networks designed to solve clinical problems. We demonstrate that unsupervised techniques can also produce interesting and meaningful results. Using a data set on the chemical composition of milk from 22 different mammals, we demonstrate that self-organizing feature maps (Kohonen networks) as well as a modified version of error backpropagation technique yield results mimicking conventional cluster analysis. Both techniques are able to project a potentially multi-dimensional input vector onto a two-dimensional space whereby neighborhood relationships remain conserved. Thus, these techniques can be used for reducing dimensionality of complicated data sets and for enhancing comprehensibility of features hidden in the data matrix. PMID:8740573

  17. The Role of miRNA in Haematological Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris-Shannon, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are over 1,800 annotated human miRNAs, many of which have tissue-specific expression. Numerous studies have highlighted their role in haematopoietic differentiation and proliferation, acting as master regulators of haematopoietic stem cell function. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been observed in haematological cancers, exhibiting unique expression signatures in comparison to normal counterparts. Functional and target analyses as well as animal models have attempted to annotate how different miRNA may contribute to the pathophysiology of these malignancies from modulating cancer associated genes, functioning directly as oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes or acting as bystanders or regulators of the epigenetic mechanisms in cancer. miRNAs have also been shown to play a role in modulating drug resistance and determining prognosis between the various subtypes of blood cancers. This review discusses the important role that miRNAs play in haematological malignancies by exploring associations that exist between the two and trying to examine evidence of causality to support the tantalising possibility that miRNAs might serve as therapeutic targets in blood cancers. PMID:24416592

  18. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garitano-Trojaola, Andoni; Agirre, Xabier; Prósper, Felipe; Fortes, Puri

    2013-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies. PMID:23887658

  19. Coordination chemistry may explain pharmacokinetics and clinical response of vanadyl sulfate in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Willsky, Gail R; Halvorsen, Katherine; Godzala, Michael E; Chi, Lai-Har; Most, Mathew J; Kaszynski, Peter; Crans, Debbie C; Goldfine, Allison B; Kostyniak, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    serum was dose-dependent, no correlation between total serum V concentration and the insulin-like response was found in this first attempt to correlate anti-diabetic activity with total serum V. This study suggests that V pools other than total serum V are likely related to the insulin-like effect of this metal. These results, obtained in diabetic patients, document the need for consideration of the coordination chemistry of metabolites and proteins with vanadium in anti-diabetic vanadium complexes. PMID:23982218

  20. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. PMID:27565903

  1. Perceived need for information among patients with a haematological malignancy: associations with information satisfaction and treatment decision-making preferences.

    PubMed

    Rood, Janneke A J; van Zuuren, Florence J; Stam, Frank; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Eeltink, Corien; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Huijgens, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    For patients with haematological malignancies, information on disease, prognosis, treatment and impact on quality of life is of the utmost importance. To gain insight into the perceived need for information in relation to sociodemographic and clinical parameters, comorbidity, quality of life (QoL) and information satisfaction, we compiled a questionnaire based on existing validated questionnaires. A total of 458 patients diagnosed with a haematological malignancy participated. The perceived need for information was moderate to high (40-70%). Multivariate regression analyses showed that a higher need for information was related to younger age, worse QoL, being member of a patient society and moderate comorbidity. The need for disease and treatment-related information was higher than the need for psychosocial information. A higher need for disease and treatment-related information was associated to being diagnosed with multiple myeloma. A higher need for psychosocial information was related to a lower educational level. The information provision could be improved according to 41% of the patients. Higher satisfaction with provided information was associated with better QoL. Most patients (62%) reported that they wanted to be fully informed about their illness and actively involved in treatment decision-making. The results contribute to improving patient-tailored information provision and shared decision-making in clinical practice. PMID:24811073

  2. Monoclonal antibody fluorescence for routine lymphocyte subpopulation analysis with the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire haematology analyser.

    PubMed

    Molero, T; Lemes, A; DE LA Iglesia, S; Scott, C S

    2007-12-01

    Using previously described procedures, this study quantified T-cell, T-cell subset, B-cell and NK-cell populations with the CD-Sapphire haematology analyser in a series of patients with mild to moderate lymphocytosis. Lymphocyte counts ranged from 6.0 to 14.9 x 10(9)/l, with 86/97 being <10.0 x 10(9)/l. Immunophenotyping (CD3/CD19/HLA-DR, CD4/CD8 and CD16/CD56 combinations) was performed using EDTA-anticoagulated blood, automated CD-Sapphire analysis and subsequent software processing. Of 35 samples from younger (<12 years) patients, 22 (63%) had nonspecific lymphocyte changes, 4 (11%) showed specific increases in nonreactive T-Helper or T-Suppressor cells, and five showed a reactive T-cell lymphocytosis. The remaining four were classified as 'Transient/Persistent NK-associated (NKa) Expansion' (n = 3) and specific B-cell lymphocytosis (n = 1). For older patients (n = 59), 15 (25%) had an increase (>1.5 x 10(9)/l) in B-cells, and seven investigated for surface immunoglobulin expression were all found to be clonal. The remaining samples were categorized as 'Transient/Persistent NK-associated (NKa) Expansion' (13/59), Reactive Lymphocytosis (5/59), 'Reactive Lymphocytosis or Transient/Persistent NKa Expansion' (8/59), specific T-Helper cell (n = 8) or T-Suppressor cell (n = 3) lymphocytosis, and 'Lymphocytosis of Undetermined Significance' (n = 7). This study has demonstrated the feasibility of applying limited immunophenotyping protocols to the investigation of patients with abnormal lymphocyte counts in routine haematology. By using commercially purchased liquid monoclonal reagents to determine lymphocyte subpopulation profiles, haematology laboratories can provide more definitive information of potential clinical importance. PMID:17988300

  3. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  4. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  5. Cord blood transplantation in children with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bertaina, Alice; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Caniglia, Maurizio; Vinti, Luciana; Giorgiani, Giovanna; Locatelli, Franco

    2010-06-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is largely used to treat children affected by haematological malignant disorders. In comparison to bone marrow transplantation (BMT), advantages of UCBT include lower incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease, easier procurement and prompter availability of cord blood cells, and the possibility of using donors having HLA disparities with the recipient. The large experience accumulated so far has shown that UCBT offers to children a probability of cure at least comparable to that of patients transplanted with bone marrow cells. Since it has been demonstrated that an inverse correlation between the number of nucleated cord blood cells infused per kg recipient body weight and the risk of dying for transplantation-related causes exists, recently developed strategies aimed at increasing the number of cord blood progenitors and at favouring stem cell homing could further optimize the outcome of children with leukemia or other malignancies receiving UCBT. PMID:20837330

  6. William Hewson (1739-74): the father of haematology.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Derek

    2006-05-01

    William Hewson has been called the father of haematology. Initially working alongside the Hunter brothers in London in the mid-18th century, he advanced our knowledge of red and white cells (but mistakenly thought some red cells started as white cells and could not recognise different varieties of white corpuscles), showed that it was fibrinogen and not the cells that led to coagulation, greatly advanced our knowledge of the lymphatic system in humans, fishes and amphibians, explored the functions of the thymus and spleen and, investigated pneumothorax and surgical emphysema. His life, cut short at 35 years, was often intertwined with those of the Hunters, Alexander Monro secundus and Benjamin Franklin. This paper reviews his work, his relationships and his impact on a nascent science. PMID:16643443

  7. Haematology of wild penguins (spenisciformes) in the Falkland Islands.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Horsley, D T; Keymer, I F

    1989-07-01

    Haematological values were determined in 50 Rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), 19 Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and 12 Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus) penguins from various sites on the Falkland Islands. Adult Magellanic penguins had significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb) levels, packed cell volumes (PCV) and red cell counts (RBC) than adults of the other two species. Hb, PCV and RBC values were also lower in juvenile birds than in adults and lower in post-moult than in pre-moult adults. Comparison of findings in wild Rockhopper and Gentoo penguins with values obtained from captive birds showed slight but significant differences in Hb and mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and in the relative numbers of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils present. PMID:18679879

  8. [Inclusion Body Disease (IBD of Boids)--a haematological, histological and electron microscopical study].

    PubMed

    Keilwerth, Melanie; Bühler, Ilina; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate diagnostic tools for the detection of Inclusion Body Disease (IBD) in bold snakes. The aetiology of IBD is unknown, and the disease has non-specific clinical signs, hence there is a need for a clinically-applicable, specific diagnostic method. We examined blood smears and liver biopsies from 26 bold snakes (17 boas and nine pythons; some of which were suspected of having IBD) for the presence of characteristic inclusion bodies. We used haematology, histology and electron microscopy to characterise samples as IBD-positive or -negative. Our results indicate that examination of a simple blood smear is sufficient to diagnose IBD in boas. Inclusion bodies in lymphocytes, erythrocytes and thrombocytes were observed. In both, boas and pythons, we detected inclusion bodies within hepatocytes. We demonstrated also that IBD was more common in boas than in pythons: only samples from two Ball Pythons (Python regius) tested positive, whereas no other Pythonidae were positive. We consider that blood smears represents a rapid, non-invasive technique for detection of IBD. PMID:23045804

  9. ECIL guidelines for treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in non-HIV-infected haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Georg; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Pagano, Livio; Robin, Christine; Cordonnier, Catherine; Schellongowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in patients at risk of this infection. Diagnostic proof by bronchoalveolar lavage should not delay the start of treatment. Most patients with haematological malignancies present with a severe PCP; therefore, antimicrobial therapy should be started intravenously. High-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the treatment of choice. In patients with documented intolerance to this regimen, the preferred alternative is the combination of primaquine plus clindamycin. Treatment success should be first evaluated after 1 week, and in case of clinical non-response, pulmonary CT scan and bronchoalveolar lavage should be repeated to look for secondary or co-infections. Treatment duration typically is 3 weeks and secondary anti-PCP prophylaxis is indicated in all patients thereafter. In patients with critical respiratory failure, non-invasive ventilation is not significantly superior to intubation and mechanical ventilation. The administration of glucocorticoids must be decided on a case-by-case basis. PMID:27550993

  10. Research and development in haematology. A report on international congresses and visit to academic centres in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wood, L

    1990-01-01

    Haematology is one of the most rapidly expanding disciplines in medicine and nursing. As occurs in other highly specialised areas, optimum care is now largely of a multidisciplinary nature. In this context there are literally unlimited opportunities for the involvement of professional nurses and, as I have attempted to illustrate in this report, integration in all aspects of research and development and active participation in presentation of research data and discussion at international meetings is one direction in which fulfillment of academic aspirations can be achieved. It is my viewpoint, based on more than a decade of direct involvement in all the activities of our department in Cape Town that these are entirely attainable goals. There is currently, in our country, a concerted move afoot to develop an improved career structure for the professional nurse along the lines of the American clinical nurse specialist. Much of this experience overseas would strongly support that commitment. It was my privilege to enjoy the confidence of the department, university and medical school sufficient for me to present research data at international meetings and to be a welcome visitor at some of the world's premier academic and research institutions. That this was possible reflects the uncompromising commitment in Haematology to the position of the professional nurse as an integral and equal part of the multidisciplinary health care team. PMID:1977529

  11. A 10-year analysis of "revenues," costs, staffing, and workload in an academic medical center clinical chemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benge, H; Csako, G; Parl, F F

    1993-09-01

    From 1980 to 1990 we found progressive increases in workload (number of billable tests; 12.1% per year), staffing [number of full-time equivalents (FTEs); 5.6% per year], "revenues" (gross billings; 25.8% per year), and direct cost (12.9% per year) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of a large tertiary-care university medical center. The increase in direct cost was mainly attributable to an increase in salary cost (23.7% per year), whereas the impact of increasing "consumable" cost was relatively small (5.3% per year). In fact, after adjustment for inflation, the consumable cost was virtually unchanged or decreased during the 10-year study period. Initially, consumables represented about 60% of the direct cost, and the remaining 40% was for salaries. After 1982/83, however, the relative contribution of consumables and salaries to direct cost gradually reversed. Because the workload grew at a higher rate than staffing, the workload per FTE increased from 1980 to 1990. This was paralleled by gradual increases in both "revenue" per FTE and salary per FTE in actual dollars, but by lesser increases to no increases in inflation-corrected dollars. After adjusting for inflation with different indices, the direct cost per test, the consumable cost per test, and the salary cost per test either remained unchanged or decreased in the 1980s. The findings are discussed in the context of technical advancements in laboratory testing, nationwide shortages of medical technologists, and implementation of prospective fixed-fee reimbursement practices during the study period. PMID:8375047

  12. Brand of dipotassium EDTA vacuum tube as a new source of pre-analytical variability in routine haematology testing.

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, G; Lippi, G; Salvagno, G L; Montagnana, M; Poli, G; Solero, G P; Picheth, G; Guidi, G C

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the use of different dry K2 (dipotassium) EDTA vacuum tubes and whether or not they might represent a bias in haematological testing. Blood was collected in three dipotassium EDTA vacuum tubes from different manufacturers: Venosafe, Vacuette and Vacutainer. Samples were analysed on an Advia 2120i analyser. Significant differences among results and biases were compared with current quality specifications. Significant differences were found for haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet distribution width (PDW) when comparing Venosafe vs. Vacuette; for MCV, WBC and PDW when comparing Venosafe vs. Vacutainer; and for HCT and MCV when comparing Vacuette vs. Vacutainer. Clinically significant variations were observed for HCT and PDW in Venosafe vs. Vacuette; PDW in Venosafe vs. Vacutainer; and HCT and MCV in Vacuette vs. Vacutainer. The use of dipotassium EDTA vacuum tubes from different manufacturers represent a clinically relevant source of variation for HCT, MCV and PDW. PMID:23617091

  13. Age-associated and breed-associated variations in haematological and biochemical variables in young labrador retriever and miniature schnauzer dogs.

    PubMed

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Breed, sex and age effects on haematological and biochemical variables were investigated in 24 labrador retriever and 25 miniature schnauzer dogs during the first year of life. Blood samples were taken regularly between weeks 8 and 52. White blood cell and red blood cell counts, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, platelet count as well as total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatine and urea were evaluated. For all haematological and biochemical parameters, there were significant effects of age on test results. Statistically significant effects for breed and the breed×age interaction on test results were observed for most of the parameters with the exception of haemoglobin. Variations in test results illustrate growth related alterations in body tissue and metabolism leading to dynamic and marked changes in haematological and biochemical parameters, which have to be considered for the interpretation of clinical data obtained from dogs in the first year of life. PMID:27252875

  14. Age-associated and breed-associated variations in haematological and biochemical variables in young labrador retriever and miniature schnauzer dogs

    PubMed Central

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J.; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Schweigert, Florian J.; Zentek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Breed, sex and age effects on haematological and biochemical variables were investigated in 24 labrador retriever and 25 miniature schnauzer dogs during the first year of life. Blood samples were taken regularly between weeks 8 and 52. White blood cell and red blood cell counts, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, platelet count as well as total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatine and urea were evaluated. For all haematological and biochemical parameters, there were significant effects of age on test results. Statistically significant effects for breed and the breed×age interaction on test results were observed for most of the parameters with the exception of haemoglobin. Variations in test results illustrate growth related alterations in body tissue and metabolism leading to dynamic and marked changes in haematological and biochemical parameters, which have to be considered for the interpretation of clinical data obtained from dogs in the first year of life. PMID:27252875

  15. Physical complications in anorexia nervosa. Haematological and neuromuscular changes in 12 patients.

    PubMed

    Alloway, R; Shur, E; Obrecht, R; Russell, G F

    1988-07-01

    Of twelve patients consecutively admitted to the Maudsley Hospital Eating Disorders Unit, four had neuromuscular abnormality, eight haematological abnormality, and four no abnormality. All those having neuromuscular signs had concomitant haematological dysfunction. Vomiting, and food restriction with vegetarianism, appeared more likely to lead to complications than either food restriction alone or laxative abuse. The physical status of severely underweight patients admitted for refeeding needs to be carefully monitored. PMID:3224253

  16. Laboratory-based clinical audit as a tool for continual improvement: an example from CSF chemistry turnaround time audit in a South-African teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Imoh, Lucius C; Mutale, Mubanga; Parker, Christopher T; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Zemlin, Annalise E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Timeliness of laboratory results is crucial to patient care and outcome. Monitoring turnaround times (TAT), especially for emergency tests, is important to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of laboratory services. Laboratory-based clinical audits reveal opportunities for improving quality. Our aim was to identify the most critical steps causing a high TAT for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemistry analysis in our laboratory. Materials and methods A 6-month retrospective audit was performed. The duration of each operational phase across the laboratory work flow was examined. A process-mapping audit trail of 60 randomly selected requests with a high TAT was conducted and reasons for high TAT were tested for significance. Results A total of 1505 CSF chemistry requests were analysed. Transport of samples to the laboratory was primarily responsible for the high average TAT (median TAT = 170 minutes). Labelling accounted for most delays within the laboratory (median TAT = 71 minutes) with most delays occurring after regular work hours (P < 0.05). CSF chemistry requests without the appropriate number of CSF sample tubes were significantly associated with delays in movement of samples from the labelling area to the technologist’s work station (caused by a preference for microbiological testing prior to CSF chemistry). Conclusion A laboratory-based clinical audit identified sample transportation, work shift periods and use of inappropriate CSF sample tubes as drivers of high TAT for CSF chemistry in our laboratory. The results of this audit will be used to change pre-analytical practices in our laboratory with the aim of improving TAT and customer satisfaction. PMID:27346964

  17. Single- and Bayesian Multi-Marker Genome-Wide Association for Haematological Parameters in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Reyer, Henry; Trakooljul, Nares; Murani, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Haematological traits are important traits that show associations with immune and metabolic status, as well as diseases in humans and animals. Mapping genome regions that affect the blood cell traits can contribute to the identification of genomic features useable as biomarkers for immune, disease and metabolic status. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using PorcineSNP60 BeadChips. Single-marker and Bayesian multi-marker approaches were integrated to identify genomic regions and corresponding genes overlapping for both methods. GWAS was performed for haematological traits of 591 German Landrace pig. Heritability estimates for haematological traits were medium to high. In total 252 single SNPs associated with 12 haematological traits were identified (NegLog10 of p-value > 5). The Bayesian multi-marker approach revealed 102 QTL regions across the genome, indicated by 1-Mb windows with contribution to additive genetic variance above 0.5%. The integration of both methods resulted in 24 overlapping QTL regions. This study identified overlapping QTL regions from single- and multi-marker approaches for haematological traits. Identifying candidate genes that affect blood cell traits provides the first step towards the understanding of the molecular basis of haematological phenotypes. PMID:27434032

  18. Analysis of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children on haematological responses, morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Geerligs, Paul D. Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard J.; Eggelte, Teunis A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for beneficial effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis on haematological responses, morbidity, mortality, health service utilization and rebound immunity in children. As anaemia may play an important role in childhood mortality, it is important to assess evidence from controlled trials of the potential of chemoprophylaxis to reduce childhood anaemia. An analysis of trials found good evidence that malaria chemoprophylaxis improves mean haemoglobin levels and reduces severe anaemia, clinical malaria attacks, parasite and spleen rates. Significant reductions in outpatient attendance and hospital admissions have been achieved, and substantial evidence from Gambian studies shows reductions in mortality. Chemoprophylaxis in children does not seem to produce any sustained impairment of immunity to malaria, although rebound effects may be greater in children who receive prophylaxis during infancy. Short periods of targeted prophylaxis are likely to be preferable to continuous drug administration. Evidence of the protective efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children shows that this strategy could be considered within integrated health programmes for specific time periods. Intermittent routine combination therapy early in childhood may be appropriate for those living under holoendemic conditions. Large-scale studies over a number of years are needed to address this issue and the impact of this approach on health service utilization, mortality, and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. PMID:12764517

  19. Experiential relationship between malaria parasite density and some haematological parameters in malaria infected male subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    M, Eze Evelyn; Ezeiruaku, F C; Ukaji, D C

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the experiential relationship between the parasite density and haematological parameters in male patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection in Port Harcourt, Nigeria reporting to malaria clinics. A total of one hundred and thirty-six (136) male patients were recruited. QBC haematological analysis, QBC malaria parasite specie identification and quantification and thin blood film for differential leucocytes count was used. The mean values of the haematological parameters in each quartile of parasite densities were determined using Microsoft Excel statistical package. Regression analysis was employed to model the experiential relationship between parasite density and haematological parameters. All regression relationships were tested and the relationship with the highest coefficient of determination (R2) was accepted as the valid relationship. The relationships tested included linear, polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and power relationships. The X- axis of the regression graphs stand for the parasite density while Y-axis stands for the respective haematological parameters  Neutrophil count had a negative  exponential relationship with the parasite density and is related to the parasite density by a polynomial equation model: ynm = -7E-07x2 - 0.0003x + 56.685.The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.6140. This means that the rate of change of the parasitemia will depend on the initial value of the neutrophil. As the neutrophil increases, the parasitemia will tend to decrease in a double, triple and quadruple manner. The relationship between lymphocyte count, monocyte count and eosinophil count and parasite density was logarithmic and expressed by the following linear equation models: ylm = -2.371ln(x) + 37.296, ymm = 0.6965ln(x) + 5.7692 and yem = 0.9334ln(x) + 4.1718 in the same order. Their respective high coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.8027, 0.8867 and 0.9553. This logarithmic relationship means that each doubling of

  20. Clinical pathology alterations in pregnant and non-pregnant rats following scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Hmed Ben; Bolon, Brad; Hammami, Serria Turky; Sahnoun, Zouhier; Jamoussi, Kamel; Lahyani, Amina; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir

    2009-10-01

    Scorpion envenomation is a growing problem in many countries, especially among women and children. Existing diagnostic criteria are not sufficiently specific to allow antivenin administration in the absence of a confirmed scorpion sting. This study was performed to evaluate conventional haematological and serum chemical measurements as potential indices of scorpion envenomation. Adult, cycling nulliparous and near-term primiparous, white Wistar rats received a single subcutaneous injection of crude venom (600 µg/kg) from the Buthidae scorpion (Buthus occitanus tunetanus). All envenomed rats were observed for external signs and symptoms of toxicity until necropsy, which entailed terminal blood collection at either 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 hr after venom administration (n = 6 per reproductive state per time-point) for evaluation of selected clinical chemistry and haematological analytes. Control cohorts (matched for age and reproductive state) received saline injections subcutaneously and were necropsied at 0.5 hr. Almost all envenomed rats but no control animals displayed physical symptoms of intoxication, including agitation, mastication with hypersalivation, and/or vocalizing. Reproducible alterations in clinical pathology parameters were lacking in venom-treated rats regardless of reproductive status, although modest but significant Rho correlations suggested that mild haemoconcentration, haemolysis, renal function deficits and possibly coagulation difficulties developed over time. PMID:19663823

  1. Use of tunnelled catheters in haematological malignancy patients with neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Sariosmanoglu, N; Uğurlu, B; Turgut, N H; Demirkan, F; Ozsan, H; Ergor, G; Gulay, Z; Hazan, E; Oto, O

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study analysed 83 patients (age 45 +/- 17 years) with haematological neoplasms, implanted with 93 tunnelled catheters, who were neutropenic or developed neutropenia during treatment. Catheters were implanted in the right (n = 82) or left (n = 11) jugular vein by the same surgical team using the same technique. They remained in place for 124 +/- 88 days: 29% were removed due to infection; 18% due to treatment termination and 2% due to mechanical problems. Seventeen patients died with catheters in place. At 30, 60, 90, 120 and 200 days mean catheter duration rates were 82%, 75%, 65%, 60% and 35%, respectively, and freedom from catheter removal due to infection was 92%, 88%, 80%, 77% and 67%, respectively. Patient diagnosis and history of previous catheter infection did not increase catheter infection risk, but patients undergoing stem cell transplantation had an increased infection risk. Tunnelled catheters can be used in high-risk patients with neutropenia. Systemic infections can be managed in most patients without catheter removal. PMID:18831907

  2. Curriculum Design of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Haematology Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcaro, Pauline A.; Jackson, Denise E.; McLaughlin, Patricia M.; O'Malley, Cindy J.

    2016-06-01

    A common trend in higher education is the "flipped" classroom, which facilitates active learning during class. The flipped approach to teaching was instituted in a haematology `major' class and the students' attitudes and preferences for the teaching materials were surveyed. The curriculum design was explicit and involved four major components (1) the preparation of the students; (2) the weekly pre-class work; (3) the in-class active learning strategies and (4) closing the learning loop using formative quizzes. Each of these components is discussed in detail and was informed by sound pedagogical strategies. Several different sources of information and several freely available software tools to engage the students are discussed. Two iterations are reported here, with improved pass rate for the final examination from 47 to 48 % in the traditional class to 56-65 % in the flipped classroom approach. The majority of students (93 and 89 %) came to the class prepared, after viewing the screencasts and engaged fully with the activities within the face-to-face time. The students perceived that solving case studies (93 %) was the most beneficial activity for their learning and this was closely followed by the production of essay plans (71 %). The majority of students recommended that this approach be repeated the following year (69 and 75 %).

  3. A cluster of Candida krusei infections in a haematological unit

    PubMed Central

    Hautala, Timo; Ikäheimo, Irma; Husu, Heidi; Säily, Marjaana; Siitonen, Timo; Koistinen, Pirjo; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Koskela, Markku; Kujala, Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Background Candida krusei infections are associated with high mortality. In order to explore ways to prevent these infections, we investigated potential routes for nosocomial spread and possible clonality of C. krusei in a haematological unit which had experienced an unusually high incidence of cases. Methods We searched for C. krusei contamination of the hospital environment and determined the level of colonization in patients and health care workers. We also analyzed the possible association between exposure to prophylactic antifungals or chemotherapeutic agents and occurrence of C. krusei. The C. krusei isolates found were genotyped by pulsed-field electrophoresis method in order to determine possible relatedness of the cases. Results Twelve patients with invasive C. krusei infection and ten patients with potentially significant infection or mucosal colonization were documented within nine months. We were unable to identify any exogenic source of infection or colonization. Genetic analysis of the isolates showed little evidence of clonal transmission of C. krusei strains between the patients. Instead, each patient was colonized or infected by several different closely related genotypes. No association between medications and occurrence of C. krusei was found. Conclusion Little evidence of nosocomial spread of a single C. krusei clone was found. The outbreak may have been controlled by cessation of prophylactic antifungals and by intensifying infection control measures, e.g. hand hygiene and cohorting of the patients, although no clear association with these factors was demonstrated. PMID:17711592

  4. Haematological manifestations of human immune deficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vishnu, Prakash; Aboulafia, David M

    2015-12-01

    Early in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, infected patients presented to medical attention with striking abnormalities in each of the major blood cell lineages. The reasons for these derangements remain complex and multifactorial. HIV infects multipotent haematopoietic progenitor cells and establish latent cellular reservoirs, disturbs the bone marrow microenvironment and also causes immune dysregulation. These events lead to cytokine imbalances and disruption of other factors required for normal haematopoiesis. Activation of the reticulo-endothelial system can also result in increased blood cell destruction. The deleterious effects of medications, including first and second generation anti-retroviral agents, on haematopoiesis were well documented in the early years of HIV care; in the current era of HIV-care, the advent of newer and less toxic anti-retroviral drugs have had a more beneficial impact on haematopoiesis. Due to impaired regulation of the immune system and potential side effects of one or more anti-retroviral agents, there is also an increase in coagulation abnormalities such as thromboembolism, and less frequently, acquired disorders of coagulation including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, immune thrombocytopenic purpura and acquired inhibitors of coagulation. In this article we review the epidemiology and aetiology of select non-oncological haematological disorders commonly seen in people living with HIV-acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:26452169

  5. Haematological characteristics associated with parasitism in bream, Abramis brama orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi

    2014-12-01

    A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis). PMID:25320488

  6. Clinical Chemistry Reference Intervals for C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C3HeB/FeJ Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Otto, Gordon P; Rathkolb, Birgit; Oestereicher, Manuela A; Lengger, Christoph J; Moerth, Corinna; Micklich, Kateryna; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wolf, Eckhard; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although various mouse inbred strains are widely used to investigate disease mechanisms and to establish new therapeutic strategies, sex-specific reference intervals for laboratory diagnostic analytes that are generated from large numbers of animals have been unavailable. In this retrospective study, we screened data from more than 12,000 mice phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic from January 2006 through June 2014 and selected animals with the genetic background of C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, or C3HeB/FeJ. In addition, we distinguished between the C57BL/6NTac substrain and C57BL/6N mice received from other vendors. The corresponding data sets of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphate), lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride), and enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP, α-amylase) and urea, albumin, and total protein levels were analyzed. Significant effects of age and sex on these analytes were identified, and strain- or substrain- and sex-specific reference intervals for 90- to 135-d-old mice were calculated. In addition, we include an overview of the literature that reports clinical chemistry values for wild-type mice of different strains. Our results support researchers interpreting clinical chemistry values from various mouse mutants and corresponding wild-type controls based on the examined strains and substrains. PMID:27423143

  7. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  8. The prevention and management of infections due to multidrug resistant organisms in haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Trubiano, Jason A; Worth, Leon J; Thursky, Karin A; Slavin, Monica A

    2015-02-01

    Infections due to resistant and multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms in haematology patients and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are an increasingly complex problem of global concern. We outline the burden of illness and epidemiology of resistant organisms such as gram-negative pathogens, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and Clostridium difficile in haematology cohorts. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing the impact of these organisms are reviewed: infection prevention programmes, screening and fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. The role of newer therapies (e.g. linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline) for treatment of resistant and MDR organisms in haematology populations is evaluated, in addition to the mobilization of older agents (e.g. colistin, pristinamycin and fosfomycin) and the potential benefit of combination regimens. PMID:24341410

  9. Distillery effluent induced alterations in the haematological profile of fingerlings of Colisa fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anuradha; Shukla, J P

    2013-09-01

    Present study deals with the impact of Gorakhpur distillery effluent at various concentration levels (5, 10 and 20%) on the blood profile of fingerling of, Colisa fosciotus after 30 days of exposure. Observations revealed that 5% of effluent concentration produced no significant alterations in various haematological parameters except for clotting time and immature erythrocytes. However, 10% of effluent concentration brought significant alterations in hematocrit as well as clotting time and 20% of effluent concentration produced highly significant (P<0.001) alteration in most of the haematological parameters except for hemoglobin percentage. PMID:24558806

  10. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinical chemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...

  11. Facilitating Surveillance of Pulmonary Invasive Mold Diseases in Patients with Haematological Malignancies by Screening Computed Tomography Reports Using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n = 366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675

  12. Variation in haematological parameters in children less than five years of age with asymptomatic Plasmodium infection: implication for malaria field studies

    PubMed Central

    Gansane, Adama; Ouedraogo, Issa Nebie; Henry, Noelie Bere; Soulama, Issiaka; Ouedraogo, Esperance; Yaro, Jean-Baptiste; Diarra, Amidou; Benjamin, Sombie; Konate, Amadou Tidiani; Tiono, Alfred; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu

    2013-01-01

    During the season of high malaria transmission, most children are infected by Plasmodium, which targets red blood cells (RBCs), affecting haematological parameters. To describe these variations, we examined the haematological profiles of two groups of children living in a malaria-endemic area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the peak of the malaria transmission season in a rural area of Burkina Faso. After informed consent and clinical examination, blood samples were obtained from the participants for malaria diagnosis and a full blood count. Of the 414 children included in the analysis, 192 were not infected with Plasmodium, whereas 222 were asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium infection. The mean age of the infected children was 41.8 months (range of 26.4-57.2) compared to 38.8 months (range of 22.4-55.2) for the control group (p = 0.06). The asymptomatic infected children tended to have a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level (10.8 g/dL vs. 10.4 g/dL; p < 0.001), mean lymphocyte count (4592/µL vs. 5141/µL; p = 0.004), mean platelet count (266 x 103/µL vs. 385 x 103/µL; p < 0.001) and mean RBC count (4.388 x 106/µL vs. 4.158 x 106/µL; p < 0.001) and a higher mean monocyte count (1403/µL vs. 1192/µL; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Special attention should be applied when interpreting haematological parameters and evaluating immune responses in asymptomatic infected children living in malaria-endemic areas and enrolled in vaccine trials. PMID:23903982

  13. Detection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in haematological malignancy patients by using lateral-flow technology.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Christopher; Johnson, Gemma; Agrawal, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in haematological malignancy patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients(1). Detection of IPA represents a formidable diagnostic challenge and, in the absence of a 'gold standard', relies on a combination of clinical data and microbiology and histopathology where feasible. Diagnosis of IPA must conform to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycology Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus defining "proven", "probable", and "possible" invasive fungal diseases(2). Currently, no nucleic acid-based tests have been externally validated for IPA detection and so polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not included in current EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria. Identification of Aspergillus in histological sections is problematic because of similarities in hyphal morphologies with other invasive fungal pathogens(3), and proven identification requires isolation of the etiologic agent in pure culture. Culture-based approaches rely on the availability of biopsy samples, but these are not always accessible in sick patients, and do not always yield viable propagules for culture when obtained. An important feature in the pathogenesis of Aspergillus is angio-invasion, a trait that provides opportunities to track the fungus immunologically using tests that detect characteristic antigenic signatures molecules in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. This has led to the development of the Platelia enzyme immunoassay (GM-EIA) that detects Aspergillus galactomannan and a 'pan-fungal' assay (Fungitell test) that detects the conserved fungal cell wall component (1 →3)-β-D-glucan, but not in the mucorales that lack this component in their cell walls(1,4). Issues surrounding the accuracy of these tests(1,4-6) has led to the recent development of next-generation monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based assays that

  14. Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Haematological Malignancy Patients by using Lateral-flow Technology

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Christopher; Johnson, Gemma; Agrawal, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in haematological malignancy patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients1. Detection of IPA represents a formidable diagnostic challenge and, in the absence of a 'gold standard', relies on a combination of clinical data and microbiology and histopathology where feasible. Diagnosis of IPA must conform to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycology Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus defining "proven", "probable", and "possible" invasive fungal diseases2. Currently, no nucleic acid-based tests have been externally validated for IPA detection and so polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not included in current EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria. Identification of Aspergillus in histological sections is problematic because of similarities in hyphal morphologies with other invasive fungal pathogens3, and proven identification requires isolation of the etiologic agent in pure culture. Culture-based approaches rely on the availability of biopsy samples, but these are not always accessible in sick patients, and do not always yield viable propagules for culture when obtained. An important feature in the pathogenesis of Aspergillus is angio-invasion, a trait that provides opportunities to track the fungus immunologically using tests that detect characteristic antigenic signatures molecules in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. This has led to the development of the Platelia enzyme immunoassay (GM-EIA) that detects Aspergillus galactomannan and a 'pan-fungal' assay (Fungitell test) that detects the conserved fungal cell wall component (1 →3)-β-D-glucan, but not in the mucorales that lack this component in their cell walls1,4. Issues surrounding the accuracy of these tests1,4-6 has led to the recent development of next-generation monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based assays that detect

  15. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, β-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149

  16. Effect of VM-26 on the haematological responses of mice to L1210 leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, M.; Roberts, D.; Jackson, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    The haematological responses of BDF1 mice were monitored after i.v. or i.p. inoculation of L1210 leukaemic cells. Although a marked decrease in haematocrit was observed in mice given L1210 by either route, the anaemia was most pronounced after the i.p. route. The leucocyte count was more markedly increased after i.v. inoculation than after i.p. inoculation. The number of platelets decreased following either route, but was more depressed by i.v. inoculation. When mice were treated with VM-26 on Day 4 and i.p. inoculation of 10(6) L1210 cells, the haematological responses were altered. VM-26 prevented the accumulation of haemorrhagic ascites fluid and the precipitous decline in haemotacrit. However, the number of leucocytes increased dramatically, most significantly during the 48 h before death. VM-26 caused a temporary restoration of platelet count to near baseline levels. By the time of death, however, a second decrease in platelets had occurred. The results suggest that the haematological response of mice to L1210 leukaemic cells varies according to the route of inoculation, and that these tumour-induced haematological responses of the host can be modified by treatment with VM-26. PMID:7459207

  17. Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rossini, M; Blanco, P A; Marín, E; Comerma-Steffensen, S; Zerpa, H

    2012-02-01

    The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during post-laying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus in lithium heparin tubes. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), plasmatic protein (PP), haemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and differential leukocyte count were determined. Haematological values were: RBC 0.9×10(9)/L, WBC 5.7×10(9)/L, TC 5.4×10(9)/L, PCV 35.6%, PP 4.2g/dL, Hgb 11.8g/dL, MCV 411fL. The differential leukocyte count comprised: 71% heterophils, 23% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1.6% basophils, and 1% monocytes. The reports of reference haematology values for the wild P. expansa are limited; therefore, the results presented herein contrast with those values obtained in captivity. This study represents a contribution to the referential haematological values of the wild P. expansa. PMID:21122881

  18. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  19. Chemistry and biology of the potent endotoxin from a Burkholderia dolosa clinical isolate from a cystic fibrosis patient.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Flaviana Di; Sturiale, Luisa; Palmigiano, Angelo; Lembo-Fazio, Luigi; Paciello, Ida; Coutinho, Carla P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Bernardini, MariaLina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Garozzo, Domenico; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio

    2013-06-17

    This is the first report of the chemical and biological properties of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) endotoxin isolated from Burkholderia dolosa IST4208, an isolate recovered from a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient in a Portuguese CF center. B. dolosa is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of closely related species that are highly problematic and opportunistic pathogens in CF. B. dolosa infection leads to accelerated loss of lung function and decreased survival. The structural determination of its endotoxin was achieved using a combination of chemistry and spectroscopy, and has revealed a novel endotoxin structure. The purified LOS was tested for its immunostimulatory activity on human HEK 293 cells expressing TLR-4, MD-2, and CD-14. In these assays, the LOS showed strong proinflammatory activity. PMID:23733445

  20. The Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN): a new information strategy for population based epidemiology and health service research

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexandra; Roman, Eve; Howell, Debra; Jones, Richard; Patmore, Russell; Jack, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN) was established in 2004 to provide robust generalizable data to inform clinical practice and research. It comprises an ongoing population-based cohort of patients newly diagnosed by a single integrated haematopathology laboratory in two adjacent UK Cancer Networks (population 3·6 million). With an emphasis on primary-source data, prognostic factors, sequential treatment/response history, and socio-demographic details are recorded to clinical trial standards. Data on 8131 patients diagnosed over the 4 years 2004–08 are examined here using the latest World Health Organization classification. HMRN captures all diagnoses (adult and paediatric) and the diagnostic age ranged from 4 weeks to 99 years (median 70·4 years). In line with published estimates, first-line clinical trial entry varied widely by disease subtype and age, falling from 59·5% in those aged <15 years to 1·9% in those aged over 75 years – underscoring the need for contextual population-based treatment and response data of the type collected by HMRN. The critical importance of incorporating molecular and prognostic markers into comparative survival analyses is illustrated with reference to diffuse-large B-cell lymphoma, acute myeloid leukaemia and myeloma. With respect to aetiology, several descriptive factors are highlighted and discussed, including the unexplained male predominance evident for most subtypes across all ages. PMID:19958356

  1. Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.,Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A; Gibbons, Simon; Phillipson, J David

    2005-08-01

    This paper reviews the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties of Echinacea species used medicinally. The Echinacea species Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea have a long history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, particularly infections, and today echinacea products are among the best-selling herbal preparations in several developed countries. Modern interest in echinacea is focused on its immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. The chemistry of Echinacea species is well documented, and several groups of constituents, including alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives, are considered important for activity. There are, however, differences in the constituent profile of the three species. Commercial echinacea samples and marketed echinacea products may contain one or more of the three species, and analysis of samples of raw material and products has shown that some do not meet recognized standards for pharmaceutical quality. Evidence from preclinical studies supports some of the traditional and modern uses for echinacea, particularly the reputed immunostimulant (or immunomodulatory) properties. Several, but not all, clinical trials of echinacea preparations have reported effects superior to those of placebo in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. However, evidence of efficacy is not definitive as studies have included different patient groups and tested various different preparations and dosage regimens of echinacea. On the basis of the available limited safety data, echinacea appears to be well tolerated. However, further investigation and surveillance are required to establish the safety profiles of different echinacea preparations. Safety issues include the possibility of allergic reactions, the use of echinacea by patients with autoimmune diseases and the potential for echinacea preparations to interact with

  2. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alan F.; Hagey, Lee R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last 80 years there have been extraordinary advances in our knowledge of the chemistry and biology of bile acids. We present here a brief history of the major achievements as we perceive them. Bernal, a physicist, determined the X-ray structure of cholesterol crystals, and his data together with the vast chemical studies of Wieland and Windaus enabled the correct structure of the steroid nucleus to be deduced. Today, C24 and C27 bile acids together with C27 bile alcohols constitute most of the bile acid “family”. Patterns of bile acid hydroxylation and conjugation are summarized. Bile acid measurement encompasses the techniques of GC, HPLC, and MS, as well as enzymatic, bioluminescent, and competitive binding methods. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids results from vectorial transport of bile acids by the ileal enterocyte and hepatocyte; the key transporters have been cloned. Bile acids are amphipathic, self-associate in solution, and form mixed micelles with polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine in bile, and fatty acids in intestinal content during triglyceride digestion. The rise and decline of dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by the ingestion of 3,7-dihydroxy bile acids is chronicled. Scientists from throughout the world have contributed to these achievements. PMID:24838141

  3. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 2. Properties and Units in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences. VI. Properties and Units in IOC Prohibited Drugs (IFCC-IUPAC Recommendations 1997).

    PubMed

    Olesen, H; Cowan, D; Bruunshuus, I; Klempel, K; Hill, G

    1997-12-10

    The term designating a substance being an active ingredient of a drug may be a generic name, a nonproprietary name, a registered trade name, a fantasy name or other. This causes difficulties in the transmission of request and report on such substances to and from the clinical laboratories, and in the collating of this information from different sources. The document comprises a list of properties of drugs of abuse in biological fluids as defined by the International Olympic Committee Medical Code for use in electronic transmission systems. Standard systematic names are presented with a code value for each. The coding schemes thus prepared are accessible on Internet from C-NPU Home page address: http://inet.uni-c.dk/ qukb7642. PMID:9495577

  4. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  5. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  6. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...

  8. Annual, seasonal and individual variation in hematology and clinical blood chemistry profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, Florida.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ailsa J; Wells, Randall S; Sweeney, Jay C; Townsend, Forrest I; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Rhinehart, Howard L

    2007-10-01

    Hematology and clinical blood chemistry (HCBC) profiles in free-living bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, Florida have been monitored over a 14-year period. This long-term dataset includes samples from recaptured dolphins, enabling individual variation to be accounted for when investigating seasonal and annual variability. Four different laboratories carried out the assays and inter-laboratory comparisons found significant differences in 31 of 39 parameters measured. However, variability in comparable HCBCs by sex, age, condition, season and year could be investigated. Significant relationships with the independent variables were found for the majority of the HCBCs. Notable consistent seasonal differences included significantly elevated glucose and significantly lower creatinine concentrations in winter compared to summer. These differences may be due to energetic or thermoregulatory fluctuations in the animals by season and do not necessarily have any clinical significance. Erythrocyte counts were significantly lower in the winter, possibly also due to nutritional differences. Albumin and calcium levels in this population have increased significantly over the years of monitoring and consistently across seasons, being higher in the winter than the summer. Again, nutritional and thermal constraints seem to be the most likely environmental factors influencing these patterns. PMID:17524692

  9. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. I. Plasma cannabinoid and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations and clinical chemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Slikker, W; Paule, M G; Ali, S F; Scallet, A C; Bailey, J R

    1991-08-01

    This report is the first in a series about a large multidisciplinary study designed to determine whether chronic marijuana (MJ) smoke exposure results in residual behavioral and/or neuropathological alterations in the rhesus monkey. Prior to the initiation of a year of chronic MJ smoke exposure, 64 periadolescent male rhesus monkeys were trained for 1 year to perform five operant behavioral tasks and then divided, according to their performance in these tasks, into four exposure groups (n = 15-16/group): (1) a high dose (HI) group, exposed 7 days/week to the smoke of one standard MJ cigarette; (2) a low dose (LO) group, exposed on weekend days only to the smoke of a standard MJ cigarette; (3) an extracted MJ cigarette (EX) group, exposed 7 days/week to the smoke of one ethanol-extracted MJ cigarette; and (4) a sham group (SH), exposed 7 days/week to sham exposure conditions. Daily exposures for 1 year were accomplished using a mask that covered the subjects' nose and mouth. Average body weights (initially 3.7 +/- 0.5 kg, mean +/- SD) and rates of weight gain (approximately 0.1 kg/month) were the same for all groups throughout the entire experiment. During the first week of exposure, plasma concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC in the HI group were 59 +/- 7 (mean +/- SE) and 5.5 +/- 1.5 ng/ml, respectively, 45 min after MJ smoke administration and did not change significantly at similar times after exposure throughout the remainder of the year. Whole blood carboxyhemoglobin levels increased to approximately 13% 1 min after exposure to smoke in either the MJ or the EX groups. Comparison of blood chemistry and hematology values before, during, and after exposure indicated no differences for most parameters. During exposure, lymphocytes, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase were depressed in the HI group compared to in the SH group. During exposure, aspartate aminotransferase was elevated for both the HI and EX groups

  10. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  11. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Use of artificial intelligence in analytical systems for the clinical laboratory. IFCC Committee on Analytical Systems.

    PubMed

    Place, J F; Truchaud, A; Ozawa, K; Pardue, H; Schnipelsky, P

    1994-12-16

    The incorporation of information-processing technology into analytical systems in the form of standard computing software has recently been advanced by the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) both as expert systems and as neural networks. This paper considers the role of software in system operation, control and automation and attempts to define intelligence. AI is characterized by its ability to deal with incomplete and imprecise information and to accumulate knowledge. Expert systems, building on standard computing techniques, depend heavily on the domain experts and knowledge engineers that have programmed them to represent the real world. Neural networks are intended to emulate the pattern-recognition and parallel-processing capabilities of the human brain and are taught rather than programmed. The future may lie in a combination of the recognition ability of the neural network and the rationalization capability of the expert system. In the second part of this paper, examples are given of applications of AI in stand-alone systems for knowledge engineering and medical diagnosis and in embedded systems for failure detection, image analysis, user interfacing, natural language processing, robotics and machine learning, as related to clinical laboratories. It is concluded that AI constitutes a collective form of intellectual property and that there is a need for better documentation, evaluation and regulation of the systems already being used widely in clinical laboratories. PMID:7889593

  12. A chronic oral exposure of pigs with deoxynivalenol partially prevents the acute effects of lipopolysaccharides on hepatic histopathology and blood clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Cassandra; Reinhardt, Nicole; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Nossol, Constanze; Kahlert, Stefan; Panther, Patricia; Kluess, Jeannette; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Kuester, Doerthe; Brosig, Bianca; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-12-17

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, and deoxynivalenol (DON), a prevalent Fusarium-derived contaminant of cereal grains, are each reported to have detrimental effects on the liver. A potentiating toxic effect of the combined exposure was reported previously in a mouse model and hepatocytes in vitro, but not in swine as the most DON-susceptible species. Thus, pigs were fed either a control diet (CON) or a Fusarium contaminated diet (DON, 3.1mg DON/kg diet) for 37 days. At day 37 control pigs were infused for 1h either with physiological saline (CON_CON), 100μg/kg BW DON (CON_DON), 7.5μg/kg BW LPS (CON_LPS), or both toxins (CON_DON/LPS) and Fusarium-pigs with saline (DON_CON) or 7.5μg/kg BW LPS (DON_LPS). Blood samples were taken before and after infusion (-30, +30, +60, +120, and +180min) for clinical blood chemistry. Pigs were sacrificed at +195min and liver histopathology was performed. LPS resulted in higher relative liver weight (p<0.05), portal, periportal and acinar inflammation (p<0.05), haemorrhage (p<0.01) and pathological bilirubin levels (CON_CON 1.0μmol/L vs. CON_LPS 5.4μmol/L, CON_DON/LPS 8.3μmol/L; p<0.001). DON feeding alleviated effects of LPS infusion on histopathology and blood chemistry to control levels, whereas DON infusion alone had no impact. PMID:23123154

  13. Accreditation of medical laboratories in Croatia--experiences of the Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital "Merkur", Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Flegar-Mestrić, Zlata; Nazor, Aida; Perkov, Sonja; Surina, Branka; Kardum-Paro, Mirjana Mariana; Siftar, Zoran; Sikirica, Mirjana; Sokolić, Ivica; Ozvald, Ivan; Vidas, Zeljko

    2010-03-01

    Since 2003 when the international norm for implementation of quality management in medical laboratories (EN ISO 15189, Medical laboratories--Particular requirements for quality and competence) was established and accepted, accreditation has become practical, generally accepted method of quality management and confirmation of technical competence of medical laboratories in the whole world. This norm has been translated into Croatian and accepted by the Croatian Institute for Norms as Croatian norm. Accreditation is carried out on voluntary basis by the Croatian Accreditation Agency that has up to now accredited two clinical medical biochemical laboratories in the Republic of Croatia. Advantages of accredited laboratory lie in its documented management system, constant improvement and training, reliability of test results, establishing users' trust in laboratory services, test results comparability and interlaboratory (international) test results acceptance by adopting the concept of metrological traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:20437640

  14. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  15. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  16. Invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with haematological malignancies before routine use of conjugate vaccines in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Vesa; Aittoniemi, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Klemets, Peter; Ollgren, Jukka; Silvennoinen, Raija; Nuorti, J Pekka; Sinisalo, Marjatta

    2016-05-01

    The baseline national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence rate, serotype distribution and serotype coverage of pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and leukaemia within 1 year after haematological diagnosis during 1995-2002, before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pneumococcal serotype distribution among these patients was different from serotypes causing IPD in the general population. The serotype coverages of PCV13 and PPSV23 were 57% and 64%, respectively, lower than in the general population. This reflects a higher predisposition to IPD in vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies and possibly less benefit of herd immunity gained with the wide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the general population. This data will be useful as a baseline for determining the future role of adult PCV vaccination in these patient groups. PMID:26635103

  17. Normal haematology and blood biochemistry of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Lovely, C J; Pittman, J M; Leslie, A J

    2007-09-01

    Wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) of various size classes were captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood was collected from the post occipital sinus and used for the determination of a wide range of haematological and biochemical parameters. These values were compared between the sexes and between 3 size classes. The values were also compared with the limited data available from farmed Nile crocodiles, as well as from other wild Nile crocodiles. The Okavango crocodiles were comparatively anaemic, and had comparatively low total protein and blood glucose levels. There was a high prevalence of Hepatozoon pettiti infection, however, there was no significant difference in haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles. The values reported here will be useful in diagnostic investigations in both zoo and farmed Nile crocodiles. PMID:18237036

  18. Effects of ginseng extract on various haematological parameters during aerobic exercise in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, A; Vila, L; Voces, J A; Cabral, A C; Alvarez, A I; Prieto, J G

    1999-04-01

    The effects of the Ginseng extract on various biochemical and haematological parameters in male Wistar rats subjected to a treadmill exercise protocol were studied for 12 weeks. The results showed increases in the haematological parameters, these increases being greatest for the animals treated with the extract during the third month of the study. The exercise also led to increases in these parameters, while the combination of both exercise and extract produced smaller increases. This study shows a clear physiological response due to the ginseng extract administration that reproduces many of the effects obtained after long-term exercise. The combination of exercise and treatments seems to support the theory that there is no clear synergic effect when the advantages associated with the ingestion of ginseng are compared with the performance of exercise. PMID:10232085

  19. Oncology/haematology nurses: a study of job satisfaction, burnout, and intention to leave the specialty.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Linda; Yates, Patsy

    2002-01-01

    The impact of the current nursing shortage on the health care system is receiving attention by both state and federal governments. This study, using a convenience sample of 243 oncology/haematology nurses working in 11 Queensland health care facilities, explored factors that influence the quality of nurses' working lives. Although nurses reported high levels of personal satisfaction and personal accomplishment, results indicated that nearly 40% of registered nurses (RNs) are dealing with workloads they perceive excessive, 48% are dissatisfied regarding pay, and professional support is an issue. Furthermore, emotional exhaustion is a very real concern: over 70% of the sample experienced moderate to high levels. Over 48% of the sample could not commit to remaining in the specialty for a further 12 months. Health care managers and governments should implement strategies that can increase nurses' job satisfaction and reduce burnout, thereby enhancing the retention of oncology/haematology nurses. PMID:12136551

  20. Normal haematological and biochemical values for the swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Canfield, P J; Best, F G; Fairburn, A J; Purdie, J; Gilham, M

    1984-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 24 immature male, 55 immature female and 99 mature female water buffalo kept at an experimental farm in the Northern Territory. Haematological analysis was performed on blood collected in dipotassium--ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid while biochemical analysis was performed on serum and plasma (for glucose) samples. Haematological values of mature buffalo were similar to those recorded for swamp buffalo in Malaysia. Blood cell appearances were similar to those reported for adult Indian river buffalo though values recorded for red cell components were higher. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between immature male and female buffalo. Red cell components, eosinophils, total plasma and serum proteins, albumin, gamma globulins, inorganic phosphate and the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase were significantly higher for mature female buffalo when compared to immature females. Reasons for the differences were not fully determined but the effect of age and nutritional status in combination with a variable period of domestication were considered. PMID:6743148

  1. Effects of lichen extracts on haematological parameters of rats with experimental insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colak, Suat; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Aslan, Ali; Deniz, Gülşah Yıldız

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world is steadily increasing. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic haematological changes. Lichens are used as food supplements and are also used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. We hypothesized that antioxidant activity of lichens may decrease hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and prevent the development of diabetic complications, including abnormality in haematological condition. Therefore, the effects of Cetraria islandica water extract (CIWE) and Pseudevernia furfuracea water extract (PFWE) on the haematological parameters of rats with type 1 DM were investigated for the first time in the present study. Control Sprague-Dawley or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with water lichen extracts (5-500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 2 weeks, starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized and haematological and metabolic parameters were determined between control and experimental groups. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS), a specific indicator of oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by biochemical studies. In diabetic rats, CIWE of 250-500 mg/kg bw dose showed more prominent results when compared with doses of PFWE for TAC. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the antioxidant activities of lichens might be the possible reason behind the observed antihaematological status. However, the protective effect of lichen extracts were inadequate on diabetes-induced microcytic hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the extracts have no effect on metabolic complications. Our experimental data showed that high doses of CIWE and PFWE alone have no detrimental effect on blood cells and TOS status of plasma. Hence, they are safe and suitable for different administration routes. PMID:23114377

  2. Haematological values of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Audigé, L

    1992-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 91 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa), immediately after being shot, to define their mean haematological values (red cell count, white cell count, differential leucocyte count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, and mean cell haemoglobin concentration). Male deer had a significantly higher red cell count and haemoglobin concentration, and a lower mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin content, than did female deer. PMID:1288471

  3. British Society for Haematology, Slide session, Annual Scientific Meeting, Bournemouth, 2007.

    PubMed

    Bhavnani, M; Braithwaite, J; Burthem, J; Crotty, G; Gibson, B; Hutchinson, C; Jackson, G H; Layton, M; Lucas, G; Macartney, C; Matthey, F; Pardoe, L; Radia, D; Webb, S

    2008-04-01

    Eight cases discussed by experts at the 2007 Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society of Haematology are presented as at the meeting, with a discussion of the morphological features, digital information and differential diagnosis being followed by further information and a final diagnosis. Additionally, digital slides of two of the cases were available to be viewed by the internet with the opportunity for delegates to suggest diagnoses. PMID:18284418

  4. Candiduria in haematologic malignancy patients without a urinary catheter: nothing more than a frailty marker?

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Sarah P; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-05-01

    There is scarcity of data regarding significance of candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies and its association with invasive candidiasis. To that end, we retrospectively evaluated all hospitalised, non-intensive care unit patients with haematologic malignancies and candiduria during a 10-year period (2001-2011). To decrease the possibility of bladder colonisation and sample contamination, we excluded all patients with candiduria who had urinary catheters and those with concomitant bacteriuria. Twenty-four such patients (21 females) were identified, with median age at diagnosis 62 years (range, 20-82 years). Acute leukaemia was the most common underlying disease (54%); 62% of these cases were not in remission. Twenty-nine percent of the patients had diabetes mellitus and 25% were neutropenic. The most common isolated Candida species was Candida glabrata (37%), followed by C. albicans (29%). Only 8% of them had urinary tract infection symptoms. However, 88% received systemic antifungals. Candidemia and crude mortality rates at 4 weeks were low (4% and 12% respectively). Isolated candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies has risk factors similar to those in other hospitalised patients, and it does not seem to be a strong predictor of subsequent invasive candidiasis. PMID:23170870

  5. Utility of next-generation sequencing technologies for the efficient genetic resolution of haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Barbaro, P; Guo, Y; Alodaib, A; Li, J; Gold, W; Adès, L; Keating, B J; Xu, X; Teo, J; Hakonarson, H; Christodoulou, J

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has now evolved to be a relatively affordable and efficient means of detecting genetic mutations. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) or whole exome sequencing (WES) offers the opportunity for rapid diagnosis in many paediatric haematological conditions, where phenotypes are variable and either a large number of genes are involved, or the genes are large making sanger sequencing expensive and labour-intensive. NGS offers the potential for gene discovery in patients who do not have mutations in currently known genes. This report shows how WES was used in the diagnosis of six paediatric haematology cases. In four cases (Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, congenital neutropenia (n = 2), and Fanconi anaemia), the diagnosis was suspected based on classical phenotype, and NGS confirmed those suspicions. Mutations in RPS19, ELANE and FANCD2 were found. The final two cases (MYH9 associated macrothrombocytopenia associated with multiple congenital anomalies; atypical juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with a KRAS mutation) highlight the utility of NGS where the diagnosis is less certain, or where there is an unusual phenotype. We discuss the advantages and limitations of NGS in the setting of these cases, and in haematological conditions more broadly, and discuss where NGS is most efficiently used. PMID:25703294

  6. Effect of ellagic acid on some haematological, immunological and antioxidant parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Mişe Yonar, S; Yonar, M E; Yöntürk, Y; Pala, A

    2014-10-01

    In this study, effect of ellagic acid on some haematological, immunological and antioxidant parameters in the blood and various tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined. Four groups of rainbow trout were fed experimental diets containing either no ellagic acid (control) or supplemented with ellagic acid at 50 mg/kg diet (EA-50), 100 mg/kg diet (EA-100) or 150 mg/kg diet (EA-150) for 21 days. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidney and spleen) were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed for their haematological profile (the red blood cell count, the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit level), immune response (the white blood cell count, the oxidative radical production (NBT activity), the total plasma protein and total immunoglobulin level) and oxidant/antioxidant status (the malondialdehyde level, the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity as well as the reduced glutathione concentration). The findings of this study demonstrated that ellagic acid had a positive effect on the haematological parameters, the immune response and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. PMID:24401136

  7. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine; Sander, Mikael; Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2015-08-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP. PMID:25545030

  8. Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable. PMID:24140311

  9. KIR Genes and Patterns Given by the A Priori Algorithm: Immunity for Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Escobedo, J. Gilberto; García-Sepúlveda, Christian A.; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are membrane proteins expressed by cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The KIR system consists of 17 genes and 614 alleles arranged into different haplotypes. KIR genes modulate susceptibility to haematological malignancies, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases. Molecular epidemiology studies rely on traditional statistical methods to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. We have previously described our results by applying support vector machines to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. However, rules specifying which haplotypes are associated with greater susceptibility to malignancies are lacking. Here we present the results of our investigation into the rules governing haematological malignancy susceptibility. We have studied the different haplotypic combinations of 17 KIR genes in 300 healthy individuals and 43 patients with haematological malignancies (25 with leukaemia and 18 with lymphomas). We compare two machine learning algorithms against traditional statistical analysis and show that the “a priori” algorithm is capable of discovering patterns unrevealed by previous algorithms and statistical approaches. PMID:26495028

  10. Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study☆

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable. PMID:24140311

  11. Inherited disorders in the black population of southern Africa. Part I. Historical and demographic background; genetic haematological conditions.

    PubMed

    Beighton, P; Botha, M C

    1986-02-15

    Genetic, geographic and socio-economic diversity has resulted in disparity in the relative prevalence of many inherited disorders and congenital conditions in the populations of southern Africa. In the first section of a 3-part article an account is given of the historical and demographic background in relation to factors which influence the presence and frequency of faulty genes in the black community. In addition, inherited haematological conditions--in particular haemoglobinopathies, red-cell enzyme and membrane defects--are discussed in terms of their clinical, genetic and anthropological significance. The conditions transmitted by simple genetic mechanisms are documented in Part II, with discussion of those notable for their unusually high or low prevalence. In the final section multifactorial, chromosomal and non-genetic congenital disorders are reviewed and a number of unusual conditions of obscure aetiology are mentioned. In this 3-part overview an attempt has been made to document present knowledge and to provide a bibliography for inherited and congenital disorders in the black population. PMID:3485313

  12. Specificity of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody screening in patients with haematological malignancies at risk for fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Duettmann, Wiebke; Koidl, Christoph; Krause, Robert; Lackner, Gertrude; Woelfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Combination of mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody (Mn/A-Mn) testing has been reported a useful and specific strategy for diagnosis of invasive Candida infections (ICIs). We evaluated Mn/A-Mn as a screening tool in patients with haematological malignancies. This clinical prospective study was performed at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Graz, Austria between July and December 2012. Patients at risk for fungal infection were included into the study and twice weekly screened by Mn/A-Mn testing, yielding 650 samples. Of overall 67 patients 66 had no evidence for ICI. From those, 153/640 serum samples (23.9%) were positive for mannan Ab, and nine (1.4%) for Ag. Most false positive Ab results were observed among 375 samples from patients without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (34.9% resulted positive). Combined specificity of Mn/A-Mn was 74.8%. Of 10 samples obtained in the single patient with candidemia, five were positive for mannan Ag (from the day of diagnosis up to 40 days after detection of candidemia) and none for Ab. In conclusion, mannan Ab screening yielded a high number of false positive results. While mannan Ag was found to be highly specific and may have potential for diagnostic driven testing, mannan Ab testing cannot be recommended based on our study results. PMID:26916753

  13. ECIL guidelines for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Alanio, Alexandre; Hauser, Philippe M; Lagrou, Katrien; Melchers, Willem J G; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Matos, Olga; Cesaro, Simone; Maschmeyer, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Donnelly, J Peter; Cordonnier, Catherine; Maertens, Johan; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    The Fifth European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5) convened a meeting to establish evidence-based recommendations for using tests to diagnose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in adult patients with haematological malignancies. Immunofluorescence assays are recommended as the most sensitive microscopic method (recommendation A-II: ). Real-time PCR is recommended for the routine diagnosis of PCP ( A-II: ). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is recommended as the best specimen as it yields good negative predictive value ( A-II: ). Non-invasive specimens can be suitable alternatives ( B-II: ), acknowledging that PCP cannot be ruled out in case of a negative PCR result ( A-II: ). Detecting β-d-glucan in serum can contribute to the diagnosis but not the follow-up of PCP ( A-II: ). A negative serum β-d-glucan result can exclude PCP in a patient at risk ( A-II: ), whereas a positive test result may indicate other fungal infections. Genotyping using multilocus sequence markers can be used to investigate suspected outbreaks ( A-II: ). The routine detection of dihydropteroate synthase mutations in cases of treatment failure is not recommended ( B-II: ) since these mutations do not affect response to high-dose co-trimoxazole. The clinical utility of these diagnostic tests for the early management of PCP should be further assessed in prospective, randomized interventional studies. PMID:27550991

  14. A Chemical Proteomics Approach for the Search of Pharmacological Targets of the Antimalarial Clinical Candidate Albitiazolium in Plasmodium falciparum Using Photocrosslinking and Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Penarete-Vargas, Diana Marcela; Boisson, Anaïs; Urbach, Serge; Chantelauze, Hervé; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Fraisse, Laurent; Vial, Henri J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria which is one of the most prevalent and deadly infectious diseases in the world. The antimalarial therapeutic arsenal is hampered by the onset of resistance to all known pharmacological classes of compounds, so new drugs with novel mechanisms of action are critically needed. Albitiazolium is a clinical antimalarial candidate from a series of choline analogs designed to inhibit plasmodial phospholipid metabolism. Here we developed an original chemical proteomic approach to identify parasite proteins targeted by albitiazolium during their native interaction in living parasites. We designed a bifunctional albitiazolium-derived compound (photoactivable and clickable) to covalently crosslink drug–interacting parasite proteins in situ followed by their isolation via click chemistry reactions. Mass spectrometry analysis of drug–interacting proteins and subsequent clustering on gene ontology terms revealed parasite proteins involved in lipid metabolic activities and, interestingly, also in lipid binding, transport, and vesicular transport functions. In accordance with this, the albitiazolium-derivative was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi network of P. falciparum. Importantly, during competitive assays with albitiazolium, the binding of choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase (the enzyme involved in the last step of phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was substantially displaced, thus confirming the efficiency of this strategy for searching albitiazolium targets. PMID:25470252

  15. A chemical proteomics approach for the search of pharmacological targets of the antimalarial clinical candidate albitiazolium in Plasmodium falciparum using photocrosslinking and click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Penarete-Vargas, Diana Marcela; Boisson, Anaïs; Urbach, Serge; Chantelauze, Hervé; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Fraisse, Laurent; Vial, Henri J

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria which is one of the most prevalent and deadly infectious diseases in the world. The antimalarial therapeutic arsenal is hampered by the onset of resistance to all known pharmacological classes of compounds, so new drugs with novel mechanisms of action are critically needed. Albitiazolium is a clinical antimalarial candidate from a series of choline analogs designed to inhibit plasmodial phospholipid metabolism. Here we developed an original chemical proteomic approach to identify parasite proteins targeted by albitiazolium during their native interaction in living parasites. We designed a bifunctional albitiazolium-derived compound (photoactivable and clickable) to covalently crosslink drug-interacting parasite proteins in situ followed by their isolation via click chemistry reactions. Mass spectrometry analysis of drug-interacting proteins and subsequent clustering on gene ontology terms revealed parasite proteins involved in lipid metabolic activities and, interestingly, also in lipid binding, transport, and vesicular transport functions. In accordance with this, the albitiazolium-derivative was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi network of P. falciparum. Importantly, during competitive assays with albitiazolium, the binding of choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase (the enzyme involved in the last step of phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was substantially displaced, thus confirming the efficiency of this strategy for searching albitiazolium targets. PMID:25470252

  16. Dermatological Findings in Turkish Paediatric Haematology-Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Uksal, Umit; Ozturk, Pinar; Colgecen, Emine; Taslidere, Nazan; Patiroglu, Turkan; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Torun, Yasemin Altuner; Borlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diagnoses of skin, mucosae, hair and nail manifestations in malignant diseases are often challenging because of life-threatening drug reactions, opportunistic infections or skin involvement of primary processes. Description of morphology, configuration and distribution of lesions is important in order to differentiate the self-healing eruptions from serious side effects of chemotherapy. There are case reports from Turkey including dermatological manifestations of malignancies and case series in adult patients but there are no published large group studies assessing all manifestations in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological features of dermatological findings in children with haemato-oncological diseases. Materials and Methods: The study was performed at the Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Clinic, Turkey. Three dermatologists daily consulted all patients admitted to the clinic during a one-year period. Results: The study group comprised of 157 children (79 female/78 male) aged 1–16 years (mean 7.19±4.63). Detailed dermatological examinations were performed, including oral-genital mucosae, hair and nails. Thorough skin examination revealed that 70% of the patients exhibited at least one dermatological finding. Generalized xerosis and hyperpigmentation were the most common findings among patients undergoing chemotherapy (24.19%). Multiple nevi on at least 10 covered areas were very frequent among patients undergoing long-term chemotherapy (18.47%). Three were identified as dysplastic nevus, but malignant transformation was not observed during the one-year study period. Conclusion: Regular dermatological consultation may help resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic problems in paediatric haemato-oncology clinics. PMID:27551173

  17. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  18. Technetium chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-04-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  19. Orlando Magic: report from the 57th meeting of the American Society of Haematology, 5–7 December 2015, Orlando, USA

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The 57th American Society of Haematology (ASH) meeting held in Orlando, FL was certainly the year when myeloma management changed for good, with a plethora of newly Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs showing impressive outcome improvements and the introduction of new techniques for disease monitoring. Also, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells continued their triumphal march, consolidating their success in lymphoma and chronic lymhocytic leukaemia (CLL) and venturing into new fields such as again multiple myeloma. Some experimental drugs showed long-awaited results (midostaurin in FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)) and some brand new drugs showed promising results in the clinic after extensive preclinical studies, such as those targeting new epigenetic factors (histone methyltransferases) and apoptosis. PMID:26823681

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  1. Destined to die in hospital? Systematic review and meta-analysis of place of death in haematological malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Haematological malignancies are a common, heterogeneous and complex group of diseases that are often associated with poor outcomes despite intensive treatment. Research surrounding end-of-life issues, and particularly place of death, is therefore of paramount importance, yet place of death has not been formally reviewed in these patients. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was undertaken using PubMed to identify all studies published between 1966 and 2010. Studies examining place of death in adult haematology patients, using routinely compiled morbidity and mortality data and providing results specific to this disease were included. 21 studies were identified with descriptive and/or risk-estimate data; 17 were included in a meta-analysis. Results Compared to other cancer deaths, haematology patients were more than twice as likely to die in hospital (Odds Ratio 2.25 [95% Confidence Intervals, 2.07-2.44]). Conclusion Home is generally considered the preferred place of death but haematology patients usually die in hospital. This has implications for patients who may not be dying where they wish, and also health commissioners who may be funding costly end-of-life care in inappropriate acute hospital settings. More research is needed about preferred place of care for haematology patients, reasons for hospital deaths, and how these can be avoided if home death is preferred. PMID:20515452

  2. Characterisation of haematological profiles and whole blood relative gene expression levels in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves undergoing gradual weaning.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D; Kenny, D A; Kelly, A K; McCabe, M S; McGee, M; Waters, S M; Earley, B

    2016-09-01

    Haematological profiles indicate the health status of an animal and can be used to identify sub-clinical stress responses. The objectives of the study were to examine (i) the effect of breed and plane of nutrition, on haematological profiles of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves in response to gradual weaning, and (ii) the effect of breed on immune response genes in bovine whole blood using real-time quantitative PCR. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves were group housed indoors and individually fed using an automatic feeder. They were allocated to a high, medium or low plane of nutrition, based on milk replacer (MR) and concentrate. The nutrition treatments were calculated using National Research Council guidelines in order to achieve a high, medium or low growth rate for each respective breed. During the weaning phase MR was gradually reduced over a 14-day (d) period (d -13 to d 0). Calves were blood sampled on d -14, -6, -3, 0, 1, 3, 8 and 14 relative to weaning (d 0) for subsequent haematological analysis. On d -14, 1 and 8, a subset of eight Holstein-Friesian calves randomly selected from the medium nutrition treatment and eight Jersey calves randomly selected from the high nutrition treatment, were blood sampled for gene expression profiling, targeting biomarkers of weaning stress. These two treatment groups were chosen to examine the effect of breed on expression of the genes of interest, as energy intake and animal performance were similar. There was no effect of breed×plane of nutrition interaction nor effect of plane of nutrition on any variable measured (P>0.05). Gradual weaning produced differential biological responses in the two breeds evidenced by breed×time interactions for lymphocyte, monocyte and red blood cell number, plasma haemoglobin and haptoglobin concentrations (P<0.05). The typical stress response consisting of neutrophilia and lymphopaenia was not observed for any treatment. An immune response to gradual

  3. The role of European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase in standardization and harmonization of the preanalytical phase in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cornes, Michael P; Church, Stephen; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell; Guimarães, João T; Ibarz, Mercedes; Kovalevskaya, Svetlana; Kristensen, Gunn Bb; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Sprongl, Ludek; Sumarac, Zorica; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-09-01

    Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) was established to lead in standardization and harmonization of preanalytical policies and practices at a European level. One of the key activities of the WG-PRE is the organization of the biennial EFLM-BD conference on the preanalytical phase to provide a forum for National Societies (NS) to discuss their issues. Since 2012, a year after the first Preanalytical phase conference, there has been a rapid growth in the number of NS with a working group engaged in preanalytical phase activities and there are now at least 19 countries that have one. As a result of discussions with NS at the third conference held in March 2015 five key areas were identified as requiring harmonisation. These were test ordering, sample transport and storage, patient preparation, sampling procedures and management of unsuitable specimens. The article below summarises the work that has and will be done in these areas. The goal of this initiative is to ensure the EFLM WG-PRE produces work that meets the needs of the European laboratory medicine community. Progress made in the identified areas will be updated at the next preanalytical phase conference and show that we have produced guidance that has enhanced standardisation in the preanalytical phase and improved patient safety throughout Europe. PMID:27141012

  4. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in

  5. Haematological response of snow barbell, Schizothorax plagiostomus Heckel, naturally infected with a new Trypanosoma species.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Aamir; Ahmed, Imtiaz

    2016-09-01

    The present study deals with the description of a new piscine trypanosome species found infecting the fresh water fish Schizothorax plagiostomus Heckel from river Jhelum, Srinagar, J&K, India and evaluating the haematological parameters of the infected fish. Haematological examination of S. plagiostomus revealed 61.1 % infection with an intensity of 1-9 trypanosomes/100 RBC's. Small (26.9 ± 1.39 µm) and large (47.17 ± 3.50 µm) forms of the trypanosome were observed in light microscopy investigations, revealing the dimorphic nature of the species. The trypanosome species was found to be distinct from the other related dimorphic species in morphometric dimensions including cell length, cell breadth, kinetoplast index, flagellar index, and cytological peculiarities, respectively. The detailed descriptions of the two morphological forms found in the blood of S. plagiostomus are provided. Based on the geographical location, morphometrics, cytological peculiarities, host status and comparative study, the new species is named Trypanosoma kashmirensis n. sp. The parasitic infestation caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in red blood cell counts, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations while, the leucocyte (WBC) count, mean cellular volume and mean cellular haemoglobin showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the infected fish as compared to the non-infected. The above alterations of the haematological parameters could be used as an important tool for the indication of Trypanosoma infection in the fish. PMID:27605786

  6. Seasonal changes in haematology, lymphocyte transferrin receptors and intracellular iron in Ironman triathletes and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether 12 months of chronic endurance training would affect haematology, CD4(+) lymphocyte transferrin receptor (CD71) expression, CD4(+) intracellular iron and the incidence of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTI) in Ironman triathletes compared with untrained men. Resting venous blood samples were taken from 15 Ironman triathletes (TR 30 ± 5 year) and 12 untrained men (UT 30 ± 6 year) every 4 weeks for 12 months. Erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet concentration, haematocrit, haemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCHC) were measured with a full blood count. CD4(+) lymphocytes were analysed for changes in transferrin receptor (CD71) expression (CD4(+)CD71(+)), and intracellular iron (Fe(3+)), by flow cytometry. The TR group had significantly lower Hb, MCHC, and platelets for 10, 9 and 11 months, respectively; lower CD4(+)CD71(+) (3 months) and Fe(3+) (1 month), respectively; higher CD4(+)CD71(+) (1 month); a higher lymphocyte count for 4 months. There were no between-group differences in other variables. In both groups haematology and lymphocytes increased during spring, early summer and winter and decreased during late summer/late winter, with an inverse relationship between CD4(+)CD71(+) and Fe(3+). The TR group reported significantly fewer URTI than the UT. Low Hb and MCHC suggest an iron deficiency which may affect triathlete performance. Monthly changes in lymphocytes, CD4(+)CD71(+) and Fe(3+) suggested that spring, summer and late autumn are associated with CD4(+) proliferation. There may be seasonal relationships between haematology and lymphocyte function, independent of endurance training, possibly affecting performance but not the incidence of URTI. PMID:20821024

  7. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    PubMed

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. PMID:26806135

  8. Sex-related differences in the haematological effects of excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, D M; Chanarin, I; Macdermott, S; Levi, A J

    1980-01-01

    Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was measured at presentation in 320 hospital patients with a history of excessive alcohol consumption. The MCV of the 94 women thought to be actively drinking more than 80 g/day of alcohol was 101.3 fl compared with 96.7 fl in their male counterparts. Alcohol consumption, age, smoking habits, prevalence of inadequate diet, or serum and red cell folate levels did not differ significantly between men and women. It is suggested that MCV is a better indicator of excessive alcohol consumption in women than in men, and that women are more susceptible to the haematological toxicity of alcohol. PMID:7358858

  9. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  10. Haematological characteristics predicting susceptibility for ascites. 1. High carbon dioxide tensions in juvenile chickens.

    PubMed

    Scheele, C W; van Der Klis, J D; Kwakernaak, C; Buys, N; Decuypere, E

    2003-07-01

    1. Male broilers of two different genetic stocks, a pure broiler sire line (A) and commercially available Ross broilers (B), were used to study the effect of haematological characteristics in juvenile chickens on the development of clinical ascitic signs. Production performance (body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR)) from 448 birds per stock was measured from 2 to 5 weeks of age. Mortality was recorded from 2 to 6 weeks of age. The birds were housed at a low ambient temperature to stimulate the incidence of ascites. 2. From each stock, 32 birds with the highest (high risk: HRc) and 32 birds with the lowest (low risk: LRc) carbon dioxide tensions (pCO2) in venous blood were selected at 11 d of age. These birds were marked for future blood sampling to determine changes in pCO2 with age to relate these values to ascites susceptibility. 3. At 2 weeks of age all birds (including HRc and LRc birds) were allotted to 32 floor pens (one HRc and one LRc in each pen) per stock. Venous blood samples were collected weekly from HRc and LRc birds for blood gas analysis and haematocrit, and at week 5 also for thyroid hormone (T3, T4) concentrations in plasma. At 5 weeks of age all HRc and LRc birds were examined post-mortem, relative heart, lung, and liver weights and arterial pressure index (API) values were recorded. 4. Birds from stock A showed a lower BWG and FCR and notably higher ascites mortality compared with stock B. An effect of pCO2 tensions at d 11 was found on the incidence of ascitic signs in selected birds of both stocks up to week 5. From the HRc groups 30% of the birds showed ascitic signs, whereas this was only 8% in the LRc group. LRc birds of stock B in particular showed constant low API values (20 +/- 3%) and none of these birds showed signs of ascites. 5. Our results suggest that the ascites problem in Ross birds can be eliminated by selection for low pCO2 tensions in venous blood. Stock effects on API, liver weight, lung

  11. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  12. Changes of haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella exposed to monogenean parasites, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    PubMed

    Restiannasab, Abulhasan; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein; Saljoghi, Zoheir Shokouh

    2016-09-01

    The present was carried out to investigate the effects of monogenean infection on haematological indices of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some haematological indices were measured in two adult groups of grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) decreased significantly in infected fishes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the white blood cells (WBCs) values increased significantly in infected fishes (P < 0.05). In contrast, the WBC values increased significantly in infected fishes. In conclusion, our results showed that monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. can affects health condition of grass carp through alternation of haematology. PMID:27605756

  13. Bloodstream infections in children with cancer: a multicentre surveillance study of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology. Supportive Therapy Group-Infectious Diseases Section.

    PubMed

    Viscoli, C; Castagnola, E; Giacchino, M; Cesáro, S; Properzi, E; Tucci, F; Mura, R M; Alvisi, P; Zanazzo, G; Surico, G; Bonetti, F; De Sio, L; Izzi, G; Di Cataldo, A; Ziino, O; Massolo, F; Nardi, M; Santoro, N; Binda, S

    1999-05-01

    A one-year prospective, multicentre surveillance study on aetiology, main clinical features and outcome of bloodstream infections in children with cancer was conducted in 18 paediatric haematology centres belonging to the Italian Association for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology. A total of 191 bloodstream infections were reported during the study period. Of them, 123 (64%) occurred in neutropenic and 68 (36%) in non-neutropenic patients. Gram-positive cocci caused 45% (85/191) of the episodes, gram-negative rods 41% (78/191), and fungi 9% (18/191). The remaining 5% (10/191) of the episodes were poly-microbial infections. A total of 204 pathogens were isolated (46% gram-positive cocci; 44% gram-negative rods; and 10% fungi). The aetiologic distribution was similar among neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients. A correlation between the infection and the presence of an indwelling central venous catheter was found in 20% (23/114) of the episodes among neutropenic patients and in 55% (23/62) among non-neutropenic patients. Gram-negative micro-organisms were isolated in an unusually high proportion of catheter-related infections (48%). The overall mortality rate from any cause within 30 days from the first positive blood culture was 11%, and was higher among patients who were neutropenic at the onset of the infection than among those who were not neutropenic (15 versus 4%, P = 0.03). In addition, the mortality was significantly higher in recipients of bone marrow transplantation than in patients with acute leukaemia or solid tumour (21, 11 and 6%, respectively) and was also higher in fungaemias and poly-microbial infections (22 and 30%) than in single gram-positive and gram-negative bacteraemias (11 and 6%). PMID:10505037

  14. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells. PMID:22939910

  15. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  16. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  17. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  18. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  19. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  20. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  1. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  2. Monitoring environmental Aspergillus spp. contamination and meteorological factors in a haematological unit.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, M; Andreoni, S; Martinotti, M G; Rinaldi, M; Fracchia, L

    2013-12-01

    The opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Aspergillus genus are present in almost all seasons of the year, and their concentration is related to meteorological conditions. The high density of Aspergillus spp. conidia in a haematological hospital ward may be a significant risk factor for developing invasive fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the variability of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia contamination in a Haematological Unit (HU) within a period of 16 months in relation with some meteorological parameters. An environmental Aspergillus surveillance was conducted in the HU in four rooms and their bathrooms, in the corridor and in three external sites using an agar impact sampler. During each sampling, temperature and relative humidity at each site were recorded and current wind speed and rainfall events were taken from the official weather service. Aspergillus spp. conidia concentration differed significantly across the sampling sites. Internal Aspergillus spp. loads were significantly dependent on temperature, internal relative humidity and rain. External conidia concentrations were significantly influenced by outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A suitable indicator was introduced to evaluate the seasonal distribution of Aspergillus spp. conidia in the sampling sites, and a significant dependence on this indicator was observed inside the HU. Seventeen different fungal species belonging to the Aspergillus genus were detected during the sampling period. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated species and its distribution depended significantly on the seasonal indicator both inside and outside the hospital ward. PMID:24158616

  3. An experimental meat-free diet maintained haematological characteristics in sprint-racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy Y; Vanselow, Barbara A; Redman, Andrew J; Pluske, John R

    2009-11-01

    A dog's nutrient requirements can theoretically be met from a properly balanced meat-free diet; however, proof for this is lacking. Exercise places additional demands on the body, and dogs fed a meat-free diet may be at increased risk of developing sports anaemia. We hypothesised that exercising dogs would remain in good health and not develop anaemia when fed a nutritionally balanced meat-free diet. To this end, twelve sprint-racing Siberian huskies were fed either a commercial diet recommended for active dogs (n 6), or a meat-free diet formulated to the same nutrient specifications (n 6). The commercial diet contained 43 % poultry meal, whereas soyabean meal and maize gluten made up 43 % of the meat-free diet, as the main protein ingredients. Dogs were fed these diets as their sole nutrient intake for 16 weeks, including 10 weeks of competitive racing. Blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, 8 and 16, and veterinary health checks were conducted at weeks 0, 8 and 16. Haematology results for all dogs, irrespective of diet, were within normal range throughout the study and the consulting veterinarian assessed all dogs to be in excellent physical condition. No dogs in the present study developed anaemia. On the contrary, erythrocyte counts and Hb values increased significantly over time (P < 0.01) in both groups of dogs. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a carefully balanced meat-free diet can maintain normal haematological values in exercising dogs. PMID:19480731

  4. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cellular and Haematological Changes in Different Types of Caprine Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Jarikre, A T; Emikpe, O B; Ohore, G O; Akinremi, A T; Akpavie, O S

    2016-01-01

    Goats in the tropics are often reared under the traditional extensive and semi-intensive management systems. These and other factors influence the pattern of pneumonia complex in goats. We investigated the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) cellular changes and haematological response in different types of caprine pneumonia in Nigeria. Haematological indices and BALf cells were analysed from 300 goats randomly selected from 700 goats comprising different breed, age and body scores. The pneumonia status was well characterised using standard pathological tools. Data is summarized as Mean ± SEM and compared using non-parametric statistics at 5% significance. There was leukocytosis in the pneumonic animals. The overall lavage recovery rate was 55.5%. The differences in Haemoglobin concentration, and Lymphocyte-Neutrophil ratio were significant (p<0.05). BALf changes in the neutrophil, macrophage and eosinophil counts were significantly different (p<0.05). The diagnostic features including increased percentage neutrophils, Macrophage-Neutrophil ratio and eosinophils observed in BAL were reliable and also correlated positively to the pathological findings. BAL should be considered a component of the diagnostic approach to caprine pneumonia complex, as it may accurately aid diagnosis and identification of the causal organisms. PMID:27574761

  5. Clostridium difficile Infections amongst Patients with Haematological Malignancies: A Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Slimings, Claudia; Joske, David J. L.; Riley, Thomas V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Identify risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and assess CDI outcomes among Australian patients with a haematological malignancy. Methods A retrospective cohort study involving all patients admitted to hospitals in Western Australia with a haematological malignancy from July 2011 to June 2012. Hospital admission data were linked with all hospital investigated CDI case data. Potential risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. The risk of death within 60 and 90 days of CDI was assessed by Cox Proportional Hazards regression. Results There were 2085 patients of whom 65 had at least one CDI. Twenty percent of CDI cases were either community-acquired, indeterminate source or had only single-day admissions in the 28 days prior to CDI. Using logistic regression, having acute lymphocytic leukaemia, neutropenia and having had bacterial pneumonia or another bacterial infection were associated with CDI. CDI was associated with an increased risk of death within 60 and 90 days post CDI, but only two deaths had CDI recorded as an antecedent factor. Ribotyping information was available for 33 of the 65 CDIs. There were 19 different ribotypes identified. Conclusions Neutropenia was strongly associated with CDI. While having CDI is a risk factor for death, in many cases it may not be a direct contributor to death but may reflect patients having higher morbidity. A wide variety of C. difficile ribotypes were found and community-acquired infection may be under-estimated in these patients. PMID:27314498

  6. Functional effect of haemoglobin polymorphism on the haematological pattern of Gentile di Puglia sheep.

    PubMed

    Pieragostini, E; Rubino, G; Bramante, G; Rullo, R; Petazzi, F; Caroli, A

    2006-04-01

    The relationship between haemoglobin polymorphism and haematological pattern were studied in Gentile di Puglia, the Apulia Merino native breed. In a sample of 292 individuals, on five different farms, alpha- and beta-globin genetic polymorphism was investigated. A remarkable polymorphism was detected especially at alpha-globin gene where the variations concerned both the quality of the gene product and gene expression. Triplicated and quadruplicated alpha-globin genes were observed in 8.6% and 1.2% of the alpha-haplotypes respectively. At beta-globin (HBB) locus, predominance of HBB(B) allele was found in all flocks, while HBB(A) overall frequency was around 11.2%. Moreover, the effect of genotypes at globin systems on haematological data was evaluated on 289 animals. A significant effect was detected for HBB locus on haematocrit (HCT) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), with decreasing HCT and MCV for decreasing number of HBB(A) alleles in the genotype. The opposite trend was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. The advances presented by this paper give reasons for inferring that BB genotypes can be expected to be more resilient to climatic stress and to local parasites. PMID:16533366

  7. Inside the Redbox: applications of haematology in wildlife monitoring and ecosystem health assessment.

    PubMed

    Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Figuerola, Jordi; Martínez-Silvestre, Albert; Viscor, Ginés; Ferrari, Nicola; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-05-01

    Blood analyses have great potential in studies of ecology, ecotoxicology and veterinary science in wild vertebrates based on advances in human and domestic animal medicine. The major caveat for field researchers, however, is that the 'rules' for human or domestic animal haematology do not always apply to wildlife. The present overview shows the strengths and limitations of blood analyses in wild vertebrates, and proposes a standardisation of pre-analytical procedures plus some suggestions for a more systematic examination of blood smears to increase the diagnostic value of blood data. By discussing the common problems that field researchers face with blood variables, we also aim to highlight common ground enabling new researchers in the field to accurately collect blood samples and interpret and place their haematological findings into the overall picture of an ecological or eco-toxicological study. Besides showing the practicality and ecological relevance of simple blood variables, this study illustrates the suitability of blood samples for the application of cutting-edge analytical procedures for expanding the current repertoire of diagnostic tools in wildlife monitoring and ecosystem health assessment. PMID:25668285

  8. Differences in incidence and trends of haematological malignancies in Japan and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Dai; Ito, Hidemi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katsumi, Akira; Nakamura, Shigeo; Tomotaka, Sobue; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of a malignant disease reflects the genetic and cumulative exposure to the environment of a population. Therefore, evaluation of the incidence and trends of a disease in different populations may provide insights into its aetiology and pathogenesis. To evaluate the incidence of haematological malignancies according to specific subtypes, we used population-based registry data in Japan (N = 125 148) and the United States (US; N = 172 925) from 1993 to 2008. The age-adjusted incidence of haematological malignancies in Japan was approximately one-half that in the US but has been increasing significantly, whereas no significant change was seen in the US [annual percent change (95% C confidence interval): Japan, +2·4% (1·7, 3·1); US, +0·1% (-0·1, 0·2)]. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) showed the largest differences in incidence, with the most remarkable differences observed for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, HL-nodular sclerosis, mycosis fungoides and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. HL and NHL are increasing substantially in Japan but not in the US, suggesting that environmental exposures, such as Westernization of the life style may be causing this increase. Differences in the incidence and trends for specific subtypes also showed a marked contrast across subtypes, which, in turn, may provide significant new insights into disease aetiology in the future. PMID:24245986

  9. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological parameters among third trimester pregnant women in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, A J; Adelaiye, A B; Igbokwe, V U

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy state in a woman's life is a unique state in terms of the desirable physiological changes and the exciting reversal of the changes soon after the termination of the pregnancy. It is considered essential that to guarantee a good feto-maternal outcome the attainment of optimum anthropometric and haematological parameters are key. Our study assessed the anthropometric and haematological changes and also looked at the relationship that exists between these parameters among pregnant women.We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study which considered 160 apparently healthy, singleton, third trimester pregnant women attending ANC at the State Specialist Hospital and 58 apparently healthy non-pregnant controls sourced from the Sokoto metropolis population. Each subject or control enrolled was contacted 3 times at 2 weekly intervals. And at each occasion they are assessed for changes in the anthropometric and haematological parameters. The response rate was 93.6% (3 pregnants and 11 controls were loss to follow up). The pregnant and control subgroups mean ages were 28.02 ± 6.81 years and 26.89 ± 5.84 years respectively (p = 0.265). Weekly weight gains of 0.48kg among the pregnant sub-group against 0.13kg obtained in the control group were recorded. BMI increase of about 0.19kg/m2 per week among the pregnant sub-group and only 0.05kg per week in the controls. 95% of the distribution of pregnant sub-group has haemoglobin and haematocrit of ≥8.9g/dL and ≥26% respectively. Among the pregnant sub-group, mean weekly haemoglobin and haematocrit drop of 0.24g/dL and 0.74% were respectively recorded. A steady rise in WBC was recorded but platelets counts dropped at an average of 5.04 x 103 /μL per week. A positive correlation between BMI and haemoglobin levels was observed (r > 0 and p < 0.05). No particular regularity in the relationship between BMI and WBC was noticed. We conclude that there was optimum weight gain and good haematological indices for

  10. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    PubMed

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. PMID:24894523

  11. Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  12. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722652

  13. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  14. Tropospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, V. A.; Chameides, W.; Demerjian, K. L.; Lenschow, D. H.; Logan, J. A.; Mcneal, R. J.; Penkett, S. A.; Platt, U.; Schurath, U.; Dias, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the background troposphere, the source region, and the transition regions are discussed. The troposphere is governed by heterogeneous chemistry far more so than the stratosphere. Heterogeneous processes of interest involve scavenging of trace gases by aerosols, cloud and precipitation elements leading to aqueous phase chemical reactions and to temporary and permanent removal of material from the gas phase. Dry deposition is a major removal process for ozone, as well as for other gases of importance in tropospheric photochemistry. These processes are also discussed.

  15. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  16. The impact of dietary protein intake on serum biochemical and haematological profiles in vervet monkeys.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Q; Veith, W J; Mouton, T

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of Westernised and traditional African diets on biochemical and haematological profiles in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Twelve adult male vervet monkeys bred at the Medical Research Council, all over 4 years of age and weighing more than 5 kg each, were divided into two groups of six individuals. These monkeys were raised on a standard in-house diet post-weaning, before they were fed for 8 weeks on diets containing milk solids (17.2%) or maize + legume (17.4%), as sources of high crude protein (+/- 3.5 g/kg). High protein diets had no significant effect on serum biochemical indices such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations (P > 0.10). However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations were significantly higher during week 8 (P < 0.05) for the maize + legume protein group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; P < 0.07), total protein (P < 0.0001), albumin (P < 0.02), and bilirubin (P < 0.003) were elevated in the milk solids group, while glucose levels were also significantly higher for the milk solids group (P < 0.05) between weeks 2 and 6. Elevated protein intake had no significant effect on haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBC), platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin levels and monocyte and neutrophil concentrations (P > 0.10). In contrast, serum lymphocyte levels were significantly raised in the maize + legume protein group (P = 0.03), whereas values for the haematocrit (P < 0.002), mean cell volume (MCV; P < 0.03) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC; P < 0.0001) were higher in the monkeys that were fed the milk solids. This investigation showed that the type of dietary protein that is consumed may well affect certain biochemical and haematological indices in vervet monkeys. Compared to the group that were given the traditional African food regime, the animals on the Western-type milk solids diet showed significant

  17. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  18. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  19. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

  1. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  2. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  3. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  4. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  5. Haematological profile in leprosy. Part II--Relationship to severity of disease and treament status.

    PubMed

    Karat, A B; Rao, P S

    1978-01-01

    321 adult male lepromatous leprosy patients were studied for relationship between haematological findings, severity of disease and duration of treatment. Significant changes were noticed in relation in haemoglobin concentration, serum vitamin B12 and serum folate levels, serum albumin and globulin. No significant changes were observed in serum iron levels in relation to disease and treatment status. With rising bacterial load, there was a trend towards lower haemoglobin concentration, higher vitamin B12 level and lowered serum folate levels. Serum albumin showed a significant decline, while serum globulin showed a significant rise. The findings are discussed in relation to replacement of bone marrow by lepromatous tissue as well as possible interference in the metabolism of haematinics by M. leprae. The exact mechanism of neurlogical deficit in leprosy in relation to deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid need to be further elucidated. PMID:651316

  6. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes. PMID:26623319

  7. Effect of acute exercise on some haematological parameters and neutrophil functions in active and inactive subjects.

    PubMed

    Benoni, G; Bellavite, P; Adami, A; Chirumbolo, S; Lippi, G; Brocco, G; Cuzzolin, L

    1995-01-01

    In this work we studied the possible effects of acute exercise on some haematological parameters and on some functions of neutrophils in seven active and six inactive subjects. Physical exercise (10 min on a cycle ergometer at a heart rate of 150 beats.min-1) induced a significant increase in total leucocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil concentrations in active subjects; serum iron and ferritin concentrations were lower in active compared to inactive subjects. Cellular adhesion, bactericidal activity and superoxide anion production did not change after exercise, while we also observed some differences between active and inactive subjects before exercise. In particular, the neutrophils from active subjects showed a significantly higher percentage of adhesion, higher bactericidal activity and lower superoxide anion production. In conclusion, the training induced changes in some neutrophil functions, while acute exercise influenced, overall, leucocyte concentrations. PMID:7768243

  8. Haematological parameters in Umbrina cirrosa (Teleostei, Sciaenidae): a comparison between diploid and triploid specimens.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Loriano; Dall'Oro, Manuela; Bertotto, Daniela; Libertini, Angelo; Francescon, Antonia; Barbaro, Alvise

    2004-05-01

    Haematological features were compared between diploid and triploid specimens of the ray-finned fish Umbrina cirrosa. No significant differences between diploids and triploids were reported in haematocrit and total haemoglobin concentration, but erythrocytes and thrombocytes were significantly greater in size in triploids. Glycaemia was significantly lower in diploids, whereas triploid erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress. In triploids, a greater fraction of leukocytes was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, when stimulated with Bacillus clausii spores, otherwise no significant increase of oxygen consumption was observed in triploid leukocytes after stimulation, based on assays for superoxide anions. Triploids were characterized by a lower concentration of circulating blood cells with a lower surface/volume ratio when compared with diploids. These features may lead to a general disadvantage of triploids in withstanding stress conditions: a situation that needs to be taken into account in aquaculture practice. PMID:15165570

  9. Effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Han, Cen; Lei, Ji-Lin; Liu, Bao-Liang; Huang, Bin; Huo, Huan-Huan; Yin, Shu-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Nitrite (NO2(-)) is commonly present as contaminant in aquatic environment and toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish were exposed to various concentrations of nitrite (0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.8mM) for 96 h. Fish blood and gills were collected to assay haematological parameters, oxidative stress and expression of genes after 0, 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure. In blood, the data showed that the levels of methemoglobin (MetHb), triglyceride (TG), potassium (K(+)), cortisol, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose significantly increased in treatments with higher concentrations of nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) after 48 and 96 h, while the levels of haemoglobin (Hb) and sodium (Na(+)) significantly decreased in these treatments. In gills, nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) apparently reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), increased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), up-regulated the mRNA levels of c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JUK1), p53, caspase-3, caspase-7 and caspase-9 after 48 and 96 h of exposure. The results suggested caspase-dependent and JUK signaling pathways played important roles in nitrite-induced apoptosis in fish. Further, this study provides new insights into how nitrite affects the physiological responses and apoptosis in a marine fish. PMID:26476021

  10. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Girling, Simon J; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months - 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (≥3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base

  11. Haematological effects of multimicronutrient supplementation in non-pregnant Gambian women

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Ruchi; Bailey, Robin; Prentice, Andrew M.; Brabin, Bernard J.; Owens, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The use of multimicronutrient (MMN) supplementation to reduce the burden of anaemia in non-pregnant women of reproductive age has been little studied, particularly in Africa. The objective of the study was to evaluate haematological outcomes in non-pregnant, rural Gambian women of reproductive age, receiving daily MMN supplements for one-year. Subjects/Methods: The study in 293 women aged from 17 to 45 years old was nested within a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of periconceptional MMN supplementation [ISRCTN 13687662], using the United Nations International Multiple Micronutrient Preparation (UNIMMAP), received daily for one year or until conception. Red cell parameters and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration were measured at baseline and after 12-months in those women who did not conceive. Results: Anaemic women (haemoglobin concentration <12g/dL) were more likely to be older and in economic deficit at baseline. Mean change in haemoglobin concentration was +0.6±1.4g/dL in the intervention arm and −0.2±1.2g/dL in the placebo arm (p<0.001). After supplementation with MMN the relative risk of anaemia (<12g/dL) was 0.59 (0.46, 0.76) compared to placebo. Anaemic subjects at baseline showed an increase in mean haemoglobin from 10.6g/dL to 11.8g/L (p<0.001) after MMN supplementation. Conclusion: MMN supplementation should be considered as a strategy for improving the micronutrient and haematological status of non-pregnant women of reproductive age. PMID:19259112

  12. Recombinant erythropoietin in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment. PMID:12897214

  13. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for three species of hydrophiine sea snakes (Hydrophis curtus, H. elegans and H. peronii) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Amber K; Flint, Mark; Hulse, Lyndal; Hanger, Jon; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    This study presents the first set of comprehensive reference intervals (RIs) for plasma biochemistry and haematology for three species of sea snakes common to the Indo-Pacific waters of Australia. In total 98 snakes, composed of Hydrophis curtus (n= 60), H. elegans (n = 27) and H. peronii (n = 11), were captured, clinically examined and had venous blood samples collected. All snakes were deemed healthy and in good to excellent body condition with snout to vent lengths of 40.7-73.9 cm (H. curtus), 68.9-131.4 cm (H. elegans) and 55.0-83.0 cm (H. peronii), respectively. Lymphocyte numbers, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were species-dependent. All other parameters are presented as a single range for the three species. Gender ratio was evenly distributed for H. curtus and H. elegans, but 8/11 (73%) of H. peronii were males. No significant differences were detected between males and females for any of the measured blood parameters. Lymph contamination was considered and accounted for. Although only three species of sea snakes are represented in this study, the RIs generated may be useful in the clinical assessment of other sea snake species. PMID:25933825

  14. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  15. Safety of anticoagulation in the treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with haematological malignancies and thrombocytopenia: Report of 5 cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ming Sheng; Enjeti, Anoop K

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is relatively common among patients with haematological malignancies. Management is challenging because many of these patients are also thrombocytopenic and at increased risk of bleeding. Current recommendations regarding the treatment of VTE in thrombocytopenic patients with haematological malignancies are limited as there only few studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of anticoagulation in this population of patient. A literature review on the safety of antithrombotic therapy for treatment or prophylaxis of VTE in patients with haematological malignancies was undertaken. This includes a report on 5 patients with haematological malignancies at our institute who received enoxaparin for treatment of VTE while thrombocytopenic. Unlike previous case series which showed that the use of LMWH (low molecular weight heparin) is safe in this group of patients, major bleeding occurred in 2 patients, and was fatal in one case. More studies are required to evaluate the risk factors and safety of anticoagulation in these patients. PMID:27397486

  16. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  17. Medicinal chemistry for 2020.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-10-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  18. EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially ‘atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis. PMID:25052315

  19. The Effect of Cement Dust Exposure on Haematological Parameters of Cement Factory workers in Nalagonda, Andhra Pradesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guguloth, Mohan Rao.; Sambanaik, A.; srinivasnaik, L.; Mude, Jagadishnaik.

    2012-10-01

    This study was measured on haematological parameters in workers exposed to cement dust in order to test the the hypothesis and to identify a simple, readily available, cost effective screening test that could help in identifying the presence of disease, its severity, that Cement dust exposure may perturb these functions related to their workplace.Assesment of haematological parameters were performed in 100exposed workers occupationally exposed to cement dust and 50 matched unexposed controls with ages ranging from 20-35, 35-50, 50-65 years. The blood samples were taken from them and percentage of hemoglobin, Lymphocytes / monocytes count were analysed.The hemoglobin percentage of exposed workers were significantly lower(P<0.05).Lymphocytes/Monocytes counts of exposed workers was insignificant (P<0.05).These results suggest that long term occupational exposure to cement dust may perturb haemopoietic function.

  20. EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially 'atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis. PMID:25052315

  1. Functional and Biological Role of Endothelial Precursor Cells in Tumour Progression: A New Potential Therapeutic Target in Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was believed that vasculogenesis occurred only during embryo life and that postnatal formation of vessels arose from angiogenesis. Recent findings demonstrate the existence of Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs), which take partin postnatal vasculogenesis. EPCs are recruited from the bone marrow under the stimulation of growth factors and cytokines and reach the sites of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological conditions such as malignancies where they contribute to the "angiogenic switch" and tumor progression. An implementation of circulating EPCs in the bloodstream of patients with haematological malignancies has been demonstrated. This increase is strictly related to the bone marrow microvessel density and correlated with a poor prognosis. The EPCs characterization is a very complex process and still under investigation. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the functional and biological role of EPCs in haematological malignancies and to investigate their potential as a new cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26788072

  2. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  3. Changes in haematological profile of common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) induced by transit to pheasantry.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Vecerek, V; Pistekova, V; Chloupek, P; Suchy, P

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess haematological changes in hand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) transported from intensive housing facilities to a pheasantry. Selected haematological parameters were monitored in a group of 100 pheasants (50 males and 50 females) aged of 9 weeks that were transported for 4 hours by a covered lorry in crates, with a total body weight of 12 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C12 - floor space: 290 cm2/kg) and with a total body weight of 18 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C18 - floor space: 195 cm2/kg). Blood samples were taken from 10 randomly selected males and 10 females before transport (CON group) and 20 hours after transport (C12 and C18 groups). Examinations consisted in determining the total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin levels and differential leukocyte counts, whereby the proportions of heterophil, basophil and eosinophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of the total leukocytes were computed. The changes in the parameters of red blood cell count were manifested by an increase (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin level, MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) values and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the total erythrocyte count and haematocrit level in both C12 and C18 pheasants, when compared with the control group of non-transported pheasants. C18 pheasants exhibited also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MCV (mean cell value) value. When analyzing differential leukocyte counts, C18 pheasants showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in heterophil counts and H/L ratio, whereas values in C12 pheasants did not differ from the non-transported control group. Individual counts of lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.05) in C12 pheasants, whereas basophil counts were increased (P < 0.01) in both C12 and C18 pheasants. Total leukocyte count was decreased (P < 0.01) in C12 and C18 pheasants. In conclusion, the specific requirements of pheasants, as primarily wild animals, for the

  4. Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in haematology patients: long-term impact and early predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Lagier, D; Platon, L; Chow-Chine, L; Sannini, A; Bisbal, M; Brun, J-P; Blache, J-L; Faucher, M; Mokart, D

    2016-09-01

    Severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with haematological diseases expose clinicians to specific medical and ethical considerations. We prospectively followed 143 patients with haematological malignancies, and whose lungs were mechanically ventilated for more than 24 h, over a 5-y period. We sought to identify prognostic factors of long-term outcome, and in particular to evaluate the impact of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome in these patients. A secondary objective was to identify the early (first 48 h from ICU admission) predictive factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome severity. An evolutive haematological disease (HR 1.71; 95% CI 1.13-2.58), moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 1.81; 95% CI 1.13-2.69) and need for renal replacement therapy (HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.52-3.31) were associated with long-term mortality. Resolution of neutropaenia during ICU stay (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42-0.94) and early microbiological documentation (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.91) were associated with survival. The extent of pulmonary infiltration observed on the first chest X-ray and the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection were the most relevant early predictive factors of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:27418297

  5. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    PubMed Central

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80 ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitor givinostat: the small-molecule with promising activity against therapeutically challenging haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ganai, Shabir Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Histone acetyl transferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are counteracting epigenetic enzymes regulating the turnover of histone acetylation thereby regulating transcriptional events in a precise manner. Deregulation of histone acetylation caused by aberrant expression of HDACs plays a key role in tumour onset and progression making these enzymes as candidate targets for anticancer drugs and therapy. Small-molecules namely histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) modulating the biological function of HDACs have shown multiple biological effects including differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumour models. HDACi in general have been described in plethora of reviews with respect to various cancers. However, no review article is available describing thoroughly the role of inhibitor givinostat (ITF2357 or [6-(diethylaminomethyl) naphthalen-2-yl] methyl N-[4-(hydroxycarbamoyl) phenyl] carbamate) in haematological malignancies. Thus, the present review explores the intricate role of novel inhibitor givinostat in the defined malignancies including multiple myeloma, acute myelogenous leukaemia, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma apart from myeloproliferative neoplasms. The distinct molecular mechanisms triggered by this small-molecule inhibitor in these cancers to exert cytotoxic effect have also been dealt with. The article also highlights the combination strategy that can be used for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of this inhibitor in the upcoming future. PMID:27121910

  7. Minimal residual disease monitoring: the new standard for treatment evaluation of haematological malignancies?

    PubMed

    Hauwel, Mathieu; Matthes, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) refers to the small number of malignant cells that remain after therapy when the patient is in remission and shows no symptoms or overt signs of disease. Current treatment protocols for haematological malignancies allow most patients to obtain some form of MRD state, but cure seldom follows and in most cases fatal relapses occur sooner or later, leaving a bitter impression of having won a battle yet lost the war. MRD detection and quantification are used for evaluation of treatment efficiency, patient risk stratification and long-term outcome prediction. Whereas multicolour flow cytometry (MCFC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods constitute the two most commonly used techniques for MRD detection, next generation sequencing will certainly be widely employed in the future. As MRD reflects the nature of the malignant disease itself, including its sensitivity to the drug regimens applied, it constitutes the ideal method for surveillance and patient follow-up. The morphological examination of peripheral blood or bone marrow smears, although still an indispensable part of routine laboratory testing, is clearly insufficient for patient management, and clinicians should not ask themselves whether to look for MRD or not, but how and when. PMID:24452390

  8. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Eissa, F I; Zidan, N A

    2010-03-01

    The renal- and hepato-toxicity induced by abamectin pesticide (Vertimec) and a commercial form of a bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin) in male albino rats were evaluated. Blood picture and blood glucose level were investigated. Male albino rats were administered dietary doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/100 of the LD50 values of each toxicant for 30 consecutive days. Abamectin was found to pose risks of renal- and hepato-toxicity in rats, since the biochemical parameters of liver function (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase activity, alanine aminotransferase activity, acid phosphatase activity, albumin, and total protein levels) and kidney function (uric acid and creatinine concentration) were severely affected. These effects were verified by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. Likewise, some haematological indices (i.e. erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and haemoglobin concentration) were also influenced; in addition abamectin might cause hypoglycaemia. On the other hand, the above-mentioned lesions were less pronounced in the case of Bacillus thuringiensis -treated rats. PMID:20194097

  9. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia: Census of Patients Treated in Italian Haematology Units

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Gianfranco; Innocenti, Idanna; Autore, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by contacting the population of the Italian haematology units and collecting from 68% of them data concerning the number of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia visited over the previous 12 months, with the aim of obtaining an overview of the treatment of this disease and comparing the results with the prevalence estimates found in literature. The projection obtained (about 17,000 patients visited in the previous 12 months) is probably overestimated because of double-counting of patients who may have been treated at two different facilities during the year, although it is also underestimated since the internal medicine units were not involved. The balance of these two opposite factors is not known. It is important to bear in mind the approximation with which the count was performed in facilities for which no official data were available. Albeit with these limits, the results obtained are in line with some existing prevalence data and make it possible to determine the portion of patients at different Binet stages and in the various age ranges, identifying the corresponding therapeutic treatments. Use of the CIRS scale to classify patients as FIT and UNFIT was seen to be still somewhat limited. PMID:26543525

  10. Prenatal ultrasound heating impacts on fluctuations in haematological analysis of Oryctolagus cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    Md. Dom, Sulaiman; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal Ultrasound (US) is commonly used as a routine procedure on pregnant women. It is generally perceived as a safe procedure due to the use of non-ionizing radiation. However, the neurotoxicity of diagnostic prenatal US was detected to have a correlation with high susceptibility to early developing fetus. This research involved in vivo experimental model by using 3rd trimester pregnant Oryctolagus cuniculus and exposing them to US exposures for 30, 60, and 90 minutes at their gestational day (GD) 28-29. The output power and intensities, spatial peak temporal average intensity (ISPTA) of US were varied from 0.4 to 0.7 W and 0.13 to 0.19 W/cm2 respectively were tested initially in free-field, water. Haematological analysis was carried out to detect any changes in blood constituents. Statistically significant differences were detected in red blood cell (RBC) count (P<0.001), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (P<0.001) and also platelet (PLT) count (P<0.001) in newborn of Oryctolagus cuniculus. These findings indicate the possibility of US heating in causing defects on studied animal. PMID:24273744

  11. The psychosocial experience of adolescents with haematological malignancies in Jordan: an interpretive phenomenological analysis study.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Omar; Wynaden, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  12. Basic haematological values in antelopes--II. The Hippotraginae and the Tragelaphinae.

    PubMed

    Pospísil, J; Kase, F; Vahala, J; Mouchová, I

    1984-01-01

    Basic haematological values in 49 animals of five species of the subfamily Hippotraginae, namely the roan antelope Hippotragus equinus, sable antelope Hippotragus niger, adax antelope Addax nasomaculatus, gemsbok oryx Oryx gazella gazella and scimitar horned oryx Oryx damah and in 51 individuals of five species in the subfamily Tragelaphinae, including the bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptus, nyala Tragelaphus angasi, greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, cape eland Tautotragus oryx and bongo Bocercus euryceros are reported. The erythrocyte counts were in the range of 12.62 X 10(12)/l in the gemsbok oryx to 6.44 X 10(12)/l in the bongo, the haematocrit values varied from 0.488 in the nyala to 0.380 in the roan antelope and for the haemoglobin highest levels (164.0 g/l) were noted in the adax antelope, and the lowest (105.5 g/l) in the bongo. Leukocyte counts were found mostly in the normal human range and varied from 7.17 X 10(9)/l in the adax antelope to 4.05 X 10(9)/l in the nyala, only in the greater kudu decreased values of 3.02 X 10(9) were estimated. These results are compared with findings taken from the literature, and with the normal human range. PMID:6149054

  13. Chronic diclofenac (DCF) exposure alters both enzymatic and haematological profile of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ajima, Malachy N O; Ogo, Ogo A; Audu, Bala S; Ugwoegbu, Kyrian C

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals are used extensively in human and veterinary medicine to eradicate or prevent diseases. The residues of these drugs have been detected in aquatic ecosystem; nevertheless, their toxicological effects on Clarias gariepinus have not been critically investigated. In this study, the toxic effects of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, were studied in C. gariepinus by acute and chronic static renewable bioassay. The 96 h LC50 of DCF to C. gariepinus was 25.12 mg/L. Exposure to acute toxicity resulted in abnormal behavior and mortality of some fish. Compared with the control, chronic exposure of the fish to concentration (1.57, 3.14 and 6.28 mg/L) showed significantly higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cell (WBC), with significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) with increase in the concentration of the drug. Furthermore, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose values significantly increased while protein levels were reduced (p < 0.05) in serum and gills throughout the 42-day exposure period. The study reports that DCF-induced enzymatic and haematological changes in the fish and recommends that these parameters be used as potential biomarkers for assessing residual pharmaceuticals available in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:25367777

  14. Pregnancy-specific reference ranges for haematological variables in a Scottish population.

    PubMed

    Shields, R C; Caric, V; Hair, M; Jones, O; Wark, L; McColl, M D; Ramsay, J E

    2011-05-01

    Using laboratory reference ranges, B₁₂ deficiency is inappropriately diagnosed and treated in pregnancy. We aim to define reference ranges for ferritin, folate, haemoglobin and B₁₂ in a pregnant population with advancing gestation. A total of 190 women participated in a cross-sectional study, 113 in the 1st and 77 in the 3rd trimester. All variables studied except red cell folate, decreased significantly from the 1st to the 3rd trimester. A total of 34% (64/190) of women were found to have 'low' B₁₂ as defined by traditional ranges. In women with anaemia and apparent B₁₂ deficiency, co-existing ferritin deficiency was demonstrated. All women with 'low' B₁₂ levels were invited to attend postnatally for re-testing. A total of 28% (18/64) attended, in whom all B₁₂ levels spontaneously increased. The use of gestation specific reference ranges for haematological variables may reduce inappropriate diagnosis of B₁₂ deficiency. In most women with apparent low B₁₂ levels and anaemia, ferritin deficiency was demonstrated. Therefore iron should be the initial management therapy. PMID:21534746

  15. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia: Census of Patients Treated in Italian Haematology Units.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Gianfranco; Innocenti, Idanna; Autore, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by contacting the population of the Italian haematology units and collecting from 68% of them data concerning the number of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia visited over the previous 12 months, with the aim of obtaining an overview of the treatment of this disease and comparing the results with the prevalence estimates found in literature. The projection obtained (about 17,000 patients visited in the previous 12 months) is probably overestimated because of double-counting of patients who may have been treated at two different facilities during the year, although it is also underestimated since the internal medicine units were not involved. The balance of these two opposite factors is not known. It is important to bear in mind the approximation with which the count was performed in facilities for which no official data were available. Albeit with these limits, the results obtained are in line with some existing prevalence data and make it possible to determine the portion of patients at different Binet stages and in the various age ranges, identifying the corresponding therapeutic treatments. Use of the CIRS scale to classify patients as FIT and UNFIT was seen to be still somewhat limited. PMID:26543525

  16. Antifibrinolytics (lysine analogues) for the prevention of bleeding in people with haematological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Desborough, Michael; Brunskill, Susan J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Stanworth, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Background People with haematological disorders are frequently at risk of severe or life-threatening bleeding as a result of thrombocytopenia (reduced platelet count). This is despite the routine use of prophylactic platelet transfusions to prevent bleeding once the platelet count falls below a certain threshold. Platelet transfusions are not without risk and adverse events may be life-threatening. A possible adjunct to prophylactic platelet transfusions is the use of antifibrinolytics, specifically the lysine analogues tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA). This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytics (lysine analogues) in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 07 March 2016. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving participants with haematological disorders, who would routinely require prophylactic platelet transfusions to prevent bleeding. We only included trials involving the use of the lysine analogues TXA and EACA. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all electronically-derived citations and abstracts of papers, identified by the review search strategy, for relevancy. Two review authors independently assessed the full text of all potentially relevant trials for eligibility, completed the data extraction and assessed the studies for risk of bias using The Cochrane Collaboration’s ‘Risk of bias’ tool. We requested missing data from one author but the data were no longer available. The outcomes are reported narratively: we performed no meta-analyses because of the heterogeneity of the available data

  17. Effect of ceftazidime and gentamicin on the oropharyngeal and faecal flora of patients with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, D A; Gibbs, S; Price, C G; Easmon, S; Franklin, J; Lister, T A; Tabaqchali, S

    1990-09-01

    Thirty-four patients with haematological malignancies were studied to investigate the effect of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy (ceftazidime and gentamicin) on the gastro-intestinal flora. Twenty-five patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or post-autologous bone-marrow transplantation were given framycetin, nystatin and colistin (Fracon), and two patients with non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma were on co-trimoxazole, as long-term gut prophylaxis. Semi-quantitative microbiology was carried out on oropharyngeal swabs and quantitative microbiology on faecal specimens. The oropharyngeal flora consisted mainly of streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci and coryneforms, and was little affected by ceftazidime/gentamicin. A strain of Enterobacter cloacae resistant to ceftazidime and gentamicin colonized one patient, who later developed septicaemia. The faecal flora of patients on Fracon was dominated by enterococci; the few enterobacteria present were eliminated by ceftazidime/gentamicin. The anaerobic flora was absent in 15% of patients; in the remainder, it consisted mainly of Bacteroides spp., and was little affected by ceftazidime/gentamicin. The faecal flora of patients not on Fracon always contained anaerobes, and some strains of enterobacteria persisted throughout antibiotic treatment. None of the patients was colonized by Clostridium difficile or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Broad-spectrum therapy with ceftazidime and gentamicin appeared to have little effect on the gastro-intestinal flora, except to encourage the overgrowth of enterococci and reduce the numbers of enterobacteria. PMID:2228830

  18. The Psychosocial Experience of Adolescents with Haematological Malignancies in Jordan: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  19. Effect of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms, haematological and hormonal parameters in young women.

    PubMed

    El-Lithy, A; El-Mazny, A; Sabbour, A; El-Deeb, A

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on premenstrual symptoms, haematological and hormonal parameters in young women. A total of 30 participants aged 16-20 years and complaining of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) were randomly assigned into two groups: a control group received vitamin B6 and Ca supplements once daily and a study group received the same medical treatment and participated in treadmill training three times per week for 3 months. A premenstrual syndrome questionnaire (MSQ), complete blood picture and hormone assays were performed for the assessment of all participants at the start and after the end of the treatment course. The study group showed a significant decrease in all post-treatment subscale symptoms, scores and total score. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, red cell count and platelet count were significantly increased, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and white blood cell count showed no significant differences. There was also a significant decrease in prolactin, oestradiol and progesterone levels. In conclusion, aerobic exercise increases haemoglobin, haematocrit, red cell count and platelet count, and decreases levels of prolactin, oestradiol and progesterone, resulting in improvement of fatigue, impaired concentration, confusion and most premenstrual symptoms. PMID:25279689

  20. Tropospheric Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, V.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental processes that control the chemical composition and cycles of the global troposphere and how these processes and properties affect the physical behavior of the atmosphere are examined. The long-term information needs for tropospheric chemistry are: to be able to predict tropospheric responses to perturbations, both natural and anthropogenic, of these cycles, and to provide the information required for the maintenance and effective future management of the atmospheric component of our global life support system. The processes controlling global tropospheric biogeochemical cycles include: the input of trace species into the troposphere, their long-range transport and distribution as affected by the mean wind and vertical venting, their chemical transformations, including gas to particle conversion, leading to the appearance of aerosols or aqueous phase reactions inside cloud droplets, and their removal from the troposphere via wet (precipitation) and dry deposition.

  1. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  2. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, Gemma L; Estcourt, Lise J; Wood, Erica M; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004 and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. We have now split this review into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review is the first part of the original review. Objectives To determine whether a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given when patient bleeds) is as effective and safe as a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding, usually when the platelet count falls below a given trigger level) in patients with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent or treat bleeding in patients with malignant haematological disorders receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures

  3. Providing Relevance in Chemistry for Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Theodore H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an introductory chemistry course for nurses in which students learn basic chemical principles by performing 12 chemical analyses that are routinely conducted on body fluids and listed on a patient's clinical laboratory chart. (MLH)

  4. Approved IFCC recommendation on reporting results for blood glucose: International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Scientific Division, Working Group on Selective Electrodes and Point-of-Care Testing (IFCC-SD-WG-SEPOCT).

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Paul; Burnett, Robert W; Fogh-Andersen, Niels; Jacobs, Ellis; Kuwa, Katsuhiko; Külpmann, Wolf R; Larsson, Lasse; Lewenstam, Andrzej; Maas, Anton H J; Mager, Gerhard; Naskalski, Jerzy W; Okorodudu, Anthony O

    2006-01-01

    In current clinical practice, plasma and blood glucose are used interchangeably with a consequent risk of clinical misinterpretation. In human blood, glucose is distributed, like water, between erythrocytes and plasma. The molality of glucose (amount of glucose per unit water mass) is the same throughout the sample, but the concentration is higher in plasma, because the concentration of water and therefore glucose is higher in plasma than in erythrocytes. Different devices for the measurement of glucose may detect and report fundamentally different quantities. Different water concentrations in the calibrator, plasma, and erythrocyte fluid can explain some of the differences. Results for glucose measurements depend on the sample type and on whether the method requires sample dilution or uses biosensors in undiluted samples. If the results are mixed up or used indiscriminately, the differences may exceed the maximum allowable error for glucose determinations for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes mellitus, thus complicating patient treatment. The goal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Scientific Division, Working Group on Selective Electrodes and Point of Care Testing (IFCC-SD-WG-SEPOCT) is to reach a global consensus on reporting results. The document recommends reporting the concentration of glucose in plasma (in the unit mmol/L), irrespective of sample type or measurement technique. A constant factor of 1.11 is used to convert concentration in whole blood to the equivalent concentration in plasma. The conversion will provide harmonized results, facilitating the classification and care of patients and leading to fewer therapeutic misjudgments. PMID:17163827

  5. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  6. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  7. Impact of HPAI H5N1 infection on select blood chemistry and gas ranges in layers, broilers and turkeys using the i-STAT Clinical Analyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of poultry with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 typically results in mortality within six days of inoculation. However, the exact mechanisms that induce death are unknown, even as birds may die in the absence of overt clinical signs of disease. In human and many veterinary ...

  8. Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru.

    PubMed

    Juan, Jave Ortiz; Lopez Chegne, Nicholas; Gargala, Gilles; Favennec, Loic

    2002-01-01

    Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1-3 years) or 200 mg (age 4-11 years) twice daily for 3 days, albendazole as a 400-mg single dose and praziquantel as a 25-mg/kg single dose. Post-treatment parasitological examinations were carried out on 3 faecal samples, each collected on a different day between 21 and 30 days following initiation of treatment. Nitazoxanide cured 89% (25/28), 89% (16/18) and 82% (32/39) of the cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis respectively compared with 91% (32/35), 58% (11/19) and 96% (47/49) for the comparator drugs. Each of the drugs produced egg reduction rates in excess of 98%. There were no significant adverse events or abnormalities in haematology or clinical chemistry values or urinalysis. PMID:12055813

  9. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  10. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  11. Haematological malignancies and acute kidney injury requiring nephrology consultation: challenging the worst of the worst

    PubMed Central

    Chuva, Teresa; Maximino, José; Barbosa, Joselina; Silva, Sandra; Paiva, Ana; Baldaia, Jorge; Loureiro, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) often complicates the course of haematological malignancies (HMs) and confers a worse prognosis. The majority of these patients are managed by the attending physician, yet, a small group, mostly coincident with the worst presentation and outcomes, requires nephrology consultation, challenging the clinician with ethical issues regarding the decision to initiate or forgo renal support therapy. The purpose of this work is to identify the prognostic determinants for in-hospital mortality in this population. Methods A retrospective, observational chart review was undertaken at a single tertiary referral oncological centre. We reviewed the medical records of in-hospital patients with AKI and HM between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2014 who met the criteria for RIFLE (Risk, Injury, and Failure; and Loss; and End-stage kidney disease) classification of I or higher and were followed by a nephrologist. Results Three hundred and forty-five patients were included in the study. Predictors of in-hospital death in patients with HM and AKI were septic shock [odds ratio (OR) 4.290 (95% CI 2.058–8.943)], invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) [OR 4.305 (95% CI 2.075–8.928)] and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) [OR 2.232 (95% CI 1.260–3.953)]. The combination of each risk factor was used to estimate the probability of dying. Patients with all three risk factors had a risk of death of 86%. Conclusions Septic shock, IMV and allogeneic SCT were identified as independent predictors of death in patients with HM and AKI, with only a small chance of survival if all three were present. Depending on the combination of risk factors, the indication for aggressive life support therapies, such as RST, might be questionable. PMID:27274827

  12. Relevance of Haematologic Parameters in Obese Women with or without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Vijayashree; Gunasekar, Damini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is rapidly growing problem worldwide. It predisposes to a variety of serious ailments including heart disease, diabetes mellitus, degenerative joint disease, atherosclerosis, etc. This is probably related to proinflammatory state associated with obesity due to release of several inflammatory mediators by the adipose tissue. The mediators are also probably responsible for metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Besides, they may also induce significant changes in haematological parameters associated with inflammation. Aim Present study was undertaken to ascertain the relationship between obesity and leucocyte counts (particularly TLC and ANC) and find out if the changes induced in them are significant enough to be used as predictors of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods This case-control study was carried out on 243 female subjects allocated to four groups based on WHO and IDF criteria: Control, Overweight, Obese and Obese with Metabolic Syndrome. From all the subjects, data pertaining to obesity related anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels and complete blood counts were collected. These were analysed statistically. Results There was a strong positive correlation between obesity related anthropometric measurements (BMI, BF, WC) and leucocyte counts – TLC and ANC – which were statistically highly significant; TNC and ANC also showed strong positive correlation with FPG. Mean values for TLC and ANC showed statistically significant difference between each and every group. The difference in the mean values of these parameters between obese and metabolic syndrome was highly significant. Both elevated FPG and BMI were independently associated with relative leucocytosis; when both of them were elevated simultaneously, the effect appeared to be potentiating. Conclusion Increase in obesity associated anthropometric measurements (BMI, WC, BF) is associated with relative leucocytosis within the

  13. Comparison of respiratory virus shedding by conventional and molecular testing methods in patients with haematological malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, L.; Brite, J.; Del Castillo, M.; Childers, T.; Sheahan, A.; Huang, Y-T.; Dougherty, E.; Babady, NE.; Sepkowitz, K.; Kamboj, M.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory viruses (RV) are a leading cause of infection-related morbidity and mortality for patients undergoing treatment for cancer. This analysis compared duration of RV shedding as detected by culture and PCR among patients in a high-risk oncology setting (adult patients with haematological malignancy and/or stem cell transplant and all paediatric oncology patients) and determined risk factors for extended shedding. RV infections due to influenza virus, parainfluenza virus (PIV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from two study periods—January 2009–September 2011 (culture-based testing) and September 2011–April 2013 (PCR-based testing)—were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected from patients in whom re-testing for viral clearance was carried out within 5–30 days after the most recent test. During the study period 456 patients were diagnosed with RV infection, 265 by PCR and 191 by culture. The median range for duration of shedding (days) by culture and PCR, respectively, were as follows—influenza virus: 13 days (5–38 days) versus 14 days (5–58 days), p 0.5; RSV: 11 days (5–35 days) versus 16 days (5–50 days), p 0.001; PIV: 9 days (5–41 days) versus 17 days (5–45 days), p ≤0.0001; HMPV 10.5 days (5–29 days) versus 14 days (5–42 days), p 0.2. In multivariable analysis, age and underlying disease or transplant were not independently associated with extended shedding regardless of testing method. In high-risk oncology settings for respiratory illness due to RSV and PIV, the virus is detectable by PCR for a longer period of time than by culture and extended shedding is observed. PMID:26711433

  14. Haematological validation of a computer-based bone marrow reporting system.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, D T; Diamond, L W; Cavenagh, J D; Parameswaran, R; Amess, J A

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To prove the safety and effectiveness of "Professor Belmonte", a knowledge-based system for bone marrow reporting, a formal evaluation of the reports generated by the system was performed. METHODS: Three haematologists (a consultant, a senior registrar, and a junior registrar), none of whom were involved in the development of the software, compared the unedited reports generated by Professor Belmonte with the original bone marrow reports in 785 unselected cases. Each haematologist independently graded the quality of Belmonte's reports using one of four categories: (a) better than the original report (more informative, containing useful information missing in the original report); (b) equivalent to the original report; (c) satisfactory, but missing information that should have been included; and (d) unsatisfactory. RESULTS: The consultant graded 64 reports as more informative than the original, 687 as equivalent to the original, 32 as satisfactory, and two as unsatisfactory. The senior registrar considered 29 reports to be better than the original, 739 to be equivalent to the original, 15 to be satisfactory, and two to be unsatisfactory. The junior registrar found that 88 reports were better than the original, 681 were equivalent to the original, 14 were satisfactory, and two were unsatisfactory. Each judge found two different reports to be unsatisfactory according to their criteria. All 785 reports generated by the computer system received at least two scores of satisfactory or better. CONCLUSIONS: In this representative study, Professor Belmonte generated bone marrow reports that proved to be as accurate as the original reports in a large university hospital. The haematology knowledge contained within the system, the reasoning process, and the function of the software are safe and effective for assisting haematologists in generating high quality bone marrow reports. PMID:9215118

  15. Haematological and ion regulatory effects of nitrite in the air-breathing snakehead fish Channa striata.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

    2012-08-15

    The tolerance and effects of nitrite on ion balance and haematology were investigated in the striped snakehead, Channa striata Bloch 1793, which is an air-breathing fish with reduced gills of importance for aquaculture in South East Asia. C. striata was nitrite tolerant with a 96 h LC50 of 4.7 mM. Effects of sub-lethal exposures to nitrite (0mM, 1.4mM, and 3.0mM) were determined during a 7-day exposure period. Plasma nitrite increased, but the internal concentration remained well below ambient levels. Extracellular nitrate rose by several mM, indicating that a large proportion of the nitrite taken up was converted to nitrate. Nitrite reacted with erythrocyte haemoglobin (Hb) causing methaemoglobin (metHb) to increase to 30% and nitrosylhaemoglobin (HbNO) to increase to 10% of total Hb. Both metHb and HbNO stabilised after 4 days, and functional Hb levels accordingly never fell below 60% of total Hb. Haematocrit and total Hb were unaffected by nitrite. Although the effects of nitrite exposure seemed minor in terms of plasma nitrite and metHb increases, ion balance was strongly affected. In the high exposure group, total osmolality decreased from 320 mOsm to 260 mOsm, and plasma sodium from 150 mM to 120 mM, while plasma chloride fell from 105 mM to 60mM and plasma bicarbonate rose from 12 mM in controls to 20mM in exposed fish. The extreme changes in ion balance in C. striata are different from the response reported in other fish, and further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism behind the observed changes in regulation. PMID:22516674

  16. Haematological parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with leaf essential oil of Hoslundia opposita (Vahl)

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, N.O.; Akolade, J.O.; Usman, L.A.; Oloyede, O.B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf essential oil of Hoslundia opposita (Vahl) on the haematological parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Forty-eight albino rats (Rattus norvegicus), of average weight 132.5 g, were randomly selected into normal and diabetic groups, each with four sub-groups. The rats were treated with 110 and 220 mg/kg body weight (b. wt.) of the essential oil. 14.2 mg/kg body weight of metformin (Glucophage) was used as a reference drug. All treatments were administered, intraperitoneally, once a day for four days. Haematological parameters like haemoglobin (HGB), red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage lymphocytes (LYM) and neutrophils (NEU) were analysed. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the erythrocyte indices of all the normal (non-diabetic) rats, both treated and untreated. However, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the WBC count and a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the lymphocyte (LYM) percentages of the normal (non-diabetic) rats administered with higher dose of the essential oil. The results also revealed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the RBC counts of untreated diabetic rats and diabetic rats administered 110 mg/kg b. wt. of the oil respectively. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in the LYM of diabetic untreated rats was also observed, while administration of metformin and 110 mg/kg b. wt. Hoslundia opposita leaf essential oil (HOLEO) to diabetic rats significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the LYM percentages to values within range of the normal control animals. Overall, administration of the oil has significant ameliorative effect on alloxan-induced anaemia in diabetic state and this may be of immense benefits in the management of type 2 diabetes and its associated haematological complications.

  17. Alternative agents versus prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Gregg, Richard; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether alternative agents (e.g. artificial platelet substitutes, platelet-poor plasma, fibrinogen, rFVIIa, thrombopoietin mimetics) are as effective and safe as the use of platelet transfusions for the prevention of bleeding (prophylactic platelet transfusion) in patients with haematological disorders who are undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Antifibrinolytics (lysine analogues) will not be included in this review because they have been the focus of another Cochrane review (Wardrop 2013). PMID:25722650

  18. A Label-Free Porous Silicon Immunosensor for Broad Detection of Opiates in a Blind Clinical Study and Result Comparison to Commercial Analytical Chemistry Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Lisa M.; Kwong, Tai C.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n=50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA®) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was < 9% both within-run and between-day at and above the cutoff limit of 300 ng ml−1. This study validates the analytical screening capability of label-free PSi opiate immunosensors in authentic patient samples and is the first semi-quantitative demonstration of the technology’s successful clinical use. These results motivate future development of PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting. PMID:21062030

  19. [Use of translational database at clinical department].

    PubMed

    Højfeldt, Anne Dirks; Johnsen, Hans E; Bøgsted, Martin; Schmitz, Alexander; Fogd, Kirsten; Pilgaard, Linda; Nyegaard, Mette; Dybkaer, Karen; Bukh, Anne

    2010-07-12

    In haematology it is assumed that integrative analysis of global gene expression, protein and cell profiles as well as clinical data will lead to the development of new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive methods. A translational database system registering and combining all data and clinical observations about the patient is therefore needed. It is expected that along with automated prediction and prognosis tools, such a database system may have the potential to assist the development of new machine-based diagnostic decision-making processes. PMID:20615376

  20. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making Chemistry Studies More Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the…

  1. Putative clinical piroplasmosis in a Burchell's zebra (Equus quagga burchelli).

    PubMed

    Lampen, F; Bhoora, R; Collins, N E; Penzhorn, B L

    2009-12-01

    A 10-year-old tame zebra gelding was presented after suffering from lethargy, nervousness, reported anaemia and icterus as well as a decreased appetite. These symptoms were seen over some months, with changing severity. The animal was immobilised, treated, and blood specimens were submitted for haematology and biochemistry. This report describes molecular characterisation of Theileria equi recovered from this animal, as well as the clinical findings, treatment and historical relevance of piroplasmosis in zebra in southern Africa. PMID:20458869

  2. Baseline plasma corticosterone, haematological and biochemical results in nesting and rehabilitating loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta)

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Jennifer E.; Norton, Terry M.; Andrews, Kimberly M.; Nelson, Steven E.; Parker, Clare E.; Romero, L. Michael; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of hormonal responses to stress in reptiles relies on acquisition of baseline corticosterone concentrations; however, the stress associated with the restraint needed to collect the blood samples can affect the results. The purpose of this study was to determine a time limit for the collection of blood samples to evaluate baseline corticosterone, haematological and biochemical results in nesting (n = 11) and rehabilitating (n = 16) loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Blood samples were collected from the dorsal cervical sinus of each turtle immediately after touching the animal (t0; 0–3 min) and 3 (t3; 3–6 min), 6 (t6; 6–9 min; nesting turtles only), 10 (t10; 10–13 min) and 30 min (t30; rehabilitating turtles only) after the initial hands-on time. Consistent between the rehabilitating and nesting turtles, there was a subtle yet significant increase in white blood cell counts over time. Despite the fact that white blood cell counts increased during the sampling period, there was no direct correlation between white blood cell count and corticosterone in the sampled turtles. In the nesting turtles, significant elevations in corticosterone were noted between t0 and t3 (P = 0.014) and between t0 and t6 (P = 0.022). Values at t10 were not significantly different from those at t0 (P = 0.102); however, there was a trend for the corticosterone values to continue to increase. These results suggest that sampling of nesting loggerhead sea turtles within 3 min of handling will provide baseline corticosterone concentrations in their natural environment. Significant elevations in corticosterone were also noted in the rehabilitating loggerhead sea turtles between t0 and t10 (P = 0.02) and between t0 and t30 of sampling (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that sampling of loggerhead sea turtles within 6 min of handling should provide baseline corticosterone concentrations in a rehabilitation setting. The delay in

  3. Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin treatment on blood pressure and some haematological parameters in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Berglund, B; Ekblom, B

    1991-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with subcutaneous injections of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo), 20-40 IU kg-1 body weight, 3 times a week, on resting blood pressure, blood pressure response during submaximal exercise, some haematological parameters, and subjective side-effects in 15 healthy male subjects. RhEpo increased both haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) significantly, the values for Hb being 152 +/- 4.2 g l-1 before treatment and 169 +/- 9.3 g l-1 (mean values +/- SD) after 6 weeks of rhEpo treatment (P less than 0.001). The corresponding values for Hct were 44.5 +/- 1.5% and 49.7 +/- 1.9% (P less than 0.001), respectively. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values at rest were unchanged after rhEpo treatment. A marked increase in systolic blood pressure was observed during submaximal exercise at 200 W, the initial and final values being 177 +/- 14.2 mmHg and 191 +/- 19.5 mmHg (P less than 0.01), respectively. Heart rate during exercise at 200 W was significantly lower after rhEpo treatment than before it: 144 +/- 15 beats min-1 compared to 136 +/- 8 beats min-1 (P less than 0.001). The leucocyte count remained unchanged after rhEpo treatment, but there was a significant decrease (P less than 0.05) in the number of lymphocytes. Reticulocyte and platelet counts were unchanged. Serum (S) ferritin decreased from 87.3 +/- 41.8 mmol l-1 to 59.3 +/- 27.8 mmol l-1 after rhEpo treatment (P less than 0.001). Serum-Na, S-K, S-Ca, S-creatinine, S-bilirubin, S-aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), S-alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), and S-lactate dehydrogenase (LD) were unchanged after rhEpo treatment. No subjective side-effects were reported. In conclusion, low doses of rhEpo increased Hb levels and Hct by more than 10% after 6 weeks. Blood pressure at rest was unchanged, but rhEpo induced a markedly accentuated blood pressure reaction during exercise. A minor decrease in the lymphocyte count was observed

  4. Comparison of respiratory virus shedding by conventional and molecular testing methods in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L; Brite, J; Del Castillo, M; Childers, T; Sheahan, A; Huang, Y-T; Dougherty, E; Babady, N E; Sepkowitz, K; Kamboj, M

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory viruses (RV) are a leading cause of infection-related morbidity and mortality for patients undergoing treatment for cancer. This analysis compared duration of RV shedding as detected by culture and PCR among patients in a high-risk oncology setting (adult patients with haematological malignancy and/or stem cell transplant and all paediatric oncology patients) and determined risk factors for extended shedding. RV infections due to influenza virus, parainfluenza virus (PIV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from two study periods-January 2009-September 2011 (culture-based testing) and September 2011-April 2013 (PCR-based testing)-were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected from patients in whom re-testing for viral clearance was carried out within 5-30 days after the most recent test. During the study period 456 patients were diagnosed with RV infection, 265 by PCR and 191 by culture. The median range for duration of shedding (days) by culture and PCR, respectively, were as follows-influenza virus: 13 days (5-38 days) versus 14 days (5-58 days), p 0.5; RSV: 11 days (5-35 days) versus 16 days (5-50 days), p 0.001; PIV: 9 days (5-41 days) versus 17 days (5-45 days), p ≤0.0001; HMPV 10.5 days (5-29 days) versus 14 days (5-42 days), p 0.2. In multivariable analysis, age and underlying disease or transplant were not independently associated with extended shedding regardless of testing method. In high-risk oncology settings for respiratory illness due to RSV and PIV, the virus is detectable by PCR for a longer period of time than by culture and extended shedding is observed. PMID:26711433

  5. Is the combination of trueness and precision in one expression meaningful? On the use of total error and uncertainty in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kallner, Anders

    2016-08-01

    The performance of all measurement procedures used in routine clinical laboratories shall be verified; a minimum is to verify the precision and trueness of the results. This is well established and adequate recommendations and procedures are available. Conveying this information in a form that is adequate and understandable for the practical end-user in the health care sector is still a much debated issue. By tradition, since several decades, the "total error" (TE) is presented, a quantity that is the linear sum of an imprecision and bias. Since any combination of the two can yield the same TE it may not be very helpful in finding and correcting a root-cause for an unacceptable value. Also, an acceptable TE may hide an unacceptable level of its constituents. An alternative is the measurement uncertainty (MU), which is recommended by accreditation and standardizing bodies The MU separates the imprecision and bias and expresses an interval around a best estimate within which the true value is expected with a certain probability. We describe the reporting the best estimate of a measurement result and describe how the uncertainty of the result, can be calculated, using simple custom-made software. PMID:26812796

  6. Targeting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2, MK2): Medicinal Chemistry Efforts To Lead Small Molecule Inhibitors to Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Mario; Forli, Stefano; Manetti, Fabrizio

    2016-04-28

    The p38/MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2) pathway is involved in a series of pathological conditions (inflammation diseases and metastasis) and in the resistance mechanism to antitumor agents. None of the p38 inhibitors entered advanced clinical trials because of their unwanted systemic side effects. For this reason, MK2 was identified as an alternative target to block the pathway but avoiding the side effects of p38 inhibition. However, ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors suffered from low solubility, poor cell permeability, and scarce kinase selectivity. Fortunately, non-ATP-competitive inhibitors of MK2 have been already discovered that allowed circumventing the selectivity issue. These compounds showed the additional advantage to be effective at lower concentrations in comparison to the ATP-competitive inhibitors. Therefore, although the significant difficulties encountered during the development of these inhibitors, MK2 is still considered as an attractive target to treat inflammation and related diseases to prevent tumor metastasis and to increase tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. PMID:26502061

  7. Indications for allo- and auto-SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders: current practice in Europe, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sureda, A; Bader, P; Cesaro, S; Dreger, P; Duarte, R F; Dufour, C; Falkenburg, J H F; Farge-Bancel, D; Gennery, A; Kröger, N; Lanza, F; Marsh, J C; Nagler, A; Peters, C; Velardi, A; Mohty, M; Madrigal, A

    2015-08-01

    This is the sixth special report that the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation regularly publishes on the current practice and indications for haematopoietic SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders in Europe. Major changes have occurred in the field of haematopoietic SCT over the last years. Cord blood units as well as haploidentical donors have been increasingly used as stem cell sources for allo-SCT, thus, augmenting the possibility of finding a suitable donor for a patient. Continuous refinement of conditioning strategies has also expanded not only the number of potential indications but also has permitted consideration of older patients or those with co-morbidity for a transplant. There is accumulating evidence of the role of haematopoietic SCT in non-haematological disorders such as autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, the advent of new drugs and very effective targeted therapy has challenged the role of SCT in some instances or at least, modified its position in the treatment armamentarium of a given patient. An updated report with revised tables and operating definitions is presented. PMID:25798672

  8. Molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from haematological malignancy patients in a research hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirdar, S; Sener, A G; Arslan, U; Yurtsever, S G

    2010-06-01

    Infections and outbreaks of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) still appear to be rare in Turkey. In the present study, VRE strains isolated during an outbreak in a haematology unit of a training and research hospital in Turkey were typed and their antimicrobial-resistance patterns were characterized by molecular methods. Twelve vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from patients with haematological malignancies were investigated by PCR for the presence of genes encoding resistance to vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and erythromycin. Their clonal relationship was evaluated by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. All strains were resistant to vancomycin and erythromycin, and had the vanA and ermB genes, respectively. PFGE was used to determine the presence of two pulsotypes and determine their subtypes. Pulsotype A belonged to sequence type (ST) 17 and pulsotype B belonged to ST 78. All strains with the vanA gene were not the same clone, indicating multiple acquisitions of resistant isolates, even over such a short time period. PMID:20223901

  9. Preliminary study of the fungal ecology at the haematology and medical-oncology ward in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Normand, Anne Cécile; Diallo, Yacouba Lazarre; Dembelé, Abdoul Karim; Thera, Mahamadou A; Diallo, Dapa; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ranque, Stéphane

    2014-08-01

    Data on fungal epidemiology in sub-Saharan African countries are scarce. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the fungal flora at the Onco-Haematology ward of the National Teaching Hospital of Point G in Bamako, Mali. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dry and in the rainy seasons. Nasal swab and sputum samples were collected from the hospitalized patients while airborne fungal spores were collected using electrostatic dust-fall collectors. Fungi were identified by their morphological characteristics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Candida albicans was the most frequent yeast species colonizing patients; Aspergillus species were isolated in 86 % of the patients and were the main airborne environmental contaminants. Overall, airborne fungal contamination rates increased from 33.8 % in the dry to 66.2 % in the rainy season (p < 0.001). The most frequent Aspergillus species were Aspergillus niger (36.6 %) and Aspergillus flavus (32.92 %). In contrast, Aspergillus fumigatus (5.43 %) was relatively rare. This high level of fungal exposure raises concern regarding the management of at-risk patients in this Onco-Haematology ward and stresses the need for strengthening the mycological diagnostic capacities to accompany the implementation of adapted fungal infection prevention and management policies. PMID:24889723

  10. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Blanco, Patricia; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews; this review compares different platelet transfusion doses. Objectives To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy with or without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with malignant haematological disorders or undergoing HSCT that compared different platelet component doses (low dose 1.1 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, standard dose 2.2 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, high dose 4.4 × 1011/m2 ± 25%). Data collection and analysis We used the standard

  11. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and previously updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review compares prophylactic platelet transfusion thresholds. Objectives To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6, 23 July 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with haematological disorders (receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT) that compared different thresholds for

  12. Assessment of haematological parameters in HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Emile, Ivan; Mutimura, Eugene; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; McGinn, Aileen P; Musiime, Stephenson; Muhairwe, Fred; Rutagengwa, Alfred; Dusingize, Jean Claude; Anastos, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although haematological abnormalities are common manifestations of HIV infection, few studies on haematological parameters in HIV-infected persons have been undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors assessed factors associated with haematological parameters in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve and HIV-uninfected Rwandan women. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal cohort. Setting Community-based women's associations. Participants 710 HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral-naïve and 226 HIV-uninfected (HIV−) women from the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study Assessment. Haematological parameters categorised as (abnormal vs normal) were compared by HIV status and among HIV+ women by CD4 count category using proportions. Multivariate logistic regression models using forward selection were fit. Results Prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb) <12.0 g/dl) was higher in the HIV+ group (20.5% vs 6.3%; p<0.001), and increased with lower CD4 counts: ≥350 (7.6%), 200–349 (16%) and <200 cells/mm3 (32.2%). Marked anaemia (Hb <10.0 g/dl) was found in 4.2% of HIV+ and none of the HIV− women (p<0.001), and was highest in HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (8.4%). The HIV+ were more likely than HIV− women (4.2 vs 0.5%, respectively, p=0.002) to have moderate neutropenia with white blood cells <2.0×103 cells/mm3 and 8.4% of HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 had moderate neutropenia. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (OR 0.87/kg/m2, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.93; p<0.001), CD4 200–350 vs HIV− (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.89 to 6.83; p<0.001) and CD4 <200 cells/mm3 vs HIV− (OR 8.09, 95% CI 4.37 to 14.97; <0.001) had large independent associations with anaemia. There were large independent associations of CD4 <200 cells/mm3 vs HIV− (OR 7.18, 95% CI 0.78 to 65.82; p=0.081) and co-trimoxazole and/or dapsone use (OR 5.69, 95% CI 0.63 to 51.45; p=0.122) with moderate neutropenia. Conclusions Anaemia was more common than neutropenia or

  13. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  14. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  15. A blood chemistry profile for lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1999-01-01

    A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.

  16. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  17. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  18. Chemistry for Potters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  19. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  20. Prolonged haematological toxicity from the hyper-CVAD regimen: manifestations, frequency, and natural history in a cohort of 125 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Gill, Saar; Lane, Steven W; Crawford, Julie; Cull, Gavin; Joske, David; Marlton, Paula; Mollee, Peter N; Prince, H Miles; Seymour, John F

    2008-09-01

    The hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) regimen has impressive efficacy in several haematological malignancies but is associated with considerable short-term haematological toxicity. Secondary myelodysplasia (MDS) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) also occurs. In this retrospective study, we also describe other prolonged haematological sequelae of this regimen. One hundred and twenty-five patients were treated with a median of six hyper-CVAD cycles and followed for a median of 28 months. Follow-up for cytopenias was censored at the next cytotoxic therapy. At 3 months post-therapy, 77 patients were evaluable. Cytopenias persisted in 59% of patients. Requirement for dose attenuation was the only factor significantly associated with persisting cytopenias (p<0.05). The median time to normalisation of counts for those with post-treatment cytopenias in the respective lineages was 9 months (range, 6-12) for anaemia, 6 months (range, 6-30) for neutropenia and 9 months (range, 6-30) for thrombocytopenia. MDS/AML was diagnosed in four patients at 4, 21, 24 and 37 months after therapy with a cumulative incidence rate of 4.43% at 4 years. These results indicate a considerable rate of prolonged haematological toxicity after hyper-CVAD and a modest rate of MDS at this limited follow-up. These findings likely reflect cumulative damage to haematopoietic stem cells. PMID:18401583

  1. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722651

  2. Chemistry and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Martyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Chemistry and Art project developed for secondary students and teachers sponsored by the National Gallery and The Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom. Discusses aspects of the techniques used in creating five paintings as well as the chemistry involved in their making, deterioration, conservation, and restoration.…

  3. Teaching School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, D. J., Ed.

    This eight-chapter book is intended for use by chemistry teachers, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and other key personnel working in the field of chemical education. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Face of Chemistry" (J. A. Campbell); (2) "Curriculum Innovation in School Chemistry" (R. B. Ingel and A. M. Ranaweera); (3) "Some…

  4. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  5. Environmental Chemistry Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackland, Thomas; And Others

    The authors of this curriculum supplement believe in a laboratory approach to chemistry and express the feeling that environmental chemistry provides the students an opportunity to apply theoretical chemistry to important practical problems. There are eighteen activities presented, each accompanied with behavioral objectives, one or more suggested…

  6. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

  7. Chemistry as General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…

  8. History of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, John W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)

  9. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf goats fed dried cassava leaves-based concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Sowande, Olusiji Sunday; Anele, Uchenna Young; Oni, Oluwakemi Oluremilekun; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma; Onifade, Olufemi Sunday; Yusuf, Kafayat Omowumi; Dele, Peter Aniwe; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi

    2012-03-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding different levels of dried cassava leaves at 0%, 20%, 40% and 60%, respectively, using guinea grass as basal feed, on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. The study lasted for 116 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored in 40 male goats before and after, using a completely randomized design. At the start of the experiment, packed cell volume (PCV) ranged from 21.5% to 25.5% while haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and RBC significantly (P < 0.01) ranged from 7.3 to 8.6 g/dl and 10.4 to 13.2 × 10(12)/l, respectively. White blood cells reduced significantly (P < 0.05)) from 16.4 to 11.7 × 10(9)/l) as dried cassava leaves increased in the diets. At the end of the trial, there was a slight increase in the values of PCV and Hb in the diets (P > 0.05). Lymphocyte reduced significantly (P < 0.05) from 50.0% to 63.5% in the diets. Neutrophils, however, increased (P > 0.05) at the 0% to 40% levels and reduced at the 60% level of dried cassava leaves inclusion. At the start of the experiment, values for glucose significantly (P < 0.05) ranged from 40.1 to 56.0 mg/dl. Total protein and albumin values ranged significantly (P < 0.05) from 56.0 to 68.5 g/dl and 30.6 to 38.4 g/dl, respectively. At the end of the experiment, serum creatinine increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of dried cassava leaves increased from 0% to 60% in the diets. The study revealed that inclusion of dried cassava leaves in the diets of West African Dwarf goats had no deleterious effects on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of WAD goats and could therefore be included in ruminant diets up to 60%. PMID:21744028

  10. School Chemistry vs. Chemistry in Research: An Exploratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habraken, Clarisse L.; Buijs, Wim; Borkent, Hens; Ligeon, Willy; Wender, Harry; Meijer, Marijn

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study exploring why students are not studying chemistry. Three groups of graduating high school students and their chemistry teachers stayed at a research institute working on molecular modeling and wrote essays on school chemistry versus chemistry in research. Concludes that school chemistry does not convey today's chemistry in…

  11. The effects of short term dietary restriction on haematological responses and leukocyte gene expression of anovulatory and ovulatory beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Daragh; Waters, Sinéad M; Diskin, Michael G; Kenny, David A; Morris, Dermot G; Earley, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    The study objective was to characterise the impact of negative energy balance (NEB) on immune-stress responsiveness in beef heifers. A short term (18-day) dietary restriction model was used. Dietary restriction (0.4 maintenance (Mn) energy requirements) induced abrupt onset of anoestrus in nine heifers (Restricted Anovulatory; RA) while nineteen heifers maintained oestrous cyclicity (Restricted Ovulatory; RO). In addition a control (C) group of 12 heifers received a higher level of feeding (1.2 Mn). Haematological related biomarkers of husbandry stress, leukocyte gene expression of seven cytokine genes and five immunological biomarkers were investigated. After 18 days of differential feeding of the heifers alterations in eosinophil and monocyte numbers and altered expression of CXCL8, IL2 and TNFα could be attributed to diet restriction. More specifically, changes in these five variables were found in heifers that became anovulatory (RA) and are therefore considered to be more sensitive biomarkers to an energy deficit. PMID:25496833

  12. Evaluation of the platelet counting by Abbott CELL-DYN SAPPHIRE haematology analyser compared with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, E; Del Vecchio, L; Scopacasa, F; Lo Pardo, C; Capone, F; Pariante, S; Scalia, G; De Caterina, M

    2009-04-01

    The Abbot Cell-Dyn Sapphire is a new generation haematology analyser. The system uses optical/fluorescence flow cytometry in combination with electronic impedance to produce a full blood count. Optical and impedance are the default methods for platelet counting while automated CD61-immunoplatelet analysis can be run as selectable test. The aim of this study was to determine the platelet count performance of the three counting methods available on the instrument and to compare the results with those provided by Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur flow cytometer used as reference method. A lipid interference experiment was also performed. Linearity, carryover and precision were good, and satisfactory agreement with reference method was found for the impedance, optical and CD61-immunoplatelet analysis, although this latter provided the closest results in comparison with flow cytometry. In the lipid interference experiment, a moderate inaccuracy of optical and immunoplatelet counts was observed starting from a very high lipid value. PMID:18177435

  13. The concentrations of methaemoglogin, carboxyhaemoglobin and some haematological parameters in tobacco snuff addicts in Igbo of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ureme, S O; Ibeagha, I D; Maduka, I G; Ibeagbulam, O G

    2007-01-01

    Methaemoglobin, carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations and some haematological parameters were studied in fifty tobacco snuff addicts (40 males and 10 females) in some villages of Anambra State, Nigeria. The aim was to investigate possible adverse effects of tobacco snuff in addicts in Igbos of Anambra State. Fifty apparently healthy persons (25 males and 25 females) who do not inhale snuff were used as controls. The age range of tests and control subjects was 25-65 years. The results showed no statistically significant difference when the tests group was compared with the control group. A comparison of the results on the basis of sex, age and period of exposure, showed no significant differences. Blood picture in test and control groups was normocytic and normochromic. The results suggest that tobacco snuff may not have any adverse effect on haemoglobin metabolism and erythropoiesis. PMID:18379614

  14. Haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Shpigel, N Y; Avidar, Y; Yakobson, B; King, R; Shamir, M

    2005-09-10

    Blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. Haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. The measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but the jackals had higher white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts than dogs. The male jackals had a higher haematocrit, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and a lower red blood cell distribution width than the female jackals. High activities of muscle enzymes were detected in many of the jackals, in several of which the activity of creatine kinase exceeded 5000 U/l; these were considered abnormal. PMID:16155240

  15. The protective effect of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate against haematological, biochemical and pathological changes induced by Zearalenone in mice.

    PubMed

    Abbès, Samir; Ouanes, Zouhour; ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Houas, Zohra; Oueslati, Ridha; Bacha, Hassen; Othman, Omar

    2006-04-01

    Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS), an anticaking agent for mixed feed, was added alone or simultaneously with a toxic Zearalenone (ZEN) dose to balb/c mice and was evaluated for its ability to restore damages induced by ZEN. The latter is a mycotoxin produced by fusarium genera; it is mainly known to induce several toxic effects such as hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and nephrotoxicity on animals and humans. The experimental approach consisted of eight treatments of six mice each by 400 mg/kg bw or 5 g/kg bw of HSCAS. Two experimental groups have received respectively ZEN alone at 40 (8% of LD50) and at 500 mg/kg bw (LD50). Two other groups have received ZEN at 40 or 500 mg/kg bw combined respectively with HSCAS at 400 mg/kg bw and 5 g/kg bw. The control groups received water or olive oil. Forty-eight hours after treatment, blood samples were collected for haematological and serum biochemical parameters measurements. ZEN treatment significantly increased hematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells: lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes and the most of biochemical serum parameters; it significantly reduced platelets and induced degenerative changes in the hepatic and renal tissues; while, the mixture of HSCAS with ZEN induced a reestablishment of haematological parameters, levels of serum biochemical enzyme activities and histological pictures of both liver and kidney. It also prevented general toxicity of ZEN. This was observed by the shift of LD50 for this toxin. Thus, our data strongly suggested that deleterious effects of ZEN could be overcome or, at least, significantly were diminished by HSCAS. Moreover, this sorbent by itself did not show any toxic effects. PMID:16563452

  16. Blood haematology, serum thyroid hormones and glutathione peroxidase status in kacang goats fed inorganic iodine and selenium supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Aghwan, Z A; Sazili, A Q; Alimon, A R; Goh, Y M; Hilmi, M

    2013-11-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744

  17. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (<500 ng/mL) on Day 8. In these patients, the frequency of posaconazole administration was increased to 200 mg four times daily. On Day 15, the median posaconazole concentration was significantly increased from 368 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 247-403 ng/mL] to 548 ng/mL (IQR, 424-887 ng/mL) (P = 0.0003). The median increase in posaconazole concentration was 251 ng/mL (IQR, 93-517 ng/mL). Among the patients with initially suboptimal levels, 79% achieved the optimal level unless the steady-state level was <200 ng/mL. This study shows that increasing the administration frequency of posaconazole syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  18. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Aghwan, Z. A.; Sazili, A. Q.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Hilmi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744

  19. Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview.

    PubMed

    Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu; Ramasamy, Ramesh; Gopal, Niranjan; Kuzhandaivelu, V

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria. PMID:24627875

  20. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making chemistry studies more relevant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project’s general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the context of industrial chemistry in order to present chemistry as a relevant topic both to the students personally as well as to the society in which they live. The learning materials that were developed during this period were in alignment with the changes and reforms that were conducted in the Israeli educational system. These developments were accompanied with intensive and comprehensive professional development courses and workshops. In addition, several research and evaluation projects were conducted with the goal to assess students’ achievements and to probe into the students’ perceptions regarding the classroom learning environment and the teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards the various instructional and learning materials techniques that were implemented in the programme throughout these years. This paper is structured attempting to describe the curricular cycle in alignment with Goodlad’s and Van den Akker’s curriculum representations.

  1. Chemistry behind Vegetarianism.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo

    2011-02-01

    This review summarizes the effect of a habitual vegetarian diet on clinical complications in relation to chemistry and biochemistry. Omnivores have a significantly higher cluster of cardiovascular risk factors compared with vegetarians, including increased body mass index, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol and LDL-C levels, serum lipoprotein(a) concentration, plasma factor VII activity, ratios of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TAG/HDL-C, and serum ferritin levels. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians, especially vegans, have lower serum vitamin B₁₂ concentration and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in the tissue membrane phospholipids, which are associated with increased collagen and ADP stimulated ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation, plasma 11-dehydrothromboxane B₂, and homocysteine levels and decreased plasma HDL-C. This may be associated with an increased thrombotic and atherosclerotic risk. It is suggested that vegetarians, especially vegans, should increase their dietary n-3 PUFA and vitamin B₁₂ intakes. PMID:21204526

  2. Chemistry of soil solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Elprince, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers, this book serves as an introduction to the field of soil chemistry and associated fields such as aquatic chemistry, geochemistry, environmental chemistry, oceanography, and public health. The volume includes discussions on the structure of adsorbed water, adsorption of inorganics, solubility, redox, solute transport, chemical modeling, and sampling and monitoring the soil solution. Important papers on these topics together with editor's comments place each of the carefully chosen papers in the proper context. Because the chemistry of soil solutions requires the knowledge of many aspects of science, introductory information is provided for each topic to cover its history of development, present knowledge, and future prospects.

  3. Connecting Algebra and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Correlates high school chemistry curriculum with high school algebra curriculum and makes the case for an integrated approach to mathematics and science instruction. Focuses on process integration. (DDR)

  4. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  5. BiOsimilaRs in the management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology: results of the ORHEO observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The approval of epoetin biosimilars in the European Union requires extensive scientific evaluation and stringent regulatory procedures, including post-marketing studies. The ORHEO (place of biOsimilaRs in the therapeutic management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology) study was an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study performed in France to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetins for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA) in the clinical setting. Methods Patients >18 years with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for treatment with an epoetin biosimilar were included in this study. Patient characteristics were recorded at baseline along with anaemia-related information, such as observed and target Hb (as chosen by the treating clinician), brand and dose of epoetin biosimilar prescribed, and details of any other treatments. Patients were then followed-up at 3 and 6 months. The primary endpoint was Hb response (defined as Hb reaching ≥10 g/dL, an increase of Hb ≥1 g/dL since inclusion visit or reaching physician-defined target Hb, with no blood transfusions in the 3 weeks prior to measurement). Other endpoints included adverse events, achievement of target Hb and associated treatments. Results Overall, 2333 patients >18 years (mean age 66.5 years) with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for biosimilar epoetin treatment were included. 99.9% of patients received epoetin zeta (median dose 30,000 IU/week). Mean baseline Hb was 9.61 g/dL, with 35.6% of patients having moderate anaemia (Hb 8–9.5 g/dL). Hb response was achieved in 81.6% and 86.5% of patients at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall mean change in Hb level was 1.52 ± 1.61 and 1.72 ± 1.61 g/dL at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Transfusion and thromboembolic event rates were 9

  6. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on parameters of the haematological and steroidal modules of the athletes biological passport - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alsaadi, K; Voss, S C; Kraiem, S; Alwahaibi, A; Alyazedi, S; Dbes, N; Goebel, R; Mohamed-Ali, V; Alsowaidi, S; Seyam, A M; Bashraheel, A S; Alsayrafi, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ramadan on the haematological and steroid module of the Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Nine healthy physically active subjects were tested in the morning and afternoon for two days before and three days during Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents. Although there were significant changes in the haemoglobin concentration during Ramadan, especially during the first fasting week, none of the subjects in this study exceeded the individually calculated thresholds of the ABP. No significant effects on testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio were observed but only the afternoon specific gravity (SG) of the urine was elevated. Thus, when urinary steroid concentrations are required, SG corrections need to be performed. The haematological and the steroid module of the ABP can be reliably applied during Ramadan as the observed changes are only marginal. PMID:26695489

  7. Effect of high wavelengths low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise performance, biochemical and haematological parameters of swimming rats.

    PubMed

    Beck, W; Gobatto, C

    2016-03-01

    Nocturnal rodents should be assessed at an appropriate time of day, which leads to a challenge in identifying an adequate environmental light which allows animal visualisation without perturbing physiological homeostasis. Thus, we analysed the influence of high wavelength and low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise and biochemical and haematological parameters of nocturnal rats. We submitted 80 animals to an exhaustive exercise at individualised intensity under two different illuminations during dark period. Red light (> 600 nm; < 15lux) was applied constantly during dark period (EI; for experimental illumination groups) or only for handling and assessments (SI; for standard illumination groups). EI led to worse haematological and biochemical conditions, demonstrating that EI alone can influence physiological parameters and jeopardise result interpretation. SI promotes normal physiological conditions and greater aerobic tolerance than EI, showing the importance of a correct illumination pattern for all researchers that employ nocturnal rats for health/disease or sports performance experiments. PMID:27030633

  8. Chemistry Students' Erroneous Conceptions of Limiting Reagent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, K. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of 32 University of Transkei (South Africa) freshmen's conceptualization of "limiting reagent," a basic concept in chemistry, based on student responses to two written test questions and clinical interviews. Results indicated that a high percentage of students had misconceptions and could not apply the concept successfully. Makes…

  9. The clinical and biochemical study of pesticide sprayers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Gupta, B N; Mathur, A K; Mathur, N; Mahendra, P N; Bharti, R S

    1991-07-01

    Clinical, haematological and biochemical studies of 34 subjects, occupationally exposed to different types of pesticides, were conducted. The findings have been compared with those observed in 14 control subjects. Inhibition of cholinesterase activity was observed in the exposed group. Serum alkaline phosphatase was also found to be raised. Radiological examination revealed pneumonitic patches in the chest skiagrams of three exposed subjects. Paraesthesia with hyporeflexia was also found in 8.8% of exposed subjects. The findings suggest that exposure to multiple pesticides over many years affects the normal functioning of different organ systems and may produce characteristic clinical effects. PMID:1679651

  10. Induction of ovarian function by using short-term human menopausal gonadotrophin in patients with ovarian failure following cytotoxic chemotherapy for haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, R; Mills, W; Katz, M; McGarrigle, H H; Goldstone, A H

    1993-07-01

    Currently no treatment has proved successful in inducing ovarian steroidogenic and/or gametogenic recovery in patients with haematological malignancies treated by cytotoxic chemotherapy once biochemical failure becomes manifest i.e., when FSH levels exceed 40 IU/L. This paper reports two such cases with classical biochemical ovarian failure in which ovarian function was induced by brief stimulation with Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin (HMG). PMID:7693105

  11. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Crighton, Gemma L; Wood, Erica M; Stanworth, Simon; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Tinmouth, Alan; Murphy, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given when patient bleeds) is as effective and safe as a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding usually when the platelet count falls below a given trigger level) in patients with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722649

  12. Adoptive T-cell therapy for fungal infections in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Shivashni S; Gottlieb, David J

    2015-01-01

    The prolonged immune deficiency resulting from haematopoietic stem cell transplant and chemotherapy predisposes to a high risk of invasive fungal infections. Despite the recent advances in molecular diagnostic testing, early initiation of pre-emptive antifungal therapy and the use of combination pharmacotherapy, mortality from invasive mould infections remain high among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplant. The increasing incidences of previously rare and drug-resistant strains of fungi present a further clinical challenge. Therefore, there is a need for novel strategies to combat fungal infections in the immunocompromised. Adoptive therapy using in vitro-expanded fungus-specific CD4 cells of the Th-1 type has shown clinical efficacy in murine studies and in a small human clinical study. Several techniques for the isolation and expansion of fungus-specific T cells have been successfully applied. Here we discuss the incidence and changing patterns of invasive fungal diseases, clinical evidence supporting the role of T cells in fungal immunity, methods to expand fungus-specific T cells in the laboratory and considerations surrounding the use of T cells for fungal immunotherapy. PMID:26366286

  13. Cooking with Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosser, Arthur E.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests chemistry of cooking and analysis of culinary recipes as subject matter for introducing chemistry to an audience, especially to individuals with neutral or negative attitudes toward science. Includes sample recipes and experiments and a table listing scientific topics with related cooking examples. (JN)

  14. High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Preparation for college or life, working conditions and continuing education for high school chemistry teachers, and form/function of high school chemistry textbooks were addressed in presentations at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Workshops, lectures, and demonstrations were also presented to…

  15. Process Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, James B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses process analytical chemistry as a discipline designed to supply quantitative and qualitative information about a chemical process. Encourages academic institutions to examine this field for employment opportunities for students. Describes the five areas of process analytical chemistry, including off-line, at-line, on-line, in-line, and…

  16. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  17. Movies in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  18. Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Phillip

    1982-01-01

    Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

  19. Chemistry from Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jan; Donaldson, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Describes the "Chemistry from Issues" project at Chelsea College. Provides the background information, rationale, and overall structure of a proposed course about the importance of chemistry to common culture. Outlines one module about the British steel industry that has been taught at King's College. (TW)

  20. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  1. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  2. Chemistry and Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigston, David L.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between chemisty and biology in the science curriculum. Points out the differences in perception of the disciplines, which the physical scientists favoring reductionism. Suggests that biology departments offer a special course for chemistry students, just as the chemistry departments have done for biology students.…

  3. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  4. Stratospheric chemistry and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, Michael; Garcia, Maria M.

    1990-01-01

    A Chemical Tracer Model (CTM) that can use wind field data generated by the General Circulation Model (GCM) is developed to implement chemistry in the three dimensional GCM of the middle atmosphere. Initially, chemical tracers with simple first order losses such as N2O are used. Successive models are to incorporate more complex ozone chemistry.

  5. Career Options in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloli, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a credit/no credit course which focuses on career options in chemistry. The course (consisting of 15 one-hour seminar-type sessions) includes guest speakers for several sessions and an emphasis (in introductory sessions) on graduate school in chemistry, the chemical industry, resumes, and interviews. Also briefly describes an internship…

  6. Chemistry and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, D. W.

    1970-01-01

    In the second article of a series, the author discusses some of the interactions between chemistry and philosophy. Evaluates chemistry's role within the scientific enterprise. Traces the rise and fall of the logical atom and argues for a new way of looking at science as an educational instrument. (RR)

  7. Opportunities in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Because of the changes occurring in the chemical sciences, a new survey of chemistry and its intellectual and economic impact was clearly needed. This report presents a current assessment of the status of chemistry and of the future opportunities in the field. This analysis contains: (1) an introductory chapter (establishing the need for the…

  8. Haematological rather than skeletal muscle adaptations contribute to the increase in peak oxygen uptake induced by moderate endurance training.

    PubMed

    Montero, David; Cathomen, Adrian; Jacobs, Robert A; Flück, Daniela; de Leur, Jeroen; Keiser, Stefanie; Bonne, Thomas; Kirk, Niels; Lundby, Anne-Kristine; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-10-15

    It remains unclear whether improvements in peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)) following endurance training (ET) are primarily determined by central and/or peripheral adaptations. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the improvement in V̇(O2peak) following 6 weeks of ET is mainly determined by haematological rather than skeletal muscle adaptations. Sixteen untrained healthy male volunteers (age = 25 ± 4 years, V̇(O2peak) = 3.5 ± 0.5 l min(-1)) underwent supervised ET (6 weeks, 3-4 sessions per week). V̇(O2peak), peak cardiac output (Q̇(peak)), haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) and blood volumes were assessed prior to and following ET. Skeletal muscle biopsies were analysed for mitochondrial volume density (Mito(VD)), capillarity, fibre types and respiratory capacity (OXPHOS). After the post-ET assessment, red blood cell volume (RBCV) was re-established at the pre-ET level by phlebotomy and V̇(O2peak) and Q̇(peak) were measured again. We speculated that the contribution of skeletal muscle adaptations to the ET-induced increase in V̇(O2peak) would be revealed when controlling for haematological adaptations. V̇(O2peak) and Q̇(peak) were increased (P < 0.05) following ET (9 ± 8 and 7 ± 6%, respectively) and decreased (P < 0.05) after phlebotomy (-7 ± 7 and -10 ± 7%). RBCV, plasma volume and Hb(mass) all increased (P < 0.05) after ET (8 ± 4, 4 ± 6 and 6 ± 5%). As for skeletal muscle adaptations, capillary-to-fibre ratio and total Mito(VD) increased (P < 0.05) following ET (18 ± 16 and 43 ± 30%), but OXPHOS remained unaltered. Through stepwise multiple regression analysis, Q̇(peak), RBCV and Hb(mass) were found to be independent predictors of V̇(O2peak). In conclusion, the improvement in V̇(O2peak) following 6 weeks of ET is primarily attributed to increases in Q̇(peak) and oxygen-carrying capacity of blood in untrained healthy young subjects. PMID:26282186

  9. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher ( P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher ( P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  10. The role of vitamin C as antioxidant in protection of biochemical and haematological stress induced by chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Clarias batrachus.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy; Rajender, Kodimyala; Rudra Reddy, R; Rao, J Venkateswara; Begum, Ghousia

    2015-08-01

    The study was conducted to explore the modulatory effects of chlorpyrifos and protective role of vitamin C in tissues of Clarias batrachus. Treatments include E1 group (basal diet plus 1.65mgL(-1) CPF) and E2 group (basal diet+200mgkg body weight vitamin C and 1.65mgL(-1) CPF) along with a control group of fishes (fed on basal diet only). After 1, 7, 15, and 30d of treatment, fish tissues (brain, blood and liver) were used for the estimation of growth, biochemical and haematological parameters. The results of E1 group indicated significantly lower weight gain and survival rate. Brain AChE activity was inhibited. The RBC, Hb, respiratory burst activity, total protein and HSI were also reduced whereas WBC count, plasma glucose and haematocrit were elevated. In contrast, liver glycogen content, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatase activities were inhibited and malate dehydrogenase, aspartate, alanine amino transferase were enhanced. The E2 group of fish exhibited significant improvement in growth, survival, haematological indices, brain AChE, liver glycogen and oxidative enzyme activity. The findings support that dietary vitamin C supplementation might be helpful in abrogation of chlorpyrifos toxicity and improves growth, survival, biochemical and haematological conditions in fishes. PMID:25855010

  11. Hair Today; Scalped Tomorrow: Massive Subgaleal Haematoma Following Sudden Hair Pulling in an Adolescent in the Absence of Haematological Abnormality or Skull Fracture.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Sarah-Jayne; Ramman, Saif; Hachach-Haram, Nadine; Bisarya, Kamal; Fu, Brian; Ong, Juling; Akhavani, Mo

    2016-07-01

    Subgaleal haematoma (SH) is a rare condition, most frequently observed in neonates as a complication of Ventouse-assisted delivery. There have been few patients reported beyond this period. Those that are present within the literature have typically resulted from significant blunt scalp trauma, with or without associated skull fracture. Those resulting secondary to relatively minor trauma, such as hair braiding or hair pulling, are rare but have been reported and are often associated with underlying haematological abnormalities or nonaccidental injury patients. Most patients resolve spontaneously and without complication. The authors report a rare patient of a delayed presentation of a massive SH in an adolescent following a seemingly innocuous episode of hair pulling whilst play-fighting, in the absence of any underlying haematological or anatomical abnormality. Due to the size of the SH and the appearance of large areas of calcification within the haematoma, early liaison with senior neuroradiologists and haematologists, to rule out underlying anatomical and haematological abnormalities, respectively, was essential to guide appropriate management. Our patient highlights the need for an awareness of the possible aetiologies of SH and the necessity of early active multidisciplinary team involvement in the management of such patients, which is critical to ensure optimum patient outcomes. PMID:27258718

  12. Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (Smith) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Oyedemi, SO; Adewusi, EA; Aiyegoro, OA; Akinpelu, DA

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (A. africana) and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated with distilled water or extracts at 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. Results The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 200 mg/kg body weight. The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. Conclusions It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of A. africana possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters. Further experimental investigation is needed to exploit its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethnomedicinal usage. PMID:23569792

  13. Art in Chemistry; Chemistry in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne

    High school teachers are often challenged to motivate students who have little or no interest in a subject and are bored with traditional instruction. This unique book is designed to help educators make chemistry classes more interesting and links art curriculum to practical applications, integrating the two subjects through scores of hands-on…

  14. EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

  15. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  16. Nitrogen chemistry and lung physiology.

    PubMed

    Marozkina, Nadzeya V; Gaston, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The versatile chemistry of nitrogen is important to pulmonary physiology. Indeed, almost all redox forms of nitrogen are relevant to pulmonary physiology and to pathophysiology. Here we review the relevance to pulmonary biology of (a) elemental nitrogen; (b) reduced forms of nitrogen such as amines, ammonia, and hydroxylamine; and (c) oxidized forms of nitrogen such as the nitroxyl anion, the nitric oxide free radical, and S-nitrosothiols. Our focus is on oxidized nitrogen in the form of S-nitrosothiol bond-containing species, which are now appreciated to be important to every type of cell-signaling process in the lung. We also review potential clinical applications of nitrogen oxide biochemistry. These principles are being translated into clinical practice as diagnostic techniques and therapies for a range of pulmonary diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25668023

  17. Modern analytical chemistry in the contemporary world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among sciences and in the contemporary world is discussed. Its interdisciplinary character and the necessity of the collaboration between analytical chemists and other experts in order to effectively solve the actual problems of the human society and the environment are emphasized. The importance of the analytical method validation in order to obtain the accurate and precise results is highlighted. The invalid results are not only useless; they can often be even fatal (e.g., in clinical laboratories). The curriculum of analytical chemistry at schools and universities is discussed. It is referred to be much broader than traditional equilibrium chemistry coupled with a simple description of individual analytical methods. Actually, the schooling of analytical chemistry should closely connect theory and practice.

  18. Bovine leucosis (lymphosarcoma): a clinical study of 60 pathologically confirmed cases.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, W T; Wiseman, A; Petrie, L; Selman, I E

    1979-09-22

    The clinical features of 60 pathologically confirmed cases of bovine leucosis (lymphosarcoma) are described. The majority of cases could be classified into one of four distinct clinical forms, ie, juvenile multicentric, thymic, skin and adult multicentric. Diagnosis of leucosis in animals with these forms was possible on clinical grounds alone. Five animals, four of which were adult, could not be thus classified and diagnosis required haematological and, or, pathological examinations. The clinical, epidemiological and serological findings would suggest that the cases were examples of sporadic bovine leucosis. PMID:583184

  19. Platelet transfusion prophylaxis for patients with haematological malignancies: where to now?

    PubMed

    Stanworth, S J; Hyde, C; Brunskill, S; Murphy, M F

    2005-12-01

    National guidelines for platelet transfusion in many countries recommend that the general platelet transfusion trigger for prophylaxis is 10x10(9)/l. This annotation reviews the evidence for this threshold level and discusses other current unresolved issues relevant to platelet transfusion practice such as the optimal dose and the clinical benefit of a strategy for the prophylactic use of platelet transfusions when the platelet count falls below a given threshold. PMID:16351634

  20. ECIL guidelines for preventing Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Johan; Cesaro, Simone; Maschmeyer, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Donnelly, J Peter; Alanio, Alexandre; Hauser, Philippe M; Lagrou, Katrien; Melchers, Willem J G; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Matos, Olga; Bretagne, Stéphane; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    The 5th European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5) meeting aimed to establish evidence-based recommendations for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV-infected patients with an underlying haematological condition, including allogeneic HSCT recipients. Recommendations were based on the grading system of the IDSA. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole given 2-3 times weekly is the drug of choice for the primary prophylaxis of PCP in adults ( A-II: ) and children ( A-I: ) and should be given during the entire period at risk. Recent data indicate that children may benefit equally from a once-weekly regimen ( B-II: ). All other drugs, including pentamidine, atovaquone and dapsone, are considered second-line alternatives when trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is poorly tolerated or contraindicated. The main indications of PCP prophylaxis are ALL, allogeneic HSCT, treatment with alemtuzumab, fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab combinations, >4 weeks of treatment with corticosteroids and well-defined primary immune deficiencies in children. Additional indications are proposed depending on the treatment regimen. PMID:27550992

  1. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Diamond Blackfan anaemia: a report from the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Registry.

    PubMed

    Fagioli, Franca; Quarello, Paola; Zecca, Marco; Lanino, Edoardo; Corti, Paola; Favre, Claudio; Ripaldi, Mimmo; Ramenghi, Ugo; Locatelli, Franco; Prete, Arcangelo

    2014-06-01

    Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative option for patients with Diamond Blackfan anaemia (DBA). We report the transplantation outcome of 30 Italian DBA patients referred to the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Registry between 1990 and 2012. This is one of the largest national registry cohorts of transplanted DBA patients. Most patients (83%) were allografted after 2000. A matched sibling donor was employed in 16 patients (53%), the remaining 14 patients (47%) were transplanted from matched unrelated donors. Twenty-eight of the 30 patients engrafted. One patient died at day +6 due to veno-occlusive disease without achieving neutrophil recovery and another patient remained transfusion-dependent despite the presence of a full donor chimerism. The 5-year overall survival and transplant-related mortality was 74·4% and 25·6%, respectively. Patients younger than 10 years as well as those transplanted after 2000 showed a significantly higher overall survival and a significantly lower risk of transplant-related mortality. No difference between donor type was observed. Our data suggest that allogeneic HSCT from a related or unrelated donor was a reasonable alternative to transfusion therapy in young and well chelated DBA patients. PMID:24611452

  2. In vitro activity of bortezomib in cultures of patient tumour cells--potential utility in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Kristina; Carlson, Kristina; Aleskog, Anna; Larsson, Rolf; Nygren, Peter; Lindhagen, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Bortezomib represents a new class of anti-cancer drugs, the proteasome inhibitors. We evaluated the in vitro activity of bortezomib with regard to tumour-type specificity and possible mechanisms of drug resistance in 115 samples of tumour cells from patients and in a cell-line panel, using the short-term fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Bortezomib generally showed dose-response curves with a steep slope. In patient cells, bortezomib was more active in haematological than in solid tumour samples. Myeloma and chronic myeloid leukaemia were the most sensitive tumour types although with great variability in drug response between the individual samples. Colorectal and kidney cancer samples were the least sensitive. In the cell-line panel, only small differences in response were seen between the different cell lines, and the proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin and MG 262, showed an activity pattern similar to that of bortezomib. The cell-line data suggest that resistance to bortezomib was not mediated by MRP-, PgP, GSH-; tubulin and topo II-associated MDR. Combination experiments indicated synergy between bortezomib and arsenic trioxide or irinotecan. The data support the current use of bortezomib but also points to its potential utility in other tumour types and in combination with cytotoxic drugs. PMID:19016012

  3. Oxygen consumption and haematology of juvenile shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum during an acute 24 h saltwater challenge.

    PubMed

    Penny, F M; Kieffer, J D

    2014-04-01

    This study focused on the acute physiological responses to saltwater exposure in juvenile shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum. In two separate laboratory experiments, 2 year-old A. brevirostrum were exposed to either full (32) or half-strength (16) seawater for up to 24 h. First, oxygen consumption rates were used to estimate the metabolic costs over 24 h. Secondly, blood and muscle samples were analysed at 6, 12 and 24 h for water loss, various measures of osmoregulatory status (plasma osmolality and ions) and other standard haematological variables. Juveniles exposed to full-strength seawater showed significant decreases in oxygen consumption rates during the 24 h exposure. Furthermore, seawater-exposed fish had significantly increased plasma osmolality, ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and a 17% decrease in total wet mass over the 24 h exposure period. To a lesser extent, increases in osmolality, ions and mass loss were observed in fish exposed to half-strength seawater but no changes to oxygen consumption. Cortisol was also significantly increased in fish exposed to full-strength seawater. While plasma protein was elevated following 24 h in full-strength seawater, haemoglobin, haematocrit and plasma glucose levels did not change with increased salinity. These results imply an inability of juvenile A. brevirostrum to regulate water and ions in full-strength seawater within 24 h. Nonetheless, no mortality occurred in any exposure, suggesting that juvenile A. brevirostrum can tolerate short periods in saline environments. PMID:24628001

  4. Delayed Haematological recovery after autologous stem cell transplantation is associated with favourable outcome in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Dana; Mueller, Beatrice U; Mansouri Taleghani, Behrouz; Baerlocher, Gabriela M; Seipel, Katja; Leibundgut, Kurt; Pabst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is applied to consolidate first remission in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However, outcome after ASCT widely varies among AML patients. We analyzed the prognostic significance of haematological recovery for neutrophils [absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1·0 × 10(9) /l] and platelets (platelet count >20·0 × 10(9) /l), stratifying at day 20 after ASCT in 88 consecutive and homogeneously treated AML patients in first remission. We observed that patients with delayed recovery had better overall survival (OS; ANC: P < 0·0001 and platelets: P = 0·0062) and time to progression (TTP; ANC: P = 0·0003 and platelets: P = 0·0125). Delayed recovery was an independent marker for better OS and TTP in a multivariate analysis including age, gender, number of transfused CD34+ cells, cytogenetics, FLT3-internal tandem duplication and NPM1 mutation. Our results suggest that delayed neutrophil and platelet recovery is associated with longer OS and TTP in AML patients consolidated with ASCT in first remission. PMID:25212255

  5. The Effect of Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on Haematological and Biochemical Indicators and Histopathological Changes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n = 40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225 μg/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964 μg/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P < 0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P < 0.05), and ammonia (P < 0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  6. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onu, A.; Saidu, Y.; Ladan, M. J.; Bilbis, L. S.; Aliero, A. A.; Sahabi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  7. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

    PubMed

    Onu, A; Saidu, Y; Ladan, M J; Bilbis, L S; Aliero, A A; Sahabi, S M

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  8. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on haematological and biochemical indicators and histopathological changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Matejova, Iveta; Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n=40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225  μg/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964  μg/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P<0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P<0.05), and ammonia (P<0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  9. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15 days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. PMID:25753342

  10. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  11. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  12. Environmental chemistry. 5th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, S.E. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    This book is organized around several major sections: aquatic Chemistry, atmospheric chemistry, the geosphere and hazardous wastes, toxicological chemistry, and resources and energy. Specific topics discussed in the book include a general introduction to environment chemistry, basic principles of aquatic chemistry, water pollution and water treatment, the essential role of microorganisms in aquatic chemical phenomena, atmospheric chemistry, a discussion of major threats to the global atmosphere (particularly greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting chemicals), the geosphere and hazardous substances, soil chemistry, and the nature and sources of hazardous wastes. The environmental chemistry of hazardous wastes, their treatment, minimization, and recycling, and the effects of these hazardous substances in also presented.

  13. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  14. Seawater Chemistry Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-23

    SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.

  15. Computational quantum chemistry website

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-22

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.

  16. Magnetism in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)

  17. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  18. Information-Mapped Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympia, P. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the use of information mapping in chemistry and in other related sciences. Information mapping is a way of presenting information without paragraphs and unnecessary transitional phrases. (BB)

  19. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  20. Let's Stress Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Michael J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Two descriptive chemistry experiments are presented which foster development of students' skills in making observations and deductions. In addition, the experiments are designed to stress the importance of chemical behavior and clear presentation of experimental findings. (JN)

  1. Microcomputers in Teaching Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Ray

    1981-01-01

    Describes the development, content, and implementation of a two-credit graduate course for teachers at the University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point in the use of microcomputers for teaching high school chemistry. (JJD)

  2. Environmental Bioinorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including interactions of organisms with metallic and nonmetallic elements and compounds. Indicates that many environmental problems are created by human exploitation of nature and technologies if studied from a bioinorganic chemical viewpoint. (CC)

  3. Chemistry for Nonscientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Thomas A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the case of DDT which can be introduced to nonscience students in a chemistry course, including the development of DDT, problems associated with its adverse effects, and curtailment of its use in our environments. (CC)

  4. Chemistry with a Peel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

  5. Chemistry Laboratory Safety Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patnoe, Richard L.

    1976-01-01

    An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)

  6. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  7. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  8. Chemistry and Detective Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program consisting of two courses. The first course deals with the chemistry of drugs and poisons; the second course focuses on fictional works in which these drugs and poisons are central to the plots. (SK)

  9. Tick-borne Diseases (Borreliosis, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis) in German and Austrian Dogs: Status quo and Review of Distribution, Transmission, Clinical Findings, Diagnostics and Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Pluta, Silvia; Huisinga, Elke; Nather, Stephanie; Scheufelen, Miriam; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schweinitz, Andrea; Hampel, Herwig; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2015-08-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs have gained in significance in German and Austrian veterinary practices. The widespread European tick species Ixodes ricinus represents an important vector for spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The meadow or ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) is an important vector for Babesia canis, as is the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) for Babesia vogeli in the Mediterranean region. The present work covers pathogen transmission by tick vectors, including the mechanisms and the minimum intervals required, in conjunction with possible non-vector-borne transmission routes. It also addresses the incubation periods, pathogenicity and clinical findings associated with each pathogen and genospecies and presents case examples. Current data on prevalence, annual fluctuations and distribution in various pre-selected dog populations (symptomatic versus asymptomatic) in both countries are depicted in maps. Reasons for changes in prevalence (especially of Borrelia) are discussed. Criteria and algorithms for clinical diagnosis and monitoring in dogs, including case history, direct detection (blood smears, molecular detection by species-specific PCR and sequencing) and indirect methods (whole-cell and peptide-based antibody tests), are presented, together with laboratory abnormalities (haematology, clinical chemistry, urine). The role of anti-C6 antibody concentration (ACAC) and its correlation with proteinuria and Lyme nephritis are assessed on the basis of new data. Consideration is also given to the importance of blood smears, PCR and serology in the case of anaplasmosis and babesiosis, and the diagnostic value of combining these methods. The relevance of molecular differentiation of Anaplasma species (A. phagocytophilum versus A. platys) and Babesia spp. (large versus small forms) in cases of serological cross-reaction is emphasized. A summary is given of

  10. Impact of surface chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

  11. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  12. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  13. Effect of Surgical and Immunological Castration on Haematological Variables, Reproductive Hormones and Ejaculate Characteristics in Mongrel Dogs.

    PubMed

    Ajadi, Temitope A; Gazal, Oladele S

    2016-01-01

    Welfare concerns are growing regarding surgical castration (SC) in pets, necessitating the need for non-surgical alternatives. Administration of vaccines against gonadotropins releasing hormone (GnRH) have been reported as alternative to SC. This study determined the effect of surgical and immunological castrations (IC) on complete blood counts, plasma testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and ejaculate characteristics in mongrel dogs. Ten intact male dogs were randomly divided into two groups (A & B). Dogs in group A were surgically castrated, while dogs in group B were immunologically castrated with single subcutaneous injection of GnRH vaccine (Improvac®). Blood and semen were collected before SC or IC and fortnightly until sixteen weeks. Blood was analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), absolute neutrophil (NEUT) and lymphocyte counts (LYMP), T and LH. Sperm volume (SV), concentration (C), motility (SM), live-dead ratio (LDR) and percentage of abnormal spermatozoa were determined for the semen. Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation and compared using analysis of variance. The PCV and HB of dogs surgically castrated increased progressively up to16th week after castration but only up to10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Both PCV and HB decreased progressively after 10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Similarly, the WBC of dogs surgically castrated steadily increased from 2 weeks up to week 16, while it increased from 6 weeks up to 16 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. However, PCV, Hb, WBC, NEUT and LYMP did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between SC and IC. In both groups, the SV, SC, SM, LDR and percentage of abnormal spermatozoa did not differ significantly. It was therefore concluded that there is no significant haematological or endocrinological changes between surgical and immunological castration and that immunological castration may

  14. Haematological and immunological characteristics of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) infected and co-infected with endo- and ectoparasites

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, William A.; Fallon, Jesse A.; Beck, Michelle L.; Coe, Brittney H.; Jachowski, Catherine M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Disease is among the leading causes of the global decline in amphibian populations. In North America, parasites and pathogens are among the factors implicated in precipitous population declines of the giant hellbender salamander (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis), but the incidence of infections and the responses of hellbenders to infections remain poorly studied. Here, we document the prevalence of leech and trypanosome infections in a wild population of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) and describe haematological and immunological characteristics of hellbenders harbouring these infections. We hypothesized that hellbenders parasitized by trypanosomes would be anaemic, that individuals infected with either or both parasites would exhibit shifts in white blood cell counts and that hellbenders infected with leeches would exhibit altered plasma bactericidal capacity. We found that 24 and 68% of hellbenders in our sample population were infected with leeches and trypanosomes, respectively, and 20% were co-infected with both parasites. We found no evidence suggestive of anaemia among infected individuals. However, hellbenders infected with either or both parasites exhibited marked shifts in circulating white blood cells that were consistent with predictable responses to parasitic infection. Additionally, we found that hellbenders harbouring leeches had much higher plasma bactericidal capacity than individuals without leeches, and we offer multiple potential mechanistic explanations for this observation. We also found evidence that cellular and serological immune responses to parasites were less robust in juvenile than adult hellbenders. This finding warrants further investigation in light of the demographic characteristics, specifically the scarcity of juvenile age classes, of hellbender populations where disease is a possible contributor to declines. Finally, we describe two methodological advances that will improve future studies seeking to

  15. Evaluation of a method for monoclonal antibody HLA-B27 analysis with the CELL-DYN Sapphire haematology analyser.

    PubMed

    Aarsand, A K; Johannessen, H B; Scott, C S

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of HLA-B27 is usually performed by flow cytometry using commercial single or two colour fluorescence reagents. The CELL-DYN Sapphire (CD-Sapphire) is a high-volume routine haematology analyser that allows cell population analysis by monoclonal antibody fluorochromes analogous to flow cytometry. In this study, in-house flow cytometry analysis (n = 96, HLA-B27, One Lambda) performed on routine patient samples was used as the comparison method for analysis of HLA-B27, One Lambda (n = 40) and HLA-B27/HLA-B7, Immunotech (n = 96) reagents on the CD-Sapphire. The One Lambda results agreed 100% with the comparison method and offered clear population discrimination. The Immunotech combination also had a high level of agreement, but interpretation was more complex because of the wider cross-reactivity of the ABC-m3 antibody with B7 and other HLA-B alleles. When analysing HLA-B27 with antibodies showing nonspecific reactivity, a cut-off staining level yielding high specificity should be chosen, as the primary diagnostic value of HLA-B27 is as a 'rule-out' test for ankylosing spondylitis. The CD-Sapphire incorporates automated sampling and lysis, and medical scientists familiar with the instrument would require little additional technical training to perform the analysis. The reduced preanalytical work and total turnaround time constitute an important step towards automation of HLA-B27 and similar simple high-volume flow cytometry analysis. PMID:17988301

  16. Immunophenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid cell populations with the Cell-Dyn Sapphire haematology analyser: method feasibility and preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Adam, P; Sobek, O; Scott, C S; Dolezil, D; Kasik, J; Hajdukova, L; Adam, D

    2010-02-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (n=50) from patients with neurological disease (bacterial infection, viral infection, neuroborreliosis and multiple sclerosis) were analysed to characterize cell populations by fluorescent immunocytometry with the CD-Sapphire haematology analyser. Reagent combinations applied to all CSF samples comprised CD3/CD19/HLA-DR and CD4/CD8, with some being further analysed using CD3/CD4, CD3/CD16 and CD3/CD25 protocols. Of the 50 samples, 11 were excluded because of high proportions of nonviable cells (n=2) or insufficient cell numbers (n=9). Apart from bacterial infection with granulocytosis, all diagnostic groups showed high proportions (51.4-77.0%) of CD3+ T cells. There was a modest association between T-cell and B-cell counts, but absolute B-cell numbers exceeded 5 cells/microl in only 7/39 cases (neuroborreliosis, n=6; bacterial meningitis, n=1). CD3/Ia antigen (activation) co-expression was low and only exceeded 5% in 7/39 samples with no diagnostic correlation. Primary CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets showed similar quantitative trends and CD4/CD8 co-analysis revealed the presence in all diagnostic groups (neuroborreliosis and multiple sclerosis in particular) of a CD4+CD8int fraction that was predominantly CD3+ and CD16- and had a morphological profile consistent with small lymphoid cells. Supplementary CD-Sapphire cellular immunological analysis of most CSF samples is feasible using the procedure detailed in this communication. PMID:19500178

  17. Haematological and immunological characteristics of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) infected and co-infected with endo- and ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William A; Fallon, Jesse A; Beck, Michelle L; Coe, Brittney H; Jachowski, Catherine M B

    2016-01-01

    Disease is among the leading causes of the global decline in amphibian populations. In North America, parasites and pathogens are among the factors implicated in precipitous population declines of the giant hellbender salamander (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis), but the incidence of infections and the responses of hellbenders to infections remain poorly studied. Here, we document the prevalence of leech and trypanosome infections in a wild population of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) and describe haematological and immunological characteristics of hellbenders harbouring these infections. We hypothesized that hellbenders parasitized by trypanosomes would be anaemic, that individuals infected with either or both parasites would exhibit shifts in white blood cell counts and that hellbenders infected with leeches would exhibit altered plasma bactericidal capacity. We found that 24 and 68% of hellbenders in our sample population were infected with leeches and trypanosomes, respectively, and 20% were co-infected with both parasites. We found no evidence suggestive of anaemia among infected individuals. However, hellbenders infected with either or both parasites exhibited marked shifts in circulating white blood cells that were consistent with predictable responses to parasitic infection. Additionally, we found that hellbenders harbouring leeches had much higher plasma bactericidal capacity than individuals without leeches, and we offer multiple potential mechanistic explanations for this observation. We also found evidence that cellular and serological immune responses to parasites were less robust in juvenile than adult hellbenders. This finding warrants further investigation in light of the demographic characteristics, specifically the scarcity of juvenile age classes, of hellbender populations where disease is a possible contributor to declines. Finally, we describe two methodological advances that will improve future studies seeking to

  18. Effect of xylan oligosaccharides generated from corncobs on food acceptability, growth performance, haematology and immunological parameters of Dicentrarchus labrax fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Driss, Dorra; Kallel, Fatma; Guargouri, Molka; Missaoui, Hechmi; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two levels of inclusion of xylan oligosaccharides (XOS) extracted from corncob on growth, feed utilization, immune status and disease resistance of Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fingerlings. Specimens of 4.75 ± 0.69 g at initial density of 2.7 ± 0.13 kg/m(3) were fed during 12 weeks at 0 g kg(-1) diet, 5 g kg(-1) diet and 10 g kg(-1) diet, dietary XOS level of inclusion in a commercial sea bass diet. Feeding the fish at both XOS dietary inclusion levels significantly increased weight gain, protein efficiency ratio and feed conversion ratio. Feeding of supplemented diets to fish led to reducing mortalities after challenging with A. hydrophila. The haematological and immunological parameters were assayed in both pre-challenged and post-challenged groups. There was an increased trend in red blood corpuscles, white blood corpuscles, pack cell volume, haemoglobin (Hb %) and serum protein content in treated groups over the control as time elapsed with the feeding trials. The serum immunoglobulin level and lysozyme activity showed an increased trend in the fed groups. Histological features of the liver showed lower lipid vacuolization and regular-shaped morphology of hepatocytes around the sinusoidal spaces denoting a better utilization of dietary nutrients supported with the morphometric data. In conclusion, XOS added at a designated dose (5 g kg(-1) diet) in the diet improves growth and stimulates the immunity and makes D. labrax fingerlings more resistant to infection by A. hydrophila. PMID:26242460

  19. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of rabbit does to crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract at gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Ewuola, Emmanuel Olubisi; Sokunbi, Olujide Adedamola; Sanni, Kafayat Modupeola; Oyedemi, Oluwaseyi Margaret; Lawal, Temitope Tawakalit

    2015-04-01

    As the plant Moringa oleifera is used in herbal medicines for animals, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of crude M. oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on the blood profile of rabbit does during gestation and lactation. Twenty-four mature does (mean weight 2200 g) housed individually were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomised design. The animals in treatments 2, 3 and 4 were orally given 100, 200 and 300 mL/L CMOLE, respectively, at 2.5 mL/kg body weight at 48 h intervals for 9 weeks. The control animals (treatment 1) were given with water only. All the does were mated with untreated bucks 2 weeks into the experiment. Blood samples were collected at 3rd trimester (day 25 of gestation) and 2nd week of lactation. During gestation, levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the treatments. However, animals on treatment 2 had the highest platelets (148.8 × 10(9)/L), not significantly different from those on treatments 3 (141.5 × 10(9)/L) and 4 (135.0 × 10(9)/L), but higher (p < 0.05) than the control (126.6 × 10(9)/L). Haematological parameters during lactation were not significantly different among the treatments. Of the serum biochemical variables examined during gestation, only urea was higher (p < 0.05) in control rabbits than those administered with 300 mL/L CMOLE. In lactation, only cholesterol was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced with an increase in CMOLE concentration. This suggests that Moringa has a hypocholesterolemic effect and is safe for use up to 300 mL/L for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. PMID:25686552

  20. Translating biomedical science into clinical practice: Molecular diagnostics and the determination of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Cox, Helen; Webster, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    The identification of new biomarkers that help understand the epidemiological basis of patterns of malignancy at a population level is reshaping conceptions of health, disease and normality. These developments create new challenges for clinicians and the ways in which they work with scientists and engage with patients. Bioclinical collectives, an assemblage of laboratory and clinical evidence and practice, comprise different expert groups of scientists and clinicians who typically enact their expertise through boundary work to establish some degree of jurisdictional authority over their practice. Serra (2010) has argued for the existence of 'medical technocracies' wherein each speciality involved defines the boundaries between themselves in daily medical practices and use technology as a resource to construct their particular strategies. In this article we explore these two aspects of biomedical expertise - the collective and the boundaried domains of diagnostic practice (especially in regard to clinical utility) - to understand how haematological malignancy and disease are perceived and managed. The empirical data for the article are based on extensive primary research in hospitals based in the north of the UK, and among clinicians and laboratory scientists working in haematological malignancies. Our chosen field of inquiry - a haematological malignancy diagnostic service in the UK - is a particularly rich site through which to explore these twin aspects. PMID:23074299

  1. Mild clinical course in two South African cases of sickle-cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Mathew, C; Rubenstein, R; Jacobs, P

    1984-01-01

    Clinical, haematological and gene mapping data are presented on two South African cases of sickle-cell anaemia. Both individuals, who are siblings, have experienced a very mild clinical course. Restriction endonuclease analysis showed that 1 sibling was homozygous for alpha+-thalassaemia (genotype alpha-/alpha-), whereas the other had a full complement of alpha-globin genes. Both showed markedly elevated levels of Hb F. The maintenance of high levels of Hb F is the most probable explanation for the moderate clinical expression of the disorder in these patients. PMID:6202089

  2. Technetium Chemistry in HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian

    2005-06-06

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  3. Chemistry beyond positivism.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Werner W

    2003-05-01

    Chemistry is often thought to be quite factual, and therefore might be considered close to the "positivist" ideal of a value-free science. A closer look, however, reveals that the field is coupled to the invisible realm of values, meanings, and purpose in various ways, and chemists interact with that realm loosely and unevenly. Tacit knowledge is one important locus of such interactions. We are concerned in this essay with two questions. What is the nature of the knowledge when we are in the early stages of discovery? and In what ways does the hidden reality we are seeking affect our search for an understanding of it? The first question is partly answered by Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge, while the second one leads us to realize the limitations of our language when discussing "reality"-or certain chemical experimental results. A strictly positivist approach is of little use, but so is the opposite, the complete disregard of facts. The contrast between positivism and non-formulable aspects of scientific reasoning amounts to a paradox that needs to be analyzed and can lead to a "connected" chemistry. This in turn resembles networks described by Schweber and is more concerned than the chemistry "as it is" with aspects such as the image of chemistry, the challenges chemists face as citizens, and chemistry in liberal education. PMID:12796119

  4. Survey of antifungal prophylaxis and fungal diagnostic tests employed in malignant haematology and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    van Hal, S J; Gilroy, N M; Morrissey, C O; Worth, L J; Szer, J; Tam, C S; Chen, S C; Thursky, K A; Slavin, M A

    2014-12-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey developed to assess the current use of antifungal prophylaxis among haematology and infectious disease clinicians across Australia and New Zealand, and their alignment with existing consensus guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in the haematology/oncology setting (published 2008). Surveyed clinicians largely followed the current recommendations for prophylaxis in the setting of induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia, as well as autologous and low-risk allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In keeping with guideline recommendations, posaconazole was the agent used by most centres for high-risk allogeneic HSCT. However, its routine continuation for 75-100 days post-transplantation without de-escalation suggested use beyond those indications described in the 2008 guidelines, namely pre-engraftment neutropenia and graft-versus-host disease. Variations in practice were observed in other settings, such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, reflecting the general lack of evidence for antifungal prophylaxis in these patient populations and changing perceptions of risk. With regard to the availability of testing in cases of suspected breakthrough IFD, 40% of centres did not have access to investigative bronchoscopy within 48 h of referral, and results of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM), fungal polymerase chain reaction and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) were not available within 48 h in 83%, 90% and 85% of centres respectively. The survey's findings will influence the recommendations provided in the updated 2014 consensus guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in the haematology/oncology setting. PMID:25482740

  5. Effects of supplementation of threshed sorghum top with selected browse plant foliage on haematology and serum biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Oyekunle, Mufutau Atanda; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami; Makinde, Olayinka John

    2016-06-01

    The haematological and biochemical parameters of 24 growing Red Sokoto bucks (9.00 ± 0.25 kg body weight) fed threshed sorghum top (TST) with or without five different browse plant foliage Afzelia africana (AA), Daniellia oliveri (DO), Piliostigma thonningii (PT), Pterocarpus erinaceus (PE) and Annona senegalensis (AS) supplements were studied using a completely randomized design. All haematological parameters were (P < 0.05) lower in TST-fed goats compared with TST-supplemented goats, except for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes and monocytes which did not follow a particular pattern. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin and monocytes were higher for AA-supplemented goats while MCHC was reduced relative to other supplements (P < 0.05). White blood cell counts were increased in DO lambs compared to other supplements (P < 0.05). Serum proteins, creatinine, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate were reduced in TST compared with the supplements (P < 0.05). Cholesterol was higher for PT and AA than other diets (P < 0.05). Aspartate transaminase was reduced in TST goats relative to the supplements (P < 0.05). Except for potassium which was reduced in AS (P < 0.05), all serum major minerals were similar among diets. Results indicate that the entire browse fodder are good supplements to low-quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better supplementary effect on haematological and biochemical parameters of the goats. PMID:27010715

  6. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  7. A Rare Case of Transfusion Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus to Two Patients with Haematological Disease

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Suely Gonçalves Cordeiro; Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Alves, Gilda; Brito, Selma Magalhães; Sandes, Valcieny de Souza; Lima, Magda Maria Adorno Ferreira; Nogueira, Marta Colares; Tavares, Rita de Cássia Barbosa da Silva; Dobbin, Jane; Apa, Alexandre; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Ferreira Jr, Orlando da Costa; Motta, Iara de Jesus Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background This paper describes the transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to two blood recipients from a healthy donor that later presented to the blood bank with jaundice. Methods The RNA of HAV was detected by qualitative nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) and quantified by real-time RT-PCR. HAV RNA samples were genotyped by direct sequencing of PCR products. A sequence from a fragment of 168 bp from the VP1/2A HAV region was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Case Report A 31-year-old male donor accepted for donation of a whole blood unit returned to the blood bank with clinical jaundice 20 days after donation. His serological and NAT tests were negative for HBV and HCV. Serological tests for HAV IgM and IgG were negative on donation sample but positive on follow-up sample, confirming donor's HAV acute infection. Both recipients of red blood cells (R1) and platelet concentrate (R2) from the same implicated donation were HAV IgM-negative and IgG-positive. Qualitative PCR was positive on samples from all three individuals and phylogenetic analysis of viruses proved HAV transmission to the two recipients of blood products. HAV viral load on donor follow-up sample and the platelet recipient was 1.3 and 1.5 × 103 IU/ml, respectively. The RBC recipient, also infected by HCV, was undergoing bone marrow transplantation and died from fulminant hepatitis, 26 days after the implicated HAV transfusion. Conclusion The blood donor, a garbage collector, spontaneously returned to the blood bank when developing jaundice. This highlights the importance of donor education to immediately report to blood banks of any signs and symptoms related to infectious disease developed after blood donation. The fact that one immunocompromised patient with HCV infection died from fulminant hepatitis after receiving a HAV-contaminated platelet transfusion underpins the importance of a HAV vaccination program for these group of patients. PMID

  8. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  9. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes. PMID:26035690

  10. Atmospheric chemistry research

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Global environmental changes are occurring all around us, and the energy industry is a major player in the changes that are taking place. Wise energy policy can only be generated from a position of informed enlightenment and understanding about the environmental consequences of energy production and utilization. The atmospheric chemistry research being conducted at the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research is geared toward providing the knowledge necessary to allow industrial and legislative officials to make responsible energy decisions in the 1990's and beyond. Three programs are described: the Kentucky Acid Deposition Program Precipitation chemistry network; modeling of regional and urban photochemistry and acid deposition; and modeling of global tropospheric chemistry.

  11. Interstellar sulfur chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, S. S.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a chemical model of SO, CS, and OCS chemistry in dense clouds are summarized. The results are obtained from a theoretical study of sulfur chemistry in dense interstellar clouds using a large-scale time-dependent model of gas-phase chemistry. Among the results are the following: (1) owing to activation energy, the reaction of CS with O atoms is efficient as a loss mechanism of CS during the early phases of cloud evolution or in hot and oxygen-rich sources such as the KL nebula; (2) if sulfur is not abnormally depleted in dense clouds, then the observed abundances of SO, SO2, H2S, CS, OCS, H2CS, and SiS indicate that sulfur is mostly atomic in dense clouds; and (3) OCS is stable against reactions with neutral atoms and radicals in dense clouds.

  12. Digital biology and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2014-09-01

    This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and

  13. Chemistry WebBook

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  14. Chemistry of Transactinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, J. V.

    In this chapter, the chemical properties of the man-made transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf (element 104), dubnium, Db (element 105), seaborgium, Sg (element 106), bohrium, Bh (element 107), hassium, Hs (element 108), and copernicium, Cn (element 112) are reviewed, and prospects for chemical characterizations of even heavier elements are discussed. The experimental methods to perform rapid chemical separations on the time scale of seconds are presented and comments are given on the special situation with the transactinides where chemistry has to be studied with single atoms. It follows a description of theoretical predictions and selected experimental results on the chemistry of elements 104 through 108, and element 112.

  15. Chemistry in cometary comae.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W M; Dickens, J E; Lovell, A J; Schloerb, F P; Senay, M; Bergin, E A; Jewitt, D; Matthews, H E

    1998-01-01

    Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model. PMID:9809016

  16. Computational Interstellar Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, So; Fan, Peng-Dong; Head-Gordon, Martin; Kamiya, Muneaki; Keçeli, Murat; Lee, Timothy J.; Shiozaki, Toru; Szczepanski, Jan; Vala, Martin; Valeev, Edward F.; Yagi, Kiyoshi

    Computational applications of electronic and vibrational many-body theories are increasingly indispensable in interpreting and, in some instances, predicting the spectra of gas-phase molecular species of importance in interstellar chemistry as well as in atmospheric and combustion chemistry. This chapter briefly reviews our methodological developments of electronic and vibrational many-body theories that are particularly useful for these gas-phase molecular problems. Their applications to anharmonic vibrational frequencies of triatomic and tetratomic interstellar molecules and to electronic absorption spectra of the radical ions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, are also discussed.

  17. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  18. Chemistry in Second Life

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Andrew SID; Bradley, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    This review will focus on the current level on chemistry research, education, and visualization possible within the multi-user virtual environment of Second Life. We discuss how Second Life has been used as a platform for the interactive and collaborative visualization of data from molecules and proteins to spectra and experimental data. We then review how these visualizations can be scripted for immersive educational activities and real-life collaborative research. We also discuss the benefits of the social networking affordances of Second Life for both chemists and chemistry students. PMID:19852781

  19. Nanophotonics and supramolecular chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hill, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has become a key area in emerging bottom-up nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, supramolecular systems that can produce a photonic output are increasingly important research targets and present various possibilities for practical applications. Accordingly, photonic properties of various supramolecular systems at the nanoscale are important in current nanotechnology. In this short review, nanophotonics in supramolecular chemistry will be briefly summarized by introducing recent examples of control of photonic responses of supramolecular systems. Topics are categorized according to the fundamental actions of their supramolecular systems: (i) self-assembly; (ii) recognition; (iii) manipulation.

  20. Chemistry in cometary comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Dickens, J. E.; Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Senay, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Jewitt, D.; Matthews, H. E.

    1998-01-01

    Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model.

  1. Computational Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry: From Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hillisch, Alexander; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Wild, Hanno

    2015-12-01

    Computational chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry has grown into a field that proactively contributes to many aspects of drug design, including target selection and lead identification and optimization. While methodological advancements have been key to this development, organizational developments have been crucial to our success as well. In particular, the interaction between computational and medicinal chemistry and the integration of computational chemistry into the entire drug discovery process have been invaluable. Over the past ten years we have shaped and developed a highly efficient computational chemistry group for small-molecule drug discovery at Bayer HealthCare that has significantly impacted the clinical development pipeline. In this article we describe the setup and tasks of the computational group and discuss external collaborations. We explain what we have found to be the most valuable and productive methods and discuss future directions for computational chemistry method development. We share this information with the hope of igniting interesting discussions around this topic. PMID:26358802

  2. The Chemistry of Fragrances: A Group Exercise for Chemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duprey, Roger; Sell, Charles S.; Lowe, Nigel D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents Fragrance Structured Learning Packages (SLPs), group activities designed to help students recognize the value of applying chemistry in a real-world setting. Developed by the Department of Chemistry at the University of York. (Author/KHR)

  3. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanoprobes based on click chemistry. Nanoprobes including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials are covered. We discuss the advantages of click chemistry-mediated nanosensors for biochemical assays, and give perspectives on the development of click chemistry-mediated approaches for clinical diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:27217831

  4. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanoprobes based on click chemistry. Nanoprobes including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials are covered. We discuss the advantages of click chemistry-mediated nanosensors for biochemical assays, and give perspectives on the development of click chemistry-mediated approaches for clinical diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:27217831

  5. Epoxying Isoprene Chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    It seems that every few months we read about another missing aspect of atmospheric chemistry: missing products, missing reactivity, missing sources, missing understanding. Thus, it is with some relief that we read in this issue the paper of Paulot et al. The paper provides more...

  6. Chemistry of Meridiani Outcrops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A.; Gellert, R.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry and mineralogy of the sulfate-rich sandstone outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Mars, have been inferred from data obtained by the Opportunity rover of the MER mission and reported in recent publications [1-6]. Here, we provide an update on more recent samples and results derived from this extensive data set.

  7. Array processors in chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.

  8. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  9. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Thomas; Semenov, Dmitry

    2013-12-01

    This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.

  10. Chemistry in the Troposphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chameides, William L.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1982-01-01

    Topics addressed in this review of chemistry in the troposphere (layer of atmosphere extending from earth's surface to altitude of 10-16km) include: solar radiation/winds; earth/atmosphere interface; kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions; tropospheric free-radical photochemistry; instruments for nitric oxide detection; sampling…

  11. Online Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  12. Chemistry in a Nutshell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupnow, John; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity that involves making peanut butter in the laboratory as a way to teach students the chemistry concepts of emulsification, solubility, and formulation. Enables students to realize that they can actually create or modify the physical and sensory characteristics of peanut butter and taste the differences in their work. (JRH)

  13. SMIP Chemistry Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes Coll., Wilkes-Barre, PA.

    Included are most guides for a one-year course in senior high school chemistry. The guides may be interchanged at the teacher's discretion, following any text sequence or course outline. Each guide consists of six sections: (1) an approach, which briefly discusses the unit in terms of background material, pitfalls to be avoided, and suggested…

  14. Chemistry Cook-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  16. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  17. Chemistry on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Richard D.

    1996-01-01

    Gives an overview of the World Wide Web, describes what is required to access it, and highlights some of the features of interest to chemists such as Web-based chemical databases that feature user-interactive molecular structures and chemical movies. Lists Internet chemistry resources designed for Web browsers and locations for obtaining Web…

  18. Metaphorical Models in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart; Bhusan, Nalini

    1995-01-01

    What happens when students of chemistry fail to recognize the metaphorical status of certain models and interpret them literally? Suggests that such failures lead students to form perceptions of phenomena that can be misleading. Argues that the key to making good use of metaphorical models is a recognition of their metaphorical status. Examines…

  19. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  20. Getting Reactions to Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter S.

    1983-01-01

    "COMETS on Careers" describes science-related careers, introduces activities illustrating a science concept being studied, and encourages use of professional persons as activity leaders. Several COMETS chemistry activities are described. These activities, which can be performed in school or at home, focus on colloids, acid/base indicators, and…