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Sample records for clinical chemistry haematology

  1. Effects of probiotic supplementation over 5 months on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; West, N P; Horn, P L; Lehtinen, M J; Koerbin, G; Pyne, D B; Lahtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W

    2014-11-01

    Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues. PMID:25052229

  2. Parameters of haematology, clinical chemistry and lipid metabolism in the common marmoset and alterations under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuehnel, F; Grohmann, J; Buchwald, U; Koeller, G; Teupser, D; Einspanier, A

    2012-08-01

    Common marmosets are suitable non-human primate models for many human diseases. Standard values for blood parameters are required to evaluate physiological and pathological situations. Two studies were conducted: study I to determine standard values and study II to examine these under changed housing conditions. In study I, all parameters for clinical chemistry were similar in range for both genders with these specifics: male marmosets had significantly higher total and LDL cholesterol levels than females, whereas the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin were significantly lower than in females. In study II, glucose, lymphocytes and salivary cortisol were significantly lower, and faecal cortisol was increased during the change of housing conditions. In conclusion, standard values for haematology and clinical chemistry for the common marmoset were determined. Further on, parameters that are influenced by relocation stress and its importance for experimental results are described. PMID:22765494

  3. Understanding the impact of pre-analytic variation in haematological and clinical chemistry analytes on the power of association studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Amadou; Peakman, Tim; Tobin, Martin D; Burton, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Errors, introduced through poor assessment of physical measurement or because of inconsistent or inappropriate standard operating procedures for collecting, processing, storing or analysing haematological and biochemistry analytes, have a negative impact on the power of association studies using the collected data. A dataset from UK Biobank was used to evaluate the impact of pre-analytical variability on the power of association studies. Methods: First, we estimated the proportion of the variance in analyte concentration that may be attributed to delay in processing using variance component analysis. Then, we captured the proportion of heterogeneity between subjects that is due to variability in the rate of degradation of analytes, by fitting a mixed model. Finally, we evaluated the impact of delay in processing on the power of a nested case-control study using a power calculator that we developed and which takes into account uncertainty in outcome and explanatory variables measurements. Results: The results showed that (i) the majority of the analytes investigated in our analysis, were stable over a period of 36 h and (ii) some analytes were unstable and the resulting pre-analytical variation substantially decreased the power of the study, under the settings we investigated. Conclusions: It is important to specify a limited delay in processing for analytes that are very sensitive to delayed assay. If the rate of degradation of an analyte varies between individuals, any delay introduces a bias which increases with increasing delay. If pre-analytical variation occurring due to delays in sample processing is ignored, it affects adversely the power of the studies that use the data. PMID:25085103

  4. Haematology and blood chemistry values for several flamingo species.

    PubMed

    Peinado, V I; Polo, F J; Viscor, G; Palomeque, J

    1992-01-01

    Reference values for some haematological and plasma chemical values in four species of clinically normal adult flamingos were established for use in avian medicine. The following variables were studied in rosy, greater, Chilean and lesser flamingos: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, haematimetric indices, erythrocyte dimensions, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, total phosphorus, chloride, total plasma protein, albumin, globulins, albumin-globulin ratio, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and osmolality. PMID:18670915

  5. Haematology and plasma chemistry of the red top ice blue mbuna cichlid (Metriaclima greshakei).

    PubMed

    Snellgrove, Donna L; Alexander, Lucille G

    2011-10-01

    Clinical haematology and blood plasma chemistry can be used as a valuable tool to provide substantial diagnostic information for fish. A wide range of parameters can be used to assess nutritional status, digestive function, disease identification, routine metabolic levels, general physiological status and even the assessment and management of wild fish populations. However to evaluate such data accurately, baseline reference intervals for each measurable parameter must be established for the species of fish in question. Baseline data for ornamental fish species are limited, as research is more commonly conducted using commercially cultured fish. Blood samples were collected from sixteen red top ice blue cichlids (Metriaclima greshakei), an ornamental freshwater fish, to describe a range of haematology and plasma chemistry parameters. Since this cichlid is fairly large in comparison with most tropical ornamental fish, two independent blood samples were taken to assess a large range of parameters. No significant differences were noted between sample periods for any parameter. Values obtained for a large number of parameters were similar to those established for other closely related fish species such as tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). In addition to reporting the first set of blood values for M. Greshakei, to our knowledge, this study highlights the possibility of using previously established data for cultured cichlid species in studies with ornamental cichlid fish. PMID:22005416

  6. Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8 months old sheep, weighing on average 30 kg, from which 15 mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8 days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p < 0.05). Haematological variables including globular volume and erythrocyte counts showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) at all time points after collection and increased (p < 0.01) at all time points after reinfusion. There was a significant increase in total protein and calcium at all time points after reinfusion (p < 0.05). Conclusion Autologous transfusion in sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection. PMID:22607611

  7. Cerebrovascular disease as the initial clinical presentation of haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Arboix, A; Besses, C

    1997-01-01

    We describe 14 patients (mean age 57 years) in whom stroke or TIA was the presenting manifestation of a haematologic disorder. Twelve patients had an ischaemic stroke and 2 a haemorrhagic stroke. This group represented 1.27% (14/1,099) of the total number of patients with first-ever stroke diagnosed from 1986 to 1992 at our institution, accounted for 1.32% (12/906) of all brain infarcts and 1.03% (2/193) of all haemorrhagic strokes, and was the most common aetiology (25%) of ischaemic stroke of unusual cause. Haematological disorders included essential thrombocythaemia (6), polycythaemia vera (1), smoker's polycythaemia (1), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (1), IgA lambda myeloma (1), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (1), Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (1), chronic granulocytic leukaemia (1) and IgG lambda myeloma (1). Stroke subtypes included definitive cerebral infarct (10), TIA (2), parenchymal haemorrhage (1) and spontaneous subdural haematoma (1). Vascular territories in ischaemic stroke were the carotid in 7 patients, the vertebrobasilar in 1 and undetermined in 4. Mean follow-up was 40 months (range, 1-96 months). The mortality rate was 18.7%. PMID:9208259

  8. A nightmare for haematology clinics: extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannnii.

    PubMed

    Metan, Gkhan; Pala, i?dem; Kaynar, Leylagl; Cevahir, Fatma; Alp, Emine

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to share experience on demographic characteristics and clinical outcome of the patients infected with extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) in haematology clinics, focusing on the period with a sudden increase in the number of XDRAB cases. A regular patient-based infection control programme was set up in haematology clinics and haematopoietic stem cell transplant centre starting from 2008. An infection control nurse visited all patients daily. A form including demographic data and laboratory results were recorded for all patients. The source of infections was identified according to the criteria proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While haematology ward-acquired XRDAB was rare before 2012, between January 2012 and July 2013, 29 A. baumannii infection episodes were detected in 28 patients. All but one isolate were MDR and 72.4% (21 out of 29) were XDR. Blood cultures revealed A. baumannii in 26 out of 29 episodes. While the haematological malignancy was relapsing or not under remission in 15 patients, four patients were under remission, and 10 patients were newly diagnosed. The mortality rate was 81.2%. All patients with a poor outcome died in the first week after the index blood culture was performed. In 16 out of 29 episodes, the patients died before the culture results became available. Colistin was initiated for the treatment in 11 out of 29 episodes. Three patients received colistin combined with sulbactam or sulbactam containing beta-lactams; the remaining eight patients who received colistin monotherapy were already under carbapenems. In conclusion, XDRAB infections can easily become nightmares for haematology clinics without any reliable treatment option. PMID:25551842

  9. Virologic response and haematologic toxicity of boceprevir- and telaprevir-containing regimens in actual clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Butt, A A; Yan, P; Shaikh, O S; Freiberg, M S; Lo Re, V; Justice, A C; Sherman, K E

    2015-09-01

    Effectiveness, safety and tolerability of boceprevir (BOC) and telaprevir (TPV) in actual clinical settings remain unknown. We determined rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and haematologic adverse effects among persons treated with BOC- or TPV-containing regimens, compared with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PEG/RBV). Using an established cohort of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons, Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), we identified those treated with a BOC- or TPV-containing regimen and HCV genotype 1-infected controls treated with PEG/RBV. We excluded those with HIV coinfection and missing HCV RNA values to determine SVR. Primary endpoints were SVR (undetectable HCV RNA ≥12 weeks after treatment completion) and haematologic toxicity (grade 3/4 anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia). We evaluated 2288 persons on BOC-, 409 on TPV-containing regimen and 6308 on PEG/RBV. Among these groups, respectively, 31%, 43% and 9% were treatment-experienced; 17%, 37% and 14% had baseline cirrhosis; 63%, 54% and 48% were genotype 1a. SVR rates among noncirrhotics were as follows: treatment naïve: 65% (BOC), 67% (TPV) and 31% (PEG/RBV); treatment experienced: 57% (BOC), 54% (TPV) and 13% (PEG/RBV); (P-value not significant for BOC vs TPV; P < 0.0001 for BOC or TPV vs PEG/RBV). Haematologic toxicities among BOC-, TPV- and PEG/RBV-treated groups were as follows: grade 3/4 anaemia 7%, 11% and 3%; grade 4 thrombocytopenia 2.2%, 5.4% and 1.7%; grade 4 neutropenia 8.2%, 5.6% and 3.4%. SVR rates are higher and closer to those reported in pivotal clinical trials among BOC- and TPV-treated persons compared with PEG/RBV-treated persons. Haematologic adverse events are frequent, but severe toxicity is uncommon. PMID:25524834

  10. Alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity in horses: clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M

    2013-07-27

    The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited. PMID:23800626

  11. Some haematological and clinical-chemical parameters of sight hounds (Afghan hound, saluki and whippet).

    PubMed

    Hilppö, M

    1986-01-01

    Blood was collected from 111 clinically healthy dogs of sight hound breeds for haematological and clinical chemical analyses. The distributions according to age, breed and sex are tabulated. Reference values for haemoglobin were established as 172-240 g/l for adults and 136-217 g/l for growing dogs; the respective packed cell volume values were 50-69% and 41-64%. Ten serum parameters were determined: AP, ALAT, ASAT, GT, CK, urea, cholesterol, creatinine, total protein and albumin. The results are given as means +/- S.D., and a reference value for serum creatinine was established as less than or equal to 165 mumol/l for adults. PMID:3675721

  12. Clinical, haematological, cytokine and acute phase protein changes during experimental Babesia gibsoni infection of beagle puppies.

    PubMed

    Brown, A L; Shiel, R E; Irwin, P J

    2015-10-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a haemoprotozoan parasite of emerging global importance. The clinical presentation of babesial infections is diverse and the systemic inflammatory response induced by infection is considered to be a major feature of the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis. An experimental case-controlled longitudinal study was conducted to assess the clinical, haematological, cytokine and acute phase protein changes that occur during experimental B. gibsoni infection of beagle puppies. Infected dogs became transiently pyrexic and anaemic, intermittently neutropenic and transiently, but profoundly, thrombocytopenic, although this had no apparent adverse clinical effect. Experimental B. gibsoni infection also induced an acute phase response, characterised by a marked increase in the concentration of C-reactive protein, which was delayed in onset following infection but preceded the detection of peripheral parasitaemia. Experimental B. gibsoni infection was also associated with marked increases in the concentration of multiple cytokines which were also delayed in onset following infection and occurred subsequent to the detection of peripheral parasitaemia and the acute phase response. This study furthers our understanding of the immune response that occurs during babesial infections and the role that systemic inflammation plays in the pathophysiology of canine babesiosis. PMID:26297954

  13. Canine parvovirus enteritis 1: Clinical, haematological and pathological features of experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Macartney, L; McCandlish, I A; Thompson, H; Cornwell, H J

    1984-09-01

    The effect of oral infection of puppies, eight and 10 weeks old, with canine parvovirus of faecal origin was studied. Clinical signs of enteric disease were first apparent at five days after inoculation and persisted during days 6 and 7 after inoculation. The severity of clinical signs varied from transient dullness and anorexia to emesis, dysentery and death. Changes in haematological parameters were first found at day 3 after inoculation when a relative lymphopenia was observed. A profound neutropenia developed in severely affected dogs after the appearance of clinical enteric disease. Post mortem examination revealed thymic atrophy in all dogs killed on day 4 after inoculation. Macroscopic changes in the small intestine were apparent only in animals examined during the phase of severe enteric disease and consisted of thickening, rigidity and congestion of the small intestines. Microscopically there was lymphocytolysis in the thymic cortex and the germinal centres of the lymph nodes from days 2 and 3 after inoculation respectively and this rapidly resulted in depletion of these tissues. There was repopulation of lymph nodes from day 7 after inoculation but significant thymic regeneration was not apparent during the course of this study. In the small intestine, necrosis of crypt epithelium, atrophy of villi and, in some areas, complete collapse of mucosal architecture were found but the extent of these changes varied along the length of the small intestine and between individuals. Regenerative intestinal changes were observed in those animals surviving the acute phase of enteric dysfunction. The variable severity of clinical and enteric lesions, together with the factors which may affect the expression of clinical disease, are discussed. PMID:6091317

  14. Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1985-10-01

    Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia and four had heterophilia. The findings suggested that haematological testing is of potential diagnostic value in the species. PMID:18766947

  15. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  16. BCSH/BSBMT/UK clinical virology network guideline: diagnosis and management of common respiratory viral infections in patients undergoing treatment for haematological malignancies or stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dignan, Fiona L; Clark, Andrew; Aitken, Celia; Gilleece, Maria; Jayakar, Vishal; Krishnamurthy, Pramila; Pagliuca, Antonio; Potter, Michael N; Shaw, Bronwen; Skinner, Roderick; Turner, Andrew; Wynn, Robert F; Coyle, Peter

    2016-05-01

    A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology, the British Society for Bone Marrow Transplantation and the UK Clinical Virology Network has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of respiratory viral infections in patients with haematological malignancies or those undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This guideline includes recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of respiratory viral infections in adults and children. The suggestions and recommendations are primarily intended for physicians practising in the United Kingdom. PMID:27060988

  17. Continuing Education Instrumentation Training in Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Jacqueline; Frankel, Saundra

    1980-01-01

    Describes the continuing education program for clinical chemistry instrumentation training established at The College of Staten Island, New York. A course consisting of 14 sessions is outlined and discussed. (CS)

  18. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... a series of videos about the clinical laboratory tests critical to oncology care. (Image credit: ... showcases the cutting edge science and technology shaping the future of clinical testing and patient ...

  19. Using Clinical Cases to Teach General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…

  20. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  1. [Cryptosporidiosis in newborn calves in Ankara region: clinical, haematological findings and treatment with Lasalocid-NA].

    PubMed

    Sahal, M; Karaer, Z; Yasa Duru, S; Cizmeci, S; Tanyel, B

    2005-06-01

    In the first part of the present study, a total of 109 faeces samples collected from calves suffering from diarrhoea were examined for Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes and 39 (35.8%) of them were found to be positive. On the basis of oocyte counts, 14 (36%) samples were assessed as mildly infected and 25 (64%) samples as heavily infected. The occurrence of the disease was more common in winter (56.4%) than during other seasons (autuma 0%, summer 15.4% spring 28.2%. In the present study, the ionophore polyetherantibiotic Lasalocid-Na, that is licensed as a feed additive (Bovatec, 15% Lasalocid-Na, Roche AG) in Turkey, was administered to 11 calves naturally infected with Cryptosporidium and its therapeutic effect was evaluated. Lasalocid-Na (8 mg/ kg BW) was given once daily for 3 days added to the milk. The clinical parameters of infected calves were evaluated before and 3 days after the treatment in 24 hour intervals. The oocyst counts of faeces of calves with cryptosporidiosis were between 15 x 10(6) and 96 x 10(6)/mL before treatment. No oocystes were found in faecal samples of 3 calves (27.3%) after 48 hours and 4 (40%) calves after 72 hours of treatment, respectively. The number of oocytes in the faeces of the remaining calves varied between 90 and 1.2 x 10(6)/mL during the respective period. The number of oocystes before treatment was significantly higher than the number of oocytes after treatment. One of the calves died 56 h after the first treatment despite the treatment. The pH of venous blood was decreased prior to treatment as expected. The lowest pH was 6.83, the lowest bicarbonate concentration was 3.80 mmol/l and the lowest base excess was -31.2 mmol/l. After the treatment, pH, pCO2, HCO3- and BE values of the venous blood increased significantly and reached physiological values before discharge. The differences between the values assessed before the treatment and at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th sampling time were statistically significant. Number of leucocyte and haemoglobin concentration before the treatment were significantly higher than the values after treatment (p < 0.01). These values returned back to physiological ranges 72 hours after first treatment. Lasalocid-Na was rather well tolerated. Side effects such as the decline of the suckling reflex and intoxication symptoms in respect to present administration form and dosage were found only in one calf (9%). Treatment procedure in the present study with Lasalocid-Na was found to be suitable in combination with an adequate infusion therapy for the treatment of calves on farms with problems related to cryptosporidiosis. Although the use of Lasolacid-Na for the treatment of Cryptosporidium infection in the EU is banned, it might be used as an alternative drug outside of the EU since it has a successful effect for preventing reinfections. PMID:16028484

  2. Haematological problems in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc; Sheppard, Dawn; Gándara, Esteban; Tinmouth, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Physiologic changes occur during pregnancy, which influence normal haematologic values and impact the diagnosis and management of haematologic disease in pregnancy. Physiologic changes of pregnancy also commonly lead to mimicking symptoms of haematologic disease that may prompt investigations for haematologic disease. The toxicity and radiation associated with the diagnostic imaging and pharmacologic management of both benign and malignant haematological conditions during pregnancy present unique challenges. Strategies for diagnosis and treatment must weigh the benefits and risks to the mother while also taking foetal outcome into consideration. In this review, we highlight the common haematologic diseases encountered by obstetricians and try to provide guidance for the most prevalent diagnostic and therapeutic questions. At the other end of the spectrum, we also comment on less common but very challenging haematologic diseases in pregnancy that require multidisciplinary effort to arrive at difficult individual diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:25819750

  3. Haematology and neurology

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Steven; Cohen, Hannah; Losseff, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to update the reader on advances in the understanding of haematological conditions that may arise in neurological practice. Thrombophilia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, sickle cell and clonal disorders associated with neuropathy are discussed. PMID:17369588

  4. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation)

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory, limited only by the imagination and ingenuity of laboratory scientists. PMID:25336760

  5. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation).

    PubMed

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-08-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory, limited only by the imagination and ingenuity of laboratory scientists. PMID:25336760

  6. The quality assurance system in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Albertini, A; Signorini, C

    1995-01-01

    The quality assurance system in clinical chemistry allows for the identification of errors and control actions to correct them. It is well known that laboratory errors can be classified as: pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical. While pre-analytical and post-analytical errors are very difficult to identify, the analytical variability (both imprecision and inaccuracy) can be monitored with internal quality control (IQC) programs and external quality assessment (EQA) schemes. The purpose of IQC is mainly to verify the stability of laboratory estimates with time and therefore it is essentially a control of imprecision. IQC programs are based on the use of control samples which are analyzed in each analytical series. The easiest method of representing IQC data is by the use of Shewhart's chart, although "cusum" chart and Youden plot are often useful. As for the criteria according to which an analytical series should be accepted or rejected, the use of practical control rules is widely spread in laboratories. Participation in EQA schemes allows the laboratory to have a retrospective estimate of its performance in terms of both imprecision and inaccuracy, if definitive or reference methods are available. In lack of definitive or reference methods, consensus mean or median can be derived from the data obtained by all the participants or, in some cases, by the participants using the same analytical method (e.g. for analytes not yet completely characterized and measured with immunoassays. PMID:8546372

  7. Looking for prognosticators in ovine anaplasmosis: discriminant analysis of clinical and haematological parameters in lambs belonging to differently susceptible breeds experimentally infected with Anaplasma ovis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was carried out to evaluate the response of different native sheep breeds to experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis, the most prevalent sheep tick-borne pathogen in Apulia (Southern Italy). Thirty-four lambs belonging to a Northern European breed (Suffolk) and two Southern Italian breeds (Comisana and Altamurana) were infected. Eleven clinical as well as haematological parameters were monitored at different temporal resolutions on the same subjects before and after the infection, resulting in a data set of 435 observations. The present work, aiming to further the research, presents the results of a multivariate analysis carried out to identify which parameters out of the eleven considered are the most reliable parameters to be considered as markers of the disease phenotype as well as prognosticators of practical clinical importance. Results Data were analysed by discriminant analysis. Out of the eleven considered variables (red blood cells, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin content, haemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, neutrophils, leukocytes, platelets, rectal temperature), only seven were included in the step-wise model since significantly increasing the Mahlanobis distance between the two closest groups. Both discriminant functions resulted to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) and the percentage of variation accounted for by the first discriminant function was 63.6% of the variance in the grouping variable. Conclusions Taken together, the observed results stress the marked differentiation among the three breeds in terms of physio-pathological phenotypes indicating packed cell volume and red blood cell count as the most informative parameters in the routine clinical practice for A. ovis infection in sheep. PMID:24053615

  8. The practice of clinical chemistry in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Gerard T; Beastall, Graham H; Kohse, Klaus P; Zérah, Simone; Jansen, Rob; Köller, Ursula; Blaton, Vic; Lund, Erik; Parviainen, Markku; Charret, Jo; Gurr, Eberhard; Nicholou, Hara; Kenny, Desmond; Pazzagli, Mario; Opp, Matthias; Willems, Hans; Martins, Maria do Carmo; Queraltó, José M; Landin, Britta; Yu, Anna; McMurray, Janet

    2002-02-01

    The European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry has been actively engaged in raising the level of clinical chemistry in the European Union. Closer contacts between the national societies for clinical chemistry have resulted in more comparable programs for postgraduate training of clinical chemists, closer similarity of contents and practice of the profession in the different countries, and the official registration of professionals. This article reviews some of the characteristics of professional organisation, practice, and regulation in the fifteen European Union countries. Many similarities appear. In half of the countries microbiology, blood-banking and transfusion medicine fall within the domain of clinical chemistry. The minimum number of years for training (university and postgraduate) is eight, but in practice this will extend to 10 or more years. Official regulation of the profession by law exists in a minority of countries. Continuing education and re-registration have not been officially instituted yet in any country, but these issues will be the next steps forward. In those countries that prepare themselves for entering the European Union, training and practice of clinical chemistry are moving towards the common standards of the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry. PMID:11939495

  9. 78 FR 13347 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of... Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General...

  10. Effects of organohalogen pollutants on haematological and urine clinical-chemical parameters in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Letcher, Robert J; Shahmiri, Soheila; Andersen, Steen; Møller, Per; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Jensen, Asger L

    2008-03-01

    Seven West Greenland sledge dog bitches (Canis familiaris) and their three pups were fed 50-200 g of contaminated West Greenland minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber, and in a control cohort eight sister bitches and their five pups were fed a similar amount pork fat. Blood plasma and urine clinical-chemical parameters were measured and compared between the bitches and pups form the control and exposed cohorts. Based on existing reference intervals, Arctic mammals may have blood clinical-chemical endpoint levels that differ from comparable species at lower latitudes. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, protein:creatinine ratio, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and inorganic phosphate were significantly highest (ANCOVA: all p<0.05) in the pup generation. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase were significantly higher (ANCOVA: all p<0.05) in the control group, while glucose was significantly highest (ANCOVA: p<0.05) in the exposed group. Furthermore, the blood cholesterol levels indicate that exposure via the diet to marine mammal blubber has a preventive effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases. We therefore suggest that the consumption of contaminated Arctic marine blubber impacted liver and kidney function in adult and pup sledge dogs. PMID:17434585

  11. Contributions of Analytical Chemistry to the Clinical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogerboe, Kristen J.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical…

  12. Clinical and haematological risk factors for cerebral macrovasculopathy in a sickle cell disease newborn cohort: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sommet, Julie; Alberti, Corinne; Couque, Nathalie; Verlhac, Suzanne; Haouari, Zinedine; Mohamed, Damir; François, Martine; Missud, Florence; Holvoet, Laurent; Elmaleh, Monique; Ithier, Ghislaine; Denjean, André; Elion, Jacques; Baruchel, André; Benkerrou, Malika

    2016-03-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a significant vascular morbidity, especially cerebral macrovasculopathy (CV), detectable by transcranial Doppler. This study aimed to identify risk factors for CV using longitudinal biological and clinical data in a SCD newborn cohort followed at the Robert Debre Reference centre (n = 375 SS/Sβ(0) ). Median follow-up was 6·8 years (2677 patient-years). Among the 59 children presenting with CV, seven had a stroke. Overall, the incidence of CV was 2·20/100 patient-years [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1·64-2·76] and the incidence of stroke was 0·26/100 patient-years (95% CI: 0·07-0·46). The cumulative risk of CV by age 14 years was 26·0% (95% CI: 20·0-33·3%). Risk factors for CV were assessed by a Cox model encompassing linear multivariate modelling of longitudinal quantitative variables. Years per upper-airway obstruction [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1·47; 95% CI: 1·05-2·06] or bronchial obstruction (HR = 1·76; 95% CI: 1·49-2·08) and reticulocyte count (HR = 1·82 per 50 × 10(9) /l increase; 95% CI: 1·10-3·01) were independent risk factors whereas fetal haemoglobin level (HR = 0·68 per 5% increase; 95% CI: 0·48-0·96) was protective. Alpha-thalassaemia was not protective in multivariate analysis (ancillary analysis n = 209). Specific treatment for upper or lower-airway obstruction and indirect targeting of fetal haemoglobin and reticulocyte count by hydroxycarbamide could potentially reduce the risk of CV. PMID:26728571

  13. Cellular therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Roddie, P H; Turner, M L

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the recent progress made in the field of cellular therapeutics in haematological malignancy. The review also examined the role that the National Transfusion Services might play in the manufacture of new cellular therapeutic agents, given both their expertise in the safe provision of blood products and their possession of accredited cell manipulation facilities. Cellular therapy is entering an era in which novel cellular products will find increasing clinical use, particularly in the areas of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and immunotherapy. The production of novel cell-based therapies, both in Europe and North America, is now under strict regulatory control and therefore collaboration with the National Transfusion Services in the manufacture of these agents may well be beneficial if the production standards demanded by the regulatory authorities are to be fulfilled. PMID:12437515

  14. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo Bubalus bubalis heifers.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Hamed, Maha I; Ibrahim, Derar R; Rateb, Hassan Z

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. PMID:24831856

  15. Imaging features of haematological malignancies of kidneys.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, K; Menias, C O; Verma, S; Abdelbaki, A; Shaaban, A; Elsayes, K M

    2016-03-01

    Haematological malignancies are relatively uncommon neoplasms of kidneys. Nevertheless, the incidence of these neoplasms is increasing, partly due to more widespread use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses the clinical and imaging features of renal lymphoma, leukaemia, extra-osseous multiple myeloma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Although there is overlap of imaging features with other more common malignancies, such as transitional and renal cell cancers, the combination of imaging findings and the appropriate clinical picture should allow the radiologist to raise a provisional diagnosis of a haematological neoplasm. This has management implications including the preference for image-guided core biopsies and a shift towards medical rather than surgical therapy. PMID:26688550

  16. Cell-based biosensors in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kintzios, Spiridon E

    2007-10-01

    Cell-based biosensors represent the next revolution in medical diagnostics, offering a number of significant advantages, such as high speed, portability and low cost. The present review focuses on the most successful technologies used for the detection of ultra-low concentrations of bioactive analytes (such as metabolic markers and pathogens) in clinical samples. PMID:17979804

  17. Automated haematology analysis to diagnose malaria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, flow cytometry-based automated haematology analysers have been studied for malaria diagnosis. Although current haematology analysers are not specifically designed to detect malaria-related abnormalities, most studies have found sensitivities that comply with WHO malaria-diagnostic guidelines, i.e. ≥ 95% in samples with > 100 parasites/μl. Establishing a correct and early malaria diagnosis is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment and to minimizing adverse outcomes. Expert light microscopy remains the 'gold standard' for malaria diagnosis in most clinical settings. However, it requires an explicit request from clinicians and has variable accuracy. Malaria diagnosis with flow cytometry-based haematology analysers could become an important adjuvant diagnostic tool in the routine laboratory work-up of febrile patients in or returning from malaria-endemic regions. Haematology analysers so far studied for malaria diagnosis are the Cell-Dyn®, Coulter® GEN·S and LH 750, and the Sysmex XE-2100® analysers. For Cell-Dyn analysers, abnormal depolarization events mainly in the lobularity/granularity and other scatter-plots, and various reticulocyte abnormalities have shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 49% to 97% and 61% to 100%, respectively. For the Coulter analysers, a 'malaria factor' using the monocyte and lymphocyte size standard deviations obtained by impedance detection has shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 82% to 98% and 72% to 94%, respectively. For the XE-2100, abnormal patterns in the DIFF, WBC/BASO, and RET-EXT scatter-plots, and pseudoeosinophilia and other abnormal haematological variables have been described, and multivariate diagnostic models have been designed with overall sensitivities and specificities of 86% to 97% and 81% to 98%, respectively. The accuracy for malaria diagnosis may vary according to species, parasite load, immunity and clinical context where the method is applied. Future developments in new haematology analysers such as considerably simplified, robust and inexpensive devices for malaria detection fitted with an automatically generated alert could improve the detection capacity of these instruments and potentially expand their clinical utility in malaria diagnosis. PMID:21118557

  18. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  19. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  2. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  3. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  4. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  8. Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gochman, Nathan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

  9. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  10. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  11. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  12. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  13. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  14. [Toward pertinent analytical objectives for haematological parameters].

    PubMed

    Iobagiu, Cristina; Nehar, Diane; Denis, Isabelle; de Saint-Trivier, Aurlie; Boyer, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Usually, the blood cell counting activity in haematology laboratory uses the comparison of IQC values to the target values proposed by the manufacturer. We intended to improve the monitoring of the proper functioning of our analytical measure system for 17 main haematologic parameters. To set the allowable critical limits of IQC, we propose our reflection based on several elements: benchmark and expert recommendation, clinical requirements, statistical indicators of the laboratory calculated using IQC values (3 levels, 2 different lots, 2 haematology analysers and 2 passage modes) and the EEQ values, during four months. We exploited the reports obtained from the middleware (our own IQC values), and the interlaboratory comparison reports (obtained from SNCS and EuroCell websites) and we compared our performances to the Ricos objectives, to set clearly argued allowable limits for IQC values. Finally, the allowable limits correspond to the imprecision limits stated by Ricos for 14 parameters (desirable for 11 parametres and minimal for 3 parameters) and personalized limits (more exigent than desirable Ricos limits) for 3 parameters of blood cell counting. PMID:25486666

  15. 78 FR 19717 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... notice that appeared in the Federal Register of Wednesday, February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13347). The meeting... for up-to-date information on this meeting. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR doc. 2013-04543... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel...

  16. Leon Marchlewski: one of the precursors of clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Muszytowski, Marek; Rutkowski, Boles?aw

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic progress in the basic sciences such as clinical chemistry exerted a great influence on the development of clinical science in medicine in the 19th century. We should rate Prof. Leon Marchlewski among the group of prominent foreign and Polish scientists working in that period. Marchlewski was born in 1869 in Wloclawek, Poland. He began his chemical studies in Warsaw and then continued at the Zurich Technical University. After having graduated, he began working in the famous Edward Schunk's laboratory in Kersal near Manchester in England. At that time he achieved recognition for his research on the chemical affinity of dyes of the animal and plant world. Later he cooperated in this field with another great scholar Marceli Nencki. In 1900 he returned to Poland, and in 1906 he took charge of the Department of Medical Chemistry at Jagiellonian University. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize twice in 1913 and 1914 for his numerous achievements in the field of clinical chemistry. He took many positions at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, including dean and rector. In 1930-1935 he was a senator of the Republic of Poland. He died in 1946 in Krakow. PMID:21614780

  17. Haematological manifestations of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz, Anum; Igoe, Ann; Kurien, Biji T; Danda, Debashish; James, Judith A; Stafford, Haraldine A; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to compile information on the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), namely leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and myelofibrosis. During our search of the English-language MEDLINE sources, we did not place a date-of-publication constraint. Hence, we have reviewed previous as well as most recent studies with the subject heading SLE in combination with each manifestation. Neutropenia can lead to morbidity and mortality from increased susceptibility to infection. Severe neutropenia can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. While related to disease activity, there is no specific therapy for lymphopenia. Severe lymphopenia may require the use of prophylactic therapy to prevent select opportunistic infections. Isolated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura maybe the first manifestation of SLE by months or even years. Some manifestations of lupus occur more frequently in association with low platelet count in these patients, for example, neuropsychiatric manifestation, haemolytic anaemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and renal disease. Thrombocytopenia can be regarded as an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with SLE. Medical, surgical and biological treatment modalities are reviewed for this manifestation. First-line therapy remains glucocorticoids. Through our review, we conclude glucocorticoids do produce a response in majority of patients initially, but sustained response to therapy is unlikely. Glucocorticoids are used as first-line therapy in patients with SLE with AIHA, but there is no conclusive evidence to guide second-line therapy. Rituximab is promising in refractory and non-responding AIHA. TTP is not recognised as a criteria for classification of SLE, but there is a considerable overlap between the presenting features of TTP and SLE, and a few patients with SLE have concurrent TTP. Myelofibrosis is an uncommon yet well-documented manifestation of SLE. We have compiled the cases that were reported in MEDLINE sources. PMID:25861458

  18. Clinical chemistry equipment: a computerized system for cost evaluation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J I; Tydeman, J; Cassidy, P A; Hardwick, D F

    1983-01-01

    A computerized decision-support system has been developed and implemented to assist in the economic evaluation of alternative clinical chemistry equipment configurations. The capabilities, structure, and relative merits of the system are discussed. This decision-support system is now being used extensively by hospitals in British Columbia. An alternative equipment configuration, identified with the aid of the system, resulted in one hospital alone saving an annual $200,000 in consumables and reagents costs. Further development of computerized economic evaluation systems is encouraged. PMID:10310356

  19. Multicentre evaluation of the Monarch (IL) clinical chemistry analyser

    PubMed Central

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Guagnellini, Emma; Zoppi, Francesco; Montalbetti, Norberto; Okely, Carlo; Bonini, Pierangelo

    1989-01-01

    A multicentre evaluation of the Monarch centrifugal analyser is reported. Precision, linearity and accuracy were assessed by comparison with routine methods. Calibration stability, photometric and dispensing accuracy, and carry-over related to samples and reagents were also evaluated. The overall performance of the instrument was good, showing an excellent photometric and dispensing accuracy, absence of sample-dependent carry-over, and almost negligible reagent carry-over. Good precision, linearity and correlation with routine methods were found for the parameters tested. The instrument is reliable and is now used as the routine clinical chemistry analyser in two of the three laboratories taking part in the evaluation. PMID:18924678

  20. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  2. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  3. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  4. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  5. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Raffick A.R.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays. PMID:24627713

  6. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  7. Effects of different stressors in haematological variables in cultured Oreochromis aureus S.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Coffigny, R; Prieto-Trujillo, A; Ascencio-Valle, F

    2004-12-01

    Since haematological variables can be used to assess the health state in cultured fish, a haematological characterization of clinically healthy Oreochromis aureus was done to establish the reference indices of this species. Fish were subjected to different stressed conditions (bacterial infection, nitrite intoxication, malachite green overdose) to study the changes in the haematological indices and its relation with the health condition. This species showed microcytic anaemia under experimental bacterial infection by Corynebacterium sp.; anaemia, neutrophilia and erythrocytes deformation following nitrite intoxication and medication overdose with malachite green. PMID:15683834

  8. Medical chemists and the origins of clinical chemistry in Britain (circa 1750-1850).

    PubMed

    Coley, Noel G

    2004-05-01

    In this history, I review developments leading toward the establishment of clinical chemistry in Britain. Chemical research by certain physicians occurred in the context of medical traditions founded on vitalism, distillation analysis, and limited chemical knowledge. Urine chemistry figured prominently in this period together with the analysis of kidney and bladder stones. Bright's team studying albuminuria was the first clinical research school in Britain, whereas Prout's survey of physiological chemistry, based on meticulous attention to analysis, was the best summary of human metabolism before Liebig's Animal Chemistry. Liebig's ideas influenced all physicians who were interested in chemistry. Henry Bence Jones based his medical practice on Liebig's theories. His research relating urinary phosphates to diet and exercise revealed the so-called Bence Jones proteins and investigated the distribution and persistence of drugs in the body. J.L.W. Thudichum used analytical skills learned from Liebig in his brain chemistry work. George Owen Rees investigated urine analysis and the relationship between urine and blood, using Liebig's practical methods while condemning an uncritical acceptance of his theories. These and similar studies showed that chemistry could improve clinical medicine, and because it could also reveal the onset of disease even before clinical symptoms developed, it offered valuable support to preventive medicine. However, so many physicians resisted the introduction of chemistry that progress toward the establishment of clinical chemistry in nineteenth-century Britain was slow. PMID:15105362

  9. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

  10. Lipid peroxidation in Nigerians affected with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akinlolu, A; Akingbola, T; Salau, B

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated Lipid peroxidation status in twenty Nigerians; five (5) healthy subjects and 15 (fifteen) Haematological cancer patients; 5 affected with Chronic Myeloid leukaemia (CML), 5 (five) with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and 5 (five) with Multiple Myeloma. Consents were sought and received from all participants used in the study. 10 mls of blood samples were collected in lithium heparin bottles from all subjects used in the study. Free plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) quantification was used to assess lipid peroxidation in all subjects. MDA levels were increased in CML and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients compared with that of control subjects at P < 0.001. However, a decreased non-significant free plasma MDA level was observed in multiple myeloma patients compared with control subjects. Increase in lipid peroxidation status in Nigerians affected with Haematological malignancies may be associated with a dysregulation of antioxidant system. Lipid peroxidation status could be used as clinical clue for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients affected with haematological malignancies. PMID:23678650

  11. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  12. Tuberculosis in Patients with Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Anibarro, Luis; Pena, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that causes more than 1 million deaths worldwide every year. In addition, it is estimated that one third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis in a latent state, which involves an eventual risk of progressing to active TB disease. Patients with immunodeficiencies, such as those suffering from haematological malignancies, have a greater risk of progressing to TB disease once infected. It is estimated that the Relative Risk of TB disease in patients with hematologic malignancies is 2–40 times that of the general population. The diagnosis of TB in these patients is often challenging as they often present clinical characteristics that are distinct to those of patients without any other underlying disease. Mortality due to TB is higher. Therefore, it is recommended to diagnose latent TB infection and consider preventive therapy that could avoid the progression from a latent state to active TB disease. There are currently two methods for diagnosing latent TB infection: the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRA). Due to the lack of sensitivity in patients with immunodeficient conditions, a combined TST-IGRA testing is probably the best way for latent TB diagnosis in order to gain sensitivity. Treatment of latent TB infection and TB disease should follow the general principles to that in the general population. PMID:24803999

  13. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing

  14. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  15. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry: the case of newborn screening.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo

    2014-12-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) program is a complex and organized system consisting of family and personnel education, biochemical tests, confirmatory biochemical and genetic tests, diagnosis, therapy, and patient follow up. The program identifies treatable metabolic disorders possibly when asymptomatic by using dried blood spot (DBS). During the last 20 years tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) has become the leading technology in NBS programs demonstrating to be versatile, sensitive and specific. There is consistent evidence of benefits from NBS for many disorders detected by TMS as well as for congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia by immune-enzymatic methods. Real time PCR tests have more recently been proposed for the detection of some severe combined immunodeficiences (SCID) along with the use of TMS for ADA and PNP SCID; a first evaluation of their cost-benefit ratio is still ongoing. Avoiding false negative results by using specific biomarkers and reducing the false positive rate by using second tier tests, is fundamental for a successful NBS program. The fully integration of NBS and diagnostic laboratories with clinical service is crucial to have the best effectiveness in a comprehensive NBS system. PMID:24844843

  16. Biochemical and haematological effects of phenylbutazone in horses.

    PubMed

    Lees, P; Creed, R F; Gerring, E E; Gould, P W; Humphreys, D J; Maitho, T E; Michell, A R; Taylor, J B

    1983-04-01

    Five matched pairs of horses were used to investigate the effects of phenylbutazone on a range of physiological, biochemical and haematological variables. The drug was given by mouth daily for 15 consecutive days at the manufacturer's recommended dose rates to one group of horses (Group A); the second group (Group B) received equivalent doses of a placebo. For some of the measured parameters, significant changes were recorded in both groups, indicating background instability. Significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, plasma pH, viscosity and magnesium, and an increase in albumin: globulin ratio occurred in Group A, but not in Group B. These changes were, therefore, attributed to phenylbutazone or its metabolites. Toxicologically, the change in pH is probably unimportant but the decrease in protein concentration may have resulted from a protein losing enteropathy and/or from decreased synthesis in the liver. In one animal which received phenylbutazone, clinical signs of toxicity (lethargy, inappetence, oedema) were observed and evidence of hepatotoxicity and haematological changes were also noted in this horse. It is concluded that recommended dose rates of phenylbutazone should never be exceeded and that the period for which the highest dose (4.4 mg/kg body weight twice daily for four days) is administered should be reduced. In clinical cases, where phenylbutazone toxicity is suspected, measurement of serum or plasma protein concentration might provide an indication of the need to reduce dose levels or stop therapy. PMID:6873049

  17. Haematological and biochemical changes in experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C; Sudhakara Reddy, B

    2015-06-01

    New Zealand white rabbits (N = 4) were challenged with the local strain of Trypanosoma evansi. Each rabbit was infected with 5 × 10(5) trypanosomes subcutaneously. The infection was characterized by intermittent pyrexia, undulating parasitaemia, anorexia and emaciation. The infected rabbits were examined daily for development of clinical signs and infection status by wet blood-films made from the ear veins. Thick and thin blood smears were also examined daily until the end of the experiment for description of blood cells. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) was also done. The parasite was observed in the blood during the acute phase only. Leukocytosis in the acute phase followed by leukopenia during the chronic phase was recognized. Haematological studies revealed reduced TEC, Hb and PCV. The main changes in the erythrocytes were macrocytes, hypochromic cells, Howell-Jolly bodies, target cells, stomatocytes and burr cells. Serum chemistry revealed hypoproteinemia, hypocholesterolaemia, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, BUN, increased AST and ALT. PMID:26064003

  18. Intestinal helminths induce haematological changes in dogs from Jabalpur, India.

    PubMed

    Qadir, S; Dixit, A K; Dixit, P; Sharma, R L

    2011-12-01

    The effect of canine intestinal helminths on the haematological profile of 200 dogs, of both sexes and variable age, visiting university veterinary clinics for routine examination was investigated. The dogs were assigned to parasitized (n = 39) and non-parasitized (n = 161) groups of animals. Coprological examination revealed a 19.5% prevalence of different species of the helminths. Of these animals, 10.25% had mixed infections with Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris spp. and Dipylidium caninum. The intensity of A. caninum infection was the highest, with mean egg counts of 951.43 (standard error 88.66), followed by Toxascaris 283.33 (standard error 116.81) and D. caninum. The parasitized animals had significantly lower levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte counts than non-parasitized animals (P < 0.01). Values of other parameters, except for lymphocytes and eosinophils, were not different between the two groups. Analyses of the haematological profile revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia in the parasitized group of animals. PMID:21110909

  19. Cancer stem cells in haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Golab, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    At least several types of human haematological malignancies can now be seen as ‘stem-cell diseases’. The best-studied in this context is acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). It has been shown that these diseases are driven by a pool of ‘leukaemia stem cells (LSC)’, which remain in the quiescent state, have the capacity to survive and self-renew, and are responsible for the recurrence of cancer after classical chemotherapy. It has been understood that LSC must be eliminated in order to cure patients suffering from haematological cancers. Recent advances in LSC research have allowed for description of LSC phenotype and identification of potential targets for anti-LSC therapies. This concise review summarises the current view on LSC biology and targeted approaches against LSC. PMID:25691816

  20. Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of GOB Chemistry Knowledge Relevant to Clinical Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the…

  1. Biosimilar Epoetin Zeta in Oncology and Haematology: Development and Experience following 6 Years of Use.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Losem, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced anaemia is frequent in cancer patients, with severity depending on the extent of the disease and intensity of treatment. Clinical guidelines recommend erythropoietin therapy to treat or prevent anaemia in some oncology/haematology patients being treated with chemotherapy. The patent expiry of the first-generation erythropoietins has led to the development of biosimilar products, i.e. therapeutic proteins exhibiting comparable quality, safety and efficacy to an existing reference biological medicine, the patent of which has expired. This review summarises the available data set supporting the use of one such biosimilar product, epoetin zeta (Retacrit™) in oncology/haematology. The body of evidence supporting the use of epoetin zeta continues to grow, with post-marketing clinical studies underway to evaluate its longer-term clinical efficacy and safety. Biosimilar medicines have the potential to offer cost savings to health care providers, with the assurance of ongoing risk management programmes to ensure patient safety. PMID:26426164

  2. Non-malignant haematology research in the UK: looking forward to new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Collins, P W; Baglin, T P; Dang, R; Evans, G; Greaves, M; Laffan, M; Pasi, K J; Rose, P; Stanworth, S; Toh, C H

    2010-09-01

    Over the last few years there has been rapid and radical change in the way clinical research in the UK is funded and supported within the NHS. This has resulted from restructuring and major new investment in research infrastructure, co-ordinated through Clinical Local Research Networks (CLRNs) and equivalent organisations in the devolved nations. CLRNs have resources to support local researchers undertake studies that have been adopted on to the national research portfolio. For example, CLRNs can help with gaining local approvals or provide research nurses to recruit patients, undertake study procedures and perform data entry. CLRNs can establish Local Speciality Groups in a number of areas of medicine, including nonmalignant haematology. These new networks offer non-malignant haematology access to significant new resources and a major opportunity to support clinical research for the benefit of our patients. PMID:21105240

  3. Precautions adopted in a clinical chemistry laboratory as a result of an outbreak of serum hepatitis affecting hospital staff

    PubMed Central

    Percy-Robb, I. W.; Proffitt, J.; Whitby, L. G.

    1970-01-01

    This article describes the precautions which have been introduced into a clinical chemistry laboratory with a view to reducing the risk of infection of staff with the virus of serum hepatitis. PMID:5504369

  4. Comprehensive Reference Ranges for Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Parameters Derived from Normal Nigerian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash’le

    2014-01-01

    Background Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. Methods and findings Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors’ questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4%) males, 125 (32.6%) non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2%) with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB) and Hematocrit (HCT) had significant gender difference (p = 0.000) but not for total white blood count (p>0.05) which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000). Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001) but lower in pregnant women (p = 0.001) with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05) but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p<0.05). Total bilirubin was significantly higher in males than females (p = 0.000). Significant differences exist for all chemistry parameters between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study (p<0.05), except Amylase and total cholesterol (p>0.05). Conclusions Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations. PMID:24832127

  5. Haematological malignancies: the rationale for integrated haematopathology services, key elements of organization and wider contribution to patient care.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) defined the process of care for haematological malignancies in Improving outcomes in haematological cancers. The manual in 2003. The most challenging recommendation has been the requirement to develop integrated laboratory services for accurate diagnosis. This is an aim that has not been fully achieved. The unified concept of haematological malignancy is recent and based on an understanding of the cellular pathology of the bone marrow and immune systems. Historical UK pathology practice has previously resulted in the separation of laboratory haematology from histopathology and of liquid and tissue specimens. Proposals for reintegration and centralization with specialist-led, centralized diagnostic and reporting services challenge the fragmented historical model. Accuracy and certainty of diagnosis remains problematic, particularly for lymphomas, with evidence that the accuracy of diagnosis is slowly improving but still only approaches 85%. There is a potentially significant human and financial cost of diagnostic errors. No nationwide, validated and comparable epidemiology/population-based data exist for accurate and complete ascertainment of new cases of haematological cancer, service planning or clinical outcomes monitoring. This article examines the original rationale behind the NICE guidance and outlines the key components and processes of an integrated diagnostic service. PMID:21261689

  6. The chemistry of acrylic bone cements and implications for clinical use in image-guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, David A; Gailloud, Philippe; Murphy, Kieran

    2004-02-01

    Advances in image-guided therapy for vertebral fractures and other bone-related disorders have made acrylic bone cement an integral part of the interventional armamentarium. Unfortunately, information on the properties and chemistry of these compounds is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the interventional community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the properties of components in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based polymers, the most commonly used bone cements in interventional procedures such as percutaneous vertebroplasty. The effects of altering the concentration of components such as methylmethacrylate monomers, PMMA beads, benzoyl peroxide activator, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) initiator, and radiopacifiers on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also considered. This information will allow interventional radiologists to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific applications and maximize the clinical potential of image-guided interventions. PMID:14963178

  7. Guidelines for genomic array analysis in acquired haematological neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Schoumans, Jacqueline; Suela, Javier; Hastings, Ros; Muehlematter, Dominique; Rack, Katrina; van den Berg, Eva; Berna Beverloo, H; Stevens-Kroef, Marian

    2016-05-01

    Genetic profiling is important for disease evaluation and prediction of prognosis or responsiveness to therapy in neoplasia. Microarray technologies, including array comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-detecting arrays, have in recent years been introduced into the diagnostic setting for specific types of haematological malignancies and solid tumours. It can be used as a complementary test or depending on the neoplasia investigated, also as a standalone test. However, comprehensive and readable presentation of frequently identified complex genomic profiles remains challenging. To assist diagnostic laboratories, standardization and minimum criteria for clinical interpretation and reporting of acquired genomic abnormalities detected through arrays in neoplastic disorders are presented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26774012

  8. A guide to defining the competence required of a consultant in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Beastall, Graham; Kenny, Desmond; Laitinen, Paivi; ten Kate, Joop

    2005-01-01

    A definition has been agreed for the most senior professional (consultant) in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. A model job description for a consultant has been determined, which is intended to act as a toolkit to assist employing authorities and professional bodies to define the role of individual consultant posts. A total of 86 competences for a consultant have been designated and expressed in the form of simple generic proficiency standards. These competences have been allocated to six broad areas: clinical [13]; scientific [15]; technical [12]; communication [12]; management and leadership [20]; professional autonomy and accountability [14]. The competences are intended to be illustrative rather than definitive and to enable the duties of any consultant post to be defined. Assessment of competence is likely to entail consideration of qualifications, registration status, continuing professional development and performance review. The project is intended as a guide to European societies of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. The guide should be capable of local interpretation to encourage a greater degree of commonality in the role of the consultant whilst protecting national identity. The guide should stimulate international understanding and collaboration and contribute to an overall improvement in the quality of practice. PMID:16006263

  9. Heritable components of feline hematology, clinical chemistry, and acid-base profiles.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Dennis F; Chase, Kevin; Teckenbrock, Robert; Lark, Karl G

    2006-01-01

    Four erythrocyte variables (erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, mean cell volume, packed cell volume), 14 serum variables (alanine transferase, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, total protein, triglycerides, urea nitrogen), and 7 venous acid-base variables (base excess, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, oxygen saturation, pH, and total carbon dioxide) were evaluated for heritability in domestic cats (Felis catus). Values used for individual cats were expressed as the mean over all lifetime measurements, using 444-530 animals for clinical chemistry, 629 animals for acid-base, and 564 animals for erythrocyte metrics. Gender and age at death (where applicable) also were evaluated for correlation with variables. Heritabilities for clinical chemistry, acid-base, and erythrocyte variables ranged, respectively, from 0.13 to 0.78, from 0.23 to 0.59, and from 0.41 to 0.69 (P < 0.05). This result indicates that serum variability has a genetic basis and is segregating in this feline population. These findings may have important implications in both research and clinical medicine. PMID:17158462

  10. The clinical impact of IKZF1 deletions in paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is independent of minimal residual disease stratification in Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology treatment protocols used between 1992 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Linda; Ivanov Öfverholm, Ingegerd; Norén-Nyström, Ulrika; Zachariadis, Vasilios; Nordlund, Jessica; Sjögren, Helene; Golovleva, Irina; Nordgren, Ann; Paulsson, Kajsa; Heyman, Mats; Barbany, Gisela; Johansson, Bertil

    2015-09-01

    Paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (BCP ALL) with IKZF1 deletions (∆IKZF1) are associated with a poor outcome. However, there are conflicting data as to whether ∆IKZF1 is an independent risk factor if minimal residual disease (MRD) and other copy number alterations also are taken into account. We investigated 334 paediatric BCP ALL, diagnosed 1992-2013 and treated according to Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology ALL protocols, with known IKZF1 status based on either single nucleotide polymorphism array (N = 218) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (N = 116) analyses. ∆IKZF1, found in 15%, was associated with inferior 10-year probabilities of event-free (60% vs. 83%; P < 0·001) and overall survival (pOS; 73% vs. 89%; P = 0·001). Adjusting for known risk factors, including white blood cell (WBC) count and MRD, ∆IKZF1 was the strongest independent factor for relapse and death. ∆IKZF1 was present in 27% of cases with non-informative cytogenetics ('BCP-other') and a poor 10-year pOS was particularly pronounced in this group (58% vs. 90%; P < 0·001). Importantly, neither MRD nor WBC count predicted events in the ∆IKZF1-positive cases. Co-occurrence of pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) deletions in Xp22.33/Yp11.32 (P2RY8-CRLF2) and ∆IKZF1 increased the risk of relapse (75% vs. 30% for cases with only ∆IKZF1; P = 0·045), indicating that BCP-other ALL with both P2RY8-CRLF2 and ∆IKZF1 constitutes a particularly high-risk group. PMID:26018335

  11. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  12. Autoverification in a core clinical chemistry laboratory at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Davis, Scott R.; Drees, Denny; Morris, Cory; Kulhavy, Jeff; Crone, Cheri; Bebber, Tami; Clark, Iwa; Nelson, David L.; Teul, Sharon; Voss, Dena; Aman, Dean; Fahnle, Julie; Blau, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinical chemistry core laboratory. Subjects and Methods: At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS) to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs), delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and ‘absurd’ (physiologically improbable) values. Results: The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinical chemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%), albumin (99.8%), and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%). The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate) and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda), mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection) and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a high rate of autoverification is possible with modern clinical chemistry analyzers. The ability to autoverify a high percentage of results increases productivity and allows clinical laboratory staff to focus attention on the small number of specimens and results that require manual review and investigation. PMID:24843824

  13. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. The expanding role of robotics in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, K; Schnipeslky, P; Pardue, H L; Place, J; Truchaud, A

    1991-01-01

    Increasing numbers of robots are going to be employed industrial chemical laboratories. Most of these will be used to reduce the monotonous tasks of sample preparation, to minimize human exposure to dangerous environments or to carry out huge numbers of repetitive experimental procedures. For example, looking for the most effective condition or combination in chemical synthesis or the best microorganism in a large number of cultures. In the clinical laboratory the situation is slightly different and robotics is not so widely applied in clinical laboratories, but there is a definite trend to employ robots or robotic systems both to reduce labor volume and exposure of employees to possible biohazards and to help get more precise and correct results. These needs will be hard to fulfill via the usual automated devices and especially when adequate devices are not available. Specially designed machines will have to be produced to satisfy these demands and robotics will play a part. Finally we need to evaluate the effectivity of introduction of robotics in terms of economy, strategy, biosafety and other aspects. Typical examples of implementation of robotics in the clinical laboratory are transportation of specimens, front-end automation of sample preparation, separation and aliquotting as well as selected processes in a large scale automation systems. As described previously, robots that are commercially available now, are not intelligent enough to be easily handled by personnel who are not trained for robotics. There is a need for personnel dedicated to robotics who join the project from the very beginning of the plan and who can maintain the system properly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1807174

  14. [Optimising therapy in patients with haematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Dumontet, Charles

    2008-10-01

    Haematological malignancies, although relatively infrequent diseases, have benefited from major advances both in terms of diagnosis, identification of prognostic factors and therapeutic breakthroughs. The combination of morphological, cytogenetic, immunological and molecular approaches has greatly contributed to the identification of homogeneous entities, as well as prognostic subgroups of patients. Targeted therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors, have demonstrated their efficacy in this group of diseases and since then has been generalized to patients with solid tumours. Current efforts include the evaluation of individual characteristics of patients, including their genetic make-up, to reduce treatment toxicity while increasing the quality and the duration of response. PMID:19004726

  15. Correspondence of linearity evaluations to the performance of clinical chemistry instrument and reagent systems.

    PubMed

    Shires, G W

    1992-07-01

    The importance of demonstrating linearity for a clinical chemistry analytical system has caused considerable debate. Disagreement about the way linearity is demonstrated has led to some misunderstanding about just what linearity means to the analytical goals. In many cases where linearity is evaluated by statistical means, the outcome will indicate a nonlinear condition. A subsequent graph plot of the same data usually produces a line that is virtually straight. Confusion over which linearity evaluation outcome to accept creates a lack of confidence in either approach owing to the sometimes obvious disagreement between the two outcomes and the ill-defined impact linearity has on analytical error or clinical usefulness. Models of analytical performance can be constructed in such a way that the paradox of conflicting linearity evaluations can be examined through their effects on the analytical goals. PMID:1497450

  16. Development of an Integrated Reporting System for Verifying Hemolysis, Icterus, and Lipemia in Clinical Chemistry Results

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Se Il; Seo, Dong Min; Kim, Kab Seung; Jang, Jae Yun; Lee, Man Hee; Yoon, Kwang Ro; Yoon, Kap Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) cause preanalytical interference and vary unpredictably with different analytical equipments and measurement methods. We developed an integrated reporting system for verifying HIL status in order to identify the extent of interference by HIL on clinical chemistry results. Methods HIL interference data from 30 chemical analytes were provided by the manufacturers and were used to generate a table of clinically relevant interference values that indicated the extent of bias at specific index values (alert index values). The HIL results generated by the Vista 1500 system (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA), Advia 2400 system (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), and Modular DPE system (Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland) were analyzed and displayed on physicians' personal computers. Results Analytes 11 and 29 among the 30 chemical analytes were affected by interference due to hemolysis, when measured using the Vista and Modular systems, respectively. The hemolysis alert indices for the Vista and Modular systems were 0.1-25.8% and 0.1-64.7%, respectively. The alert indices for icterus and lipemia were <1.4% and 0.7% in the Vista system and 0.7% and 1.0% in the Modular system, respectively. Conclusions The HIL alert index values for chemical analytes varied depending on the chemistry analyzer. This integrated HIL reporting system provides an effective screening tool for verifying specimen quality with regard to HIL and simplifies the laboratory workflow. PMID:24982836

  17. Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Croatia: regulation of the profession.

    PubMed

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Topic, Elizabeta; Cvoriscec, Dubravka; Cepelak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity exists across Europe in the definition of the profession of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine and also in academic background of specialists in this discipline. This article provides an overview of the standards of education and training of laboratory professionals and quality regulations in Croatia. Clinical chemistry in Croatia is almost exclusively practiced by medical biochemists. Although term Medical biochemist often relates to medical doctors in other European countries, in Croatia medical biochemists are not medical doctors, but university degree professionals who are qualified scientifically. Practicing the medical biochemistry is regulated by The Health Care Law, The Law of the Medical Biochemistry Profession and The Law of the State and Private Health Insurance. According to the law, only medical biochemists are entitled to run and work in the medical biochemistry laboratory. University degree is earned after the 5 years of the studies. Register for medical biochemists is kept by the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists. Licensing is mandatory, valid for 6 years and regulated by the government (Law on the Health Care, 1993). Vocational training for medical biochemists lasts 44 months and is regulated by the national regulatory document issued by the Ministry of Health. Accreditation is not mandatory and is provided by an independent, non-commercial national accreditation body. The profession has interdisciplinary character and a level of required competence and skills comparable to other European countries. PMID:22141201

  18. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft... Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September...

  19. Comparison of the influence of EDTA-K3 and sodium citrate on haematology analysis in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Zmigrodzka, M; Winnicka, A; Guzera, M

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out on 30 clinically healthy dogs of various breeds. Haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, platelet count and platelet haematocrit were significantly lower in citrate blood than in tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-K3) blood. The study confirmed the limited usage of sodium citrate in haematology analysis, unless canine EDTA-dependent thrombocytopenia is suspected. PMID:22844720

  20. Molecular Characterization and Resistant Spectrum of Enterococci Isolated from a Haematology Unit in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiajia; Shi, Jinfang; Zhao, Ruike; Han, Qingzhen; Qian, Xuefeng; Gu, Guohao; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study screened clinical isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium to determine resistant spectrum and the potential virulence genes characterization among them of haematology patients. Methods Clinical Enterococci isolates were obtained from a haematology unit in a tertiary care hospital in China. Results Among 125 isolates available for the investigation, 46 were identified as E. faecium, and 79 were E. faecalis. Urine was the most common source (82, 65.6%). E. faecium isolates were more resistant than E. faecalis. Among E. faecium, maximum resistance was seen against PEN 93.5% and AMP 93.5% followed by CIP 87%. Eight vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) isolates were obtained, positive for vanA genotype. Of 125 Enterococci isolates, 67(53.6%) were acm, and 42.4%, 25.6%, 25.6%, 24.8%, 23.2%, 20.8%, 10.4% and 7.2% of isolates were positive for esp, cylL-A, asa 1, cylL-S, cpd, cylL-L, gel-E and ace, respectively. E. faecalis isolates have more virulence genes (VGs) than E. faecium. MLST analysis of VREfm identified three different STs (ST17, ST78 and ST203). Conclusion The study provides the molecular characterization and resistant spectrum of Enterococci isolated from a haematology unit in China. Molecular analysis showed that all VREfm isolates belonged to pandemic clonal complex-17(CC17), associated with hospital-related isolates. Therefore, determining resistant spectrum and virulence characterization is crucial for the prevention and control of the spread of nosocomial infections caused by Enterococci in the haematology unit. PMID:26266119

  1. Aluminum chelation: chemistry, clinical, and experimental studies and the search for alternatives to desferrioxamine.

    PubMed

    Yokel, R A

    1994-02-01

    This review focuses on aluminum (Al) chelation, its chemistry and biology. The toxicology and biology of Al in mammalian organisms are briefly reviewed to introduce the problems associated with excessive Al exposure and accumulation and the challenges facing an effective Al chelator. The basics of Al chelation chemistry are considered to help the reader understand the Al chelation chemical literature. The chemical properties of Al enable prediction of effective functional groups for Al chelation. A compilation of distribution coefficients between octanol and aqueous phases (Do/a) for chelators and their complexes with Al shows the effect of complexation on lipophilicity. A compilation of stability constants for Al.chelator complexes illustrates the role of oxygen in ligands that form stable complexes. The history of clinical Al chelation therapy is reviewed, with emphasis on desferrioxamine (DFO), which has been extensively used since 1980. The beneficial and adverse effects and limitations of DFO use in end-stage renal-diseased patients, in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, and in animal models of Al intoxication are presented. The methods to evaluate potential Al chelators in vitro, in vivo, and using computer modeling are discussed. The Al chelation literature is reviewed by the chemical class of chelators, including fluoride, carboxylic acids, amino acids, catechols, polyamino carboxylic acids, phenyl carboxylic acids, the hydroxypyridinones, and hydroxamic acids. PMID:8301696

  2. Thyroid function and other clinical chemistry parameters in subjects eating iodine-enriched eggs.

    PubMed

    Garber, D W; Henkin, Y; Osterlund, L C; Woolley, T W; Segrest, J P

    1993-04-01

    Iodine-enriched (IE) eggs are produced by chickens fed a diet containing kelp. These eggs, which contain an average of 711 micrograms iodine/egg, have been reported to reduce plasma cholesterol in humans and laboratory animals. A modified form of these eggs is under consideration for marketing in the United States. 104 hyperlipidaemic subjects were placed on a low-fat diet for 12 wk. Between wk 4 and 12, approximately half of the subjects were randomized to a dietary control group (n = 53) or a group who ingested one IE egg/day in addition to this diet (n = 51). Some subjects in both groups continued in the study for an additional 4-8 wk. No significant adverse clinical effects were observed or reported, with the exception of one subject who reported an allergic-like reaction soon after beginning egg ingestion. All clinical chemistry values remained within normal limits, and comparisons between the egg group and controls were not significant. Three subjects (two in the egg group and one in the control group) had elevated thyroid stimulating hormone levels during the experimental period. All thyroid function tests remained within normal limits in the remaining subjects. Thus, ingestion of one IE egg of the type used in our study appears to be relatively safe and devoid of clinically significant, short-term adverse effects in healthy individuals. PMID:8477914

  3. Protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis: Medicinal chemistry/clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Malemud, Charles J; Blumenthal, David E

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry strategies have contributed to the development, experimental study of and clinical trials assessment of the first type of protein kinase small molecule inhibitor to target the Janus kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. The orally administered small molecule inhibitor, tofacitinib, is the first drug to target the JAK/STAT pathway for entry into the armamentarium of the medical therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of tofacitinib into general rheumatologic practice coupled with increasing understanding that additional cellular signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways as well as spleen tyrosine kinase also contribute to immune-mediated inflammatory in rheumatoid arthritis makes it likely that further development of orally administered protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis will occur in the near future. PMID:25232525

  4. Current status of chimeric antigen receptor therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Maude, Shannon; Barrett, David M

    2016-01-01

    The field of adoptive cell transfer includes chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineered T cells, constructs that emerged from basic research into principles of immunology and have transformed into clinically effective therapies for haematological malignancies. T cells engineered to express these artificial receptors hold great promise, but also carry significant risk. While permanent genetic modification of mature T cells appears safe, modulating their in vivo function is difficult, partly because the robust response can trigger other arms of the immune system. Suicide systems and toxicity management with cytokine blockade or signal transduction modulators have emerged as a new frontier in this field, a far cry from early problems getting CAR T cells to work at all. Currently, clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory B cell malignancies treated with CD19-specific CAR T cells have induced durable remissions in adults and children. Results from these trials indicate that more work needs to be done to understand biomarkers of efficacy, the role of T cell persistence and how to integrate this care into standard practice. Cell therapy will not be a 'one size fits all' class of medicine, and here we will discuss the development of this therapy and important questions for its future. PMID:26560054

  5. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  6. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrab?kov, Petra; Vosl?ov, Eva; Bed?ov, Iveta; Pit?kov, Vladimra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimr

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  7. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  8. Trial of Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for Haematological Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Acute Myeloid Leukaemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia; Acquired Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes; Other Haematological Malignancies; Unrelated HSCT Indicated

  9. Haematological cancer and quality of life: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Allart-Vorelli, P; Porro, B; Baguet, F; Michel, A; Cousson-Gélie, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of haematological cancers on quality of life (QoL). A review of the international literature was conducted from the databases ‘PsycInfo' and 'Medline' using the keywords: 'haematological cancer', 'quality of life', 'physical', 'psychological', 'social', 'vocational', 'professional', 'economic', 'cognitive', and 'sexual'. Twenty-one reliable studies were analysed. Among these studies, 12 showed that haematological cancer altered overall QoL, 8 papers found a deterioration of physical dimension, 8 papers reported on functional and role dimensions, 11 papers reported on the psychological component and 9 on the social component. Moreover, one study and two manuscripts, respectively, reported deteriorated sexual and cognitive dimensions. Our review demonstrates that the different dimensions of QoL are deteriorated by haematological malignancies and, probably, by the side effects of treatment. PMID:25909835

  10. Age-related haematological changes and haemopathological responses in Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chiliensis).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1984-04-01

    Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 49 clinically normal Chilean flamingos of different ages. Compared with adults, chicks aged 2-3 months showed low haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations. There was a rise in haemoglobin level and red cell count with increasing age but the mean cell haemoglobin concentration did not reach optimum until the birds were mature. In chicks the total white cell count was high and the number of heterophils was widely variable. Findings on four sick adult birds provided preliminary evidence that clinical haematology has a potential diagnostic value in this species. PMID:18766839

  11. Hematology and clinical chemistry values of free-ranging basilisk lizards (Basiliscus plumifrons) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dallwig, Rebecca K; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Thomas, Chester; Medlin, Scott; Vaughan, Christopher; Sullivan, Linda; Sladky, Kurt K; Ramirez, Oscar; Herrera, Geovanny

    2011-06-01

    Twenty-three lizards were captured for this study, both males and females (12 males, 10 females, 1 undetermined), with a large range in body weights (40-286 g) appeared to be healthy based on activity level, physical examinations, and body condition scores. Heparinized blood samples from 20 free-ranging basilisk lizards (Basiliscus plumifrons) in Costa Rica were used for determining complete blood cell counts, plasma, and heparinized whole blood biochemical analysis. This information will serve as baseline reference data for future health assessment studies of free-ranging and captive basilisk lizards, as well as epidemiologic, conservation, and captive-breeding studies. A point-of-care analyzer was useful for this field study, and clinical chemistry values from heparinized whole blood samples were similar to values from plasma, which indicates that separation of plasma may not be necessary to process blood samples on site in remote areas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of hematologic and plasma biochemical data from free-ranging B. plumnifrons. PMID:22946396

  12. Characterization of Rheumatoid Arthritis Subtypes Using Symptom Profiles, Clinical Chemistry and Metabolomics Measurements

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, Anita J.; Reijmers, Theo H.; Schroën, Yan; Wang, Mei; Xu, Zhiliang; Wang, Xinchang; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang; Hankemeier, Thomas; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; van der Greef, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. Methods In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. Results The questionnaire items ‘Red joints’, ‘Swollen joints’, ‘Warm joints’ suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RHF) levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Conclusion Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient. PMID:22984493

  13. Chemokine Receptor CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc: Medicinal Chemistry and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immumodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the worst global pandemic. The virus infects human CD4 T cells and macrophages, and causes CD4 depletion. HIV enters target cells through the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein to CD4 and the chemokine coreceptor, CXCR4 or CCR5. In particular, the CCR5-utilizing viruses predominate in the blood during the disease course. CCR5 is expressed on the surface of various immune cells including macrophages, monocytes, microglia, dendric cells, and active memory CD4 T cells. In the human population, the CCR5 genomic mutation, CCR5Δ32, is associated with relative resistance to HIV. These findings paved the way for the discovery and development of CCR5 inhibitors to block HIV transmission and replication. Maraviroc, discovered as a CCR5 antagonist, is the only CCR5 inhibitor that has been approved by both US FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for treating HIV/AIDS patients. In this review, we summarize the medicinal chemistry and clinical studies of Maraviroc. PMID:25159165

  14. Effect of repeated freezing and thawing on 18 clinical chemistry analytes in rat serum.

    PubMed

    Kale, Vijay P; Patel, Sweta G; Gunjal, Prashant S; Wakchaure, Santosh U; Sundar, Rajesh S; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Jain, Mukul R

    2012-07-01

    In a preclinical research laboratory, using serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly is sometimes unavoidable when needing to confirm previous results or perform additional analysis. Here we determined the effects of multiple cycles of refrigeration or freezing and thawing of rat serum at 3 temperature conditions for different storage times on clinical chemistry analytes. Serum samples obtained from adult Wistar rats were stored at 2 to 8 °C and -10 to -20 °C for as long as 72 h and at -70 °C for as long as 30 d. At different time points (24, 48, and 72 h for samples stored at 2 to 8 °C or -10 to -20 °C and 1, 7, and 30 d for samples stored at -70 °C), the samples were brought to room temperature, analyzed, and then stored again at the designated temperature. The results obtained after each storage cycle were compared with those obtained from the initial analysis of fresh samples. Of the 18 serum analytes evaluated, 14 were stable without significant changes, even after 3 freeze-thaw cycles at the tested temperature ranges. Results from this study will help researchers working with rat serum to interpret the biochemical data obtained from serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly. PMID:23043814

  15. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... otherwise. In the Federal Register of October 14, 2010 (75 FR 63188), FDA announced the availability of the... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information '' dated February 2012. The guidance...

  16. The role of CCN family genes in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wells, J E; Howlett, M; Cheung, L C; Kees, Ursula R

    2015-09-01

    Haematological malignancies, although a broad range of specific disease types, continue to show considerable overlap in classification, and patients are treated using similar chemotherapy regimes. In this review we look at the role of the CCN family of matricellular proteins and indicate their role in nine haematological malignancies including both myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms. The potential for further haematological neoplasms with CCN family associations is argued by summarising the demonstrated role of CCN family genes in the differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells. The expanding field of knowledge encompassing CCN family genes and cancers of the HSC-lineage highlights the importance of extracellular matrix-interactions in both normal physiology and tumorigenesis of the blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. PMID:26026820

  17. ATM germline mutations in women with familial breast cancer and a relative with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Laura La; Laug, Anthony; Weber, Jrmie; Champ, Jrme; Cavaciuti, Eve; Russo, Antonio; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Biallelic inactivation of the ATM gene causes ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a complex neurological disease associated with a high risk of leukaemias and lymphomas. Mothers of A-T children, obligate ATM heterozygote mutation carriers, have a breast cancer (BC) relative risk of about 3. The frequency of ATM carriers in BC women with a BC family history has been estimated to be 2.70%. To further our clinical understanding of familial BC and examine whether haematological malignancies are predictive of ATM germline mutation, we estimated the frequency of heterozygote mutation carriers in a series of 122 BC women with a family history of both BC and haematological malignancy and without BRCA1/2 mutation. The gene screening was performed with a new high throughput method, EMMA (enhanced mismatch mutation analysis). Amongst 28 different ATM variants, eight mutations have been identified in eight patients: two mutations leading to a putative truncated protein and six being likely deleterious mutations. One of the truncating mutations was initially interpreted as a missense mutation, p.Asp2597Tyr, but is actually a splice mutation (c.7789G>T/p.Asp2597_Lys2643>LysfsX3). The estimated frequency of ATM heterozygote mutation carriers in our series is 6.56% (95% CI: 2.16-10.95), a significantly higher figure than that observed in the general population, estimated to be between 0.3 and 0.6%. Although a trend towards an increased frequency of ATM carriers was observed, it was not different from that observed in a population of familial BC women not selected for haematological malignancy as the frequency of ATM carriers was 2.70%, a value situated in the confidence interval of our study. PMID:19404735

  18. Cellular therapy to treat haematological and other malignancies: progress and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Phillip D; Gottlieb, David; Bradstock, Kenneth F; Hart, Derek N J

    2011-10-01

    The recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a cellular therapy to treat castration resistant prostate cancer has reinforced the potential of cellular therapy to consolidate current pharmacological approaches to treating cancer. The emergence of the cell manufacturing facility to facilitate clinical translation of these new methodologies allows greater access to these novel therapies. Here we review different strategies currently being explored to treat haematological malignancies with a focus on adoptive allogeneic or autologous transfer of antigen specific T cells, NK cells or dendritic cells. These approaches all aim to generate immunological responses against overexpressed tissue antigens, mismatched minor histocompatability antigens or tumour associated antigens. Current successes and limitations of these different approaches will be discussed with an emphasis on challenges encountered in generating long term engraftment, antigen selection and implementation as well as therapeutic immune monitoring of clinical responses, with examples from recent clinical trials. PMID:21897329

  19. [Management of treatment-induced pain in paediatric haematology].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamadi, Donia; Calvet, Clmence

    2015-01-01

    Invasive procedures are frequent and painful in children treated in paediatric haematology. It is therefore essential to take into consideration and anticipate the pain induced by these procedures. The caregiver has various effective methods of providing a high quality care management. PMID:26183097

  20. [The treatment of leukaemia in paediatric haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Héritier, Sébastien; Morand, Karine; Courcoux, Mary-France; Leverger, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haematology day hospital administers almost all types of chemotherapy used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Blood transfusions, myelograms and lumbar punctures are also performed there. The prevention of pain and anxiety generated by the care is a priority. PMID:26183094

  1. Design and implementation of a web-enabled haematological system.

    PubMed

    Gortzis, Lefteris; Koubias, Stavros; Nikiforidis, George

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the design and the implementation of a web-enabled integrated haematological system, named e-HS. The proposed system runs on a set of distributed network nodes providing useful haematological services. These services include patient-oriented data management, digitized histopathological slides (DHS) acquisition, teleconsulting facilities, etc. The objective of e-HS is to supply web-enabled services according to haematological requirements, implement a distributed storage scheme for DHS, and provide a common database containing all haematological laboratory results by using eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and web technologies. Our implementation can be accessible to every authorized physician at the distributed nodes without any additional software. The only software required for the user is the widely used browser (e.g. MS Internet Explorer v 3.02 or higher). Besides, by using a self-explaining user interfaces and HTML-techniques, such as hyperlinks, the necessary amount of training at the physicians-side is reduced to a minimum. A first implementation of the e-HS, has been established at the Medical Physics Department of the University of Patras (master node of the system), and has been tested with success by the medical staff of the Hospital Departments of the University of Patras and Thessalonica that served as distributed nodes of the system. PMID:15265621

  2. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  3. Learning Nuclear Chemistry through Practice: A High School Student Project Using PET in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT…

  4. Learning Nuclear Chemistry through Practice: A High School Student Project Using PET in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT

  5. Development and analysis of an instrument to assess student understanding of GOB chemistry knowledge relevant to clinical nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Corina E; Hyslop, Richard M; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the final version of the items and instrument. In developing items for the GOB-CKA, essential topics were identified through a series of expert interviews (with practicing nurses, nurse educators, and GOB chemistry instructors) and confirmed through a national survey. Individual items were tested in qualitative studies with students from the target population for clarity and wording. Data from pilot and beta studies were used to evaluate each item and narrow the total item count to 45. A psychometric analysis performed on data from the 45-item final version was used to provide evidence of validity and reliability. The final version of the instrument has a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.76. Feedback from an expert panel provided evidence of face and content validity. Convergent validity was estimated by comparing the results from the GOB-CKA with the General-Organic-Biochemistry Exam (Form 2007) of the American Chemical Society. Instructors who wish to use the GOB-CKA for teaching and research may contact the corresponding author for a copy of the instrument. PMID:25418988

  6. Tales from the Jazz ASH: highlights from the 2013 American Society of Haematology meeting.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A 'bench-to-bedside and back' attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345

  7. Tales from the Jazz ASH: highlights from the 2013 American Society of Haematology meeting

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A ‘bench-to-bedside and back’ attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345

  8. Iron requirements based upon iron absorption tests are poorly predicted by haematological indices in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Lomer, Miranda CE; Cook, William B; Jan-Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Hutchinson, Carol; Liu, Ding Yong; Hider, Robert C; Powell, Jonathan J

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional clinical markers of iron status can be skewed in the presence of inflammation meaning that a patient’s iron status can be misinterpreted. Additionally, iron absorption is known to be down-regulated in patients with active IBD. However, whether this is the case for quiescent or mildly active disease has not been formally assessed. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between iron absorption, iron requirements and standard haematological indices in IBD patients without active disease. Twenty nine patients with quiescent or mildly active IBD and 28 control subjects undertook an iron absorption test which measured sequential rises in serum iron over four hours following ingestion of 200 mg ferrous sulphate. At baseline, serum iron, transferrin saturation, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor were all measured. Thereafter (30-240 minutes) only serum iron and NTBI were measured. Iron absorption did not differ between the two groups (P=0.9; RM-ANOVA). In control subjects baseline haematological parameters predicted iron absorption (i.e. iron requirements) but this was not the case for patients with IBD. Iron absorption is normal in quiescent or mildly active IBD patients but standard haematological parameters do not accurately predict iron requirements. PMID:22152498

  9. The role of extracellular histones in haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Alhamdi, Yasir; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, chromosomal alterations have been extensively investigated for their pathophysiological relevance in haematological malignancies. In particular, epigenetic modifications of intra-nuclear histones are now known as key regulators of healthy cell cycles that have also evolved into novel therapeutic targets for certain blood cancers. Thus, for most haematologists, histones are DNA-chained proteins that are buried deep within chromatin. However, the plot has deepened with recent revelations on the function of histones when unchained and released extracellularly upon cell death or from activated neutrophils as part of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Extracellular histones and NETs are increasingly recognized for profound cytotoxicity and pro-coagulant effects. This article highlights the importance of recognizing this new paradigm of extracellular histones as a key player in host defence through its damage-associated molecular patterns, which could translate into novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in various haematological and critical disorders. PMID:27062156

  10. Yoga in addition to standard care for patients with haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Felbel, Steffen; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas; Skoetz, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Haematological malignancies are malignant neoplasms of the myeloid or lymphatic cell lines including leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma. In order to manage physical and psychological aspects of the disease and its treatment, complementary therapies like yoga are coming increasingly into focus. However, the effectiveness of yoga practice for people suffering from haematological malignancies remains unclear. Objectives To assess the effects of yoga practice in addition to standard cancer treatment for people with haematological malignancies. Search methods Our search strategy included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1950 to 4th February 2014), databases of ongoing trials (controlled-trials.com; clinicaltrials.gov), conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society of Hematology, the European Haematology Association, the European Congress for Integrative Medicine, and Global Advances in Health and Medicine. We handsearched references of these studies from identified trials and relevant review articles. Two review authors independently screened the search results. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga in addition to standard care for haematological malignancies compared with standard care only. We did not restrict this to any specific style of yoga. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data for eligible studies and assessed the risk of bias according to predefined criteria. We evaluated distress, fatigue, anxiety, depression and quality of sleep. Further outcomes we planned to assess were health-related quality of life (HRQoL), overall survival (OS) and adverse events (AE), but data on these were not available. Main results Our search strategies led to 149 potentially relevant references, but only a single small study met our inclusion criteria. The included study was published as a full text article and investigated the feasibility and effect of Tibetan Yoga additional to standard care (N = 20; 1 person dropped out before attending any classes and no data were collected) compared to standard care only (N = 19). The study included people with all stages of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, with and without current cancer treatment. The mean age was 51 years. We judged the overall risk of bias as high as we found a high risk for performance, detection and attrition bias. Additionally, potential outcome reporting bias could not be completely ruled out. Following the recommendations of GRADE, we judged the overall quality of the body of evidence for all predefined outcomes as ‘very low’, due to the methodical limitations and the very small sample size. The influence of yoga on HRQoL and OS was not reported. There is no evidence that yoga in addition to standard care compared with standard care only can improve distress in people with haematological malignancies (mean difference (MD) −0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) −5.55 to 4.95; P = 0.91). Similarly, there is no evidence of a difference between either group for fatigue (MD 0.00, 95% CI −0.94 to 0.94; P = 1.00), anxiety (MD 0.30, 95% CI −5.01 to 5.61; P = 0.91) or depression (MD −0.70, 95% CI −3.21 to 1.81; P = 0.58). There is very low quality evidence that yoga improves the overall quality of sleep (MD −2.30, 95% CI −3.78 to −0.82; P = 0.002). The yoga groups’ total score for the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was 5.8 (± 2.3 SD) and better than the total score (8.1 (± 2.4 SD)) of the control group. A PSQI total score of 0 to 5 indicates good sleep whereas PSQI total score 6 to 21 points towards significant sleep disturbances. The occurrence of AEs was not reported. Authors’ conclusions The currently available data provide little information about the effectiveness of yoga interventions for people suffering from haemato-logical malignancies. The finding that yoga may be beneficial for the patients’ quality of sleep is based on a very small body of evidence. Therefore, the role of yoga as an additional therapy for haematological malignancies remains unclear. Further high-quality randomised controlled trials with larger numbers of participants are needed to make a definitive statement. PMID:24919720

  11. 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Angela E

    2010-08-01

    The 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology was notable, not only for its golden anniversary, but also because it coincided with the eruption of the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, and the ensuing travel chaos. In total, 28 speakers from overseas were unable to reach Edinburgh, including a significant number of British speakers who were stranded. However, owing to the superb efforts of the conference organisers and Edinburgh International Conference Centre staff, teleconferencing equipment was installed and all speakers were contacted and able to give their talks on time. The program, consisting of simultaneous sessions and plenary lectures, covered not only recent advances in clinical and laboratory hematology, but also reflected on the contribution of British hematology to the international arena over the past 50 years. PMID:21083029

  12. Effects of Aflatoxin on Some Haematological Parameters and Protective Effectiveness of Esterified Glucomannan in Merino Rams

    PubMed Central

    Dönmez, Nurcan; Dönmez, H. H.; Keskin, E.; Kısadere, İ.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin on some hematological parameters and to determine the preventive effectiveness of added glucomannan. In the study, 32 Merino rams were used, and the rams were separated equally to four groups as control (C), glucomannan (G), glucomannan + aflatoxin (AG), and aflatoxin (A). Erythrocyte, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were decreased in A group compared with the other groups, and there was a reduction in similar parameters in AG group compared to control values. On the other hand, these parameters were tended to increase in AG group compared to A group values. Aflatoxicosis caused the lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia but increased percentage of neutrophil counts. In conclusion, the results determined in the study might be important to demonstrate the effects of aflatoxicosis and glucomannan on some haematological parameters before the clinical symptoms appear. PMID:22629132

  13. Comparison of plastic vs. glass evacuated serum-separator (SST) blood-drawing tubes for common clinical chemistry determinations.

    PubMed

    Hill, B M; Laessig, R H; Koch, D D; Hassemer, D J

    1992-08-01

    We evaluated a plastic evacuated blood-drawing tube containing an integral serum-separating barrier gel, by direct comparison with a glass counterpart. The plastic tube demonstrated no differences when compared for common clinical chemistry analytes with multiple types of instruments and systems. A total of 260 such different combinations were studied with emphasis on tests sensitive to drawing and handling indexes such as lactate dehydrogenase and potassium. A total of six separate blood drawings were tested with no significant differences noted in these tests. The total study included subjective evaluations of the plastic tube's use as a blood-drawing device and objective studies based on quantitative test results from normal and hospitalized patients and use of the primary sampling tubes (both plastic and glass) for 48-h storage. PMID:1643717

  14. Design and Development of Microcontroller-Based Clinical Chemistry Analyser for Measurement of Various Blood Biochemistry Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, S. R.; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K. K.; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments. PMID:18924737

  15. Design and development of microcontroller-based clinical chemistry analyser for measurement of various blood biochemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Taneja, S R; Gupta, R C; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K K; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments. PMID:18924737

  16. The clinical chemistry and immunology of long-duration space missions.

    PubMed

    Wu, A H; Taylor, G R; Graham, G A; McKinley, B A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical laboratory diagnostic capabilities are needed to guide health and medical care of astronauts during long-duration space missions. Clinical laboratory diagnostics, as defined for medical care on Earth, offers a model for space capabilities. Interpretation of laboratory results for health and medical care of humans in space requires knowledge of specific physiological adaptations that occur, primarily because of the absence of gravity, and how these adaptations affect reference values. Limited data from American and Russian missions have indicated shifts of intra- and extracellular fluids and electrolytes, changes in hormone concentrations related to fluid shifts and stresses of the missions, reductions in bone and muscle mass, and a blunting of the cellular immune response. These changes could increase susceptibility to space-related illness or injury during a mission and after return to Earth. We review physiological adaptations and the risk of medical problems that occur during space missions. We describe the need for laboratory diagnostics as a part of health and medical care in space, and how this capability might be delivered. PMID:8419055

  17. Progress in the Discovery of Treatments for C. difficile Infection: A Clinical and Medicinal Chemistry Review

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Lissa S.; Owusu, Yaw B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Sun, Dianqing

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes C. difficile infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in developed countries has become increasingly high due to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, a growing elderly population, extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and limited therapies for this diarrheal disease. Because treatment options currently available for C. difficile infection have some drawbacks, including cost, promotion of resistance, and selectivity problems, new agents are urgently needed to address these challenges. This review article focuses on two parts: the first part summarizes current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection; the second part reviews newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years and are in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Antibiotics are divided into natural product inspired and synthetic small molecule compounds that may have the potential to be more efficacious than currently approved treatments. This includes potency, selectivity, reduced cytotoxicity, and novel modes of action to prevent resistance. PMID:24236721

  18. A Competency-Based Clinical Chemistry Course for the Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technician Graduate in a Medical Technology Baccalaureate Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buccelli, Pamela

    Presented is a project that developed a competency-based clinical chemistry course for associate degree medical laboratory technicians (MLT) in a medical technology (MT) baccalaureate program. Content of the course was based upon competencies expected of medical technologists at career-entry as defined in the statements adopted in 1976 by the…

  19. Self-organizing neural networks--an alternative way of cluster analysis in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Reibnegger, G; Wachter, H

    1996-04-15

    Supervised learning schemes have been employed by several workers for training neural networks designed to solve clinical problems. We demonstrate that unsupervised techniques can also produce interesting and meaningful results. Using a data set on the chemical composition of milk from 22 different mammals, we demonstrate that self-organizing feature maps (Kohonen networks) as well as a modified version of error backpropagation technique yield results mimicking conventional cluster analysis. Both techniques are able to project a potentially multi-dimensional input vector onto a two-dimensional space whereby neighborhood relationships remain conserved. Thus, these techniques can be used for reducing dimensionality of complicated data sets and for enhancing comprehensibility of features hidden in the data matrix. PMID:8740573

  20. Haematological and biochemical markers as predictors of dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Rashmi, M V; Hamsaveena

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a viral infection which has become a serious problem in recent years. It is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The present study is a prospective, hospital-based, observational study done from August 2014 to October 2014. The objective of our study was to consider whether dengue infection can be suspected based on haematological and biochemical findings. The study included 100 patients positive for dengue infection. Complete hemogram, transaminases for liver injury, blood urea and serum creatinine levels for renal assessment were performed for these patients. The most common haematological findings were thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, an increase in the mixed cell fraction of the leucocytes and the presence of reactive lymphocytes. Biochemical parameters like the aminotranferases, blood urea and serum creatinine levels were significantly raised. Hence, a platelet count of <100,000 cells/µl, leucopenia of <4000 cells/µl and aspartate aminotransferase levels of >82.2 U/L can be considered as predictors of dengue infection. PMID:26712670

  1. The Role of miRNA in Haematological Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris-Shannon, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are over 1,800 annotated human miRNAs, many of which have tissue-specific expression. Numerous studies have highlighted their role in haematopoietic differentiation and proliferation, acting as master regulators of haematopoietic stem cell function. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been observed in haematological cancers, exhibiting unique expression signatures in comparison to normal counterparts. Functional and target analyses as well as animal models have attempted to annotate how different miRNA may contribute to the pathophysiology of these malignancies from modulating cancer associated genes, functioning directly as oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes or acting as bystanders or regulators of the epigenetic mechanisms in cancer. miRNAs have also been shown to play a role in modulating drug resistance and determining prognosis between the various subtypes of blood cancers. This review discusses the important role that miRNAs play in haematological malignancies by exploring associations that exist between the two and trying to examine evidence of causality to support the tantalising possibility that miRNAs might serve as therapeutic targets in blood cancers. PMID:24416592

  2. [A new automated haematology analyser: the Excell 2280].

    PubMed

    Bouvier, S; Machon, C; Destenay, S; Brun, S; Arnaud, A; Cochery-Nouvellon, E; Lissalde-Lavigne, G; Gris, J-C

    2008-01-01

    Excell 2280 analyser is a new automated haematology analyser manufactured by Drew Scientific Inc, Texas, USA, and distributed in France by MAXMAT S.A., Montpellier. It can achieve 80 complete blood cell counts per hour, with leukocyte differential counts. Three sampling possibilities are included: a direct one (open tubes, 180 microL), a blood saver one (80 microL) and an automatic, through-the-cap one (180 microL). The analytic principles are: electrical impedance for cell counting (WBC, RBC, platelets, MCV) and RBC/platelet sizing; and a new multidimensional optical system using a laser light scattering flow cytometer for WBC counting and classification. We evaluated the Excell 2280 in our laboratory: we quantified intra-run and within-run variations, correlations between the automatic and the direct sampling method, stability of the results over time, linearity of the detections and finally correlation between results obtained with this analyzer and the Gen'S one from Beckman-Coulter Inc. The obtained results were within the theoretical ranges given by the manufacturer. The presence of any abnormal result, or of any flag, must systematically lead to check the blood smear. This new automated haematology analyser appears to be convenient for emergency room-related laboratories, and for routine small-to-medium laboratories. PMID:18725343

  3. Treatment of invasive fungal infections in high-risk haematological patients: what have we learnt in the past 10 years?

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Carlos; Vázquez, Lourdes; Cabrera Martín, José Rafael; Carreras, Enric; García Rodríguez, Julio; Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Fortún, Jesús; Mensa, Josep; Barberán, José

    2013-12-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) caused by filamentous fungi remains a very severe infectious complication in patients with onco-haematological diseases. Last advances in the diagnostic and therapeutic fields, today we know that their contributions are limited. Something similar can be said of clinical trials especially in relation to some changes in the characteristics of the host. The development of promising diagnostic techniques and the relative expansion in the number of antifungal agents has been associated with diversification of therapeutic strategies (prophylaxis with extended-spectrum azoles and preemptive antifungal treatment). However, the low sensitivity of AGA testing in some circumstances, and the potential delay in starting treatment due to logistic reasons, has been reflected by a greater mortality in certain type of patients and a significant increase in the days of treatment. All these circumstances has once again focus attention to the empirical approach as a central strategy in high-risk patients. The objective of this article is to review the clinical experience in the treatment of IFI in onco-haematological patients according to data published in the literature in the last decade and to present a set of recommendations. PMID:24399355

  4. Perceived need for information among patients with a haematological malignancy: associations with information satisfaction and treatment decision-making preferences.

    PubMed

    Rood, Janneke A J; van Zuuren, Florence J; Stam, Frank; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Eeltink, Corien; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Huijgens, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    For patients with haematological malignancies, information on disease, prognosis, treatment and impact on quality of life is of the utmost importance. To gain insight into the perceived need for information in relation to sociodemographic and clinical parameters, comorbidity, quality of life (QoL) and information satisfaction, we compiled a questionnaire based on existing validated questionnaires. A total of 458 patients diagnosed with a haematological malignancy participated. The perceived need for information was moderate to high (40-70%). Multivariate regression analyses showed that a higher need for information was related to younger age, worse QoL, being member of a patient society and moderate comorbidity. The need for disease and treatment-related information was higher than the need for psychosocial information. A higher need for disease and treatment-related information was associated to being diagnosed with multiple myeloma. A higher need for psychosocial information was related to a lower educational level. The information provision could be improved according to 41% of the patients. Higher satisfaction with provided information was associated with better QoL. Most patients (62%) reported that they wanted to be fully informed about their illness and actively involved in treatment decision-making. The results contribute to improving patient-tailored information provision and shared decision-making in clinical practice. PMID:24811073

  5. Newer antifungal agents for invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Thomas R; Frost, Susanna

    2009-03-01

    Since 2001 five new systemically administered antifungal agents have been approved for clinical use. This represents a major advance for antifungal therapy in haematological malignancy patients undergoing chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The echinocandins are a new class of antifungals with a novel mode of action. Capsofungin has already established itself as a valuable therapy for candidaemia and salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis. Although both anidulafungin and micafungin are approved for treatment of candidiasis, their role in invasive aspergillosis requires more clinical trial evaluation. Of the two newer triazoles, voriconazole has been recommended in international guidelines as primary therapy for acute invasive aspergillosis. Posaconazole has a broad spectrum of activity in vitro and a potentially key role in antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk HSCT recipients and during prolonged neutropenia. Although some of these drugs have important interactions with other medications, and potential toxicities, they are safer to use and more efficacious than amphotericin B deoxycholate. Their arrival gives more choices to treat rarer mycoses and will facilitate clinical trial assessment of combination therapy of aspergillosis where single agent therapy gives less than 50% success rates. PMID:19120371

  6. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  7. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  8. An evaluation of the Technicon H6000 haematology system.

    PubMed

    Cave, R J; Holder, R L; Morris, T K; Taylor, J; Smith, D; Shinton, N K

    1983-01-01

    The Technicon H6000 haematology system combines haemoglobinometry with cell counting including differential counts of leucocytes. Evaluation confirmed it to be safe, precise and free from carry-over of practical significance. Comparability with standard reference methods showed a difference with mean cell volume (MCV) and packed cell volume (PCV) but the haemoglobin, red cell count and mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH) were comparable. Total white cell counts and differential counts were comparable apart from eosinophils and basophils. Platelet counts were higher at both ends of the range. Throughput was confirmed at 90 samples per hour. The system was shown to be cost-effective when taking into consideration staff costs, materials and maintenance but expensive with regard to materials alone. PMID:6883971

  9. Haematology of wild penguins (spenisciformes) in the Falkland Islands.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Horsley, D T; Keymer, I F

    1989-07-01

    Haematological values were determined in 50 Rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), 19 Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and 12 Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus) penguins from various sites on the Falkland Islands. Adult Magellanic penguins had significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb) levels, packed cell volumes (PCV) and red cell counts (RBC) than adults of the other two species. Hb, PCV and RBC values were also lower in juvenile birds than in adults and lower in post-moult than in pre-moult adults. Comparison of findings in wild Rockhopper and Gentoo penguins with values obtained from captive birds showed slight but significant differences in Hb and mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and in the relative numbers of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils present. PMID:18679879

  10. [Inclusion Body Disease (IBD of Boids)--a haematological, histological and electron microscopical study].

    PubMed

    Keilwerth, Melanie; Bühler, Ilina; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate diagnostic tools for the detection of Inclusion Body Disease (IBD) in bold snakes. The aetiology of IBD is unknown, and the disease has non-specific clinical signs, hence there is a need for a clinically-applicable, specific diagnostic method. We examined blood smears and liver biopsies from 26 bold snakes (17 boas and nine pythons; some of which were suspected of having IBD) for the presence of characteristic inclusion bodies. We used haematology, histology and electron microscopy to characterise samples as IBD-positive or -negative. Our results indicate that examination of a simple blood smear is sufficient to diagnose IBD in boas. Inclusion bodies in lymphocytes, erythrocytes and thrombocytes were observed. In both, boas and pythons, we detected inclusion bodies within hepatocytes. We demonstrated also that IBD was more common in boas than in pythons: only samples from two Ball Pythons (Python regius) tested positive, whereas no other Pythonidae were positive. We consider that blood smears represents a rapid, non-invasive technique for detection of IBD. PMID:23045804

  11. Research and development in haematology. A report on international congresses and visit to academic centres in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wood, L

    1990-01-01

    Haematology is one of the most rapidly expanding disciplines in medicine and nursing. As occurs in other highly specialised areas, optimum care is now largely of a multidisciplinary nature. In this context there are literally unlimited opportunities for the involvement of professional nurses and, as I have attempted to illustrate in this report, integration in all aspects of research and development and active participation in presentation of research data and discussion at international meetings is one direction in which fulfillment of academic aspirations can be achieved. It is my viewpoint, based on more than a decade of direct involvement in all the activities of our department in Cape Town that these are entirely attainable goals. There is currently, in our country, a concerted move afoot to develop an improved career structure for the professional nurse along the lines of the American clinical nurse specialist. Much of this experience overseas would strongly support that commitment. It was my privilege to enjoy the confidence of the department, university and medical school sufficient for me to present research data at international meetings and to be a welcome visitor at some of the world's premier academic and research institutions. That this was possible reflects the uncompromising commitment in Haematology to the position of the professional nurse as an integral and equal part of the multidisciplinary health care team. PMID:1977529

  12. Volume Conductivity and Scatter Parameters as an Indicator of Acute Bacterial Infections by the Automated Haematology Analyser

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Pooja K; Rao, Purnima S; Ballal, Kirthinath; Sridevi, Hanaganahalli B; Padyana, Mahesha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complete blood picture is the first and foremost investigation ordered for evaluation of acute infectious processes which require early and prompt intervention. With the advent of automated Coulter ® Haematology analysers, the Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters of the leucocytes could be analysed for the early detection of the infections. Aim To evaluate the clinical usefulness of Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters of neutrophils & monocytes in predicting the onset of acute bacterial infections. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood samples from 94 patients with infections (systemic infections n=36 & localised infections n=58) and 46 control subjects were studied using the Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters by the Coulter Haematology analyser. Results We observed a significant increase in the mean channel of neutrophil volume & mean channel of monocyte volume from patients with infections (both systemic & localised) as compared with control subjects (Mean Neutrophil Volume: 158.3 ± 13.7 vs 137.2 ± 4.3; p<0.001) & (Mean Monocyte Volume: 177.8± 16 vs 161.7 ± 6.04; p <0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the Mean Neutrophil Volume of patients with systemic infection & localised infections (160.5±17.5 vs 156.8±10.5, p>0.05). Conclusion The Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters like Mean Neutrophil Volume & Mean Monocyte Volume are more sensitive parameters and could prove to be a quick diagnostic indicator of acute bacterial infections. PMID:26894069

  13. A pilot study on parvovirus B19 infection in paediatric haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Janak; Sen, Manodeep; Kumar, Ashutosh; Kumar, Archana

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Leukaemia and lymphoma are common paediatric haematological malignancies acquiring human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection. In some studies anaemia has been found in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during maintenance therapy and rarely in lymphoma. We studied frequency of B19 infection and its implications in new onset acute leukaemia (mostly ALL) and lymphoma in children. Methods: Seventy serum samples from 35 children (age <12 yr, 29 males) newly diagnosed with haematological malignancies (on induction therapy) were collected together with 34 controls (solid tumours). Children were examined clinically and for anti-B19 IgM antibodies by quantitative ELISA and B19 DNA by PCR (VP1-VP2) and nested-PCR (VP1 unique). Bone marrow aspirates were examined histopathologically, whenever possible. Results: Of the 35 children, 22 had acute leukaemia while 13 had lymphoma. B19 infection was seen in six (17.1%) of 35 children (5 ALL, 1 NHL), two at diagnosis and four during follow up compared to none in the control. Among five B19 IgM positive ALL (n=18) children, two had B19 genome and two had giant pronormoblasts (lantern cells; but one lacked B19 DNA). Of the 70 serum samples tested, eight (11.4%) had anti-B19 IgM as two children had persistent B19 infection and one showed atypical maculopapular rashes (lower limbs) while 12 (34.3%) had anti-B19 IgG antibodies. B19 infected children had unexplained anaemia (80%), required more blood transfusions (6.6 ± 4.8 Units vs 3.0 ± 2.6 Units) besides induction chemotherapy was delayed (60%) and required longer duration of therapy (29.2 ± 20 vs 6.3 ± 7.8 days) (P<0.02). Five children (2 ALL, 2 AML, 1 NHL) died but none were infected with B19. Interpretation & conclusions: B19 infection should be considered in children with ALL as it frequently caused unexplained anaemia and delay in induction chemotherapy. PMID:21537094

  14. Analysis of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children on haematological responses, morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Geerligs, Paul D. Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard J.; Eggelte, Teunis A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for beneficial effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis on haematological responses, morbidity, mortality, health service utilization and rebound immunity in children. As anaemia may play an important role in childhood mortality, it is important to assess evidence from controlled trials of the potential of chemoprophylaxis to reduce childhood anaemia. An analysis of trials found good evidence that malaria chemoprophylaxis improves mean haemoglobin levels and reduces severe anaemia, clinical malaria attacks, parasite and spleen rates. Significant reductions in outpatient attendance and hospital admissions have been achieved, and substantial evidence from Gambian studies shows reductions in mortality. Chemoprophylaxis in children does not seem to produce any sustained impairment of immunity to malaria, although rebound effects may be greater in children who receive prophylaxis during infancy. Short periods of targeted prophylaxis are likely to be preferable to continuous drug administration. Evidence of the protective efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children shows that this strategy could be considered within integrated health programmes for specific time periods. Intermittent routine combination therapy early in childhood may be appropriate for those living under holoendemic conditions. Large-scale studies over a number of years are needed to address this issue and the impact of this approach on health service utilization, mortality, and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. PMID:12764517

  15. Experiential Relationship between Malaria Parasite Density and Some Haematological Parameters in Malaria Infected Male Subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    M., Eze Evelyn; Ezeiruaku, F. C.; Ukaji, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiential relationship between the parasite density and haematological parameters in male patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection in Port Harcourt, Nigeria reporting to malaria clinics. A total of one hundred and thirty-six (136) male patients were recruited. QBC haematological analysis, QBC malaria parasite specie identification and quantification and thin blood film for differential leucocytes count was used. The mean values of the haematological parameters in each quartile of parasite densities were determined using Microsoft Excel statistical package. Regression analysis was employed to model the experiential relationship between parasite density and haematological parameters. All regression relationships were tested and the relationship with the highest coefficient of determination (R2) was accepted as the valid relationship. The relationships tested included linear, polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and power relationships. The X- axis of the regression graphs stand for the parasite density while Y-axis stands for the respective haematological parameters Neutrophil count had a negative exponential relationship with the parasite density and is related to the parasite density by a polynomial equation model: ynm = -7E-07x2 - 0.0003x + 56.685. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.6140. This means that the rate of change of the parasitemia will depend on the initial value of the neutrophil. As the neutrophil increases, the parasitemia will tend to decrease in a double, triple and quadruple manner. The relationship between lymphocyte count, monocyte count and eosinophil count and parasite density was logarithmic and expressed by the following linear equation models: ylm = -2.371ln(x) + 37.296, ymm = 0.6965ln(x) + 5.7692 and yem = 0.9334ln(x) + 4.1718 in the same order. Their respective high coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.8027, 0.8867 and 0.9553. This logarithmic relationship means that each doubling of monocyte count and eosinophil count will cause the same amount of increase in parasitemia whereas each doubling of lymphocyte count will cause the same amount of decrease in parasitemia. The best fitting regression model for total white cell count (WBC), haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV)(haematocrit) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and parasite density was a linear model and expressed by the following linear equation models: yWBCm = 1.2314x + 8533.8, yHbm = -0.0014x + 13.004, yPCVm = -0.0046x + 41.443 and yMCHCm = -0.0008x + 32.336. Their respective coefficients of determination are 0.7397, 0.6248, 0.9758 and 0.8584. This linear relationship means that as the parasite density is increasing that there is a corresponding decrease in haemoglobin concentration, PCV and MCHC and a corresponding increase in total white cell count. The best fitting regression model between platelet count and parasite density is a power model with a very high coefficient of determination (R2=0.9938) and expressed by: yPltm = 278047x-0.122. These equation models could be very useful in areas where there may not be functional microscopes or competent microscopists and in medical emergencies. PMID:22980350

  16. The effects of levamisole poisoning on the haematological and biochemical parameters in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gokce, H I; Gunes, V; Erdogan, H M; Citil, M; Akca, A; Yuksek, N

    2004-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate possible organ and system disorders associated with experimentally induced levamisole poisoning in dogs. For this purpose, twelve clinically healthy dogs of different ages, sexes and breeds were used. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B) and given levamisole orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight daily for three days. The dogs in Group B were also injected with atropin sulphate (0.04 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously (sc) 1 hour after each administration of levamisole. Routine clinical examinations were made and some haematological, biochemical and blood gas parameters were established at various times after administration of levamisole. The dogs in Group A developed severe neurological signs, gastric haemorrhage, bloody vomiting, colic, anaemia and four dogs died. In Group B these signs were mild and only one dog died. Levamisole poisoning was characterised by a significant reduction in the total number of red blood cells (RBCs), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV), and by anaemia. Peripheral blood pH, actual bicarbonate of plasma (HCO3), actual base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and saturated oxygen (O2SAT) increased in both groups of animals and these dogs developed metabolic alkalosis 48 hours after the first administration of levamisole. The results of the study also show that levamisole poisoning in dogs causes a significant increase in the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and in the concentration of urea in both Group A and Group B. In the study, atropin sulphate reduced the severity of the clinical signs and the number of deaths, but it was not alone sufficient to remedy levamisole poisoning in dogs. PMID:15032267

  17. Curriculum Design of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Haematology Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcaro, Pauline A.; Jackson, Denise E.; McLaughlin, Patricia M.; O'Malley, Cindy J.

    2016-06-01

    A common trend in higher education is the "flipped" classroom, which facilitates active learning during class. The flipped approach to teaching was instituted in a haematology `major' class and the students' attitudes and preferences for the teaching materials were surveyed. The curriculum design was explicit and involved four major components (1) the preparation of the students; (2) the weekly pre-class work; (3) the in-class active learning strategies and (4) closing the learning loop using formative quizzes. Each of these components is discussed in detail and was informed by sound pedagogical strategies. Several different sources of information and several freely available software tools to engage the students are discussed. Two iterations are reported here, with improved pass rate for the final examination from 47 to 48 % in the traditional class to 56-65 % in the flipped classroom approach. The majority of students (93 and 89 %) came to the class prepared, after viewing the screencasts and engaged fully with the activities within the face-to-face time. The students perceived that solving case studies (93 %) was the most beneficial activity for their learning and this was closely followed by the production of essay plans (71 %). The majority of students recommended that this approach be repeated the following year (69 and 75 %).

  18. Curriculum Design of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Haematology Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcaro, Pauline A.; Jackson, Denise E.; McLaughlin, Patricia M.; O'Malley, Cindy J.

    2016-01-01

    A common trend in higher education is the "flipped" classroom, which facilitates active learning during class. The flipped approach to teaching was instituted in a haematology `major' class and the students' attitudes and preferences for the teaching materials were surveyed. The curriculum design was explicit and involved four major components (1) the preparation of the students; (2) the weekly pre-class work; (3) the in-class active learning strategies and (4) closing the learning loop using formative quizzes. Each of these components is discussed in detail and was informed by sound pedagogical strategies. Several different sources of information and several freely available software tools to engage the students are discussed. Two iterations are reported here, with improved pass rate for the final examination from 47 to 48 % in the traditional class to 56-65 % in the flipped classroom approach. The majority of students (93 and 89 %) came to the class prepared, after viewing the screencasts and engaged fully with the activities within the face-to-face time. The students perceived that solving case studies (93 %) was the most beneficial activity for their learning and this was closely followed by the production of essay plans (71 %). The majority of students recommended that this approach be repeated the following year (69 and 75 %).

  19. Haematological manifestations of human immune deficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vishnu, Prakash; Aboulafia, David M

    2015-12-01

    Early in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, infected patients presented to medical attention with striking abnormalities in each of the major blood cell lineages. The reasons for these derangements remain complex and multifactorial. HIV infects multipotent haematopoietic progenitor cells and establish latent cellular reservoirs, disturbs the bone marrow microenvironment and also causes immune dysregulation. These events lead to cytokine imbalances and disruption of other factors required for normal haematopoiesis. Activation of the reticulo-endothelial system can also result in increased blood cell destruction. The deleterious effects of medications, including first and second generation anti-retroviral agents, on haematopoiesis were well documented in the early years of HIV care; in the current era of HIV-care, the advent of newer and less toxic anti-retroviral drugs have had a more beneficial impact on haematopoiesis. Due to impaired regulation of the immune system and potential side effects of one or more anti-retroviral agents, there is also an increase in coagulation abnormalities such as thromboembolism, and less frequently, acquired disorders of coagulation including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, immune thrombocytopenic purpura and acquired inhibitors of coagulation. In this article we review the epidemiology and aetiology of select non-oncological haematological disorders commonly seen in people living with HIV-acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:26452169

  20. Endotoxin-triggered haematological interactions in Fusobacterium necrophorum infections.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G G; Goto, Y; Shinjo, T

    2000-01-01

    The haematological mechanisms in the course of liver abscess formation were evaluated. They were examined by employing viable cells of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme in comparison with their endotoxins. Whole cell infection with F.n. necrophorum led to neutrophilia and to a concomitant monocytosis in parallel with those responses induced by the in vivo injection of its endotoxin. Viable infection with F.n. funduliforme was characterized by a sustained endotoxin-related monocytosis against neutropenia. The stimulatory impact of endotoxin on monocytes when released from a viable F.n. funduliforme infection suggested an inherently peculiar mechanism which differed from the induction of both neutrophilia and monocytosis when F.n. funduliforme endotoxin was administered alone. The neutrophilic inducing capacity of the F.n. necrophorum endotoxin was equally illustrated by its positive chemotactic effect on polymorphonuclear neutrophils in vitro. The data presented here emphasize the virulence of F.n. necrophorum viewed in reference to changes in leucocyte trafficking and as complemented by a relatively high endotoxin content. PMID:10817519

  1. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinical chemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...

  2. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  3. Haematological changes in elite kayakers during a training season.

    PubMed

    Borges, Grasiely Faccin; Rama, Luis Manuel Pinto Lopes; Pedreiro, Susana; Rosado, Fátima; Alves, Francisco; Santos, Amândio Manuel Cupido; Paiva, Artur; Teixeira, Ana Maria

    2012-12-01

    This study monitored haematological markers in response to training load in elite kayakers during a training season. The sample comprised eight elite kayakers aged 22 ± 4.2 years with a 77.2 ± 6.7 kg body mass and a 177.5 ± 5.6 cm stature. The initial [Formula: see text]O(2max) was 61.2 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1). The control group consisted of six healthy males, aged 18.6 ± 1.1 years, with an 81.3 ± 13.8 kg body mass and a 171.9 ± 4.5 cm stature. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the training season after an off-training period of six weeks (t(0)), at the 11th week after the application of high training volumes (t(1)), at the 26th week after an intense training cycle (t(2)), and at the 31st week at the end of a tapering phase (t(3)). Differences between time points were detected using ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test. Significant changes were found after the intense training cycle (t(2)), lymphocytes decreased while haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corposcular haemoglobin, mean concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelets distribution width, and red blood cell distribution width values increased when compared with baseline values. At t(3), a reduction in monocyte numbers and an increase in mean platelet volume compared with baseline values were seen. By reducing the volume and intensity of training, many variables returned to values close to those at baseline. Although many athletes had accumulated responses over time due to training, they still suffered transient changes that appear to be influenced by training load. Haemorheology monitoring may help detect health risks, especially during times of intensified training. PMID:22973999

  4. Haematological and biochemical profile of growing Yankasa rams fed sorghum stover supplemented with graded levels of dried poultry droppings based diets.

    PubMed

    Bello, Abdul Waheed Adeyemi; Tsado, Daniel Nma

    2013-12-15

    This study was designed to determine the haematological and biochemical profiles of growing Yankasa rams fed sorghum stover supplemented with Sun-Dried Poultry Droppings diets (SDPD). Poultry dropping is a good source of protein supplement. Its high nitrogen content suggests feeding it to ruminant would be an excellent avenue to convert nutrients in the waste into animal products. But a major challenge for it utilization is the danger of pathogenic organisms. Sun-drying of the droppings can render the waste free of pathogens. Thirty growing Yankasa rams aged 9-12 months, weighing 11.5-15.5 kg were randomly divided into five groups (3 in each) and assigned to five experimental diets T1-T5 which contained 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% SDPD. Blood samples were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. Results showed that White Blood Cell (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) were significantly influenced by Dried Poultry Droppings based diets (DPD). Their values were WBC, 10.6, 12.9, 9.5, 7.0 and 10.7 L(-1), Hb, 8.6, 9.3, 8.6, 8.4 and 9.7 g dL(-1) and PCV, 22.9, 29.4, 27.1, 23.6 and 21.5%, respectively. Additionally, urea, sodium and total protein were significantly influenced by treatment diet. Their values were urea, 6.1, 6.3, 6.8, 6.9 and 8.1 mg dL(-1), sodium, 102.9, 128.8, 129.2, 130.7 and 130.7 mmol L(-1). total protein, 6.3, 6.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 7.1 g dL(-1). Most haematological and biochemical values obtained were within the normal range for sheep. SDPS diet can satisfactorily supplement sorghum stover without any deleterious effect on the blood chemistry and haematological profile of growing Yankasa rams. PMID:24517007

  5. The prevention and management of infections due to multidrug resistant organisms in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Trubiano, Jason A; Worth, Leon J; Thursky, Karin A; Slavin, Monica A

    2015-01-01

    Infections due to resistant and multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms in haematology patients and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are an increasingly complex problem of global concern. We outline the burden of illness and epidemiology of resistant organisms such as gram-negative pathogens, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and Clostridium difficile in haematology cohorts. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing the impact of these organisms are reviewed: infection prevention programmes, screening and fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. The role of newer therapies (e.g. linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline) for treatment of resistant and MDR organisms in haematology populations is evaluated, in addition to the mobilization of older agents (e.g. colistin, pristinamycin and fosfomycin) and the potential benefit of combination regimens. PMID:24341410

  6. Breakthrough candidaemia caused by phenotypically susceptible Candida spp. in patients with haematological malignancies does not correlate with established interpretive breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Daikos, George L; Walsh, Thomas J; Perlin, David S; Ortigosa, Cristina Jimenez; Psaroulaki, Anna; Pagoni, Maria; Argyropoulou, Athina; Nepka, Martha; Perivolioti, Efstathia; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Perloretzou, Stavroula; Marangos, Markos; Kofteridis, Diamantis; Grammatikou, Maria; Goukos, Dimitrios; Petrikkos, George; Sipsas, Nikolaos V

    2014-09-01

    In a study of 27,864 patients with haematological malignancies, 40 patients with candidaemia were identified, among whom 21 developed candidaemia while receiving systemic antifungal therapy [breakthrough candidaemia (BTC)]. Demographic, clinical, microbiological and molecular features of these episodes were analysed. Compared with 19 patients with de novo candidaemia, patients with BTC were more likely to have neutropenia (81% vs. 63%), longer median duration of neutropenia (27 days vs. 15 days), hypogammaglobulinaemia (62% vs. 37%) and central venous catheters (CVCs) (86% vs. 68%). The median duration of prior antifungal exposure was 46 days (range 3-108 days). Among the 18 available Candida spp. isolates, 15 (83%) were phenotypically susceptible to the antifungal agent that the patient was receiving. Emergence of resistance was the mechanism leading to BTC in three cases of patients receiving echinocandins. Other possible mechanisms of BTC were (i) elevated (≥2) minimum lethal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration (MLC/MIC) ratio (reduced ability for a fungicidal agent to kill a fungal pathogen) in all patients receiving amphotericin B and (ii) elevated MLC/MIC ratios in all Candida parapsilosis isolates with MICs≤1 μg/mL to echinocandins. DNA sequencing of the hotspot 1 region of the fks1 and fks2 genes in seven different isolates of C. parapsilosis group demonstrated P660A in Fks1 but no polymorphisms in fks2. In conclusion, mechanisms for BTC in the setting of prolonged neutropenia may be host-based (hypogammaglobulinaemia and CVC) and pathogen-based. CLSI interpretive breakpoints do not reliably predict BTC in patients with haematological malignancies and warrant further investigation. PMID:25108876

  7. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies or aplastic anaemia: Analysis of 50 cases.

    PubMed

    Tofas, Polydoros; Skiada, Anna; Angelopoulou, Maria; Sipsas, Nikolaos; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna; Tsaousi, Sofia; Pagoni, Maria; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Perlorentzou, Stavroula; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Pirounaki, Maria; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Daikos, George L

    2016-04-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) are currently among the most important nosocomial pathogens in many geographic regions. A retrospective study was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in four hospitals located in a high-prevalence area (Athens, Greece) to describe the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of neutropenic patients with haematological diseases complicated with CP-Kp bloodstream infections. A total of 50 patients were identified, including 48 with haematological malignancies and 2 with aplastic anaemia. All patients had neutropenia (<500cells/mm(3)), of whom 40 had <100neutrophils/mm(3). The probable source of bacteraemia was identified in 9 patients; in the remaining 41 patients the bacteraemia was considered primary. For definitive treatment, 30 patients received combination therapy (two or more active drugs), 10 received monotherapy (one active drug) and 4 received therapy with no active drug; the remaining 6 patients died within 48h after the onset of bacteraemia. The 14-day all-cause mortality rate was 50%, 38% and 33% for those who received one, two or three active drugs respectively. In the Cox proportional hazards model, unresolved neutropenia [hazard ratio (HR)=19.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31-160.69; P=0.006], septic shock (HR=3.04, 95% CI 1.06-8.78; P=0.04) and treatment with one active drug (HR for monotherapy versus combination therapy=3.95, 95% CI 1.23-12.65; P=0.02) were independent predictors of death, whilst combination therapy was associated with lower mortality. These findings may assist physicians in making treatment decisions for neutropenic patients with CP-Kp infections. PMID:27005460

  8. Facilitating Surveillance of Pulmonary Invasive Mold Diseases in Patients with Haematological Malignancies by Screening Computed Tomography Reports Using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n = 366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675

  9. Haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai.

    PubMed

    Belo, M A A; Souza, D G F; Faria, V P; Prado, E J R; Moraes, F R; Onaka, E M

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae). Thirty-seven fish were captured in October 2010 from the Mogi Guaçu River, Porto Ferreira, SP, Brazil. Infected fish presented increased mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and lower thrombocyte and higher monocyte counts than uninfected fish. PMID:23557315

  10. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  11. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, β-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149

  12. Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rossini, M; Blanco, P A; Marín, E; Comerma-Steffensen, S; Zerpa, H

    2012-02-01

    The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during post-laying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus in lithium heparin tubes. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), plasmatic protein (PP), haemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and differential leukocyte count were determined. Haematological values were: RBC 0.9×10(9)/L, WBC 5.7×10(9)/L, TC 5.4×10(9)/L, PCV 35.6%, PP 4.2g/dL, Hgb 11.8g/dL, MCV 411fL. The differential leukocyte count comprised: 71% heterophils, 23% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1.6% basophils, and 1% monocytes. The reports of reference haematology values for the wild P. expansa are limited; therefore, the results presented herein contrast with those values obtained in captivity. This study represents a contribution to the referential haematological values of the wild P. expansa. PMID:21122881

  13. Effects of lasalocid and monensin plus tylosin on serum metabolic hormones and clinical chemistry profiles of beef steers fed a 90% concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Duff, G C; Galyean, M L; Branine, M E; Hallford, D M

    1994-04-01

    Fourteen crossbred beef steers (average initial BW 313 +/- 13.1 kg) fed a 90% concentrate diet (as-fed basis) were used to evaluate effects of ionophores on serum metabolic hormones and clinical chemistry profiles. Treatments were no ionophore (C; four steers), lasalocid (L; 33 mg/kg of diet; five steers), and monensin (33 mg/kg of diet) plus tylosin (11 mg/kg of diet; MT; five steers). All steers were adapted to the 90% concentrate diet, after which treatments were applied and blood was sampled via jugular catheters on d 7, 35, 63, 91, and 119 of the trial at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h after feeding. Averaged over sampling days, serum glucose concentrations did not differ (P > .10) among treatments at any sampling time (treatment x sampling time, P < .05). Average across sampling days and times, serum growth hormone, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ (P > .10) among treatments. No major effects of ionophores were noted for serum enzymes or protein fractions. Averaged over sampling times within day (treatment x day interaction, P < .10), both L and MT increased (P < .05) serum Ca and Na concentrations on d 91 and 119 compared with C. Serum inorganic P was increased (P < .10) for L vs MT and for ionophore treatments compared with C (P < .10) on several occasions (treatment x day x sampling time interaction, P < .05). Results suggest that ionophores do not cause dramatic changes in serum metabolic hormones or clinical chemistry profiles; however, monensin and lasalocid altered serum minerals in beef steers fed a high-concentrate diet. PMID:8014140

  14. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alan F.; Hagey, Lee R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last 80 years there have been extraordinary advances in our knowledge of the chemistry and biology of bile acids. We present here a brief history of the major achievements as we perceive them. Bernal, a physicist, determined the X-ray structure of cholesterol crystals, and his data together with the vast chemical studies of Wieland and Windaus enabled the correct structure of the steroid nucleus to be deduced. Today, C24 and C27 bile acids together with C27 bile alcohols constitute most of the bile acid “family”. Patterns of bile acid hydroxylation and conjugation are summarized. Bile acid measurement encompasses the techniques of GC, HPLC, and MS, as well as enzymatic, bioluminescent, and competitive binding methods. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids results from vectorial transport of bile acids by the ileal enterocyte and hepatocyte; the key transporters have been cloned. Bile acids are amphipathic, self-associate in solution, and form mixed micelles with polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine in bile, and fatty acids in intestinal content during triglyceride digestion. The rise and decline of dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by the ingestion of 3,7-dihydroxy bile acids is chronicled. Scientists from throughout the world have contributed to these achievements. PMID:24838141

  15. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 2. Properties and Units in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences. VI. Properties and Units in IOC Prohibited Drugs (IFCC-IUPAC Recommendations 1997).

    PubMed

    Olesen, H; Cowan, D; Bruunshuus, I; Klempel, K; Hill, G

    1997-12-10

    The term designating a substance being an active ingredient of a drug may be a generic name, a nonproprietary name, a registered trade name, a fantasy name or other. This causes difficulties in the transmission of request and report on such substances to and from the clinical laboratories, and in the collating of this information from different sources. The document comprises a list of properties of drugs of abuse in biological fluids as defined by the International Olympic Committee Medical Code for use in electronic transmission systems. Standard systematic names are presented with a code value for each. The coding schemes thus prepared are accessible on Internet from C-NPU Home page address: http://inet.uni-c.dk/ qukb7642. PMID:9495577

  16. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Use of artificial intelligence in analytical systems for the clinical laboratory. IFCC Committee on Analytical Systems.

    PubMed

    Place, J F; Truchaud, A; Ozawa, K; Pardue, H; Schnipelsky, P

    1994-12-16

    The incorporation of information-processing technology into analytical systems in the form of standard computing software has recently been advanced by the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) both as expert systems and as neural networks. This paper considers the role of software in system operation, control and automation and attempts to define intelligence. AI is characterized by its ability to deal with incomplete and imprecise information and to accumulate knowledge. Expert systems, building on standard computing techniques, depend heavily on the domain experts and knowledge engineers that have programmed them to represent the real world. Neural networks are intended to emulate the pattern-recognition and parallel-processing capabilities of the human brain and are taught rather than programmed. The future may lie in a combination of the recognition ability of the neural network and the rationalization capability of the expert system. In the second part of this paper, examples are given of applications of AI in stand-alone systems for knowledge engineering and medical diagnosis and in embedded systems for failure detection, image analysis, user interfacing, natural language processing, robotics and machine learning, as related to clinical laboratories. It is concluded that AI constitutes a collective form of intellectual property and that there is a need for better documentation, evaluation and regulation of the systems already being used widely in clinical laboratories. PMID:7889593

  17. A chronic oral exposure of pigs with deoxynivalenol partially prevents the acute effects of lipopolysaccharides on hepatic histopathology and blood clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Cassandra; Reinhardt, Nicole; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Nossol, Constanze; Kahlert, Stefan; Panther, Patricia; Kluess, Jeannette; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Kuester, Doerthe; Brosig, Bianca; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-12-17

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, and deoxynivalenol (DON), a prevalent Fusarium-derived contaminant of cereal grains, are each reported to have detrimental effects on the liver. A potentiating toxic effect of the combined exposure was reported previously in a mouse model and hepatocytes in vitro, but not in swine as the most DON-susceptible species. Thus, pigs were fed either a control diet (CON) or a Fusarium contaminated diet (DON, 3.1mg DON/kg diet) for 37 days. At day 37 control pigs were infused for 1h either with physiological saline (CON_CON), 100μg/kg BW DON (CON_DON), 7.5μg/kg BW LPS (CON_LPS), or both toxins (CON_DON/LPS) and Fusarium-pigs with saline (DON_CON) or 7.5μg/kg BW LPS (DON_LPS). Blood samples were taken before and after infusion (-30, +30, +60, +120, and +180min) for clinical blood chemistry. Pigs were sacrificed at +195min and liver histopathology was performed. LPS resulted in higher relative liver weight (p<0.05), portal, periportal and acinar inflammation (p<0.05), haemorrhage (p<0.01) and pathological bilirubin levels (CON_CON 1.0μmol/L vs. CON_LPS 5.4μmol/L, CON_DON/LPS 8.3μmol/L; p<0.001). DON feeding alleviated effects of LPS infusion on histopathology and blood chemistry to control levels, whereas DON infusion alone had no impact. PMID:23123154

  18. Simple bioconjugate chemistry serves great clinical advances: albumin as a versatile platform for diagnosis and precision therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-02-29

    Albumin is the most abundant circulating protein in plasma and has recently emerged as a versatile protein carrier for drug targeting and for improving the pharmacokinetic profile of peptide or protein based drugs. Three drug delivery technologies related to albumin have been developed, which include the coupling of low-molecular weight drugs to exogenous or endogenous albumin, conjugating bioactive proteins by albumin fusion technology (AFT), and encapsulation of drugs into albumin nanoparticles. This review article starts with a brief introduction of human serum albumin (HSA), and then summarizes the mainstream chemical strategies of developing HSA binding molecules for coupling with drug molecules. Moreover, we also concisely condense the recent progress of the most important clinical applications of HSA-binding platforms, and specify the current challenges that need to be met for a bright future of HSA-binding. PMID:26771036

  19. Invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with haematological malignancies before routine use of conjugate vaccines in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Vesa; Aittoniemi, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Klemets, Peter; Ollgren, Jukka; Silvennoinen, Raija; Nuorti, J Pekka; Sinisalo, Marjatta

    2016-05-01

    The baseline national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence rate, serotype distribution and serotype coverage of pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and leukaemia within 1 year after haematological diagnosis during 1995-2002, before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pneumococcal serotype distribution among these patients was different from serotypes causing IPD in the general population. The serotype coverages of PCV13 and PPSV23 were 57% and 64%, respectively, lower than in the general population. This reflects a higher predisposition to IPD in vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies and possibly less benefit of herd immunity gained with the wide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the general population. This data will be useful as a baseline for determining the future role of adult PCV vaccination in these patient groups. PMID:26635103

  20. Voriconazole associated torsades de pointes in two adult patients with haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremy D.; Lim, Lyn-li; Koning, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Voriconazole can prolong the QT interval contributing to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Torsades de pointes is an uncommon but serious complication of voriconazole use which may be under-recognised. We present torsades de pointes in two patients with underlying haematological malignancy being treated for invasive fungal infection with voriconazole. Patients receiving voriconazole should be screened and monitored for evidence of QT prolongation, and if prolongation detected, consideration given to alternative treatments or more intensive cardiac monitoring. PMID:24855597

  1. Changes in period and cohort effects on haematological cancer mortality in Spain, 1952-2006

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast to other haematological cancers, mortality from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma increased dramatically during the second half of the 20th century in most developed countries. This widespread upward trend remains controversial, as it may be attributable either to progressive improvements in diagnosis and certification or to increasing exposures to little-known but relevant risk factors. Methods To assess the relative contribution of these factors, we analysed the independent effects of age, death period, and birth cohort on haematological cancer mortality rates in Spain across the period 1952-2006. Weighted joinpoint regression analyses were performed to detect and estimate changes in period and cohort curvatures. Results Although mortality rates were consistently higher among men, trends across periods and cohorts were virtually identical in both sexes. There was an early period trend reversal in the 1960s for Hodgkin’s disease and leukaemia, which was delayed to the 1980s for multiple myeloma and the 1990s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Birth cohort patterns showed a first downturn for generations born in the 1900s and 1910s for all haematological cancers, and a second trend reversal for more recent cohorts born in the 1950s and 1960s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and leukaemia. Conclusions The sustained decline in Hodgkin’s disease mortality and the levelling off in leukaemia seem to be driven by an early period effect linked to improvements in disease treatment, whereas the steep upward trends in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma mortality in Spain are more likely explained by a cohort effect linked to better diagnosis and death certification in the elderly. The consistent male excess mortality across all calendar periods and age groups points to the importance of possible sex-related genetic markers of susceptibility in haematological cancers. PMID:24716829

  2. Biochemical and haematological effects of a revised dosage schedule of phenylbutazone in horses.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J B; Walland, A; Lees, P; Gerring, E L; Maitho, T E; Millar, J D

    1983-06-25

    Five pairs of matched horses were used to study the biochemical and haematological effects of a revised dosage schedule of phenylbutazone. One group of five horses received a phenylbutazone paste formulation daily for 12 days and a second group of five animals received a placebo preparation for a similar time. Some statistically significant differences were recorded from pretreatment levels in both groups of horses. These changes represented instability in baseline levels and could not be ascribed to phenylbutazone administration. PMID:6879987

  3. Effects of lichen extracts on haematological parameters of rats with experimental insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colak, Suat; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Aslan, Ali; Deniz, Gülşah Yıldız

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world is steadily increasing. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic haematological changes. Lichens are used as food supplements and are also used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. We hypothesized that antioxidant activity of lichens may decrease hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and prevent the development of diabetic complications, including abnormality in haematological condition. Therefore, the effects of Cetraria islandica water extract (CIWE) and Pseudevernia furfuracea water extract (PFWE) on the haematological parameters of rats with type 1 DM were investigated for the first time in the present study. Control Sprague-Dawley or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with water lichen extracts (5-500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 2 weeks, starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized and haematological and metabolic parameters were determined between control and experimental groups. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS), a specific indicator of oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by biochemical studies. In diabetic rats, CIWE of 250-500 mg/kg bw dose showed more prominent results when compared with doses of PFWE for TAC. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the antioxidant activities of lichens might be the possible reason behind the observed antihaematological status. However, the protective effect of lichen extracts were inadequate on diabetes-induced microcytic hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the extracts have no effect on metabolic complications. Our experimental data showed that high doses of CIWE and PFWE alone have no detrimental effect on blood cells and TOS status of plasma. Hence, they are safe and suitable for different administration routes. PMID:23114377

  4. Candiduria in haematologic malignancy patients without a urinary catheter: nothing more than a frailty marker?

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Sarah P; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-05-01

    There is scarcity of data regarding significance of candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies and its association with invasive candidiasis. To that end, we retrospectively evaluated all hospitalised, non-intensive care unit patients with haematologic malignancies and candiduria during a 10-year period (2001-2011). To decrease the possibility of bladder colonisation and sample contamination, we excluded all patients with candiduria who had urinary catheters and those with concomitant bacteriuria. Twenty-four such patients (21 females) were identified, with median age at diagnosis 62 years (range, 20-82 years). Acute leukaemia was the most common underlying disease (54%); 62% of these cases were not in remission. Twenty-nine percent of the patients had diabetes mellitus and 25% were neutropenic. The most common isolated Candida species was Candida glabrata (37%), followed by C. albicans (29%). Only 8% of them had urinary tract infection symptoms. However, 88% received systemic antifungals. Candidemia and crude mortality rates at 4 weeks were low (4% and 12% respectively). Isolated candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies has risk factors similar to those in other hospitalised patients, and it does not seem to be a strong predictor of subsequent invasive candidiasis. PMID:23170870

  5. Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study?

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable. PMID:24140311

  6. Utility of next-generation sequencing technologies for the efficient genetic resolution of haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Barbaro, P; Guo, Y; Alodaib, A; Li, J; Gold, W; Adès, L; Keating, B J; Xu, X; Teo, J; Hakonarson, H; Christodoulou, J

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has now evolved to be a relatively affordable and efficient means of detecting genetic mutations. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) or whole exome sequencing (WES) offers the opportunity for rapid diagnosis in many paediatric haematological conditions, where phenotypes are variable and either a large number of genes are involved, or the genes are large making sanger sequencing expensive and labour-intensive. NGS offers the potential for gene discovery in patients who do not have mutations in currently known genes. This report shows how WES was used in the diagnosis of six paediatric haematology cases. In four cases (Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, congenital neutropenia (n = 2), and Fanconi anaemia), the diagnosis was suspected based on classical phenotype, and NGS confirmed those suspicions. Mutations in RPS19, ELANE and FANCD2 were found. The final two cases (MYH9 associated macrothrombocytopenia associated with multiple congenital anomalies; atypical juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with a KRAS mutation) highlight the utility of NGS where the diagnosis is less certain, or where there is an unusual phenotype. We discuss the advantages and limitations of NGS in the setting of these cases, and in haematological conditions more broadly, and discuss where NGS is most efficiently used. PMID:25703294

  7. Trichlorfon-induced haematological and biochemical changes in Cyprinus carpio: ameliorative effect of propolis.

    PubMed

    Yonar, M Enis; Yonar, Serpil Mi?e; Pala, Ay?egl; Silici, Sibel; Sa?lam, Naim

    2015-06-01

    Trichlorfon is among the most commonly used products to treat fish parasites in aquaculture. We investigated the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of trichlorfon on haematological and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in carp Cyprinus carpio. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (11 and 22 mg l-1) of trichlorfon, and propolis (10 mg kg-1 of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. At the end of 14 d administration, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, gill) samples were collected. Haematological changes (red and white blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit level and erythrocyte indices: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration) were determined in the blood samples, while antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities) were evaluated in the liver, kidney and gill samples. Trichlorfon led to negative alterations in the haematological and antioxidant parameters investigated. The administration of propolis alleviated this effect and suggests that fish treated with trichlorfon improve their physiological status when fed a propolis-supplemented diet. PMID:26036828

  8. KIR Genes and Patterns Given by the A Priori Algorithm: Immunity for Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Escobedo, J. Gilberto; García-Sepúlveda, Christian A.; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are membrane proteins expressed by cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The KIR system consists of 17 genes and 614 alleles arranged into different haplotypes. KIR genes modulate susceptibility to haematological malignancies, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases. Molecular epidemiology studies rely on traditional statistical methods to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. We have previously described our results by applying support vector machines to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. However, rules specifying which haplotypes are associated with greater susceptibility to malignancies are lacking. Here we present the results of our investigation into the rules governing haematological malignancy susceptibility. We have studied the different haplotypic combinations of 17 KIR genes in 300 healthy individuals and 43 patients with haematological malignancies (25 with leukaemia and 18 with lymphomas). We compare two machine learning algorithms against traditional statistical analysis and show that the “a priori” algorithm is capable of discovering patterns unrevealed by previous algorithms and statistical approaches. PMID:26495028

  9. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine; Sander, Mikael; Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2015-08-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP. PMID:25545030

  10. Effect of ellagic acid on some haematological, immunological and antioxidant parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Mişe Yonar, S; Yonar, M E; Yöntürk, Y; Pala, A

    2014-10-01

    In this study, effect of ellagic acid on some haematological, immunological and antioxidant parameters in the blood and various tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined. Four groups of rainbow trout were fed experimental diets containing either no ellagic acid (control) or supplemented with ellagic acid at 50 mg/kg diet (EA-50), 100 mg/kg diet (EA-100) or 150 mg/kg diet (EA-150) for 21 days. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidney and spleen) were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed for their haematological profile (the red blood cell count, the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit level), immune response (the white blood cell count, the oxidative radical production (NBT activity), the total plasma protein and total immunoglobulin level) and oxidant/antioxidant status (the malondialdehyde level, the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity as well as the reduced glutathione concentration). The findings of this study demonstrated that ellagic acid had a positive effect on the haematological parameters, the immune response and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. PMID:24401136

  11. The Efficacy of Nardostachys Jatamansi Against The Radiation Induced Haematological Damage In Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Damodara K M; Shetty, Lathika; A P, Krishna; Kumari, Suchetha N; Sanjeev, Ganesh; P, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation is increasingly being used for medical purposes and it is an established weapon in the diagnosis and the therapy of cancer. An exposure to 1-2 Gys causes the NVD (Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea) syndrome, whereas an exposure to 2-6 Gys causes the haematopoietic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the Nardostachys jatamansi root extract (NJE) on the radiation induced haematological damage in rats. Materials and Methods: EBR was performed at the Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, India. Rats were treated with NJE once daily for 15 days before and after the irradiation. After the irradiation, blood was collected for determining the peripheral blood counts (RBC and WBC), haemoglobin, the platelet count and the packed cell volume (PCV) at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 5, 10 and 15 days post irradiation. The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by the Tukeys test for multiple comparisons. Result: NJE provided protection against the radiation induced haematological disorders. The rats treated with NJE exhibited a time dependent significant elevation in all the haematological parameters which were studied and its modulation upto the near normal level was recorded. Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that, NJE provides protection by modulating the radiation induced damage on the haematopoietic system. PMID:23905085

  12. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...

  14. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  15. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  16. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel

  17. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  18. A Chemical Proteomics Approach for the Search of Pharmacological Targets of the Antimalarial Clinical Candidate Albitiazolium in Plasmodium falciparum Using Photocrosslinking and Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Penarete-Vargas, Diana Marcela; Boisson, Anaïs; Urbach, Serge; Chantelauze, Hervé; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Fraisse, Laurent; Vial, Henri J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria which is one of the most prevalent and deadly infectious diseases in the world. The antimalarial therapeutic arsenal is hampered by the onset of resistance to all known pharmacological classes of compounds, so new drugs with novel mechanisms of action are critically needed. Albitiazolium is a clinical antimalarial candidate from a series of choline analogs designed to inhibit plasmodial phospholipid metabolism. Here we developed an original chemical proteomic approach to identify parasite proteins targeted by albitiazolium during their native interaction in living parasites. We designed a bifunctional albitiazolium-derived compound (photoactivable and clickable) to covalently crosslink drug–interacting parasite proteins in situ followed by their isolation via click chemistry reactions. Mass spectrometry analysis of drug–interacting proteins and subsequent clustering on gene ontology terms revealed parasite proteins involved in lipid metabolic activities and, interestingly, also in lipid binding, transport, and vesicular transport functions. In accordance with this, the albitiazolium-derivative was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi network of P. falciparum. Importantly, during competitive assays with albitiazolium, the binding of choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase (the enzyme involved in the last step of phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was substantially displaced, thus confirming the efficiency of this strategy for searching albitiazolium targets. PMID:25470252

  19. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  20. Orlando Magic: report from the 57th meeting of the American Society of Haematology, 5–7 December 2015, Orlando, USA

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The 57th American Society of Haematology (ASH) meeting held in Orlando, FL was certainly the year when myeloma management changed for good, with a plethora of newly Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs showing impressive outcome improvements and the introduction of new techniques for disease monitoring. Also, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells continued their triumphal march, consolidating their success in lymphoma and chronic lymhocytic leukaemia (CLL) and venturing into new fields such as again multiple myeloma. Some experimental drugs showed long-awaited results (midostaurin in FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)) and some brand new drugs showed promising results in the clinic after extensive preclinical studies, such as those targeting new epigenetic factors (histone methyltransferases) and apoptosis. PMID:26823681

  1. Rise of the mutants: report from the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association, Milan, 12–15 June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    At the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association in Milan, we saw the true and dramatic changes brought about by the integration of extensive genomic information in clinical practice, and the dilemmas that accompany such a rapid increase in knowledge. Each disease is sliced more and more into smaller pieces, each with its own better-determined outcome and treatment. We also observed the rise of mutant-specific epigenetic agents, which benefit from knowing the underlying genetic abnormality to specifically assign an epigenetic drug where it is needed. In contrast to the ‘one mutation, one drug’ approach, others are pursuing the search for drugs targeting pathways fundamental for the survival of all or most cancer cells, sometimes looking at more ‘exotic’ pathways like neddylation or nuclear export. PMID:25183998

  2. Orlando Magic: report from the 57th meeting of the American Society of Haematology, 5-7 December 2015, Orlando, USA.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The 57th American Society of Haematology (ASH) meeting held in Orlando, FL was certainly the year when myeloma management changed for good, with a plethora of newly Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs showing impressive outcome improvements and the introduction of new techniques for disease monitoring. Also, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells continued their triumphal march, consolidating their success in lymphoma and chronic lymhocytic leukaemia (CLL) and venturing into new fields such as again multiple myeloma. Some experimental drugs showed long-awaited results (midostaurin in FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)) and some brand new drugs showed promising results in the clinic after extensive preclinical studies, such as those targeting new epigenetic factors (histone methyltransferases) and apoptosis. PMID:26823681

  3. Clinical applications of molecular haematology: flow cytometry in leukaemias and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Bakul I

    2007-08-01

    Flow cytometry is semi-automated study of antigen profile of cells using the Scatchard principle of antigen-antibody binding and fluorochrome-based detection systems. Flow cytometric evaluation of cellular proteomics has become an integral part of the laboratory diagnosis and classification of haematopoietic neoplasms. Recent technical advances in lasers, monoclonal antibodies, fluorochromes, and computer-based color compensation algorithms have expanded the usefulness of flow cytometry. Detection of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry in leukaemias and lymphomas is incorporated in many treatment protocols. Finding of aberrant maturation pattern of granulocytes offers a sensitive screening tool for early diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Detailed proteomic analysis of leukemias is helping more precise prognostic and biological stratification. PMID:18019799

  4. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    PubMed

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. PMID:26806135

  5. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes as immune-therapy in haematological practice.

    PubMed

    Leen, Ann M; Heslop, Helen E

    2008-10-01

    Viral infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Effective therapies are limited and often associated with significant side effects. Adoptive transfer of virus-reactive T cells offers a means of reconstituting antiviral immunity and this approach has been successfully used to prevent and treat cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and adenovirus infections in vivo. This review outlines the clinical trials that have been performed to date, and will describe future initiatives to (a) develop strategies that can increase the breadth of the viruses that can be targeted, and (b) simplify the process to extend this technology to more centers so that cellular therapy to reconstitute immunity can be more widely applied. PMID:18691164

  6. Haematological profile of 21 patients with hairy cell leukaemia in a tertiary care centre of north India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Das, Reena; Naseem, Shano; Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Narender; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a B cell neoplasm which constitutes around 2 per cent of all the lymphoid leukaemias. It has a characteristic morphology and immunophenotypic profile. It is important to distinguish HCL from other B cell lymphoproliferative disorders due to availability of different chemotherapeutic agents. This study presents clinical, haematological and immunophenotypic profile of patients with HCL seen over a period of four years in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: Twenty one cases of hairy cell leukaemia were analyzed for their clinical details, haemogram, bone marrow examination and immunophenotypic findings. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 28-76 yr with male predominance. Weakness and fever were commonest presentations. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy were seen in decreasing order of frequency. Anaemia was noted in all 21 patients, leukopenia in 15 and thrombocytopenia in 19 cases. Fourteen patients were pancytopenic. Bone marrow examination showed typical hairy cells in all cases. Immunophenotyping showed expression of CD19, CD20, CD103, CD25 and CD11c in all cases, while positivity was seen for CD79b in 93.7 per cent, kappa light chain restriction in 60 per cent and lambda in 40 per cent cases. Notably, 20 per cent showed CD10 and 12 per cent showed CD23 expression. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reveals some unusual findings in otherwise classical disease entity, like absence of palpable spleen, presence of lymphadenopathy, normal or elevated leukocyte counts, expression of CD10, which at times could be diagnostically challenging. PMID:26609034

  7. Achieving accuracy for routine clinical chemistry methods by using patient specimen correlations to assign calibrator values. A means of managing matrix effects.

    PubMed

    Lasky, F D

    1993-04-01

    Accurate results obtained from routine methods used in the clinical laboratory can be achieved if the methods are traceable to definitive or reference methods or are based on widely accepted methodologic principles. At Eastman Kodak Co (Rochester, NY), we assign calibrator values for each method that is available on Kodak Ektachem analyzers by correlation to a reference method or a methodologic principle using patient specimens. Kodak's Reference Laboratory is responsible for maintaining the accuracy and consistency of the reference method or methodologic principle by standardizing with National Institute of Standards and Technology materials, where available, monitoring performance through statistical process control, participating in proficiency testing programs, and following procedures consistent with the International Organization for Standardization guideline, "General Requirements for the Competence of Calibrations and Testing Laboratories (ISO 25). "Patient samples that span the reportable range are run in replicate on the reference method or methodologic principle over several days. These patient sample results are then used to create a calibration curve based on the relationship of concentration to the raw response of the routine method, where the same patient samples are also run in replicate on the same day. Each day, multiple vials of stable calibrator fluids are included in these tests, along with control materials. Each calibrator is assigned a value of equivalent concentration (in millimoles per liter) by predicting the concentration that would be present at the measured response if the test fluid were a patient sample. These are termed supplementary assigned values (SAVs). The same calibrators can be used to compensate for matrix effects resulting from changes in reagent formulations, by appropriately adjusting the assigned values. For example, when a process improvement for Kodak Ektachem clinical chemistry slides for phosphorus was introduced, an SAV change of 0.39 mmol/L (1.2 mg/dL) was required for one calibrator to maintain accuracy of the patient samples. A comparison of patient samples, using the SAVs specific for each formulation, gave excellent correlation (in millimoles per liter; r2 = 0.995) by the following equation: New Formulation = 1.02 (Old Formulation) -0.016; Sy.x = 0.074. The benefits of this approach to calibration include (1) accuracy is traceable to a reference method or methodologic principle and, wherever available, to reference materials; (2) new calibrator values (SAVs) can be assigned whenever the reagent formulation changes to maintain accurate patient results; and (3) if matrix effects are present, they will not adversely influence accuracy because traceability is based on patient sample comparisons. PMID:8466405

  8. Technetium chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-04-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  9. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  10. Modulation of platelet aggregation, haematological and histological parameters by structured lipids on hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua

    2010-05-01

    The effect of the consumption of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)-rich and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich mustard oil on platelet aggregation, haematological parameters and the liver was studied in male albino rats. The rats were fed on standard stock diet with control (mustard oil) and experimental oils for 28 days. Haematological examinations in the normal condition showed that there was no significant variation in the platelet count, total white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts, haematocrit value and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) percentage in the rats fed with control and experimental oils. Haematological examinations in the hypercholesterolaemic condition revealed that there was a significant increase in the platelet count by 39.38% in hypercholesterolaemia, which was decreased by 27.29 and 42.71% by the administration of the experimental oils, respectively. The haemoglobin level was decreased by 5.3%, whereas the haematocrit value was increased by 12.52% in hypercholesterolaemia, which were normalised by treatment with the experimental oils. The platelet aggregation study indicated that the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation increased by 71.67% in hypercholesterolaemia, but the experimental oils beneficially reduced platelet aggregation by 26.33 and 68.33%, respectively. There was increased total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels in liver in hypercholesterolaemia, which was also recovered by the administration of experimental oils. Organopathological examination showed that there was deposition of cholesterol in the liver in the hypercholesterolaemic condition, which was also reduced by treatment with the two experimental oils. PMID:20401638

  11. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in future studies of HEV infection. PMID:24148233

  12. Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and subtypes of haematological malignancy in the UK Million Women Study

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, M E; Murphy, F; Pirie, K; Reeves, G K; Green, J; Beral, V

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests associations of lower alcohol intake and higher tobacco consumption with increased risks of haematological malignancy. The prospective Million Women Study provides sufficient power for reliable estimates of subtype-specific associations in women. Methods: Approximately 1.3 million middle-aged women were recruited in the United Kingdom during 1996–2001 and followed for death, emigration and cancer registration until 2009 (mean 10.3 years per woman); potential risk factors were assessed by questionnaire. Adjusted relative risks were estimated by Cox regression. Results: During follow-up, 9162 incident cases of haematological malignancy were recorded, including 7047 lymphoid and 2072 myeloid cancers. Among predominantly moderate alcohol drinkers, higher intake was associated with lower risk of lymphoid malignancies, in particular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (relative risk 0.85 per 10 g alcohol per day (95% confidence interval 0.75–0.96)), follicular lymphoma (0.86 (0.76–0.98)) and plasma cell neoplasms (0.86 (0.77–0.96)). Among never- and current smokers, higher cigarette consumption was associated with increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (1.45 per 10 cigarettes per day (1.22–1.72)), mature T-cell malignancies (1.38 (1.10–1.73)) and myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic disease (1.42 (1.31–1.55)). Conclusion: These findings confirm and extend existing evidence for associations of subtypes of haematological malignancy with two common exposures in women. PMID:22878373

  13. Seasonal changes in haematology, lymphocyte transferrin receptors and intracellular iron in Ironman triathletes and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether 12 months of chronic endurance training would affect haematology, CD4(+) lymphocyte transferrin receptor (CD71) expression, CD4(+) intracellular iron and the incidence of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTI) in Ironman triathletes compared with untrained men. Resting venous blood samples were taken from 15 Ironman triathletes (TR 30 ± 5 year) and 12 untrained men (UT 30 ± 6 year) every 4 weeks for 12 months. Erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet concentration, haematocrit, haemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCHC) were measured with a full blood count. CD4(+) lymphocytes were analysed for changes in transferrin receptor (CD71) expression (CD4(+)CD71(+)), and intracellular iron (Fe(3+)), by flow cytometry. The TR group had significantly lower Hb, MCHC, and platelets for 10, 9 and 11 months, respectively; lower CD4(+)CD71(+) (3 months) and Fe(3+) (1 month), respectively; higher CD4(+)CD71(+) (1 month); a higher lymphocyte count for 4 months. There were no between-group differences in other variables. In both groups haematology and lymphocytes increased during spring, early summer and winter and decreased during late summer/late winter, with an inverse relationship between CD4(+)CD71(+) and Fe(3+). The TR group reported significantly fewer URTI than the UT. Low Hb and MCHC suggest an iron deficiency which may affect triathlete performance. Monthly changes in lymphocytes, CD4(+)CD71(+) and Fe(3+) suggested that spring, summer and late autumn are associated with CD4(+) proliferation. There may be seasonal relationships between haematology and lymphocyte function, independent of endurance training, possibly affecting performance but not the incidence of URTI. PMID:20821024

  14. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  15. Haematological characteristics predicting susceptibility for ascites. 1. High carbon dioxide tensions in juvenile chickens.

    PubMed

    Scheele, C W; van Der Klis, J D; Kwakernaak, C; Buys, N; Decuypere, E

    2003-07-01

    1. Male broilers of two different genetic stocks, a pure broiler sire line (A) and commercially available Ross broilers (B), were used to study the effect of haematological characteristics in juvenile chickens on the development of clinical ascitic signs. Production performance (body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR)) from 448 birds per stock was measured from 2 to 5 weeks of age. Mortality was recorded from 2 to 6 weeks of age. The birds were housed at a low ambient temperature to stimulate the incidence of ascites. 2. From each stock, 32 birds with the highest (high risk: HRc) and 32 birds with the lowest (low risk: LRc) carbon dioxide tensions (pCO2) in venous blood were selected at 11 d of age. These birds were marked for future blood sampling to determine changes in pCO2 with age to relate these values to ascites susceptibility. 3. At 2 weeks of age all birds (including HRc and LRc birds) were allotted to 32 floor pens (one HRc and one LRc in each pen) per stock. Venous blood samples were collected weekly from HRc and LRc birds for blood gas analysis and haematocrit, and at week 5 also for thyroid hormone (T3, T4) concentrations in plasma. At 5 weeks of age all HRc and LRc birds were examined post-mortem, relative heart, lung, and liver weights and arterial pressure index (API) values were recorded. 4. Birds from stock A showed a lower BWG and FCR and notably higher ascites mortality compared with stock B. An effect of pCO2 tensions at d 11 was found on the incidence of ascitic signs in selected birds of both stocks up to week 5. From the HRc groups 30% of the birds showed ascitic signs, whereas this was only 8% in the LRc group. LRc birds of stock B in particular showed constant low API values (20 +/- 3%) and none of these birds showed signs of ascites. 5. Our results suggest that the ascites problem in Ross birds can be eliminated by selection for low pCO2 tensions in venous blood. Stock effects on API, liver weight, lung weight, and plasma thyroid hormone independent of pCO2 showed a more complex picture of the ascitic signs in stock A compared with B. 6. We concluded that in this experiment a high pCO2 tension in venous blood measured at d 11 was a reliable predictor for ascites susceptibility observed at 5 weeks of age. A low pCO2 tension provides an appropriate criterion for genetic selection, whereas a high pCO2 tension emphasises the necessity for intensive management in poultry houses. PMID:12964632

  16. Characterisation of Escherichia coli isolates from the blood of haematological adult patients with bacteraemia: translocation from gut to blood requires the cooperation of multiple virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, B; Śledzińska, A; Szemiako, K; Samet, A; Nowicki, B; Kur, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether there are unique pathotypes of Escherichia coli capable of transmission from the gastrointestinal tract to the vascular bed. The study included E. coli strains isolated from clinical materials collected from 115 patients suffering from haematologic malignancies diagnosed with bacteraemia. The genotyping techniques established that 89 E. coli isolates from the blood had the same genotype as the E. coli from the patient's bowel. The presence of 21 genes encoding virulence factors typical of various E. coli pathotypes and their relationship with the phylogenetic group was established. One-dimensional analysis showed that the focG gene occurred more frequently in the control bowel group, while the ampicillin-resistant afa/dr E. coli were associated with bacteraemia. Blood isolates with the highest occurrence of virulence factors belonged to pathogenic group B2 and non-pathogenic group A. The co-occurrence of multiple genes encoding papC, sfa, usp and cnf1 virulence factors probably predisposes E. coli to translocation from the gastrointestinal tract to the vascular bed in the group of patients with haematologic malignancies. Based on clustering analysis, dominance of the most virulent strains assigned to the cluster with seven virulence factors encoded by the following genes, papC, sfaD/E, cnf1, usp, agn43, hlyA and iutA, was found. The obtained results enforce the previously proposed concept of bowel-blood translocation and further expand our hypothesis by defining the unique virulence characteristics of E. coli isolates, which predispose them to bowel colonisation or translocation and bacteraemia in this group of patients. PMID:25655758

  17. Changes in haematology measurements with the Sysmex XT-2000iV during storage of feline blood sampled in EDTA or EDTA plus CTAD.

    PubMed

    Granat, Fanny; Geffré, Anne; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    In veterinary medicine a complete blood cell count (CBC) cannot always be performed within 24 h as usually recommended, particularly for specimens shipped to a reference laboratory. This raises the question of the stability of the variables, especially in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) feline blood specimens, known to be prone to in vitro platelet aggregation. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) has been reported to limit platelet aggregation in feline blood specimens. The aim of this study was to measure the stability of the haematological variables and the platelet aggregation score in EDTA and EDTA plus CTAD (EDCT) feline blood specimens during 48 h of storage at room temperature. Forty-six feline EDTA and EDCT blood specimens were analysed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser, and the platelet count and score of platelet aggregation were estimated immediately and after 24 and 48 h of storage. A significant increase in mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit, reticulocyte and eosinophil counts, and a significant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and monocyte count were observed. Haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and red blood cell, white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts remained stable. Changes in reticulocyte indexes with time (low fluorescence ratio, medium fluorescence ratio, high fluorescence ratio and immature reticulocyte fraction) were not significant. Changes were generally more pronounced in EDTA than in EDCT. Platelet aggregation decreased markedly in initially highly aggregated EDTA specimens, and increased slightly in initially non- or mildly-aggregated EDTA or EDCT specimens. Platelet counts increased and decreased, or remained stable, respectively. CTAD can reduce storage-induced changes of the haematological variables in feline samples, thus improving the reliability of a CBC and limiting clinical misinterpretations. PMID:23264612

  18. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and

  19. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  20. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    PubMed

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. PMID:24894523

  1. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting haematological traits in swine via genome scanning

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Haematological traits, which consist of mainly three components: leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits and platelet traits, play extremely important role in animal immune function and disease resistance. But knowledge of the genetic background controlling variability of these traits is very limited, especially in swine. Results In the present study, 18 haematological traits (7 leukocyte traits, 7 erythrocyte traits and 4 platelet traits) were measured in a pig resource population consisting of 368 purebred piglets of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Songliao Black Pig), after inoculation with the swine fever vaccine when the pigs were 21 days old. A whole-genome scan of QTL for these traits was performed using 206 microsatellite markers covering all 18 autosomes and the X chromosome. Using variance component analysis based on a linear mixed model and the false discovery rate (FDR) test, 35 QTL with FDR < 0.10 were identified: 3 for the leukocyte traits, 28 for the erythrocyte traits, and 4 for the platelet traits. Of the 35 QTL, 25 were significant at FDR < 0.05 level, including 9 significant at FDR < 0.01 level. Conclusions Very few QTL were previously identified for hematological traits of pigs and never in purebred populations. Most of the QTL detected here, in particular the QTL for the platelet traits, have not been reported before. Our results lay important foundation for identifying the causal genes underlying the hematological trait variations in pigs. PMID:20584270

  2. Studies on the haematology and trace element status of adult Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) in China.

    PubMed

    Zongping, Liu

    2003-07-01

    Reference values were established for some haematological and serum biochemical constituents in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) in China. The contents of seven trace elements in the blood, hair, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lung, cerebrum, cerebellum, rib, ovary, pancreas and gluteal muscle of Bactrian camels were also measured. Some of these values are reported for the first time for Bactrian camels in China. Most haematological and serum biochemical values were similar to those of cattle, yaks, sheep and dromedary camels, but the mean serum albumin concentration and the albumim/globulin ratio were significantly higher than those in other ruminants and the mean thyroxine concentration was half that in dromedary camels. The liver contained the highest concentrations of copper, zinc, manganese and iron, and the renal cortex contained the highest concentration of selenium. The concentrations of selenium, cobalt, zinc, manganese and molybdenum in the tissues were within the reference ranges for other ruminants, but the mean iron and copper concentrations in the liver were significantly higher than those in other ruminants. PMID:14509454

  3. Haematological effects among silk screening workers exposed to 2-ethoxy ethyl acetate

    PubMed Central

    Loh, C; Shih, T; Liou, S; Lin, Y; Hsieh, A; Chen, C; Liao, G

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the haematological effects in 2-EEA exposed workers. Methods: Workers from one silk screening shop (n = 29), using 2-EEA as the major cleaning and printing solvent, were recruited as a high exposure group. Workers with indirect and non-exposure to 2-EEA (n = 56) were recruited as the comparison group. Venous blood was collected for blood routine examination. Air concentration of 2-EEA in this plant was measured by eight hour personal sampling. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of air concentration of 2-EEA in the high exposure group was 7.41 ppm (range 1.35–16.5 pppm). The mean exposure of female workers (GM = 9.34 ppm) was significantly higher than that of male workers (GM = 4.87 ppm). The GM of air 2-EEA concentration in the comparison group was 0.07 ppm (range: non-detectable to 3.62 ppm, n = 26). The haemoglobin and haematocrit in the female high 2-EEA exposure workers were significantly lower than those of female workers in the comparison group. No difference was found between male 2-EEA high exposure and comparison group workers. The haemoglobin, haematocrit, and RBC count in the study population had a significant dose-response relation with air 2-EEA levels. Conclusion: Results suggest that 2-EEA is a haematological toxicant, which leads to anaemic status in high exposure female workers. PMID:12937203

  4. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological parameters among third trimester pregnant women in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, A J; Adelaiye, A B; Igbokwe, V U

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy state in a woman's life is a unique state in terms of the desirable physiological changes and the exciting reversal of the changes soon after the termination of the pregnancy. It is considered essential that to guarantee a good feto-maternal outcome the attainment of optimum anthropometric and haematological parameters are key. Our study assessed the anthropometric and haematological changes and also looked at the relationship that exists between these parameters among pregnant women.We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study which considered 160 apparently healthy, singleton, third trimester pregnant women attending ANC at the State Specialist Hospital and 58 apparently healthy non-pregnant controls sourced from the Sokoto metropolis population. Each subject or control enrolled was contacted 3 times at 2 weekly intervals. And at each occasion they are assessed for changes in the anthropometric and haematological parameters. The response rate was 93.6% (3 pregnants and 11 controls were loss to follow up). The pregnant and control subgroups mean ages were 28.02 ± 6.81 years and 26.89 ± 5.84 years respectively (p = 0.265). Weekly weight gains of 0.48kg among the pregnant sub-group against 0.13kg obtained in the control group were recorded. BMI increase of about 0.19kg/m2 per week among the pregnant sub-group and only 0.05kg per week in the controls. 95% of the distribution of pregnant sub-group has haemoglobin and haematocrit of ≥8.9g/dL and ≥26% respectively. Among the pregnant sub-group, mean weekly haemoglobin and haematocrit drop of 0.24g/dL and 0.74% were respectively recorded. A steady rise in WBC was recorded but platelets counts dropped at an average of 5.04 x 103 /μL per week. A positive correlation between BMI and haemoglobin levels was observed (r > 0 and p < 0.05). No particular regularity in the relationship between BMI and WBC was noticed. We conclude that there was optimum weight gain and good haematological indices for those with good BMI during the third trimester of pregnancy. There was a positive correlation between BMI and plasma haemoglobin level but WBC showed no particular relationship with the anthropometric changes. We therefore, recommend that good education to improve the socio- economic wellbeing of the girl-child be encouraged to boost self sufficiency for better weight gains and to facilitate access to good healthcare so that the ideal anthropometric and haematological parameters can be achieved during pregnancy to guarantee good feto-maternal outcome. PMID:24937399

  5. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  6. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  7. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  8. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  9. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  10. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  11. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  12. Cosmic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klare, G.

    The annual meeting of the Astronomische Gesellschaft in Cologne, June 1988, featured extensive reviews of the chemical processes relevant to astrophysics. The twelve contributions to this book, written by experts from the US, UK, France, Belgium, Switzerland and Germany, deal in depth with the chemistry of comets and meteorites, of stars and their shells, of the interstellar medium and galaxies. A comprehensive review of nucleosynthesis and two reports on observations round off an up-to-date presentation of cosmic chemistry.

  13. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  14. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722652

  15. Pre-clinical toxicity & immunobiological evaluation of DNA rabies vaccine & combination rabies vaccine in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Dinesh; Kumar, P. Uday; Krishna, T. Prasanna; Kalyanasundaram, S.; Suresh, P.; Jagadeesan, V.; Hariharan, S.; Naidu, A. Nadamuni; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Rangarajan, P.N.; Srinivasan, V.A.; Reddy, G.S.; Sesikeran, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Pre-clinical toxicology evaluation of biotechnology products is a challenge to the toxicologist. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the safety profile of the first indigenously developed recombinant DNA anti-rabies vaccine [DRV (100 μg)] and combination rabies vaccine [CRV (100 μg DRV and 1.25 IU of cell culture-derived inactivated rabies virus vaccine)], which are intended for clinical use by intramuscular route in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: As per the regulatory requirements, the study was designed for acute (single dose - 14 days), sub-chronic (repeat dose - 28 days) and chronic (intended clinical dose - 120 days) toxicity tests using three dose levels, viz. therapeutic, average (2x therapeutic dose) and highest dose (10 x therapeutic dose) exposure in monkeys. The selection of the model i.e. monkey was based on affinity and rapid higher antibody response during the efficacy studies. An attempt was made to evaluate all parameters which included physical, physiological, clinical, haematological and histopathological profiles of all target organs, as well as Tiers I, II, III immunotoxicity parameters. Results: In acute toxicity there was no mortality in spite of exposing the monkeys to 10XDRV. In sub chronic and chronic toxicity studies there were no abnormalities in physical, physiological, neurological, clinical parameters, after administration of test compound in intended and 10 times of clinical dosage schedule of DRV and CRV under the experimental conditions. Clinical chemistry, haematology, organ weights and histopathology studies were essentially unremarkable except the presence of residual DNA in femtogram level at site of injection in animal which received 10X DRV in chronic toxicity study. No Observational Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of DRV is 1000 ug/dose (10 times of therapeutic dose) if administered on 0, 4, 7, 14, 28th day. Interpretation & conclusions: The information generated by this study not only draws attention to the need for national and international regulatory agencies in formulating guidelines for pre-clinical safety evaluation of biotech products but also facilitates the development of biopharmaceuticals as safe potential therapeutic agents. PMID:23852288

  16. Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  17. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes. PMID:26623319

  18. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory... clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

  19. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory... clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory... clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory... clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

  2. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory... clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

  3. Effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Han, Cen; Lei, Ji-Lin; Liu, Bao-Liang; Huang, Bin; Huo, Huan-Huan; Yin, Shu-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Nitrite (NO2(-)) is commonly present as contaminant in aquatic environment and toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish were exposed to various concentrations of nitrite (0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.8mM) for 96 h. Fish blood and gills were collected to assay haematological parameters, oxidative stress and expression of genes after 0, 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure. In blood, the data showed that the levels of methemoglobin (MetHb), triglyceride (TG), potassium (K(+)), cortisol, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose significantly increased in treatments with higher concentrations of nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) after 48 and 96 h, while the levels of haemoglobin (Hb) and sodium (Na(+)) significantly decreased in these treatments. In gills, nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) apparently reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), increased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), up-regulated the mRNA levels of c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JUK1), p53, caspase-3, caspase-7 and caspase-9 after 48 and 96 h of exposure. The results suggested caspase-dependent and JUK signaling pathways played important roles in nitrite-induced apoptosis in fish. Further, this study provides new insights into how nitrite affects the physiological responses and apoptosis in a marine fish. PMID:26476021

  4. First-dose pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in critically ill haematological malignancy patients.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Laura M; Tverdek, Frank P; Hernandez, Mike; Bruno, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the volume of distribution (Vd) (L/kg) of intravenous aminoglycosides (AGs) in critically ill haematological malignancy patients. Secondary objectives were to determine the body weight (actual, ideal, adjusted or lean) that yields the most precise estimate of Vd when normalised in L/kg as well as the frequency that current first-dose strategies result in post-distributional peak concentrations (C(peak)) within the target range (tobramycin 16-24 mg/L; amikacin 32-48 mg/L). In total, 58 AG doses were included (tobramycin, n = 34; amikacin, n = 24). Median Vd was 0.38 L/kg normalised per the most precise dose weight, which was actual body weight (ABW). The median dose was 445 mg (5.8 mg/kg ABW) for tobramycin and 1200 mg (13.8 mg/kg ABW) for amikacin. Target C(peak) (tobramycin 20mg/L; amikacin 40 mg/L) was achieved in only 25% of all AG episodes, with 4% exceeding the target and 71% falling below the target. Twenty-four organisms were isolated in the study sample; target C(peak) achievement (tobramycin 20 mg/L; amikacin 40 mg/L) would yield a peak:minimum inhibitory concentration of 10 in 75% and 52% of organisms, respectively. In conclusion, an increased Vd of AGs was identified in this critically ill haematological malignancy patient sample, and current dosing yielded a suboptimal C(peak) in the majority of patients. PMID:25455848

  5. Effect of pre-analytical handling on haematological variables in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Olsen, A K; Bladbjerg, E M; Jensen, A L; Hansen, A K

    2001-04-01

    Pre-analytical handling may be an important determinant of haematological variables, if analysis is delayed. We investigated the effect of anticoagulants, i.e. tripotassium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid, theophylline, adenosine, dipyridamole (CTAD), storage time (0.5, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5, 25.5 and 27.5 h after blood sampling), and storage temperature (5 degrees C and 20 degrees C) on the variation in haemoglobin (HGB), red blood cell count (RBC), haematocrit (HCT), white blood cell count (WBC), and platelet count (PLT) in minipigs. Medians of HGB, RBC, HCT, WBC and PLT were significantly higher in EDTA tubes than in CTAD tubes due to the dilution effect of the anticoagulant. We found a minor significant increase in HCT after 25.5 h in blood stored at 20 degrees C, and at the same time a minor significant increase in WBC in EDTA tubes stored at 20 degrees C. We found a significant decrease in PLT in blood stored at 5 degrees C, especially in EDTA tubes. Minor variations were also observed in HGB and RBC. Our results indicate that PLT should only be measured in tubes placed at room temperature. If HCT or WBC analyses are to be performed on the day after blood sampling, the samples must be stored in a refrigerator until analysis. Our studies underline that time delay before analysis of haematological variables can cause increased variation, and should therefore be limited as far as possible in order to reduce the number of animals needed to make reliable conclusions. PMID:11315163

  6. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber)

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Simon J.; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A.; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months – 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (≥3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  7. Effect of petroleum products inhalation on some haematological indices of fuel attendants in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoro, A M; Ani, E J; Ibu, J O; Akpogomeh, B A

    2006-01-01

    The Haematotoxic implications of exposure to petroleum fumes through inhalation in human subjects were investigated. A total of 400 subjects (200 males and 200 females) aged between 18-30 years participated. Each gender was further categorized into two groups of 100 each for control and test, respectively. The test group was again subdivided into test 1 (T1) and test 2 (T2) in both sexes. T1 subjects were exposed to petroleum fumes for two years and below while T2 subjects were exposed for more than two years. Samples of blood were collected daily and subjected to haematological analysis. The results obtained showed that in males and females, red blood cell counts (10(6) /mm3) was significantly [P < 0.001] decreased in T1 (4.4 +/- 0.13) and T2 (3.85 +/- 0.07) compared to control (4.76 +/- 0.01). White blood cell counts, haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and mean corpusclular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly [P < 0.01] decreased in both sexes of test groups when compared with control. There was also a significant [P < 0.001] decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in test 2 males compared with control. Most subjects exposed for longer than two years (T2) had significantly [P < 0.001] lower values of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit than those exposed for less than two years. The odds/odds ratio that a subject would become anaemic progressively rose from less than 1 in the control to greater than 1 or infinity on exposure to petroleum fumes. These results indicate that the petroleum fumes cause a reduction in haematological indices which worsens with prolonged exposure. PMID:17242722

  8. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for three species of hydrophiine sea snakes (Hydrophis curtus, H. elegans and H. peronii) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Amber K; Flint, Mark; Hulse, Lyndal; Hanger, Jon; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    This study presents the first set of comprehensive reference intervals (RIs) for plasma biochemistry and haematology for three species of sea snakes common to the Indo-Pacific waters of Australia. In total 98 snakes, composed of Hydrophis curtus (n= 60), H. elegans (n = 27) and H. peronii (n = 11), were captured, clinically examined and had venous blood samples collected. All snakes were deemed healthy and in good to excellent body condition with snout to vent lengths of 40.7-73.9 cm (H. curtus), 68.9-131.4 cm (H. elegans) and 55.0-83.0 cm (H. peronii), respectively. Lymphocyte numbers, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were species-dependent. All other parameters are presented as a single range for the three species. Gender ratio was evenly distributed for H. curtus and H. elegans, but 8/11 (73%) of H. peronii were males. No significant differences were detected between males and females for any of the measured blood parameters. Lymph contamination was considered and accounted for. Although only three species of sea snakes are represented in this study, the RIs generated may be useful in the clinical assessment of other sea snake species. PMID:25933825

  9. Disk Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Wing-Fai

    2015-09-01

    The chemical species in protoplanetary disks react with each other. The chemical species control part of the thermal balance in those disks. How the chemistry proceeds in the varied conditions encountered in disks relies on detailed microscopic understanding of the reactions through experiments or theoretical studies. This chapter strives to summarize and explain in simple terms the different types of chemical reactions that can lead to complex species. The first part of the chapter deals with gas-phase chemistry and the second part introduces chemical reactions occurring on grain surfaces. Several terms pertaining to astrochemistry are introduced. 11th Lecture of the Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  10. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  11. Safety evaluation of daidzein in laying hens: part I. Effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, and organs development.

    PubMed

    Shi, S R; Gu, H; Chang, L L; Wang, Z Y; Tong, H B; Zou, J M

    2013-05-01

    Daidzein, an estrogen-like product, becomes increasingly popular as a dietary supplement, particularly for postpeak-estrus animals seeking a safe natural alternative to play a role of estrogen. However, there is little available safety data of it for raisers and consumers. A subchronic laying hen safety study was conducted to examine if the high-dose daidzein could affect the safety of hens selves, including laying performance, clinical blood parameters and organs development. Seven hundred and sixty-eight 56-week-old Hyline Brown were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 8 replicates of 24 birds each and 3weeks later fed diets supplemented with 0, 10, 50 and 100mg of daidzein/kg for 12weeks. The mortality was significantly decreased (P<0.05). No treatment related adverse clinical signs were observed. Mean egg production, egg mass and feed conversion of whole experiment period was significantly influenced by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05), showing significant quadratic response to increasing dietary daidzein supplement (P=0.029, P=0.003 and P=0.019, respectively). There was no statistically significant changes in haematology (P>0.05). In clinical chemistry parameters, total protein, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus were significantly affected by dietary daidzein supplement (P<0.05). The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is considered to be 50mg/kg. PMID:23391597

  12. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and

  13. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

  14. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  15. Confectionary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

  16. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on

  17. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  18. FGD chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, K.

    1983-07-01

    EPRI work on the chemistry of flue gas desulphurization systems is reported. Since 85% of the systems in operation depend on the absorption of SO/sub 2/ in aqueous lime or limestone slurries, research has concentrated on them. The objective is to accumulate sufficient data to enable a computer model of the chemical processes to be developed.

  19. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;

  1. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical

  2. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and

  3. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  4. Confectionary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular

  5. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  6. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  7. [Guidelines for the treatment of invasive fungal disease by Aspergillus spp. and other fungi issued by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC). 2011 Update].

    PubMed

    Fortún, Jesús; Carratalá, Jordi; Gavaldá, Joan; Lizasoain, Manuel; Salavert, Miguel; de la Cámara, Rafael; Borges, Marcio; Cervera, Carlos; Garnacho, José; Lassaleta, Álvaro; Lumbreras, Carlos; Sanz, Miguel Ángel; Ramos, José T; Torre-Cisneros, Julián; Aguado, José M; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The guidelines on the treatment of invasive fungal disease by Aspergillus spp. and other fungi issued by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) are presented. These recommendations are focused on four clinical categories: oncology-haematology patients, solid organ transplant recipients, patients admitted to intensive care units, and children. An extensive review is made of therapeutical advances and scientific evidence in these settings. These guidelines have been prepared according the SEIMC consensus rules by a working group composed of specialists in infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, critical care medicine, paediatrics and oncology-haematology. Specific recommendations on the prevention of fungal infections in these patients are included. PMID:21474210

  8. Functional and Biological Role of Endothelial Precursor Cells in Tumour Progression: A New Potential Therapeutic Target in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was believed that vasculogenesis occurred only during embryo life and that postnatal formation of vessels arose from angiogenesis. Recent findings demonstrate the existence of Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs), which take partin postnatal vasculogenesis. EPCs are recruited from the bone marrow under the stimulation of growth factors and cytokines and reach the sites of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological conditions such as malignancies where they contribute to the “angiogenic switch” and tumor progression. An implementation of circulating EPCs in the bloodstream of patients with haematological malignancies has been demonstrated. This increase is strictly related to the bone marrow microvessel density and correlated with a poor prognosis. The EPCs characterization is a very complex process and still under investigation. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the functional and biological role of EPCs in haematological malignancies and to investigate their potential as a new cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26788072

  9. EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially 'atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis. PMID:25052315

  10. The Effect of Cement Dust Exposure on Haematological Parameters of Cement Factory workers in Nalagonda, Andhra Pradesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guguloth, Mohan Rao.; Sambanaik, A.; srinivasnaik, L.; Mude, Jagadishnaik.

    2012-10-01

    This study was measured on haematological parameters in workers exposed to cement dust in order to test the the hypothesis and to identify a simple, readily available, cost effective screening test that could help in identifying the presence of disease, its severity, that Cement dust exposure may perturb these functions related to their workplace.Assesment of haematological parameters were performed in 100exposed workers occupationally exposed to cement dust and 50 matched unexposed controls with ages ranging from 20-35, 35-50, 50-65 years. The blood samples were taken from them and percentage of hemoglobin, Lymphocytes / monocytes count were analysed.The hemoglobin percentage of exposed workers were significantly lower(P<0.05).Lymphocytes/Monocytes counts of exposed workers was insignificant (P<0.05).These results suggest that long term occupational exposure to cement dust may perturb haemopoietic function.

  11. Functional and Biological Role of Endothelial Precursor Cells in Tumour Progression: A New Potential Therapeutic Target in Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was believed that vasculogenesis occurred only during embryo life and that postnatal formation of vessels arose from angiogenesis. Recent findings demonstrate the existence of Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs), which take partin postnatal vasculogenesis. EPCs are recruited from the bone marrow under the stimulation of growth factors and cytokines and reach the sites of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological conditions such as malignancies where they contribute to the "angiogenic switch" and tumor progression. An implementation of circulating EPCs in the bloodstream of patients with haematological malignancies has been demonstrated. This increase is strictly related to the bone marrow microvessel density and correlated with a poor prognosis. The EPCs characterization is a very complex process and still under investigation. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the functional and biological role of EPCs in haematological malignancies and to investigate their potential as a new cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26788072

  12. EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially ‘atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis. PMID:25052315

  13. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  14. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  15. Medicinal chemistry for 2020.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-10-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  16. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    PubMed Central

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80 ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  17. Efficacy of environmental measures to decrease the risk of hospital-acquired aspergillosis in patients hospitalised in haematology wards.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, P; Loulergue, P; Raberin, H; Turco, M; Mounier, C; Tran Manh Sung, R; Lucht, F; Pozzetto, B; Guyotat, D

    2006-08-01

    This study evaluated a multidisciplinary strategy to decrease the rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) among adult patients hospitalised in two haematology wards in a single 560-bed building at the University Hospital of Saint-Etienne. Upgrading of the air filtration system and construction of an air-lock chamber at the entrance to the unit were completed during 1994. In 1995, specific hygienic measures were introduced during hospital building work, including the use of plastic barriers, watering during demolition work, reduction of pedestrian traffic in construction areas, and the wearing of high-efficiency filtration masks by immunosuppressed patients when outside the protected unit. This strategy was evaluated by a prospective survey of IPA cases between 1993 and 2001, coupled with environmental surveillance. The number and risk-level of hospital renovation projects increased between 1995 and 2001 (p < 0.01). In parallel, the rate of IPA decreased globally in the haematology unit from 0.85% (1.19/1,000 patients) in 1993 to 0.28% (0.21/1,000 patients) in 2001. The incidence of IPA decreased significantly between 1993-1996 and 1997-2001 (p 0.02, Mann-Whitney test). These results show that a multidisciplinary approach involving engineers, infection control practitioners, mycologists and clinicians enables IPA rates among patients hospitalised in haematology wards to be significantly decreased. PMID:16842568

  18. Changes in haematological profile of common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) induced by transit to pheasantry.

    PubMed

    Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Vecerek, V; Pistekova, V; Chloupek, P; Suchy, P

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess haematological changes in hand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) transported from intensive housing facilities to a pheasantry. Selected haematological parameters were monitored in a group of 100 pheasants (50 males and 50 females) aged of 9 weeks that were transported for 4 hours by a covered lorry in crates, with a total body weight of 12 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C12 - floor space: 290 cm2/kg) and with a total body weight of 18 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C18 - floor space: 195 cm2/kg). Blood samples were taken from 10 randomly selected males and 10 females before transport (CON group) and 20 hours after transport (C12 and C18 groups). Examinations consisted in determining the total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin levels and differential leukocyte counts, whereby the proportions of heterophil, basophil and eosinophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of the total leukocytes were computed. The changes in the parameters of red blood cell count were manifested by an increase (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin level, MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) values and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the total erythrocyte count and haematocrit level in both C12 and C18 pheasants, when compared with the control group of non-transported pheasants. C18 pheasants exhibited also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MCV (mean cell value) value. When analyzing differential leukocyte counts, C18 pheasants showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in heterophil counts and H/L ratio, whereas values in C12 pheasants did not differ from the non-transported control group. Individual counts of lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.05) in C12 pheasants, whereas basophil counts were increased (P < 0.01) in both C12 and C18 pheasants. Total leukocyte count was decreased (P < 0.01) in C12 and C18 pheasants. In conclusion, the specific requirements of pheasants, as primarily wild animals, for the density in crates should be respected during transportation and they should be transported at lower densities than other poultry species, at least 290 cm2/kg live weight should be provided. PMID:17078531

  19. Role of Haematological Parameters as an Indicator of Acute Malarial Infection in Uttarakhand State of India

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Smita; Chandra, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria may be associated with complications which may be avoided by early diagnosis and treatment. Microscopic diagnosis showing presence of malarial parasites is needed for confirmation which at times may be unreliable and requires technical expertise. The present study was conducted to statistically analyze the haematological parameters including platelet indices which can give initial hint for malarial infection and therefore prompt the laboratory physician for active search of the parasite microscopically. Methods A retrospective study was conducted which included 334 cases of acute malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, falciparum and dual infection along with 100 cases of control. Routine haematological parameters along with platelet indices (MPV and PDW) which are easily available on automated cell counter were statistically analyzed to assess their role as indicators for malaria. Results Leukocyte count and platelet count were significantly lower in cases of acute malaria in comparison to controls (p value <0.001). Platelet count<150×109/l showed 87.2% sensitivity, 65% specificity, 89.3% positive predictive value and 2.49 likelihood ratio for the infection. PDW of 6–10 and MPV>8 fl had 71.9% and 61.5% sensitivity and 78.2% and 77.7% positive predictive value respectively for infection. Platelet count <150×109/l and MPV>8 fl was comparatively more sensitive indicator for vivax (88% and 70.8% respectively) than falciparum (84.8% and 50.4% respectively) and PDW 6–10 was more sensitive indicator for falciparum (82.6%) than vivax (69.5%) infection. Conclusion Thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and low leukocyte count (<4×109/l) may be used as probable indicator for malaria in endemic countries. Higher MPV (>8 fl) and PDW of 6–10 also show considerable sensitivity for malarial infection. In addition, thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and higher MPV (>8 fl) was more sensitive for vivax infection while PDW 6–10 was more sensitive for falciparum infection. PMID:23350022

  20. Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru.

    PubMed

    Juan, Jave Ortiz; Lopez Chegne, Nicholas; Gargala, Gilles; Favennec, Loic

    2002-01-01

    Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1-3 years) or 200 mg (age 4-11 years) twice daily for 3 days, albendazole as a 400-mg single dose and praziquantel as a 25-mg/kg single dose. Post-treatment parasitological examinations were carried out on 3 faecal samples, each collected on a different day between 21 and 30 days following initiation of treatment. Nitazoxanide cured 89% (25/28), 89% (16/18) and 82% (32/39) of the cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis respectively compared with 91% (32/35), 58% (11/19) and 96% (47/49) for the comparator drugs. Each of the drugs produced egg reduction rates in excess of 98%. There were no significant adverse events or abnormalities in haematology or clinical chemistry values or urinalysis. PMID:12055813

  1. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, Gemma L; Estcourt, Lise J; Wood, Erica M; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004 and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. We have now split this review into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review is the first part of the original review. Objectives To determine whether a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given when patient bleeds) is as effective and safe as a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding, usually when the platelet count falls below a given trigger level) in patients with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent or treat bleeding in patients with malignant haematological disorders receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We identified seven RCTs that compared therapeutic platelet transfusions to prophylactic platelet transfusions in haematology patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. One trial is still ongoing, leaving six trials eligible with a total of 1195 participants. These trials were conducted between 1978 and 2013 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. We were able to critically appraise five of these studies, which contained separate data for each arm, and were unable to perform quantitative analysis on one study that did not report the numbers of participants in each treatment arm. Overall the quality of evidence per outcome was low to moderate according to the GRADE approach. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the studies identified had some threats to validity. We deemed only one study to be at low risk of bias in all domains other than blinding. Two RCTs (801 participants) reported at least one bleeding episode within 30 days of the start of the study. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis due to considerable statistical heterogeneity between studies. The statistical heterogeneity seen may relate to the different methods used in studies for the assessment and grading of bleeding. The underlying patient diagnostic and treatment categories also appeared to have some effect on bleeding risk. Individually these studies showed a similar effect, that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion strategy was associated with an increased risk of clinically significant bleeding compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. Number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant was higher in the therapeutic-only group than in the prophylactic group (one RCT; 600 participants; mean difference 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 0.90; moderate-quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a therapeutic-only transfusion policy and a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 801 participants; risk ratio (RR) 4.91, 95% CI 0.86 to 28.12; low-quality evidence). Two RCTs (801 participants) reported time to first bleeding episode. As there was considerable heterogeneity between the studies, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Both studies individually found that time to first bleeding episode was shorter in the therapeutic-only group compared with the prophylactic platelet transfusion group. There was insufficient evidence to determine any difference in all-cause mortality within 30 days of the start of the study using a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 629 participants). Mortality was a rare event, and therefore larger studies would be needed to establish the effect of these alternative strategies. There was a clear reduction in the number of platelet transfusions per participant in the therapeutic-only arm (two RCTs, 991 participants; standardised mean reduction of 0.50 platelet transfusions per participant, 95% CI −0.63 to −0.37; moderate-quality evidence). None of the studies reported quality of life. There was no evidence of any difference in the frequency of adverse events, such as transfusion reactions, between a therapeutic-only and prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 991 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.68), although the confidence intervals were wide. Authors’ conclusions We found low- to moderate-grade evidence that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy is associated with increased risk of bleeding when compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy in haematology patients who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. There is insufficient evidence to determine any difference in mortality rates and no evidence of any difference in adverse events between a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy and a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. A therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy is associated with a clear reduction in the number of platelet components administered. PMID:26422767

  2. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia: Census of Patients Treated in Italian Haematology Units

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Gianfranco; Innocenti, Idanna; Autore, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by contacting the population of the Italian haematology units and collecting from 68% of them data concerning the number of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia visited over the previous 12 months, with the aim of obtaining an overview of the treatment of this disease and comparing the results with the prevalence estimates found in literature. The projection obtained (about 17,000 patients visited in the previous 12 months) is probably overestimated because of double-counting of patients who may have been treated at two different facilities during the year, although it is also underestimated since the internal medicine units were not involved. The balance of these two opposite factors is not known. It is important to bear in mind the approximation with which the count was performed in facilities for which no official data were available. Albeit with these limits, the results obtained are in line with some existing prevalence data and make it possible to determine the portion of patients at different Binet stages and in the various age ranges, identifying the corresponding therapeutic treatments. Use of the CIRS scale to classify patients as FIT and UNFIT was seen to be still somewhat limited. PMID:26543525

  3. Comparative haematology, haemochrmistry and electrocardiography of the slender loris and bonnet monkey.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, H; Srihari, S; Krishnamoorthy, R V

    1975-01-01

    The famale loris had a higher erythrocyte count than the male whereas in the bonnet monkey the converse occurred. Sex differences were seen in the neutrophil and leucocyte counts, but not in the eosinophils and monocytes. The loris exhibited high potassium, magnesium, chloride and sulphate levels, while the bonnet monkey showed a relatively high level of sugar and haemoglobin. The loris showed higher percentages of blood cholesterol and urea. There were species-dependent variations in the plasma proteins independent of the sex. The electrocardiographic patterns did not reveal sex differences in either animal. However the conventional II lead revealed species specific differences in the duration and the component wave form amplitudes of these animals. The haematological and electrocardiographic differences have been correlated with differences in physiology and physical activity patterns of these animals. The present data suggests that a gradual reduction in the number of lymphocytes and an increase in the number of neutrophils occurred during the course of the evolution of primates. PMID:804075

  4. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Eissa, F I; Zidan, N A

    2010-03-01

    The renal- and hepato-toxicity induced by abamectin pesticide (Vertimec) and a commercial form of a bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin) in male albino rats were evaluated. Blood picture and blood glucose level were investigated. Male albino rats were administered dietary doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/100 of the LD50 values of each toxicant for 30 consecutive days. Abamectin was found to pose risks of renal- and hepato-toxicity in rats, since the biochemical parameters of liver function (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase activity, alanine aminotransferase activity, acid phosphatase activity, albumin, and total protein levels) and kidney function (uric acid and creatinine concentration) were severely affected. These effects were verified by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. Likewise, some haematological indices (i.e. erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and haemoglobin concentration) were also influenced; in addition abamectin might cause hypoglycaemia. On the other hand, the above-mentioned lesions were less pronounced in the case of Bacillus thuringiensis -treated rats. PMID:20194097

  5. Evaluation of the monocyte counting by two automated haematology analysers compared with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, E; Carandente, P; Scopacasa, F; Romano, M F; Pellegrino, M; Bisogni, R; De Caterina, M

    2005-04-01

    The aim is to determine the monocyte count performance of the Bayer Diagnostics ADVIA120 and Coulter LH 750 automated haematology analysers and the results obtained by these two instruments were compared with those provided by Becton Dickinson FACScan flow cytometer using the combination of CD45/CD14 MoAb. Linearity and imprecision were also evaluated. The linearity of both instruments was good. Coulter LH 750 showed better precision (4.3%) than ADVIA 120 (9.0%) both within and between batch. A significant correlation (r = 0.973) was found between the LH 750 and the flow cytometry method, while a modest one was observed between the latter and the ADVIA 120 (r = 0.880). When comparing the percentage of monocytes by means of one-way anova and Tukey test, it was found that the LH 750 provided the closest results in comparison with flow cytometry, with no statistical difference between the means (mean difference MO% = 0.6); however the difference was statistically different between the ADVIA 120 and flow cytometry (mean difference MO% = -4.06). These data were confirmed by Altman-Bland and Deming regression analyses. PMID:15784123

  6. Prenatal ultrasound heating impacts on fluctuations in haematological analysis of Oryctolagus cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    Md. Dom, Sulaiman; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal Ultrasound (US) is commonly used as a routine procedure on pregnant women. It is generally perceived as a safe procedure due to the use of non-ionizing radiation. However, the neurotoxicity of diagnostic prenatal US was detected to have a correlation with high susceptibility to early developing fetus. This research involved in vivo experimental model by using 3rd trimester pregnant Oryctolagus cuniculus and exposing them to US exposures for 30, 60, and 90 minutes at their gestational day (GD) 28-29. The output power and intensities, spatial peak temporal average intensity (ISPTA) of US were varied from 0.4 to 0.7 W and 0.13 to 0.19 W/cm2 respectively were tested initially in free-field, water. Haematological analysis was carried out to detect any changes in blood constituents. Statistically significant differences were detected in red blood cell (RBC) count (P<0.001), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (P<0.001) and also platelet (PLT) count (P<0.001) in newborn of Oryctolagus cuniculus. These findings indicate the possibility of US heating in causing defects on studied animal. PMID:24273744

  7. Haematological toxicity: a marker of adjuvant chemotherapy efficacy in stage II and III breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Saarto, T.; Blomqvist, C.; Rissanen, P.; Auvinen, A.; Elomaa, I.

    1997-01-01

    Two hundred and eleven patients with node-positive stage II and III breast cancer were treated with eight cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy comprising cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oral ftorafur (CAFt), with and without tamoxifen. All patients had undergone radical surgery, and 148 patients were treated with post-operative radiotherapy in two randomized studies. The impact of haematological toxicity of CAFt on distant disease-free (DDFS) and overall survival (OS) was recorded. Dose intensity of all given cycles (DI), dose intensity of the two initial cycles (DI2) and total dose (TD) were calculated separately for all chemotherapy drugs and were correlated with DDFS and OS. Patients with a lower leucocyte nadir during the chemotherapy had significantly better DDFS and OS (P = 0.01 and 0.04 respectively). Dose intensity of the two first cycles also correlated significantly with DDFS (P = 0.05) in univariate but not in multivariate analysis, while the leucocyte nadir retained its prognostic value. These results indicate that the leucocyte nadir during the adjuvant chemotherapy is a biological marker of chemotherapy efficacy; this presents the possibility of establishing an optimal dose intensity for each patient. The initial dose intensity of adjuvant chemotherapy also seems to be important in assuring the optimal effect of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:9010042

  8. Minimal residual disease monitoring: the new standard for treatment evaluation of haematological malignancies?

    PubMed

    Hauwel, Mathieu; Matthes, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) refers to the small number of malignant cells that remain after therapy when the patient is in remission and shows no symptoms or overt signs of disease. Current treatment protocols for haematological malignancies allow most patients to obtain some form of MRD state, but cure seldom follows and in most cases fatal relapses occur sooner or later, leaving a bitter impression of having won a battle yet lost the war. MRD detection and quantification are used for evaluation of treatment efficiency, patient risk stratification and long-term outcome prediction. Whereas multicolour flow cytometry (MCFC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods constitute the two most commonly used techniques for MRD detection, next generation sequencing will certainly be widely employed in the future. As MRD reflects the nature of the malignant disease itself, including its sensitivity to the drug regimens applied, it constitutes the ideal method for surveillance and patient follow-up. The morphological examination of peripheral blood or bone marrow smears, although still an indispensable part of routine laboratory testing, is clearly insufficient for patient management, and clinicians should not ask themselves whether to look for MRD or not, but how and when. PMID:24452390

  9. Pharmacological and haematological study of shol fish (Channa striatus) skin extract on experimental animal.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Surajit; Dasgupta, S C; Gomes, A

    2002-01-01

    Snake head fish Channa striatus (locally called 'shol') skin extract (SFSE) was examined for certain pharmacological and haematological effects on experimental animals. LD50 of SFSE was found to be 6 mg/20gm (iv) in male albino mice. SFSE potentiated pentobarbitone induced sleeping time in male albino mice and produced hypothermia. Low dose of SFSE decreased respiratory rate in rat and guineapig and high dose produced apnoea leading to death. On isolated toad and guineapig heart, SFSE significantly decreased rate and amplitude of contraction leading to temporary blockade, which returned after repeated wash. On isolated nerve muscle preparations, SFSE produced irreversible blockade of twitch response. SFSE induced quick contraction on isolated guineapig ileum, which was antagonised by atropine and cyproheptadine. SFSE did not possess haemolytic and haemorrhagic activity but produced anaemia in male albino mice. A neurotoxic compound (fluoroscent and ninhydrin positive) was isolated from SFSE by thin layer chromatography. This compound (CS-NT) was lethal in male albino mice, produced death by apnoea in rat and produced irreversible blockade of isolated nerve-muscle preparation. This study confirms that the skin of Channa striatus possesses toxic, and lethal components, which needs further detailed study. PMID:12561982

  10. Biochemical and haematological measurements in beef cattle in Mendoza plain rangelands (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Grünwaldt, E G; Guevara, J C; Estévez, O R; Vicente, A; Rousselle, H; Alcuten, N; Aguerregaray, D; Stasi, C R

    2005-08-01

    Biochemical and haematological measurements were used to identify constraints on productivity in beef cattle. One hundred and twelve Aberdeen Angus and Criollo Argentino females including lactating cows, dry non-pregnant cows and heifers were selected. Blood samples were taken in the middle of summer and autumn. Serum was analysed for haemoglobin, PCV, glucose, albumin, urea, creatinine, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, ALP, AST, ALT, CK, LDH, Cl-, Na and K content. Globulin was calculated by taking the difference between total protein and albumin. Percentages of all cattle that had metabolite levels outside reference ranges were: 15% (glucose), 8% (globulin), 5% (urea), 96% (Ca), 50% (P), 12% (Mg), 20% (Na), 5% (K), 24% (Cl), 18% (Fe), 5% (Cu) and 85% (CK). These results indicate with some certainty that dietary protein was not limiting. Body condition score loss was detected only in lactating cows. There were a few animals that could have presented chronic inflammatory disease. Phosphorus could be an important potential constraint on fertility, although the presence of symptoms of hypophosphataemia was not observed. The study also demonstrates the absence of anaemia or liver disease. Breed, seasonal and physiological state differences in some blood metabolites could be attributed to one or more of the following factors: chemical composition of the feed ingested, environmental temperature, nutrient content of the forage, animal age and cattle foraging experience. The study provides a basis for implementing helpful adjustments in current cattle management practices so as to alleviate the constraints on productivity, provided that these practices are profitable. PMID:16248224

  11. To what extent will contaminated water affect physical, haematological and lipid properties of Clariasgariepinus?

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Olalekan; Oginni, Olatunde; Igbakin, Ayanfe P; Adeyemi, Oyeyemi; Osubor, Chris C

    2011-01-01

    Some haematological and physical properties of Clarias gariepinus cultivated in water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane over a period of 56 days were examined. The haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) concentrations of test animals were found to be significantly lower than those of control (p<0.05). The gain in body weight of male C. gariepinus cultivated in uncontaminated water (control), water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane was found to be 11.88 0.55, 13.5 0.62, 21.60 1.03 and 27.54 1.22 g, respectively. Serum cholesterol concentrations of fish cultivated in contaminated water were found to be significantly higher than those of control (p<0.05). The experimental results suggested that the pollutants may cause anaemia in the fish as evident in the Hb and PCV results. It could also be inferred that the gain in body weight may be due to impaired fat metabolism which might have led to elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the fish. It is our view that consumption of such fish may cause hypercholesterolemia. PMID:19801186

  12. The psychosocial experience of adolescents with haematological malignancies in Jordan: an interpretive phenomenological analysis study.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Omar; Wynaden, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  13. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  14. Interstellar chemistry.

    PubMed

    Klemperer, William

    2006-08-15

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature. PMID:16894148

  15. Interstellar chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature. PMID:16894148

  16. Impact of HPAI H5N1 infection on select blood chemistry and gas ranges in layers, broilers and turkeys using the i-STAT Clinical Analyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of poultry with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 typically results in mortality within six days of inoculation. However, the exact mechanisms that induce death are unknown, even as birds may die in the absence of overt clinical signs of disease. In human and many veterinary ...

  17. Providing Relevance in Chemistry for Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Theodore H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an introductory chemistry course for nurses in which students learn basic chemical principles by performing 12 chemical analyses that are routinely conducted on body fluids and listed on a patient's clinical laboratory chart. (MLH)

  18. Stratospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, R. A.; Demore, W. B.; Ferguson, E. E.; Lesclaux, R.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Sander, S. P.; Sze, N. D.; Zellner, R.

    1985-01-01

    Recent improvements in the data base for the currently identified reactions describing the chemistry of the major families of trace gas species, HO(x), NO(x), ClO(x), and hydrocarbons are assessed. The important coupling reactions between the families are introduced progressively. Chemical aspects such as heterogeneous reactions and reactions of sodium species, the importance of which are not yet completely established, are discussed. Recent attempts to reconcile some of the more unexpected kinetic behavior which has emerged from the extensive experimental studies of key reactions with current reaction rate theory are also examined. The uncertainties in the current kinetic and photochemical data base is given. The prospects for improvement of data for known reactions of atmospheric importance as well as for the identification of gaps in the chemical description of the atmosphere.

  19. Astronomical Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  20. Tropospheric Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, V.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental processes that control the chemical composition and cycles of the global troposphere and how these processes and properties affect the physical behavior of the atmosphere are examined. The long-term information needs for tropospheric chemistry are: to be able to predict tropospheric responses to perturbations, both natural and anthropogenic, of these cycles, and to provide the information required for the maintenance and effective future management of the atmospheric component of our global life support system. The processes controlling global tropospheric biogeochemical cycles include: the input of trace species into the troposphere, their long-range transport and distribution as affected by the mean wind and vertical venting, their chemical transformations, including gas to particle conversion, leading to the appearance of aerosols or aqueous phase reactions inside cloud droplets, and their removal from the troposphere via wet (precipitation) and dry deposition.

  1. Astronomical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Klemperer, William

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic. PMID:21128763

  2. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak in a haematology-oncology unit associated with contaminated surface cleaning equipment.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, S; Krizek, L; Glasmacher, A; Fischnaller, E; Marklein, G; Exner, M

    2002-10-01

    An outbreak of six cases of hospital-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections (two pneumonia two septicaemia, two skin/wound infection) occurred between August and September 2000 in an adult haematology-oncology unit at a tertiary-care centre. During the outbreak, hospital-acquired infection (HAI) incidence density rates rose from 29.4 to 62.3 (P < 0.05) infections per 1000 days at risk (i.e., neutropenic days). A systematic outbreak management system was actioned in accordance with a German draft guideline. Multiple samples from the patients' environment were tested for the presence of P. aeruginosa. A total of 4.5% of samples from sanitary equipment and 20.0% of samples from surface cleaning equipment were found to be contaminated with P. aeruginosa. Genotypic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed different patterns for all (N = 6) of the patient isolates, however, two of the patient isolates were identical in comparison with environmental isolates from cleaning equipment (four samples) and sanitary equipment (one sample). Our investigation revealed that the cleaning staff had used cleaning solution instead of disinfectants for decontamination of the patients' environment. The outbreak was terminated after re-adoption of surface disinfection, application of sterile filters on taps and shower heads, chemical disinfection of the washbasin drains, and appointment of a hospital hygiene nurse to a previously unfilled position. After institution of the control measures, HAI incidence densities decreased to pre-outbreak level. This investigation emphasizes the need to carefully evaluate cleaning and disinfection practices for patient care, particularly in neutropenic patients. PMID:12392900

  4. Impact of age on haematological markers pre- and post-marathon running.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas G; Pata, Rachel W; D'Addario, Johanna; Yuknis, Lauren; Kingston, Rebecca; Feinn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether haematological markers differ between young and masters marathon participants, running at similar performance levels. Nine young (31.89 ± 4.96 years) and eight masters (63.13 ± 4.61 years) runners participated. At five time points (pre-race through 54 h post-race), a complete blood cell count, basic metabolic panel and creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme panel were assessed. Race performance was standardised using the World Masters Association Age Grading Performance Tables. Total CK levels were elevated for all participants at all time points post-race (P < 0.001). The CK-isoenzyme MB% was elevated across groups at 6, 30 and 54 h post-race (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), with masters runners having a higher CK-MB% at 30 and 54 h (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Total white blood cell and neutrophil counts were elevated through 6 h post-race (P < 0.001), with higher levels found in younger runners (P < 0.001). When considering all blood work, masters runners had a higher number of abnormal values at 6, 30 and 54 h post-race (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). In conclusion, masters runners demonstrated sustained CK-MB elevation, which may suggest greater cardiac stress. However, future studies using additional cardiac markers should be completed to confirm these findings. In addition, masters runners showed an increased number of laboratory values outside normal range, indicating the body's reduced capacity to respond to marathon running. PMID:25789424

  5. Distribution of haematological indices among subjects with Blastocystis hominis infection compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Soltani, Shahrzad; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Yousefi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8–10 years old in one study. Aim To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. Material and methods From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count – CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity – TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and χ2 tests were used for comparison. Results Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein level was positive in 1.46% of cases and 0.5% of controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Frequency of serum iron < 120 was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions The ESR, CRP and occult blood was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection. PMID:24868297

  6. A case/control study of adult haematological malignancies in relation to overhead powerlines.

    PubMed Central

    Youngson, J. H.; Clayden, A. D.; Myers, A.; Cartwright, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    A population based case control study of adult haematological malignancy and distance from, and magnetic fields associated with, overhead (OH) power lines has been carried out in the North West and Yorkshire regions of England. Three-thousand, one hundred and forty-four cases with histologically proven disease were entered into the study. One control per case, matched for age, sex, year of diagnosis and health district of residence, was selected from hospital discharges. Seven per cent of cases and controls lived near to OH power lines as defined by the study protocol. The measure of exposure used was the calculated magnetic field strength at each of these addresses due to maximum load currents carried by OH power lines in the 5 years preceding diagnosis. The odds ratio (OR) for living within 50 m of an OH line was 1.29 with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 0.99-1.68 but a chi 2 test for trend with distance was not statistically significant. The analysis of calculated magnetic fields, did not produce any statistically odds ratios. The OR for magnetic fields greater than or equal to 0.1 mG was 1.03 (95% CI 0.81 1.32). Analysis of magnetic fields greater than or equal to 3.0 mG gave an OR of 1.87 (95% CI 0.79 4.42), but this result is based on small numbers. No evidence was found for confounding by the type of dwelling which was used as a partial surrogate for socio-economic status. PMID:2069855

  7. A Genome-wide screen identifies frequently methylated genes in haematological and epithelial cancers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic as well as epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of both epithelial and haematological malignancies. High throughput screens are required to identify epigenetic markers that can be useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes across malignancies. Results Here we report for the first time the use of the MIRA assay (methylated CpG island recovery assay) in combination with genome-wide CpG island arrays to identify epigenetic molecular markers in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on a genome-wide scale. We identified 30 genes demonstrating methylation frequencies of ≥25% in childhood ALL, nine genes showed significantly different methylation frequencies in B vs T-ALL. For majority of the genes expression could be restored in methylated leukemia lines after treatment with 5-azaDC. Forty-four percent of the genes represent targets of the polycomb complex. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) two of the genes, (TFAP2A and EBF2), demonstrated increased methylation in blast crisis compared to chronic phase (P < 0.05). Furthermore hypermethylation of an autophagy related gene ATG16L2 was associated with poorer prognosis in terms of molecular response to Imatinib treatment. Lastly we demonstrated that ten of these genes were also frequently methylated in common epithelial cancers. Conclusion In summary we have identified a large number of genes showing frequent methylation in childhood ALL, methylation status of two of these genes is associated with advanced disease in CML and methylation status of another gene is associated with prognosis. In addition a subset of these genes may act as epigenetic markers across hematological malignancies as well as common epithelial cancers. PMID:20184741

  8. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  9. A Label-Free Porous Silicon Immunosensor for Broad Detection of Opiates in a Blind Clinical Study and Result Comparison to Commercial Analytical Chemistry Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Lisa M.; Kwong, Tai C.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n=50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA®) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was < 9% both within-run and between-day at and above the cutoff limit of 300 ng ml−1. This study validates the analytical screening capability of label-free PSi opiate immunosensors in authentic patient samples and is the first semi-quantitative demonstration of the technology’s successful clinical use. These results motivate future development of PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting. PMID:21062030

  10. Haematological parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with leaf essential oil of Hoslundia opposita (Vahl)

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, N.O.; Akolade, J.O.; Usman, L.A.; Oloyede, O.B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf essential oil of Hoslundia opposita (Vahl) on the haematological parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Forty-eight albino rats (Rattus norvegicus), of average weight 132.5 g, were randomly selected into normal and diabetic groups, each with four sub-groups. The rats were treated with 110 and 220 mg/kg body weight (b. wt.) of the essential oil. 14.2 mg/kg body weight of metformin (Glucophage) was used as a reference drug. All treatments were administered, intraperitoneally, once a day for four days. Haematological parameters like haemoglobin (HGB), red blood cell (RBC) count, white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage lymphocytes (LYM) and neutrophils (NEU) were analysed. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the erythrocyte indices of all the normal (non-diabetic) rats, both treated and untreated. However, there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the WBC count and a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the lymphocyte (LYM) percentages of the normal (non-diabetic) rats administered with higher dose of the essential oil. The results also revealed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the RBC counts of untreated diabetic rats and diabetic rats administered 110 mg/kg b. wt. of the oil respectively. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in the LYM of diabetic untreated rats was also observed, while administration of metformin and 110 mg/kg b. wt. Hoslundia opposita leaf essential oil (HOLEO) to diabetic rats significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the LYM percentages to values within range of the normal control animals. Overall, administration of the oil has significant ameliorative effect on alloxan-induced anaemia in diabetic state and this may be of immense benefits in the management of type 2 diabetes and its associated haematological complications.

  11. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  12. Alternative agents versus prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Gregg, Richard; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether alternative agents (e.g. artificial platelet substitutes, platelet-poor plasma, fibrinogen, rFVIIa, thrombopoietin mimetics) are as effective and safe as the use of platelet transfusions for the prevention of bleeding (prophylactic platelet transfusion) in patients with haematological disorders who are undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Antifibrinolytics (lysine analogues) will not be included in this review because they have been the focus of another Cochrane review (Wardrop 2013). PMID:25722650

  13. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and, in addition, of the pressure, temperature, and velocity. A near term goal of the experimental program should be to confirm the nonlinear effects of sulfur speciation, and if present, to provide an explanation for them. It is also desirable to examine if the particulate matter retains any sulfur. The recommendation is to examine the effects on SOx production of variations in fuel-bound sulfur and aromatic content (which may affect the amount of particulates formed). These experiments should help us to understand if there is a coupling between particulate formation and SO, concentration. Similarly, any coupling with NOx can be examined either by introducing NOx into the combustion air or by using fuel-bound nitrogen. Also of immediate urgency is the need to establish and validate a detailed mechanism for sulfur oxidation/aerosol formation, whose chemistry is concluded to be homogeneous, because there is not enough surface area for heterogeneous effects. It is envisaged that this work will involve both experimental and theoretical programs. The experimental work will require, in addition to the measurements described above, fundamental studies in devices such as flow reactors and shock tubes. Complementing this effort should be modeling and theoretical activities. One impediment to the successful modeling of sulfur oxidation is the lack of reliable data for thermodynamic and transport properties for several species, such as aqueous nitric acid, sulfur oxides, and sulfuric acid. Quantum mechanical calculations are recommended as a convenient means of deriving values for these properties. Such calculations would also help establish rate constants for several important reactions for which experimental measurements are inherently fraught with uncertainty. Efforts to implement sufficiently detailed chemistry into computational fluid dynamic codes should be continued. Zero- and one-dimensional flow models are also useful vehicles for elucidating the minimal set of species and reactions that must be included in two- and three-dimensional modeling studies.

  14. Targeting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2, MK2): Medicinal Chemistry Efforts To Lead Small Molecule Inhibitors to Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Mario; Forli, Stefano; Manetti, Fabrizio

    2016-04-28

    The p38/MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2) pathway is involved in a series of pathological conditions (inflammation diseases and metastasis) and in the resistance mechanism to antitumor agents. None of the p38 inhibitors entered advanced clinical trials because of their unwanted systemic side effects. For this reason, MK2 was identified as an alternative target to block the pathway but avoiding the side effects of p38 inhibition. However, ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors suffered from low solubility, poor cell permeability, and scarce kinase selectivity. Fortunately, non-ATP-competitive inhibitors of MK2 have been already discovered that allowed circumventing the selectivity issue. These compounds showed the additional advantage to be effective at lower concentrations in comparison to the ATP-competitive inhibitors. Therefore, although the significant difficulties encountered during the development of these inhibitors, MK2 is still considered as an attractive target to treat inflammation and related diseases to prevent tumor metastasis and to increase tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. PMID:26502061

  15. Influence of ascorbic acid supplementation on the haematological and clinical biochemistry parameters of male rabbits exposed to aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Yousef, M I; Salem, M H; Kamel, K I; Hassan, G A; El-Nouty, F D

    2003-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of L-ascorbic acid (AA) in alleviating the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in male New-Zealand white rabbits. Five rabbits (6 months of age and mean body weight 3.12 kg) per group were assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: 0 mg AA and 0 mg AFB1/kg BW (control); 20 mg AA/kg BW; 15 microg AFB1/kg BW; 15 microg AFB1 plus 20 mg AA/kg BW; 30 pg AFB1/kg BW; 30 pg AFB1 plus 20 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every other day for 9 weeks, followed by a 9-week recovery period where all drugs were withdrawn. Evaluations were made for hemato-biochemical parameters and enzymatic activities. Results showed that AFB1 significantly (p < 0.05) decreased hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were continued during the recovery period. Ascorbic acid caused an increase in these parameters, and alleviated the negative effect of AFB1 during the treatment period. Additionally, serum concentrations of total protein, albumin and glucose were significantly (P < 0.05) declined by treatment with the high dose of aflatoxin and these effects were continued during the recovery period. Ascorbic acid caused non-significant increases in these parameters and alleviated the harmful effect of AFB1. On the other hand, aflatoxin treatment caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) during the treatment period in a dose dependent manner, and this effect was continued during the recovery period, especially with the high dose. Also, treatment with the high dose of aflatoxin caused significant increases (P<0.05) in cholesterol and total bilirubin. Ascorbic acid caused significant decreases in these parameters and alleviated the harmful effects of AFB1. Whereas, Total leukocyte count (TLC), urea and creatinine were not significantly affected by aflatoxin-treatment. Generally, it is interesting feature that the treatment with AA alone had no negative effects on most of the previous parameters. Also, the presence of AA could diminished the adverse effects of AFB1 on most of hematological and biochemical values, and enzymatic activities in rabbits. PMID:12617557

  16. Clinical and molecular analysis of haemoglobin H disease in Sardinia: haematological, obstetric and cardiac aspects in patients with different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Origa, R; Sollaino, M C; Giagu, N; Barella, S; Campus, S; Mandas, C; Bina, P; Perseu, L; Galanello, R

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 251 Sardinian patients (187 adults and 64 children) with haemoglobin (Hb) H disease were evaluated. Two-hundred and sixteen patients (86%) had the deletional type (- -/-alpha) and 36 (14%) patients had the non-deletional type (- -/alpha(ND)alpha). A clear genotype-phenotype correlation was found, with the non-deletional type more severe than the deletional type. Diagnosis of Hb H disease was incidental in about 60% of cases. Aplastic crises due to B19 parvovirus infection were found in five patients (2.1%), while 23 patients (9.6%) experienced one or more haemolytic crises. Nineteen patients with Hb H received sporadic red blood cell transfusions and three patients were repeatedly transfused. Forty-seven of 61 married women (77%) had 82 pregnancies. In children, mean serum ferritin was 87 +/-92 mug/l and in adults, was 192 +/- 180 mug/l in females and 363 +/- 303 mug/l in males. For the 98 male patients, a significant correlation was found between ferritin values and age (r2 = 0.33, P < 0.0001). In the Sardinian population, Hb H disease needs regular monitoring for early detection and treatment of possible complications, such as worsening of anaemia that may require red cell transfusion, cholelithiasis and iron overload. PMID:17129226

  17. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  18. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Blanco, Patricia; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews; this review compares different platelet transfusion doses. Objectives To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy with or without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with malignant haematological disorders or undergoing HSCT that compared different platelet component doses (low dose 1.1 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, standard dose 2.2 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, high dose 4.4 × 1011/m2 ± 25%). Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included seven trials (1814 participants) in this review; six were conducted during one course of treatment (chemotherapy or HSCT). Overall the methodological quality of studies was low to moderate across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity. Five studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the low-dose and standard-dose groups (four studies; 1170 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.13; moderate-quality evidence); low-dose and high-dose groups (one study; 849 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence); or high-dose and standard-dose groups (two studies; 951 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence). Three studies reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant. There was no difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the low-dose and standard-dose groups (two studies; 230 participants; mean difference −0.17, 95% CI −0.51 to 0.17; low quality evidence). One study (855 participants) showed no difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between high-dose and standard-dose groups, or between low-dose and high-dose groups (849 participants). Three studies reported the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding. There was no difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a low-dose and a standard-dose platelet transfusion policy (three studies; 1059 participants; RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.92; low-quality evidence); low-dose and high-dose groups (one study; 849 participants; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.77; low-quality evidence); or high-dose and standard-dose groups (one study; 855 participants; RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.68; low-quality evidence). Two studies reported the time to first bleeding episodes; we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Both studies (959 participants) individually found that the time to first bleeding episode was either the same, or longer, in the low-dose group compared to the standard-dose group. One study (855 participants) found that the time to the first bleeding episode was the same in the high-dose group compared to the standard-dose group. Three studies reported all-cause mortality within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no difference in all-cause mortality between treatment arms (low-dose versus standard-dose: three studies; 1070 participants; RR 2.04, 95% CI 0.70 to 5.93; low-quality evidence; low-dose versus high-dose: one study; 849 participants; RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.50 to 3.54; low-quality evidence; and high-dose versus standard-dose: one study; 855 participants; RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.51 to 5.81; low-quality evidence). Six studies reported the number of platelet transfusions; we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Two studies (959 participants) out of three (1070 participants) found that a low-dose transfusion strategy led to more transfusion episodes than a standard-dose. One study (849 participants) found that a low-dose transfusion strategy led to more transfusion episodes than a high-dose strategy. One study (855 participants) out of three (1007 participants) found no difference in the number of platelet transfusions between the high-dose and standard-dose groups. One study reported on transfusion reactions. This study’s authors suggested that a high-dose platelet transfusion strategy may lead to a higher rate of transfusion-related adverse events. None of the studies reported quality-of-life. Authors’ conclusions In haematology patients who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT, we found no evidence to suggest that a low-dose platelet transfusion policy is associated with an increased bleeding risk compared to a standard-dose or high-dose policy, or that a high-dose platelet transfusion policy is associated with a decreased risk of bleeding when compared to a standard-dose policy. A low-dose platelet transfusion strategy leads to an increased number of transfusion episodes compared to a standard-dose strategy. A high-dose platelet transfusion strategy does not decrease the number of transfusion episodes per participant compared to a standard-dose regimen, and it may increase the number of transfusion-related adverse events. Findings from this review would suggest a change from current practice, with low-dose platelet transfusions used for people receiving in-patient treatment for their haematological disorder and high-dose platelet transfusion strategies not being used routinely. PMID:26505729

  19. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and previously updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review compares prophylactic platelet transfusion thresholds. Objectives To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6, 23 July 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with haematological disorders (receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT) that compared different thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (low trigger (5 × 109/L); standard trigger (10 × 109/L); higher trigger (20 × 109/L, 30 × 109/L, 50 × 109/L); or alternative platelet trigger (for example platelet mass)). Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results Three trials met our predefined inclusion criteria and were included for analysis in the review (499 participants). All three trials compared a standard trigger (10 × 109/L) versus a higher trigger (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). None of the trials compared a low trigger versus a standard trigger or an alternative platelet trigger. The trials were conducted between 1991 and 2001 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. The original review contained four trials (658 participants); in the previous update of this review we excluded one trial (159 participants) because fewer than 80% of participants had a haematological disorder. We identified no new trials in this update of the review. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity. Three studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no evidence of a difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the standard and higher trigger groups (three studies; 499 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.90; low-quality evidence). One study reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event (adjusted for repeated measures). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 255 participants; relative proportion of days with World Health Organization Grade 2 or worse bleeding (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.84 to 3.48, P = 0.162; authors’ own results; low-quality evidence). Two studies reported the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding. There was no evidence of any difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a standard trigger level and a higher trigger level (two studies; 421 participants; RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.88; low-quality evidence). Only one study reported the time to first bleeding episode. There was no evidence of any difference in the time to the first bleeding episode between a standard trigger level and a higher trigger level (one study; 255 participants; hazard ratio 1.11, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.91; low-quality evidence). Only one study reported on all-cause mortality within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no evidence of any difference in all-cause mortality between standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 255 participants; RR 1.78, 95% CI 0.83 to 3.81; low-quality evidence). Three studies reported on the number of platelet transfusions per participant. Two studies reported on the mean number of platelet transfusions per participant. There was a significant reduction in the number of platelet transfusions per participant in the standard trigger group (two studies, mean difference −2.09, 95% CI −3.20 to −0.99; low-quality evidence). One study reported on the number of transfusion reactions. There was no evidence to demonstrate any difference in transfusion reactions between the standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 79 participants; RR 0.07, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.09). None of the studies reported on quality of life. Authors’ conclusions In people with haematological disorders who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT, we found low-quality evidence that a standard trigger level (10 × 109/L) is associated with no increase in the risk of bleeding when compared to a higher trigger level (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). There was low-quality evidence that a standard trigger level is associated with a decreased number of transfusion episodes when compared to a higher trigger level (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). Findings from this review were based on three studies and 499 participants. Without further evidence, it is reasonable to continue with the current practice of administering prophylactic platelet transfusions using the standard trigger level (10 × 109/L) in the absence of other risk factors for bleeding. PMID:26576687

  20. Contribution of new diagnostic approaches to antifungal treatment plans in high-risk haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Einsele, H; Loeffler, J

    2008-05-01

    In high-risk patient cohorts, such as patients after solid-organ or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, or patients with acute leukaemia, early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is essential, as delayed or missing diagnosis of IFI results in increasing rates of mortality. However, diagnosis of most IFIs, especially of invasive aspergillosis, is difficult because classic tests have low sensitivity and specificity, and radiology often provides non-specific and transient results. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional assays for the detection of IFI and the growing number of immunocompromised patients who are at risk for opportunistic fungal infections have led to the development of new assays. These methods include antigen detection systems, such as ELISAs, and different molecular methods (PCR assays). Serological tests, such as the detection of the carbohydrate galactomannan, are standardised and commercially available. However, they still need to be evaluated in large patient cohorts, especially children. The benefit of antibody detection remains unclear if patients are under immune suppression or are heavily colonised but not infected. A range of different PCR assays (conventional, nested, real-time) have been developed, targeting different gene regions (cytochrome P450, heat-shock proteins, 18S, 5.8S, 28S, internal transcribed spacer), including a variety of amplicon detection methods, such as gel electrophoresis, hybridisation with specific probes, ELISA and restriction fragment length polymorphism. These molecular assays provide high potential in terms of sensitivity and specificity, but vary widely in their feasibility and up to now have not been standardised. Taken together, new non-culture-based diagnostic assays are appropriate as simple and rapid screening tests with high sensitivities and quick turnaround times. Thus, they might help to reduce empirical antifungal therapy and might be valuable tools to allow early initiation and monitoring of pre-emptive antifungal therapy. In this review, we assess the performance of a variety of non-culture-based tests for the detection of IFI in high-risk haematological patients, with emphasis on the impact of the assays on different management strategies. PMID:18430128

  1. The course of toxicity in the pregnant mouse after exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin: clinical effects, serum chemistries, hematology, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, N; Rogers, E H; Zehr, R D; Gage, M I; Travlos, G S; Malarkey, D E; Brix, A; Schmid, J E; Hill, D

    2014-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin produced by a variety of fresh-water cyanobacterial species worldwide and induces significant adverse effects in both livestock and humans. This study investigated the course of CYN-induced toxicity in pregnant mice exposed daily during either the period of major organogenesis (gestation days [GD] 8-12) or fetal growth (GD13-17). Endpoints include clinical signs of toxicity, serum analyses to evaluate hepatic and renal function, histopathology of liver and kidney, and hematology. Study animals were administered 50 μg/kg CYN once daily by ip route and euthanized 24 h after 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 consecutive doses, or 6 or 13 d after the dosing period. The course of the CYN-induced effects was determined at all euthanasia times for the endpoints just outlined. Results indicated that CYN is a toxin, producing lethality in dams during the early part of gestation, significant weight loss, and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, tail tip, and peri-orbital tissues. Effects also included alterations in serum markers for liver function, histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues, electrolyte abnormalities, leukocytosis, and posttreatment thrombocytopenia and reticulocytosis. The onset of symptoms was rapid, producing reductions in weight gain in GD8-12 animals, bleeding in the vaginal area in GD13-17 animals, and significant increases in sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) in both groups after a single dose. Although the GD8-12 dams displayed a 50% lethality, in GD13-17 animals only a single death occurred. Alterations seen in hepatic and renal function or histopathology do not appear to be of sufficient severity to produce death. Evidence indicates that bleeding may play a critical role in the onset of symptoms and eventually, in the observed lethality. PMID:25072824

  2. Preliminary study of the fungal ecology at the haematology and medical-oncology ward in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Normand, Anne Cécile; Diallo, Yacouba Lazarre; Dembelé, Abdoul Karim; Thera, Mahamadou A; Diallo, Dapa; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ranque, Stéphane

    2014-08-01

    Data on fungal epidemiology in sub-Saharan African countries are scarce. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the fungal flora at the Onco-Haematology ward of the National Teaching Hospital of Point G in Bamako, Mali. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dry and in the rainy seasons. Nasal swab and sputum samples were collected from the hospitalized patients while airborne fungal spores were collected using electrostatic dust-fall collectors. Fungi were identified by their morphological characteristics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Candida albicans was the most frequent yeast species colonizing patients; Aspergillus species were isolated in 86 % of the patients and were the main airborne environmental contaminants. Overall, airborne fungal contamination rates increased from 33.8 % in the dry to 66.2 % in the rainy season (p < 0.001). The most frequent Aspergillus species were Aspergillus niger (36.6 %) and Aspergillus flavus (32.92 %). In contrast, Aspergillus fumigatus (5.43 %) was relatively rare. This high level of fungal exposure raises concern regarding the management of at-risk patients in this Onco-Haematology ward and stresses the need for strengthening the mycological diagnostic capacities to accompany the implementation of adapted fungal infection prevention and management policies. PMID:24889723

  3. Indications for allo- and auto-SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders: current practice in Europe, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sureda, A; Bader, P; Cesaro, S; Dreger, P; Duarte, R F; Dufour, C; Falkenburg, J H F; Farge-Bancel, D; Gennery, A; Kröger, N; Lanza, F; Marsh, J C; Nagler, A; Peters, C; Velardi, A; Mohty, M; Madrigal, A

    2015-08-01

    This is the sixth special report that the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation regularly publishes on the current practice and indications for haematopoietic SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders in Europe. Major changes have occurred in the field of haematopoietic SCT over the last years. Cord blood units as well as haploidentical donors have been increasingly used as stem cell sources for allo-SCT, thus, augmenting the possibility of finding a suitable donor for a patient. Continuous refinement of conditioning strategies has also expanded not only the number of potential indications but also has permitted consideration of older patients or those with co-morbidity for a transplant. There is accumulating evidence of the role of haematopoietic SCT in non-haematological disorders such as autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, the advent of new drugs and very effective targeted therapy has challenged the role of SCT in some instances or at least, modified its position in the treatment armamentarium of a given patient. An updated report with revised tables and operating definitions is presented. PMID:25798672

  4. Consensus guidelines for the treatment of yeast infections in the haematology, oncology and intensive care setting, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Sorrell, T C; Chang, C C; Paige, E K; Bryant, P A; Slavin, M A

    2014-12-01

    Pathogenic yeast forms are commonly associated with invasive fungal disease in the immunocompromised host, including patients with haematological malignancies and patients of haemopoietic stem cell transplants. Yeasts include the Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis jirovecii and some lesser-known pathogens. Candida species remain the most common cause of invasive yeast infections (and the most common human pathogenic fungi). These guidelines present evidence-based recommendations for the antifungal management of established, invasive yeast infections in adult and paediatric patients in the haematology/oncology setting. Consideration is also given to the critically ill patient in intensive care units, including the neonatal intensive care unit. Evidence for 'pre-emptive' or 'diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy' is also discussed. For the purposes of this paper, invasive yeast diseases are categorised under the headings of invasive candidiasis, cryptococcosis and uncommon yeast infections. Specific recommendations for the management of Pneumocystis jirovecii are presented in an accompanying article (see consensus guidelines by Cooley et al. appearing elsewhere in this supplement). PMID:25482743

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of the Aspergillus-specific bronchoalveolar lavage lateral-flow assay in haematological malignancy patients.

    PubMed

    Prattes, Juergen; Lackner, Michaela; Eigl, Susanne; Reischies, Frederike; Raggam, Reinhard B; Koidl, Christoph; Flick, Holger; Wurm, Robert; Palfner, Michael; Wlfler, Albert; Neumeister, Peter; Thornton, Christopher R; Krause, Robert; Lass-Flrl, Cornelia; Hoenigl, Martin

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus-specific lateral-flow device (LFD) test for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with underlying haematological malignancies. Participating centres were the two Austrian University Hospitals of Graz and Innsbruck. LFD performance was evaluated with 95 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 72 patients collected prospectively in Graz, and with 24 BALF bio bank samples from 23 patients (21 samples with probable IPA) in Innsbruck. Invasive fungal infections were classified according to the revised European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. Overall, 27 patients (30 samples) had probable IPA, 32 (43 samples) possible and 36 (46 samples) did not fulfil IPA criteria. The vast majority of patients - in particular those with probable IPA - received mould-active treatment before bronchoscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative-predictive-value for probable IPA diagnosis using the BALF-LFD test were 71%, 76%, 35% and 94% for the Graz cohort. Sensitivity of the BALF-LFD test for probable IPA was 57% in Innsbruck bio bank samples. Our results indicate that the BALF-LFD-test provides fast results with moderate sensitivities in patients with underlying haematological malignancies. Similar to other diagnostic tests and biomarkers sensitivity of the test may be influenced by ongoing systemic mould-active treatment. PMID:26103209

  6. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making Chemistry Studies More Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the…

  7. Cost analysis of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis among patients with haematological disorders in Germany and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current healthcare climate demands pharmacoeconomic evaluations for different treatment strategies incorporating drug acquisition costs, costs incurred for hospitalisation, drug administration and preparation, diagnostic and laboratory testing and drug-related adverse events (AEs). Here we evaluate the pharmacoeconomics of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B as first-line therapies for invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with haematological malignancy and prolonged neutropenia or who were undergoing haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in Germany or Spain. Methods A decision analytic model based on a decision tree was constructed to estimate the potential treatment costs of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B. Each model pathway was defined by the probability of an event occurring and the costs of clinical outcomes. Outcome probabilities and cost inputs were derived from the published literature, clinical trials, expert panels and local database costs. In the base case, patients who failed to respond to first-line therapy were assumed to experience a single switch between comparator drugs or the other drug was added as second-line treatment. Base-case evaluation included only drug-management costs and additional hospitalisation costs due to severe AEs associated with first- and second-line therapies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results. Cost estimates were inflated to 2011 euros (€). Results Based on clinical trial success rates of 52.8% (voriconazole) and 50.0% (liposomal amphotericin B), voriconazole had lower total treatment costs compared with liposomal amphotericin B in both Germany (€12,256 versus €18,133; length of therapy [LOT] = 10-day intravenous [IV] + 5-day oral voriconazole and 15-day IV liposomal amphotericin B) and Spain (€8,032 versus €10,516; LOT = 7-day IV + 8-day oral voriconazole and 15-day IV liposomal amphotericin B). Assuming the same efficacy (50.0%) in first-line therapy, voriconazole maintained a lower total treatment cost compared with liposomal amphotericin B. Cost savings were primarily due to the lower drug acquisition costs and shorter IV LOT associated with voriconazole. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were sensitive to drug price, particularly the cost of liposomal amphotericin B. Conclusions Voriconazole is likely to be cost-saving compared with liposomal amphotericin B when used as a first-line treatment for IA in Germany and Spain. PMID:25253630

  8. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722651

  9. A blood chemistry profile for lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1999-01-01

    A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.

  10. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  11. Haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Shpigel, N Y; Avidar, Y; Yakobson, B; King, R; Shamir, M

    2005-09-10

    Blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. Haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. The measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but the jackals had higher white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts than dogs. The male jackals had a higher haematocrit, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and a lower red blood cell distribution width than the female jackals. High activities of muscle enzymes were detected in many of the jackals, in several of which the activity of creatine kinase exceeded 5000 U/l; these were considered abnormal. PMID:16155240

  12. Are there any new insights for G-CSF and/or AMD3100 in chemotherapy of haematological malignants?

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhao-Hua; Zeng, Dong-Feng; Ma, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Cheng; Kong, Pei-Yan

    2015-12-01

    AML is a common life-threatening blood system malignancy. The treatment of AML continues to face greater challenges. An abnormal haematopoietic niche with high adhesion and proliferation might be the root cause of resistance and relapse. Most leukaemia cells are stored in the endosteal niche and recess in the G0 phase, and they are not sensitive to varieties of radiotherapies and chemotherapies. G-CSF and AMD3100 are increasingly used in priming chemotherapy. G-CSF can promote leukaemia cells to the cell cycle, which improves the complete remission rate of leukaemia patients. AMD3100, the novel CXCR4 antagonist, could also potentially promote leukaemia cells to cell cycle and improve the susceptibility of leukaemia cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The combination of them enhances anti-leukaemia effect. So in this review, we explore the function of G-CSF and/or AMD3100 in the priming chemotherapy of haematological malignants. PMID:26526720

  13. In vitro activities of amphotericin B and AmBisome against Aspergillus isolates recovered from Italian patients treated for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Colozza, Camilla; Posteraro, Brunella; Santilli, Stefania; De Carolis, Elena; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Girmenia, Corrado

    2012-05-01

    Although there is evidence that liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) is non-inferior to amphotericin B (AmB) in terms of in vivo efficacy, in vitro data regarding the activity of AmBisome against clinical isolates of Aspergillus are rare. In this study, the susceptibilities to AmB and AmBisome of 103 Aspergillus complex isolates (48 Aspergillus flavus, 33 Aspergillus fumigatus, 13 Aspergillus terreus and 9 Aspergillus niger) recovered from haematological patients with invasive infection were compared. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the broth microdilution (BMD) method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), whilst AmB susceptibility was also determined by Etest. Using a susceptible/resistant MIC cut-off of 1mg/L, all A. fumigatus and A. niger complexes isolates were susceptible to both AmB and AmBisome. In contrast, 38.5% and 30.8% of the A. terreus complex isolates were resistant to AmB and AmBisome, respectively, with good agreement between BMD and Etest methods. With respect to A. flavus complex isolates, 43.7% and 16.7% were resistant by the BMD method to AmBisome and AmB, respectively. For isolates with discrepant results, AmB MICs obtained by Etest were higher than those obtained for AmB by the BMD method and they were closer to those obtained for AmBisome by BMD. Aspergillus flavus AmB MICs ranged from 0.5 mg/L to 2 mg/L by the BMD method and from 1 mg/L to >16 mg/L by the Etest method, and AmBisome MICs ranged from 0.06 mg/L to >16 mg/L by the BMD method. Etest appears to be superior to the CLSI BMD method using AmB in detecting AmB resistance of Aspergillus spp., although the CLSI BMD method might be a suitable procedure if AmBisome is used as the test drug. PMID:22429723

  14. Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu; Ramasamy, Ramesh; Gopal, Niranjan; Kuzhandaivelu, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria. PMID:24627875

  15. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  16. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  17. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  18. Chemistry for Potters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  19. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry standardization project for measurements of apolipoproteins A-I and B. III. Comparability of apolipoprotein A-I values by use of international reference material.

    PubMed

    Marcovina, S M; Albers, J J; Henderson, L O; Hannon, W H

    1993-05-01

    In the third phase of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) study for the standardization of apolipoprotein (apo) measurements, the preparation SP1-01, selected as the candidate international reference material for apo A-I, was investigated for its ability to transfer an accuracy-based value to the immunoassay calibrators and to produce comparability of the values for patients' samples. An apo A-I value of 1.50 g/L (SD 0.08 g/L) was assigned to SP1-01 by a highly standardized RIA calibrated with purified apo A-I for which the mass value had been determined by amino acid analysis. According to a common detailed protocol, the participants transferred the mass value from SP1-01 to the calibrator of each method. To confirm that uniformity of calibration ensures comparability of the values over a wide range of apo A-I values, each laboratory analyzed 50 fresh-frozen samples from individual donors, using an approach similar to that adopted by the Cholesterol Reference Laboratory Network. The consensus mean value for each sample was in excellent agreement with the value assigned by the Northwest Lipid Research Laboratories, with the average absolute bias between assigned and consensus value being 0.01 g/L. The among-laboratory CV on each of the 50 samples ranged from 2.1% to 5.6% (mean 3.6%), demonstrating that comparable apo A-I results can be obtained by a variety of immunochemical methods through the use of certified reference material. Based on the results obtained in these studies, SP1-01 has been approved as Apolipoprotein A-I International Reference Material by the World Health Organization. PMID:8485867

  20. The protective effect of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate against haematological, biochemical and pathological changes induced by Zearalenone in mice.

    PubMed

    Abbès, Samir; Ouanes, Zouhour; ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Houas, Zohra; Oueslati, Ridha; Bacha, Hassen; Othman, Omar

    2006-04-01

    Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS), an anticaking agent for mixed feed, was added alone or simultaneously with a toxic Zearalenone (ZEN) dose to balb/c mice and was evaluated for its ability to restore damages induced by ZEN. The latter is a mycotoxin produced by fusarium genera; it is mainly known to induce several toxic effects such as hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and nephrotoxicity on animals and humans. The experimental approach consisted of eight treatments of six mice each by 400 mg/kg bw or 5 g/kg bw of HSCAS. Two experimental groups have received respectively ZEN alone at 40 (8% of LD50) and at 500 mg/kg bw (LD50). Two other groups have received ZEN at 40 or 500 mg/kg bw combined respectively with HSCAS at 400 mg/kg bw and 5 g/kg bw. The control groups received water or olive oil. Forty-eight hours after treatment, blood samples were collected for haematological and serum biochemical parameters measurements. ZEN treatment significantly increased hematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells: lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes and the most of biochemical serum parameters; it significantly reduced platelets and induced degenerative changes in the hepatic and renal tissues; while, the mixture of HSCAS with ZEN induced a reestablishment of haematological parameters, levels of serum biochemical enzyme activities and histological pictures of both liver and kidney. It also prevented general toxicity of ZEN. This was observed by the shift of LD50 for this toxin. Thus, our data strongly suggested that deleterious effects of ZEN could be overcome or, at least, significantly were diminished by HSCAS. Moreover, this sorbent by itself did not show any toxic effects. PMID:16563452

  1. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Aghwan, Z. A.; Sazili, A. Q.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Hilmi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 221.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744

  2. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    PubMed

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens. PMID:25495676

  3. Chlorpyrifos-induced changes in oxidant/antioxidant status and haematological parameters of Cyprinus carpio carpio: ameliorative effect of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Ural, Mevlüt Şener

    2013-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the potential ameliorative effects of lycopene against chlorpyrifos (CPF) toxicity in carp. The fish were divided into 7 different experimental groups and received the following treatments: Group 1, control; Group 2, orally administered corn oil; Group 3, oral lycopene (10 mg kg(-1) body weight); Group 4, exposure to 0.040 mg L(-1) CPF; Group 5, exposure to 0.040 mg L(-1) CPF plus oral administration of 10 mg kg(-1) lycopene; Group 6, exposure to 0.080 mg L(-1) CPF; and Group 7, exposure to 0.040 mg L(-1) CPF plus oral administration of 10 mg kg(-1) lycopene. Treatment was continued for 14 d and samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed for their oxidant-antioxidant status, including the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. The samples were also measured for changes in the haematological parameters, such as the red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, the haemoglobin concentration (Hb), the haematocrit (Ht) level, and the erythrocyte indices: the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The findings of this study demonstrated that CPF had a negative effect on the haematological parameters and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish; this toxic effect was neutralised by the administration of lycopene. The present results suggest that lycopene (10 mg kg(-1)) can be effective in the protection of CPF-induced toxicity in fish. PMID:23312461

  4. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),

  5. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  6. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

  7. Teaching School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, D. J., Ed.

    This eight-chapter book is intended for use by chemistry teachers, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and other key personnel working in the field of chemical education. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Face of Chemistry" (J. A. Campbell); (2) "Curriculum Innovation in School Chemistry" (R. B. Ingel and A. M. Ranaweera); (3) "Some…

  8. Chemistry and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Martyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Chemistry and Art project developed for secondary students and teachers sponsored by the National Gallery and The Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom. Discusses aspects of the techniques used in creating five paintings as well as the chemistry involved in their making, deterioration, conservation, and restoration.…

  9. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... hardware components, as well as raw data storage mechanisms, data acquisition software, and software...

  10. The number of consultant clinical chemists in the 15-nation European Union.

    PubMed

    Smit, Erik; Beastall, Graham; Bjorses, Ulla-Maj; Candito, Mirande; Fiorentini, Piero

    2005-01-01

    The number of consultant clinical chemists (NCCC) in the 15-nation European Union (EU) (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom) has been ascertained. These data were analysed in relation to several established national parameters, including demographics, gross domestic product (GDP), cost of healthcare, cost of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) testing and the number of physicians and pharmacists. Large differences in the population-corrected costs of IVD testing (range approximately 2.4-fold) and NCCC (range approximately 30-fold) were observed between the countries, which could not be satisfactorily explained by any of the parameters assessed. The differences in IVD testing and NCCC might reflect different practices in laboratory medicine across the EU, but could not be estimated independently. In recognition of the different scope of laboratory medicine practised under the title of clinical chemistry, a simple staffing model was derived in an attempt to give a better estimate of the appropriate number of consultant laboratory medicine specialists. This model allocated a fixed number of laboratory specialists per million inhabitants for the five disciplines: clinical chemistry, 10; haematology, 10; serology, 7.5; microbiology, 12.5; and blood banking, 2. The staffing model also allowed for the contribution of the primary care sector by including one full-time consultant laboratory medicine specialist for each small private laboratory and two extra consultant laboratory specialists per million inhabitants where there are not large numbers of private laboratories. Application of the model to the available data helped to reduce the variation observed in the primary analysis of NCCC (range approximately 9-fold) but still revealed important differences between countries. These differences could arise from the poor quality of published data as much as from true differences in laboratory medicine practice. We conclude that a more sophisticated analysis of laboratory practice and of all professionals working in laboratory medicine disciplines would be required before any conclusions could be drawn about relative staffing, efficiency or cost effectiveness. The staffing model derived is a first step towards objective estimation of the number of consultant laboratory specialists in the EU. PMID:15843242

  11. BiOsimilaRs in the management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology: results of the ORHEO observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The approval of epoetin biosimilars in the European Union requires extensive scientific evaluation and stringent regulatory procedures, including post-marketing studies. The ORHEO (place of biOsimilaRs in the therapeutic management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology) study was an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study performed in France to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetins for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA) in the clinical setting. Methods Patients >18 years with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for treatment with an epoetin biosimilar were included in this study. Patient characteristics were recorded at baseline along with anaemia-related information, such as observed and target Hb (as chosen by the treating clinician), brand and dose of epoetin biosimilar prescribed, and details of any other treatments. Patients were then followed-up at 3 and 6 months. The primary endpoint was Hb response (defined as Hb reaching ≥10 g/dL, an increase of Hb ≥1 g/dL since inclusion visit or reaching physician-defined target Hb, with no blood transfusions in the 3 weeks prior to measurement). Other endpoints included adverse events, achievement of target Hb and associated treatments. Results Overall, 2333 patients >18 years (mean age 66.5 years) with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for biosimilar epoetin treatment were included. 99.9% of patients received epoetin zeta (median dose 30,000 IU/week). Mean baseline Hb was 9.61 g/dL, with 35.6% of patients having moderate anaemia (Hb 8–9.5 g/dL). Hb response was achieved in 81.6% and 86.5% of patients at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall mean change in Hb level was 1.52 ± 1.61 and 1.72 ± 1.61 g/dL at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Transfusion and thromboembolic event rates were 9.4% and 2.4% at 3 months, and 5.8% and 1.5% at 6 months, respectively. Conclusions Epoetin zeta was effective and well tolerated in the management of CIA in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT02140736 (date of registration: 14 May 2014). PMID:25011615

  12. A non-randomised trial of an art therapy intervention for patients with haematological malignancies to support post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Götze, Heide; Buttstädt, Marianne; Ziegler, Corinna; Richter, Robert; Brown, Anna; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dorst, Jana; Jäkel, Nadja; Geue, Kristina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies in a non-randomised trial (n = 36, intervention group; n = 129, control group). Art therapy was administered over a period of 22 weeks in small groups. Post-traumatic growth was measured with the Stress-Related Growth Scale. After controlling for the effect of potential confounders, no difference in post-traumatic growth was observed between the intervention and control groups after 22 weeks. There was no evidence for an effect of weekly group sessions with art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23027781

  13. Effect of high wavelengths low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise performance, biochemical and haematological parameters of swimming rats.

    PubMed

    Beck, W; Gobatto, C

    2016-03-01

    Nocturnal rodents should be assessed at an appropriate time of day, which leads to a challenge in identifying an adequate environmental light which allows animal visualisation without perturbing physiological homeostasis. Thus, we analysed the influence of high wavelength and low intensity light during dark period on physical exercise and biochemical and haematological parameters of nocturnal rats. We submitted 80 animals to an exhaustive exercise at individualised intensity under two different illuminations during dark period. Red light (> 600 nm; < 15lux) was applied constantly during dark period (EI; for experimental illumination groups) or only for handling and assessments (SI; for standard illumination groups). EI led to worse haematological and biochemical conditions, demonstrating that EI alone can influence physiological parameters and jeopardise result interpretation. SI promotes normal physiological conditions and greater aerobic tolerance than EI, showing the importance of a correct illumination pattern for all researchers that employ nocturnal rats for health/disease or sports performance experiments. PMID:27030633

  14. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on parameters of the haematological and steroidal modules of the athletes biological passport - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alsaadi, K; Voss, S C; Kraiem, S; Alwahaibi, A; Alyazedi, S; Dbes, N; Goebel, R; Mohamed-Ali, V; Alsowaidi, S; Seyam, A M; Bashraheel, A S; Alsayrafi, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ramadan on the haematological and steroid module of the Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Nine healthy physically active subjects were tested in the morning and afternoon for two days before and three days during Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents. Although there were significant changes in the haemoglobin concentration during Ramadan, especially during the first fasting week, none of the subjects in this study exceeded the individually calculated thresholds of the ABP. No significant effects on testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio were observed but only the afternoon specific gravity (SG) of the urine was elevated. Thus, when urinary steroid concentrations are required, SG corrections need to be performed. The haematological and the steroid module of the ABP can be reliably applied during Ramadan as the observed changes are only marginal. PMID:26695489

  15. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Crighton, Gemma L; Wood, Erica M; Stanworth, Simon; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Tinmouth, Alan; Murphy, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given when patient bleeds) is as effective and safe as a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding usually when the platelet count falls below a given trigger level) in patients with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722649

  16. Chemistry behind Vegetarianism.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo

    2011-02-01

    This review summarizes the effect of a habitual vegetarian diet on clinical complications in relation to chemistry and biochemistry. Omnivores have a significantly higher cluster of cardiovascular risk factors compared with vegetarians, including increased body mass index, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol and LDL-C levels, serum lipoprotein(a) concentration, plasma factor VII activity, ratios of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TAG/HDL-C, and serum ferritin levels. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians, especially vegans, have lower serum vitamin B₁₂ concentration and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in the tissue membrane phospholipids, which are associated with increased collagen and ADP stimulated ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation, plasma 11-dehydrothromboxane B₂, and homocysteine levels and decreased plasma HDL-C. This may be associated with an increased thrombotic and atherosclerotic risk. It is suggested that vegetarians, especially vegans, should increase their dietary n-3 PUFA and vitamin B₁₂ intakes. PMID:21204526

  17. Adoptive T-cell therapy for fungal infections in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Shivashni S; Gottlieb, David J

    2015-01-01

    The prolonged immune deficiency resulting from haematopoietic stem cell transplant and chemotherapy predisposes to a high risk of invasive fungal infections. Despite the recent advances in molecular diagnostic testing, early initiation of pre-emptive antifungal therapy and the use of combination pharmacotherapy, mortality from invasive mould infections remain high among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplant. The increasing incidences of previously rare and drug-resistant strains of fungi present a further clinical challenge. Therefore, there is a need for novel strategies to combat fungal infections in the immunocompromised. Adoptive therapy using in vitro-expanded fungus-specific CD4 cells of the Th-1 type has shown clinical efficacy in murine studies and in a small human clinical study. Several techniques for the isolation and expansion of fungus-specific T cells have been successfully applied. Here we discuss the incidence and changing patterns of invasive fungal diseases, clinical evidence supporting the role of T cells in fungal immunity, methods to expand fungus-specific T cells in the laboratory and considerations surrounding the use of T cells for fungal immunotherapy. PMID:26366286

  18. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making chemistry studies more relevant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project’s general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the context of industrial chemistry in order to present chemistry as a relevant topic both to the students personally as well as to the society in which they live. The learning materials that were developed during this period were in alignment with the changes and reforms that were conducted in the Israeli educational system. These developments were accompanied with intensive and comprehensive professional development courses and workshops. In addition, several research and evaluation projects were conducted with the goal to assess students’ achievements and to probe into the students’ perceptions regarding the classroom learning environment and the teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards the various instructional and learning materials techniques that were implemented in the programme throughout these years. This paper is structured attempting to describe the curricular cycle in alignment with Goodlad’s and Van den Akker’s curriculum representations.

  19. Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (Smith) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Oyedemi, SO; Adewusi, EA; Aiyegoro, OA; Akinpelu, DA

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (A. africana) and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated with distilled water or extracts at 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. Results The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 200 mg/kg body weight. The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. Conclusions It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of A. africana possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters. Further experimental investigation is needed to exploit its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethnomedicinal usage. PMID:23569792

  20. Protective role of propolis in chlorpyrifos-induced changes in the haematological parameters and the oxidative/antioxidative status of Cyprinus carpio carpio.

    PubMed

    Enis Yonar, M; Yonar, Serpil Mişe; Ural, Mevlüt Şener; Silici, Sibel; Düşükcan, Mustafa

    2012-08-01

    The protective effect of propolis on haematological parameters and antioxidant status were evaluated in the blood and various tissues of carp exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF). The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of CPF (0.040 and 0.080 mg/L) for 10 days, and propolis (10 mg per kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed for their oxidant-antioxidant status, including the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. The samples were also measured for changes in the haematological parameters, such as the red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, the haemoglobin concentration (Hb), the haematocrit (Ht) level, and the erythrocyte indices: the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The findings of this study demonstrated that CPF had a negative effect on the haematological parameters and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish; this toxic effect was neutralised by the administration of propolis. The present results suggest that propolis can be effective in the protection of CPF-induced toxicity in fish. PMID:22634289

  1. The role of vitamin C as antioxidant in protection of biochemical and haematological stress induced by chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Clarias batrachus.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy; Rajender, Kodimyala; Rudra Reddy, R; Rao, J Venkateswara; Begum, Ghousia

    2015-08-01

    The study was conducted to explore the modulatory effects of chlorpyrifos and protective role of vitamin C in tissues of Clarias batrachus. Treatments include E1 group (basal diet plus 1.65mgL(-1) CPF) and E2 group (basal diet+200mgkg body weight vitamin C and 1.65mgL(-1) CPF) along with a control group of fishes (fed on basal diet only). After 1, 7, 15, and 30d of treatment, fish tissues (brain, blood and liver) were used for the estimation of growth, biochemical and haematological parameters. The results of E1 group indicated significantly lower weight gain and survival rate. Brain AChE activity was inhibited. The RBC, Hb, respiratory burst activity, total protein and HSI were also reduced whereas WBC count, plasma glucose and haematocrit were elevated. In contrast, liver glycogen content, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatase activities were inhibited and malate dehydrogenase, aspartate, alanine amino transferase were enhanced. The E2 group of fish exhibited significant improvement in growth, survival, haematological indices, brain AChE, liver glycogen and oxidative enzyme activity. The findings support that dietary vitamin C supplementation might be helpful in abrogation of chlorpyrifos toxicity and improves growth, survival, biochemical and haematological conditions in fishes. PMID:25855010

  2. Haematological rather than skeletal muscle adaptations contribute to the increase in peak oxygen uptake induced by moderate endurance training.

    PubMed

    Montero, David; Cathomen, Adrian; Jacobs, Robert A; Flück, Daniela; de Leur, Jeroen; Keiser, Stefanie; Bonne, Thomas; Kirk, Niels; Lundby, Anne-Kristine; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-10-15

    It remains unclear whether improvements in peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)) following endurance training (ET) are primarily determined by central and/or peripheral adaptations. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the improvement in V̇(O2peak) following 6 weeks of ET is mainly determined by haematological rather than skeletal muscle adaptations. Sixteen untrained healthy male volunteers (age = 25 ± 4 years, V̇(O2peak) = 3.5 ± 0.5 l min(-1)) underwent supervised ET (6 weeks, 3-4 sessions per week). V̇(O2peak), peak cardiac output (Q̇(peak)), haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) and blood volumes were assessed prior to and following ET. Skeletal muscle biopsies were analysed for mitochondrial volume density (Mito(VD)), capillarity, fibre types and respiratory capacity (OXPHOS). After the post-ET assessment, red blood cell volume (RBCV) was re-established at the pre-ET level by phlebotomy and V̇(O2peak) and Q̇(peak) were measured again. We speculated that the contribution of skeletal muscle adaptations to the ET-induced increase in V̇(O2peak) would be revealed when controlling for haematological adaptations. V̇(O2peak) and Q̇(peak) were increased (P < 0.05) following ET (9 ± 8 and 7 ± 6%, respectively) and decreased (P < 0.05) after phlebotomy (-7 ± 7 and -10 ± 7%). RBCV, plasma volume and Hb(mass) all increased (P < 0.05) after ET (8 ± 4, 4 ± 6 and 6 ± 5%). As for skeletal muscle adaptations, capillary-to-fibre ratio and total Mito(VD) increased (P < 0.05) following ET (18 ± 16 and 43 ± 30%), but OXPHOS remained unaltered. Through stepwise multiple regression analysis, Q̇(peak), RBCV and Hb(mass) were found to be independent predictors of V̇(O2peak). In conclusion, the improvement in V̇(O2peak) following 6 weeks of ET is primarily attributed to increases in Q̇(peak) and oxygen-carrying capacity of blood in untrained healthy young subjects. PMID:26282186

  3. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons.

    PubMed

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher (P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher (P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals. PMID:25860334

  4. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher ( P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher ( P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  5. Loci associated with N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulin G show pleiotropy with autoimmune diseases and haematological cancers.

    PubMed

    Lauc, Gordan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Pučić, Maja; Zgaga, Lina; Adamczyk, Barbara; Mužinić, Ana; Novokmet, Mislav; Polašek, Ozren; Gornik, Olga; Krištić, Jasminka; Keser, Toma; Vitart, Veronique; Scheijen, Blanca; Uh, Hae-Won; Molokhia, Mariam; Patrick, Alan Leslie; McKeigue, Paul; Kolčić, Ivana; Lukić, Ivan Krešimir; Swann, Olivia; van Leeuwen, Frank N; Ruhaak, L Renee; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Slagboom, P Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelder, André M; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Hastie, Nicholas D; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F; Wuhrer, Manfred; Wright, Alan F; Rudd, Pauline M; Hayward, Caroline; Aulchenko, Yurii; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.27 × 10(-9)) in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3) in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3), while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3). However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis) and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma). Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve = 0.842). Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein using GWAS. The results may also provide an explanation for the reported pleiotropy and antagonistic effects of loci involved in autoimmune diseases and haematological cancer. PMID:23382691

  6. Environmental chemistry: Volume B

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume B include equilibria processes, chemical processes, biochemical processes, and physicochemical processes.

  7. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  8. Chemistry Students' Erroneous Conceptions of Limiting Reagent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, K. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of 32 University of Transkei (South Africa) freshmen's conceptualization of "limiting reagent," a basic concept in chemistry, based on student responses to two written test questions and clinical interviews. Results indicated that a high percentage of students had misconceptions and could not apply the concept successfully. Makes…

  9. Tick-borne Diseases (Borreliosis, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis) in German and Austrian Dogs: Status quo and Review of Distribution, Transmission, Clinical Findings, Diagnostics and Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Pluta, Silvia; Huisinga, Elke; Nather, Stephanie; Scheufelen, Miriam; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schweinitz, Andrea; Hampel, Herwig; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2015-08-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs have gained in significance in German and Austrian veterinary practices. The widespread European tick species Ixodes ricinus represents an important vector for spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The meadow or ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) is an important vector for Babesia canis, as is the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) for Babesia vogeli in the Mediterranean region. The present work covers pathogen transmission by tick vectors, including the mechanisms and the minimum intervals required, in conjunction with possible non-vector-borne transmission routes. It also addresses the incubation periods, pathogenicity and clinical findings associated with each pathogen and genospecies and presents case examples. Current data on prevalence, annual fluctuations and distribution in various pre-selected dog populations (symptomatic versus asymptomatic) in both countries are depicted in maps. Reasons for changes in prevalence (especially of Borrelia) are discussed. Criteria and algorithms for clinical diagnosis and monitoring in dogs, including case history, direct detection (blood smears, molecular detection by species-specific PCR and sequencing) and indirect methods (whole-cell and peptide-based antibody tests), are presented, together with laboratory abnormalities (haematology, clinical chemistry, urine). The role of anti-C6 antibody concentration (ACAC) and its correlation with proteinuria and Lyme nephritis are assessed on the basis of new data. Consideration is also given to the importance of blood smears, PCR and serology in the case of anaplasmosis and babesiosis, and the diagnostic value of combining these methods. The relevance of molecular differentiation of Anaplasma species (A. phagocytophilum versus A. platys) and Babesia spp. (large versus small forms) in cases of serological cross-reaction is emphasized. A summary is given of methods for prophylaxis using acaricide products (collars, spot-on solutions and oral treatments in both countries), vaccination (Borrelia and Babesia vaccines) and imidocarb-based chemoprophylaxis for large Babesia. PMID:26152408

  10. Haematological findings in healthy and sick captive rosy flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J; Knight, J A; Hutton, R E

    1984-04-01

    Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 36 clinically normal adult Rosy flamingos (21 males, 15 females) and six juveniles (sex uncertain). No significant sex differences were found but the haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were lower and the white cell counts higher in juveniles than in adults. Reference values obtained from the normal birds were used as a basis for assessing the results of blood counts on nine birds showing a variety of abnormal clinical conditions. Heterophilia occurred in individuals with infections, chronic renal lesions, haemorrhage and suspected thrombosis. In one case, morphologically abnormal heterophils were present. A bird with carcinoma and peritonitis showed heteropenia. Several birds had hypochromic, microcytic red cells and severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia was found in a bird with an organising abdominal haematoma associated with chronic renal pathology. Several of the cases also had thrombocytosis and raised fibrinogen levels. PMID:18766834

  11. Influence of porcine coat colour genotypes on haematological parameters, piglet birth weight and body weight gain until weaning.

    PubMed

    Fésüs, L; Zsolnai, A; Komlósi, I

    2005-04-01

    Two F2 generations of an intercross between Hampshire boars and Hungarian Large White sows were produced to estimate the effects of the porcine KIT genotypes (II, Ii and ii) on quantitative and qualitative haematological indices, on piglet birth weight and growth performance until weaning. Piglets carrying the I allele had significantly fewer lymphocytes (p = 0.041) than the ii homozygotes, heterozygotes had measures between the two homozygotes. KIT genotypes did not influence white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrite. II genotype piglets were significantly lighter at birth than the ones carrying the recessive i allele, the effect of KIT genotypes on gain until weaning was not significant, but II piglets tended to gain less. The results of this study support the hypothesis of M. Johansson, H. Ellegren, L. Marklund, U. Gustavsson, E. Ringmar-Cederberg, K. Andersson, I. Edfors-Lilja and L. Andersson [(1992) Genomics, 14, 965] that the pleiotrophic effect of the porcine KIT mutations on haematopoietic cells must be mild. PMID:16130479

  12. In vitro activity of bortezomib in cultures of patient tumour cells--potential utility in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Kristina; Carlson, Kristina; Aleskog, Anna; Larsson, Rolf; Nygren, Peter; Lindhagen, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Bortezomib represents a new class of anti-cancer drugs, the proteasome inhibitors. We evaluated the in vitro activity of bortezomib with regard to tumour-type specificity and possible mechanisms of drug resistance in 115 samples of tumour cells from patients and in a cell-line panel, using the short-term fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Bortezomib generally showed dose-response curves with a steep slope. In patient cells, bortezomib was more active in haematological than in solid tumour samples. Myeloma and chronic myeloid leukaemia were the most sensitive tumour types although with great variability in drug response between the individual samples. Colorectal and kidney cancer samples were the least sensitive. In the cell-line panel, only small differences in response were seen between the different cell lines, and the proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin and MG 262, showed an activity pattern similar to that of bortezomib. The cell-line data suggest that resistance to bortezomib was not mediated by MRP-, PgP, GSH-; tubulin and topo II-associated MDR. Combination experiments indicated synergy between bortezomib and arsenic trioxide or irinotecan. The data support the current use of bortezomib but also points to its potential utility in other tumour types and in combination with cytotoxic drugs. PMID:19016012

  13. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O

    2013-01-01

    The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409

  14. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Diamond Blackfan anaemia: a report from the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Registry.

    PubMed

    Fagioli, Franca; Quarello, Paola; Zecca, Marco; Lanino, Edoardo; Corti, Paola; Favre, Claudio; Ripaldi, Mimmo; Ramenghi, Ugo; Locatelli, Franco; Prete, Arcangelo

    2014-06-01

    Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative option for patients with Diamond Blackfan anaemia (DBA). We report the transplantation outcome of 30 Italian DBA patients referred to the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Registry between 1990 and 2012. This is one of the largest national registry cohorts of transplanted DBA patients. Most patients (83%) were allografted after 2000. A matched sibling donor was employed in 16 patients (53%), the remaining 14 patients (47%) were transplanted from matched unrelated donors. Twenty-eight of the 30 patients engrafted. One patient died at day +6 due to veno-occlusive disease without achieving neutrophil recovery and another patient remained transfusion-dependent despite the presence of a full donor chimerism. The 5-year overall survival and transplant-related mortality was 74·4% and 25·6%, respectively. Patients younger than 10 years as well as those transplanted after 2000 showed a significantly higher overall survival and a significantly lower risk of transplant-related mortality. No difference between donor type was observed. Our data suggest that allogeneic HSCT from a related or unrelated donor was a reasonable alternative to transfusion therapy in young and well chelated DBA patients. PMID:24611452

  15. The Effect of Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on Haematological and Biochemical Indicators and Histopathological Changes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n = 40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225 μg/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964 μg/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P < 0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P < 0.05), and ammonia (P < 0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  16. Effect of dystocia and treatment with oxytocin on neonatal calf vitality and acid-base, electrolyte and haematological status.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L

    2015-02-01

    Under adverse obstetrical conditions, appropriate supervision and assistance during the immediate neonatal period are of the utmost importance, especially for weak calves. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of dystocia and oxytocin infusion on neonatal vitality, acid-base balance, and electrolyte and haematological homeostasis of dairy calves. Data were collected for 30 Holstein calves which were allocated to three groups: normal calving (n = 10); dystocia with mild to severe obstetric assistance (n = 10); and uterine inertia treated with oxytocin (n = 10). All 30 calves exhibited normothermia at birth, but had a significant decrease in body temperature after 60 min. Dystocic calves had lower Apgar scores than calves in the other two groups, and had respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Calves from normal calvings had normal blood pH, but base excess below the reference range. The mean partial pressure (Pa) of oxygen of calves whose dam had been treated with oxytocin was lower than that of calves from normal calvings. In all experimental groups, there was improvement in metabolic status in the first 60 min postpartum as PaCO2 values significantly decreased. All calves had normonatraemia, normokalaemia and normochloridaemia during the study period, but calves born to dams treated with oxytocin had a higher sodium concentration than those in the two other groups. PMID:25599899

  17. Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on fungal blood cultures: an autopsy-based study involving 720 patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kami, Masahiro; Machida, Utako; Okuzumi, Katsuko; Matsumura, Tomoko; Mori Si, Shin-ichiro; Hori, Akiko; Kashima, Takeshi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Takaue, Yoichi; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Hirai, Hisamaru; Yoneyama, Akiko; Mutou, Yoshitomo

    2002-04-01

    To investigate the utility of blood culture of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies, an autopsy survey was conducted in 720 patients who were treated between 1980 and 1999. We identified 252 patients with invasive mycosis. These included Candida (n = 94), Aspergillus (n = 91), Zygomycetes (n = 34), Cryptococcus (n = 7), Trichosporon (n = 11), Fusarium (n = 1), and unknown fungi (n = 20). Of the 94 patients with invasive candidiasis, 20 had positive blood cultures. Of the 11 patients with invasive trichosporonosis, seven had positive blood cultures. The sensitivities of blood cultures were 1.1%, 0% and 14% for detecting invasive aspergillosis, zygomycosis and cryptococcosis respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant correlation between results of Candida blood cultures and some variables, including prophylactic use of absorbable antifungals (P = 0.0181) and infection by Candida albicans (P = 0.0086). The sensitivity of blood cultures decreased when patients received antifungal chemoprophylaxis. Unless these agents are inactivated in culture bottles, conventional blood cultures might produce false-negative results. PMID:11918531

  18. Delayed Haematological recovery after autologous stem cell transplantation is associated with favourable outcome in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Dana; Mueller, Beatrice U; Mansouri Taleghani, Behrouz; Baerlocher, Gabriela M; Seipel, Katja; Leibundgut, Kurt; Pabst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is applied to consolidate first remission in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However, outcome after ASCT widely varies among AML patients. We analyzed the prognostic significance of haematological recovery for neutrophils [absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1·0 × 10(9) /l] and platelets (platelet count >20·0 × 10(9) /l), stratifying at day 20 after ASCT in 88 consecutive and homogeneously treated AML patients in first remission. We observed that patients with delayed recovery had better overall survival (OS; ANC: P < 0·0001 and platelets: P = 0·0062) and time to progression (TTP; ANC: P = 0·0003 and platelets: P = 0·0125). Delayed recovery was an independent marker for better OS and TTP in a multivariate analysis including age, gender, number of transfused CD34+ cells, cytogenetics, FLT3-internal tandem duplication and NPM1 mutation. Our results suggest that delayed neutrophil and platelet recovery is associated with longer OS and TTP in AML patients consolidated with ASCT in first remission. PMID:25212255

  19. Interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Erinle, O Y; William, G A; Ogunade, A C

    2015-10-01

    The interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks were investigated using 250-day-old cockerel chicks previously reared for 7 days pre-experimental period. Birds were fed with commercial chick mash during the pre-experimental period. At the expiration of this period, 192 chicks were selected on weight equalization basis and assigned into 24 pens. Each treatment consisted of six pens, while each pen housed eight birds. Four wheat-soya bean-based experimental diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of diets having two wheat forms (ground and whole wheat grain) each supplemented or not with 1 g/kg MOS/kg feed. Whole wheat feeding (irrespective of MOS supplementation) showed reduced (p < 0.05) feed intake. Birds fed whole wheat diet supplemented with MOS recorded the highest (p < 0.01) final live weight, weight gain and the best (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio. Haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell count of the chicks were not affected (p > 0.05) by dietary treatment. However, dietary supplementation with MOS resulted in increased (p < 0.05) WBC counts. The caecum content of chicks fed with MOS-supplemented whole wheat diets recorded the least (p < 0.01) salmonella counts. In conclusion, combination of whole wheat feeding and MOS supplementation showed improved growth performance, gut microbiota and indications of improved health status of cockerel chicks. PMID:25817244

  20. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on haematological and biochemical indicators and histopathological changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Matejova, Iveta; Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n=40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225  μg/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964  μg/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P<0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P<0.05), and ammonia (P<0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  1. The impact of acute gastroenteritis on haematological markers used for the athletes biological passport - report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Y O; Pottgiesser, T

    2011-02-01

    The haematological module of the "Athletes Biological Passport" (ABP) is used to detect blood doping through the longitudinal variation of blood variables, such as haemoglobin concentration (Hb). Sporting federations have opened disciplinary procedures against athletes based on ABP results. Suspicious athletes try to explain the variations in their blood values with dehydration caused by gastrointestinal (GI) problems. The aim of the present report is to describe haemoglobin concentration, a key variable of the ABP, during acute gastroenteritis in athletes. 5 athletes with severe gastroenteritis were studied in retrospective. Blood test results (Hb, white blood cell count (WBC) and differential, CRP) obtained on hospital admission for GI problems were compared to data obtained from the same athletes in states of good health on previous occasions. During GI problems, athletes displayed marked inflammatory constellations with increased CRP and typical WBC shifts. Hb was not affected and remained mostly unchanged. This is in line with basic physiologic fluid regulation, where plasma volume is kept constant, even under conditions of severe dehydration. It is therefore unlikely that fluid loss associated with gastroenteritis will cause athletes blood data to reach levels of abnormality that will be suspicious of blood doping. PMID:21110289

  2. Oxygen consumption and haematology of juvenile shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum during an acute 24 h saltwater challenge.

    PubMed

    Penny, F M; Kieffer, J D

    2014-04-01

    This study focused on the acute physiological responses to saltwater exposure in juvenile shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum. In two separate laboratory experiments, 2 year-old A. brevirostrum were exposed to either full (32) or half-strength (16) seawater for up to 24 h. First, oxygen consumption rates were used to estimate the metabolic costs over 24 h. Secondly, blood and muscle samples were analysed at 6, 12 and 24 h for water loss, various measures of osmoregulatory status (plasma osmolality and ions) and other standard haematological variables. Juveniles exposed to full-strength seawater showed significant decreases in oxygen consumption rates during the 24 h exposure. Furthermore, seawater-exposed fish had significantly increased plasma osmolality, ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and a 17% decrease in total wet mass over the 24 h exposure period. To a lesser extent, increases in osmolality, ions and mass loss were observed in fish exposed to half-strength seawater but no changes to oxygen consumption. Cortisol was also significantly increased in fish exposed to full-strength seawater. While plasma protein was elevated following 24 h in full-strength seawater, haemoglobin, haematocrit and plasma glucose levels did not change with increased salinity. These results imply an inability of juvenile A. brevirostrum to regulate water and ions in full-strength seawater within 24 h. Nonetheless, no mortality occurred in any exposure, suggesting that juvenile A. brevirostrum can tolerate short periods in saline environments. PMID:24628001

  3. Serial lumbar and ventricle cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase activities in patients with leptomeningeal metastases from solid and haematological tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Twijnstra, A; van Zanten, A P; Hart, A A; Ongerboer de Visser, B W

    1987-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were measured in cerebrospinal fluid in 350 patients with various neurological diseases to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the CSF LDH as a marker for the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases. Slight elevations of CSF LDH were observed in nonmalignant diseases, while marked elevations were observed in a considerable number of patients with bacterial meningitis. A sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 83% were calculated. In the 34 patients with leptomeningeal metastases from solid and haematological tumours, the LDH in lumbar and ventricular CSF were measured simultaneously. The lumbar CSF LDH concentration in patients with leptomeningeal metastases was about five times greater than that in the ventricular CSF. No relationship was found between the CSF LDH and histology of the primary tumour. A good correlation was demonstrated between the lumbar CSF LDH and the effected area of the neuraxis. Serial determinations of CSF LDH showed a relationship between level changes and responses to therapy or progression. The findings of this study indicate that measurement of LDH in CSF can be used as an adjunctive diagnostic test for leptomeningeal metastases and in monitoring the efficacy of treatment. PMID:3559613

  4. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

    PubMed

    Onu, A; Saidu, Y; Ladan, M J; Bilbis, L S; Aliero, A A; Sahabi, S M

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  5. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onu, A.; Saidu, Y.; Ladan, M. J.; Bilbis, L. S.; Aliero, A. A.; Sahabi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  6. Chemistry from Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jan; Donaldson, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Describes the "Chemistry from Issues" project at Chelsea College. Provides the background information, rationale, and overall structure of a proposed course about the importance of chemistry to common culture. Outlines one module about the British steel industry that has been taught at King's College. (TW)

  7. Chemistry Basic Learning Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, John P.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a list of objectives drawn from results of a questionnaire sent to secondary and college chemistry teachers to indicate which ideas or concepts should be required of every student completing a secondary level chemistry course. Reviews rationale for the study and lists statements used in the questionnaire. (SK)

  8. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  9. Chemistry and Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigston, David L.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between chemisty and biology in the science curriculum. Points out the differences in perception of the disciplines, which the physical scientists favoring reductionism. Suggests that biology departments offer a special course for chemistry students, just as the chemistry departments have done for biology students.…

  10. Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Phillip

    1982-01-01

    Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

  11. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of

  12. High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Preparation for college or life, working conditions and continuing education for high school chemistry teachers, and form/function of high school chemistry textbooks were addressed in presentations at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Workshops, lectures, and demonstrations were also presented to…

  13. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  14. WATER CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...

  15. Chemistry Concepts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna

    1983-01-01

    Describes an eight-module, high school chemistry curriculum (including outline of course content) which encourages students to envision chemistry as a science based on general, related concepts rather than on a discipline composed of segmented, isolated topics. Module 1 objectives, assignments, laboratory experiences, and test are available from…

  16. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  17. Brushing Up on Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trantow, Ashley

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity designed for use during National Chemistry Week 2002 with the theme "Chemistry Keeps Us Clean". Allows students to discover more about a cleaning product they use everyday. Students make their own toothpaste and compare its properties with those of commercial toothpaste. (MM)

  18. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview

  19. Movies in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  20. Chemistry and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, D. W.

    1970-01-01

    In the second article of a series, the author discusses some of the interactions between chemistry and philosophy. Evaluates chemistry's role within the scientific enterprise. Traces the rise and fall of the logical atom and argues for a new way of looking at science as an educational instrument. (RR)

  1. Stratospheric chemistry and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, Michael; Garcia, Maria M.

    1990-01-01

    A Chemical Tracer Model (CTM) that can use wind field data generated by the General Circulation Model (GCM) is developed to implement chemistry in the three dimensional GCM of the middle atmosphere. Initially, chemical tracers with simple first order losses such as N2O are used. Successive models are to incorporate more complex ozone chemistry.

  2. Modern analytical chemistry in the contemporary world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among sciences and in the contemporary world is discussed. Its interdisciplinary character and the necessity of the collaboration between analytical chemists and other experts in order to effectively solve the actual problems of the human society and the environment are emphasized. The importance of the analytical method validation in order to obtain the accurate and precise results is highlighted. The invalid results are not only useless; they can often be even fatal (e.g., in clinical laboratories). The curriculum of analytical chemistry at schools and universities is discussed. It is referred to be much broader than traditional equilibrium chemistry coupled with a simple description of individual analytical methods. Actually, the schooling of analytical chemistry should closely connect theory and practice.

  3. Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2000-09-01

    Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry reviews in ten concise chapters the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and some outstanding environmental issues, including air pollution, acid rain, the ozone hole, and global change. Peter Hobbs is an eminent atmospheric science teacher, researcher, and author of several well-known textbooks. This text and his other book Basic Physical Chemistry for the Atmospheric Sciences (Second Edition, Cambridge University Press 2000) form companion volumes. The book, designed to be a primary textbook for a first university course--undergraduate or graduate--in atmospheric chemistry, will find a place in atmospheric science, meteorology, environmental science, geophysics and chemistry curricula. Special features include worked exercises and end-of-chapter student exercises with model solutions in an appendix.

  4. Chemistry for Kids: Elementary School Chemistry Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Spencer L.; Swenson, Karen T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a program in which six experiments in chemistry were used in an elementary school science program. Discusses the problems encountered in initiating the program, and some of the ways the problems were solved. Lists the six experiments, along with the reaction or process being studied, and the application of each. (TW)

  5. EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

  6. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,

  7. Art in Chemistry; Chemistry in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne

    High school teachers are often challenged to motivate students who have little or no interest in a subject and are bored with traditional instruction. This unique book is designed to help educators make chemistry classes more interesting and links art curriculum to practical applications, integrating the two subjects through scores of hands-on

  8. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  9. Haematological values and parasitic infections in school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M M

    1991-12-01

    A total of 1426 apparently healthy Saudi children, were subjected to clinical and laboratory investigations of blood, urine and stools. Lower means were observed for Hb concentration, Hot ratio, RBC and WBC counts. The MCV was in the range of Western levels. Of 1343 stool specimens 156 (11.6%) were positive for intestinal parasites (5.4% pathogenic and 6.3% commensals). The higher infection rate of commensals strongly suggests the presence of potentially infectious environmental sources and a public health problem. Giardia lamblia was the most common pathogenic parasite 3.6% and its high infection rate seemed to be associated with lower Hb level. So screening for parasitic infections especially among anaemic children is necessary as a part of the general health care programme. PMID:1765697

  10. Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia: a clinico-haematological profile of five cases.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Jyoti; Rai, Sunita; Singh, V P

    2004-04-01

    Herein we are presenting the clinical, morphological and cytochemical characteristics of five cases of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (AML-M7) seen by us over a period of five years (Jan 1996-Dec 2000). Morphological assessment revealed marked polymorphism of blast cells and platelets both in the peripheral blood and bone marrow smears in all cases. Size of the blast cells ranged from very small to very large multinucleated cells, with variable chromatin pattern and number of nucleoli. More differentiated megakaryocytic cells showing cytoplasmic blebs, protrusions and platelet budding with bizarre platelet morphology were characteristic features suggesting the diagnosis. Cytochemical stains like myeloperoxidase, sudan black and PAS were positive in 5-15% of blast cell. Coagulation studies revealed a normal coagulation profile, whereas platelet studies showed marked impairment in aggregation of platelets with ADP and adrenalin with a normal PF-3 availability. PMID:16295495

  11. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  12. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  13. Computational quantum chemistry website

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-22

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.

  14. Seawater Chemistry Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-23

    SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.

  15. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  16. Principal components analysis of haematological data from F344 rats with bladder cancer fed N-(ethyl)-all-trans-retinamide.

    PubMed

    Festing, M F; Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Turton, J A; Gwynne, J; Hicks, R M

    1984-07-01

    Several multivariate statistical methods are available which can alleviate the problems of analysing the large volumes of data generated from toxicological experiments. One such technique, principal components analysis, provides a method for exploring the relationships between a number of variables (such as blood parameters) and for eliminating redundant data if strong correlations exist between the characters. It also provides a method for clustering individuals, which may reveal similarities between animals in a treatment group or highlight individual 'outliers'. The application of principal components analysis to a set of haematological data from a trial evaluating the efficacy of a synthetic retinoid against carcinogen-induced bladder cancer in the rat has clearly shown, in two bivariate plots, that while some animals in the carcinogen-treated groups were normal, others were anaemic and that animals fed the synthetic retinoid and killed at 1 year had a microcytic anaemia. A full exploration of the data using conventional univariate statistical analysis would have involved at least 28 graphic representations of the data, as well as the interpretation of more than 130 means and SDs. Principal components analysis provides a valuable additional tool for the statistical analysis and exploration of toxicological data, but it must be used in conjunction with univariate or other multivariate methods if hypothesis testing is required. The use of multivariate techniques in toxicology may best be assessed by their practical application to toxicological data, and this paper presents such an evaluation with the aim of encouraging further exploration of the usefulness of principal components analysis. The raw data on which most analyses have been carried out are given. PMID:6540231

  17. Effects of growth hormone on growth performance, haematology, metabolites and hormones in iron-deficient veal calves.

    PubMed

    Ceppi, A; Blum, J W

    1994-08-01

    Effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 50 micrograms/kg body weight of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) or saline were studied for 11 weeks in 40 intact male veal calves supplied 50 mg or 10 mg of iron (Fe)/kg of milk replacer (MR). Feed intake, average daily gain and growth: feed ratio were reduced in Fe-deficient calves, but not significantly influenced by rbGH. Plasma Fe and haemoglobin concentration, red-cell number and packed cell volume were decreased in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05) and rbGH further reduced red-cell number in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05). The age-dependent increase of total Fe binding capacity was greater in Fe-deficient calves and enhanced by rbGH (P < 0.05). Plasma urea concentrations increased, whereas glucose (G) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels decreased in Fe-deficient calves. rbGH significantly increased G in calves fed MR containing 50 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and influenced urea concentrations (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin (I) and IGF-I concentrations were lower in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05). Plasma GH in the first hours after rbGH injections increased (P < 0.05) to higher levels in calves fed 10 than in those fed 50 mg Fe/kg MR, but incremental changes were comparable. In conclusion, low Fe intake caused haematologic, metabolic and endocrine changes. Plasma IGF-I, I and T3 concentrations after rbGH administration and effects of rbGH on IGF-I in Fe-deficient calves were reduced, even though plasma GH levels were increased. PMID:7863735

  18. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of rabbit does to crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract at gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Ewuola, Emmanuel Olubisi; Sokunbi, Olujide Adedamola; Sanni, Kafayat Modupeola; Oyedemi, Oluwaseyi Margaret; Lawal, Temitope Tawakalit

    2015-04-01

    As the plant Moringa oleifera is used in herbal medicines for animals, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of crude M. oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on the blood profile of rabbit does during gestation and lactation. Twenty-four mature does (mean weight 2200 g) housed individually were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomised design. The animals in treatments 2, 3 and 4 were orally given 100, 200 and 300 mL/L CMOLE, respectively, at 2.5 mL/kg body weight at 48 h intervals for 9 weeks. The control animals (treatment 1) were given with water only. All the does were mated with untreated bucks 2 weeks into the experiment. Blood samples were collected at 3rd trimester (day 25 of gestation) and 2nd week of lactation. During gestation, levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the treatments. However, animals on treatment 2 had the highest platelets (148.8 × 10(9)/L), not significantly different from those on treatments 3 (141.5 × 10(9)/L) and 4 (135.0 × 10(9)/L), but higher (p < 0.05) than the control (126.6 × 10(9)/L). Haematological parameters during lactation were not significantly different among the treatments. Of the serum biochemical variables examined during gestation, only urea was higher (p < 0.05) in control rabbits than those administered with 300 mL/L CMOLE. In lactation, only cholesterol was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced with an increase in CMOLE concentration. This suggests that Moringa has a hypocholesterolemic effect and is safe for use up to 300 mL/L for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. PMID:25686552

  19. A Chemistry Minute: Recognizing Chemistry in Our Daily Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luning Prak, Dianne J.; Copper, Christine L.

    2008-01-01

    Students in introductory chemistry classes often wonder about the relevance of chemistry to their daily lives. We have sought to increase their awareness by requiring each student in first- and second-semester general chemistry to make a two-minute presentation on a chemistry-related topic. This exercise gives students an opportunity to think…

  20. Cryopreservation of Human Stem Cells for Clinical Application: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Stem cells have been used in a clinical setting for many years. Haematopoietic stem cells have been used for the treatment of both haematological and non-haematological disease; while more recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow have been the subject of both laboratory and early clinical studies. Whilst these cells show both multipotency and expansion potential, they nonetheless do not form stable cell lines in culture which is likely to limit the breadth of their application in the field of regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells, capable of forming stable cell lines which retain the capacity to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. This makes them of special significance in both regenerative medicine and toxicology. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may also provide a similar breadth of utility without some of the confounding ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. An essential pre-requisite to the commercial and clinical application of stem cells are suitable cryopreservation protocols for long-term storage. Whilst effective methods for cryopreservation and storage have been developed for haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic cells and iPS cells have proved more refractory. This paper reviews the current state of cryopreservation as it pertains to stem cells and in particular the embryonic and iPS cell. PMID:21566712

  1. Chemistry and Detective Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program consisting of two courses. The first course deals with the chemistry of drugs and poisons; the second course focuses on fictional works in which these drugs and poisons are central to the plots. (SK)

  2. Chemistry with a Peel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

  3. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  4. Chemistry for Nonscientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Thomas A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the case of DDT which can be introduced to nonscience students in a chemistry course, including the development of DDT, problems associated with its adverse effects, and curtailment of its use in our environments. (CC)

  5. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  6. Environmental Bioinorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including interactions of organisms with metallic and nonmetallic elements and compounds. Indicates that many environmental problems are created by human exploitation of nature and technologies if studied from a bioinorganic chemical viewpoint. (CC)

  7. Chemistry for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela

    1988-01-01

    Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)

  8. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  9. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  10. Impact of surface chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

  11. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  12. Biochemical and haematological assessment of toxic effects of the leaf ethanol extract of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman ex A.W. Hill (Parsley) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Petroselinum crispum, a bright green biennial shrub is widely used traditionally as a food additive and herbal remedies for many ailments. This study therefore aimed to assess the toxic effects of its leaf extract using some biochemical, haematological parameters. Methods The toxic effects were assessed by quantifying liver enzymes such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein and liver weight. Effects on haematological parameters were assessed by analysis of parked cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Histopathological studies were done on the liver and kidneys. Results The extract caused significant increase in serum activity of alanine amino transferase and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the dose of 1000 mg/kg. Other biochemical and haematological parameters were not affected at lower doses. Conversely, the liver weight was not affected after eight weeks of treatment at the dose levels studied. The organs obtained for pathological study, were structurally unchanged under histopathological evaluation at lower doses but inflammatory and necrotic features were observed at doses ≥ 1000 mg/kg. Conclusion The results indicate that the leaf ethanol extract of Petroselinum crispum was hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic at continued oral doses equal to or more than 1000 mg/kg, but no obvious toxicity when used at lower doses. Therefore, there should be caution in its administration to avoid overdosing and known interaction with some medications. In addition, the plant should be kept away from pets and domestic animals and should not be cultivated on soil irrigated with waste water due to their ability to bio-accumulate toxic metals. PMID:23557241

  13. Variations in haematological parameters and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of pigs during hot-dry and harmattan season in Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adenkola, A Y; Ayo, J O; Asala, O O

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were performed with the aim of investigating the effect of season on haematological parameters and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) of pigs. A total of 23 local pigs including males, non-pregnant and non-nursing females, aged 9 to 12 months were used for the study, ten animals were used during the hot-dry season and thirteen during the harmattan season. Blood sample was taken from each animal for the determination of EOF and other haematological parameters as well as total protein. The PCV value of 39.7±1.9 % obtained during the hot-dry season was significantly higher than 32.00 ± 0.9 % obtained during the harmattan season. Total leucocyte count of 18,836.5±1727.1 obtained during the harmattan season was higher than the value 15,920.00±1119.1 recorded during the hot-dry season. The neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio value was significantly higher during the harmattan season, with a value of 0.61±0.0 than the recorded value of 0.43±0.0 during the hot-dry season. The percentage haemolysis values obtained during the harmattan season at NaCl concentration of 0.5-0.9 % with a value of 92.03±0.02 % respectively were significantly higher than those recorded during the hot-dry season. In conclusion, the haematological values showed that harmattan season was more stressful to pigs than the hot-dry season in the Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria. PMID:22547178

  14. Survey of antifungal prophylaxis and fungal diagnostic tests employed in malignant haematology and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    van Hal, S J; Gilroy, N M; Morrissey, C O; Worth, L J; Szer, J; Tam, C S; Chen, S C; Thursky, K A; Slavin, M A

    2014-12-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey developed to assess the current use of antifungal prophylaxis among haematology and infectious disease clinicians across Australia and New Zealand, and their alignment with existing consensus guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in the haematology/oncology setting (published 2008). Surveyed clinicians largely followed the current recommendations for prophylaxis in the setting of induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia, as well as autologous and low-risk allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In keeping with guideline recommendations, posaconazole was the agent used by most centres for high-risk allogeneic HSCT. However, its routine continuation for 75-100 days post-transplantation without de-escalation suggested use beyond those indications described in the 2008 guidelines, namely pre-engraftment neutropenia and graft-versus-host disease. Variations in practice were observed in other settings, such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, reflecting the general lack of evidence for antifungal prophylaxis in these patient populations and changing perceptions of risk. With regard to the availability of testing in cases of suspected breakthrough IFD, 40% of centres did not have access to investigative bronchoscopy within 48 h of referral, and results of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM), fungal polymerase chain reaction and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) were not available within 48 h in 83%, 90% and 85% of centres respectively. The survey's findings will influence the recommendations provided in the updated 2014 consensus guidelines for the use of antifungal agents in the haematology/oncology setting. PMID:25482740

  15. Serum cortisol and haematological, biochemical and antioxidant enzyme variables in horse blood sampled in a slaughterhouse lairage, immediately before stunning and during exsanguination.

    PubMed

    Nemec Svete, A; Čebulj-Kadunc, N; Frangež, R; Kruljc, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine changes of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme variables in the blood of horses sampled during the pre-slaughter period (in the lairage and in the stunning box) and during exsanguination. A total of 24 Slovenian warm-blooded horses were observed. Blood samples for determination of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological (red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemaglobin concentration) and antioxidant enzyme (whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) variables were collected by venipuncture of the left jugular vein in the lairage pen, 60 min before stunning (lairage) and immediately before stunning (stunning box). At exsanguination, blood samples were collected from the wound at the time of jugular vein sticking. During blood collection in the lairage pen and in the stunning box, horses were gently restrained with a halter. They were stunned using a penetrating captive bolt pistol impelled by air and were bled by jugular vein sticking. Horses were physically active in the lairage pen and in the race before entering the stunning box. After stunning, the horses showed paddling movements with their legs. In horses, the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, the serum potassium concentration, the activities of the serum muscle enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, and values of most of the other biochemical (Table 1) and haematological variables (Table 2), were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at exsanguination, than in blood sampled while they were in the lairage and in the stunning box. The serum concentrations of cortisol and chloride and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and antioxidant enzymes were not significantly different between the pre-slaughter period and exsanguination. All selected blood variables were not significantly different between the lairge and the stunning box sampling time, indicating no physiological stress responses of the investigated horses to stressors, such as novelty of the pre-slaughter environment and handling, present in the slaughterhouse between the lairage and the stunning box. However, the significantly higher values, at exsanguination, for the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, serum muscle enzyme activities and haematological variables, than during the pre-slaughter period, might partially be attributed to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, caused by stunning and bleeding. PMID:23217233

  16. A Rare Case of Transfusion Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus to Two Patients with Haematological Disease

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Suely Gonçalves Cordeiro; Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Alves, Gilda; Brito, Selma Magalhães; Sandes, Valcieny de Souza; Lima, Magda Maria Adorno Ferreira; Nogueira, Marta Colares; Tavares, Rita de Cássia Barbosa da Silva; Dobbin, Jane; Apa, Alexandre; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Ferreira Jr, Orlando da Costa; Motta, Iara de Jesus Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background This paper describes the transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to two blood recipients from a healthy donor that later presented to the blood bank with jaundice. Methods The RNA of HAV was detected by qualitative nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested RT-PCR) and quantified by real-time RT-PCR. HAV RNA samples were genotyped by direct sequencing of PCR products. A sequence from a fragment of 168 bp from the VP1/2A HAV region was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Case Report A 31-year-old male donor accepted for donation of a whole blood unit returned to the blood bank with clinical jaundice 20 days after donation. His serological and NAT tests were negative for HBV and HCV. Serological tests for HAV IgM and IgG were negative on donation sample but positive on follow-up sample, confirming donor's HAV acute infection. Both recipients of red blood cells (R1) and platelet concentrate (R2) from the same implicated donation were HAV IgM-negative and IgG-positive. Qualitative PCR was positive on samples from all three individuals and phylogenetic analysis of viruses proved HAV transmission to the two recipients of blood products. HAV viral load on donor follow-up sample and the platelet recipient was 1.3 and 1.5 × 103 IU/ml, respectively. The RBC recipient, also infected by HCV, was undergoing bone marrow transplantation and died from fulminant hepatitis, 26 days after the implicated HAV transfusion. Conclusion The blood donor, a garbage collector, spontaneously returned to the blood bank when developing jaundice. This highlights the importance of donor education to immediately report to blood banks of any signs and symptoms related to infectious disease developed after blood donation. The fact that one immunocompromised patient with HCV infection died from fulminant hepatitis after receiving a HAV-contaminated platelet transfusion underpins the importance of a HAV vaccination program for these group of patients. PMID:27226795

  17. Masked polycythaemia vera: presenting features, response to treatment and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Angona, Anna; Ancochea, Agueda; García-Pallarols, Francesc; Fernández, Concepción; Longarón, Raquel; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Masked polycythaemia vera (PV) has been proposed as a new entity with poorer outcome than overt PV. In this study, the initial clinical and laboratory characteristics, response to treatment and outcome of masked and overt PV were compared using red cell mass and haemoglobin or haematocrit levels for the distinction between both entities. Sixty-eight of 151 PV patients (45%) were classified as masked PV according to World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria, whereas 16 (11%) were classified as masked PV using the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). In comparison with overt PV, a higher platelet count and a lower JAK2V617F allele burden at diagnosis were observed in masked PV. Patients with masked PV needed lower phlebotomies and responded faster to hydroxcarbamide than those with overt PV. Complete haematological response was more frequently achieved in masked than in overt PV (79% vs. 58%, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in the duration of haematological response, the rate of resistance or intolerance to hydroxycarbamide and the probability of molecular response according to type of PV (masked vs. overt). Overall survival, rate of thrombosis and major bleeding, and probability of transformation was superimposable among patients with masked and overt PV. PMID:25810304

  18. Technetium Chemistry in HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian

    2005-06-06

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  19. Residue chemistry guidelines.

    PubMed

    Olinger, C L; Schmitt, R D; Zager, E

    1993-01-01

    Residue chemistry guidelines are designed to determine what the potential residues in food are and how much may be present as a result of pesticide application, so that a tolerance level may be established. Some requirements are established to assist in the enforcement of tolerances by the USDA, FDA, and the states. I realize I have given you a quick overview of the residue chemistry requirements. There are many documents which are available if you should require more information, such as the Subdivision O Residue Chemistry Guidelines, Standard Evaluation Procedures (which are used by reviewers when evaluating the studies), the Data Reporting Guidelines (which provide guidance on preparing final reports), and the Technical Guidance from Phase III of Reregistration. We have also released various papers on studies when additional guidance is required. Most of these documents are available from NTIS. I hope you will consider this information when auditing residue chemistry studies. As I see the efforts that you, the QA professionals, have made to educate yourselves on residue chemistry studies through programs such as this meeting, I have a little more confidence in answering the question "Do you trust them?" with a "Yes." Thank you. PMID:8156199

  20. Using a screening tool to improve timely referral of patients from acute oncology-haematology to palliative care services.

    PubMed

    Begum, Akhtari

    2013-01-01

    This project was done at specialist cancer hospital in Qatar. At a haematology-oncology inpatient department most patients were not getting access to palliative care unless they were at the very end stages of life. Data collected from 2008-2011 showed significant numbers of patients were dying within one month of their transfer to palliative care. There was no standard measure to identify the prospective palliative care patients. A multidisciplinary team developed a Palliative care referral screening tool based on the National Cancer Care Network guideline. Retrospective medical record review done from January to April 2012 showed a mean of 68% of patients who scored more than five were not consulted, 32% of patients who scored more than seven were not transferred to palliative care and seven percent died without any referral. The team used various kinds of quality planning, analysis and improvement tools in the form of process mapping, value analysis, Fish Bone diagrams, stakeholders' analysis and communication, physician survey, "Pareto's principal" (80 / 20 rule, the law of vital few) and other data collection tools. The palliative care referral process was standardised by preparing and implementing an objective scoring tool based on international best practice. It changed the referral culture and helped manage the psychological barriers of patients, families and caregivers. Extensive orientation and education of all key stakeholders was implemented. Monthly auditing of patient records was carried out. The aim has been achieved, exceeded and sustained, and we reduced the percentage of patients who scored more than five without palliative consultation from a mean of 68% to 16% and those who scored more than seven without palliative care transfer from a mean of thirty two percent to three percent, after four months of the project's implementation. Standardising the referral process and creating an objective referral tool is needed to facilitate safe, collaborative, continuous and patient centered care. Timely referral of cancer patients to palliative care minimises patient and caregiver distress, ensures better quality of life, and provides an appropriate measure for end of life care. PMID:26734188

  1. Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A.; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.; Allam, Hassan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.45 ± 1.12 g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03 mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.19 ± 0.03 μg/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.64 ± 0.86 and 61.73 ± 0.82 μg/g dry weight from T1 at 10 days to T3 at 30 days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.21 ± 0.12 and 181.61 ± 1.32 compared to the control group results of 0.29 ± 0.04 μg/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.32 ± 0.02 and 2.16 ± 0.08 compared to the control group results of 0.03 ± 0.001 μg/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p > 0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations. PMID:26288556

  2. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Some haematological, biochemical and histological aspects.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-04-01

    The work aimed to evaluate the nanoalumina toxicity on the histological architecture, some haematological and biochemical aspects in male albino rats, during acute and sublethal experiments. Rats, in acute experiments, were injected with a single-acute dose of 3.9 g or 6.4 g or 8.5 g of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) kg(-) (1), whereas those of sublethal were injected with 1.3 g of Al2O3kg(-) (1)2 days(-) (1) One-way analysis of variance indicated that injected doses and the experimental periods were significantly affected by haemoglobin (Hb) content; haematocrit value (Hct); white blood cell (WBC) count; blood platelet (Plt) count; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and MCH concentration (MCHC). In acute experiments, Hct, WBC count, MCV and Plt were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, whereas Hb, MCH and MCHC markedly decreased. In comparison with the related controls after 1, 3 and 7 days post-injection, red blood cell count, Hb, Hct, WBC count, Plt and MCV were significantly increased, but begun to decrease after 14 or/and 28 days and were associated with a marked decrease in MCH and MCHC. In serum of rats injected with acute or sublethal dose, the concentrations of total protein (TP) and total lipid (TL) were significantly lesser than the corresponding controls, whereas the levels of urea, uric acid, creatinine and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased. The injected doses were directly proportional with all the studied biochemical parameter, except the TL and TP that exhibited a negative correlation. Histologically, the highest acute and sublethal doses of nanoalumina caused hepatic irregular disarray, necrosis to the hepatic and Kupffer cells that are associated with congested blood sinusoids. The renal tissues characterized by the appearance of inter-tubular congestion that is accompanied by the dilation of the vascular glomeruli that completely occupied Bowman's capsule and accompanied with partial disappearance of the renal tubule's brush border. The brain showed a progressive degeneration of neurons in both the experiments. PMID:24215066

  3. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum thiocyanate concentration. Although inclusion of 100 g/kg PCRM showed some economic sense, dietary inclusion of either peeled or unpeeled cassava root poses a threat on growth and health status of broiler chicks. PMID:24913764

  4. 21 CFR 862.2800 - Refractometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refractometer for clinical use. 862.2800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2800 Refractometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A refractometer for clinical use...

  5. 21 CFR 862.2560 - Fluorometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fluorometer for clinical use. 862.2560 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2560 Fluorometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A fluorometer for clinical use is a...

  6. 21 CFR 862.2680 - Microtitrator for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microtitrator for clinical use. 862.2680 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2680 Microtitrator for clinical use. (a) Identification. A microtitrator for clinical use...

  7. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  8. 21 CFR 862.2700 - Nephelometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nephelometer for clinical use. 862.2700 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2700 Nephelometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A nephelometer for clinical use is...

  9. 21 CFR 862.2310 - Clinical sample concentrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical sample concentrator. 862.2310 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2310 Clinical sample concentrator. (a) Identification. A clinical sample concentrator is a...

  10. 21 CFR 862.2730 - Osmometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Osmometer for clinical use. 862.2730 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2730 Osmometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An osmometer for clinical use is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 862.2310 - Clinical sample concentrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical sample concentrator. 862.2310 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2310 Clinical sample concentrator. (a) Identification. A clinical sample concentrator is a...

  12. 21 CFR 862.2680 - Microtitrator for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microtitrator for clinical use. 862.2680 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2680 Microtitrator for clinical use. (a) Identification. A microtitrator for clinical use...

  13. 21 CFR 862.2560 - Fluorometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fluorometer for clinical use. 862.2560 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2560 Fluorometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A fluorometer for clinical use is a...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  17. 21 CFR 862.2730 - Osmometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Osmometer for clinical use. 862.2730 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2730 Osmometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An osmometer for clinical use is a device...

  18. 21 CFR 862.2800 - Refractometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refractometer for clinical use. 862.2800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2800 Refractometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A refractometer for clinical use...

  19. 21 CFR 862.2700 - Nephelometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nephelometer for clinical use. 862.2700 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2700 Nephelometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A nephelometer for clinical use is...

  20. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  1. The use of body condition and haematology to detect widespread threatening processes in sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) in two agricultural environments.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Anita K; Smee, Elizabeth; Godfrey, Stephanie S; Crowther, Mathew; Phalen, David

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural practices, including habitat alteration and application of agricultural chemicals, can impact wildlife resulting in their decline. Determining which of these practices are contributing to declines is essential if the declines are to be reversed. In this study, the health of two geographically separated sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa) populations was compared between a rangeland environment and cropping environment using linear body size index (LBSI) and haematology. Animals in the cropping site were smaller, suggesting genetic differences as the result of geographical isolation. The animals in the cropping site had a lower LBSI and many were experiencing a regenerative anaemia. The anaemia was postulated to be the cause of the low LBSI. The anaemia appeared to be the result of haemolysis and was likely to be caused by exposure to agricultural chemicals applied in the cropping site but not the rangeland site. Elevated white blood cell counts in lizards in the rangeland site suggested that they were experiencing an inflammatory disease of possible ecological significance. Together, these results demonstrate the value of combining physical and haematological parameters when studying the impact of agricultural practices on wildlife. They also show that reptiles may be useful as sentinel species for livestock and humans. PMID:26064571

  2. The use of body condition and haematology to detect widespread threatening processes in sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) in two agricultural environments

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Anita K.; Smee, Elizabeth; Godfrey, Stephanie S.; Crowther, Mathew; Phalen, David

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural practices, including habitat alteration and application of agricultural chemicals, can impact wildlife resulting in their decline. Determining which of these practices are contributing to declines is essential if the declines are to be reversed. In this study, the health of two geographically separated sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa) populations was compared between a rangeland environment and cropping environment using linear body size index (LBSI) and haematology. Animals in the cropping site were smaller, suggesting genetic differences as the result of geographical isolation. The animals in the cropping site had a lower LBSI and many were experiencing a regenerative anaemia. The anaemia was postulated to be the cause of the low LBSI. The anaemia appeared to be the result of haemolysis and was likely to be caused by exposure to agricultural chemicals applied in the cropping site but not the rangeland site. Elevated white blood cell counts in lizards in the rangeland site suggested that they were experiencing an inflammatory disease of possible ecological significance. Together, these results demonstrate the value of combining physical and haematological parameters when studying the impact of agricultural practices on wildlife. They also show that reptiles may be useful as sentinel species for livestock and humans. PMID:26064571

  3. Malathion-induced changes in the haematological profile, the immune response, and the oxidative/antioxidant status of Cyprinus carpio carpio: protective role of propolis.

    PubMed

    Yonar, Serpil Mişe; Ural, Mevlüt Şener; Silici, Sibel; Yonar, M Enis

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the potential ameliorative effects of propolis against malathion toxicity in the blood and various tissues of carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1 mg/L) for 10 days, and propolis (10 mg/kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed to determine the haematological profile (red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit level, and erythrocyte indices: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration), immune response (white blood cell count, oxidative radical production, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity, total plasma protein and total immunoglobulin levels, and the phagocytic activity), and oxidant/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities) of the fish. The findings of this study demonstrate that malathion has a negative effect on the haematological parameters, immune response, and antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. However, the administration of propolis ameliorated the malathion-induced toxic effects. PMID:24480596

  4. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  5. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes. PMID:26035690

  6. Air Composition and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  7. Atmospheric chemistry research

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Global environmental changes are occurring all around us, and the energy industry is a major player in the changes that are taking place. Wise energy policy can only be generated from a position of informed enlightenment and understanding about the environmental consequences of energy production and utilization. The atmospheric chemistry research being conducted at the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research is geared toward providing the knowledge necessary to allow industrial and legislative officials to make responsible energy decisions in the 1990's and beyond. Three programs are described: the Kentucky Acid Deposition Program Precipitation chemistry network; modeling of regional and urban photochemistry and acid deposition; and modeling of global tropospheric chemistry.

  8. Interstellar sulfur chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, S. S.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a chemical model of SO, CS, and OCS chemistry in dense clouds are summarized. The results are obtained from a theoretical study of sulfur chemistry in dense interstellar clouds using a large-scale time-dependent model of gas-phase chemistry. Among the results are the following: (1) owing to activation energy, the reaction of CS with O atoms is efficient as a loss mechanism of CS during the early phases of cloud evolution or in hot and oxygen-rich sources such as the KL nebula; (2) if sulfur is not abnormally depleted in dense clouds, then the observed abundances of SO, SO2, H2S, CS, OCS, H2CS, and SiS indicate that sulfur is mostly atomic in dense clouds; and (3) OCS is stable against reactions with neutral atoms and radicals in dense clouds.

  9. Click Chemistry-Mediated Nanosensors for Biochemical Assays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wu, Jing; Yin, Binfeng; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry combined with functional nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in biochemical assays because they are promising in developing biosensors with effective signal transformation/amplification and straightforward signal readout for clinical diagnostic assays. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of biochemical assays based on Cu (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC)-mediated nanosensors, as well as the functionalization of nanoprobes based on click chemistry. Nanoprobes including gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials are covered. We discuss the advantages of click chemistry-mediated nanosensors for biochemical assays, and give perspectives on the development of click chemistry-mediated approaches for clinical diagnosis and other biomedical applications. PMID:27217831

  10. Digital biology and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2014-09-01

    This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and cellular analysis. Microfluidics will impact digital biology and chemistry and will also benefit from them if it becomes massively distributed. PMID:24889331

  11. Chemistry of Transactinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, J. V.

    In this chapter, the chemical properties of the man-made transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf (element 104), dubnium, Db (element 105), seaborgium, Sg (element 106), bohrium, Bh (element 107), hassium, Hs (element 108), and copernicium, Cn (element 112) are reviewed, and prospects for chemical characterizations of even heavier elements are discussed. The experimental methods to perform rapid chemical separations on the time scale of seconds are presented and comments are given on the special situation with the transactinides where chemistry has to be studied with single atoms. It follows a description of theoretical predictions and selected experimental results on the chemistry of elements 104 through 108, and element 112.

  12. Chemistry in cometary comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Dickens, J. E.; Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Senay, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Jewitt, D.; Matthews, H. E.

    1998-01-01

    Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model.

  13. Chemistry and materials science

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Our work in chemistry and materials science exemplifies disciplinary research and programmatic support. The disciplinary research is intended to sharpen the skills of our scientists, advance the frontiers of scientific knowledge, and provide the seeds for programs of the future. The programmatic support provides the very best scientific and engineering talent for Laboratory programs and offers the potential for new program areas. We are convinced that chemistry and materials science will be key to the future success of the Laboratory whatever its mission, and we are firmly committed to supporting this mission with the very best in scientific talent.

  14. Nanophotonics and supramolecular chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hill, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has become a key area in emerging bottom-up nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, supramolecular systems that can produce a photonic output are increasingly important research targets and present various possibilities for practical applications. Accordingly, photonic properties of various supramolecular systems at the nanoscale are important in current nanotechnology. In this short review, nanophotonics in supramolecular chemistry will be briefly summarized by introducing recent examples of control of photonic responses of supramolecular systems. Topics are categorized according to the fundamental actions of their supramolecular systems: (i) self-assembly; (ii) recognition; (iii) manipulation.

  15. Chemistry in cometary comae.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W M; Dickens, J E; Lovell, A J; Schloerb, F P; Senay, M; Bergin, E A; Jewitt, D; Matthews, H E

    1998-01-01

    Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model. PMID:9809016

  16. Chemistry WebBook

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  17. Mastocytosis in children and adults: clinical disease heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Lange, Magdalena; Nedoszytko, Bogusław; Górska, Aleksandra; Zawrocki, Anton; Sobjanek, Michał; Kozlowski, Dariusz

    2012-07-01

    Mastocytosis is a clonal disease of the hematopoietic stem cell. The condition consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a pathological accumulation of mast cells in tissues including the skin, bone marrow, liver, spleen and the lymph nodes. Mastocytosis is a rare disease which occurs both in children and adults. Childhood onset mastocytosis is usually cutaneous and transient while in adults the condition commonly progresses to a systemic form. The heterogeneity of clinical presentation of mastocytosis is typically related to the tissue mast cell burden, symptoms due to the release of mast cell mediators, the type of skin lesions, the patient's age at the onset and associated haematological disorders. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. The present article provides an overview of clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria and treatment of mastocytosis to facilitate the diagnosis and management of mastocytosis patients in clinical practice. PMID:22852012

  18. The Chemistry of Fragrances: A Group Exercise for Chemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duprey, Roger; Sell, Charles S.; Lowe, Nigel D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents Fragrance Structured Learning Packages (SLPs), group activities designed to help students recognize the value of applying chemistry in a real-world setting. Developed by the Department of Chemistry at the University of York. (Author/KHR)

  19. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  20. General Chemistry, 1970 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Orson W.; Franke, Douglas C.

    This publication is a syllabus for a senior high school chemistry course designed for the average ability, nonscience major. The content of the syllabus is divided into three basic core areas: Area I: Similarities and Dissimilarities of Matter (9 weeks); Area II: Preparation and Separation of Substances (10 weeks); Area III: Structure and…

  1. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  2. Online Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  3. Get Cooking with Chemistry!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book presents science activities investigating the chemical changes and reactions with powders that are used in baking. Activities include: (1) Mystery Powders; (2) Find the Fizz: Discover the Secret of Baking Powder; and (3) A Feast for Yeast and Cheese: Behold the Power of Chemistry. (YDS)

  4. The Language of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Meinwald, Jerrold

    2002-01-01

    Describes a new curriculum called The Language of Chemistry designed to illustrate how problems of biological and/or medical importance can be understood on a molecular basis and to show that the logic, knowledge, and language needed are easily accessible. Among the case studies in the curriculum are the giant peacock moth, bacterial chemotaxis,…

  5. The Lens of Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalos, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

  6. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  7. The Chemistry of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Do people realize that chemistry plays a key role in helping solve some of the most serious problems facing the world today? Chemists want to find the building blocks of the chemical universe--the molecules that form materials, living cells and whole organisms. Many chemists are medical explorers looking for new ways to maintain and improve…

  8. Chemistry with a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauchon, Paul

    This book, intended to serve as a resource guide for teachers wishing to implement computer-based learning in their own classrooms, is a collection of 29 classroom tested instructional programs designed to supplement an introductory chemistry course, regardless of text or approach. The programs cover a wide range of topics, from metric units of…

  9. The Chemistry of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, describes how basic chemistry and biochemistry research can spur a better understanding of human health. It reveals how networks of chemical reactions keep our bodies running smoothly. Some of the tools and technologies used to explore these reactions are…

  10. Chemistry and Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  11. Chemistry on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Richard D.

    1996-01-01

    Gives an overview of the World Wide Web, describes what is required to access it, and highlights some of the features of interest to chemists such as Web-based chemical databases that feature user-interactive molecular structures and chemical movies. Lists Internet chemistry resources designed for Web browsers and locations for obtaining Web…

  12. The Pimlico Chemistry Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrows, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)

  13. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar

  14. Chemistry Is Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaniv, D; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Encouraging scientific thinking through open-ended experiments, allowing students access to common chemical instrumentation, and introduction to laboratory techniques are goals of a high school science laboratory program. Course content (general, inorganic, and organic chemistry), limitations, and course evaluation are discussed. (Author/JN)

  15. Learning Chemistry Through Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, John T.; Treagust, David F.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizes a pretest-posttest design to determine if participants (N=26) exhibit significant gains in organic, inorganic, and biological chemistry concepts as the result of a six-week summer program. Significant gains in these areas and in an understanding of the methods and procedures used in scientific explanation are found. (CP)

  16. Individualized High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, George

    The instructional program for first year college chemistry was altered to provide self-paced, individualized instruction using multimedia modules. Each unit must be passed before the student can proceed and thus all students who complete the program can be assured of a passing grade. The entire course is on 42 half-hour audio tapes; students use…

  17. Chemistry in the Troposphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chameides, William L.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1982-01-01

    Topics addressed in this review of chemistry in the troposphere (layer of atmosphere extending from earth's surface to altitude of 10-16km) include: solar radiation/winds; earth/atmosphere interface; kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions; tropospheric free-radical photochemistry; instruments for nitric oxide detection; sampling…

  18. Protein Chemistry Core

    Cancer.gov

    The Protein Chemistry Core has expertise in the analysis of protein modifications via radioactive and non-radioactive methods.  The core provides the following services to the NCI community:  Protein and peptide sequencing Protein phosphorylation site map

  19. Chemistry and Popperism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of Karl Popper's theories to chemistry, examining scientific statements and verisimilitude (which indicates that newer theories should have a higher degree of truth content compared with older theories). Also provides examples illustrating the use of Agassi's criteria for assessing currently fashionable theories. (JN)

  20. MOM Teaches Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smierciak, Rich

    2004-01-01

    A wonderful way to engage science students is to make them think a demonstration is not turning out the way the instructor intended. Basically, throw a little humor into teaching, and they will be hooked. Described in this article is a demonstration that uses Milk of Magnesia (MOM) as a visual and humorous method to review equilibrium chemistry