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1

HAEMATOLOGY AND CLINICAL CHEMISTRY OF HAIRY NOSED WOMBATS (Lasiorhinus latifrons)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarises an investigation into the health of wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in the field during the breeding season of a drought year. Health was assessed by morphometry, haematology and clinical chemistry and the findings were compared with those obtained for apparently healthy captive wombats. The erythrocyte count was lower and the erythrocyte size greater in free-ranging wombats than in

M. D. GAUGHWINE; G. J. JUDSON

1980-01-01

2

Haematology and clinical chemistry of hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).  

PubMed

The report summarises an investigation into the health of wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) in the field during the breeding season of a drought year. Health was assessed by morphometry, haematology and clinical chemistry and the findings were compared with those obtained for apparently healthy captaive wombats. The erythrocyte count was lower and the erythrocyte size greater in free-ranging wombats than in captaive wombats. Plasma values for potassium, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate transaminase were greater in free-ranging wombats than captive wombats. Plasma values for creatine, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were lower in the free-ranging group. PMID:7431528

Gaughwin, M D; Judson, G J

1980-04-01

3

Haematology and blood chemistry of healthy and clinically abnormal great black?backed gulls (Larus Marinus) and herring gulls (Larus Argentatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal haematological values and cholesterol values (total, HDL?cholesterol, LDL?cholesterol) were determined in free?living Herring and Great Black?backed Gulls, taking into account species, age and sex. These figures were then used as a basis of comparison with findings on birds with apparent clinical abnormalities (the birds were either oiled, emaciated, extensively infested with endoparasites, had external injuries or organic abnormalities).Species?specific differences

Christiane Averbeck

1992-01-01

4

Haematology and blood chemistry values for several flamingo species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference values for some haematological and plasma chemical values in four species of clinically normal adult flamingos were established for use in avian medicine. The following variables were studied in rosy, greater, Chilean and lesser flamingos: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, haematimetric indices, erythrocyte dimensions, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline

V. I. Peinado; F. J. Polo; G. Viscor; J. Palomeque

1992-01-01

5

Haematology and blood chemistry values for several flamingo species.  

PubMed

Reference values for some haematological and plasma chemical values in four species of clinically normal adult flamingos were established for use in avian medicine. The following variables were studied in rosy, greater, Chilean and lesser flamingos: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, haematimetric indices, erythrocyte dimensions, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, total phosphorus, chloride, total plasma protein, albumin, globulins, albumin-globulin ratio, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and osmolality. PMID:18670915

Peinado, V I; Polo, F J; Viscor, G; Palomeque, J

1992-01-01

6

Clinical haematology of the southern brown bandicoot ( Isoodon obesulus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological assessment may contribute in monitoring the health of wild animals. However, species-specific reference intervals are required for maximal information to be gained from any haematological assessment. The purpose of this study was to assess the haematological characteristics for a population of southern brown bandicoots (Isoodon obesulus), a small marsupial common, across southern Australia. Animals from a wild population (n=65)

R. M. Wicks; P. Clark

2005-01-01

7

Working classification of chronic myeloproliferative disorders based on histological, haematological, and clinical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone marrow biopsies of 850 patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders were taken at initial diagnosis; and 169 sequential biopsies over periods of one to 188 months. Three micron sections of all biopsies were evaluated semiquantitatively with reference to the proliferating cell lines, anomalies of megakaryocytes, and fibrosis or osteosclerosis. Correlations between initial histological findings, clinical, haematological, and survival data were

R Burkhardt; R Bartl; K Jäger; B Frisch; G Kettner; G Mahl; M Sund

1986-01-01

8

An 8-year survey of strains identified in blood cultures in a clinical haematology unit.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological profile and the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria and fungi identified from blood cultures in the patients of the clinical haematology unit. A retrospective study was carried out over an 8-year period (2003-2010) in the clinical haematology unit of the Percy Military Medical Center. During this period, we collected 723 isolates: Gram-negative bacilli (70.8%) and Gram-positive cocci (18.7%). The four most commonly isolated species were Escherichia coli (18.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.8%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (6.2%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.4%). The rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 6.45% and that of coagulase-negative staphylococci 61.2%. No resistance to glycopeptides was observed. In E. coli, as in the Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia group, a 27% resistance to fluoroquinolones was observed. Concerning P. aeruginosa, the phenotypes were distributed over penicillinase (23.4%) and cephalosporinase (13.1% were resistant to ceftazidime). The impermeability rate of imipenem was 9.3%. The aggressiveness and duration of haematological treatments explains why infections remain one of the main complications of neutropenia. The emergence of new or unusual bacteria is highly likely. Antibiotic selective pressure and long periods of hospitalization could explain the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. As a consequence, epidemiological surveillance is indispensable. PMID:23826912

Bousquet, A; Malfuson, J-V; Sanmartin, N; Konopacki, J; MacNab, C; Souleau, B; de Revel, T; Elouennass, M; Samson, T; Soler, C; Foissaud, V; Martinaud, C

2014-01-01

9

Phenobarbitone-induced haematological abnormalities in idiopathic epileptic dogs: prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to assess prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome of phenobarbitone induced haematological abnormalities (PBIHA) in dogs. The medical records of two veterinary referral institutions were searched for dogs diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy and treated with PB as monotherapy or polytherapy between March 2003 and September 2010. Sixteen dogs had PBIHA; the median age at diagnosis was 69.5?months. Phenobarbitone was administered at a median dose of 3?mg/kg twice a day for a median period of 100.5?days and the median serum phenobarbitone level was 19??g/ml. Two dogs had neutropenia, three had anaemia and thrombocytopenia, two had anaemia and neutropenia; the remaining nine had pancytopenia. All dogs were referred for non-specific clinical signs. Phenobarbitone was discontinued after diagnosis, and the median time to resolution of PBIHA was 17?days. The prevalence and risk factors for PBIHA were evaluated from a questionnaire survey of referring practices to obtain more detailed follow-up on cases diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The prevalence rate of PBIHA was 4.2%, and the condition occurred in dogs treated with standard therapeutic doses often within the first three months after starting treatment. Serial haematological evaluations should be therefore considered from the beginning of phenobarbitone therapy to allow early diagnosis and treatment of PBIHA. PMID:24836432

Bersan, E; Volk, H A; Ros, C; De Risio, L

2014-09-13

10

The effects of automated plasmapheresis on clinical, haematological, biochemical and coagulation variables in horses.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the effects of plasmapheresis on the behaviour, general condition, haematological, biochemical and coagulation variables of donor horses for 32 days following the procedure. Twenty millilitres of plasma/kg body weight were collected via plasmapheresis in six clinically healthy horses. The general behaviour and condition of the horses was not affected by the procedure. During plasmapheresis, there was a mild increase in the haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and total erythrocyte and leucocyte counts (P < 0.01). The mean concentrations of total protein and albumin decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and total protein did not normalise for about three weeks. Several other biochemical variables also decreased significantly during plasmapheresis, but mostly remained within reference ranges. After plasmapheresis, the mean value of the activated partial thromboplastin time and the thrombin time were mildly but significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the mean activities of factor V, factor VIII and antithrombin decreased significantly (P < 0.01), although all coagulation values remained within reference ranges. Our results indicate that, in horses, the collection of 20 mL of plasma/kg body weight via plasmapheresis results in mild changes in several haematological, biochemical and coagulation variables, although these were of no clinical relevance for the donors. PMID:15683770

Feige, K; Ehrat, F B; Kästner, S B R; Wampfler, B

2005-01-01

11

Selected haematological and plasma chemistry parameters in juvenile and adult degus (Octodon degus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five juvenile (mean age 6.3 weeks) and 35 adult (mean age 2.0 years) healthy degus (Octodon degus) were studied to investigate selected haematological and plasma biochemistry parameters. Animals were anaesthetised with isoflurane, and blood was withdrawn from the cranial vena cava. Erythrocyte, haematocrit and neutrophil counts (including the percentage of neutrophils) were significantly higher in the adult degus than in

V. Jekl; K. Hauptman; E. Jeklova; Z. Knotek

2011-01-01

12

Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor).  

PubMed

Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia and four had heterophilia. The findings suggested that haematological testing is of potential diagnostic value in the species. PMID:18766947

Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

1985-10-01

13

Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

Wilson, Diane

14

Clinical and haematological responses of feline blood donors anaesthetised with a tiletamine and zolazepam combination.  

PubMed

This prospective study investigated the effect on clinical and haematological variables of the anaesthetic combination of tiletamine and zolazepam in feline blood donors. Blood (10 ml/kg bodyweight to a maximum volume of 60 ml) was collected from the jugular vein of 31 owned healthy cats anaesthetised with 2.5 mg/kg of tiletamine and 2.5 mg/kg of zolazepam intramuscularly. Rectal temperature (RT), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), heart rate (HR) and complete blood count (including red blood cells [RBC], haemoglobin [HB], haematocrit [HT], platelet [PLT] count, white blood cells [WBC], lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils) were evaluated pre- and postdonation. RT decreased significantly (P <0.01) after blood donation (mean change in RT -0.7°C). Significant increases in SAP (P = 0.03), MAP (P <0.01) and DAP (P <0.01) occurred after blood donation (mean increase 13 mmHg, 12 mmHg and 11 mmHg, respectively). Although RBC, HT, HB, WBC, PLT, neutrophil and monocyte counts decreased, and HR, and lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts increased after blood donation this change was not statistically significant. Mean time from pre- to postdonation evaluation was 39 ± 11 mins (range 24-76 mins). None of the cats had evidence of pallor or collapse after recovery from anaesthesia. The collection of blood at 10 ml/kg bodyweight to a maximum volume of 60 ml in healthy cats using a low dose tiletamine and zolazepam anaesthetic appears to be well tolerated by feline blood donors. PMID:25015738

Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Perego, Roberta; Valena, Emanuela; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Baggiani, Luciana

2015-04-01

15

Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia

C. M. Hawkey; M. G. Hart; H. J. Samour

1985-01-01

16

EC4 European Syllabus for Post-Graduate Training in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: version 3 - 2005.  

PubMed

The EC4 Syllabus for Postgraduate Training is the basis for the European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The syllabus: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. The syllabus is not primarily meant to be a training guide, but on the basis of the overview given (common minimal programme), national societies should formulate programmes that indicate where knowledge and experience is needed. The main points of this programme are: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Knowledge in biochemistry, haematology, immunology, etc.; Pre-analytical conditions; Evaluation of results; Interpretations (post-analytical phase); Laboratory management; and Quality insurance management. The aim of this version of the syllabus is to be in accordance with the Directive of Professional Qualifications published on 30 September 2005. To prepare the common platforms planned in this directive, the disciplines are divided into four categories: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Knowledge in biochemistry, haematology, immunology, etc.; Pre-analytical conditions; Evaluation of results; Interpretations (post-analytical phase); Laboratory management; and Quality insurance management. General chemistry, encompassing biochemistry, endocrinology, chemical (humoral), immunology, toxicology, and therapeutic drug monitoring; Haematology, covering cells, transfusion serology, coagulation, and cellular immunology; Microbiology, involving bacteriology, virology, parasitology, and mycology; Genetics and IVF. PMID:16375596

Zerah, Simone; McMurray, Janet; Bousquet, Bernard; Baum, Hannsjorg; Beastall, Graham H; Blaton, Vic; Cals, Marie-Josèphe; Duchassaing, Danielle; Gaudeau-Toussaint, Marie-Françoise; Harmoinen, Aimo; Hoffmann, Hans; Jansen, Rob T; Kenny, Desmond; Kohse, Klaus P; Köller, Ursula; Gobert, Jean-Gérard; Linget, Christine; Lund, Erik; Nubile, Giuseppe; Opp, Matthias; Pazzagli, Mario; Pinon, Georges; Queralto, José M; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Szekeres, Thomas; Vidaud, Michel; Wallinder, Hans

2006-01-01

17

Clinical Chemistry: International Journal of Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Association for Clinical Chemistry has recently made available online Clinical Chemistry: International Journal of Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics. Clinical Chemistry contains full-text articles, figures, and tables in a searchable (by keyword) format. Coverage begins with the January 1998 issue. Abstracts begin with the January 1980 issue. Clinical Chemistry is made available through Stanford University's HighWire Press.

18

American Association for Clinical Chemistry  

MedlinePLUS

... Image credit: martynowi_cz/Thinkstock) Read more Making miRNA Analysis More Accessible Researchers have developed a method ... used immunoassay analyzers and aid efforts to implement miRNA biomarkers in the clinic. (Image credit: net_efekt/ ...

19

Simulation of a clinical chemistry laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a general purpose simulation system (GPSS), we have attempted to objectively evaluate general operation of a routine clinical chemistry service laboratory and identify the bottlenecks (BN). In view of these BN, a solution is proposed to upgrade the quality of the service rendered. We have used the essential elements, such as job, people, and equipment in their independant cycles.

ARVIND K. N. NANDEDKAR; A. BLANK; JACOB ROOTENBERG

1983-01-01

20

21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2160...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2011-04-01

21

21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2140...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2010-04-01

22

21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2150...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2014-04-01

23

21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2160...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2013-04-01

24

21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2160...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2010-04-01

25

21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2150...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2010-04-01

26

21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2140...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2014-04-01

27

21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2160...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2014-04-01

28

21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2150...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2011-04-01

29

21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2140...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2012-04-01

30

21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2140...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2011-04-01

31

21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2160...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2012-04-01

32

21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2150...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2012-04-01

33

21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2150...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2013-04-01

34

21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2140...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2013-04-01

35

Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation)  

PubMed Central

The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory, limited only by the imagination and ingenuity of laboratory scientists. PMID:25336760

Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

2014-01-01

36

Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation).  

PubMed

The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory, limited only by the imagination and ingenuity of laboratory scientists. PMID:25336760

Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

2014-08-01

37

Haematological characteristics of morbid southern brown bandicoots ( Isoodon obesulus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological assessment often forms an important part of the diagnosis of disease in wildlife, as animals may not exhibit clinical signs until late in the disease process to avoid appearing vulnerable to predators. This study investigated the haematological changes occurring in southern brown bandicoots suffering from injury and illness that were caught from the wild or presented to a Perth

R. M. Wicks; P. Clark

2005-01-01

38

Looking for prognosticators in ovine anaplasmosis: discriminant analysis of clinical and haematological parameters in lambs belonging to differently susceptible breeds experimentally infected with Anaplasma ovis  

PubMed Central

Background A study was carried out to evaluate the response of different native sheep breeds to experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis, the most prevalent sheep tick-borne pathogen in Apulia (Southern Italy). Thirty-four lambs belonging to a Northern European breed (Suffolk) and two Southern Italian breeds (Comisana and Altamurana) were infected. Eleven clinical as well as haematological parameters were monitored at different temporal resolutions on the same subjects before and after the infection, resulting in a data set of 435 observations. The present work, aiming to further the research, presents the results of a multivariate analysis carried out to identify which parameters out of the eleven considered are the most reliable parameters to be considered as markers of the disease phenotype as well as prognosticators of practical clinical importance. Results Data were analysed by discriminant analysis. Out of the eleven considered variables (red blood cells, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin content, haemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, neutrophils, leukocytes, platelets, rectal temperature), only seven were included in the step-wise model since significantly increasing the Mahlanobis distance between the two closest groups. Both discriminant functions resulted to be highly significant (P?clinical practice for A. ovis infection in sheep. PMID:24053615

2013-01-01

39

Contributions of Analytical Chemistry to the Clinical Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical

Skogerboe, Kristen J.

1988-01-01

40

The early days of atomic absorption spectrometry in clinical chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the first applications of atomic absorption spectrometry in clinical chemistry. These include the determination of calcium and magnesium in blood serum and of these elements, together with a range of heavy metals, in urine.

Willis, J. B.

1999-12-01

41

Effects of organohalogen pollutants on haematological and urine clinical–chemical parameters in Greenland sledge dogs ( Canis familiaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven West Greenland sledge dog bitches (Canis familiaris) and their three pups were fed 50–200g of contaminated West Greenland minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber, and in a control cohort eight sister bitches and their five pups were fed a similar amount pork fat. Blood plasma and urine clinical–chemical parameters were measured and compared between the bitches and pups form the

Christian Sonne; Rune Dietz; Maja Kirkegaard; Robert J. Letcher; Soheila Shahmiri; Steen Andersen; Per Møller; Aage Kristian Olsen; Asger L. Jensen

2008-01-01

42

21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2170...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2010-04-01

43

21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2170...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2014-04-01

44

21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2170...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2013-04-01

45

21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2170...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2012-04-01

46

21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2170...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...

2011-04-01

47

77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing...for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing...of INDs for early clinical trials with live biotherapeutic products (LBPs)....

2012-02-21

48

75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing...for Industry: Early Clinical Trials with Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing...of INDs for early clinical trials with live biotherapeutic products (LBPs)....

2010-10-14

49

Clinical experience of the use of voriconazole, caspofungin or the combination in primary and salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis in haematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection in severely immunocompromised haematological malignancy patients. In this study, the efficacy and safety of caspofungin, voriconazole or the combination as primary and salvage therapy in patients with IA were compared. The study included 181 patients with haematological malignancies and IA who received primary or salvage therapy with caspofungin, voriconazole or the combination. In total, 138 patients who received treatment for ?7 days were analysed; 86 underwent primary antifungal therapy (15 with caspofungin, 38 with voriconazole and 33 with both). Among the salvage therapy patients, 17 received caspofungin, 24 received voriconazole and 35 received both. In the primary therapy group, no difference in therapy response was found, but caspofungin was associated with higher IA mortality rates. A multivariate competing risk analysis of primary antifungal therapy revealed that voriconazole was independently associated with lower IA-associated mortality rates than caspofungin (hazard ratio=0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.96; P=0.04). In the salvage therapy group, the three treatment groups had similar responses and IA-associated mortality rates. The combination of voriconazole and caspofungin did not result in better outcomes compared with voriconazole alone, as primary or salvage therapy, in haematological malignancy patients. However, voriconazole was associated with a lower Aspergillus-associated mortality rate compared with caspofungin monotherapy. PMID:25455847

Raad, Issam I; Zakhem, Aline El; Helou, Gilbert El; Jiang, Ying; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Hachem, Ray

2015-03-01

50

Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

Gochman, Nathan; And Others

1979-01-01

51

Colloidal oatmeal: history, chemistry and clinical properties.  

PubMed

Oatmeal has been used for centuries as a soothing agent to relieve itch and irritation associated with various xerotic dermatoses. In 1945, a ready to use colloidal oatmeal, produced by finely grinding the oat and boiling it to extract the colloidal material, became available. Today, colloidal oatmeal is available in various dosage forms from powders for the bath to shampoos, shaving gels, and moisturizing creams. Currently, the use of colloidal oatmeal as a skin protectant is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) according to the Over-The-Counter Final Monograph for Skin Protectant Drug Products issued in June 2003. Its preparation is also standardized by the United States Pharmacopeia. The many clinical properties of colloidal oatmeal derive from its chemical polymorphism. The high concentration in starches and beta-glucan is responsible for the protective and water-holding functions of oat. The presence of different types of phenols confers antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Some of the oat phenols are also strong ultraviolet absorbers. The cleansing activity of oat is mostly due to saponins. Its many functional properties make colloidal oatmeal a cleanser, moisturizer, buffer, as well as a soothing and protective anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:17373175

Kurtz, Ellen S; Wallo, Warren

2007-02-01

52

The EC4 European syllabus for post-graduate training in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine: version 4--2012.  

PubMed

Laboratory medicine's practitioners across the European community include medical, scientific and pharmacy trained specialists whose contributions to health and healthcare is in the application of diagnostic tests for screening and early detection of disease, differential diagnosis, monitoring, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations in translating knowledge and skills into ability to practice. In a 'Specialist knowledge' division, the expectations from the individual disciplines of Clinical Chemistry/Immunology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion, Microbiology/ Virology, Genetics and In Vitro Fertilisation are described. Beyond providing a common platform of knowledge, skills and competency, the syllabus supports the aims of the European Commission in providing safeguards to increasing professional mobility across European borders at a time when demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing and the labour force is declining. It continues to act as a guide for the formulation of national programmes supplemented by the needs of individual country priorities. PMID:23035263

Wieringa, Gijsbert; Zerah, Simone; Jansen, Rob; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Queralto, José; Solnica, Bogdan; Gruson, Damien; Tomberg, Karel; Riittinen, Leena; Baum, Hannsjörg; Brochet, Jean-Philippe; Buhagiar, Gerald; Charilaou, Charis; Grigore, Camelia; Johnsen, Anders H; Kappelmayer, Janos; Majkic-Singh, Nada; Nubile, Giuseppe; O'Mullane, John; Opp, Matthias; Pupure, Silvija; Racek, Jaroslav; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Rogic, Dunja; Špa?ár, Július; Štrakl, Greta; Szekeres, Thomas; Tzatchev, Kamen; Vitkus, Dalius; Wallemacq, Pierre; Wallinder, Hans

2012-08-01

53

Haematological and blood chemical values from Bothrops ammodytoides (ophidia-crotalidae) in captivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish reference haematological and blood chemistry parameters, blood samples were obtained from 50 healthy\\u000a specimens ofBothrops ammodytoides kept in captivity. The haematological parameters determined were: red blood cell count (RBC); total leucocyte (WBC) and differential\\u000a leucocyte cell count; thrombocyte count; haematocrit (PCV); haemoglobin concentration; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean\\u000a corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration

J. C. Troiano; J. C. Vidal; E. F. Gould; G. Malinskas; J. Gould; M. Scaglione; L. Scaglione; J. J. Heker; C. Simoncini; H. Dinápoli

1999-01-01

54

Autoimmune haematological disorders in two Italian children with Kabuki syndrome.  

PubMed

Kabuki syndrome (also called Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disease described for the first time in Japan, characterised by anomalies in multiple organ systems and often associated with autoimmune disorders and impaired immune response. We herein report the clinical history, the therapeutic approach and the outcome of two children with Kabuki syndrome who developed autoimmune haematological disorders (haemolytic anaemia and immune thrombocytopenia). Factors regarding differential diagnosis and interventions in better management of this syndrome and its complications are discussed. This is the first report of Italian children with autoimmune haematological disorders complicating Kabuki syndrome. PMID:24460868

Giordano, Paola; Lassandro, Giuseppe; Sangerardi, Maria; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Valente, Federica; Martire, Baldassarre

2014-01-01

55

Autoimmune haematological disorders in two Italian children with Kabuki Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Kabuki syndrome (also called Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disease described for the first time in Japan, characterised by anomalies in multiple organ systems and often associated with autoimmune disorders and impaired immune response. We herein report the clinical history, the therapeutic approach and the outcome of two children with Kabuki syndrome who developed autoimmune haematological disorders (haemolytic anaemia and immune thrombocytopenia). Factors regarding differential diagnosis and interventions in better management of this syndrome and its complications are discussed. This is the first report of Italian children with autoimmune haematological disorders complicating Kabuki syndrome. PMID:24460868

2014-01-01

56

National Cancer Institute and American Association for Clinical Chemistry Partner to Bridge the Gap  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute, through its Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer (CPTC) initiative has entered into a memorandum of understanding with the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) to join forces to promote and educate the clinical chemistry community in the area of proteomic standards and technology advances.

57

Haematological manifestations of lupus  

PubMed Central

Our purpose was to compile information on the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), namely leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and myelofibrosis. During our search of the English-language MEDLINE sources, we did not place a date-of-publication constraint. Hence, we have reviewed previous as well as most recent studies with the subject heading SLE in combination with each manifestation. Neutropenia can lead to morbidity and mortality from increased susceptibility to infection. Severe neutropenia can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. While related to disease activity, there is no specific therapy for lymphopenia. Severe lymphopenia may require the use of prophylactic therapy to prevent select opportunistic infections. Isolated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura maybe the first manifestation of SLE by months or even years. Some manifestations of lupus occur more frequently in association with low platelet count in these patients, for example, neuropsychiatric manifestation, haemolytic anaemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and renal disease. Thrombocytopenia can be regarded as an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with SLE. Medical, surgical and biological treatment modalities are reviewed for this manifestation. First-line therapy remains glucocorticoids. Through our review, we conclude glucocorticoids do produce a response in majority of patients initially, but sustained response to therapy is unlikely. Glucocorticoids are used as first-line therapy in patients with SLE with AIHA, but there is no conclusive evidence to guide second-line therapy. Rituximab is promising in refractory and non-responding AIHA. TTP is not recognised as a criteria for classification of SLE, but there is a considerable overlap between the presenting features of TTP and SLE, and a few patients with SLE have concurrent TTP. Myelofibrosis is an uncommon yet well-documented manifestation of SLE. We have compiled the cases that were reported in MEDLINE sources. PMID:25861458

Fayyaz, Anum; Igoe, Ann; Kurien, Biji T; Danda, Debashish; James, Judith A; Stafford, Haraldine A; Scofield, R Hal

2015-01-01

58

Preanalytical management: serum vacuum tubes validation for routine clinical chemistry  

PubMed Central

Introduction The validation process is essential in accredited clinical laboratories. Aim of this study was to validate five kinds of serum vacuum tubes for routine clinical chemistry laboratory testing. Materials and methods: Blood specimens from 100 volunteers in five diff erent serum vacuum tubes (Tube I: VACUETTE®, Tube II: LABOR IMPORT®, Tube III: S-Monovette®, Tube IV: SST® and Tube V: SST II®) were collected by a single, expert phlebotomist. The routine clinical chemistry tests were analyzed on cobas® 6000 module. The significance of the diff erences between samples was assessed by paired Student’s t-test after checking for normality. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.005. Finally, the biases from Tube I, Tube II, Tube III, Tube IV and Tube V were compared with the current desirable quality specifications for bias (B), derived from biological variation. Results and conclusions: Basically, our validation will permit the laboratory or hospital managers to select the brand’s vacuum tubes validated according him/her technical or economical reasons, in order to perform the following laboratory tests: glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, alkaline phosphatise, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, calcium, iron, sodium and potassium. On the contrary special attention will be required if the laboratory already performs creatinine, amylase, phosphate and magnesium determinations and the quality laboratory manager intend to change the serum tubes. We suggest that laboratory management should both standardize the procedures and frequently evaluate the quality of in vitro diagnostic devices. PMID:22838184

Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

2012-01-01

59

The Potential Role of Aurora Kinase Inhibitors in Haematological Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Summary Aurora kinases play an important role in the control of the cell cycle and have been implicated in tumourigenesis in a number of cancers. Among the haematological malignancies, overexpression of Aurora kinases has been reported in acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, multiple myeloma, aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. A large number of Aurora kinase inhibitors are currently in different stages of clinical development. In addition to varying in their selectivity for the different Aurora kinases, some also have activity directed at other cellular kinases involved in important molecular pathways in cancer cells. This review summarizes the biology of Aurora kinases and discusses why they may be good therapeutic targets in different haematological cancers. We describe preclinical data that has served as the rationale for investigating Aurora kinase inhibitors in different haematological malignancies, and summarize published results from early phase clinical trials. While the anti-tumour effects of Aurora kinase inhibitors appear promising, we highlight important issues for future clinical research and suggest that the optimal use of these inhibitors is likely to be in combination with cytotoxic agents already in use for the treatment of various haematological cancers. PMID:21980926

Farag, Sherif S.

2011-01-01

60

Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays  

PubMed Central

Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays. PMID:24627713

Bowen, Raffick A.R.; Remaley, Alan T.

2014-01-01

61

Haematological management of obstetric haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstetric haemorrhage (OH) remains the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, 140 000–160 000 women die annually. Uterine atony (70%), and retained and invasive placentae remain the commonest causes. Rarely OH is due to an inherited bleeding disorder. Although risk factors and preventive strategies are documented, not all cases are expected or avoidable. Haematological management includes regular monitoring

Eleftheria Lefkou; Beverley Hunt

2008-01-01

62

Gaucher disease: haematological presentations and complications.  

PubMed

Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, required for the degradation of glycosphingolipids. Clinical manifestations include hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, bone disease and a bleeding diathesis, frequently resulting in presentation to haematologists. Historically managed by splenectomy, transfusions and orthopaedic surgery, the development of specific therapy in the form of intravenous enzyme replacement therapy in the 1990s has resulted in dramatic improvements in haematological and visceral disease. Recognition of complications, including multiple myeloma and Parkinson disease, has challenged the traditional macrophage-centric view of the pathophysiology of this disorder. The pathways by which enzyme deficiency results in the clinical manifestations of this disorder are poorly understood; altered inflammatory cytokine profiles, bioactive sphingolipid derivatives and alterations in the bone marrow microenvironment have been implicated. Further elucidating these pathways will serve to advance our understanding not only of GD, but of associated disorders. PMID:24588457

Thomas, Alison S; Mehta, Atul; Hughes, Derralynn A

2014-05-01

63

Evaluation of the clinical chemistry analyser Olympus AU400.  

PubMed

The Olympus AU400 analyser (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) is an automated chemistry instrument for turbidimetric, spectrophotometric and ion selective electrode measurements. Overall analytical performances of the AU400 and the reagents provided by Olympus were evaluated according to the French Society of Clinical Biology guidelines. Twenty parameters including specific proteins, substrates, enzyme activities and electrolytes were tested. The linearity exceeded the specifications given by the manufacturer. Within- and between-run imprecision (CV%), evaluated at two levels, was below 1.5% for ion selective electrode parameters and 3% for other analytes, except for CO2, alkaline phosphatase at low levels and magnesium. Results compared well with those obtained with the analysers routinely used in our laboratory (Behring BNII, Olympus AU800 and Beckman CX3 Delta). The usual positive interferences from lipaemia and haemoglobin on total protein measurement were observed. Creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase assays were the subject of positive and negative interference by haemoglobin, respectively. There was a negative interference by bilirubin in the uric acid, aspartate-amino transferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase assays and a positive interference in the calcium assay. The system was found to be very easy to use and the workstation is user-friendly. PMID:11140621

Lasnier, E; Mario, N; Boque, M C; You, S N; Vaubourdolle, M

2000-10-01

64

Managing haematological disorders during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The management of patients with pre-existing haematological diseases during pregnancy can be particularly challenging. The potential maternal and foetal toxicities from treatment regimens including chemotherapy for malignant haematological disorders mean that joint management between obstetricians and haematologists is essential for achieving good outcomes for both mother and baby. Patients with inherited or acquired disorders of haemostasis including platelets (essential thrombocythaemia) and coagulation (antiphospholipid syndrome) resulting in a pro-thrombotic state also require special consideration as pregnancy is generally considered to be a pro-thrombotic condition which could exacerbate the pre-existing disorder. The choice, timing and duration of anticoagulation or anti-platelet therapy require careful coordination during the antenatal, perinatal as well as postnatal periods to ensure that both maternal and foetal risks are taken into consideration. Pregnancy in women with sickle cell disease has long been identified as high risk with medical and pregnancy related risks being more common compared to women without it. A range of foetal risks have also been reported but improvement in outcomes has been seen with better obstetric and haematological care and the emphasis on multidisciplinary teamwork. The meticulous management of iron overload and risks associated with repeated blood transfusions extends into the care of pregnant women with other haemoglobinopathies like thalassemias. PMID:24060203

Koh, Mickey B C; Lao, Zhen Tang; Rhodes, Elizabeth

2013-12-01

65

A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

2012-01-01

66

Medical Chemists and the Origins of Clinical Chemistry in Britain (circa 1750 -1850)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this history, I review developments leading toward the establishment of clinical chemistry in Britain. Chemical research by certain physicians occurred in the context of medical traditions founded on vitalism, dis- tillation analysis, and limited chemical knowledge. Urine chemistry figured prominently in this period together with the analysis of kidney and bladder stones. Bright's team studying albuminuria was the first

Noel G. Coley

67

Advances in Haematological Pharmacotherapy in 21st Century  

PubMed Central

Last quarter of twentieth century and the first 10 years of 21st century has seen phenomenal development in haematological pharmacotherapy. Tailor made chemotherapeutic agents, vast array of monoclonal antibodies, epigenetic modifiers, growth factors for red cells white cells and platelets, peptidomimetics as growth factors, newer thrombin inhibitors, safer plasma derived protein molecules, recombinant molecules, newer immunomodulators, enzyme replacement therapy and above all a plethora of targetted molecules targeting innumerable pathways involved in cell division, growth, proliferation and apoptosis has given immense number of clinically usable molecules in the hand of modern haematologists to treat diverse hitherto untreatable haematological disorders effectively. In addition many old molecules are finding newer uses in diverse fields, thalidomide as an antiangiogenic molecule is a prime example of this genre. Present overview has tried to capture this rapidly evolving area in a broad canvas without going into details of indications and contraindications of the use of various drugs. PMID:21629633

Ghosh, Kinjalka

2010-01-01

68

An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

Duxbury, Mark

2004-01-01

69

Haematology of Indonesian large ruminants.  

PubMed

Haematology parameters were measured in buffalo, Bali, Madura, Ongole and Grati (Friesian cross) bulls fed on either a high concentrate or a high roughage-based diet. Animals fed the high concentrate diet had the higher packed cell volumes and haemoglobin concentrations but lower red blood cell and white blood cell counts. Species differences were significant for all blood parameters measured, except red blood cell count. The buffalo and Bali had the highest packed cell volumes, haemoglobin concentrations and white blood cell counts followed by the Madura, Ongole and Grati bulls. When growth rate and feed efficiency were related to liveweight and blood values, only haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count had significant partial regression coefficients. Within breed or species blood and performance parameters were significantly related only for buffalo and Madura bulls. PMID:6306883

Thahar, A; Moran, J B; Wood, J T

1983-05-01

70

Clinical use of rituximab in haematological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rituximab is a chimeric human\\/mouse monoclonal antibody that is approved for the treatment of relapsed and refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and in combination with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy as first-line therapy for diffuse large B-cell NHL, where it has shown the first survival advantage over CHOP alone in more than 20 years. Strategies to help define the optimal

I Avivi; S Robinson; A Goldstone

2003-01-01

71

Clinical chemistry: a professional field for physicians and natural scientists in Europe.  

PubMed

1. Clinical chemistry is definitely an interdisciplinary subject between natural science and medicine. The major part of clinical chemistry is natural science and therefore theoretical science. To a lesser extent, however, clinical chemistry is practical science or "action science" which is aimed at a certain action. 2. The question "Is clinical chemistry a professional field for physicians, for scientists or for both?" can be answered with the statement: It follows from its historical development and its characteristic theory and practice, and is de facto true throughout the world, that clinical chemistry is a professional field for physicians and natural scientists. 3. The broad scope of the technical field and the challenges to be expected in future within the framework of the European Community will require the recruiting aspiring clinical chemists both from medicine and from the natural sciences. 4. Qualified postgraduate training is more important than the nature of the initial study course. 5. Apart from providing special knowledge and particular abilities, postgraduate training must make the younger generation familiar with the ways of thought of the physician and of the natural scientist. 6. Successful work as a clinical chemist requires "extra-functional" qualifications, such as the ability to conduct dialogue and teamwork with the clinician. 7. The national differences which exist in the definition of the professional pattern "clinical chemist" are a hindrance to the future development of the discipline in the European Community. The starting point for recognition of the profession must be an agreed definition among the professionals of the countries of the European Community of the professional field of the clinical chemist. PMID:2049472

Büttner, J

1991-01-01

72

Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finds ChemEd DL resources related to the sections of the General Chemistry textbook, Chemistry, by Kenneth W. Whitten, Raymond E. Davis, M. Larry Peck, George G. Stanley published by Brooks/Cole, 2010.

73

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology, a peer-reviewed online journal and database provided by Infobiogen, is "devoted to genes, cytogenetics, and clinical entities in cancer, and cancer-prone diseases." Users can search the materials by genes, leukaemias, solid tumors, cancer prone diseases, and chromosomes. Researchers can find links to scientific societies and meetings. Students can explore educational materials on Mendelian and non-Mendelian Inheritance, chromosomes, population genetics, and additional human genetics topics. The website also offers reviews and case reports.

74

Zygomycosis in Immunocompromised non-Haematological Patients  

PubMed Central

Zygomycoses caused by fungi of the mucorales order (mucormycoses) are emerging fungal diseases with a high fatality rate. The most important risk factors include neutropenia or functional neutropenia, diabetic ketoacidosis, iron overload, major trauma, prolonged use of corticosteroids, illicit intravenous drug (ID) use, neonatal prematurity, malnourishment, and maybe a previous exposure to antifungal agents with no activity against zygomycetes, such as voriconazole and echinocandins. A high index of suspicion is crucial for the diagnosis, as prompt and appropriate management can considerably reduce morbidity and mortality. Suspicion index can be increased through recognition of the differential patterns of clinical presentation. In the non- haematological immunocompromised patients, mucormycosis can manifest in various clinical forms, depending on the underlying condition: mostly as rhino-orbital or rhino-cerebral in diabetes patients, pulmonary infection in patients with malignancy or solid organ transplantation, disseminated infection in iron overloaded or deferoxamine treated patients, cerebral - with no sinus involvement - in ID users, gastrointestinal in premature infants or malnourishment, and cutaneous after direct inoculation in immunocompetent individuals with trauma or burns. Treating a patient’s underlying medical condition and reducing immunosuppression are essential to therapy. Rapid correction of metabolic abnormalities is mandatory in cases such as uncontrolled diabetes, and corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs should be discontinued where feasible. AmphotericinB or its newer and less toxic lipid formulations are the drugs of choice regarding antifungal chemotherapy, while extensive surgical debridement is essential to reduce infected and necrotic tissue. A high number of cases could be prevented through measures including diabetes control programmes and proper pre- and post-surgical hygiene. PMID:21625316

Petrikkos, George; Drogari-Apiranthitou, Miranda

2011-01-01

75

Radiation chemistry in the clinic: Hypoxic cell radiosensitizers for radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is much clinical interest in increasing the radiosensitivity of radioresistant hypoxic tumour cells by developing drugs which will take part in radiation-chemical reactions to increase cell killing. This article discusses several aspects of radiosensitization by electron affinic nitroaryl compounds. The problem of correlating radiobiological effects with reactions of a particular radical by means of relative rate constants is illustrated, and chemical models of the radiosensitization phenomena discussed in this context. The implications of free-energy relationships between biological responses or rate constants of radical reactions are stressed, as is the need to characterise the competitive, protective reaction with thiols. The importance of phase-distribution relationships in controlling pharmacological properties is noted, and the application of these principles to improving the therapeutic ratio of radiosensitizers explained. A brief outline is presented of the current status of clinical trials of radiosensitizers, and future prospects for the improvement of the efficacy of radiotherapy by modifying radiation-chemical reactions are discussed.

Wardman, Peter

76

Multidrug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein in haematological malignancies.  

PubMed

The phenomenon that a tumour, resistant to a cytotoxic drug, is also resistant to a large number of other drugs used in cancer chemotherapy, is called multidrug resistance. A transmembrane protein, known as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is involved in this resistance pattern. P-gp is able to pump large, lipophilic molecules out of the cell. 'Naturally occurring' drugs such as the anthracyclines and the Vinca alkaloids meet these criteria. To study the future clinical implications of multidrug resistance, we have gathered data in the literature on the presence of P-gp in haematological malignancies. At diagnosis 14-62% of all patients showed P-gp expression. Of previously treated patients 29-62% was positive for P-gp. A slight tendency to find a higher frequency of P-gp positivity in these previously treated patients was observed (so-called 'acquired resistance'). Early mutation and selection by the cytotoxic drug could account for the higher levels in treated patients. Chemotherapy itself could induce the expression of the P-gp pump. With the use of in vitro work various pharmacological agents have been found that can antagonize P-gp's function. Using these agents in clinical trials, some refractory patients showed a response to chemotherapy. We conclude that P-gp is probably just one of many causes of drug resistance in patients with haematological malignancies. Clinical results in some studies look promising, but many problems have still to be solved before common use. PMID:8104318

Pasman, P C; Schouten, H C

1993-06-01

77

Patient-specific analysis of sequential haematological data by multiple linear regression and mixture distribution modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Automated storage and analysis of the results of serial haematologic studies are now technically feasible with present-day laboratory instruments and devices for data storage and processing. In current practice, physicians mentally compare a laboratory result with previous values and use their clinical judgement to determine the signicance of any change. To provide a statistical basis for this process, we

C. E. McLaren; E. L. Kambour; G. J. McLachlan; H. C. Lukaski; X. Li; G. M. Brittenham; G. D. McLaren

2000-01-01

78

Pretreatment data is highly predictive of liver chemistry signals in clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this retrospective analysis was to assess how well predictive models could determine which patients would develop liver chemistry signals during clinical trials based on their pretreatment (baseline) information. Patients and methods Based on data from 24 late-stage clinical trials, classification models were developed to predict liver chemistry outcomes using baseline information, which included demographics, medical history, concomitant medications, and baseline laboratory results. Results Predictive models using baseline data predicted which patients would develop liver signals during the trials with average validation accuracy around 80%. Baseline levels of individual liver chemistry tests were most important for predicting their own elevations during the trials. High bilirubin levels at baseline were not uncommon and were associated with a high risk of developing biochemical Hy’s law cases. Baseline ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level appeared to have some predictive value, but did not increase predictability beyond using established liver chemistry tests. Conclusion It is possible to predict which patients are at a higher risk of developing liver chemistry signals using pretreatment (baseline) data. Derived knowledge from such predictions may allow proactive and targeted risk management, and the type of analysis described here could help determine whether new biomarkers offer improved performance over established ones. PMID:23226004

Cai, Zhaohui; Bresell, Anders; Steinberg, Mark H; Silberg, Debra G; Furlong, Stephen T

2012-01-01

79

Allergen specific immunotherapy has no influence on standard chemistry and hematology laboratory parameters in clinical studies  

PubMed Central

Background A set of standard clinical chemistry and hematology parameters are usually measured during clinical studies. The major outcome of these standard tests is to control that the drug investigated does not lead to pathophysiological changes in respective organs or blood. In some cases based on scientific rationale such tests may not be needed. In this paper we report on a standard set of clinical chemistry and hematology laboratory parameters measured before and after treatment in three different immunotherapy studies, representing different routes of administration and different formulations. Methods Thirteen hematological laboratory parameters and eight clinical chemistry parameters were evaluated from three double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multi-centre, phase III studies. The three studies include one with sublingual immunotherapy (n?=?185), one subcutaneous immunotherapy trial with an aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed recombinant hypoallergenic Bet v1-FV (n?=?211) and one with pre-seasonal subcutaneous immunotherapy with a 6-grass pollen allergoid (n?=?154). Results Allergen specific immunotherapy with both administration forms and formulations respectively did not show any influence on any of the 21 laboratory parameters analyzed. Few patients had a change in laboratory parameters from within normal range at baseline to either below or above at end-of-treatment. No differences between active and placebo were seen with respect to number of patients with such a change. Conclusions This study with different preparations and routes of application indicates that the value of repeated measurements of standard clinical chemistry and hematology parameters during allergen immunotherapy should be discussed further. PMID:24955235

2014-01-01

80

Differential interferences with clinical chemistry assays by gold nanorods, and gold and silica nanospheres.  

PubMed

Abstract Nanomaterials are known to cause interference with several standard toxicological assays. As part of an in vivo study of PEG-coated gold nanorods in mice, nanorods were added to reference serum, and results for standard clinical chemistry parameters were compared with serum analyzed without nanorods. PEG-coated gold nanorods produced several concentration-dependent interferences. Comparisons were then made with PEG-coated gold and silica nanospheres. Interferences were observed for both materials that differed from gold nanorods. Removal of the particles from serum by centrifugation prior to analysis resolved most, but not all of the interferences. Additional clinical chemistry analyzers were used to further investigate trends in assay interference. We conclude that PEG-coated gold and silica nanoparticles can interfere with standard clinical chemistry tests in ways that vary depending upon material, shape, and specific assay methodology employed. Assay interferences by nanomaterials cannot always be predicted, underscoring the need to verify that nanomaterials under study do not interfere with methods used to evaluate potential biological effects. PMID:24620736

Hinkley, Georgia K; Carpinone, Paul L; Munson, John W; Powers, Kevin W; Roberts, Stephen M

2014-03-12

81

Generation and application of data on biological variation in clinical chemistry.  

PubMed

Most clinical chemical analytes vary in a random manner around a homeostatic set point. Replicate analyses of a series of specimens collected from a group of subjects allows estimation of analytical, within and between subject components of variation. The preferred experimental procedures and statistical methods for evaluation of data and analysis of variance are described; a detailed example is provided in the Appendix. The many uses of data on biological variation in clinical chemistry are reviewed, including setting analytical goals, deciding the significance of changes in serial results from an individual, evaluating the utility of conventional population-based reference values in patient management, and other applications. PMID:2679660

Fraser, C G; Harris, E K

1989-01-01

82

Identification of Metabolites, Clinical Chemistry Markers and Transcripts Associated with Hepatotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Early and accurate pre-clinical and clinical biomarkers of hepatotoxicity facilitate the drug development process and the safety monitoring in clinical studies. We selected eight known model compounds to be administered to male Wistar rats to identify biomarkers of drug induced liver injury (DILI) using transcriptomics, metabolite profiling (metabolomics) and conventional endpoints. We specifically explored early biomarkers in serum and liver tissue associated with histopathologically evident acute hepatotoxicity. A tailored data analysis strategy was implemented to better differentiate animals with no treatment-related findings in the liver from animals showing evident hepatotoxicity as assessed by histopathological analysis. From the large number of assessed parameters, our data analysis strategy allowed us to identify five metabolites in serum and five in liver tissue, 58 transcripts in liver tissue and seven clinical chemistry markers in serum that were significantly associated with acute hepatotoxicity. The identified markers comprised metabolites such as taurocholic acid and putrescine (measured as sum parameter together with agmatine), classical clinical chemistry markers like AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), and bilirubin, as well as gene transcripts like Igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1) and Egr1 (early growth response protein 1). The response pattern of the identified biomarkers was concordant across all types of parameters and sample matrices. Our results suggest that a combination of several of these biomarkers could significantly improve the robustness and accuracy of an early diagnosis of hepatotoxicity. PMID:24836604

Buness, Andreas; Roth, Adrian; Herrmann, Annika; Schmitz, Oliver; Kamp, Hennicke; Busch, Kristina; Suter, Laura

2014-01-01

83

Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of GOB Chemistry Knowledge Relevant to Clinical Nursing Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the…

Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack

2015-01-01

84

From "clinical proteomics" to "clinical chemistry proteomics": considerations using quantitative mass-spectrometry as a model approach.  

PubMed

Clinical Proteomics biomarker discovery programs lead to the selection of putative new biomarkers of human pathologies. Following an initial discovery phase, validation of these candidates in larger populations is a major task that recently started relying upon the use of mass spectrometry approaches, especially in cases where classical immune-detection methods were lacking. Thanks to highly sensitive spectrometers, adapted measurement methods like selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and various pre-fractionation methods, the quantitative detection of protein/peptide biomarkers in low concentrations is now feasible from complex biological fluids. This possibility leads to the use of similar methodologies in clinical biology laboratories, within a new proteomic field that we shall name "Clinical Chemistry Proteomics" (CCP). Such evolution of Clinical Proteomics adds important constraints with regards to the in vitro diagnostic (IVD) application. As measured values of analytes will be used to diagnose, follow-up and adapt patient treatment on a routine basis; medical utility, robustness, reference materials and clinical feasibility are among the new issues of CCP to consider. PMID:21981380

Lehmann, Sylvain; Poinot, Pauline; Tiers, Laurent; Junot, Christophe; Becher, François; Hirtz, Christophe

2012-02-01

85

Cancer stem cells in haematological malignancies  

PubMed Central

At least several types of human haematological malignancies can now be seen as ‘stem-cell diseases’. The best-studied in this context is acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). It has been shown that these diseases are driven by a pool of ‘leukaemia stem cells (LSC)’, which remain in the quiescent state, have the capacity to survive and self-renew, and are responsible for the recurrence of cancer after classical chemotherapy. It has been understood that LSC must be eliminated in order to cure patients suffering from haematological cancers. Recent advances in LSC research have allowed for description of LSC phenotype and identification of potential targets for anti-LSC therapies. This concise review summarises the current view on LSC biology and targeted approaches against LSC. PMID:25691816

Golab, Jakub

2015-01-01

86

Immunomodulation in the treatment of haematological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the continuous advances in immunology and cancer biology, haematological malignancies are often incurable. Conventional\\u000a chemotherapy and radiation are efficacious for some lymphoma and leukaemia, however relapse and progressive disease often\\u000a occurs. The evidence that the immune system can play an essential role in controlling cancer progression provide a basis for\\u000a the development of active therapies, such as immunization, aimed

Michela Cesco-Gaspere; Emma Morris; Hans J. Stauss

2009-01-01

87

Heritable components of feline hematology, clinical chemistry, and acid-base profiles.  

PubMed

Four erythrocyte variables (erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, mean cell volume, packed cell volume), 14 serum variables (alanine transferase, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, total protein, triglycerides, urea nitrogen), and 7 venous acid-base variables (base excess, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, oxygen saturation, pH, and total carbon dioxide) were evaluated for heritability in domestic cats (Felis catus). Values used for individual cats were expressed as the mean over all lifetime measurements, using 444-530 animals for clinical chemistry, 629 animals for acid-base, and 564 animals for erythrocyte metrics. Gender and age at death (where applicable) also were evaluated for correlation with variables. Heritabilities for clinical chemistry, acid-base, and erythrocyte variables ranged, respectively, from 0.13 to 0.78, from 0.23 to 0.59, and from 0.41 to 0.69 (P < 0.05). This result indicates that serum variability has a genetic basis and is segregating in this feline population. These findings may have important implications in both research and clinical medicine. PMID:17158462

Lawler, Dennis F; Chase, Kevin; Teckenbrock, Robert; Lark, Karl G

2006-01-01

88

Haematological and Immunological Data Data set n Input  

E-print Network

Haematological and Immunological Data Data set n Input 1 WBC 2 Hgb Haematology 3 MCV 4 Plat 5 Lymph 6 Neut 1 PanT% 2 CD4% Immunology 3 CD8% 4 PanT 5 CD4 6 CD8 slide­1 #12; Data Type Data set KS+ (class 1) KS-- (class 3) Haematology Training 24 82 Test 4 10 Immunology Training 24 81 Test 4 10 KS

Roberts, Stephen

89

Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, W.J.L.

2002-01-01

90

Autoverification in a core clinical chemistry laboratory at an academic medical center  

PubMed Central

Background: Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinical chemistry core laboratory. Subjects and Methods: At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS) to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs), delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and ‘absurd’ (physiologically improbable) values. Results: The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinical chemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%), albumin (99.8%), and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%). The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate) and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda), mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection) and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a high rate of autoverification is possible with modern clinical chemistry analyzers. The ability to autoverify a high percentage of results increases productivity and allows clinical laboratory staff to focus attention on the small number of specimens and results that require manual review and investigation. PMID:24843824

Krasowski, Matthew D.; Davis, Scott R.; Drees, Denny; Morris, Cory; Kulhavy, Jeff; Crone, Cheri; Bebber, Tami; Clark, Iwa; Nelson, David L.; Teul, Sharon; Voss, Dena; Aman, Dean; Fahnle, Julie; Blau, John L.

2014-01-01

91

Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These sites willhelp you gain greater understanding of Chemistry! Weather is also available Three areas to be on the test. STUDY HARD!!!! Equations Types of Equations Types of Equations text/htmlMichigan Teacher Network Matter Density of solids Density of solids text/htmlICSD ScienceZone Metals Kidneys and Metals Problem Set Kidneys and Metals Problem Set image/tiffCenter for Digital Curriculum Research POTENTIAL SURROGATE METALS FOR INCINERATOR TRIAL BURNS POTENTIAL SURROGATE METALS FOR INCINERATOR TRIAL BURNS text/html Let it snow Interactive Weather Maker Interactive Weather Maker urlexample ...

Riley

2006-04-22

92

An improved automated immunoassay for C-reactive protein on the Dimension® clinical chemistry system  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical data indicate that the measurement of the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) requires a higher sensitivity and wider dynamic range than most of the current methods can offer. Our goal was to develop a totally automated and highly sensitive CRP assay with an extended range on the Dimension® clinical chemistry system based on particle-enhanced turbidimetric-immunoassay (PETIA) technology. The improved method was optimized and compared to the Binding Site's radial immunodiffusion assay using disease state specimens to minimize interference. Assay performance was assessed on the Dimension® system in a 12-instrument inter-laboratory comparison study. A split-sample comparison (n = 622) was performed between the improved CRP method on the Dimension® system and the N Latex CRP mono method on the Behring Nephelometer, using a number of reagent and calibrator lots on multiple instruments. The method was also referenced to the standard material, CRM470, provided by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). The improved CRP method was linear to 265.1mg/l with a detection limit between 0.2 and 0.5mg/l. The method detects antigen excess from the upper assay limit to 2000mg/l, thereby allowing users to retest the sample with dilution. Calibration was stable for 60 days. The within-run reproducibility (CV) was less than 5.1% and total reproducibility ranged from 1.1 to 6.7% between 3.3 and 265.4mg/l CRP. Linear regression analysis of the results on the improved Dimension® method (DM) versus the Behring Nephelometer (BN) yielded the following equation: DM = 0.99 × BN ? 0.37; r = 0.992. Minimal interference was observed from sera of patients with elevated IgM, IgG and IgA. The recovery of the IFCC standard was within 100 ± 7 % across multiple lots of reagent and calibrator. The improved CRP method provided a sensitive, accurate and rapid approach to quantify CRP in serum and plasma on the Dimension® clinical chemistry system. The ability to detect antigen excess eliminated reporting falsely low results caused by the ‘prozone effect’. PMID:18924698

Wei, Tie Q.; Kramer, Steve; Chu, Victor P.; Hudson, Dave; Kilgore, Daniel; Salyer, Sue; Parker, Grace; Eyberger, Amy; Arentzen, Rene; Koiv, Heikki

2000-01-01

93

Protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis: Medicinal chemistry/clinical perspectives  

PubMed Central

Medicinal chemistry strategies have contributed to the development, experimental study of and clinical trials assessment of the first type of protein kinase small molecule inhibitor to target the Janus kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. The orally administered small molecule inhibitor, tofacitinib, is the first drug to target the JAK/STAT pathway for entry into the armamentarium of the medical therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of tofacitinib into general rheumatologic practice coupled with increasing understanding that additional cellular signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways as well as spleen tyrosine kinase also contribute to immune-mediated inflammatory in rheumatoid arthritis makes it likely that further development of orally administered protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis will occur in the near future. PMID:25232525

Malemud, Charles J; Blumenthal, David E

2014-01-01

94

Comparison of automated haematology analysers for detection of apoptotic lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Automated haematology analysers can rapidly provide accurate blood cell counts and white blood cell differentials. In this study, we evaluated four different haematology analysers for the detection of apoptotic lymphocytes in peripheral blood: MAXM A/L Retic, H*2, Cell-Dyn 3500 and NE-8000. With the MAXM A/L Retic haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared below the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF1, and to the right under the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF2 scattergrams. With the H*2 haematology analyser, the apoptotic polymorphonuclear lymphocytes produced a higher lobularity index on the BASO channel. With the Cell-Dyn 3500 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared to the right side of the original lymphocyte cluster on the 0D/10D scattergram and to the left side of the polymorphonuclear cluster on the 90D/10D scattergram. With the NE-8000 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster was not distinguishable. Thus, apoptotic lymphocytes are readily detected on scattergrams generated by selected haematology analysers. PMID:12067276

Taga, K; Sawaya, M; Yoshida, M; Kaneko, M; Okada, M; Taniho, M

2002-06-01

95

Age-related haematological changes and haemopathological responses in Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chiliensis).  

PubMed

Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 49 clinically normal Chilean flamingos of different ages. Compared with adults, chicks aged 2-3 months showed low haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations. There was a rise in haemoglobin level and red cell count with increasing age but the mean cell haemoglobin concentration did not reach optimum until the birds were mature. In chicks the total white cell count was high and the number of heterophils was widely variable. Findings on four sick adult birds provided preliminary evidence that clinical haematology has a potential diagnostic value in this species. PMID:18766839

Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

1984-04-01

96

Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages  

PubMed Central

The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

Hrab?áková, Petra; Voslá?ová, Eva; Bedá?ová, Iveta; Pišt?ková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimír

2014-01-01

97

Malaria and haematologic parameters of pupils at different altitudes along the slope of Mount Cameroon: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Haematologic abnormalities are features in Plasmodium falciparum infection, and anaemia is an inevitable outcome. This study examines the influence of malaria status and altitude on haematologic parameters in school-aged pupils. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 728 school pupils aged between four and 15 years at three different altitudinal ranges along the slope of the Mount Cameroon region. The investigative methods included the use of questionnaire, clinical evaluation and laboratory investigations. Blood sample collected from each child was used for the preparation of blood films for detection of malaria parasites and assessment of malaria parasite density as well as full blood count determination using an automated haematology analyzer. Results The prevalence of malaria in the study population was 33.8% and 64.2% (158/246) of these were asymptomatic (AM). Pupils in lowlands had a significantly (P <0.05) prevalence (95% confidence interval, CI) of malaria (60.6%, CI?=?54.6–65.9%) than those in middle belt (29.1%, CI?=?23.9–34.8%) and highlands (7.7%, CI?=?6.1–9.8%), while those in middle belt had significantly higher geometric mean parasite density (475) than those in lowlands (233) and highlands (388). The prevalence of malaria was significantly higher in children that presented with fever (40.4%, CI?=?33.8–47.2%) when compared with afebrile subjects (31%, CI?=?27–35.2%). Pupils with AM had a higher prevalence of leucopaenia (43.7%, CI?=?35.8–51.8%), microcytosis (27.2%, CI?=?20.5–34.9%), hypochromasia (27.8%, CI?=?21–35.5%) and thrombocytopaenia (14.9%, CI?=?8.9–22.8%) when compared with those with clinical malaria (CM). All mean haematological parameters were comparable in pupils with CM and AM, except for the mean white blood cell (WBC) counts. Pupils with AM had significantly lower (P?=?0.02) mean WBC counts (5.1?±?2.5?×?109/L) than those with CM (5.9?±?2.3?×?109/L). Age, altitude and malaria parasitaemia was of significant influence on several haematological parameters. Conclusion Altitude influenced the distribution and density of malaria parasites and was of confounding influence on the haematologic profiles. These results highlight the insidious effects of AM on the haematologic components. PMID:23758846

2013-01-01

98

Guidelines for point-of-care testing: haematology.  

PubMed

This guideline provides a framework for the arrangement of point-of-care testing (POCT) services, previously known as near patient testing (patient self-testing not covered). POCT is defined as any analytical test performed outside the laboratory. Primary users are often non-laboratory healthcare workers. The guidance applies to units within hospitals as well as general practioner surgeries, community clinics and pharmacies. The head of the haematology laboratory or a point of care coordinator must take responsibility for all aspects of the POCT service, including quality and training. Depending on the size and nature of the POCT practice, a local POCT manager may also be required. Equipment selected should have received a successful independent performance evaluation. If an independent evaluation has not been performed the purchaser should assess the device according to the protocol in this document. POCT devices should generate results that are comparable to those of the local laboratory. An accredited external quality assessment programme and internal quality control system must be established. Manufacturers promoting POCT devices designed for non-laboratory sites, e.g. pharmacies, should undertake training and annual competency assessment, perhaps using a web-based system. A diagram to illustrate the stages for the implementation of a POCT service is illustrated. PMID:18671699

Briggs, Carol; Guthrie, David; Hyde, Keith; Mackie, Ian; Parker, Norman; Popek, Mary; Porter, Neil; Stephens, Clare

2008-09-01

99

Chemokine Receptor CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc: Medicinal Chemistry and Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immumodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the worst global pandemic. The virus infects human CD4 T cells and macrophages, and causes CD4 depletion. HIV enters target cells through the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein to CD4 and the chemokine coreceptor, CXCR4 or CCR5. In particular, the CCR5-utilizing viruses predominate in the blood during the disease course. CCR5 is expressed on the surface of various immune cells including macrophages, monocytes, microglia, dendric cells, and active memory CD4 T cells. In the human population, the CCR5 genomic mutation, CCR5?32, is associated with relative resistance to HIV. These findings paved the way for the discovery and development of CCR5 inhibitors to block HIV transmission and replication. Maraviroc, discovered as a CCR5 antagonist, is the only CCR5 inhibitor that has been approved by both US FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for treating HIV/AIDS patients. In this review, we summarize the medicinal chemistry and clinical studies of Maraviroc. PMID:25159165

Xu, Guoyan G.; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao

2015-01-01

100

Effect of repeated freezing and thawing on 18 clinical chemistry analytes in rat serum.  

PubMed

In a preclinical research laboratory, using serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly is sometimes unavoidable when needing to confirm previous results or perform additional analysis. Here we determined the effects of multiple cycles of refrigeration or freezing and thawing of rat serum at 3 temperature conditions for different storage times on clinical chemistry analytes. Serum samples obtained from adult Wistar rats were stored at 2 to 8 °C and -10 to -20 °C for as long as 72 h and at -70 °C for as long as 30 d. At different time points (24, 48, and 72 h for samples stored at 2 to 8 °C or -10 to -20 °C and 1, 7, and 30 d for samples stored at -70 °C), the samples were brought to room temperature, analyzed, and then stored again at the designated temperature. The results obtained after each storage cycle were compared with those obtained from the initial analysis of fresh samples. Of the 18 serum analytes evaluated, 14 were stable without significant changes, even after 3 freeze-thaw cycles at the tested temperature ranges. Results from this study will help researchers working with rat serum to interpret the biochemical data obtained from serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly. PMID:23043814

Kale, Vijay P; Patel, Sweta G; Gunjal, Prashant S; Wakchaure, Santosh U; Sundar, Rajesh S; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Jain, Mukul R

2012-07-01

101

Influence of trypanocidal therapy on the haematology of vervet monkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterise the sequential haematological changes in vervet monkeys infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and subsequently treated with sub-curative diminazene aceturate (DA) and curative melarsoprol (MelB) trypanocidal drugs. Fourteen vervet monkeys, on a serial timed-kill pathogenesis study, were infected intravenously with 10(4) trypanosomes of a stabilate T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537. They were treated with DA at 28 days post infection (dpi) and with MelB following relapse of infection at 140 dpi. Blood samples were obtained from the monkeys weekly, and haematology conducted using a haematological analyser. All the monkeys developed a disease associated with macrocytic hypochromic anaemia characterised by a reduction in erythrocytes (RBC), haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), platelet count (PLT), and an increase in the red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV). The clinical disease was characteristic of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) with a pre-patent period of 3 days. Treatment with DA cleared trypanosomes from both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The parasites relapsed first in the CSF and later in the blood. This treatment normalised the RBC, HCT, HB, PLT, MCV, and MPV achieving the pre-infection values within two weeks while RDW took up to 6 weeks to attain pre-infection levels after treatment. Most of the parameters were later characterised by fluctuations, and declined at one to two weeks before relapse of trypanosomes in the haemolymphatic circulation. Following MelB treatment at 140 dpi, most values recovered within two weeks and stabilised at pre-infection levels, during the 223 days post treatment monitoring period. It is concluded that DA and MelB treatments cause similar normalising changes in the haematological profiles of monkeys infected with T. b. rhodesiense, indicating the efficacy of the drugs. The infection related changes in haematology parameters, further characterise the vervet monkey as an optimal induced animal model of HAT. Serial monitoring of these parameters can be used as an adjunct in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease outcome in the vervet monkey model. PMID:21420376

Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, John M; Kariuki, Christopher; Maina, Naomi; Thuita, John K; Mwangangi, David M; Farah, Idle O; Hau, Jann

2011-07-01

102

Acid–base chemistry of plasma: consolidation of the traditional and modern approaches from a mathematical and clinical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Debate still exists as to whether the Stewart (modern) or traditional model of acid–base chemistry is best in assessing the\\u000a acid–base status of critically ill patients. Recent studies have compared various parameters from the modern and traditional\\u000a approaches, assessing the clinical usefulness of parameters such as base excess, anion gap, corrected anion gap, strong ion\\u000a difference and strong ion gap.

S. Matousek; J. Handy; S. E. Rees

2011-01-01

103

The role of primary antifungal prophylaxis in patients with haematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent important complications in patients with haematological malignancies. Chemoprevention of IFIs may play an important role in this setting, but in the past decades the majority of antifungal drugs utilized demonstrated poor efficacy, particularly in the prevention of invasive aspergillosis. The new triazoles are very useful antifungal drugs, more suitable for prophylaxis of IFIs than amphotericin B and echinocandins. In this review, the main clinical data about antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole are analysed. At present, posaconazole appears to be the most efficacious azole in antifungal prophylaxis, particularly in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. PMID:24372659

Pagano, L; Caira, M

2014-06-01

104

Effects of different centrifugation conditions on clinical chemistry and Immunology test results  

PubMed Central

Background The effect of centrifugation time of heparinized blood samples on clinical chemistry and immunology results has rarely been studied. WHO guideline proposed a 15 min centrifugation time without citing any scientific publications. The centrifugation time has a considerable impact on the turn-around-time. Methods We investigated 74 parameters in samples from 44 patients on a Roche Cobas 6000 system, to see whether there was a statistical significant difference in the test results among specimens centrifuged at 2180 g for 15 min, at 2180 g for 10 min or at 1870 g for 7 min, respectively. Two tubes with different plasma separators (both Greiner Bio-One) were used for each centrifugation condition. Statistical comparisons were made by Deming fit. Results Tubes with different separators showed identical results in all parameters. Likewise, excellent correlations were found among tubes to which different centrifugation conditions were applied. Fifty percent of the slopes lay between 0.99 and 1.01. Only 3.6 percent of the statistical tests results fell outside the significance level of p < 0.05, which was less than the expected 5%. This suggests that the outliers are the result of random variation and the large number of statistical tests performed. Further, we found that our data are sufficient not to miss a biased test (beta error) with a probability of 0.10 to 0.05 in most parameters. Conclusion A centrifugation time of either 7 or 10 min provided identical test results compared to the time of 15 min as proposed by WHO under the conditions used in our study. PMID:21569233

2011-01-01

105

Haematological Reference Intervals in a Multiethnic Population  

PubMed Central

Introduction Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC) intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals. Methods Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup. Results Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men) were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800. Conclusion Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs. PMID:24642526

Ambayya, Angeli; Su, Anselm Ting; Osman, Nadila Haryani; Nik-Samsudin, Nik Rosnita; Khalid, Khadijah; Chang, Kian Meng; Sathar, Jameela; Rajasuriar, Jay Suriar; Yegappan, Subramanian

2014-01-01

106

Types and Frequency of Preanalytical Errors in Haematology Lab  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of the preanalytical errors occurring in a haematology laboratory. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted by collecting and analyzing data in duration of one year in the haematology section of the laboratory. Data for all the preanalytical variables according to the predefined categories were scanned. Both IPD and OPD patients were segregated. Result: A total of 135808 samples were received in haematology lab during this period, out of which in 1339 samples, preanalytical errors were found, which approximately constituted 1 % of all samples. Conclusion: Highest number of samples were rejected due to misidentification, that is 0.35 % and least number were rejected due to dilution of the samples, that is 0.04 %. PMID:24392380

Upreti, Shashi; Upreti, Sanjay; Bansal, Rani; Jeelani, Nadia; Bharat, Vinay

2013-01-01

107

Systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal haematological non-mast cell lineage diseases: a histopathological challenge  

PubMed Central

Aims: Although systemic mastocytosis (SM) with an associated clonal haematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD) is a major subtype of SM, little is known about its frequency among myelogenous neoplasms, and mastocytosis in particular, or about AHNMD subtype frequencies. Methods: Approximately 19 500 routine bone marrow biopsies were evaluated. Immunostaining with antibodies against tryptase, KIT, and CD25 and molecular analysis for detection of C-KIT point mutations were performed in approximately 550/4100 myelogenous malignancies including mastocytosis, almost all subtypes of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndrome (MDS/MPD), MPD, and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Results: SM was rare—it was diagnosed in only 64 bone marrows (0.3%) and made up 1.5% of myelogenous tumours. SM-AHNMD was the second most frequent subtype (20). SM-AHNMD was never included in the clinical differential diagnoses and was confirmed histologically in most cases only after appropriate immunostaining. The abnormal mast cell phenotype was confirmed by immunohistochemical demonstration of tryptase and CD25 coexpression. The following associated haematological neoplasms were found: MDS/MPS, AML, MPS, MDS, plasma cell myeloma, and unclassifiable myelogenous malignancy. C-KIT point mutations were detected in 16 of 20 cases. Conclusions: SM-AHNMD can be diagnosed histologically in bone marrow trephines only after immunostaining with antibodies against tryptase, KIT, and CD25. Eighteen of 20 AHNMDs were of myeloid origin. C-KIT point mutations were present in 16 of 20 cases. The prognostic relevance of detecting SM associated with another haematological neoplasm remains unclear, but mast cell resistance to most cytoreductive agents is of major importance for treatment planning. PMID:15166264

Horny, H-P; Sotlar, K; Sperr, W R; Valent, P

2004-01-01

108

Learning Nuclear Chemistry through Practice: A High School Student Project Using PET in a Clinical Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT…

Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm

2013-01-01

109

Tales from the Jazz ASH: highlights from the 2013 American Society of Haematology meeting.  

PubMed

The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A 'bench-to-bedside and back' attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345

Mazzarella, Luca

2014-01-01

110

Tales from the Jazz ASH: highlights from the 2013 American Society of Haematology meeting  

PubMed Central

The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A ‘bench-to-bedside and back’ attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345

Mazzarella, Luca

2014-01-01

111

Short-term effect of levetiracetam monotherapy on haematological parameters in children with epilepsy: a prospective study.  

PubMed

Studies evaluating the effect of levetiracetam (LEV) on haematological parameters in patients with epilepsy are very limited. Clinical trials have also reported an unexplained increased incidence of pharyngitis and rhinitis in LEV-treated patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate prospectively the changes in haematological parameters in children treated with LEV monotherapy. White blood cell, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and platelets were measured in 22 children (13 females, mean age 6.70±4.23 years) with epilepsy, before and after 2 and 6 months of LEV monotherapy. Lymphocyte count was significantly decreased at 6 months (p=0.019) of treatment and this effect was not dose dependent. One child (4.5%) at 2 months and four children (18%) at 6 months of treatment had lymphocyte count below 10th percentile for age. There were no significant alterations in the other parameters evaluated during the study. LEV monotherapy may significantly decrease lymphocyte count at six months of treatment in children with epilepsy. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate the effect of LEV on haematological parameters and the possible association with the higher incidence of infections reported in children receiving LEV. PMID:24630047

Dinopoulos, Argiris; Attilakos, Achilleas; Paschalidou, Maria; Tsirouda, Maria; Garoufi, Anastasia; Moustaki, Maria; Siafakas, Nikos; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki

2014-05-01

112

Health assessment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: Effect of haematophagous parasites on haematological parameters.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the health status of free-ranging populations is important for understanding the impact of disease on individuals and on population demography and viability. In this study, haematological reference intervals were developed for free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups within the context of endemic hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection and the effects of pathogen, host, and environment factors on the variability of haematological parameters were investigated. Uncinaria sanguinis was identified as an important agent of disease, with infection causing regenerative anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, and a predominantly lymphocytic-eosinophilic systemic inflammatory response. Conversely, the effects of sucking lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) were less apparent and infestation in pups appears unlikely to cause clinical impact. Overall, the effects of U. sanguinis, A. microchir, host factors (standard length, body condition, pup sex, moult status, and presence of lesions), and environment factors (capture-type and year of sampling) accounted for 26-65% of the total variance observed in haematological parameters. Importantly, this study demonstrated that anaemia in neonatal Australian sea lion pups is not solely a benign physiological response to host-environment changes, but largely reflects a significant pathological process. This impact of hookworm infection on pup health has potential implications for the development of foraging and diving behaviour, which would subsequently influence the independent survival of juveniles following weaning. The haematological reference intervals developed in this study can facilitate long-term health surveillance, which is critical for the early recognition of changes in disease impact and to inform conservation management. PMID:25724096

Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

2015-06-01

113

Haematological malignancies: at the forefront of immunotherapeutic innovation.  

PubMed

The recent successes of cancer immunotherapies have stimulated interest in the potential widespread application of these approaches; haematological malignancies have provided both initial proofs of concept and an informative testing ground for various immune-based therapeutics. The immune-cell origin of many of the blood malignancies provides a unique opportunity both to understand the mechanisms of cancer immune responsiveness and immune evasion, and to exploit these mechanisms for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25786696

Bachireddy, Pavan; Burkhardt, Ute E; Rajasagi, Mohini; Wu, Catherine J

2015-04-01

114

Radix Puerariae: an overview of its chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use.  

PubMed

Radix Puerariae has been traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea, acute dysentery, deafness and cardiovascular diseases. Yege (Gegen or Radix Puerariae lobatae), the dried root of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi, has been widely used in China and, to a lesser extent, in Japan, Korea, and the United States. Although they have been classified into different categories in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Yege is often used interchangeably in practice with Fenge (Radix Puerariae thomsonii), which is the dried root of Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Among various commercially available products of Radix Puerariae, injection of puerarin, the major isoflavone from Radix Puerariae, has been most widely used as a vasodilator for the treatment of angina and myocardial infarction. Considering the extensive clinical usage and recent alert of fatal herb-drug interaction of Radix Puerariae, the current review is proposed to cover its traditional applications, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and potential herb-drug interactions aiming to fill in the information gaps of this herb for frontline practitioners. Although various small, poorly designed clinical trials have demonstrated the safety, efficacy, and significant clinical benefits of Radix Puerariae, prospective randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to further establish its effective and safe use. PMID:23677886

Zhang, Zhen; Lam, Tai-Ning; Zuo, Zhong

2013-08-01

115

Chemistry and clinical uses of the protein components involved in blood clotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent advances in the chemistry of the clotting process include:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1) \\u000a \\u000a The preparation of highly purified prothrombin and thrombin from beef blood by Seegers and his associates.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2) \\u000a \\u000a The preparation of highly purified thromboplastic lipoprotein from beef lung by Chargaff.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3) \\u000a \\u000a The preparation of purified fibrinogen by Ware and Seegers, and by Morrison, Edsall and Miller.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4) \\u000a \\u000a The recognition of

John T. Edsall

116

The possible haematological effects of glycol monomethyl ether in a frame factory.  

PubMed

Haemopoietic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) are described in three young women employed in a frame factory where the substance was applied under apparently safe hygienic conditions. In a ventilated room they used a mixture of acetone (70%) and EGME (30%) to glue together cellulose acetate frame components. During a periodic medical examination their white blood cell count was found to be abnormally low, with a relative lymphocytosis, macrocytosis with red blood cells, and haemoglobin at borderline normal values. These findings persisted over the exposure period but the haematological parameters returned to normal on stopping exposure. The subjects remained clinically healthy during the exposure period. This exposure to EGME occurred in an industry where such toxicity had not been previously reported and describes a situation in which the risk did not come from the exposure to vapour but most likely from an insufficient skin protection. PMID:1536820

Larese, F; Fiorito, A; De Zotti, R

1992-02-01

117

Effects of Aflatoxin on Some Haematological Parameters and Protective Effectiveness of Esterified Glucomannan in Merino Rams  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin on some hematological parameters and to determine the preventive effectiveness of added glucomannan. In the study, 32 Merino rams were used, and the rams were separated equally to four groups as control (C), glucomannan (G), glucomannan?+?aflatoxin (AG), and aflatoxin (A). Erythrocyte, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were decreased in A group compared with the other groups, and there was a reduction in similar parameters in AG group compared to control values. On the other hand, these parameters were tended to increase in AG group compared to A group values. Aflatoxicosis caused the lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia but increased percentage of neutrophil counts. In conclusion, the results determined in the study might be important to demonstrate the effects of aflatoxicosis and glucomannan on some haematological parameters before the clinical symptoms appear. PMID:22629132

Dönmez, Nurcan; Dönmez, H. H.; Keskin, E.; K?sadere, ?.

2012-01-01

118

50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology.  

PubMed

The 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society for Haematology was notable, not only for its golden anniversary, but also because it coincided with the eruption of the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, and the ensuing travel chaos. In total, 28 speakers from overseas were unable to reach Edinburgh, including a significant number of British speakers who were stranded. However, owing to the superb efforts of the conference organisers and Edinburgh International Conference Centre staff, teleconferencing equipment was installed and all speakers were contacted and able to give their talks on time. The program, consisting of simultaneous sessions and plenary lectures, covered not only recent advances in clinical and laboratory hematology, but also reflected on the contribution of British hematology to the international arena over the past 50 years. PMID:21083029

Thomas, Angela E

2010-08-01

119

221st ACS. Division of Medicinal Chemistry - first-time disclosure of clinical candidates.  

PubMed

The 221st ACS meeting in San Diego, USA, saw a symposium entitled 'First-time disclosure of clinical candidates', the inaugural presentation of this symposium in the society's 125-year history. Dr Balu N Balasubramanian (Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, USA), Chair of this well-attended symposium of five papers, remarked that he hoped that this symposium will become a regular event at ACS conferences. PMID:16001297

Cox, R

2001-06-01

120

Progress in the Discovery of Treatments for C. difficile Infection: A Clinical and Medicinal Chemistry Review  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes C. difficile infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in developed countries has become increasingly high due to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, a growing elderly population, extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and limited therapies for this diarrheal disease. Because treatment options currently available for C. difficile infection have some drawbacks, including cost, promotion of resistance, and selectivity problems, new agents are urgently needed to address these challenges. This review article focuses on two parts: the first part summarizes current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection; the second part reviews newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years and are in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Antibiotics are divided into natural product inspired and synthetic small molecule compounds that may have the potential to be more efficacious than currently approved treatments. This includes potency, selectivity, reduced cytotoxicity, and novel modes of action to prevent resistance. PMID:24236721

Tsutsumi, Lissa S.; Owusu, Yaw B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Sun, Dianqing

2014-01-01

121

The clinical chemistry and immunology of long-duration space missions.  

PubMed

Clinical laboratory diagnostic capabilities are needed to guide health and medical care of astronauts during long-duration space missions. Clinical laboratory diagnostics, as defined for medical care on Earth, offers a model for space capabilities. Interpretation of laboratory results for health and medical care of humans in space requires knowledge of specific physiological adaptations that occur, primarily because of the absence of gravity, and how these adaptations affect reference values. Limited data from American and Russian missions have indicated shifts of intra- and extracellular fluids and electrolytes, changes in hormone concentrations related to fluid shifts and stresses of the missions, reductions in bone and muscle mass, and a blunting of the cellular immune response. These changes could increase susceptibility to space-related illness or injury during a mission and after return to Earth. We review physiological adaptations and the risk of medical problems that occur during space missions. We describe the need for laboratory diagnostics as a part of health and medical care in space, and how this capability might be delivered. PMID:8419055

Wu, A H; Taylor, G R; Graham, G A; McKinley, B A

1993-01-01

122

Pediatric lupus: varied haematological picture and presentation.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem, autoimmune disease characterized by periods of increased disease activity caused by inflammation of blood vessels and connective tissue. Pediatric patients with SLE have a more severe clinical course when compared with adults. Patients commonly present with rash, fever, and arthritis, although the presentation may be unpredictable. Hematological findings are more predominant in children than adults. Thirty-nine percent of children with SLE will develop hematological abnormalities, one of the American Rheumatic Association criteria for classifying the disease. In our case series we found varied hematological picture and presentation. We present here four case reports of SLE cases with interesting hematological features. Our first case is a 13 month old female child who was initially diagnosed as Evans syndrome and 2 years later diagnosed as SLE. Second case is a 3 year old male child who had SLE with warm antibody AIHA. Third case is a 6 year old female child who presented with AIHA and was diagnosed with SLE 6 years later. Fourth case is a 6 year old female child diagnosed as SLE with aplastic anemia. Hematological findings should be carefully assessed and treated in order to decrease disease related morbidity. PMID:25548448

Thakur, Neha; Chandra, Jagdish; Dhingra, Bhavna; Singh, V

2015-03-01

123

Haematological profile in leprosy. Part I--general findings.  

PubMed

Haematological studies in 904 adult leprosy patients with different types of leprosy, in various stages of the disease and treatment are described. Haemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum albumin and serum iron are significantly lower among lepromatous leprosy patients as compared with non-lepromatous patients. The serum B12 levels were significantly higher among the lepromatous group. Acid fast bacilli have been demonstrated in skin smear negative leprosy patients with indeterminate and tuberculoid leprosy, suggesting occurrence of bacillaemia in these groups of patients. PMID:909286

Karat, A B; Rao, P S

1977-04-01

124

Antifungal prophylaxis in the haematological patient: a practical approach.  

PubMed

Antifungal prophylaxis in the haematological patient is currently regarded as the gold standard in situations with a high risk of infection, such as acute leukaemias, myelodysplastic syndromes and autologous or allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Over the years, different scientific societies have established a series of recommendations on antifungal prophylaxis based on prospective studies performed with different drugs. However, the prescription of each one of the agents must be personalised, adapted to the characteristics of each patient and to possible interactions with concomitant medication. PMID:23303265

Vázquez, Lourdes; Carreras, Enric; Serrano, David; Jarque, Isidro; Mensa, José; Barberán, José

2012-12-01

125

Treatment of invasive fungal infections in high-risk haematological patients: what have we learnt in the past 10 years?  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infection (IFI) caused by filamentous fungi remains a very severe infectious complication in patients with onco-haematological diseases. Last advances in the diagnostic and therapeutic fields, today we know that their contributions are limited. Something similar can be said of clinical trials especially in relation to some changes in the characteristics of the host. The development of promising diagnostic techniques and the relative expansion in the number of antifungal agents has been associated with diversification of therapeutic strategies (prophylaxis with extended-spectrum azoles and preemptive antifungal treatment). However, the low sensitivity of AGA testing in some circumstances, and the potential delay in starting treatment due to logistic reasons, has been reflected by a greater mortality in certain type of patients and a significant increase in the days of treatment. All these circumstances has once again focus attention to the empirical approach as a central strategy in high-risk patients. The objective of this article is to review the clinical experience in the treatment of IFI in onco-haematological patients according to data published in the literature in the last decade and to present a set of recommendations. PMID:24399355

Vallejo, Carlos; Vázquez, Lourdes; Cabrera Martín, José Rafael; Carreras, Enric; García Rodríguez, Julio; Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Fortún, Jesús; Mensa, Josep; Barberán, José

2013-12-01

126

Evaluation of Analytical Errors in a Clinical Chemistry Laboratory: A 3 Year Experience  

PubMed Central

Background: Proficient laboratory service is the cornerstone of modern healthcare systems and has an impact on over 70% of medical decisions on admission, discharge, and medications. In recent years, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of errors in laboratory practice and their possible negative impact on patient outcomes. Aim: We retrospectively analyzed data spanning a period of 3 years on analytical errors observed in our laboratory. The data covered errors over the whole testing cycle including pre-, intra-, and post-analytical phases and discussed strategies pertinent to our settings to minimize their occurrence. Materials and Methods: We described the occurrence of pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors observed at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital clinical biochemistry laboratory during a 3-year period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. Data were analyzed with Graph Pad Prism 5(GraphPad Software Inc. CA USA). Results: A total of 589,510 tests was performed on 188,503 outpatients and hospitalized patients. The overall error rate for the 3 years was 4.7% (27,520/58,950). Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors contributed 3.7% (2210/58,950), 0.1% (108/58,950), and 0.9% (512/58,950), respectively. The number of tests reduced significantly over the 3-year period, but this did not correspond with a reduction in the overall error rate (P = 0.90) along with the years. Conclusion: Analytical errors are embedded within our total process setup especially pre-analytical and post-analytical phases. Strategic measures including quality assessment programs for staff involved in pre-analytical processes should be intensified. PMID:25745569

Sakyi, AS; Laing, EF; Ephraim, RK; Asibey, OF; Sadique, OK

2015-01-01

127

Performance and haematological indices in rats exposed to monocrotophos contamination.  

PubMed

Monocrotophos is an organophosphate pesticide used in agriculture to control insect pests. Changes in performance and haematological parameters (such as packed cell volume, white blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes) were used to assess the effect of the pesticide on rats chronically exposed to 12.5 parts per million (ppm), 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm for 10 days, while the control rats were placed on borehole water. Administration of the pesticide to the animals resulted in several physical deteriorations including appearance and agility. A significant reduction (p < .05) was observed in the weight gained by rats while the liver-to-body weight ratio increased significantly (p < .05) as the level of exposure to monocrotophos increased. Whereas packed cell volume, white blood cells and lymphocytes increased significantly (p < .05), neutrophils and eosinophils counts reduced significantly (p < .05) as the concentration of monocrotophos in the drinking water increased. Overall, the data indicated that exposure to monocrotophos portends serious consequences on the performance and haematological parameters of rats. PMID:20194576

Sunmonu, T O; Oloyede, O B

2010-10-01

128

Long Non-Coding RNAs in Haematological Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies. PMID:23887658

Garitano-Trojaola, Andoni; Agirre, Xabier; Prósper, Felipe; Fortes, Puri

2013-01-01

129

147Chemistry Chemistry (Chem)  

E-print Network

147Chemistry Chemistry (Chem) Bayly Foundation PROFESSORS FRANCE, PLEVA ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS ALty A student may complete only one of the majors listed in the Department of Chemistry. The major in chemistry leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of 44 credits as follows: 1. Chemistry 111, 112

Dresden, Gregory

130

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinical chemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...

131

Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer® RST blood collection tube for routine chemistry analytes: clinical significance of differences and stability study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Preanalytical variables account for most of laboratory errors. There is a wide range of factors that affect the reliability of laboratory report. Most convenient sample type for routine laboratory analysis is serum. BD Vacutainer® Rapid Serum Tube (RST) (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) blood collection tube provides rapid clotting time allowing fast serum separation. Our aim was to evaluate the comparability of routine chemistry parameters in BD Vacutainer® RST blood collection tube in reference with the BD Vacutainer® Serum Separating Tubes II Advance Tube (SST) (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). Materials and methods: Blood specimens were collected from 90 participants for evaluation on its results, clotting time and stability study of six routine biochemistry parameters: glucose (Glu), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), calcium (Ca), lactate dehidrogenase (LD) and potassium (K) measured with Olympus AU2700 analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Tokyo, Japan). The significance of the differences between samples was assessed by paired t-test or Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Rank test after checking for normality. Results: Clotting process was significantly shorter in the RSTs compared to SSTs (2.49 min vs. 19.47 min, respectively; P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between the RST and SST II tubes for glucose, calcium and LD (P < 0.001). Differences for glucose and LD were also clinically significant. Analyte stability studies showed that all analytes were stable for 24 h at 4 °C. Conclusions: Most results (except LD and glucose) from RST are comparable with those from SST. In addition, RST tube provides shorter clotting time. PMID:25351355

Kocijancic, Marija; Cargonja, Jelena; Delic-Knezevic, Alma

2014-01-01

132

Application of sigma metrics for the assessment of quality control in clinical chemistry laboratory in Ghana: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background: Sigma metrics provide a uniquely defined scale with which we can assess the performance of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the internal quality control (QC) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Cape Cost Hospital (UCC) using the six sigma metrics application. Materials and Methods: We used commercial control serum [normal (L1) and pathological (L2)] for validation of quality control. Metabolites (glucose, urea, and creatinine), lipids [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (AST)], electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and total protein were assessed. Between-day imprecision (CVs), inaccuracy (Bias) and sigma values were calculated for each control level. Results: Apart from sodium (2.40%, 3.83%), chloride (2.52% and 2.51%) for both L1 and L2 respectively, and glucose (4.82%), cholesterol (4.86%) for L2, CVs for all other parameters (both L1 and L2) were >5%. Four parameters (HDL-C, urea, creatinine and potassium) achieved sigma levels >1 for both controls. Chloride and sodium achieved sigma levels >1 for L1 but <1 for L2. In contrast, cholesterol, total protein and AST achieved sigma levels <1 for L1 but >1 for L2. Glucose and ALP achieved a sigma level >1 for both control levels whereas TG achieved a sigma level >2 for both control levels. Conclusion: Unsatisfactory sigma levels (<3) where achieved for all parameters using both control levels, this shows instability and low consistency of results. There is the need for detailed assessment of the analytical procedures and the strengthening of the laboratory control systems in order to achieve effective six sigma levels for the laboratory. PMID:25657495

Afrifa, Justice; Gyekye, Seth A.; Owiredu, William K. B. A.; Ephraim, Richard K. D.; Essien-Baidoo, Samuel; Amoah, Samuel; Simpong, David L.; Arthur, Aaron R.

2015-01-01

133

Brand of dipotassium EDTA vacuum tube as a new source of pre-analytical variability in routine haematology testing.  

PubMed

This study assesses the use of different dry K2 (dipotassium) EDTA vacuum tubes and whether or not they might represent a bias in haematological testing. Blood was collected in three dipotassium EDTA vacuum tubes from different manufacturers: Venosafe, Vacuette and Vacutainer. Samples were analysed on an Advia 2120i analyser. Significant differences among results and biases were compared with current quality specifications. Significant differences were found for haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet distribution width (PDW) when comparing Venosafe vs. Vacuette; for MCV, WBC and PDW when comparing Venosafe vs. Vacutainer; and for HCT and MCV when comparing Vacuette vs. Vacutainer. Clinically significant variations were observed for HCT and PDW in Venosafe vs. Vacuette; PDW in Venosafe vs. Vacutainer; and HCT and MCV in Vacuette vs. Vacutainer. The use of dipotassium EDTA vacuum tubes from different manufacturers represent a clinically relevant source of variation for HCT, MCV and PDW. PMID:23617091

Lima-Oliveira, G; Lippi, G; Salvagno, G L; Montagnana, M; Poli, G; Solero, G P; Picheth, G; Guidi, G C

2013-01-01

134

Comparison of performance of classical clinical chemistry analysers with test-strip devices (Reflotron) and those based on film technology (Vitros) in external quality assessment (EQA) surveys.  

PubMed

This article reports on the performance of two "dry" chemistry devices, (Reflotron, Roche Diagnostics and Vitros, Johnson & Johnson) and compared them with classical "wet" chemistry analysers in four commercially produced quality assessment samples (Roche PNU and PPU and Seronorm Human and Human High Controls) sent repeatedly over a 12-month observation period. Eleven analytes (including five enzymes) were studied, eight of which had target values set by reference method procedures. The results showed that both devices gave comparative results for the same sample sent in different EQA-surveys. Statistically significant differences which occurred were due to the high precision of measurement with a minimal shift in the measured concentrations. They had no clinical relevance in interpretation of results. Comparisons between "dry" and "wet" chemistry results for the same analyte were almost always statistically significantly different and often large enough to influence the clinical interpretation of results. Examples here were glucose and uric acid measured with the Reflotron and compared with other Roche devices (Cobas, Hitachi). The Vitros showed deviant values for urea and creatinine, when compared with other measuring devices using liquid reagents. Differences seen were constant over time, but must be seen in context with the matrices of the samples sent. The results show the long term stability of both reagents and test kits, a necessary prerequisite for long-term controlling of precision and indirectly accuracy of patient measurements. PMID:19097494

Wood, William Graham

2008-01-01

135

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry UCLA Chemistry, Biochemistry & Chemistry Material Science  

E-print Network

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry UCLA Chemistry, Biochemistry & Chemistry Material Science ...........................................................................................................................................4 Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Office..............................................................................................6 Majors in Chemistry & Biochemistry

Levine, Alex J.

136

Acute oral candidiasis during febrile episodes in immunocompromised patients with haematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

To estimate clinical, pathogenic and serological aspects of acute oral candidiasis (AOC) during febril episodes in patients with haematologic malignancies, 23 consecutive patients who developed AOC within 7 days from start of fever were compared with 23 consecutive patients who did not develop AOC. The duration of fever and severe granulocytopenia (less than 0.5 x 10(9)/l) was significantly longer in patients with AOC than in patients without AOC, the median differences between the patients with and without AOC being 4 and 3 days, respectively. Development of AOC could not be correlated to a change in the qualitative composition of the oral microflora. The thrombocyte count was lower in patients with AOC on day 4, whereas no differences were found in leukocyte counts. The prevalences of Candida albicans agglutinin titres greater than or equal to 5 were similar in patients with (24%) and without AOC (33%), and in controls (29%). Seroconversion or a significant increase in the agglutinin titre occurred in 4 patients with AOC and long-lasting fever, who became afebrile after systemic antifungal therapy. It is concluded that AOC is associated with long-lasting fever and decreased bone marrow function as judged by low thrombocyte counts, but not related to specific bacteria in the oral cavity or to an increased occurrence of C. albicans antibodies in the serum. PMID:2196672

Bergmann, O J; Andersen, P L

1990-01-01

137

EC4 European Syllabus for PostGraduate Training in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: version 3 – 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EC4 Syllabus for Postgraduate Training is the basis for the European Register of Specialists in Clin- ical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The syllabus: • Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); • Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience;

Simone Zerah; Janet McMurray; Bernard Bousquet; Hannsjorg Baum; Graham H. Beastall; Vic Blaton; Marie-Josèphe Cals; Danielle Duchassaing; Marie-Françoise Gaudeau-Toussaint; Aimo Harmoinen; Hans Hoffmann; Rob T. Jansen; Desmond Kenny; Klaus P. Kohse; Ursula Köller; Jean-Gérard Gobert; Christine Linget; Erik Lund; Giuseppe Nubile; Matthias Opp; Mario Pazzagli; Georges Pinon; José M. Queralto; Henrique Reguengo; Demetrios Rizos; Thomas Szekeres; Michel Vidaud; Hans Wallinder

2006-01-01

138

Guidelines on Vaccinations in Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. Vaccinations are the most important tool to prevent infectious diseases. Chemotherapy-induced immune depression may impact the efficacy of vaccinations in children. Patients and Methods. A panel of experts of the supportive care working group of the Italian Association Paediatric Haematology Oncology (AIEOP) addressed this issue by guidelines on vaccinations in paediatric cancer patients. The literature published between 1980 and 2013 was reviewed. Results and Conclusion. During intensive chemotherapy, vaccination turned out to be effective for hepatitis A and B, whilst vaccinations with toxoid, protein subunits, or bacterial antigens should be postponed to the less intensive phases, to achieve an adequate immune response. Apart from varicella, the administration of live-attenuated-virus vaccines is not recommended during this phase. Family members should remain on recommended vaccination schedules, including toxoid, inactivated vaccine (also poliomyelitis), and live-attenuated vaccines (varicella, measles, mumps, and rubella). By the time of completion of chemotherapy, insufficient serum antibody levels for vaccine-preventable diseases have been reported, while immunological memory appears to be preserved. Once immunological recovery is completed, usually after 6 months, response to booster or vaccination is generally good and allows patients to be protected and also to contribute to herd immunity. PMID:24868544

Cesaro, Simone; Giacchino, Mareva; Fioredda, Francesca; Barone, Angelica; Battisti, Laura; Bezzio, Stefania; Frenos, Stefano; De Santis, Raffaella; Livadiotti, Susanna; Marinello, Serena; Zanazzo, Andrea Giulio; Caselli, Désirée

2014-01-01

139

Incidence and pattern of liver involvement in haematological malignancies.  

PubMed

The incidence and pattern of liver involvement in 127 liver specimens (2 biopsy and 125 autopsy specimens) from cases of acute myelogenous leukaemia (25), chronic myelogenous leukaemia (7), acute lymphatic leukaemia (5), chronic lymphatic leukaemia (9), multiple myeloma (25), low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (25), high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (24) and myeloproliferative diseases (7) were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically. Liver infiltration was found frequently in chronic leukaemia and myeloproliferative diseases (80-100%), acute leukaemia (60-70%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (50-60%), but was significantly less common in multiple myeloma (32%) than in any of the other diagnostic groups. Hepatomegaly was found in over 50% of cases in all the diagnostic groups, but was not always associated with infiltration. Diffuse, non-destructive infiltration was most common: in acute myelogenous leukaemia, both the portal triads and sinusoids were usually involved; in chronic myelogenous leukaemia, multiple myeloma and myeloproliferative diseases, infiltration was mainly sinusoidal; and in lymphatic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma the portal triads were mainly involved. Nodular infiltration was seen in multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The primary tumours and liver infiltrates generally exhibited the same immunophenotype, although reactivity with the antibody L26 (CD20) was only found in the primary lesion in many high-grade B-cell lymphomas. Thus, liver involvement is common in haematological malignancies, but the incidence and pattern of infiltration vary amongst the different types. PMID:9842637

Walz-Mattmüller, R; Horny, H P; Ruck, P; Kaiserling, E

1998-01-01

140

Haematological characteristics associated with parasitism in bream, Abramis brama orientalis.  

PubMed

A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis). PMID:25320488

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi

2014-12-01

141

Research Scientist, Chemistry Madison, WI  

E-print Network

in medical writing, clinical protocols or regulatory filings · Experience managing federal research grants Research Scientist, Chemistry Madison, WI Position summary: We are looking for a highly motivated Research Scientist with experience in chemistry and materials science. Research Scientist

Evans, Paul G.

142

Comparison of some haematological parameters between three bird Comparison of some haematological parameters between three bird species from the species from the Columbidae Columbidae family - family - short communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into some haematological values in birds from three Columbidae species e.g. pigeons, (Columba livia domestica), collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared doves, (Streptopelia roseogrisea) have been performed. In all three species, high haemoglobin concentrations, and respectively high red blood cell counts were observed. In S. decaocto the red blood cell count was extremely high, corresponding to the high

Lubomir Lashev; Huben Hubenov; Yordan Nikolov; Valentina Lasheva; Radoslav Mihailov

143

Haematological and biochemical profile of growing Yankasa rams fed sorghum stover supplemented with graded levels of dried poultry droppings based diets.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the haematological and biochemical profiles of growing Yankasa rams fed sorghum stover supplemented with Sun-Dried Poultry Droppings diets (SDPD). Poultry dropping is a good source of protein supplement. Its high nitrogen content suggests feeding it to ruminant would be an excellent avenue to convert nutrients in the waste into animal products. But a major challenge for it utilization is the danger of pathogenic organisms. Sun-drying of the droppings can render the waste free of pathogens. Thirty growing Yankasa rams aged 9-12 months, weighing 11.5-15.5 kg were randomly divided into five groups (3 in each) and assigned to five experimental diets T1-T5 which contained 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% SDPD. Blood samples were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. Results showed that White Blood Cell (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) were significantly influenced by Dried Poultry Droppings based diets (DPD). Their values were WBC, 10.6, 12.9, 9.5, 7.0 and 10.7 L(-1), Hb, 8.6, 9.3, 8.6, 8.4 and 9.7 g dL(-1) and PCV, 22.9, 29.4, 27.1, 23.6 and 21.5%, respectively. Additionally, urea, sodium and total protein were significantly influenced by treatment diet. Their values were urea, 6.1, 6.3, 6.8, 6.9 and 8.1 mg dL(-1), sodium, 102.9, 128.8, 129.2, 130.7 and 130.7 mmol L(-1). total protein, 6.3, 6.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 7.1 g dL(-1). Most haematological and biochemical values obtained were within the normal range for sheep. SDPS diet can satisfactorily supplement sorghum stover without any deleterious effect on the blood chemistry and haematological profile of growing Yankasa rams. PMID:24517007

Bello, Abdul Waheed Adeyemi; Tsado, Daniel Nma

2013-12-15

144

Cancer stem cells and the cellular hierarchy in haematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Malignancies in the haematopoietic system seem to depend on a small subset of so-called cancer stem cells (CSC) for their continued growth and progression - this was first described as the "sleeper-feeder theory" for leukaemia. The leukaemia stem cell was the first of such subsets to be described although the origins of these cells have been difficult to dissect. Consequently, their biology is not fully elucidated, which also holds true for the normal-tissue counterparts. The stem cell concept describes stem cells to be of low frequency, self renewing and with multilineage potential based on phenomenology - a definition which may not hold strictly true for CSCs when studied in animals and humans in vivo and in vitro. Several studies have analysed the cellular hierarchy of the haematopoietic system by cell sorting of few and even single cells, tracking acquired genetic changes and performing transplantation model studies to document subsets within the differentiating hierarchy as potential CSC compartments. In leukaemia the CSC has been described in the bone marrow compartment of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC); however, in other bone marrow disorders like multiple myeloma it is likely that the cell of origin is a more differentiated cell, like post-germinal memory B cells or plasmablasts. Studies performed so far have even indicated that the genetic events may occur in different B cell subsets in accordance with the stepwise oncogenesis of the disease. Although our understanding of the nature and biology of these initiating cells remains unknown, the obvious existence of such cells has implications for understanding initial malignant transformation and disease metastasis or progression and, most important, the selection of individualised therapeutic strategies targeting the subsets harbouring the CSC function. In the present review on stem cells in haematological malignancies we have focused on two topics, first, describing the stem cell concept in health and disease, and its "phenomenology", and second, describing the CSC compartments in leukaemia and multiple myeloma. PMID:19775618

Johnsen, Hans Erik; Kjeldsen, Malene Krag; Urup, Thomas; Fogd, Kirsten; Pilgaard, Linda; Boegsted, Martin; Nyegaard, Mette; Christiansen, Ilse; Bukh, Anne; Dybkaer, Karen

2009-09-01

145

Breakthrough candidaemia caused by phenotypically susceptible Candida spp. in patients with haematological malignancies does not correlate with established interpretive breakpoints.  

PubMed

In a study of 27,864 patients with haematological malignancies, 40 patients with candidaemia were identified, among whom 21 developed candidaemia while receiving systemic antifungal therapy [breakthrough candidaemia (BTC)]. Demographic, clinical, microbiological and molecular features of these episodes were analysed. Compared with 19 patients with de novo candidaemia, patients with BTC were more likely to have neutropenia (81% vs. 63%), longer median duration of neutropenia (27 days vs. 15 days), hypogammaglobulinaemia (62% vs. 37%) and central venous catheters (CVCs) (86% vs. 68%). The median duration of prior antifungal exposure was 46 days (range 3-108 days). Among the 18 available Candida spp. isolates, 15 (83%) were phenotypically susceptible to the antifungal agent that the patient was receiving. Emergence of resistance was the mechanism leading to BTC in three cases of patients receiving echinocandins. Other possible mechanisms of BTC were (i) elevated (?2) minimum lethal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration (MLC/MIC) ratio (reduced ability for a fungicidal agent to kill a fungal pathogen) in all patients receiving amphotericin B and (ii) elevated MLC/MIC ratios in all Candida parapsilosis isolates with MICs?1 ?g/mL to echinocandins. DNA sequencing of the hotspot 1 region of the fks1 and fks2 genes in seven different isolates of C. parapsilosis group demonstrated P660A in Fks1 but no polymorphisms in fks2. In conclusion, mechanisms for BTC in the setting of prolonged neutropenia may be host-based (hypogammaglobulinaemia and CVC) and pathogen-based. CLSI interpretive breakpoints do not reliably predict BTC in patients with haematological malignancies and warrant further investigation. PMID:25108876

Gamaletsou, Maria N; Daikos, George L; Walsh, Thomas J; Perlin, David S; Ortigosa, Cristina Jimenez; Psaroulaki, Anna; Pagoni, Maria; Argyropoulou, Athina; Nepka, Martha; Perivolioti, Efstathia; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Perloretzou, Stavroula; Marangos, Markos; Kofteridis, Diamantis; Grammatikou, Maria; Goukos, Dimitrios; Petrikkos, George; Sipsas, Nikolaos V

2014-09-01

146

Recommendations of the SFH (French Society of Haematology) for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of hairy cell leukaemia.  

PubMed

Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a rare haematological malignancy, with approximately 175 new incident cases in France. Diagnosis is based on a careful examination of the blood smear and immunophenotyping of the tumour cells, with a panel of four markers being used specifically to screen for hairy cells (CD11c, CD25, CD103 and CD123). In 2011, the V600E mutation of the BRAF gene in exon 15 was identified in HCL; being present in HCL, it is absent in the variant form of HCL (HCL-v) and in splenic red pulp lymphoma (SRPL), two entities related to HCL. The management of patients with HCL has changed in recent years. A poorer response to purine nucleoside analogues (PNAs) is observed in patients with more marked leukocytosis, bulky splenomegaly, an unmutated immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IgVH) gene profile, use of VH4-34 or with TP53 mutations. We present the recommendations of a group of 11 experts belonging to a number of French hospitals. This group met in November 2013 to examine the criteria for managing patients with HCL. The ideas and proposals of the group are based on a critical analysis of the recommendations already published in the literature and on an analysis of the practices of clinical haematology departments with experience in managing these patients. The first-line treatment uses purine analogues: cladribine or pentostatin. The role of BRAF inhibitors, whether or not combined with MEK inhibitors, is discussed. The panel of French experts proposed recommendations to manage patients with HCL, which can be used in a daily practice. PMID:24994538

Cornet, Edouard; Delmer, Alain; Feugier, Pierre; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Ghez, David; Leblond, Véronique; Levy, Vincent; Maloisel, Frédéric; Re, Daniel; Zini, Jean-Marc; Troussard, Xavier

2014-12-01

147

Haematological and Biochemical Values or the Blood and Blood Serum of Captive Northern White Rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum cottoni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Va h a I a 1., F. K d e and O. A. R Y d e r: Haematological and Biochemical Values of the Blood and Blood Serum of Captive Northern White Rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum cottoni). Acta vet. Brno, 63,1994: 99-102. Haematological and biochemical blood and blood serum values obtained from 7 northern white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) kept in

J. Váhala; V. Kaše; O. A. Ryder

1994-01-01

148

Facilitating Surveillance of Pulmonary Invasive Mold Diseases in Patients with Haematological Malignancies by Screening Computed Tomography Reports Using Natural Language Processing  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n?=?366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675

Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.

2014-01-01

149

Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.,Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties of Echinacea species used medicinally. The Echinacea species Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea have a long history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, particularly infections, and today echinacea products are among the best-selling herbal preparations in several developed countries. Modern interest in echinacea is focused on its immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. The chemistry of Echinacea species is well documented, and several groups of constituents, including alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives, are considered important for activity. There are, however, differences in the constituent profile of the three species. Commercial echinacea samples and marketed echinacea products may contain one or more of the three species, and analysis of samples of raw material and products has shown that some do not meet recognized standards for pharmaceutical quality. Evidence from preclinical studies supports some of the traditional and modern uses for echinacea, particularly the reputed immunostimulant (or immunomodulatory) properties. Several, but not all, clinical trials of echinacea preparations have reported effects superior to those of placebo in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. However, evidence of efficacy is not definitive as studies have included different patient groups and tested various different preparations and dosage regimens of echinacea. On the basis of the available limited safety data, echinacea appears to be well tolerated. However, further investigation and surveillance are required to establish the safety profiles of different echinacea preparations. Safety issues include the possibility of allergic reactions, the use of echinacea by patients with autoimmune diseases and the potential for echinacea preparations to interact with conventional medicines. PMID:16102249

Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A; Gibbons, Simon; Phillipson, J David

2005-08-01

150

Applications of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in clinical chemistry and toxicology: a review  

E-print Network

1 Applications of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in clinical chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has increased over the recent years, providing;3 Abbreviations MS: mass spectrometry; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; LC: liquid chromatography; MHz: Mega

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

148 Chemistry/Chinese Chemistry 347 (3)--Advanced Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

148 Chemistry/Chinese Chemistry 347 (3)--Advanced Organic Chemistry Prerequisite: Chemistry 242,syntheticmethodology,mod- ernsyntheticreactions,protectinggroups,naturalprod- uctssynthesis,andcombinatorialchemistry.France. Spring Chemistry 350 (3)--Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Prerequisites: Chemistry 250, 252, and 262. Anintro

Dresden, Gregory

152

Pain syndromes in the setting of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe pain syndromes may be recorded during all phases of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for haematological malignancies: from stem cell mobilization to the long-term post transplant period. Although the major cause of pain in the setting of HSCT is injury to mucosal tissues induced by the conditioning regimen, pain from several other causes has been reported. In this paper,

P Niscola; C Romani; L Scaramucci; T Dentamaro; L Cupelli; A Tendas; D Piccioni; M Giovannini; B Tolu; C Cartoni; E Arcuri; A Perrotti; R Palumbo; P de Fabritiis

2008-01-01

153

Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, ?-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149

2014-01-01

154

Haematological and biochemical values of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama) after using different methods of capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological and biochemical examinations have been carried out on different occasions in 12 healthy farmed female fallow deer in order to estimate whether there are differences in blood parameters regarding the method (physically restrained, tranquillized, shot) of sampling. The following parameters (means and standard deviation - SD) were examined on all samples: erythrocyte count (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell

Silvestra Kobal; Andrej Bidovec

155

Haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae). Thirty-seven fish were captured in October 2010 from the Mogi Guaçu River, Porto Ferreira, SP, Brazil. Infected fish presented increased mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and lower thrombocyte and higher monocyte counts than uninfected fish. PMID:23557315

Belo, M A A; Souza, D G F; Faria, V P; Prado, E J R; Moraes, F R; Onaka, E M

2013-04-01

156

Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela.  

PubMed

The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during post-laying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus in lithium heparin tubes. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), plasmatic protein (PP), haemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and differential leukocyte count were determined. Haematological values were: RBC 0.9×10(9)/L, WBC 5.7×10(9)/L, TC 5.4×10(9)/L, PCV 35.6%, PP 4.2g/dL, Hgb 11.8g/dL, MCV 411fL. The differential leukocyte count comprised: 71% heterophils, 23% lymphocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1.6% basophils, and 1% monocytes. The reports of reference haematology values for the wild P. expansa are limited; therefore, the results presented herein contrast with those values obtained in captivity. This study represents a contribution to the referential haematological values of the wild P. expansa. PMID:21122881

Rossini, M; Blanco, P A; Marín, E; Comerma-Steffensen, S; Zerpa, H

2012-02-01

157

Occupational exposures and haematological abnormalities among ordnance factory workers: A case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifetime exposures to an extensive list of chemical and other potentially toxic hazards were estimated for all available employees at an ordnance factory by questionnaire-based interview. Exposure histories of 32 (of 33) previously diagnosed as haematologically abnormal (cases) were compared with 322 (of 345) normals (controls). Among ‘ordnance factory chemicals’, modestly increased odds ratios were observed for men for

R. R. West; D. A. Stafford

1997-01-01

158

Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADEDAPO, A. A., M. O. ABATAN, O. O. OLORUNSOGO: Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats. Vet. arhiv 74, 53-62, 2004. ABSTRACT The toxic effects of 5 suspected poisonous plants of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton, E. heterophylla L., E. hirta L., E. hyssopifolia L., and E. lateriflora Schum and

Adeolu A. Adedapo; Matthew O. Abatan; Olufunso O. Olorunsogo

2004-01-01

159

Haematological values of post-laying Arrau turtle ( Podocnemis expansa) in the Orinoco River, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) is an endangered species, as a result of long-lasting, unsustainable exploitation. To obtain reference haematological values from the wild Podocnemis expansa during post-laying, 20 turtles were captured in the Orinoco River. Blood was obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus in lithium heparin tubes. Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), thrombocytes (TC), packed cell

M. Rossini; P. A. Blanco; E. Marín; S. Comerma-Steffensen; H. Zerpa

160

Haematological factors associated with proliferative retinopathy in homozygous sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological indices were investigated in 261 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, 29 of whom had developed proliferative sickle retinopathy (PSR). After allowing for age-related effects, male patients with high Hb (> 9 g\\/dl) and low HbF (< 5%) levels appeared to constitute a high risk group for PSR. This relationship was not evident in females, PSR being observed in

R. J. Hayes; P. I. Condon; G. R. Serjeant

1981-01-01

161

Dynamics of haematology and blood biochemistry in free-living African whitebacked vulture ( Pseudogyps africanus) nestlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference values for some haematological- and plasma chemical parameters were established in 33 apparently normal, free-living African whitebacked vulture (Pseudogyps africanus) nestlings. This information can be used in future ornithological research. A total of 27 variables were examined, which include: leucocyte- and erythrocyte counts, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, haematimetric indices, glucose, creatinine, urea, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin\\/globulin ratio, cholesterol, total

Erika van Wyk; Herman van der Bank; Gerhard H. Verdoorn

1998-01-01

162

Serious haematological toxicity during and after ipilimumab treatment: a case series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Immunotherapy with the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab has been shown to improve overall survival in previously treated and treatment-naïve patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma. Consistent with its proposed immunomodulating mechanism of action, the most common toxicities associated with ipilimumab therapy are immune-related in nature and include those related to the skin and gastrointestinal tract, with endocrine and hepatic events also frequent. Other rare adverse events, including haematological aberrations, may also occur and can have serious consequences if unrecognised. Here we describe three patients who developed serious haematological adverse events during or after treatment with ipilimumab. Case presentation Three Caucasian patients (two women aged 68 and 49 years and one man aged 70 years) with metastatic melanoma experienced anaemia and/or leukopenia (neutropenia) with toxicity of various grades during or after treatment with ipilimumab, without significant changes to other haematological values. Two of the patients stopped treatment after the third ipilimumab dose, one because of severe anaemia that required blood transfusion and the other due to febrile neutropenia that was treated with antibiotics and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulation. The third patient developed anaemia and leukopenia after treatment during the follow-up period. The results of autoimmunity tests performed were positive and corticosteroids were used to treat these events as per side-effects treatment algorithms specifically developed for the management of immune-related adverse events associated with ipilimumab, an approach that was safe and effective. Conclusions Haematological toxicity is a rare but potentially serious immune-related side effect of ipilimumab therapy. However, if promptly recognised and treated, haematological toxicity is manageable and can be reversed with standard corticosteroid treatment as recommended for other ipilimumab immune-related side effects. PMID:24986059

2014-01-01

163

A study of haematological and bone marrow changes in symptomatic patients with human immune deficiency virus infection with special mention of functional iron deficiency, anaemia of critically ill and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis  

PubMed Central

Background Haematological abnormalities are among the most common complications of HIV. These involve all lineages of blood cells. Bone marrow studies form integral part of complete workup of the HIV positive patients specially when they present as case of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO), refractory anaemia and pancytopenia. Method 55 HIV infected symptomatic patient requiring bone marrow examination were included in the study. Relevant clinical history, baseline haematological investigations including full blood count, CD4 cell counts using flow cytometry were recorded. Results Median ANC values in males were found to be significantly lower than females (p = 0.046). CD4 cell count statistically significantly correlated with age, TLC, ANC & platelet count. Anaemia was present in 45 patients and out of which 66.66% patients had normocytic normochromic anaemia. Iron deficiency anaemia was present in (37.77%) patients and anaemia of chronic disease in (62.22%) patients. 2 patients had anaemia of the critically ill. Two patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and showed lymphoma deposit in the bone marrow. Gelatinous degeneration was seen in 3 patients. Ill formed epithelioid cell granulomas were seen in 7 cases, and 2 cases were positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB). Haemophagocytosis was seen in 8 cases; two cases later diagnosed as a case of infection induced HLH. Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies seen in 2 cases. Conclusions Bone marrow study is an important investigation in HIV infected symptomatic patients with peripheral haematological abnormalities. PMID:24600136

Kotwal, Jyoti; Singh, Vikram; Kotwal, Anupam; Dutta, Vibha; Nair, Velu

2013-01-01

164

Experiences of living with incurable haematological malignancy: a research portfolio   

E-print Network

This thesis follows the research portfolio format and is carried out in part fulfilment of the academic component of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at the University of Edinburgh. An abstract provides an overview ...

Caldwell, Ellie M.

2014-07-01

165

Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf goats fed dried cassava leaves-based concentrate diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding different levels of dried cassava leaves at 0%, 20%, 40% and\\u000a 60%, respectively, using guinea grass as basal feed, on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African\\u000a Dwarf (WAD) goats. The study lasted for 116 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored\\u000a in 40 male goats

Adebayo Olusoji Oni; Oluwasanmi Moses Arigbede; Olusiji Sunday Sowande; Uchenna Young Anele; Oluwakemi Oluremilekun Oni; Chryss Friday Ijeoma Onwuka; Olufemi Sunday Onifade; Kafayat Omowumi Yusuf; Peter Aniwe Dele; Ronke Yemisi Aderinboye

166

Preanalytical quality improvement. In pursuit of harmony, on behalf of European Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE).  

PubMed

Abstract Laboratory diagnostics develop through different phases that span from test ordering (pre-preanalytical phase), collection of diagnostic specimens (preanalytical phase), sample analysis (analytical phase), results reporting (postanalytical phase) and interpretation (post-postanalytical phase). Although laboratory medicine seems less vulnerable than other clinical and diagnostic areas, the chance of errors is not negligible and may adversely impact on quality of testing and patient safety. This article, which continues a biennial tradition of collective papers on preanalytical quality improvement, is aimed to provide further contributions for pursuing quality and harmony in the preanalytical phase, and is a synopsis of lectures of the third European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)-Becton Dickinson (BD) European Conference on Preanalytical Phase meeting entitled 'Preanalytical quality improvement. In pursuit of harmony' (Porto, 20-21 March 2015). The leading topics that will be discussed include unnecessary laboratory testing, management of test request, implementation of the European Union (EU) Directive on needlestick injury prevention, harmonization of fasting requirements for blood sampling, influence of physical activity and medical contrast media on in vitro diagnostic testing, recent evidence about the possible lack of necessity of the order of draw, the best practice for monitoring conditions of time and temperature during sample transportation, along with description of problems emerging from inappropriate sample centrifugation. In the final part, the article includes recent updates about preanalytical quality indicators, the feasibility of an External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for the preanalytical phase, the results of the 2nd EFLM WG-PRE survey, as well as specific notions about the evidence-based quality management of the preanalytical phase. PMID:25490032

Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe; Church, Stephen; Cornes, Michael; De Carli, Gabriella; Grankvist, Kjell; Kristensen, Gunn B; Ibarz, Mercedes; Panteghini, Mauro; Plebani, Mario; Nybo, Mads; Smellie, Stuart; Zaninotto, Martina; Simundic, Ana-Maria

2015-02-01

167

Abbott ARCHITECT clinical chemistry and immunoassay systems: digoxin assays are free of interferences from spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone.  

PubMed

Spironolactone, which is metabolized to canrenone, is often used in combination with digoxin. Potassium canrenoate is a similar drug that is also metabolized to canrenone. As a result of reported interference of spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone with digoxin immunoassays, we investigated potential interference of these compounds with two relatively new digoxin assays for application on ARCHITECT clinical chemistry platforms (cDig, particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay) and ARCHITECT immunoassay platforms (iDig, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay), both from Abbott Diagnostics. When aliquots of drug-free serum pool were supplemented with various amounts of spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and canrenone, no apparent digoxin concentration was observed using cDig assay on ARCHITECT c4000, c8000, and c16000 or iDig assay on i1000SR and i2000SR analyzers. In addition, we observed no false increase in serum digoxin value when aliquots of a digoxin pool were further supplemented with various amounts of spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, or canrenone. We conclude that both the cDig and iDig assays on the ARCHITECT analyzers are free from interferences by spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and canrenone. PMID:21079546

DeFrance, Andrea; Armbruster, David; Petty, Diana; Cooper, Kelley C; Dasgupta, Amitava

2011-02-01

168

Co-inheritance of ?+thalassaemia and sickle trait results in specific effects on haematological parameters  

PubMed Central

Both the sickle cell trait (HbAS) and ?+thalassaemia are common in many tropical areas. While individually their haematological effects have been well described previously, few studies describe their effects when inherited together. We present data from the coast of Kenya, which suggest that HbAS and ?+thalassaemia may interact to result in specific effects on haematological parameters. Overall, the difference in Hb concentrations between nonthalassaemics (??/??) and ?+thalassaemia homozygotes (??/??) was greater in non-HbAS (HbAA) (0.63g/dl) than in HbAS children (0.25 g/dl). In addition, HbAS ameliorated both the reduced MCV and reduced MCH normally associated with the ??/?? genotype. Potential mechanisms and implications are discussed. PMID:16611313

Wambua, Sammy; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alexander; Williams, Thomas N

2015-01-01

169

Haematology and morphological changes in young broiler chicks with experimentally induced hypoxia.  

PubMed

The haematology, histology and ultrastructure of day-old broiler chicks subject to experimentally induced hypoxia during incubation were examined. Some birds were allowed to reach five weeks old before examination. All the red blood cell parameters, namely, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and red cell counts were raised significantly in hypoxic birds compared with control material and the results closely resembled the haematological profile of young broilers with an ascitic syndrome. By week 5 these parameters had returned to normal. Morphological changes were seen in all the organs examined from day-old hypoxic chicks. The lungs showed much congestion and large numbers of granulocytes were present in hearts, and testes. In the livers, hepatocytes contained enlarged mitochondria together with a reduction in glycogen content. Congested lungs were seen at five weeks old but recovery to normal morphology was observed in all other organs. PMID:3444980

Maxwell, M H; Tullett, S G; Burton, F G

1987-11-01

170

Co-existence of TB and adult haematological cancers in Benin City, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is an ancient human scourge that continues to be an important public health problem worldwide. As impaired immunity is closely associated with the pathogenesis of TB, an increase in the incidence of the disease among patients with cancer is anticipated. A total of 20 cases of haematological cancers co-existing with TB in a tertiary hospital in an African setting between January 2005 and September 2008 were analysed. Clinico-pathologic profiles, types of TB infection and outcome were noted. The incidence of TB in patients with haematological malignancies was 3.4%. Lymphoma and leukaemia were the most common malignancies associated with TB. With the high incidence of such cases we recommend the exclusion of an active disease prior to the initiation of cancer therapy. Chemoprophylaxis might be indicated in TB endemic areas. PMID:19762570

Omoti, Caroline Edijana; Olu-Eddo, Adesuwa Noma; Nwannadi, Alexander Ikenna

2009-10-01

171

Effects of lichen extracts on haematological parameters of rats with experimental insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world is steadily increasing. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic haematological changes. Lichens are used as food supplements and are also used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. We hypothesized that antioxidant activity of lichens may decrease hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and prevent the development of diabetic complications, including abnormality in haematological condition. Therefore, the effects of Cetraria islandica water extract (CIWE) and Pseudevernia furfuracea water extract (PFWE) on the haematological parameters of rats with type 1 DM were investigated for the first time in the present study. Control Sprague-Dawley or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with water lichen extracts (5-500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 2 weeks, starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized and haematological and metabolic parameters were determined between control and experimental groups. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS), a specific indicator of oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by biochemical studies. In diabetic rats, CIWE of 250-500 mg/kg bw dose showed more prominent results when compared with doses of PFWE for TAC. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the antioxidant activities of lichens might be the possible reason behind the observed antihaematological status. However, the protective effect of lichen extracts were inadequate on diabetes-induced microcytic hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the extracts have no effect on metabolic complications. Our experimental data showed that high doses of CIWE and PFWE alone have no detrimental effect on blood cells and TOS status of plasma. Hence, they are safe and suitable for different administration routes. PMID:23114377

Colak, Suat; Geyiko?lu, Fatime; Aslan, Ali; Deniz, Gül?ah Y?ld?z

2014-11-01

172

Haematology of great sturgeon ( Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) juvenile exposed to clove powder as an anaesthetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaesthetic effects of clove powder were studied in juvenile great sturgeon. Haematological parameters were assessed before,\\u000a immediately after and 24 h after 10 min of anaesthesia using clove powder at 175, 225, 275 and 350 mg\\/L concentrations. The\\u000a 10-min exposure to clove powder caused a significant increase (P?

Asad Mohammadizarejabad; Kazem Darvish Bastami; Mohammad Sudagar; Somayeh Pourali Motlagh

2010-01-01

173

The study of some haematological and serum biochemical parameters of juvenile beluga ( Huso huso ) fed oligofructose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary oligofructose (1, 2 and 3%) on the blood profiles of beluga (Huso huso) juveniles (18.77 ± 0.76 g) compared to fish fed an un-supplemented diet. After 7 weeks of feeding on the experimental diets,\\u000a haematological parameters, metabolic products (cholesterol, glucose and total protein) and serum enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase,\\u000a alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate

Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar; Alireza Mirvaghefi; Daniel L. Merrifield; Bagher Mojazi Amiri; Saeed Yelghi; Kazem Darvish Bastami

2011-01-01

174

Change in haematological profile of pregnant camels ( Camelus dromedarius ) at term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological parameters of 28 pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius) were compared with those of 32 non-pregnant camels (C. dromedarius). The parameters compared were: total erythrocytes count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular\\u000a volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and total leucocyte count (TLC). Results\\u000a obtained indicate that RBC, Hb and PCV decreased in the later

Ahsan Saeed; Irfan Ahmad Khan; Mohammad Majad Hussein

2011-01-01

175

Effects of iron glycine chelate on growth, haematological and immunological characteristics in weanling pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine the effects of iron glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) on growth, haematological and immunological characteristics in weanling pigs. One hundred and eighty pigs (initial weight of 7.81±0.72kg) were allotted to six treatments based on live weight and litter origin. Treatments consisted of: (1) control (no Fe supplementation); (2) 30mgFe\\/kg diet from Fe-Gly; (3) 60mgFe\\/kg diet from

J. Feng; W. Q. Ma; Z. R. Xu; Y. Z. Wang; J. X. Liu

2007-01-01

176

The Prognostic Significance of HbF in Childhood Haematological Malignancies.  

PubMed

The degree of increase in foetal haemoglobin (HbF) synthesis in haematological malignancies may be associated with the degree of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to quantify HbF levels in various childhood haematological malignancies and also, to ascertain its prognostic significance by comparing the results with the already established standard prognostic factors. Newly diagnosed cases of haematological malignancies in the paediatric age group were included in the study. HbF levels were estimated in each case of the study group along with HbF levels of control group comprising healthy children of same age group. The estimation was done by HPLC and Modified Betke's method. 50 cases of newly diagnosed haematological malignancies were studied out of which most of the cases were of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) [n = 30(60 %)] followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) [n = 8(16 %)], Hodgkin's lymphoma [n = 7(14%)], non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [n = 5(10 %)]. Raised HbF levels were found in 43.3 % cases of ALL (13/30) and 37.5 % cases of AML (3/8). No significant rise in HbF level was found in cases of lymphomas. There was correlation between raised HbF level and poor prognostic factors in cases of ALL but no such correlation was found in cases of AML. HbF levels are often elevated in childhood leukaemias as compared to childhood lymphomas. Thus, the concentration of HbF in acute childhood leukaemia may be considered as a prognostic factor. PMID:25548456

Mallick, Debjani; Karmakar, Rupam; Barui, Gopinath; Gon, Sonia; Chakrabarti, Sudipta

2015-03-01

177

Haematological and genotoxic responses in an urban adapter, the banana bat, foraging at wastewater treatment works.  

PubMed

Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTWs) are a ubiquitous feature of the urban landscape. The Banana Bat, Neoromicia nana specifically exploits the high abundance of chironomid midge prey available at WWTWs but these populations also have higher levels of non-essential metals (Cd, Cr and Ni) in their tissues than bats foraging at unpolluted sites. Pollutant exposure may elicit primary physiological responses such as DNA damage and haematological changes. We investigated whether pollutant exposure from foraging at WWTWs impacts haematological and genotoxic parameters in N. nana. We compared four measures of haematological/genotoxic damage between N. nana foraging at three WWTWs and two unpolluted sites located in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: DNA damage measured by the Comet assay, total antioxidant capacity as indicated by the FRAP assay, chromosomal aberration indicated by micronuclei formation and blood oxygen capacity based on haematocrits. There was significantly higher DNA damage in N. nana at WWTWs than in bats from unpolluted sites, suggesting inadequate repair to double stranded DNA breaks. In addition, WWTW bats had a significantly lower antioxidant capacity than bats from unpolluted sites. This suggests that bats at WWTWs may have a diminished capacity to cope with the excess reactive oxidative species (ROS) produced from pollutants such as metals. There was no increase in micronucleus frequency in WWTW bats, indicating that cellular functioning has not yet been disrupted by chemical exposure. Haematocrits, however, were significantly higher in WWTW bats, possibly due to erythrocyte production in response to certain pollutants. Thus, effects of pollutant exposure in bats foraging at WWTWs elicit sub-lethal haematological and genotoxic responses which may pose serious long-term risks. This provides evidence that WWTWs, that are aimed to remove pollutants from the environment, can themselves act as a source of contamination and pose a threat to animals exploiting these habitats. PMID:24953517

Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene; Schoeman, M Corrie

2015-04-01

178

Candiduria in haematologic malignancy patients without a urinary catheter: nothing more than a frailty marker?  

PubMed

There is scarcity of data regarding significance of candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies and its association with invasive candidiasis. To that end, we retrospectively evaluated all hospitalised, non-intensive care unit patients with haematologic malignancies and candiduria during a 10-year period (2001-2011). To decrease the possibility of bladder colonisation and sample contamination, we excluded all patients with candiduria who had urinary catheters and those with concomitant bacteriuria. Twenty-four such patients (21 females) were identified, with median age at diagnosis 62?years (range, 20-82?years). Acute leukaemia was the most common underlying disease (54%); 62% of these cases were not in remission. Twenty-nine percent of the patients had diabetes mellitus and 25% were neutropenic. The most common isolated Candida species was Candida glabrata (37%), followed by C. albicans (29%). Only 8% of them had urinary tract infection symptoms. However, 88% received systemic antifungals. Candidemia and crude mortality rates at 4?weeks were low (4% and 12% respectively). Isolated candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies has risk factors similar to those in other hospitalised patients, and it does not seem to be a strong predictor of subsequent invasive candidiasis. PMID:23170870

Georgiadou, Sarah P; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

2013-05-01

179

The Efficacy of Nardostachys Jatamansi Against The Radiation Induced Haematological Damage In Rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Radiation is increasingly being used for medical purposes and it is an established weapon in the diagnosis and the therapy of cancer. An exposure to 1-2 Gys causes the NVD (Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea) syndrome, whereas an exposure to 2-6 Gys causes the haematopoietic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the Nardostachys jatamansi root extract (NJE) on the radiation induced haematological damage in rats. Materials and Methods: EBR was performed at the Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, India. Rats were treated with NJE once daily for 15 days before and after the irradiation. After the irradiation, blood was collected for determining the peripheral blood counts (RBC and WBC), haemoglobin, the platelet count and the packed cell volume (PCV) at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 5, 10 and 15 days post irradiation. The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey’s test for multiple comparisons. Result: NJE provided protection against the radiation induced haematological disorders. The rats treated with NJE exhibited a time dependent significant elevation in all the haematological parameters which were studied and its modulation upto the near normal level was recorded. Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that, NJE provides protection by modulating the radiation induced damage on the haematopoietic system. PMID:23905085

Gowda, Damodara K M; Shetty, Lathika; A P, Krishna; Kumari, Suchetha N; Sanjeev, Ganesh; P, Naveen

2013-01-01

180

Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable. PMID:24140311

Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R

2014-01-01

181

Rise of the mutants: report from the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association, Milan, 12–15 June 2014  

PubMed Central

At the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association in Milan, we saw the true and dramatic changes brought about by the integration of extensive genomic information in clinical practice, and the dilemmas that accompany such a rapid increase in knowledge. Each disease is sliced more and more into smaller pieces, each with its own better-determined outcome and treatment. We also observed the rise of mutant-specific epigenetic agents, which benefit from knowing the underlying genetic abnormality to specifically assign an epigenetic drug where it is needed. In contrast to the ‘one mutation, one drug’ approach, others are pursuing the search for drugs targeting pathways fundamental for the survival of all or most cancer cells, sometimes looking at more ‘exotic’ pathways like neddylation or nuclear export. PMID:25183998

Mazzarella, Luca

2014-01-01

182

The haploidentical option for high-risk haematological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much progress has been made in the clinical, biological and technical aspects of the T-cell-depleted full-haplotype mismatched transplants for acute leukaemia. Our experience demonstrates that infusing a megadose of extensively T-cell-depleted haematopoietic peripheral blood stem cells after an immuno-myeloablative conditioning regimen in acute leukaemia patients ensures sustained engraftment with minimal GvHD without the need of any post-transplant immunosuppressive treatment.Since our

Franco Aversa; Yair Reisner; Massimo F. Martelli

2008-01-01

183

Periodontal infection in adult-onset Still’s disease patient: clinical and haematological considerations  

PubMed Central

In this case report, the authors described the first case of a patient with adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) who presents advanced periodontal infection. AOSD is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by spiking fever, usually exceeding 39°C, an evanescent salmon pink rash, arthritis and multiorgan involvement. Periodontal infection is a pathogen-induced oral inflammatory disease affecting the supporting tissues of teeth and is currently considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several cytokines capable of inducing systemic effects are produced during the course of this infection and the values of serum markers of inflammation, such as C reactive protein (CRP), may significantly decrease after periodontal treatment. Although AOSD can produce elevations in CRP, similar increase may be produced by periodontal infection, suggesting the need for medical and dental diagnosis when evaluating the sources of acute-phase responses in systemic autoimmune disease patients. PMID:22696669

Pessoa, Larissa; Galvão, Virgilio; Ferreira, Clarissa; Neto, Leopoldo Santos

2011-01-01

184

Periodontal infection in adult-onset Still's disease patient: clinical and haematological considerations.  

PubMed

In this case report, the authors described the first case of a patient with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) who presents advanced periodontal infection. AOSD is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by spiking fever, usually exceeding 39°C, an evanescent salmon pink rash, arthritis and multiorgan involvement. Periodontal infection is a pathogen-induced oral inflammatory disease affecting the supporting tissues of teeth and is currently considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several cytokines capable of inducing systemic effects are produced during the course of this infection and the values of serum markers of inflammation, such as C reactive protein (CRP), may significantly decrease after periodontal treatment. Although AOSD can produce elevations in CRP, similar increase may be produced by periodontal infection, suggesting the need for medical and dental diagnosis when evaluating the sources of acute-phase responses in systemic autoimmune disease patients. PMID:22696669

Pessoa, Larissa; Galvão, Virgilio; Ferreira, Clarissa; Santos Neto, Leopoldo

2011-01-01

185

Leishmaniasis in rheumatology, haematology and oncology: epidemiological, immunological and clinical aspects and caveats.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is an intracellular protozoan infection that can lead to cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral or systemic manifestations depending on the parasite species and virulence and on the host immune response. It is endemic in countries of Europe (Mediterranean basin), Asia, Africa, Central and South America, but autochthonous cases begin to emerge outside classical disease areas. CD4+ T helper cells, interferon ?, dendritic cells and macrophages are the key components of antileishmanial defence. Leishmaniasis is an important differential diagnosis in patients with chronic lesions of the skin or mucous membranes or with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, histocytosis, haemophagocytic syndrome or glomerulonephritis. Organ transplant recipients and patients with autoimmune syndromes are at particular risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis following immunosuppressive therapy (eg, with steroids, methotrexate, ciclosporin or tumour necrosis factor-neutralising biological agents). Diagnosis and adequate treatment of leishmaniasis requires the combined use of culture, microscopic and nucleic acid amplication methods and species identification by sequencing and other molecular techniques. Standard regimens for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis are intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg body weight for 10 days) or oral miltefosine (150 mg/day for 28 days). PMID:22460140

Bogdan, Christian

2012-04-01

186

Green Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This special feature page from the American Chemical Society (ACS) showcases the up-and-coming field of "green chemistry," that is, the development of chemical products and processes that eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. A list of principles behind green chemistry, a searchable bibliography of green chemistry references, green chemistry links (including conferences), and an online preview of the ACS-published book Real-World Cases in Green Chemistry are all found at the site. Five video clips on green chemistry from the standpoint of academia, industry, and small business are also featured (Windows Media Player). This page comes from ACS's Green Chemistry Project, a three-year educational project to develop and disseminate green chemistry educational materials for graduate and undergraduate chemistry students. Check back often for updates.

2002-01-01

187

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

School Science Review, 1976

1976-01-01

188

ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...

189

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

190

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

191

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

192

Recombinant erythropoietin in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment. PMID:12897214

Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I

2003-01-01

193

CLUSTER CHEMISTRY  

SciTech Connect

Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

Muetterties, Earl L.

1980-05-01

194

Computational Chemistry for Chemistry Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 15-session course on the technologies, techniques, and tools of computational chemistry. By using the same computational tools as research computational chemists, educators will have the opportunity to study chemistry in a manner very different than traditional teaching and education in chemistry.

Shodor Computational Science Institute

195

CHEMISTRY 320 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY 320 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I Fall 2009 9:00 am - 10:30 am, MW CNSB 211 INSTRUCTOR INFORMATION of the physical principles of chemistry. Goals/ Objectives: CHEM 320 presents chemical principles from a fundamental physical point of view. Topics covered include: properties of gases, thermodynamics (heat, work

Findley, Gary L.

196

Evaluation of sulfonamide detoxification pathways in haematologic malignancy patients prior to intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

AIMS Patients with haematologic malignancies have a reportedly high incidence of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) hypersensitivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether deficiencies in sulfonamide detoxification pathways, to include glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AA), and cytochrome b5 (b5) and cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R), were prevalent in these patients. A secondary pilot objective was to determine whether the incidence of drug hypersensitivity following intermittent trimethoprim-SMX (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis approached that reported for high dose daily regimens. METHODS Forty adult patients with haematologic malignancies (HM) and 35 healthy adults were studied; an additional 13 HM patients taking ascorbate supplements (HM-AA) were also evaluated. Twenty-two of 40 HM patients were prescribed and were compliant with TMP-SMX 960 mg three to four times weekly. RESULTS There were no significant differences between HM and healthy groups in plasma AA (median 37.2 µmvs. 33.9 µm) or red blood cell GSH (1.9 mmvs. 1.8 mm). However, plasma AA was correlated significantly with leucocyte b5/b5R reduction (r = 0.39, P = 0.002). Deficient b5/b5R activities were not found in HM patients. In fact, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or myeloma had significantly higher median activities (80.7 µmol mg–1 min?1) than controls (18.9 µmol mg–1 min?1, P = 0.008). After 3–4 weeks of treatment, no patients developed SMX-specific T cells and only one patient developed rash. CONCLUSIONS Deficiencies of blood antioxidants and b5/b5R reduction were not found in this population with haematologic malignancies, and the development of skin rash and drug-specific T cells appeared to be uncommon with intermittent TMP-SMX prophylaxis. PMID:21204907

Abouraya, Mahmoud; Sacco, James C; Kahl, Brad S; Trepanier, Lauren A

2011-01-01

197

Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in future studies of HEV infection. PMID:24148233

2013-01-01

198

Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).  

PubMed

This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline) and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters. PMID:23038078

Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Emadi, Ladan; Sakhaee, Ehsanollah; Sharifi, Hamid; Mehdizadeh, Sara

2012-01-01

199

Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. PMID:24894523

Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

2014-08-01

200

Connected Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Connected Chemistry, a novel learning environment for teaching chemistry, is appropriate for use in both high school and undergraduate chemistry classrooms. Connected Chemistry comprises several molecular simulations designed to enable instructors to teach chemistry using the perspective of emergent phenomena. That is, it allows students to see observed macro-level chemical phenomena, like many other scientific phenomena, as resultant from the interactions of many individual agents on a micro-level. This perspective is especially appropriate to the study of chemistry where the interactions between multitudes of molecules on the atomic level give rise to the macro-level concepts that students study in the classroom. Connected Chemistry comprises molecular simulations embedded in the NetLogo modeling software (1). The collection contains several predesigned simulations of closed chemical systems to teach specific chemistry concepts. Currently, Connected Chemistry contains models for teaching Brønsted Lowry acid base theory, enzyme kinetics, radical polymerization, buffer chemistry, kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and crystallization. Instructors and students can individually tailor the predesigned simulations or generate new simulations as they are needed in the context of a particular lesson, classroom, or department.

201

Exogenous Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Boosts Acclimatization in Rats Exposed to Acute Hypobaric Hypoxia: Assessment of Haematological and Metabolic Effects  

PubMed Central

Background The physiological challenges posed by hypobaric hypoxia warrant exploration of pharmacological entities to improve acclimatization to hypoxia. The present study investigates the preclinical efficacy of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) to improve acclimatization to simulated hypobaric hypoxia. Experimental Approach Efficacy of intravenously administered S1P in improving haematological and metabolic acclimatization was evaluated in rats exposed to simulated acute hypobaric hypoxia (7620m for 6 hours) following S1P pre-treatment for three days. Major Findings Altitude exposure of the control rats caused systemic hypoxia, hypocapnia (plausible sign of hyperventilation) and respiratory alkalosis due to suboptimal renal compensation indicated by an overt alkaline pH of the mixed venous blood. This was associated with pronounced energy deficit in the hepatic tissue along with systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. S1P pre-treatment improved blood oxygen-carrying-capacity by increasing haemoglobin, haematocrit, and RBC count, probably as an outcome of hypoxia inducible factor-1? mediated erythropoiesis and renal S1P receptor 1 mediated haemoconcentation. The improved partial pressure of oxygen in the blood could further restore aerobic respiration and increase ATP content in the hepatic tissue of S1P treated animals. S1P could also protect the animals from hypoxia mediated oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusion The study findings highlight S1P’s merits as a preconditioning agent for improving acclimatization to acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure. The results may have long term clinical application for improving physiological acclimatization of subjects venturing into high altitude for occupational or recreational purposes. PMID:24887065

Chawla, Sonam; Rahar, Babita; Singh, Mrinalini; Bansal, Anju; Saraswat, Deepika; Saxena, Shweta

2014-01-01

202

Organophosphorus chemistry  

E-print Network

2087 Organophosphorus chemistry Paul R. Hanson Editorial Open Access Address: Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582, USA Email: Paul R. Hanson - phanson@ku.edu. Keywords: organophosphorus... Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2014, 10, 2087–2088. doi:10.3762/bjoc.10.217 Received: 28 July 2014 Accepted: 06 August 2014 Published: 04 September 2014 This article is part of the Thematic Series "Organophosphorus chemistry" Guest Editor: P. R. Hanson © 2014...

Hanson, Paul R.

2014-09-04

203

Antiviral prophylaxis in patients with haematological malignancies and solid tumours: Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Hematology and Oncology (DGHO).  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality in patients with malignancies are increased by viral infections. These mostly are reactivations of asymptomatic latent infections. They primarily concern clinical entities associated with the reactivation of herpes viruses, such as varicella zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Respiratory tract infections caused by influenza, parainfluenza or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are less common. Since reactivation of latent infections has major clinical impact, antiviral prophylaxis is an attractive approach for patients expecting immunosuppression. The main risk factor for clinically relevant reactivation is profound disruption of cellular immune response. Duration and severity of chemotherapy induced neutropenia are of lesser importance. The risk of viral complications rises significantly in the presence of sustained suppression of T-cell function, e.g. in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants or of alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) antibody therapy. The objective of this guideline is to review the basis of prophylactic strategies and to provide recommendations for clinicians treating patients with haematological malignancies and solid tumors. PMID:16410361

Sandherr, M; Einsele, H; Hebart, H; Kahl, C; Kern, W; Kiehl, M; Massenkeil, G; Penack, O; Schiel, X; Schuettrumpf, S; Ullmann, A J; Cornely, O A

2006-07-01

204

Phase Ib clinical trial of starch-conjugated deferoxamine (40SD02): a novel long-acting iron chelator.  

PubMed

The most widely used drug for iron chelation is deferoxamine (DFO) mesylate. While effective in promoting iron excretion, it requires prolonged daily infusions, often resulting in poor compliance. A clinical trial was conducted using starch-conjugated DFO (S-DFO; 40SD02), a high-molecular-weight iron chelator possessing prolonged vascular retention. Single doses of S-DFO were infused intravenously into groups of four transfusion-dependent patients with beta-thalassaemia at doses of 150, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg. Urinary iron excretion and various pharmacologic parameters were evaluated for 1 week and safety for 3 weeks. No drug-related effects were observed on clinical chemistries, haematological and coagulation parameters, urinalyses, vital signs or electrocardiograms. Drug-related adverse events were limited to four urticarial reactions, none requiring termination of the infusion. The drug stimulated clinically significant urinary iron excretion, with the highest dose (900 mg/kg) inducing excretion of 1.31 mg of iron/kg (range 0.79-1.90 mg/kg) over 1 week, with residual iron-binding capacity present in the plasma for over 6 d. In summary, treatment with S-DFO, administered weekly, has the potential to achieve iron balance in the poorly compliant patient. PMID:17614825

Harmatz, Paul; Grady, Robert W; Dragsten, Paul; Vichinsky, Elliott; Giardina, Patricia; Madden, Jacqueline; Jeng, Michael; Miller, Becky; Hanson, Gregory; Hedlund, Bo

2007-08-01

205

Technetium chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Barrera, J. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States); Hall, K. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Burrell, A. [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand)

1996-04-01

206

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

207

Doing Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes over 150 chemistry experiments in the following areas: Atomic Structure, Bonding, Chemical Reactions, Colligative Properties, Condensed States, Electrochemistry, Equilibrium Gases, Instrumentation, Limiting Reactant and more.

Brooks, David W.

208

Differences in incidence and trends of haematological malignancies in Japan and the United States  

PubMed Central

The incidence of a malignant disease reflects the genetic and cumulative exposure to the environment of a population. Therefore, evaluation of the incidence and trends of a disease in different populations may provide insights into its aetiology and pathogenesis. To evaluate the incidence of haematological malignancies according to specific subtypes, we used population-based registry data in Japan (N = 125 148) and the United States (US; N = 172 925) from 1993 to 2008. The age-adjusted incidence of haematological malignancies in Japan was approximately one-half that in the US but has been increasing significantly, whereas no significant change was seen in the US [annual percent change (95% C confidence interval): Japan, +2·4% (1·7, 3·1); US, +0·1% (?0·1, 0·2)]. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) showed the largest differences in incidence, with the most remarkable differences observed for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, HL-nodular sclerosis, mycosis fungoides and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. HL and NHL are increasing substantially in Japan but not in the US, suggesting that environmental exposures, such as Westernization of the life style may be causing this increase. Differences in the incidence and trends for specific subtypes also showed a marked contrast across subtypes, which, in turn, may provide significant new insights into disease aetiology in the future. PMID:24245986

Chihara, Dai; Ito, Hidemi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katsumi, Akira; Nakamura, Shigeo; Tomotaka, Sobue; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Matsuo, Keitaro

2014-01-01

209

Carbendazim-induced haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes to the liver and kidney of male rats.  

PubMed

Carbendazim is a systemic broad-spectrum fungicide controlling a wide range of pathogens. It is also used as a preservative in paint, textile, papermaking and leather industry, as well as a preservative of fruits. In the present study, carbendazim was administered at 0, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg per day doses orally to male rats (Rattus rattus) for 15 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples, liver and kidney tissues of each animal were taken. Serum enzyme activities, and haematological and biochemical parameters were analysed. In toxicological tests, 600 mg/kg per day doses of carbendazim caused an increase of albumin, glucose, creatinine and cholesterol levels. Also, at the same doses, white blood cell and lymphocyte counts decreased. However, mean cell hemoglobin and mean cell hemoglobin concentrations increased. Histopathological examinations revealed congestion, an enlargement of the sinusoids, an increase in the number of Kupffer cells, mononuclear cell infiltration and hydropic degeneration in the liver. At the highest doses, congestion, mononuclear cell infiltration, tubular degeneration and fibrosis were observed in the kidney tissue. These results indicate that 300 and 600 mg/kg per day carbendazim affected the liver and kidney tissue and caused some changes on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats. PMID:11936576

Selmanoglu, G; Barlas, N; Songür, S; Koçkaya, E A

2001-12-01

210

Effect of ingested heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) on haematology and serum biochemistry in rabbits.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effects of exposure to possible environmental pollutants such as Cd, Pb and Hg on haematological and serum biochemistry values, New Zealand White female rabbits were treated orally with distilled water solutions of CdSO4 x H2O, Pb(NO3)2 and HgCl2 (n = 4/treatment) in concentrations of 2.3, 4.1, and 30 mg/kg dry matter, respectively, for 28 days. The initial concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg in serum were significantly increased by the treatment. Exposure to Pb significantly decreased the red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hgb) concentration and the haematocrit (Hct) value. The Zn-protoporphyrin concentration did not change as a result of Pb exposure. Pb and Hg loading significantly increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was also increased by both Hg and Cd exposure. Comparing the treated and the control rabbits, all the trace elements studied significantly reduced the activity of enzymes in the pancreatic tissues. The haematological results indicate that hyperchromic macrocytic anaemia developed in rabbits treated with Pb. The increased activities of both AST and ALT indicate pathophysiological changes of the liver parenchyma, which was verified by focal fatty infiltration seen histopathologically. Cd exposure could exert a toxic effect on the kidneys, although the slight tubulonephrosis developed would not possibly affect the renal function. The reduced activities of amylase, trypsin, protease and lipase induced by Cd, Pb and Hg suggest toxicity to the pancreas. PMID:14516158

Bersényi, A; Fekete, S Gy; Szöcs, Z; Berta, Erzsébet

2003-01-01

211

The quality of information on monitoring for haematological adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine the adequacy of instructions to monitor for haematological adverse drug reactions in the Summary of Product Characteristics. Methods We searched the United Kingdom eMedicines Compendium to identify instructions to monitor for haematological adverse drug reactions, and selected 84 Summaries of Product Characteristics for nonhaematological drugs, which were then scored independently by five clinicians, using a scale we devised, the Systematic Instructions for Monitoring (SIM) score. A subset of comparable summaries from Australian and United States summaries was also examined. Results The SIM scores for the five clinicians agreed well: Kendall's coefficient of concordance = 0.937, P < 0.0001. The median SIM score for the 84 UK summaries was 13 [95% confidence interval (CI) for median 12, 15] out of a possible 31. Over 40% fell below a hypothetical minimally acceptable score of 12/31. SIM scores were on average 2.0 (95% CI 0.4, 3.8) higher for Australian summaries; US summaries had intermediate scores that did not significantly differ from those in Australia or the UK. Conclusions Instructions on monitoring for adverse drug reactions are often inadequate. Pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies should produce clear guidance on monitoring, and the data to support it. PMID:16187979

Ferner, R E; Coleman, Jamie; Pirmohamed, Munir; Constable, Simon A; Rouse, Andrew

2005-01-01

212

Monitoring environmental Aspergillus spp. contamination and meteorological factors in a haematological unit.  

PubMed

The opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Aspergillus genus are present in almost all seasons of the year, and their concentration is related to meteorological conditions. The high density of Aspergillus spp. conidia in a haematological hospital ward may be a significant risk factor for developing invasive fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the variability of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia contamination in a Haematological Unit (HU) within a period of 16 months in relation with some meteorological parameters. An environmental Aspergillus surveillance was conducted in the HU in four rooms and their bathrooms, in the corridor and in three external sites using an agar impact sampler. During each sampling, temperature and relative humidity at each site were recorded and current wind speed and rainfall events were taken from the official weather service. Aspergillus spp. conidia concentration differed significantly across the sampling sites. Internal Aspergillus spp. loads were significantly dependent on temperature, internal relative humidity and rain. External conidia concentrations were significantly influenced by outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A suitable indicator was introduced to evaluate the seasonal distribution of Aspergillus spp. conidia in the sampling sites, and a significant dependence on this indicator was observed inside the HU. Seventeen different fungal species belonging to the Aspergillus genus were detected during the sampling period. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated species and its distribution depended significantly on the seasonal indicator both inside and outside the hospital ward. PMID:24158616

Cavallo, M; Andreoni, S; Martinotti, M G; Rinaldi, M; Fracchia, L

2013-12-01

213

Detection of small numbers of cells characteristic for haematological disorders in peripheral blood (the deep diff).  

PubMed

We studied cytocentrifuge preparations of peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes in haematological patients with nondiagnostic white cell differential counts. This approach (the 'deep diff') enabled the detection of small numbers of diagnostically significant cells in a majority of patients. We found ringed sideroblasts in 5/7 patients with sideroblastic anaemia and megaloblasts in 9/10 patients with megaloblastic anaemia. We observed centrocytes in seven patients with follicular lymphoma, mantle cells in five patients with mantle cell lymphoma and marginal zone cells in five patients with nodal marginal zone lymphoma. We detected small percentages of lymphoma cells in cytospins of mononuclear leucocytes in 12 patients with large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. The deep diff was nondiagnostic in 5/6 patients with hairy cell leukaemia and in 9/10 patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma. In these cases, there were insufficient cells to detect light chain restriction. Increased counts of leukaemic cells were found in 12/13 patients with acute leukaemia with < 3% blasts in the conventional white cell differential. Increased blasts were also observed in six patients with refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB). Decreased blasts were found in five patients with aplastic anaemia and in nine patients with bone marrow aplasia after intensive chemotherapy. Increased plasma cell counts were observed in 13/14 patients with advanced plasma cell myeloma. We conclude that the 'deep diff', augmented by immunocytochemistry, may be useful in the diagnosis of haematological disorders. PMID:11985551

Oertel, J; Oertel, B; Dörken, B

2002-04-01

214

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

215

Haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. Haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. The measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but

I. Aroch; N. Y. Shpigel; Y. Avidar; B. Yakobson; R. King; M. Shamir

2005-01-01

216

ICSH Guideline for worldwide point-of-care testing in haematology with special reference to the complete blood count  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY These guidelines provide information on how to develop and manage a point-of-care (POCT) service so that reliable haematology results are produced regardless of where the test is performed. Many of the issues addressed here are relevant to POCT within hospitals or health centres; however, the principles are equally applicable to care in the commu- nity and doctors' offices. Other

C. BRIGGS; J. CARTER; S.-H. LEE; L. SANDHAUS; R. SIMON-LOPEZ; J.-L. VIVES CORRONS

2008-01-01

217

Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722652

Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

2014-01-01

218

Blood oxygen transport, rheology and haematological responses to confinement stress in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diploid and triploid all-female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts were challenged with 2.5 h of confinement stress in aerated seawater. Subsequent stress responses were quantified by plasma cortisol, glucose, and lactate, and by the haematological parameters haematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBCC), mean cell volume (MCV), blood haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC),

Joanne Sadler; Rufus M. G Wells; Patricia M Pankhurst; Ned W Pankhurst

2000-01-01

219

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY UCLA Organic Chemistry Faculty  

E-print Network

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY UCLA Organic Chemistry Faculty perform research in molecular machines, exotic CHEMISTRY FACULTY RESEARCH INTERESTS Anne M. Andrews, Professor-in-Residence: Understanding how areas of interest include cross- coupling reactions, green chemistry, heterocycle synthesis, and natural

Levine, Alex J.

220

Circumstellar chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

1987-01-01

221

Aggressive large granular lymphocyte lymphomas in five dogs: a clinical cytohistological and immunological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 276 canine lymphomas referred to the Haematology–Cytology–Immunology laboratory of the Lyon Veterinary School between 1997 and 2003, there were five aggressive large granular lymphocyte (LGL) malignancies. The five dogs were clinically examined and followed up. Cytological and histological analyses of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, intestine and bone marrow were performed. The immunophenotype and proliferation index were established. The

V. Turinelli; T. Marchal; F. Ponce; C. Bonnefont-Rebeix; C. Fournel-Fleury

2005-01-01

222

[Transition of Japanese societies related to clinical chemistry in the mid-Showa period (1955-1980) (part 3) - related to the medical field].  

PubMed

Remarkable progress in the Japanese clinical chemical field was observed in the mid-Showa period (1955-1980). Many biochemists, pharmacists, medical doctors, and medical technologists started their studies and reported their accomplishments in the clinical chemical societies during this period. I recently reported on the transition of pharmaceutical science societies in the clinical chemical field in JJHP, Vol. 35, No. 2, in 2000, and Vol. 36, No. 1, in 2001. In these reports, the transition of medical societies in the clinical chemical field and social insurance medical fee payments were discussed. The Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JCCP) was started in 1951 and the Japanese Association of Medical Technologists (JAMT) in 1952. The former mainly consists of biochemists and medical doctors and the latter of medical technologists in Japanese hospitals. Because many clinical examinations in hospitals were undertaken with the support of instruments (for example, the Auto Analyzer AA-1), the Japan Society for Clinical Laboratory Automation (JSCLA) started in 1969. The Japan Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards started in 1984. The Japan Medical Association helped to promote clinical chemical examinations in the medical field, especially since 1957, by increasing the social insurance medical fee payment. PMID:12412605

Yamada, Mitsuo

2002-01-01

223

for Undergraduate CHEMISTRY MAJORS  

E-print Network

, Geochemistry, Hazardous Waste Management, Inorganic Chemistry, Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry, OilHANDBOOK for Undergraduate CHEMISTRY MAJORS DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY Fall 2010 #12;#12;TABLE OF CONTENTS A Career in Chemistry - What It Means ___________________________________________ 4 What do

Stuart, Steven J.

224

Haematology, genotoxicity, enzymatic activity and histopathology as biomarkers of metal pollution in the shrew Crocidura russula.  

PubMed

Haematological (WBC, RBC, Hgb and Hct) and genotoxicity (MNT) parameters, hepatic enzymatic activities (GST, GPx and GR), and a histopathological evaluation of liver, kidneys and gonads were assessed as general biomarkers of metal pollution in the shrew Crocidura russula inhabiting a pyrite mining area. Specimens exposed to metals presented a few significant alterations when compared with reference animals: GST activity decreased; micronuclei increased; and evident liver alterations related to metal exposure were observed. On the basis of all the parameters studied, age was an important factor that partly explained the observed variation, whereas sex was the least important factor. Significant correlations were also found between heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers evaluated, demonstrating the great influence of these metals in the metabolic alterations. To the best of our knowledge, these data constitute the first measurements of a battery of biomarkers in shrews from a mine site and are among the few available for insectivorous mammals. PMID:18448220

Sánchez-Chardi, A; Marques, C C; Gabriel, S I; Capela-Silva, F; Cabrita, A S; López-Fuster, M J; Nadal, J; Mathias, M L

2008-12-01

225

Haematology and serum biochemistry of golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematological and serum biochemical values were estimated in blood samples collected from 21 apparently adult golden eagles\\u000a (Aquila chrysaetos) of both sexes. The mean values of red blood cells, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cells, heterophils, lymphocytes,\\u000a monocytes and eosinophils were 1.63?±?0.11?×?1012\\/l, 0.47?±?0.009 l\\/l, 91.73?±?1.52 g\\/l, 24.31?±?1.97?×?109\\/l, 4.40?±?0.22?×?109\\/l, 16.81?±?0.65?×?109\\/l, 0.99?±?0.19?×?109\\/l and 2.10?±?0.30?×?109\\/l, respectively. The leucocytes had 69.14%, 4.09%, 18.12% and 8.65%

S. Nazifi; A. Nabinejad; M. Sepehrimanesh; S. L. Poorbaghi; F. Farshneshani; M. Rahsepar

2008-01-01

226

Haematological profile in leprosy. Part II--Relationship to severity of disease and treament status.  

PubMed

321 adult male lepromatous leprosy patients were studied for relationship between haematological findings, severity of disease and duration of treatment. Significant changes were noticed in relation in haemoglobin concentration, serum vitamin B12 and serum folate levels, serum albumin and globulin. No significant changes were observed in serum iron levels in relation to disease and treatment status. With rising bacterial load, there was a trend towards lower haemoglobin concentration, higher vitamin B12 level and lowered serum folate levels. Serum albumin showed a significant decline, while serum globulin showed a significant rise. The findings are discussed in relation to replacement of bone marrow by lepromatous tissue as well as possible interference in the metabolism of haematinics by M. leprae. The exact mechanism of neurlogical deficit in leprosy in relation to deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid need to be further elucidated. PMID:651316

Karat, A B; Rao, P S

1978-01-01

227

Notch signalling in T-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma and other haematological malignancies.  

PubMed

Notch receptors participate in a highly conserved signalling pathway that regulates normal development and tissue homeostasis in a context- and dose-dependent manner. Deregulated Notch signalling has been implicated in many diseases, but the clearest example of a pathogenic role is found in T-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-LL), in which the majority of human and murine tumours have acquired mutations that lead to aberrant increases in Notch1 signalling. Remarkably, it appears that the selective pressure for Notch mutations is virtually unique among cancers to T-LL, presumably reflecting a special context-dependent role for Notch in normal T-cell progenitors. Nevertheless, there are some recent reports suggesting that Notch signalling has subtle, yet important roles in other forms of haematological malignancy as well. Here, we review the role of Notch signalling in various blood cancers, focusing on T-LL with an eye towards targeted therapeutics. PMID:20967796

Aster, Jon C; Blacklow, Stephen C; Pear, Warren S

2011-01-01

228

Improving the emergency department management of post-chemotherapy sepsis in haematological malignancy patients.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To review the result of the implementation of treatment protocol for post-chemotherapy sepsis in haematological malignancy patients. DESIGN. Case series with internal comparison. SETTING. Accident and Emergency Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Febrile patients presenting to the Accident and Emergency Department with underlying haematological malignancy and receiving chemotherapy within 1 month of Accident and Emergency Department visit between June 2011 and July 2012. Similar cases between June 2010 and May 2011 served as historical referents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The compliance rate among emergency physicians, the door-to-antibiotic time before and after implementation of the protocol, and the impact of the protocol on Accident and Emergency Department and hospital service. RESULTS. A total of 69 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, 50 were managed with the treatment protocol while 19 patients were historical referents. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the most commonly encountered malignancy. Overall, 88% of the patients presented with sepsis syndrome. The mean door-to-antibiotic time of those managed with the treatment protocol was 47 minutes versus 300 minutes in the referent group. Overall, 86% of patients in the treatment group met the target door-to-antibiotic time of less than 1 hour. The mean lengths of stay in the emergency department (76 minutes vs 105 minutes) and hospital (11 days vs 15 days) were shorter in those managed with the treatment protocol versus the historical referents. CONCLUSION. Implementation of the protocol can effectively shorten the door-to-antibiotic time to meet the international standard of care in neutropenic sepsis patients. The compliance rate was also high. We proved that effective implementation of the protocol is feasible in a busy emergency department through excellent teamwork between nurses, pharmacists, and emergency physicians. PMID:25306894

Ko, H F; Tsui, S S; Tse, J Wk; Kwong, W Y; Chan, O Y; Wong, G Ck

2015-02-01

229

The effects of probiotic and mannanoligosaccharide on some haematological and immunological parameters in turkeys.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) and probiotic supplementation on haematological and immunological parameters in turkeys. A total of 72, 15-day-old white hybrid converter turkey poults were used in this study. Poults were assigned into three groups, each group consisted of six poults and the trial was repeated four times. The control group was fed a basal diet without supplemented probiotic and MOS, and treatment groups were fed either 1 g/kg MOS or probiotic added diets. At the end of the 15-week treatment period, samples of blood were collected to determine immunological and haematological values. The comparison among the groups showed that both the probiotic and MOS supplementation resulted in significant increases (P < 0.05) in the serum IgG and IgM levels, and significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the peripheral blood T lymphocyte percentage compared with those of the control group. Mean serum IgG level (7.06 g/l) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in poults supplemented with probiotic compared with MOS (6.76 g/l). It was observed that the probiotic supplementation caused statistically significant increases (P < 0.05) in the erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit values, but MOS supplementation did not have a significant effect (P > 0.05) on these parameters. Total leucocyte and differential leucocyte counts were not affected by dietary MOS and probiotic supplementation. These results show that MOS or probiotic may elevate IgG and IgM levels in turkey. The MOS and probiotic that enhance immunoglobulin levels will have a more positive effect on growth performance, production and turkeys' ability to resist disease. PMID:16050905

Cetin, N; Güçlü, B K; Cetin, E

2005-08-01

230

First-dose pharmacokinetics of aminoglycosides in critically ill haematological malignancy patients.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to determine the volume of distribution (Vd) (L/kg) of intravenous aminoglycosides (AGs) in critically ill haematological malignancy patients. Secondary objectives were to determine the body weight (actual, ideal, adjusted or lean) that yields the most precise estimate of Vd when normalised in L/kg as well as the frequency that current first-dose strategies result in post-distributional peak concentrations (C(peak)) within the target range (tobramycin 16-24 mg/L; amikacin 32-48 mg/L). In total, 58 AG doses were included (tobramycin, n = 34; amikacin, n = 24). Median Vd was 0.38 L/kg normalised per the most precise dose weight, which was actual body weight (ABW). The median dose was 445 mg (5.8 mg/kg ABW) for tobramycin and 1200 mg (13.8 mg/kg ABW) for amikacin. Target C(peak) (tobramycin 20mg/L; amikacin 40 mg/L) was achieved in only 25% of all AG episodes, with 4% exceeding the target and 71% falling below the target. Twenty-four organisms were isolated in the study sample; target C(peak) achievement (tobramycin 20 mg/L; amikacin 40 mg/L) would yield a peak:minimum inhibitory concentration of 10 in 75% and 52% of organisms, respectively. In conclusion, an increased Vd of AGs was identified in this critically ill haematological malignancy patient sample, and current dosing yielded a suboptimal C(peak) in the majority of patients. PMID:25455848

Blackburn, Laura M; Tverdek, Frank P; Hernandez, Mike; Bruno, Jeffrey J

2015-01-01

231

Radioanalytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a course on the use of radionuclides in analytical chemistry. Types of radioactive decay are discussed as well as the techniques of scintillation counting, neutron activation analysis, and gamma spectroscopy.

2011-05-20

232

Catalytic Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

Borer, Londa; And Others

1996-01-01

233

Green Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about a study in which participants discovered contaminants in their homes, and how green chemistry may provide alternatives to such everyday toxins, in this video adapted from Contaminated Without Consent.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-03-21

234

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

School Science Review, 1981

1981-01-01

235

Cooperative Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concept mapping in the organic chemistry laboratory can supplant cookbook activities with higher cognitive exercises. The common thread of most organic lab experiments is the synthesis, isolation, purification, and characterization of a carbon compound. T

Allan A. Gahr

2003-02-01

236

Chemistry Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California State University Stanislaus developed these interactive chemistry Web tutorials to assist college students in mass spectrometry, proton NMR chemical shifts, and more. With the many animations and figures, visitors will find assistance with the subtraction and absorption of light and with infrared absorption frequencies for numerous compounds. The titration tutorials simulate laboratory experiments without the hazards of dealing with chemicals. Students will also find a very informative lesson describing how to use Excel to record and analyze their chemistry data.

237

Computational Chemistry for Chemistry Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper we describe an ongoing project where the goal is to develop competence and confidence among chemistry faculty so they are able to utilize computational chemistry as an effective teaching tool. Advances in hardware and software have made research-grade tools readily available to the academic community. Training is required so that faculty can take full advantage of this technology, begin to transform the educational landscape, and attract more students to the study of science.

Shawn C. Sendlinger

238

Low-dose naltrexone effects on plasma chemistries and clinical symptoms in autism: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of month-long naltrexone (NTX) treatment at a daily oral dose of 0.5 mg\\/kg\\/day was contrasted with placebo (PLC) in a double-blind study with conjoint clinical and biochemical evaluations of therapeutic effects. Modest clinical benefits were achieved with both PLC and NTX, with marginally better overall results following NTX, and degree of improvement appeared to be related to plasma

Manuel P. Bouvard; Marion Leboyer; Jean-Marie Launay; Christophe Recasens; Marie-Hélène Plumet; Delphine Waller-Perotte; François Tabuteau; Dominique Bondoux; Michel Dugas; Patrick Lensing; Jaak Panksepp

1995-01-01

239

5-411 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 1C9  

E-print Network

Environmental chemistry Environmental health sciences Hematology / Hematopathology Host-pathogen interaction Name: ID #: 1. Please indicate areas of research interest: Analytical chemistry Anatomical pathology Cancer pathology Clinical chemistry Clinical microbiology Cryobiology / Biopreservation Dermatopathology

MacMillan, Andrew

240

Radiation Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

Wojnárovits, L.

241

The effect of the combination of acids and tannin in diet on the performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs  

PubMed Central

Background The abolition of in-feed antibiotics or chemotherapeutics as growth promoters have stimulated the swine industry to look for alternatives such as organic acids, botanicals, probiotics and tannin. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of a combination of acids and tannin with diet with organic acids and diet without growth promoters on the growth performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs. Tannin is more natural and cheaper but possibly with the same effectiveness as organic acids with regard to growth performance. Methods Thirty-six 7 week old grower pigs, divided into three equal groups, were used in a three week feeding trial. Group I was fed basal diet, group II basal diet with added organic acids and group III basal diet with added organic and inorganic acids and tannin. Pigs were weighed before and after feeding and observed daily. Blood was collected before and after the feeding trial for the determination of selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters. One-way ANOVA was used to assess any diet related changes of all the parameters. Paired t-test was used to evaluate changes of blood parameters individually in each group of growers before and after feeding. Results No clinical health problems related to diet were noted during the three week feeding trial. The average daily gain (ADG) and selected blood parameters were not affected by the addition to basal diet of either acids and tannin or of organic acids alone. Selected blood parameters remained within the reference range before and after the feeding trial, with the exception of total serum proteins that were below the lower value of reference range at both times. The significant changes (paired t-test) observed in individual groups before and after the feeding trial are related to the growth of pigs. Conclusion Diet with acids and tannin did not improve the growth performance of grower pigs but had no deleterious effects on selected blood parameters. The possibility of beneficial effects of adding acids and tannin in diets on growth performance over a longer period, however, could not be excluded. PMID:20205921

2010-01-01

242

Chemistry & Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry and Industry Magazine, a bimonthly product of the Society of Chemical Industry, provides selected full-text articles from the print magazine in the areas of news, commentary, features, latest results from chemical literature, and highlights from the latest European patents. In addition, there is a searchable and browsable archive of past issues, a daily news section, and searchable jobs and meetings databases. The Society of Chemical Industry is "an international association of about 6000 members aimed at furthering applied chemistry." One of the highlights of its web site is its publication section, where, under "electronic publications," readers can find updated daily news, jobs and meetings listings on chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and the environment.

243

Kitchen Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is a great deal of chemistry going on in every kitchen, even though most cooks may not be cognizant of the various interactions going on in the pot, wok, or oven. MIT's popular OpenCourseWare Initiative has recently made the contents of Dr. Patricia Christie's course on kitchen chemistry available on this site. Visitors to the site can download the syllabus, take in some assigned readings (and recipes), and look over the assignments. The assignments include investigations that involve emulsifiers, ice cream, peer teaching, and pancakes, among other things. The site also includes links to helpful readings, such as those on chocolate, the health benefits of capsicum, and the world of gluten. For people who wish to bring back the frayed connective tissue between chemistry and the culinary arts, this site is absolutely essential.

Christie, Patricia

2006-01-01

244

EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies.  

PubMed

Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially 'atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis. PMID:25052315

Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison

2015-04-01

245

21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section 862.3200...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical...

2010-04-01

246

21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...

2010-04-01

247

Chemistry Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

1999-01-01

248

Polymer Chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

2010-01-01

249

Tropospheric chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemistry of the background troposphere, the source region, and the transition regions are discussed. The troposphere is governed by heterogeneous chemistry far more so than the stratosphere. Heterogeneous processes of interest involve scavenging of trace gases by aerosols, cloud and precipitation elements leading to aqueous phase chemical reactions and to temporary and permanent removal of material from the gas phase. Dry deposition is a major removal process for ozone, as well as for other gases of importance in tropospheric photochemistry. These processes are also discussed.

Mohnen, V. A.; Chameides, W.; Demerjian, K. L.; Lenschow, D. H.; Logan, J. A.; Mcneal, R. J.; Penkett, S. A.; Platt, U.; Schurath, U.; Dias, P. D.

1985-01-01

250

Sublethal toxicological evaluation of methyl parathion on some haematological and biochemical parameters in an Indian major carp Catla catla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sublethal toxic potential of an organophosphorus pesticide, methyl parathion (MP), in altering certain haematological\\u000a (Hb, Hct, RBC, WBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC))\\u000a and biochemical (plasma protein and plasma glucose) parameters in an Indian major carp Catla catla was investigated under static conditions. The LC50 (96 h) of MP was found

Bhat D. Abhijith; Mathan Ramesh; Rama Krishnan Poopal

251

Reference range variation in haematological indices amongst five different age groups of less than one year in Islamabad, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the current study was to establish the reference ranges of haematological indices amongst five healthy infantile (<1 year) age groups. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi. Non probability convenience sampling was adopted for the proceedings for the study. A sample size was 2000 which was equally distributed as 400 samples for all the five age groups i.e. <27 days, 3 month, 6 month, 9 month and one year. One thousands were males and 1000 were the females. An informed consent from the guardian was the pre requisite of study, while those candidates having an evidence of any systemic illness were not excluded. Results : The values of haematological indices i.e. MCV, MCHC, MCH, PCV and RDW varies with growing age of an infant. A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. Conclusion : A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. The values reported in this study can be used as a local reference for the newborn aged between <27 days and 1 year of age. PMID:24353580

Tauseef Bukhari, Kiran; Zafar, Humaira

2013-01-01

252

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160?mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80?ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80?mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

P. N., Onu

2012-01-01

253

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160?mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80?ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80?mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

P N, Onu

2012-01-01

254

Changes in haematological profile of common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) induced by transit to pheasantry.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess haematological changes in hand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) transported from intensive housing facilities to a pheasantry. Selected haematological parameters were monitored in a group of 100 pheasants (50 males and 50 females) aged of 9 weeks that were transported for 4 hours by a covered lorry in crates, with a total body weight of 12 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C12 - floor space: 290 cm2/kg) and with a total body weight of 18 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C18 - floor space: 195 cm2/kg). Blood samples were taken from 10 randomly selected males and 10 females before transport (CON group) and 20 hours after transport (C12 and C18 groups). Examinations consisted in determining the total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin levels and differential leukocyte counts, whereby the proportions of heterophil, basophil and eosinophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of the total leukocytes were computed. The changes in the parameters of red blood cell count were manifested by an increase (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin level, MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) values and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the total erythrocyte count and haematocrit level in both C12 and C18 pheasants, when compared with the control group of non-transported pheasants. C18 pheasants exhibited also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MCV (mean cell value) value. When analyzing differential leukocyte counts, C18 pheasants showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in heterophil counts and H/L ratio, whereas values in C12 pheasants did not differ from the non-transported control group. Individual counts of lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.05) in C12 pheasants, whereas basophil counts were increased (P < 0.01) in both C12 and C18 pheasants. Total leukocyte count was decreased (P < 0.01) in C12 and C18 pheasants. In conclusion, the specific requirements of pheasants, as primarily wild animals, for the density in crates should be respected during transportation and they should be transported at lower densities than other poultry species, at least 290 cm2/kg live weight should be provided. PMID:17078531

Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Vecerek, V; Pistekova, V; Chloupek, P; Suchy, P

2006-10-01

255

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

256

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

School Science Review, 1983

1983-01-01

257

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

School Science Review, 1976

1976-01-01

258

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

259

Analytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features lecture notes for first and second level courses in analytical chemistry. Topics include titrations, gravimetry, kinetics and electrochemistry (redox). Potentiometry, coulometry, voltammetry, spectroscopic and separation methods are presented as well, and are illustrated with QuickTime animations.

Hardy, James K.

260

Bad Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Princeton Section of the American Chemical Society consists of articles about common chemical misconceptions along with examinations of the scientific explanation. The purpose of this page is to reveal common misconceptions in the field of Chemistry. The intended audience is secondary school students and their teachers. The page is at present just beginning, and additions are welcome.

Kevin Lehmann

261

Confectionary Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

Levine, Elise Hilf

1996-01-01

262

Green Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This audio segment from PRI's The World Science Podcast explores the science of Green Chemistry. Hear about companies that are developing greener chemicals, and learn why they are fast becoming an attractive alternative for the multi-billion dollar chemical industry.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2010-02-12

263

Chemistry Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

School Science Review, 1972

1972-01-01

264

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

School Science Review, 1978

1978-01-01

265

Atmospheric Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of links provides access to resources on atmospheric chemistry, especially acid deposition, air pollution, and air quality. The sites include personal and government pages, universities and research groups, non-governmental organizations and meetings, and products and services. There are also links to related search topics.

266

Chemistry Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

School Science Review, 1982

1982-01-01

267

Hydrocarbon chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this book is to provide a conprehensive up-to-date treatment of the field encompassing both basic chemistry and practical application. Topics include the following: basic information about hydrocarbons, their definitions, uses as energy sources, synthesis and conversion; hydrocarbon production from petroleum and natural gas and synthesis C1 sources; and various aspects of transformations of hydrocarbons.

Olah, G.A.; Molnar, A.

1995-08-01

268

Reinventing chemistry.  

PubMed

Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures. PMID:25682927

Whitesides, George M

2015-03-01

269

Nuclear Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill Chemistry Fundamentals program and the Shodor Education Foundation, discusses five different types of radioactive decay: alpha, beta negative, gamma, positron emission, and electron capture. After examining the numerous equations, students can test their dating skills by solving three practice problems. Solutions are included.

270

Impact of HPAI H5N1 infection on select blood chemistry and gas ranges in layers, broilers and turkeys using the i-STAT Clinical Analyzer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection of poultry with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 typically results in mortality within six days of inoculation. However, the exact mechanisms that induce death are unknown, even as birds may die in the absence of overt clinical signs of disease. In human and many veterinary ...

271

Medicinal chemistry for 2020  

PubMed Central

Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

2011-01-01

272

Looking Forward in Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core activities of process chemistry involve the synthesis of drug candidates at a scale that supports clinical evaluations and the creation of a manufacturing process that is safe, robust, and cost effective. Innovative problem solving has always been a key element in process chemistry and will be increasingly important for addressing emerging challenges in science, globalization, and commoditization. The acquisition

Ian W. Davies; Christopher J. Welch

2009-01-01

273

UCLA CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY  

E-print Network

UCLA CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY ORIENTATION HANDBOOK 2012-2013 #12;Table of Contents Introduction .............................................................................................................................................2 Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Office ................................................................................................................................................4 Biochemistry

Levine, Alex J.

274

Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).  

PubMed

Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p < 0.05) high in negative control group when compared with positive control group. It could be concluded that Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p < 0.05) reduction in haematological and serum biochemical parameters of all the treatment groups were recorded in comparison with negative control group. In addition, T4 and T5 groups showed significantly (p < 0.05) high superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin (Hb). However, higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), blood glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in T5 group revealed that higher concentration of azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis. PMID:23090629

Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

2013-08-01

275

The psychosocial experience of adolescents with haematological malignancies in Jordan: an interpretive phenomenological analysis study.  

PubMed

The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

Al Omari, Omar; Wynaden, Dianne

2014-01-01

276

The study of some haematological and serum biochemical parameters of juvenile beluga (Huso huso) fed oligofructose.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary oligofructose (1, 2 and 3%) on the blood profiles of beluga (Huso huso) juveniles (18.77 ± 0.76 g) compared to fish fed an un-supplemented diet. After 7 weeks of feeding on the experimental diets, haematological parameters, metabolic products (cholesterol, glucose and total protein) and serum enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) were measured. Compared to the control group (0% oligofructose), dietary oligofructose had no effect on red blood cell counts (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cellular haemoglobin (MCH) or mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (P > 0.05). However, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, leucocyte (WBC) levels and the proportion of lymphocytes were significantly higher (P > 0.05) in the 2% oligofructose fed fish than in the 3% oligofructose fed fish. Additionally, haematocrit (Hct) values (P = 0.049) and the proportion of lymphocytes (P ? 0.01) were significantly higher in the 2% oligofructose group than in the control group. Although serum glucose and total protein remained unaffected, serum cholesterol was significantly lower in the 2% oligofructose group than in the control and 3% oligofructose group (P < 0.05). The results of the present study showed that oligofructose had no significant effects on serum lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. These results indicate that fish blood profiles could be affected by prebiotics, which should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:20658187

Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Merrifield, Daniel L; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Yelghi, Saeed; Bastami, Kazem Darvish

2011-03-01

277

Detection of BCR-ABL transcripts by multiplex and nested PCR in different haematological disorders.  

PubMed

Single-step Multiplex RT-PCR was used as a rapid and highly sensitive method for screening patients with myeloproliferative conditions and ALL for the presence of underlying BCR-ABL gene fusions. Positive and negative results obtained with the multiplex assay were subsequently confirmed by nested PCR. We studied 21 patients for detecting the presence of b3a2, b2a2 and e1a2 BCR-ABL transcripts at diagnosis and following treatment with different therapeutical procedures. These studies allowed the molecular characterisation of patients with different haematological disorders and for demonstrating BCR-ABL transcripts in Ph-CML. In a Ph+ CML patient, a switch of isoforms was detected after bone marrow transplantation and infusion with donor lymphocytes, implying substitution of e1a2 for b3a2 coexisting with a myeloid/lymphoid biphenotypic profile. In ALL, one Ph+ patient showed coexpression of e1a2 and b2a2 at diagnosis followed by persistence of e1a2 after bone marrow transplantation. Our results were compared to previous findings in the literature on molecular diagnosis of leukaemias. PMID:10721788

Otazú, I B; Zalcberg, I; Tabak, D G; Dobbin, J; Seuánez, H N

2000-03-01

278

The Psychosocial Experience of Adolescents with Haematological Malignancies in Jordan: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis Study  

PubMed Central

The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

2014-01-01

279

Environmental Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity with several mini experiments, learners explore the chemistry that helps scientists learn about the environment and how they can help save it. Learners will determine if pollutants that have entered the ground water can also enter plants. Then, learners examine fossils to see if any changes have occurred over time in a particular species of sea mollusks. Finally, learners act as chemists to recycle paper by making paper from toilet paper.

2012-07-24

280

Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians  

MedlinePLUS

... laboratory technology includes courses in chemistry, biology, microbiology, mathematics, and statistics, as well as courses in clinical ... sciences should take courses in chemistry, biology, and mathematics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Some states require laboratory ...

281

Computational chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

Arnold, J. O.

1987-01-01

282

Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011)  

E-print Network

1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye Chemistry", 5th Edition, Freeman Press. Available at SU bookstore. The solution manual is optional. (Suggested for CHE611 Students pursuing Inorganic) Huheey, "Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure

Mather, Patrick T.

2011-01-01

283

Chemistry 106X -Spring 2011 General Chemistry  

E-print Network

Chemistry 106X - Spring 2011 General Chemistry Instructor: Christopher Iceman Class: MWF 1 and can be purchased in the UAF bookstore or elsewhere: · Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed for Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed. (1 or 2 semester) · TurningPoint Technologies ResponseCard RF

Wagner, Diane

284

Chemistry 675 (CHE 675) Advanced Organic Chemistry  

E-print Network

Chemistry 675 (CHE 675) Advanced Organic Chemistry Fall Semester 2011 Professor James Hougland675 is a graduate-level organic chemistry course that can be continued in the Spring semester as CHE685. These two courses focus on physical organic chemistry, which deals with the structure

Mather, Patrick T.

285

Chemistry 106X -Fall 2010 General Chemistry  

E-print Network

Chemistry 106X - Fall 2010 General Chemistry Instructor: Christopher Iceman Class: MWF 9 bookstore or elsewhere: · Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed. by Kotz, Treichel, and Townsend-0-495-38703-9 Electronic Book - ISBN 978-0-495-68043-7 · OWL pin number for Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed. (1

Wagner, Diane

286

Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2010)  

E-print Network

1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2010) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye: M-W 4:00-5:00, and by appointment Credits: 3 Text: (Required) Shriver & Atkins, "Inorganic Chemistry. (Suggested for CHE611 Students pursuing Inorganic) Huheey, "Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure

Mather, Patrick T.

287

A Label-Free Porous Silicon Immunosensor for Broad Detection of Opiates in a Blind Clinical Study and Result Comparison to Commercial Analytical Chemistry Techniques  

PubMed Central

In this work we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n=50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA®) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was < 9% both within-run and between-day at and above the cutoff limit of 300 ng ml?1. This study validates the analytical screening capability of label-free PSi opiate immunosensors in authentic patient samples and is the first semi-quantitative demonstration of the technology’s successful clinical use. These results motivate future development of PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting. PMID:21062030

Bonanno, Lisa M.; Kwong, Tai C.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

2010-01-01

288

School of Chemistry CHEM3100: Chemistry at a Molecular Level  

E-print Network

School of Chemistry CHEM3100: Chemistry at a Molecular Level Tutorial Groups 2013/14 Name Programme Tutor Ahmed, Zacher Medicinal Chemistry Arif, Saboor Chemistry Bagnall, Samuel Chemistry Barbara, David Chemistry Beaumont, Nicholas Chemistry Quinn, Michael J Chemistry Bennett, Matthew Chemistry Booth, Natalie

Rzepa, Henry S.

289

Haematological and ion regulatory effects of nitrite in the air-breathing snakehead fish Channa striata.  

PubMed

The tolerance and effects of nitrite on ion balance and haematology were investigated in the striped snakehead, Channa striata Bloch 1793, which is an air-breathing fish with reduced gills of importance for aquaculture in South East Asia. C. striata was nitrite tolerant with a 96 h LC50 of 4.7 mM. Effects of sub-lethal exposures to nitrite (0mM, 1.4mM, and 3.0mM) were determined during a 7-day exposure period. Plasma nitrite increased, but the internal concentration remained well below ambient levels. Extracellular nitrate rose by several mM, indicating that a large proportion of the nitrite taken up was converted to nitrate. Nitrite reacted with erythrocyte haemoglobin (Hb) causing methaemoglobin (metHb) to increase to 30% and nitrosylhaemoglobin (HbNO) to increase to 10% of total Hb. Both metHb and HbNO stabilised after 4 days, and functional Hb levels accordingly never fell below 60% of total Hb. Haematocrit and total Hb were unaffected by nitrite. Although the effects of nitrite exposure seemed minor in terms of plasma nitrite and metHb increases, ion balance was strongly affected. In the high exposure group, total osmolality decreased from 320 mOsm to 260 mOsm, and plasma sodium from 150 mM to 120 mM, while plasma chloride fell from 105 mM to 60mM and plasma bicarbonate rose from 12 mM in controls to 20mM in exposed fish. The extreme changes in ion balance in C. striata are different from the response reported in other fish, and further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism behind the observed changes in regulation. PMID:22516674

Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

2012-08-15

290

Does habitat fragmentation cause stress in the agile antechinus? A haematological approach.  

PubMed

Although the vertebrate stress response is essential for survival, frequent or prolonged stress responses can result in chronic physiological stress, which is associated with a suite of conditions that can impair survivorship and reproductive output. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation and degradation are potential stressors of free-living vertebrates, and in theory could result in chronic stress. To address this issue, we compared haematological indicators of stress and condition in agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis) populations in 30 forest fragments and 30 undisturbed, continuous forest sites (pseudofragments) in south-eastern Australia over 2 years. In peripheral blood, the total leucocyte count was lower and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and percentage of eosinophils in the total leucocyte population was higher in fragment than pseudofragment populations, indicating that fragment populations were probably experiencing higher levels of stress hormone-mediated and/or parasite infection-related chronic physiological stress. The total erythrocyte count and haematocrit were higher and mean erythrocyte haemoglobin content was lower in fragment than pseudofragment populations. This suggests that fragment populations showed possible signs of regenerative anaemia, a syndrome associated with elevated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis mediated stress. However, mean erythrocyte volume was also lower in fragments, and red blood cell distribution width did not differ between the study populations, findings which were not consistent with this diagnosis. Whole blood and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were similar in fragment and pseudofragment populations. We suggest that where anthropogenic activity results in habitat fragmentation and degradation, chronic stress could contribute to a decline in agile antechinus populations. The broader implication is that chronic stress could be both symptomatic of, and contributing to, decline of some vertebrate populations in anthropogenically fragmented and degraded habitats. PMID:21710385

Johnstone, Christopher P; Lill, Alan; Reina, Richard D

2012-01-01

291

Chemistry References  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site highlights chemistry resources that we consider essentiala fabulous periodic table, a database of chemical compounds, a set of demonstrations of chemical reactions that are just plain spectacular, and, dont forget, laboratory safety. Articles from the web sites Whats That Stuff? and Science News for Kids can be used as supplemental reading all through the year. This site explains the history and characteristics of over 20 substances, such as sunscreen, Cheese Whiz, baseballs, fluoride, new car smell, ink, lipstick, bug spray, and licorice. The individual articles are nontechnical for the most part and are presented in a fun way that readers will enjoy. Also, if a ...

Kim

2007-08-08

292

Industrial Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site addresses Professor Dr. J. Gmehling's research group activities in "the synthesis and design of chemical processes with an emphasis on thermal separation processes." Ranging from the development of thermodynamic models to the construction of software tools and data banks, their research at the University of Oldenburg, covers a broad range in the field of Industrial Chemistry. Students and educators can view informative figures and images such as the Isothermal Flow Calorimeter and the Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Users can download the free software, Dortmund Data Bank (DDB), which searches the literature for experimental information.

293

Interstellar chemistry  

PubMed Central

In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature. PMID:16894148

Klemperer, William

2006-01-01

294

Hypercarbon chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This text points out the emerging significance of higher-valent carbon compounds. It describes the compounds of carbon with coordination numbers greater than four and explores the delocalized bonds of ..pi.. aromatic molecules as a basis for rational description of orbitals; localized multicentered orbitals; the interactions of metallic ions with other atoms and molecules; the skeletal electron counts as a guide for synthesis; and the isolobal concept. Illustrated are the ways in which these subjects bring together structure and reactivity in the great diversity of novel carbon chemistry and its relationship to that of boron, lithium, hydrogen, the metals, and others.

Olah, G.A.; Prakash, G.K.S.; Wade, K.; Field, I.D.; Williams, R.E.

1987-01-01

295

Intracranial haemorrhage in thrombocytopenic haematology patients—a nested case–control study: the InCiTe study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most serious side-effects of severe thrombocytopenia in haematology patients. ICH is rare, but can have devastating consequences (death or major morbidity). It is unknown why some patients with severe thrombocytopenia bleed and others do not. Study aims Primary aim was to identify risk factors for ICH in patients with haematological malignancies. Secondary aims were to identify short-term outcomes for these patients at 30?days (major morbidity and mortality) and produce a more accurate estimate of ICH incidence in this population. This information is key to identifying means to improve treatment and quality of care. Methods/analysis This is a UK-wide case–control study of ICH nested within a 4-year prospective surveillance study set up specifically for the case–control study. Each case will be matched to one control. Cases will be adult haematology patients (?16?years) who have had any type or severity of ICH who are receiving, about to receive or have just received myeloablative chemotherapy (defined as chemotherapy expected to cause a significant thrombocytopenia <50×109/L for >5?days) or a haemopoietic stem cell transplant. Only patients being treated with curative intent will be included. Controls will be patients who fulfil the same inclusion criteria as cases (apart from ICH) and were treated at the same hospital immediately before the index case. Cases and controls will be matched to type of treatment (myeloablative chemotherapy or haemopoietic stem cell transplant). Hospitals across the UK will participate in a monthly email reporting strategy (started June 2011), as to whether a case of ICH occurred during the preceding calendar month. Case and control forms will be sent to any hospital reporting an eligible case. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate ORs. Denominator data for incidence estimates will use national registry data. Study Registration ISRCTN05026912 (prospective registration). NIHR Portfolio (UKCRN ID 10712). PMID:24508852

Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Collett, Dave; Murphy, Mike F

2014-01-01

296

Effects of sex and season in haematological parameters and cellular composition of spleen and head kidney of pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis).  

PubMed

Phylogenetic diversity in fish determines high interspecific variability in morphology as well as in physiological parameters. Moreover, several haematological variables and the organ composition of haemolymphopoietic sites may vary according to sex or season. The aim of this study was to establish the haematological parameters and the cellular composition of haemolymphopoietic organs in Odontesthes bonariensis, a commercially valuable fish species in Argentina, and also to determine gender or seasonal variations. Haematocrit exhibited the highest value in summer, while haemoglobin concentration was greater in summer and autumn. Erythrocyte count was higher in spring than autumn and winter, but did not differ with summer. The increase in these variables in seasons with higher water temperatures might be a compensatory mechanism to compensate the lower level of oxygen in the environment. Leucocyte formula and blast haemolymphopoietic cells in spleen and head kidney also showed annual variations since cells related to specific immune response, i.e., lymphocytes and thrombocytes, decrease in winter, whereas cells of the non-specific immune pathways, such as granulocyte, rise. The elevation of a particular type of circulating leucocyte was preceded by an increase in values of its precursor in blood in the previous season. Both, spleen and head kidney were active in haemolymphopoiesis, although with some differences in their activity during different seasons. Males showed higher values of circulating lymphoblasts and granulocytes than females, whereas females exhibited higher values of thrombocytes. This study corroborates the high interspecific variations in haematological parameters in fish that underlines the needing of basic studies in order to assess fish health status in new promising species for aquaculture. PMID:23982334

Vigliano, Fabricio A; Araujo, Adolfo M; Marcaccini, Andrés J; Marengo, María V; Cattaneo, Eliana; Peirone, Carina; Dasso, Lucrecia G M

2014-04-01

297

21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments...spectrometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

2011-04-01

298

21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments...spectrometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

2013-04-01

299

21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments...spectrometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

2014-04-01

300

21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments...spectrometer for clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

2012-04-01

301

Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making chemistry studies more relevant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the context of industrial chemistry

Avi Hofstein; Miri Kesner

2006-01-01

302

Alternative agents versus prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether alternative agents (e.g. artificial platelet substitutes, platelet-poor plasma, fibrinogen, rFVIIa, thrombopoietin mimetics) are as effective and safe as the use of platelet transfusions for the prevention of bleeding (prophylactic platelet transfusion) in patients with haematological disorders who are undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Antifibrinolytics (lysine analogues) will not be included in this review because they have been the focus of another Cochrane review (Wardrop 2013). PMID:25722650

Estcourt, Lise J; Gregg, Richard; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

2014-01-01

303

Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Methods Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Results Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Conclusions The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration. PMID:23730562

Chhabra, Sushma; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Singla, Lachhman Das

2013-01-01

304

Computational Chemistry List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Computational Chemistry List (CCL) was established as an independent electronic forum for chemistry researchers and educators from around the world. The discussions cover all aspects of computational chemistry.

305

CHEMISTRY 450 Spring, 2009  

E-print Network

of Science Journals: D-G WEEK 4 (28 January): Green Chemistry Journals: H-N WEEK 5 (4 February): Green Chemistry Journals: O-Z WEEK 6 (11 February): Green Chemistry; Group Presentations (Life-cycle analysis

Stuart, Steven J.

306

Stratospheric chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent improvements in the data base for the currently identified reactions describing the chemistry of the major families of trace gas species, HO(x), NO(x), ClO(x), and hydrocarbons are assessed. The important coupling reactions between the families are introduced progressively. Chemical aspects such as heterogeneous reactions and reactions of sodium species, the importance of which are not yet completely established, are discussed. Recent attempts to reconcile some of the more unexpected kinetic behavior which has emerged from the extensive experimental studies of key reactions with current reaction rate theory are also examined. The uncertainties in the current kinetic and photochemical data base is given. The prospects for improvement of data for known reactions of atmospheric importance as well as for the identification of gaps in the chemical description of the atmosphere.

Cox, R. A.; Demore, W. B.; Ferguson, E. E.; Lesclaux, R.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Sander, S. P.; Sze, N. D.; Zellner, R.

1985-01-01

307

Combustion chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01

308

Chemistry -Bachelor of Science (SCH) Chemistry: ACS Certified  

E-print Network

Chemistry Lab I AND 1 CH 4110 Pharmaceutical Chemistry I 3 CH 1153 University Chemistry I Recitation 1 CH 4120 Pharmaceutical Chemistry II 3 OR CH 4320 Inorganic Chemistry II 3 CH 1112 University ChemistryChemistry - Bachelor of Science (SCH) Chemistry: ACS Certified Total Credits Required: 128 Required

309

Preliminary study of the fungal ecology at the haematology and medical-oncology ward in Bamako, Mali.  

PubMed

Data on fungal epidemiology in sub-Saharan African countries are scarce. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the fungal flora at the Onco-Haematology ward of the National Teaching Hospital of Point G in Bamako, Mali. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dry and in the rainy seasons. Nasal swab and sputum samples were collected from the hospitalized patients while airborne fungal spores were collected using electrostatic dust-fall collectors. Fungi were identified by their morphological characteristics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Candida albicans was the most frequent yeast species colonizing patients; Aspergillus species were isolated in 86 % of the patients and were the main airborne environmental contaminants. Overall, airborne fungal contamination rates increased from 33.8 % in the dry to 66.2 % in the rainy season (p < 0.001). The most frequent Aspergillus species were Aspergillus niger (36.6 %) and Aspergillus flavus (32.92 %). In contrast, Aspergillus fumigatus (5.43 %) was relatively rare. This high level of fungal exposure raises concern regarding the management of at-risk patients in this Onco-Haematology ward and stresses the need for strengthening the mycological diagnostic capacities to accompany the implementation of adapted fungal infection prevention and management policies. PMID:24889723

Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Normand, Anne Cécile; Diallo, Yacouba Lazarre; Dembelé, Abdoul Karim; Thera, Mahamadou A; Diallo, Dapa; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ranque, Stéphane

2014-08-01

310

Haematological indices are modulated in juvenile carp, Cyprinus carpio L., exposed to microcystins produced by cyanobacterial water bloom.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of toxic cyanobacterial water blooms on the blood indices of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Experimental fish were exposed to a natural population of cyanobacterial water blooms (mainly Microcystis aeruginosa and M. ichthyoblabe), which contained microcystins [total concentration 133-284 ?g g?¹ (DW), concentration in water 2.8-7.4 ?g L?¹]. Haematological indices showed marked changes in fish exposed to the cyanobacterial population in comparison with the control group. Statistical evaluation of the influence of cyanobacterial water blooms on biochemical indices of the juvenile carp showed a distinct decrease in albumin, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, calcium, cholesterol, glucose, phosphorus and iron when compared to controls. Values of red blood counts [haemoglobin, haematocrit (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration] and lactate were significantly increased compared to controls. After exposure to cyanobacterial water bloom, the carp were kept in clean water to monitor the persistence of biochemical indices. The influence of cyanobacterial populations on calcium, cholesterol, glucose, lactate, phosphorus and PCV persisted up to 28 days after conclusion of the experiment. Duration of exposure, toxicity and density of cyanobacterial water blooms had an important impact on individual haematological indices. PMID:21158871

Kopp, R; Palíková, M; Mareš, J; Navrátil, S; Kubí?ek, Z; Ziková, A

2011-02-01

311

Haematological profile of crossbred dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in Central Himalayas.  

PubMed

Haematological profile-haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian x Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows (MYELC) and high yield early lactating cows (HYELC) during summer and winter seasons at 1700 metres altitude from mean sea level in the Central Himalayas. On comparison of annual means, the highest values of Hb and PCV were recorded in PH and of TEC in NPH, whereas the lowest values of these parameters were found in EDC. The Hb and TEC tended to decrease with increasing milk yield. Comparison of annual means of erythrocyte indices revealed the highest MCV and MCH in EDC, which simultaneously showed the lowest MCHC. Significant seasonal variations in haematological profile were recorded. The overall group mean (OGM) of Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01) during summer whereas the TEC and PCV showed higher OGM (P < 0.01) during the winter season. PMID:11020365

Kumar, B; Pachauri, S P

2000-10-01

312

The haematological profile of female bronze turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) vaccinated with various commercial strains of Newcastle disease.  

PubMed

The effects of vaccination on avian blood parameters are poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether different strains (Ulster 2C, B1, live LaSota and inactivated LaSota) of Newcastle disease vaccines had an effect on the haematological profile of female turkeys. Seventy-five female turkeys were allocated to treatment groups according to vaccination strain. All the birds, except those in the control group, were vaccinated at 32 weeks of age and revaccinated at 40 and 48 weeks of age. Blood samples were obtained for haematological analyses and serum samples for the haemagglutination inhibition test. Haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in vaccinated female turkeys than in the control birds 28 days after vaccination. Monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 44-week-old female turkeys vaccinated with inactivated LaSota strain compared with the other groups. Turkeys vaccinated with the B1 strain showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) total white blood cell counts compared with the other groups vaccinated with various commercial strains of the Newcastle disease virus. In conclusion, female turkeys showed significant differences in haemoglobin concentrations, monocytes and white blood cell counts when vaccinated against Newcastle disease. PMID:25686083

Schmidt, Elizabeth M d S; Santos, Ivan F C; Paulillo, António C; Martins, Gislaine R V; Denadai, Janine; Lapela, Ivan M

2014-01-01

313

Epigenetic Inactivation of the miR-124-1 in Haematological Malignancies  

PubMed Central

miR-124-1 is a tumour suppressor microRNA (miR). Epigenetic deregulation of miRs is implicated in carcinogenesis. Promoter DNA methylation and histone modification of miR-124-1 was studied in 5 normal marrow controls, 4 lymphoma, 8 multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines, 230 diagnostic primary samples of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), MM, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and 53 MM samples at stable disease or relapse. Promoter of miR-124-1 was unmethylated in normal controls but homozygously methylated in 4 of 4 lymphoma and 4 of 8 myeloma cell lines. Treatment of 5-Aza-2?-deoxycytidine led to miR-124-1 demethylation and re-expression of mature miR-124, which also associated with emergence of euchromatic trimethyl H3K4 and consequent downregulation of CDK6 in myeloma cells harboring homozygous miR-124-1 methylation. In primary samples at diagnosis, miR-124-1 methylation was absent in CML but detected in 2% each of MM at diagnosis and relapse/progression, 5% ALL, 15% AML, 14% CLL and 58.1% of NHL (p<0.001). Amongst lymphoid malignancies, miR-124-1 was preferentially methylated in NHL than MM, CLL or ALL. In primary lymphoma samples, miR-124-1 was preferentially hypermethylated in B- or NK/T-cell lymphomas and associated with reduced miR-124 expression. In conclusion, miR-124-1 was hypermethylated in a tumour-specific manner, with a heterochromatic histone configuration. Hypomethylation led to partial restoration of euchromatic histone code and miR re-expression. Infrequent miR-124-1 methylation detected in diagnostic and relapse MM samples showed an unimportant role in MM pathogenesis, despite frequent methylation found in cell lines. Amongst haematological cancers, miR-124-1 was more frequently hypermethylated in NHL, and hence warrants further study. PMID:21544199

Wong, Kwan Yeung; So, Chi Chiu; Loong, Florence; Chung, Lap Ping; Lam, William Wai Lung; Liang, Raymond; Li, George Kam Hop; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chim, Chor Sang

2011-01-01

314

CHEMISTRY 3020-42232 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY 3020-42232 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I Fall 2011 8:00 am - 8:50 am, MWF CNSB 211 INSTRUCTOR interpretations of the physical principles of chemistry. Goals/ Objectives: CHEM 3020 presents chemical principles from a fundamental physical point of view. Topics covered include: properties of gases, thermodynamics

Findley, Gary L.

315

CHEMISTRY 3022-63067 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY 3022-63067 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II Spring 2014 8:00 am - 8:50 am, MWF CNSB 211 INSTRUCTOR interpretations of the physical principles of chemistry. Goals/ Objectives: CHEM 3022 presents chemical principles consequences. Topics covered include: properties of gases, thermodynamics (heat, work, internal energy

Findley, Gary L.

316

FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry Syracuse University The Department of Chemistry at Syracuse University invites applications for a tenure track faculty position at the Assistant Professor level in inorganic chemistry with specialization in materials chemistry (broadly defined

Doyle, Robert

317

A blood chemistry profile for lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.

Edsall, Carol Cotant

1999-01-01

318

Trace Chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and, in addition, of the pressure, temperature, and velocity. A near term goal of the experimental program should be to confirm the nonlinear effects of sulfur speciation, and if present, to provide an explanation for them. It is also desirable to examine if the particulate matter retains any sulfur. The recommendation is to examine the effects on SOx production of variations in fuel-bound sulfur and aromatic content (which may affect the amount of particulates formed). These experiments should help us to understand if there is a coupling between particulate formation and SO, concentration. Similarly, any coupling with NOx can be examined either by introducing NOx into the combustion air or by using fuel-bound nitrogen. Also of immediate urgency is the need to establish and validate a detailed mechanism for sulfur oxidation/aerosol formation, whose chemistry is concluded to be homogeneous, because there is not enough surface area for heterogeneous effects. It is envisaged that this work will involve both experimental and theoretical programs. The experimental work will require, in addition to the measurements described above, fundamental studies in devices such as flow reactors and shock tubes. Complementing this effort should be modeling and theoretical activities. One impediment to the successful modeling of sulfur oxidation is the lack of reliable data for thermodynamic and transport properties for several species, such as aqueous nitric acid, sulfur oxides, and sulfuric acid. Quantum mechanical calculations are recommended as a convenient means of deriving values for these properties. Such calculations would also help establish rate constants for several important reactions for which experimental measurements are inherently fraught with uncertainty. Efforts to implement sufficiently detailed chemistry into computational fluid dynamic codes should be continued. Zero- and one-dimensional flow models are also useful vehicles for elucidating the minimal set of species and reactions that must be included in two- and three-dimensional modeling studies.

Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

1999-01-01

319

Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722651

Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

2014-01-01

320

Effects of prolonged strenuous exercise (marathon running) on biochemical and haematological markers used in the investigation of patients in the emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on commonly used biochemical and haematological variables in subjects running the 2002 London marathon.Methods: 34 healthy volunteers (7 female, 27 male) were recruited for the study. Blood was taken before the start (at registration) and immediately after completion of the marathon. Samples were analysed for urea and electrolytes, liver function tests, creatine

J E Smith; G Garbutt; P Lopes; D Tunstall Pedoe

2004-01-01

321

ACS Green Chemistry Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This special feature page from the American Chemical Society (ACS) showcases the up-and-coming field of "green chemistry," that is, the development of chemical products and processes that eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. A list of principles behind green chemistry, a searchable bibliography of green chemistry references, and green chemistry links (including conferences). This page comes from ACS's Green Chemistry Project, a three-year educational project to develop and disseminate green chemistry educational materials for graduate and undergraduate chemistry students.

322

Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf goats fed dried cassava leaves-based concentrate diets.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding different levels of dried cassava leaves at 0%, 20%, 40% and 60%, respectively, using guinea grass as basal feed, on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats. The study lasted for 116 days during which haematological and serum biochemical parameters were monitored in 40 male goats before and after, using a completely randomized design. At the start of the experiment, packed cell volume (PCV) ranged from 21.5% to 25.5% while haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and RBC significantly (P??0.05). Lymphocyte reduced significantly (P??0.05) at the 0% to 40% levels and reduced at the 60% level of dried cassava leaves inclusion. At the start of the experiment, values for glucose significantly (P?haematological and serum biochemical parameters of WAD goats and could therefore be included in ruminant diets up to 60%. PMID:21744028

Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Sowande, Olusiji Sunday; Anele, Uchenna Young; Oni, Oluwakemi Oluremilekun; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma; Onifade, Olufemi Sunday; Yusuf, Kafayat Omowumi; Dele, Peter Aniwe; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi

2012-03-01

323

Delights of Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the University of Leeds, the Delights of Chemistry promotes the art of chemistry demonstrations. Users can find illustrations and explanations of forty chemistry experiments. Many animations of demonstrations including the magnesium lamp, thermite reaction, and the volcano reaction are available. The website is full of pictures of chemistry equipment and scientists at work. Through this site, students and educators are able to explore fun chemistry experiments without having to worry about the many hazards associated with working with chemicals.

324

Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling  

E-print Network

Chemistry Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science that underlies many technology. A chemistry degree gives you the understanding to contribute to our future in very topical areas) in Chemistry BSc (Hons) in Chemistry MChem (Hons) in Chemistry (with an industrial placement year) MChem (Hons

Sussex, University of

325

Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

Burns, Mary Sue

2001-01-01

326

Haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity.  

PubMed

Blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. Haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. The measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but the jackals had higher white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts than dogs. The male jackals had a higher haematocrit, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and a lower red blood cell distribution width than the female jackals. High activities of muscle enzymes were detected in many of the jackals, in several of which the activity of creatine kinase exceeded 5000 U/l; these were considered abnormal. PMID:16155240

Aroch, I; Shpigel, N Y; Avidar, Y; Yakobson, B; King, R; Shamir, M

2005-09-10

327

Secretion rate from minor salivary glands in patients with malignant haematological diseases receiving chemotherapy--a pilot study.  

PubMed

The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the secretion rate from minor salivary glands in 16 patients (mean age 62 years) with myeloma, lymphoma or other malignant haematological diseases receiving chemotherapy (study group). An age- and sex-matched control group (n = 16) was recruited. The secretion rate from the minor salivary glands on the inside of the lower lip, measured using the Periotron method, was in mean 2.8 microliters/cm2/min in the study group compared with 4.5 microliters/cm2/min in the control group (p < 0.01). No difference was found in the secretion rate of paraffin-stimulated whole saliva. There were more individuals who experienced dry mouth in the study group (n = 7) than in the control group (n = 2). The conclusion from this pilot study is that the secretion rate from the minor salivary glands might be reduced in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:12462875

Blomgren, Johan; Jansson, Sigbritt; Rödjer, Stig; Birkhed, Dowen

2002-01-01

328

Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters.  

PubMed

The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91 days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200 mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35 mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p < 0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029

Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I

2014-02-01

329

Micro-organisms Associated with Febrile Neutropenia in Patients with Haematological Malignancies in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India.  

PubMed

There is paucity of information from eastern India with regard to observed dominant micro-organisms causing febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients with haematological malignancies. To identify the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms associated with FN. A total number of 268 episodes of FN were analysed from September'2010 to October'2013. The blood samples were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth, glucose broth, Hicombi dual performance media (Himedia, LQ-12) at 37° C for 168 h and Bactec method was also performed for these samples. Blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey's agar and cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar were used for isolation of the microorganisms. A total number of 78 (29.10 %) episodes revealed positive growths. Gram negative bacilli and Gram positive cocci were isolated in 61.53 and 34.61 % cases respectively. The eight commonest isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.10 %), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-12.82 %), Acinetobacter sps (11.53 %), coagulase negative Staphylococcus (10.25 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.97 %), Escherichia coli (8.97 %), ESBL E. coli (6.41 %), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA-6.41 %). Amongst other less common isolates were Citrobacter kosseri (3.84 %), Citrobacter freundii (2.56 %), Ralstonia paucula (2.56 %), Cedecia neteri (1.28 %), methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (2.56 %). Candida spp. including two cases of Candida non-albicans was isolated in 3.84 % of cases. P. aeruginosa was the commonest pathogenic isolates in FN patients associated with haematological malignancies in this study. Gram negative bacteria were the commonest isolates in FN including significant numbers of rare opportunistic micro-organisms. PMID:25548444

Mandal, Prakas Kumar; Maji, Suman Kumar; Dolai, Tuphan Kanti; De, Rajib; Dutta, Shyamali; Saha, Sandeep; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee

2015-03-01

330

Modulatory effect of N-acetylcysteine on pro-antioxidant status and haematological response in healthy men.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to follow up whether the modification of pro-antioxidant status by 8-day oral application of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in healthy men affects the haematological response, whether there is a direct relationship between antioxidant defences and erythropoietin (EPO) secretion and whether NAC intake enhances exercise performance. Fifteen healthy men were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control or NAC (1,200 mg d(-1) for 8 days prior to and 600 mg on the day of exercise trial). To measure the ergogenic effectiveness of NAC, subjects performed incremental cycle exercise until exhaustion. NAC administration significantly influenced the resting and post-exercise level of glutathione (+31%) as well as the resting activity of glutathione enzymes (glutathione reductase, -22%; glutathione peroxidase, -18%). The oxidative damage markers, i.e., protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) were reduced by NAC by more than 30%. NAC noticeably affected the plasma level of EPO (+26%), haemoglobin (+9%), haematocrit (+9%) and erythrocytes (-6%) at rest and after exercise. The mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin increased by more than 12%. Plasma total thiols increased by 17% and directly correlated with EPO level (r = 0.528, P < 0.05). NAC treatment, contrary to expectations, did not significantly affect exercise performance. Our study has shown that 8-day NAC intake at a daily dose of 1,200 mg favours a pro-antioxidant status and affects haematological indices but does not enhance exercise performance. PMID:20354834

Zembron-Lacny, A; Slowinska-Lisowska, M; Szygula, Z; Witkowski, Z; Szyszka, K

2010-03-01

331

Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 ± 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens. PMID:25495676

Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

2015-06-01

332

BiOsimilaRs in the management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology: results of the ORHEO observational study  

PubMed Central

Background The approval of epoetin biosimilars in the European Union requires extensive scientific evaluation and stringent regulatory procedures, including post-marketing studies. The ORHEO (place of biOsimilaRs in the therapeutic management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology) study was an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study performed in France to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetins for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA) in the clinical setting. Methods Patients >18 years with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for treatment with an epoetin biosimilar were included in this study. Patient characteristics were recorded at baseline along with anaemia-related information, such as observed and target Hb (as chosen by the treating clinician), brand and dose of epoetin biosimilar prescribed, and details of any other treatments. Patients were then followed-up at 3 and 6 months. The primary endpoint was Hb response (defined as Hb reaching ?10 g/dL, an increase of Hb ?1 g/dL since inclusion visit or reaching physician-defined target Hb, with no blood transfusions in the 3 weeks prior to measurement). Other endpoints included adverse events, achievement of target Hb and associated treatments. Results Overall, 2333 patients >18 years (mean age 66.5 years) with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for biosimilar epoetin treatment were included. 99.9% of patients received epoetin zeta (median dose 30,000 IU/week). Mean baseline Hb was 9.61 g/dL, with 35.6% of patients having moderate anaemia (Hb 8–9.5 g/dL). Hb response was achieved in 81.6% and 86.5% of patients at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall mean change in Hb level was 1.52?±?1.61 and 1.72?±?1.61 g/dL at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Transfusion and thromboembolic event rates were 9.4% and 2.4% at 3 months, and 5.8% and 1.5% at 6 months, respectively. Conclusions Epoetin zeta was effective and well tolerated in the management of CIA in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT02140736 (date of registration: 14 May 2014). PMID:25011615

2014-01-01

333

Igniting Chemistry in Fireworks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the concepts of spectral chemistry, combustion, and the nature of fire through the use of visually rich fireworks resources. Optional resources address chemical reactions for those who want a more advanced chemistry lesson.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2004-01-29

334

Chemistry for Potters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

Denio, Allen A.

1980-01-01

335

Environmental chemistry: Volume A  

SciTech Connect

This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

Yen, T.F.

1999-08-01

336

Computational Chemistry Robots  

E-print Network

Computational Chemistry Robots ACS Sep 2005 Computational Chemistry Robots J. A. Townsend, P. Murray-Rust, S. M. Tyrrell, Y. Zhang jat45@cam.ac.uk Can high-throughput computation provide a reliable “experimental” resource for molecular...

Townsend, Joseph A; Murray-Rust, Peter; Tyrrell, Simon M; Zhang, Yong

337

Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

1987-01-01

338

An Introduction to Chemistry: Nuclear Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This cost-free resource is a chapter from a textbook on introductory chemistry, developed for learners with little background in physics or chemistry. This chapter deals with the atomic nucleus and radiation, nuclear energy, and uses of radioactive substances. It is appropriate for teachers seeking additional content knowledge, high school physics and chemistry courses, and college-level preparatory chemistry. It builds a foundation to understand the physical forces in the nucleus (electrostatic force and strong force), and explains how chemical reactions differ from nuclear reactions. Graphs and diagrams depict what happens in radioactive decay. The section on chemical nuclear equations is straightforward and comprehensible for non-scientists. This collection is part of An Introduction to Chemistry, a set of resources developed by Mark Bishop which includes two textbooks, 15 animated tutorials, downloadable Power Point presentations for teachers, concept maps, and 3D molecular models.

2011-07-22

339

The Chemistry Hypermedia Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These materials and documents are typical of those presented in an undergraduate course in general chemistry, analytical chemistry, and analytical instrumentation. Resources for educators include Excel spreadsheet simulations for analytical and physical chemistry, prototype JavaScripts and PERL scripts, lists of web workshops and publications, and links to the most recent papers and presentations from the Chemistry Hypermedia Project. There are also tutorials for equilibrium practice problems and analytical spectroscopy.

340

Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science  

E-print Network

Chemistry Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science that underlies many technology. A chemistry degree allows you to understand and to contribute to our future. Chemistry is challenging: understanding the very fabric of matter is both stimulating and rewarding. Studying chemistry

Sussex, University of

341

Chemistry -Bachelor of Science (SCH) Chemistry: ACS Certified  

E-print Network

of the following courses Course Credits CH 1110 University Chemistry I 4 Course Credits AND CH 4110 Pharmaceutical Chemistry I 3 CH 1111 University Chemistry Lab I 1 CH 4120 Pharmaceutical Chemistry II 3 OR CH 4320Chemistry - Bachelor of Science (SCH) Chemistry: ACS Certified Total Credits Required: 128 Required

342

Chemistry Division Department of Biological  

E-print Network

1 Chemistry Division Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Illinois Institute-13 Chemistry Division invites nominations for Kilpatrick Fellowship for the academic year 2012's Chemistry Department from 1947­1960. Mary Kilpatrick was a chemistry faculty member from 1947

Heller, Barbara

343

Mechanisms in Photographic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current research interests in photographic chemistry, involving two proposed models for spectral sensitization of crystal defects and impurities in the photolysis reactivity and the mechanisms of development and complexation. Establishment of photographic chemistry in a chemistry curriculum is recommended. (CC)

Sahyun, M. R. V.

1974-01-01

344

Chemistry on Stamps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

Schreck, James O.

1986-01-01

345

CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM SEMESTER I  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM SEMESTER ­ I Chemistry-I: Physical principles (2:1) Atomic structure. Gas laws, mean free path, viscosity, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of velocity, real gases, van der-state approximation, Arrhenius equation and collision theory and catalysis. SEMESTER ­ II Chemistry-II: Structure

Srinivasan, N.

346

Teaching School Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This eight-chapter book is intended for use by chemistry teachers, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and other key personnel working in the field of chemical education. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Face of Chemistry" (J. A. Campbell); (2) "Curriculum Innovation in School Chemistry" (R. B. Ingel and A. M. Ranaweera); (3) "Some…

Waddington, D. J., Ed.

347

Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry  

E-print Network

#12;Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation of Acridine Country: United States #12;Amit Gangar Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Design and Development Wagner Home Country: India #12;Dan Wang Medicinal Chemistry M.S. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation

Thomas, David D.

348

CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT HANDBOOKFOR STUDENTS  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT HANDBOOKFOR STUDENTS Millersville University Millersville, Pennsylvania in the ChemistryDepartment. It brings together material not collected in other places and is not meant Resources 2 Programs in Chemistry and The General Education Curriculum Record Form 3 The Major Requirements

Hardy, Christopher R.

349

History of Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)

Servos, John W.

1985-01-01

350

Chemistry as General Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science courses are common in most general education requirements. This paper addresses the role of chemistry classes in meeting these requirements. Chemistry professors have for many years questioned the appropriateness of the standard introductory chemistry course as general education, resulting in the growing popularity of specialized non-majors courses. I suggest that current non-major chemistry courses cover too much consumer chemistry and ignore some of the big contributions of chemistry to human knowledge. Majors chemistry courses, while they prepare students for majoring in science, do not address these issues either. Consequently, chemistry courses are often an ineffective and unpopular way to meet general education science requirements. Part of the reason for this dilemma is the lack of chemists who address the contributions of chemistry to human knowledge in general. I propose that faculty at liberal arts colleges engage in this important task and that non-majors chemistry textbooks incorporate questions and issues that relate chemistry to a broader view of human knowledge. If these things happen, perhaps chemistry courses will become more effective as general education.

Tro, Nivaldo J.

2004-01-01

351

Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships  

E-print Network

Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact to Chemistry and Biochemistry entering graduate students who have asked for consideration to serve as research senior in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry based on faculty recommendation for undergraduate

Almor, Amit

352

Green Chemistry and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

2000-01-01

353

Ethanol versus heparin locks for the prevention of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections: a randomized trial in adult haematology patients with Hickman devices.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of ethanol locks for prevention of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in adult haematology patients has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study aimed to compare prospectively heparinized saline with 70% ethanol locks using 2 h dwell time in patients with tunnelled CVCs. In saline (N = 43) and ethanol (N = 42) groups, CLABSI rates were 6.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-9.8] and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.9-7.7) per 1000 CVC days, respectively (P = 0.42). In the ethanol group, two exit-site infections and one tunnel/pocket infection were observed. Reduction in device-associated infection was not achieved with prophylactic 70% ethanol locks in patients with haematological malignancy and tunnelled CVCs. PMID:25063013

Worth, L J; Slavin, M A; Heath, S; Szer, J; Grigg, A P

2014-09-01

354

Age?related haematological changes and haemopathological responses in Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chiliensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 49 clinically normal Chilean flamingos of different ages. Compared with adults, chicks aged 2–3 months showed low haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations. There was a rise in haemoglobin level and red cell count with increasing age but the mean cell haemoglobin concentration

Christine Hawkey; M. G. Hart; H. J. Samour

1984-01-01

355

Haematological findings in healthy and sick captive rosy flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 36 clinically normal adult Rosy flamingos (21 males, 15 females) and six juveniles (sex uncertain). No significant sex differences were found but the haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were lower and the white cell counts higher in juveniles than in adults. Reference

Christine Hawkey; M. G. Hart; H. J. Samour; J. A. Knight; R. E. Hutton

1984-01-01

356

Alcohol, Chemistry and You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Kennesaw State University, ChemCases.com is a series of curriculum units that link responsible decision making in product development with chemical principles taught in college General Chemistry. Alcohol, Chemistry and You, by Dr. Bill Boggan, is the latest offering by the Web site, which "looks at the chemistry of beverage alcohol (ethyl alcohol) through the eyes of a General Chemistry student." The fourteen chapter lessons cover everything from what ethyl alcohol is to alcohol addiction, relating it to various principles learned in a general chemistry course.

Boggan, William

357

Ascorbate2-sulfate as a dietary vitamin C source for atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ): 1. Growth, bioactivity, haematology and humoral immune response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment shows that ascorbate-2-sulfate (AS) is not equivalent to ascorbic acid (AA) as a dietary vitamin C\\u000a source for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Within reasonable feed supplemental levels AS does not provide the tissues with adequate supplies of vitamin C to secure\\u000a optimal physiological functions as demonstrated by biochemical and haematological analyses.\\u000a \\u000a AS could not be detected in

K. Sandnes; T. Hansen; J. E. A. Killie; R. Waagbø

1990-01-01

358

A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given when patient bleeds) is as effective and safe as a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding usually when the platelet count falls below a given trigger level) in patients with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722649

Estcourt, Lise J; Crighton, Gemma L; Wood, Erica M; Stanworth, Simon; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Tinmouth, Alan; Murphy, Michael F

2014-01-01

359

Incidence of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia, Bacteraemia and Urinary Tract Infections in Patients with Haematological Malignancies, 2004–2010: A Surveillance-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study charted incidence trends of hospital-acquired (HA) pneumonia, bacteraemia and urinary tract infections (UTI) in a haematology department. Methods Prospective surveillance of hospital-acquired infections (HAI) was undertaken in a 42-bed haematology department of a university hospital. All patients hospitalized ?48 hours between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2010 were included. Definitions of HAI were based on a standardized protocol. The incidence was the number of events per 1000 patient-days at risk; only the first HAI was counted. Multivariate Poisson regression was fitted to assess temporal trends. Results Among 3 355 patients (58 063 patient-days at risk) included, 1 055 (31%) had HAI. The incidence of HA pneumonia, HA bacteraemia and HA UTI was respectively 3.3, 12.0 and 2.9 per 1000 patient-days at risk. HA bacteraemia incidence increased by 11% (95% confidence interval: +6%, +15%, P<0.001) per year, independently of neutropenia, central venous catheterization (CVC) and haematological disease. The incidences of HA pneumonia and HA UTI were stable. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Aspergillus spp. (59.2%) for pneumonia, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (44.2%) for bacteraemia and enterobacteria (60%) for UTI. Conclusion The incidence of bacteraemia increased, indicating that factors other than CVC exposure, including chemotherapy with its impact on the immune system, could explain this trend. Further analytic studies are needed to explore the factors that could explain this trend. PMID:23472145

Huoi, Catherine; Vanhems, Philippe; Nicolle, Marie-Christine; Michallet, Mauricette; Bénet, Thomas

2013-01-01

360

Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (Smith) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (A. africana) and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated with distilled water or extracts at 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. Results The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 200 mg/kg body weight. The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. Conclusions It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of A. africana possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters. Further experimental investigation is needed to exploit its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethnomedicinal usage. PMID:23569792

Oyedemi, SO; Adewusi, EA; Aiyegoro, OA; Akinpelu, DA

2011-01-01

361

Effect of a Probiotic Containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis and Ferroin Solution on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Haematological Parameters in Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) Fry.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the efficacy of BioPlus 2B, a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis and Ferroin solution on growth performance, body composition and haematological parameters in kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, fry. The fish were fed dry pellets containing various ratios of probiotics and Ferroin for 60 days after absorption of the yolk sac. At the end of the trial, growth indices (final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, daily growth rate, food conversion ratio and condition factor), body composition (crude protein, crude lipid, ash and moisture) and haematological parameters [haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NEUTR), lymphocytes (LYM), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)] were assessed. Regarding body composition, total protein levels were higher, and ash, moisture and lipid levels were lower in fish receiving the probiotic and Ferroin treatments compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Fish receiving diets supplemented with probiotics and Ferroin solution showed significantly better growth than those fed the basal diet (control). RBC, Hct, Hb, MCV, MCH and LYM were all highest in fish fed probiotic (1.6 × 10(9) CFU/g dry pellet) + Ferroin solution (7 mg/kg dry pellet) + dry pellets. These results indicate that the combination of probiotic and Ferroin solution represents an effective dietary supplement for improving carcass quality, growth performance and haematological parameters in kutum fry. PMID:25431124

Azarin, Hajar; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza; Rajabpour, Mina

2015-03-01

362

Cryopreservation of Human Stem Cells for Clinical Application: A Review  

PubMed Central

Summary Stem cells have been used in a clinical setting for many years. Haematopoietic stem cells have been used for the treatment of both haematological and non-haematological disease; while more recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow have been the subject of both laboratory and early clinical studies. Whilst these cells show both multipotency and expansion potential, they nonetheless do not form stable cell lines in culture which is likely to limit the breadth of their application in the field of regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells, capable of forming stable cell lines which retain the capacity to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. This makes them of special significance in both regenerative medicine and toxicology. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may also provide a similar breadth of utility without some of the confounding ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. An essential pre-requisite to the commercial and clinical application of stem cells are suitable cryopreservation protocols for long-term storage. Whilst effective methods for cryopreservation and storage have been developed for haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic cells and iPS cells have proved more refractory. This paper reviews the current state of cryopreservation as it pertains to stem cells and in particular the embryonic and iPS cell. PMID:21566712

Hunt, Charles J.

2011-01-01

363

Pathological, biochemical and haematological investigations on the protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid in experimental aflatoxin toxicosis in chicks.  

PubMed

1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on aflatoxin (AF) toxicosis in chicks. 2. Groups of 10 Ross PM3 chicks were given, for 21 d, no AF (C), 60 mg/kg/bwt of alpha-lipoic acid (LA), 150 ppb of aflatoxin (AF1), 150 ppb of aflatoxin plus 60 mg/kg/bwt of alpha-lipoic acid (AF1 + LA), 300 ppb of aflatoxin (AF2), and 300 ppb of aflatoxin plus 60 mg/kg/bwt of alpha-lipoic acid (AF2 + LA). Before the animals were killed, blood samples were drawn for haematological analysis, and then tissue samples were collected for histopathological investigation. Immunohistochemical staining was performed against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine on liver samples. Apoptotic cell death in liver was assessed by in situ TUNEL assay. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations in liver and kidney were also determined. 3. Hydropic degeneration and occasional necrosis, bile duct hyperplasia and periportal fibrosis were observed in the livers of AF-treated groups. The severity of these changes was reduced in LA-supplemented AF groups. Occasionally, thymic cortical atrophy, lymphoid depletion in spleen and bursa of Fabricius, and degeneration in the kidney tubule epitheliums were detected in AF groups. The severity of these degenerative changes was slightly reduced in LA supplemented groups. 4. There was moderate to strong iNOS and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in the livers of AF groups, while decreased immunoreactivity was observed against both antibodies in the LA supplemented groups. Apoptotic cells were numerous in the AF groups, while greatly reduced in LA supplemented groups. 5. In the liver and kidney of AF-treated groups given 300 ppb of aflatoxin, MDA concentrations were increased as GSH decreased, compared to the control group. LA supplementation of AF-treated birds improved the results compared to the AF only groups, however a statistical difference was observed only in liver tissues between AF2 + LA and AF2 groups. Haematological variables showed no differences among the groups. 6. In conclusion, supplementation of feed with the antioxidant LA, might ameliorate the degenerative effects caused by aflatoxin due to lipid peroxidation. PMID:20390578

Karaman, M; Ozen, H; Tuzcu, M; Ci?remi?, Y; Onder, F; Ozcan, K

2010-02-01

364

Loci Associated with N-Glycosylation of Human Immunoglobulin G Show Pleiotropy with Autoimmune Diseases and Haematological Cancers  

PubMed Central

Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.27×10?9) in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3) in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3), while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3). However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis) and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma). Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve?=?0.842). Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein using GWAS. The results may also provide an explanation for the reported pleiotropy and antagonistic effects of loci involved in autoimmune diseases and haematological cancer. PMID:23382691

Mužini?, Ana; Novokmet, Mislav; Polašek, Ozren; Gornik, Olga; Krišti?, Jasminka; Keser, Toma; Vitart, Veronique; Scheijen, Blanca; Uh, Hae-Won; Molokhia, Mariam; Patrick, Alan Leslie; McKeigue, Paul; Kol?i?, Ivana; Luki?, Ivan Krešimir; Swann, Olivia; van Leeuwen, Frank N.; Ruhaak, L. Renee; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Deelder, André M.; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Wuhrer, Manfred; Wright, Alan F.; Rudan, Igor

2013-01-01

365

Haematological findings in healthy and sick captive rosy flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).  

PubMed

Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 36 clinically normal adult Rosy flamingos (21 males, 15 females) and six juveniles (sex uncertain). No significant sex differences were found but the haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were lower and the white cell counts higher in juveniles than in adults. Reference values obtained from the normal birds were used as a basis for assessing the results of blood counts on nine birds showing a variety of abnormal clinical conditions. Heterophilia occurred in individuals with infections, chronic renal lesions, haemorrhage and suspected thrombosis. In one case, morphologically abnormal heterophils were present. A bird with carcinoma and peritonitis showed heteropenia. Several birds had hypochromic, microcytic red cells and severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia was found in a bird with an organising abdominal haematoma associated with chronic renal pathology. Several of the cases also had thrombocytosis and raised fibrinogen levels. PMID:18766834

Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J; Knight, J A; Hutton, R E

1984-04-01

366

Chemistry behind Vegetarianism.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the effect of a habitual vegetarian diet on clinical complications in relation to chemistry and biochemistry. Omnivores have a significantly higher cluster of cardiovascular risk factors compared with vegetarians, including increased body mass index, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol and LDL-C levels, serum lipoprotein(a) concentration, plasma factor VII activity, ratios of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TAG/HDL-C, and serum ferritin levels. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians, especially vegans, have lower serum vitamin B?? concentration and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels in the tissue membrane phospholipids, which are associated with increased collagen and ADP stimulated ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation, plasma 11-dehydrothromboxane B?, and homocysteine levels and decreased plasma HDL-C. This may be associated with an increased thrombotic and atherosclerotic risk. It is suggested that vegetarians, especially vegans, should increase their dietary n-3 PUFA and vitamin B?? intakes. PMID:21204526

Li, Duo

2011-02-01

367

Haematological parameters as predictors of blood lead and indicators of lead poisoning in the black duck (Anas rubripes).  

PubMed

The validity of various haematological parameters as indicators of blood lead concentration and lead poisoning in the black duck (Anas rubripes) is discussed. Elevated (> 40 microg dl(-1)) blood lead (PbB) levels were recorded in 41% of the 229 wild birds examined. No correlation was found between PbB concentration and haematocrit. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) was positively correlated with PbB. Haemoglobin, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d) activity and non-activated/activated ALA-d ratios were negatively correlated with PbB. The minimum PbB levels at which these parameters were affected varied greatly. ZPP and haemoglobin were relatively insensitive to PbB concentrations; whilst ALA-d activity and ALA-d ratio were influenced by PbB concentrations of < 5 microg dl(-1). Log(10) ALA-d ratio was more strongly correlated with PbB (r = -0.953) than log(10) ALA-d activity (r = -0.914) and the predictive validity (% false -ve and +ve predictions) of the ratio method was higher. The high individual variability in ALA-d activities at low PbB levels was greatly reduced by the use of the ALA-d ratio method. The ALA-d ratio method proved the most efficient for screening black duck for lead poisoning in the field. PMID:15092391

Pain, D J

1989-01-01

368

The Effect of Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on Haematological and Biochemical Indicators and Histopathological Changes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

PubMed Central

Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2?mg/kg feed. The fish (n = 40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225??g/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964??g/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P < 0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P < 0.05), and ammonia (P < 0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

369

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Diamond Blackfan anaemia: a report from the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Registry.  

PubMed

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative option for patients with Diamond Blackfan anaemia (DBA). We report the transplantation outcome of 30 Italian DBA patients referred to the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Registry between 1990 and 2012. This is one of the largest national registry cohorts of transplanted DBA patients. Most patients (83%) were allografted after 2000. A matched sibling donor was employed in 16 patients (53%), the remaining 14 patients (47%) were transplanted from matched unrelated donors. Twenty-eight of the 30 patients engrafted. One patient died at day +6 due to veno-occlusive disease without achieving neutrophil recovery and another patient remained transfusion-dependent despite the presence of a full donor chimerism. The 5-year overall survival and transplant-related mortality was 74·4% and 25·6%, respectively. Patients younger than 10 years as well as those transplanted after 2000 showed a significantly higher overall survival and a significantly lower risk of transplant-related mortality. No difference between donor type was observed. Our data suggest that allogeneic HSCT from a related or unrelated donor was a reasonable alternative to transfusion therapy in young and well chelated DBA patients. PMID:24611452

Fagioli, Franca; Quarello, Paola; Zecca, Marco; Lanino, Edoardo; Corti, Paola; Favre, Claudio; Ripaldi, Mimmo; Ramenghi, Ugo; Locatelli, Franco; Prete, Arcangelo

2014-06-01

370

Real-world costs of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantations for haematological diseases: a multicentre study.  

PubMed

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is an expensive lifesaving procedure, which is increasingly performed in patients with haematological diseases. Developments in the protocol for SCT have resulted in cost estimates that require updating. We aimed to calculate actual costs for SCT and to identify major cost drivers by means of a daily practice cost study. We randomly selected 191 patients, treated at three university hospitals, who underwent an autologous (auto) SCT or allogeneic (allo) SCT in 2007, 2008 or 2009. Allo-SCT included sibling donors, matched unrelated donors (MUD) and umbilical cord blood (UCB). Resource use was collected from the hospital registration systems and medical files. The total costs included selection and harvesting of stem cells, transplantation and 1-year follow-up. The average costs per patient were 45,670 € for auto-SCT and 101,919 € for sibling allo-SCT. The costs of transplantations from unrelated donors were much higher: 171,478 € for allo-SCT-MUD and 254,689 € for allo-SCT-UCB. Hospital inpatient days together with laboratory and other activities were the main cost drivers across all types of SCT. Besides, donor search costs were a large cost component in allo-SCT-sib (18 %) and allo-SCT-MUD (12 %). Real-world costs were above routine reimbursement and appropriate financing is necessary to guarantee the continuation of SCT. The costs calculated in this study provide reliable up-to-date input for cost-effectiveness studies and budget revision. PMID:22864761

Blommestein, H M; Verelst, S G R; Huijgens, P C; Blijlevens, N M A; Cornelissen, J J; Uyl-de Groot, C A

2012-12-01

371

Our recommendations for avoiding exposure to fungi outside the hospital for patients with haematological cancers.  

PubMed

Despite several chemotherapeutic and preventative advances, opportunistic fungal infections remain common unintended consequences of cancer treatment. Currently, cancer patients spend most of their time between treatments at home, where they can inadvertently come across potential hazards from environmental and food sources. Therefore, infection prevention measures are of the utmost importance for these patients. Although clinicians closely observe patients throughout their treatment courses in the hospital, the focus of clinical visits is predominantly on cancer care, and clinicians seldom provide recommendations for prevention of such infections. Herein, we provide practical recommendations for busy clinicians to help them educate patients regarding potential sources of fungal infections outside the hospital. PMID:24446760

Ariza-Heredia, Ella J; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

2014-06-01

372

Nitrogen chemistry and lung physiology.  

PubMed

The versatile chemistry of nitrogen is important to pulmonary physiology. Indeed, almost all redox forms of nitrogen are relevant to pulmonary physiology and to pathophysiology. Here we review the relevance to pulmonary biology of (a) elemental nitrogen; (b) reduced forms of nitrogen such as amines, ammonia, and hydroxylamine; and (c) oxidized forms of nitrogen such as the nitroxyl anion, the nitric oxide free radical, and S-nitrosothiols. Our focus is on oxidized nitrogen in the form of S-nitrosothiol bond-containing species, which are now appreciated to be important to every type of cell-signaling process in the lung. We also review potential clinical applications of nitrogen oxide biochemistry. These principles are being translated into clinical practice as diagnostic techniques and therapies for a range of pulmonary diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25668023

Marozkina, Nadzeya V; Gaston, Benjamin

2015-01-01

373

Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

Worthy, Ward

1980-01-01

374

Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making chemistry studies more relevant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project’s general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the context of industrial chemistry in order to present chemistry as a relevant topic both to the students personally as well as to the society in which they live. The learning materials that were developed during this period were in alignment with the changes and reforms that were conducted in the Israeli educational system. These developments were accompanied with intensive and comprehensive professional development courses and workshops. In addition, several research and evaluation projects were conducted with the goal to assess students’ achievements and to probe into the students’ perceptions regarding the classroom learning environment and the teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards the various instructional and learning materials techniques that were implemented in the programme throughout these years. This paper is structured attempting to describe the curricular cycle in alignment with Goodlad’s and Van den Akker’s curriculum representations.

Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

2006-07-01

375

Chemistry @ Imperial College 2007 Introduction  

E-print Network

Chemistry @ Imperial College 2007 #12;2 Introduction Imperial College is a world leading University. As the central science Chemistry has been a major contributor to this success. The Chemistry Department is at the forefront of modern Chemistry research, both in our core discipline and at the interfaces of Chemistry

376

Chemflex Overview: Common Chemistry core  

E-print Network

393 3 Physical polymer science CHM 394 3 Organic polymer science BS Pharmaceutical Chemistry CourseChemflex Overview: Common Chemistry core CHM 40, 41 (or CHM 30, 31) 8 Introductory chemistry CHM 110,111,112,113 8 Organic chemistry CHM 332 3 Analytical chemistry CHM 201*** 2 Technical writing CHM

Napier, Terrence

377

Clinical Scenario Clinical Challenge  

E-print Network

Clinical Scenario 1 #12;Clinical Challenge VINCI ­ VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure #12Phone 4S and 5 2011 may well be the year that AI finally gets real traction in the medical informatics

378

Mastocytosis in children and adults: clinical disease heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Mastocytosis is a clonal disease of the hematopoietic stem cell. The condition consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a pathological accumulation of mast cells in tissues including the skin, bone marrow, liver, spleen and the lymph nodes. Mastocytosis is a rare disease which occurs both in children and adults. Childhood onset mastocytosis is usually cutaneous and transient while in adults the condition commonly progresses to a systemic form. The heterogeneity of clinical presentation of mastocytosis is typically related to the tissue mast cell burden, symptoms due to the release of mast cell mediators, the type of skin lesions, the patient's age at the onset and associated haematological disorders. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. The present article provides an overview of clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria and treatment of mastocytosis to facilitate the diagnosis and management of mastocytosis patients in clinical practice. PMID:22852012

Nedoszytko, Bogus?aw; Górska, Aleksandra; ?awrocki, Anton; Sobjanek, Micha?; Kozlowski, Dariusz

2012-01-01

379

Combinatorial chemistry synthesis techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

As pharmaceutical companies race to find new and novel drugs faster, the tools of combinatorial chemistry are increasingly playing a larger role. Chemists can now prepare hundreds or thousands of analogs simultaneously to reveal structure-activity relationships (SAR) all at once and potentially shorten the discovery process for new drugs by years. A wide variety of solid-phase organic chemistry techniques have

Michael L. Vazquez

1997-01-01

380

Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

John, Phillip

1982-01-01

381

Chemistry 101 Spring, 2012  

E-print Network

Chemistry 101 Spring, 2012 Tentative Course Syllabus Millington 211; TR, 11-12:20 Instructor: S.K. Knudson; Office: Nope; Hours: by appt. email: skknud@wm.edu Text: Hill, McCreary, Kolb; Chemistry Shapes (4) 3 R, 2/16 The Mole and Reaction Stoichiometry (5) 3 T, 3/20 Gases and Gas Laws; Solids

Pike, Robert D.

382

Chlorine Chemistry Division  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is provided by the American Chemistry Council's Chlorine Chemistry Division. The page contains several links that give an introduction to chlorine, its uses, and issues surrounding the chemical compound. There is also a link to the Chlorine Science Center which provides classroom activities and a chlorine compound of the month.

383

Selectivity in Analytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has put online a draft of recommendations for the correct use of the terms "selectivity" and "specificity" in analytical chemistry. The provisional report, available for download in .pdf format, was drafted by the IUPAC's Analytical Division Task Force, and reader comments are welcomed until September 30, 2001.

384

Selectivity in Analytical Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has put online a draft of recommendations for the correct use of the terms "selectivity" and "specificity" in analytical chemistry. The provisional report, available for download in .pdf format, was drafted by the IUPAC's Analytical Division Task Force, and reader comments are welcomed until September 30, 2001.

2001-01-01

385

Chemistry for Fuel Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation provides a basic introduction to the chemistry involved with fuel cell technology. The material covers chemical bonds, some basic atomic properties, the Noble Gas Theory and how the chemistry of fuel cells works.This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

386

Basic Chemistry Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment reviews basic of chemistry for students who should have had 2 introductory semesters of basic chemistry prior to enrolling in the Fundamental of Water Quality course for which the assignment is used. Assignment reviews basic equation balancing and questions about valence and concentration conversion that students will confront regularly in any geochemistry course.

Thomas Meixner

387

Chemistry of americium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

Schulz

1976-01-01

388

Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

2011-01-01

389

Movies in Chemistry Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

2010-01-01

390

Reactive Chemistry Blog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From science writer David Bradley, this blog has brought the "latest news from the world of chemistry to web surfers everywhere" since 1999. The site crosses a research orientation with a popular look and feel. Features examine current chemistry developments in areas such as chromatography and nanotechnology, as well as news pertaining to work being done by researchers.

391

Chemistry from Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Chemistry from Issues" project at Chelsea College. Provides the background information, rationale, and overall structure of a proposed course about the importance of chemistry to common culture. Outlines one module about the British steel industry that has been taught at King's College. (TW)

Harding, Jan; Donaldson, Jim

1986-01-01

392

Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halogens are very reactive chemicals that are known to play an important role in anthropogenic stratospheric ozone depletion chemistry, first recognized by Molina and Rowland (1974). However, they also affect the chemistry of the troposphere. They are of special interest because they are involved in many reaction cycles that can affect the oxidation power of the atmosphere indirectly by influencing

R. von Glasow; P. J. Crutzen

2003-01-01

393

Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships  

E-print Network

Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact Endowment Fund To provide support for undergraduate biomedical research in the Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry and biochemistry undergraduate majors. Deadline is based on University Awards Day deadline. Virginia Rogers 803

Almor, Amit

394

TU KAISERSLAUTERN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY  

E-print Network

.................................................................................................22 FOOD CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY: JUN.-Prof. Dr. M. Esselen...............................................................................24 FOOD CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY: Prof. Dr. E. Richling......................................................................................26 FOOD CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY: Prof. Dr. Dr. D. Schrenk

Madlener, Klaus

395

Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organic Chemistry Worldwide is an excellent organic chemistry metasite that is not to be missed. Geared toward synthetic organic chemists involved in academic or industrial research, Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide has a mission to collect and independently annotate "all useful organic chemistry sites and to present them in an intuitive way." This extensive metasite is divided into sections on literature, laboratory resources, spectroscopy and spectrometry, nomenclature and teaching, and conferences and organizations. The Literature section contains links to over 75 journals (some restricted access), 14 free databases (and many more commercial), dissertation collections, reviews, guides, patents, and current awareness sources. Examples of resources for laboratory work include links to chemical product databases, laboratory safety bulletins (.pdf), products and services, etc. Highlights of the site are an in-depth section on mass spectrometry, with links to publications and databases, and a plethora of links to organic chemistry labs worldwide, from Armenia to Uruguay.

Van Aken, Koen

1996-01-01

396

Sensitivity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to dietary endosulfan as assessed by haematology, blood biochemistry, and growth parameters.  

PubMed

The presence of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in the water column confers a significant direct risk to the biota therein, yet relatively little is known regarding the toxic impact of dietborne endosulfan to aquatic organisms. Pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed at levels of technical endosulfan equal to the European Union regulatory limit (5 microg kg(-1)) and at levels 10 and 100 times greater, for a total of 49 days with haematology (e.g. erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, white blood cell composition), blood biochemistry (e.g. serum aminotransferase, plasma ions) and growth parameters (e.g. condition factor) recorded at days 0, 14, 35, and 49. Toxicological assessment of the individual alpha and beta-isomers that comprise technical endosulfan was also attempted. No mortality was observed in any group during the experiment. In the groups exposed to the control, 5, and 50 microg kg(-1) technical endosulfan feeds no significant alterations in any measured parameters were determined at any time point. No differences were observed between the technical mixture and the individual alpha and beta-isomer treatment groups. Condition factor was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 500 microg kg(-1) at day 49, while haematocrit, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were significantly elevated after 35 days of exposure to the same dietary level, but returned to control levels by day 49. The present study shows that with regards to acute toxicity, Atlantic salmon are able to tolerate dietary technical endosulfan levels up to 500 microg kg(-1). PMID:17081631

Petri, Dietrich; Glover, Chris N; Ylving, Sonja; Kolås, Kjersti; Fremmersvik, Gro; Waagbø, Rune; Berntssen, Marc H G

2006-12-01

397

Haematological and serum biochemical responses of rabbit does to crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract at gestation and lactation.  

PubMed

As the plant Moringa oleifera is used in herbal medicines for animals, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of crude M. oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on the blood profile of rabbit does during gestation and lactation. Twenty-four mature does (mean weight 2200 g) housed individually were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomised design. The animals in treatments 2, 3 and 4 were orally given 100, 200 and 300 mL/L CMOLE, respectively, at 2.5 mL/kg body weight at 48 h intervals for 9 weeks. The control animals (treatment 1) were given with water only. All the does were mated with untreated bucks 2 weeks into the experiment. Blood samples were collected at 3rd trimester (day 25 of gestation) and 2nd week of lactation. During gestation, levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the treatments. However, animals on treatment 2 had the highest platelets (148.8?×?10(9)/L), not significantly different from those on treatments 3 (141.5?×?10(9)/L) and 4 (135.0?×?10(9)/L), but higher (p?Haematological parameters during lactation were not significantly different among the treatments. Of the serum biochemical variables examined during gestation, only urea was higher (p?

Ewuola, Emmanuel Olubisi; Sokunbi, Olujide Adedamola; Sanni, Kafayat Modupeola; Oyedemi, Oluwaseyi Margaret; Lawal, Temitope Tawakalit

2015-04-01

398

Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

Murfin, Brian

2009-01-01

399

EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

400

Mortality, morbidity, and haematological results from a cohort of long-term workers involved in 1,3-butadiene monomer production.  

PubMed

A retrospective mortality analysis and prospective morbidity and haematological analyses were performed for Shell Deer Park Manufacturing Complex (DPMC) male employees who worked in jobs with potential exposure to 1,3-butadiene from 1948 to 1989. 614 employees qualified for the mortality study (1948-89), 438 of those were still employed during the period of the morbidity study (1982-9), and 429 of those had haematological data available for analysis. Industrial hygiene data from 1979 to 1992 showed that most butadiene exposures did not exceed 10 ppm (eight-hour time weighted average (8 hour TWA)), and most were below 1 ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 3.5 ppm. 24 deaths occurred during the mortality study period. For all causes of death, the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 48 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 31-72), and the all cancer SMR was 34 (95% CI = 9-87). There were only two deaths due to lung cancer (SMR 42, 95% CI = 5-151) and none due to lymphohaematopoietic cancer (expected = 1.2). Morbidity (illness absence) events of six days or more for the 438 butadiene employees were compared with the rest of the complex. No cause of morbidity was in excess for this group; the all cause standardised morbidity ratio (SMbR) was 85 (95% CI = 77-93) and the all neoplasms SMbR was 51 (95% CI = 22-100). Haematological results for the 429 with laboratory data were compared with results for the rest of the complex. No significant differences occurred between the two groups and the distributions of results between butadiene and non-butadiene groups were virtually identical. These results suggest that butadiene exposures at concentrations common at DPMC in the past 10-20 years do not pose a health hazard to employees. PMID:8199682

Cowles, S R; Tsai, S P; Snyder, P J; Ross, C E

1994-05-01

401

Mortality, morbidity, and haematological results from a cohort of long-term workers involved in 1,3-butadiene monomer production.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective mortality analysis and prospective morbidity and haematological analyses were performed for Shell Deer Park Manufacturing Complex (DPMC) male employees who worked in jobs with potential exposure to 1,3-butadiene from 1948 to 1989. 614 employees qualified for the mortality study (1948-89), 438 of those were still employed during the period of the morbidity study (1982-9), and 429 of those had haematological data available for analysis. Industrial hygiene data from 1979 to 1992 showed that most butadiene exposures did not exceed 10 ppm (eight-hour time weighted average (8 hour TWA)), and most were below 1 ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 3.5 ppm. 24 deaths occurred during the mortality study period. For all causes of death, the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 48 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 31-72), and the all cancer SMR was 34 (95% CI = 9-87). There were only two deaths due to lung cancer (SMR 42, 95% CI = 5-151) and none due to lymphohaematopoietic cancer (expected = 1.2). Morbidity (illness absence) events of six days or more for the 438 butadiene employees were compared with the rest of the complex. No cause of morbidity was in excess for this group; the all cause standardised morbidity ratio (SMbR) was 85 (95% CI = 77-93) and the all neoplasms SMbR was 51 (95% CI = 22-100). Haematological results for the 429 with laboratory data were compared with results for the rest of the complex. No significant differences occurred between the two groups and the distributions of results between butadiene and non-butadiene groups were virtually identical. These results suggest that butadiene exposures at concentrations common at DPMC in the past 10-20 years do not pose a health hazard to employees. PMID:8199682

Cowles, S R; Tsai, S P; Snyder, P J; Ross, C E

1994-01-01

402

Cerebral sinus venous thromboses in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia - a multicentre study from the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology.  

PubMed

We present a prospective multicentre cohort of 20 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT). The study covers a period of 5 years and comprises 1038 children treated according to the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL 2008 protocol. The cumulative incidence of CSVT was 2%. Sixteen of the thromboses were related to asparaginase and 16 to steroids. Most CSVTs occurred in the consolidation phase. Nearly all were treated with low molecular weight heparin without bleeding complications. Mortality related to CSVT directly or indirectly was 10%, emphasizing the importance of this complication. PMID:25288392

Ranta, Susanna; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Mäkipernaa, Anne; Albertsen, Birgitte K; Frisk, Tony; Tedgård, Ulf; Jónsson, Ólafur G; Pruunsild, Kaie; Gretenkort Andersson, Nadine; Winther Gunnes, Maria; Saulyte Trakymiene, Sonata; Frandsen, Thomas; Heyman, Mats; Ruud, Ellen; Helgestad, Jon

2015-02-01

403

Moderator Chemistry Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

1990-11-01

404

Moderator Chemistry Program  

SciTech Connect

Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

1990-11-01

405

Wizardry and Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how common pop culture references (Harry Potter books) can relate to chemistry. While making and demonstrating their own low-intensity sparklers (muggle-versions of magic wands), students learn and come to appreciate the chemistry involved (reaction rates, Gibb's free energy, process chemistry and metallurgy). The fun part is that all wands are personalized and depend on how well students conduct the lab. Students end the activity with a class duel—a face-off between wands of two different chemical compositions. This lab serves as a fun, engaging review for stoichiometry, thermodynamics, redox and kinetics, as well as advanced placement course review.

2014-09-18

406

The Chemistry of Cocaine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study looks at cocaine, including its addictive properties and the chemistry involved in the synthesis of the drug in its different forms. The lesson can be used to teach nucleophilic addition reactions, nucleophilic acyl substitution, and cocaine metabolism. The material was designed for use in an undergraduate organic chemistry course but could also be used in medicinal chemistry coursework. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.

Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

407

Frontiers in analytical chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

Amato, I.

1988-12-15

408

Analytical Chemistry Springboard  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Analytical Chemistry Springboard Web site is provided by Umea University Department of Chemistry. The metadata site provides a large number of annotated links that relate to analytical chemistry. Categories include Atomic Spectroscopy, Chemometrics, Electron Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, X-Ray Spectroscopy, and many more. Another section on the site provides links to informational resources such as newsgroups, nonprofit organizations, and scientific literature sources. Each site has a brief description, a direct link, and informational icons that tell if the site is new, updated, or contains graphics -- all of which culminate in a simple but very helpful resource for those working in a related field.

1995-01-01

409

Linux4Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the WWW Virtual Library, the Linux4Chemistry page is a metasite listing a variety of chemistry-related software available on the Web for Linux interface. The site is maintained by Nikodem Kuznik, an undergraduate at the Silesian Technical University in Gliwice, Poland. The list indicates whether the software is free, shareware, or commercial and gives brief descriptions of applications. A few of the programs listed are AllChem, AMMP molecular modeling program, CDA charge composition analysis, and Kmol molecular weight calculator. Besides the seemingly exhaustive list of Linux software for chemistry, this site also gives links to other software resources.

Kuznik, Nikodem.

410

Microscale Gas Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Professor Bruce M. Mattson, PhD, of Creighton University's Department of Chemistry, the Microscale Gas Chemistry Website "provides instructions for the generation of gases on a microscale level along with instructions for chemical demonstrations and student laboratory experiments with the gases." The no-frills site, designed for high school and university chemistry teachers, contains clear and careful instructions for experiments with carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, ethene, chlorine, carbon monoxide, and more. An introduction offers two low-tech methods for gas generation. Data pages for relevant gases are linked to each experiment.

411

Computational quantum chemistry website  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.

none,

1997-08-22

412

Chemistry in Bioinformatics  

E-print Network

F R O N T M A T T E R Chemistry in Bioinformatics Peter Murray?Rust,1 John B. O. Mitchell,1 and Henry S. Rzepa2 1 Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge. CB2... 1EW, UK. 2 Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, SW7 2AY, UK. Abstract Chemical information is now seen as critical for most areas of life sciences. But unlike Bioinformatics, where data is Openly available and freely re...

Murray-Rust, Peter; Mitchell, John B O; Rzepa, Henry S

2005-05-19

413

Green Chemistry Teaching Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Chemical Society (ACS) has created these excellent resources via the Green Chemistry Institute and the ACS Education Division. The goal of these materials is "to increase awareness and understanding of Green Chemistry principles, alternatives, practices, and benefits within traditional educational institutions and among practicing scientists." In the Online Resources section, visitors will find downloadable pocket guides to basic green chemistry principles, "Greener Education Materials for Chemists" from the University of Oregon, and more. Perhaps the best section of the site is Activities and Experiments, where visitors can look over activities like "Gassing Up Without Air Pollution" and "Cleaning Up With Atom Economy."

414

Materials Chemistry at SFU  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Materials Science group at Simon Fraser University (SFU) developed this website to address the group's primary research interests in material synthesis, molecular, electronics, and photonics. Visitors will find explanations covering sixteen research topics including chemical sensors, lithography, non-linear optics, and supramolecular chemistry. Under each topic heading, users will find links discussing the faculties' current goals, recent publications, and patents. The site also features links to the Pacific Centre for Advanced Materials and Microstructures; a collaborative effort between the Materials Science group at SFU and the physics and chemistry departments at the University of British Columbia. Anyone searching for the latest investigations in materials chemistry will find this website very informative.

415

I. Required core Chemistry Courses (1905 & 1925) Chemistry  

E-print Network

Advisor: Advisee: I. Required core Chemistry Courses (1905 & 1925) Chemistry CH 111 PY 211 _____ PY 212 _____ (or PY 242 _____ or PY 252 ______) II. Chemistry Options (one required) 1905 (Concentration in Chemistry) Option A (2 advanced CH courses, 401 or higher, only one may

416

National Chemistry Week Theme: "Candy: The Sweet Side of Chemistry"  

E-print Network

National Chemistry Week Theme: "Candy: The Sweet Side of Chemistry" Super Science Saturday Saturday-on chemistry and science demonstrations! All students & families are welcome! Fun & educational for all ages! Sponsored by: American Chemical Society LSU Department of Chemistry LSU Athletic Department Free admission

Stephens, Jacqueline

417

B.A. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS FOR CHEMISTRY (CHEMISTRY TRACK)  

E-print Network

.) At least 4 credits chosen from: CHE 411: Inorganic Chemistry (3) CHE 422: Inorganic Laboratory TechniquesB.A. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS FOR CHEMISTRY (CHEMISTRY TRACK) Requirements include 36 credits in chemistry core courses, 32 of which are taken in specific courses. Each student's course of study includes

Doyle, Robert

418

Faculty Position in Inorganic Chemistry Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

Faculty Position in Inorganic Chemistry Department of Chemistry Purdue University The Department at the Assistant Professor level in inorganic chemistry. Successful candidates may have interests in any research area of inorganic chemistry, broadly defined. Purdue has a tradition of excellence in inorganic

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

419

B.A. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS FOR CHEMISTRY (BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY TRACK)  

E-print Network

Chemistry (3) CHE 412: Metals in Medicine (3) CHE 422: Inorganic Laboratory Techniques (1) CHE 427B.A. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS FOR CHEMISTRY (BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY TRACK) Requirements include 21 credits from chemistry core courses, 6 credits from the list, (2) below, of approved biology/biochemistry core

Doyle, Robert

420

A Chemistry Minute: Recognizing Chemistry in Our Daily Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory chemistry classes often wonder about the relevance of chemistry to their daily lives. We have sought to increase their awareness by requiring each student in first- and second-semester general chemistry to make a two-minute presentation on a chemistry-related topic. This exercise gives students an opportunity to think…

Luning Prak, Dianne J.; Copper, Christine L.

2008-01-01

421

Application of the principles of green chemistry in analytical chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the dimension of green chemistry into the assessment of ana- lytical methods should be a natural development trend in chemistry and should coincide with its general policy. Some of the principles of green chemistry—such as prevention of waste generation; safer solvents and auxiliaries; design for energy efficiency; safer chemistry to minimize the potential of chemical accidents; development

Mihkel Koel; Mihkel Kaljurand

2006-01-01

422

Emergences of supramolecular chemistry: from supramolecular chemistry to supramolecular science  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the field of supramolecular chemistry as a consequence of the progress of chemistry from its premises to recent\\u000a achievements. Supramolecular chemistry has been claimed to be an emergent field of research taking its roots in chemistry.\\u000a According to the definitions of emergences related to hierarchy or more recently to scope, supramolecular chemistry is shown\\u000a to have bottom-up or

Jacques VicensQuentin Vicens; Quentin Vicens

423

Learn Chemistry: Chemistry Resources for Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Royal Society of Chemistry has created this most useful website to help teachers and students of chemistry learn about the field via interactive experiments, diagrams, animations, and so on. The site includes over 3,300 resources. Visitors can get started by using the Resource Type tab. Here they can browse through ten different headings, including Worksheet, Quiz, Tutorial, and Podcast. The Experiments area is quite wonderful, as it includes over 340 different experiments that can be conducted in the classroom. A few highlights in this area include "Challenging Medicines: Making Medicines," "The Salt Cellar Mystery," and "Which solution is which?" Overall, it's a tremendous site and one that visitors will want to share with friends.

424

Supplemental instruction in chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

Lundeberg, Mary A.

425

Virtual Chemistry Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemistry applets simulate various experiments, apparatus, and chemical processes. The display and operation of an applet can be controlled by the user through the PARAM options in the APPLET tag and through JavaScript commands.

David N. Blauch

426

Forensic Chemistry Lab Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Any aspect of forensic science can be quite tricky, and educators will be delighted to learn about this helpful educational resource designed just for them. Created by Professor Robert Thompson of Oberlin College this online forensic chemistry lab manual is designed to help chemistry faculty in developing forensic chemistry project laboratories for both undergraduate and graduate courses. In this manual, visitors will find sample preparations, procedural details, instructions for students, and typical results in a variety of formats. Along the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors can look through the forensic chemistry analyses, which include explosives, fabric, glass, and arson. The site is rounded out by a selection of "Stories", which are meant to provide the background for chemical analyses of crime scene samples.

Thompson, Robert

427

Chemistry Societies Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users gain access to the heart of CSN's site through the site gateway which leads them to CSN's information arcade, education arcade, societies, chembytes, and conferences and events. The information arcade provides links to experts and specialists, and chemistry societies. The education arcade contains a wealth of information for educators in the chemistry arena. Societies lists chemical and chemistry-related societies, divided alphabetically by country. Chembytes provides access to a variety of news, including recent findings and discoveries, business updates, and news from around the globe. Chembytes also features a continuing series which looks in-depth at a topic recently in the news. Currently featured is NASA's attempt to return to the moon. Conferences and Events is searchable and browseable and contains a submission form so visitors can list an event. CSN's site also includes Useful Links, a listing of sites categorized and reviewed by Chemsoc and Science Park, which links to four companies offering chemistry related resources on the web.

428

Computer Individualizes Chemistry Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new teaching aid, designed to monitor each freshman chemistry student's progress, to identify specific weaknesses and strengths in his grasp of course material, and to prescribe individual study assignments, is described. (DT)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

1974-01-01

429

General Chemistry for Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

Kybett, B. D.

1982-01-01

430

Discovery in chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The question, ''Where do axioms and postulates originate.'' is addressed. The article assumes that they are acquired by inductive logic and are new ideas or discoveries. How discoveries happen in chemistry is the topic of the talk.

Holley, C.E. Jr.

1982-12-01

431

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS ANY CHEMISTRY DISCIPLINE  

E-print Network

departments Industries: Chemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, food, feed, cosmetics, agricultural Environment Agriculture Food Science Cosmetics Forensics ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Government agencies: U, biotechnology, food, feed, cosmetics, agricultural, environmental, petroleum, consumer products, legal, medical

New Hampshire, University of

432

Sequencing General Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The material in the authors' general chemistry curriculum has been rearranged into a sequence thought to be more logical to students than the traditional sequence. This fresh approach does not radically change course content but rather produces a systemat

B.J. Yoblinski

2003-03-01

433

Chemistry with a Peel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

1997-01-01

434

Chemistry for Nonscientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the case of DDT which can be introduced to nonscience students in a chemistry course, including the development of DDT, problems associated with its adverse effects, and curtailment of its use in our environments. (CC)

Weil, Thomas A.; And Others

1974-01-01

435

Magnetism in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)

Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.

1975-01-01

436

Physical Chemistry Animation Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations, intended for a physical chemistry course, covers thermodynamics, the physical transformation of substances (such as dissolution), phase diagrams and the behaviour of matter in various states.

437

Green Chemistry Educational Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the American Chemical Society (ACS), this website offers a set of lesson plans, multimedia demonstrations, and lab exercises for educators interested in introducing their students to green chemistry. First-time visitors can scroll down to the "Activities and Experiments" area where they will find activities that include "Bleaching With Green Oxidation Chemistry" and â??Cleaning Up With Atom Economy," Moving on, visitors can also take advantage of the "Online Resources" area. Here they will find links to materials developed at the University of Oregon and the Green Chemistry Network. Finally, the site is rounded out by the "More Educational Resources" area, which includes links to National Chemistry Week and the ChemMatters magazine.

438

General Chemistry Multimedia Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

439

Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology  

E-print Network

Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology 4 units Prof. Richard Brutchey, Fall 2014 (Lecture = 12:00­12:50 pm MWF) CHEM 455 is an upper-division undergraduate course in Chemical Nanotechnology. The intent

Rohs, Remo

440

The Chemistry Hypermedia Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chemistry Hypermedia Project was started by Professor Brian Tissue of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1993. One of the goals stated for the site is to use the Internet to provide supplemental educational resources to chemistry students. That's accomplished by providing a large collection of hypermedia indices, which are online tutorials on various chemistry topics such as analytical chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and many others. Additional activities for students include self-paced tutorials that give students practice with equilibrium problems and a section on analytical spectroscopy. Although the student sections are a bit unorganized, the site does gives a lot of good information that kids can use to help understand these often confusing topics.

1996-01-01

441

Chemistry Wrap Up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Class activities and independent projects for high school students using household plastic wraps can help students understand more about the chemistry of everyday objects. The activities described in this article reinforce one of the fundamental principle

Jeffrey M. Pristera

2000-04-01

442

CHEMISTRY 210 SYLLABUS Spring 2007  

E-print Network

Ch. 10 Gases and the Ideal Gas Law Ch. 15 The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions Ch. 13 ChemicalCHEMISTRY 210 SYLLABUS Spring 2007 General Chemistry II Dr. Craig P. Jasperse Office: Hagen 407J e:30-11:30 Required Text and Materials: 1) Text: "CHEMISTRY The Molecular Science, 2nd Edition" by Moore

Jasperse, Craig P.

443

7, 47814855, 2007 Chemistry, transport  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 4781­4855, 2007 Chemistry, transport and dry deposition of trace gases during GABRIEL A­4855, 2007 Chemistry, transport and dry deposition of trace gases during GABRIEL A. Stickler et al. Title a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Chemistry, transport and dry

Boyer, Edmond

444

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first hundred years of Nobel Prizes for Chemistry give a beautiful picture of the development of modern chemistry. The prizes cover the whole spectrum of the basic chemical sciences, from theoretical chemistry to biochemistry, and also a number of contributions to applied chemistry.

2001-01-01

445

Marquette University Department of Chemistry  

E-print Network

Analysis Inorganic Chemistry Lecture Inorganic Synthesis Lab #12;Our Curriculum Physical Chemistry LectureMarquette University Department of Chemistry #12;Do You Want A Career that will.... Directly your ideas with others? A Marquette Chemistry degree will prepare you for advanced study or for a job

Reid, Scott A.

446

Green Chemistry, a Pharmaceutical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Green Chemistry1,2 movement has gained momentum, definitions of Green Chemistry have been dominated predomi- nantly by academic viewpoints. Green Chemistry concepts, however, apply to an incredible diversity of scientific endeavor, which has invariably led to differences between and amongst both academia and industry regarding what constitutes Green Chemistry. Speaking primarily of the pharmaceutical industry and considering the advances

John L. Tucker

2006-01-01

447

Nicotine Smoke Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The featured molecules this month come from the paper Using "Basic Principles" To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies by Jeffrey Seeman detailing some of the complexities involved in the volatilization of two alkaloids, nicotine and cocaine. Students could be asked to identify how chemistry is involved in the various steps described in the paper, and most beginning students will be surprised to learn just how complex a process the volatilization of a molecule such as nicotine is.

448

Impact of surface chemistry  

PubMed Central

The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

2011-01-01

449

Impact of surface chemistry.  

PubMed

The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

Somorjai, Gabor A; Li, Yimin

2011-01-18

450

Acid-base chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

1985-01-01

451

Chemistry in space research.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemistry in space is discussed together with aspects of chemistry in planetary atmospheres, the prebiological synthesis of organic compounds, and carbonaceous meteorites as possible sites of extraterrestrial life. Other subjects investigated include terrestrial and extraterrestrial stable organic molecules, thermally stable macromolecules, chemical aspects of ablation, low-temperature relaxations in amorphous polymers, and solid propellants. Liquid propellant rockets are also considered along with questions of spacecraft sterilization. Individual items are announced in this issue.

Landel, R. F. (editor); Rembaum, A.

1972-01-01

452

NASA: Aura Atmospheric Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aura is the EOS chemistry mission which aims to answer three important questions: is the ozone layer recovering, is air quality getting worse, and is the Earth's climate changing? Aura will continue the long term series of atmospheric chemistry measurements made by earlier missions. The Aura spacecraft operates in a 705 km sun-synchronous polar orbit, with an ascending equator crossing at 1:45 PM. On the site, visitors will find an overview of the mission, documentation, tools, links, and FAQs.

453

Effects of prolonged strenuous exercise (marathon running) on biochemical and haematological markers used in the investigation of patients in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on commonly used biochemical and haematological variables in subjects running the 2002 London marathon. Methods: 34 healthy volunteers (7 female, 27 male) were recruited for the study. Blood was taken before the start (at registration) and immediately after completion of the marathon. Samples were analysed for urea and electrolytes, liver function tests, creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme, myoglobin, troponin I, full blood count, a clotting screen, and D-dimers. The results before and after exercise were compared. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for all variables. Results: Significant increases were found in CK, CK-MB, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin following the marathon. However, there was no significant change in the level of troponin I. There was also evidence of activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades following the marathon, with a reduction in activated partial thromboplastin time, a reduction in fibrinogen, and an increase in D-dimers. Conclusions: The results confirm previous individual studies on marathon running and the biochemical and haematological tests routinely carried out in hospital. These are affected by prolonged exercise, and "abnormal" results in these tests may be normal after prolonged exercise and therefore not diagnostic of a disease process. The results of investigations in patients who have been exercising should be interpreted with caution. PMID:15155430

Smith, J; Garbutt, G; Lopes, P; Pedoe, D

2004-01-01

454

Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?

Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

2014-10-01

455

UCLA PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION 2012-2013 CHEMISTRY MAJOR (B.S.), PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION: This concentration is designed primarily for  

E-print Network

engineering, physical chemistry, physical inorganic chemistry, biophysical chemistry, or physical organicUCLA PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION 2012-2013 CHEMISTRY MAJOR (B.S.), PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION: This concentration is designed primarily for Chemistry majors who are interested in attending

Levine, Alex J.

456

Chemistry Student Handbook College of Science  

E-print Network

Chemistry Student Handbook College of Science React. Science #12;Contents 2 Welcome to the Department of Chemistry 2 Course Advice 3 What is Chemistry? 4 Career Profiles in Chemistry 5 An Undergraduate Degree in Chemistry 6 Chemistry Streams 13 Chemistry Honours Programme 14 Research

Hickman, Mark

457

Updated September 2012 Chemistry Degree Requirements  

E-print Network

Winter Spring Computational Chemistry CH 410 Physical Organic Chemistry I CH 410 Inorganic Chemistry CH 431 Bioinorganic Chemistry CH 432 Solid State Inorganic Chemistry CH 433 Quantum & Spectroscopy See CH-13 Inorganic Chemistry Lab CH 437 Adv. Organic Chemistry CH 451 Quantum & Spectroscopy CH 441 Physical

Cina, Jeff

458

Residue chemistry guidelines.  

PubMed

Residue chemistry guidelines are designed to determine what the potential residues in food are and how much may be present as a result of pesticide application, so that a tolerance level may be established. Some requirements are established to assist in the enforcement of tolerances by the USDA, FDA, and the states. I realize I have given you a quick overview of the residue chemistry requirements. There are many documents which are available if you should require more information, such as the Subdivision O Residue Chemistry Guidelines, Standard Evaluation Procedures (which are used by reviewers when evaluating the studies), the Data Reporting Guidelines (which provide guidance on preparing final reports), and the Technical Guidance from Phase III of Reregistration. We have also released various papers on studies when additional guidance is required. Most of these documents are available from NTIS. I hope you will consider this information when auditing residue chemistry studies. As I see the efforts that you, the QA professionals, have made to educate yourselves on residue chemistry studies through programs such as this meeting, I have a little more confidence in answering the question "Do you trust them?" with a "Yes." Thank you. PMID:8156199

Olinger, C L; Schmitt, R D; Zager, E

1993-01-01

459

Chemistry beyond positivism.  

PubMed

Chemistry is often thought to be quite factual, and therefore might be considered close to the "positivist" ideal of a value-free science. A closer look, however, reveals that the field is coupled to the invisible realm of values, meanings, and purpose in various ways, and chemists interact with that realm loosely and unevenly. Tacit knowledge is one important locus of such interactions. We are concerned in this essay with two questions. What is the nature of the knowledge when we are in the early stages of discovery? and In what ways does the hidden reality we are seeking affect our search for an understanding of it? The first question is partly answered by Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge, while the second one leads us to realize the limitations of our language when discussing "reality"-or certain chemical experimental results. A strictly positivist approach is of little use, but so is the opposite, the complete disregard of facts. The contrast between positivism and non-formulable aspects of scientific reasoning amounts to a paradox that needs to be analyzed and can lead to a "connected" chemistry. This in turn resembles networks described by Schweber and is more concerned than the chemistry "as it is" with aspects such as the image of chemistry, the challenges chemists face as citizens, and chemistry in liberal education. PMID:12796119

Brandt, Werner W

2003-05-01

460

Technetium Chemistry in HLW  

SciTech Connect

Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian

2005-06-06

461

AP Chemistry: Course Revisions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Fall 2013, The Advanced Placement Program will be replacing the existing AP Chemistry course with a new chemistry curriculum designed to foster greater conceptual understanding and more time engaged in scientific practices. This website offers an array of resources to support teachers and school administrators in adopting the new AP Chemistry. The framework shifts away from a traditional "content coverage" model to one that focuses on six key ideas in chemistry. Especially noteworthy is the greater emphasis on visualization of the particle nature of matter. Each learning objective explicitly combines content and one or more "thinking skills", intended to promote greater time engaged in scientific inquiry with less focus on mathematical routines. Resources available on this web page include the Curriculum Framework, FAQ's on the new AP Chemistry, Planning and Pacing Guides, teachers' forum, examples, and reference material on inquiry instruction. The changes to each course were guided by National Research Council and National Science Foundation recommendations, following several years of collaborations among university educators and master AP teachers. Editor's Note: The AP Physics course has also undergone major revision, replacing AP Physics B with two year-long courses, slated for adoption in Fall 2014. See "Related Materials" for a link to the College Board's website on AP Physics revisions.

462

[Proteins in haematology].  

PubMed

The introduction of monoclonal antibodies has been a milestone in the treatment of hematologic neoplasms. The CD20 antibody rituximab has been a trailblazer and represents meanwhile a fixed combination partner of different first- and second-line chemotherapies in CD20-positive B-cell-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab maintenance is established in follicular lymphoma. The drug is also used for the treatment of non-malignant hematologic diseases (i.e. immunthrombocytopenia). Rituximab was followed by the CD52 antibody alemtuzumab and recently by the CD20 antibody ofatumumab for the therapy of CLL and the radioimmunconjugate ibritumomab-tiuxetan indicated for the treatment of refractory or relapsed CD20-positive follicular lymphoma or as consolidation after induction chemotherapy. In the near future, approval of several new antibodies is expected. For the treatment of refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma and relapsed systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, the CD30 antibody brentuximab vedotin has been shown to be a highly active new treatment option. PMID:22045523

Clarenbach, Ricarda E; Mey, Ulrich

2011-11-01

463

Practical Chemistry: Nuffield Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young people and others should know about the foundations of modern chemistry and this novel site from the Nuffield Foundation provides a nice mixture of resources to accomplish this goal. The Foundation partnered with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) to create this trove, which visitors will find easy to use and navigate. As the authors describe it, these practical activities are designed to "enable students to apply and extend their knowledge and understanding of chemistry in novel investigative situations." It's important to browse the Topics area, as this contains sections like States of Matter, Bonding, structure, properties, Analysis, Energy and entropy, and The Earth and atmosphere. The great thing about these activities is that they are self-contained, and they require only a modest investment in actual materials and educational background. Finally, the Standard Techniques area will help visitors learn some lab basics, including the heating of various substances, using thermometers properly, and the correct use of a Bunsen burner.

464

Chemistry Laboratory Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning to navigate the treacherous shoals of the chemistry laboratory is tricky business. Fortunately, interested parties can use this fine online course from MIT's OpenCourseWare to become more familiar with such matters. The course consists of "intensive practical training in basic chemistry lab techniques" and the site includes a host of instructional videos. The manual and materials for this course were prepared by Dr. Katherine J. Franze and Dr. Kevin M. Shea in collaboration with a number of their colleagues. Visitors can make their way through the syllabus, course calendar, labs, and the study materials. In the Study Materials area, visitors will find ten videos, including "Using a Balance," "Melting Point Determination," and "Thin-Layer Chromatography." Students of chemistry and educators will find this site most useful and will wish to share it widely with others.

465

Macs in Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using computers to do science is a great way to get young people hooked on the enterprise, and mobile apps and other devices make this easier than ever. The Macs in Chemistry site features dozens of applications that will help users learn about chemistry (and more) through interactive activities, quizzes, and so on. In the At a Glance area, visitors can learn about the tutorials archived here, data analysis tools, and mobile science apps. This last section is a real gem, as it contains dozens of applications including everything from 29 interactive maps of the brain to chemistry formula exercises to a working seismograph. The rest of the applications are divided into alphabetical sections. Visitors should click on the Software Reviews area for timely and detailed reviews of each application's strengths and weaknesses. The site is rounded out by a contact form and a set of useful links.

466

Air Composition and Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

Brimblecombe, Peter

1996-01-01

467

Science360: Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered about the chemistry of a cheeseburger? Well you are in luck because that is one of the subjects covered on the topical and delightful "Chemistry" section of the popular Science360 website. As it states on the site, "everything you hear, see, taste, smell and touch involves chemistry and chemicals", and here visitors can watch videos and learn about the molecular structure of water, the science behind glass blowing, and how a curious mud-like mixture is being used to soak up oil spills and insulate homes. Currently, there are about fifteen videos on the site, and visitors can sign up via a host of social media (Twitter, Facebook, and so on), to stay abreast of new additions to the site. Teachers will find that this material can be integrated into the classroom quite easily, and everyone else will just enjoy wandering through these offerings.

468

Atmospheric chemistry research  

SciTech Connect

Global environmental changes are occurring all around us, and the energy industry is a major player in the changes that are taking place. Wise energy policy can only be generated from a position of informed enlightenment and understanding about the environmental consequences of energy production and utilization. The atmospheric chemistry research being conducted at the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research is geared toward providing the knowledge necessary to allow industrial and legislative officials to make responsible energy decisions in the 1990's and beyond. Three programs are described: the Kentucky Acid Deposition Program Precipitation chemistry network; modeling of regional and urban photochemistry and acid deposition; and modeling of global tropospheric chemistry.

Saylor, R.D. (Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (USA))

1990-01-01

469

Reaction chemistry of cerium  

SciTech Connect

It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

NONE

1997-01-01

470

Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

2000-02-01

471

Sub-clinical diseases affecting performance in Standardbred trotters: diagnostic methods and predictive parameters.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical diseases in poorly-performing Standardbred horses, compare their physiological response to exercise with control horses, and identify predictive parameters of poor-performance. Fifty horses underwent thorough clinical and ancillary examinations, including haematological and biochemical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, standardised exercise tests (SETs) on both treadmill and racetrack, treadmill video-endoscopy and collection of respiratory fluids. Most of the poorly-performing horses exhibited many concomitant diseases. The most frequently diagnosed problems involved the lower and upper respiratory tract and the musculoskeletal system. Poor-performers had lower speeds at a blood lactate (LA) concentration of 4mmol/L (V(LA4)) and a heart rate (HR) of 200bpm (V(200)) on treadmill and racetrack, as well as lower values for haematological parameters, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme and antioxidants, compared to control horses. Problems of the respiratory system were the most frequently diagnosed sub-clinical diseases affecting performance. SETs, together with some blood markers, may be useful as a non-specific diagnostic tool for early detection of diseases that may affect performance. PMID:19477143

Richard, Eric A; Fortier, Guillaume D; Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Dupuis, Marie-Capucine; Valette, Jean-Paul; Art, Tatiana; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Lekeux, Pierre M; Erck, Emmanuelle Van

2010-06-01

472

Chem 390 Physical Chemistry II Spring 2007 Physical Chemistry II  

E-print Network

Chem 390 Physical Chemistry II Spring 2007 Physical Chemistry II Chem 390 Review outline for Prelim are not permitted. 1. Properties of gases Chapter 16 · Basic vocabulary of thermodynamics: thermodynamic state

473

Chemistry of Transactinides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter, the chemical properties of the man-made transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf (element 104), dubnium, Db (element 105), seaborgium, Sg (element 106), bohrium, Bh (element 107), hassium, Hs (element 108), and copernicium, Cn (element 112) are reviewed, and prospects for chemical characterizations of even heavier elements are discussed. The experimental methods to perform rapid chemical separations on the time scale of seconds are presented and comments are given on the special situation with the transactinides where chemistry has to be studied with single atoms. It follows a description of theoretical predictions and selected experimental results on the chemistry of elements 104 through 108, and element 112.

Kratz, J. V.

474

Chemistry in the Kitchen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this kitchen chemistry activity, learners explore the chemistry of crystals by making sugar crystals, consider a common chemical reaction type responsible for the rising of muffins and cake in the oven, and study the cleaning power of soap. For some of the experiments, a molecular-level view is fostered using structural diagrams of the chemicals, along with a fun "cartoon" version of the reaction with molecules represented by colored shapes (both drawn and cut out). The