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Fall blood counts on 56 clinically normal cranes of nine different species have provided reference values for the interpretation of haematological changes in 13 cranes presenting with abnormal clinical signs. Hypochromic anaemia, heterophilia and lymphocytosis were found in birds with probable Mycobacterium avium infection and heterophilia and lymphocytosis in birds with bumblefoot, arthritis, nephrosis and cardiac myo?pathy. In several of
Christine Hawkey; J. H. Samour; D. G. Ashton; M. G. Hart; R. N. Cindery; J. M. Ffinch; D. M. Jones
A retrospective analysis of haematological values from clinically normal captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) showed that the red cell count, haemoglobin level, packed cell volume and lymphocyte count were higher and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and eosinophil count were lower in juveniles than in adults. Newborn animals were anaemic compared with juveniles and adults and had high reticulocyte counts. The values from healthy reindeer were used to identify abnormal haematological variations in a number of sick animals. It was shown that reindeer exhibit similar haemopathological responses to those of other artiodactyla, with increases in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen level being of particular diagnostic significance. Eosinophilia was the only abnormal haematological finding in individuals with subclinical infections of intestinal parasites. PMID:2321339
Of paramount importance to most toxicity studies in rats is the evaluation of haematological, coagulation and clinicalchemistry parameters. In European and North American countries, the orbital venous plexus (OVP) is currently the most common route for obtaining blood, whereas in Japan the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta (AA) are the preferred routes. In order to compare clinical
T. Matsuzawa; H. Tabata; M. Sakazume; S. Yoshida; S. Nakamura
The purpose of this study was to describe haematological and blood biochemistry findings of farmed guanacos in central Chile, in order to establish reference values for this species in captivity. Haematological and clinical biochemical measurements were performed on blood and plasma respectively, from 40 clinically healthy guanacos (20 females and 20 castrated males), aged between 2 and 3 years. The
B. Zapata; V. Fuentes; C. Bonacic; B. González; G. Villouta; F. Bas
Summary Kirkova, Z., P. Petkov & D. Goundasheva, 2005. Clinical and haematological studies in dogs, experimentally infected with Trichuris vulpis. Bulg. J. Vet. Med., 8, No 2, 141?148. The experiment was performed on 9 mixed-breed dogs (6 infected and 3 non-infected controls). The experimental infection was provoked with Trichuris vulpis (10000 eggs\\/kg). The clinical signs and the following haematological parameters
Reference ranges for clinical biochemical parameters commonly investigated in pigs were determined in one- (day 1), 21- and 35-day old piglets. The mean and standard deviation were also estimated for body weight, and haematological and clinical biochemical parameters at these ages. The piglets were divided into 2 investigation groups according to whether they had a haemoglobin concentration < or = 80 g/l ("anaemic group") or > 80 g/l ("normal group") on days 14, 21 and 28. The "anaemic group" was compared to the "normal group" on days 21 and 35. Many of the clinical biochemical parameters varied according to age. Some of the enzymes had high average values and wide reference ranges in piglets, especially on day 1, compared to the reference ranges for sows given in the literature. The reference ranges for some of the metabolic parameters were broader on day 1 than later in the preweaning period. The reference ranges for albumin, total iron-binding capacity and serum iron were, however, lower and more narrow on day 1. On days 21 and 35, relatively high values for phosphorus must be considered "normal" compared to the figures given in the literature for adult pigs. The other minerals seemed to be quite unaffected of age, but some were affected by anaemia. The anaemic piglets had lower average serum iron but higher total iron-binding capacity than the "normal" piglets on days 21 and 35. However, variation between piglets gave wide reference ranges, indicating that these parameters will only have limited usefulness in detecting iron deficiency anaemia in piglets. The electrolytes seemed also to be affected by the existence of anaemia. The body weight and leukocyte counts were significantly lower in the "anaemic group" than the "normal group" on day 35, while the greatest differences in clinical biochemical parameters between the groups were found on day 21, when the piglets in the "anaemic group" were most severely anaemic. Although these piglets suffered from severe iron-deficiency anaemia, only a few clinical biochemical parameters were affected, and the differences between groups were mostly small. PMID:9787501
Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8?months old sheep, weighing on average 30?kg, from which 15?mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8?days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p?0.05). Haematological variables including globular volume and erythrocyte counts showed a significant decrease (p?0.01) at all time points after collection and increased (p?0.01) at all time points after reinfusion. There was a significant increase in total protein and calcium at all time points after reinfusion (p?0.05). Conclusion Autologous transfusion in sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection.
The haematological parameters of healthy great bustards (Otis tarda L.) have been determined. The values obtained were red cell count (3.0 x 10(12) +/- 0.2 x 10(12/)1), white cell count (33.0 x 10(9) +/- 2.6 x 10(9)/1), haematocrit value (0.51 +/- 0.01 1/1), haemoglobin (13.0 +/- 0.3 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (178.7 +/- 12.5 fl), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (25.0 +/- 0.6 g/dl), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (42.5 +/- 3.2 pg), differential white cell count: heterophils (22.5 x 10(9) +/- 0.7 x 10(9)/1), lymphocytes (6.0 x 10(9)+/-0.7 x 10(9)/1), eosinophils (2.7 x 10(9) +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/1) and monocytes (1.8 x 10(9)+/-0.2 x 10(9)/1). PMID:18680064
Jimenez, A; Barrera, R; Sanchez, J; Cuenca, R; Rodriguez, J; Andres, S; Mane, M C
The clinical and haematological changes which occurred in 18 Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) experimentally infected with Jembrana disease are described. The major clinical signs were an elevated rectal body temperature persisting for 7 days (range 5 to 12 days), lethargy, anorexia, enlargement of the superficial lymph nodes, a mild ocular and nasal discharge, diarrhoea with blood in the faeces and pallor of the mucous membranes. Not all of these changes occurred in all affected cattle. The major haematological changes included leucopenia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia and a slight neutropenia, a mild thrombocytopenia, a normocytic normochromic anaemia, elevated blood urea concentrations and reduced total plasma protein. The mortality rate in the experimentally infected cattle was 17 per cent. The similarity of Jembrana disease to malignant catarrhal fever and to diseases of cattle associated with Ehrlichia is discussed. PMID:2394847
Soesanto, M; Soeharsono, S; Budiantono, A; Sulistyana, K; Tenaya, M; Wilcox, G E
The effect of sodium selenite induced subacute and chronic toxicity on clinical and haematological parameters was studied in cross-bred cow calves. Subacute and chronic selenosis was induced by oral administration of sodium selenite at dose rate of 2.5 mg\\/kg for 21 days and 0.25 mg\\/kg for 16 weeks, respectively. Toxic manifestations in subacute selenium toxicity included anorexia, salivation, redness of
The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited. PMID:23800626
Thirty-five juvenile (mean age 6.3 weeks) and 35 adult (mean age 2.0 years) healthy degus (Octodon degus) were studied to investigate selected haematological and plasma biochemistry parameters. Animals were anaesthetised with isoflurane, and blood was withdrawn from the cranial vena cava. Erythrocyte, haematocrit and neutrophil counts (including the percentage of neutrophils) were significantly higher in the adult degus than in
This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinicalchemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…
Two groups of 22 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were housed for 12 months under identical conditions. One group was fed a commercial seed mixture plus carrots and a mineral supplement, and the other group was fed a commercially formulated diet plus carrots. Samples of blood and faeces were collected initially and after three, six, nine and 12 months. There were no significant differences between the haematological values of the two groups. The group fed the seed mixture had significantly higher concentrations of glucose, albumin, triglycerides and uric acid, and higher activity of aspartate aminotransferase, but the values were within the published reference ranges for normal birds. There were no significant differences between the faecal samples from the two groups, except that the fungus Macrorhabdus ornithogaster was identified in 48.3 per cent of the samples from the group fed the commercially formulated diet but from only 3.4 per cent of the samples from the group fed the seed mixture. PMID:17028249
Objectives To investigate issues of curriculum in the context of a postgraduate sports medicine training programme, specifically in the field of clinical biochemistry and haematology. Methods Following the Delphi methodology, a series of sequential questionnaires was administered to curriculum developers, clinical teachers, examiners, and registrars. Results Agreement on a core syllabus for this subject with an indication of the core aims and objectives of teaching and learning in this field and the associated required skills and competencies. An indication of current and ideal teaching and learning methods and reasons for these preferences. A consensus of key features of a teaching module for this field and of appropriate methods of examination. Conclusions The data derived from this study, as well as the experience of engaging in it, will better inform curriculum developers, teachers, and students of one another's perceptions as to what is important in and appropriate to teaching and learning in this field of sports medicine. Engagement in the exercise and broader consideration of the outcomes by those who develop the curriculum, teach, and formulate the examination process will facilitate attainment of the ideal of well aligned teaching, learning, and examination in this specific field.
Mycoplasma suis causes infectious anaemia in pigs (IAP), which can manifest in various degrees of severity depending on the virulence and the host's susceptibility. As M. suis cannot be cultured in vitro experimental infections of splenectomised animals play an essential role for pathogenesis research. The aim of the present study was to characterise the course of experimental infection using the highly virulent and red blood cell (RBC-) invasive M. suis strain KI3806, to compare the experimental course in splenectomised and non-splenectomised pigs and to correlate clinical and haematological parameters with M. suis blood loads. All infected splenectomised pigs (n=7) were PCR-positive 2 days post infection (DPI) with maximum mean bacterial loads of 1.61×10(10)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed severe anaemia and massive hypoglycaemia by 8 DPI and had to be euthanised preterm (until 8 DPI) without seroconversion. The non-splenectomised pigs (n=7) became PCR-positive within 23 DPI and reached a maximum mean M. suis load of 1.64×10(5)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed mild anaemia, massive skin alterations with petechiae and haemorrhagic diathesis and seroconverted within 35 DPI. The study demonstrated that experimental infection of splenectomised pigs with the highly virulent M. suis strain KI3806 induces a fulminant course of infection. In contrast, M. suis strain KI3806 induces a mild course of disease in non-splenectomised pigs, which resembles the situation in naturally infected pigs. Therefore, these infection models are valuable for future pathogenesis studies on acute and chronic M. suis infections. PMID:24933162
Stadler, J; Jannasch, C; Mack, S L; Dietz, S; Zöls, S; Ritzmann, M; Hoelzle, K; Hoelzle, L E
Entrance into a clinicalchemistry career in the US can be obtained through a variety of avenues, ranging from very formal to no formal training requirements. A frequent starting point is through a formal medical technology program at the baccalaureate level. Nonphysicians, interested in an advanced career, have also the option to choose their point of entrance through a formal graduate or postdoctoral program. The main source for obtaining a Master of Science or Doctoral degree with a major in the clinical laboratory sciences, is through Departments of Pathology. Physicians desiring to subspecialize in clinicalchemistry can obtain some of the training through a residency program in Pathology. Clinicalchemistry is an essential component of both the clinical pathology (CP) residency and the combined residencies in anatomic and clinical pathology (AP/CP). In addition, fellowships in clinicalchemistry are available for graduates with doctorate degrees in the chemical and biological sciences as well as for physicians with laboratory experience. PMID:7720280
The American Association for ClinicalChemistry has recently made available online ClinicalChemistry: International Journal of Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics. ClinicalChemistry contains full-text articles, figures, and tables in a searchable (by keyword) format. Coverage begins with the January 1998 issue. Abstracts begin with the January 1980 issue. ClinicalChemistry is made available through Stanford University's HighWire Press.
A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.
...Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] ClinicalChemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices...will be open to the public. Name of Committee: ClinicalChemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical...
This report defines four levels of care required for the management of adult patients with haematological malignancies and marrow failure (acute and chronic leukaemias, lymphomas, myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders, myeloma and severe aplastic anaemia). The higher levels of care require increasing specialist expertise, staffing and resources. Staffing includes both the medical, nursing and scientific/laboratory professions and other support staff. Resources include ward provision, bed numbers, equipment, laboratory and radiotherapy facilities, pharmacy, support services and research. Blood transfusion services and their organisation are discussed separately. The guidelines indicate to providers and purchasers the issues to be considered in placing contracts for the care of these patients. A glossary of terms is provided for purchasers. PMID:7621625
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical, microbiological, radiological, haematological and cytological features of foals with pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi infection and with other bacteria, in order to provide markers for early diagnosis and treatment. A retrospective study of 113 cases of bacterial pneumonia was undertaken. Although there was considerable overlap in the affected populations, foals with R. equi pneumonia were significantly younger and had higher respiratory rates. Radiological evidence of thoracic abscessation had a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 85% for the diagnosis of R. equi pneumonia. Foals positive for R. equi also had higher peripheral white cell counts and fibrinogen concentrations than animals not infected with this pathogen. Respiratory rate, fibrinogen concentration and the log of the neutrophil count were retained in the final multivariate analysis. Using microbiological culture as the 'gold standard', identification of Gram-positive coccobacilli in tracheal aspirates was highly specific (91%), but poorly sensitive (35%) for R. equi infection. White cell counts >20,000cells/?L (86% specificity), fibrinogen concentrations >700mg/dL (92% specificity), radiological evidence of thoracic abscessation (85% specificity), and the presence of Gram-positive coccobacilli in tracheal aspirates (91% specificity) in pneumonic foals are highly suggestive of R. equi infection and justify early targeted antimicrobial intervention while awaiting culture results. PMID:19932977
Leclere, Mathilde; Magdesian, K Gary; Kass, Philip H; Pusterla, Nicola; Rhodes, Diane M
A wide range of clinical, pathological and haematological effects were found over a 40-week period in chickens inoculated at 1-day-old with a low-passage, cell-culture preparation of an Australian strain of reticuloendotheliosis virus. Feathering defects and statistically significant depression of body weights occurred in chickens up to 8 weeks of age. Other findings in birds that died or were culled during the 40-week experimental period included mild anaemia, leucopenia, heterophilia, hypoplasia of immune system organs, inflammation in visceral and nervous system organs, and bacterial or fungal infections. These results suggested that ill-thrift and death in some chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus may be due to secondary infections with microorganisms subsequent to damage of immune system organs by that virus. Lymphoreticular-cell tumours of the liver, kidney or spleen were found in two birds aged 22 and 24 weeks. These results establish reticuloendotheliosis virus as a possible cause of tumours in adult fowls. Horizontal transmission of virus was demonstrated but the only abnormalities detected in the in-contact chickens were feathering defects. PMID:18770427
The study included examination of 175 native goats, 27 were infected with Babesia ovis , B. motasi , B. foliata and B. taylori , (recorded in Mosul for the first time) and 25 were clinically normal and served as control. Results indicated that the percentage of the infection with Babesiosis was 15.42% and the percentage of parasitemia ranged between 3.5-10.4%
E. G. Sulaiman; S. H. Arslan; Q. T. Al-Obaidi; E. Daham
Sickle cell anaemia (SCA; HbSS) is characterised by its clinical variability, which is only partly explained by known genetic\\u000a factors. Environmental factors are known to contribute to acute problems but their importance in chronic complications has\\u000a not been analysed. We have studied 93 children with SCA in a single institution, who underwent transcranial Doppler scanning\\u000a and steady-state blood tests in
Hrishi Mittal; Lara Roberts; Gary W. Fuller; Sandra O’Driscoll; Moira C. Dick; Sue E. Height; Swee Lay Thein; David C. Rees
Sickle cell haemoglobin (Hb S) occurs at a high frequency in the Eastern (EP), South-Western (SWP) and North-Western (NWP) Provinces of Saudi Arabia and the presentation of the Hb S is believed to exhibit clinical diversity in the different regions. Three areas of Saudi Arabia were screened to determine the frequency of Hb S and ?- and ?-thalassaemias and glucose-6-phosphate
While the crucial role of haemoglobin in aerobic exercise has been well accepted, there is still a great deal of controversy about the optimal haematological parameters in the athletic population. The initial part of this review will examine the question of anaemia in athletes. The most common finding in athletes is a dilutional pseudoanaemia that is caused by a plasma volume expansion, rather than an actual blood loss. It is not a pathological state and normalises with training cessation in 3 to 5 days. This entity should be distinguished from conditions associated with lowered blood counts, such as intravascular haemolysis or iron deficiency anaemia. The evaluation of true anaemia states in the athlete must take into account not only blood losses secondary to exercise, such as foot strike haemolysis or iron losses through sweat, but non-athletic causes as well. Depending on the age and sex of the athlete, consideration must be given to evaluation of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems for blood loss. Finally, a comprehensive nutritional history must be taken, as athletes, especially women, are frequently not consuming adequate dietary iron. The second section of the paper will deal with the very contentious issue of sickle cell trait. While there have been studies demonstrating an increased risk of sudden death in people with sickle cell trait, it is still quite rare and should not be used as a restriction to activity. Further, studies have demonstrated that patients with sickle cell trait have an exercise capacity that is probably normal or near normal. However, in the cases of sudden death, it has been secondary to rhabdomyolysis occurring among sickle cell trait athletes performing at intense exertion under hot conditions, soon after arriving at altitude. The recommendations are that athletes with sickle cell trait adhere to compliance with the general guidelines for fluid replacement and acclimatisation to hot conditions and altitude. The final section of the paper examines the issue of haematological manipulation for the purposes of ergogenic improvement. Although experiments with blood doping revealed improvements in running time to exhaustion and maximal oxygen uptake, the introduction of recombinant erythropoietin has rendered blood doping little more than a historical footnote. However, the improvements in performance are not without risk, and the use of exogenous erythropoietin has the potential for increased viscosity of the blood and thrombosis with potentially fatal results. Until a definitive test is developed for detection of exogenous erythropoietin, it will continue to be a part of elite athletics. PMID:10688281
In the first part of the present study, a total of 109 faeces samples collected from calves suffering from diarrhoea were examined for Cryptosporidium parvum oocytes and 39 (35.8%) of them were found to be positive. On the basis of oocyte counts, 14 (36%) samples were assessed as mildly infected and 25 (64%) samples as heavily infected. The occurrence of the disease was more common in winter (56.4%) than during other seasons (autuma 0%, summer 15.4% spring 28.2%. In the present study, the ionophore polyetherantibiotic Lasalocid-Na, that is licensed as a feed additive (Bovatec, 15% Lasalocid-Na, Roche AG) in Turkey, was administered to 11 calves naturally infected with Cryptosporidium and its therapeutic effect was evaluated. Lasalocid-Na (8 mg/ kg BW) was given once daily for 3 days added to the milk. The clinical parameters of infected calves were evaluated before and 3 days after the treatment in 24 hour intervals. The oocyst counts of faeces of calves with cryptosporidiosis were between 15 x 10(6) and 96 x 10(6)/mL before treatment. No oocystes were found in faecal samples of 3 calves (27.3%) after 48 hours and 4 (40%) calves after 72 hours of treatment, respectively. The number of oocytes in the faeces of the remaining calves varied between 90 and 1.2 x 10(6)/mL during the respective period. The number of oocystes before treatment was significantly higher than the number of oocytes after treatment. One of the calves died 56 h after the first treatment despite the treatment. The pH of venous blood was decreased prior to treatment as expected. The lowest pH was 6.83, the lowest bicarbonate concentration was 3.80 mmol/l and the lowest base excess was -31.2 mmol/l. After the treatment, pH, pCO2, HCO3- and BE values of the venous blood increased significantly and reached physiological values before discharge. The differences between the values assessed before the treatment and at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th sampling time were statistically significant. Number of leucocyte and haemoglobin concentration before the treatment were significantly higher than the values after treatment (p < 0.01). These values returned back to physiological ranges 72 hours after first treatment. Lasalocid-Na was rather well tolerated. Side effects such as the decline of the suckling reflex and intoxication symptoms in respect to present administration form and dosage were found only in one calf (9%). Treatment procedure in the present study with Lasalocid-Na was found to be suitable in combination with an adequate infusion therapy for the treatment of calves on farms with problems related to cryptosporidiosis. Although the use of Lasolacid-Na for the treatment of Cryptosporidium infection in the EU is banned, it might be used as an alternative drug outside of the EU since it has a successful effect for preventing reinfections. PMID:16028484
Sahal, M; Karaer, Z; Yasa Duru, S; Cizmeci, S; Tanyel, B
The professional duties of the specialists in clinicalchemistry differ from country to country in Europe. One of the main goals of the Strategic Plan of the Forum of the European Societies of ClinicalChemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC; IFCC-Europe) is to promote a high scientific and professional standard in the field of clinicalchemistry and laboratory medicine in Europe. This can be stimulated by the knowledge of the local conditions in each country and by striving towards a strong and harmonised position in all the European countries. In order to enhance the knowledge of the managerial situation of the specialists in clinicalchemistry in Europe, FESCC launched a survey in September 2000. This survey provides information about the position of the specialists in clinicalchemistry in the various disciplines in the medical laboratories and in hospitals, and about the advisory tasks and the managerial education during the post-graduate training in clinicalchemistry. Of the 35 FESCC member countries 33 have participated in the survey (94%). The results show a rather heterogeneous situation in Europe caused by the local historical developments, the differences in academic background and the relative numbers of private and physicians' office laboratories. Large differences exist between the European countries in the disciplines of laboratory medicine that are headed by a specialist in clinicalchemistry. In the different countries the clinicalchemistry laboratories are headed by specialists in clinicalchemistry in between 20% and 100% of the laboratories. The haematology, immunology, microbiology, therapeutic drug monitoring, molecular biology and haemostasis laboratories and departments of blood banking are headed by specialists in clinicalchemistry in between 0% and 100% of the laboratories. The responsibilities for the various managerial tasks of the specialists in clinicalchemistry show no uniformity in Europe. In the majority of the countries the general management, the purchase of equipment and reagents and the education of technicians are in >90% the responsibility of the specialists in clinicalchemistry. In most countries the majority of the specialists in clinicalchemistry are members of the medical staff of the hospitals and have a position equivalent to the position of specialists in other medical disciplines. In some countries, however, it only holds true for the specialists with a medical background. In 79% of the countries the law regulates the profession of the specialists in clinicalchemistry and in 60% of the countries the law regulates their position in the medical staff of the hospital. The advisory tasks to physicians, general practitioners and other users of laboratory tests are practised by >90% of the laboratories in 64% of the countries. Information is given directly to the patients by >90% of the laboratories in 30% of the countries. Only in a few countries laboratories give information to the public. The post-graduate training in clinicalchemistry includes a managerial training in 58% of the countries, the study of information technology in 61% of the countries and an economy and/or a business administration study in 15% of the countries. In 27% of the countries no managerial education forms part of the post-graduate study in clinicalchemistry. Harmonisation of the managerial aspects of the profession is one of the challenges for the European specialists in clinicalchemistry. A European syllabus for post-graduate training could be helpful. PMID:12005224
de Kieviet, Wim; Blaton, Victor; Kovacs, Gabor L; Palicka, Vladimir; Pulkki, Kari
Clinicalchemistry data are routinely generated as part of preclinical animal toxicity studies and human clinical studies. With large-scale studies involving hundreds or even thousands of samples in multiple treatment groups, it is currently difficult to interpret the resulting complex, high-density clinicalchemistry data. Clinicalchemistry data were obtained from male rats each treated with one of eight different acute hepatotoxicants from a large-scale toxicogenomics study. The raw data underwent a Z-score transformation comparing each individual animal’s clinicalchemistry values to that of reference controls from all eight studies and then visualized in a single graphic using a heat map. The utility of using a heat map to visualize high density clinicalchemistry data was explored by clustering the changes in clinicalchemistry values for over 400 animals. Clustering of the animals on clinicalchemistry changes resulted in a clear distinction of the animals displaying hepatotoxicity from those that did not. Additionally, while animals experiencing hepatotoxicity showed many similarities in the observed clinicalchemistry alterations, distinct differences were noted in the heat map profile for the different compounds. Using a heat map to visualize complex, high-density clinicalchemistry data in a single graphic facilitates the identification of previously unrecognized trends. This method is simple to implement and maintains the biological integrity of the data. The value of this clinicalchemistry data transformation and visualization will manifest itself through the integration with other high-density data, such as genomics data, to study physiology at the systems level.
Auman, J. Todd; Boorman, Gary A.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Paules, Richard S.
This study describes the development and diffusion of automated clinicalchemistry analyzers as an example of the process of technological change in medicine. This involves an elaboration and refinement of the conceptual framework, a historical descriptio...
Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinicalchemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical…
A retrospective study of 37 patients with haematological malignancy (21 acute myeloid leukaemia, 11 acute lymphoid leukaemia, two lymphoma, two hairy cell leukaemia, one Hodgkin's disease) and histologically documented mucormycosis was conducted to evaluate the clinical characteristics and ascertain the factors which influenced the outcome from mycotic infection. Patients were admitted to 18 haematology divisions in tertiary care or university hospitals in Italy between 1987 and 1995. Fever, thoracic pain, dyspnoea and cough were the most frequent presenting symptoms. At the onset, 89% patients were neutropenic (neutrophil counts < 0.5 x 10(9)/l) with a median duration of previous neutropenia of 14 d (range 6-60). The most frequent sites of infection were lungs (81%), CNS (27%), sinus (16%), liver (16%) and orbital space (10%). Only three patients were asymptomatic. A correct in vivo diagnosis was made in only 13 (35%) patients. When performed, thoracic and cranial CT scan were the most useful diagnostic investigations. Despite the fact that 26 febrile patients were treated with empirical antifungal treatment, 28 of the 37 patients (76%) died from fungal infection at a median time of 17 d from the onset of clinical symptoms. Nine patients were cured by antifungal therapy plus, in five cases, radical surgery procedures. An analysis of factors influencing outcome demonstrated that the resolution of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and prolonged treatment with amphotericin B and, if feasible, radical surgical debridement treatment, were significantly correlated with recovery from infection. Mucormycosis, a rare filamentous fungal infection that occurs most frequently in neutropenic acute leukaemia patients, is characterized by a high mortality rate. Extensive and aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are essential to improve the prognosis in these patients. PMID:9375750
Pagano, L; Ricci, P; Tonso, A; Nosari, A; Cudillo, L; Montillo, M; Cenacchi, A; Pacilli, L; Fabbiano, F; Del Favero, A
...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] ClinicalChemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee: Notice of Change of Meeting Schedule...
AssayFinder is an electronic database of clinicalchemistry assays. It currently holds 1300 entries from 63 laboratories. It was developed for hospital clinicalchemistry laboratories that need to send patient samples to reference centres for complex analysis. AssayFinder anticipated use of the Internet for transmitting information between hospitals. It started as a disc containing individual hypertext markup language files. From the beginning AssayFinder was designed for Web browser software, usable even in laboratories without Internet access. Later, files were generated automatically from a database package, (FileMaker-Pro, Claris, Santa Clara, USA.). Direct on-line access to the database has now been achieved using the World Wide Web. In the future sites will submit new assays in electronic form. In addition, links to other relevant specialist web-sites will further increase its value to the clinicalchemistry community. PMID:10023817
Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection should be preventable if simple precautions are taken. An ad hoc working party of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology has reviewed recommendations for patients without a spleen and drawn up a consensus. Members of the working party were selected for their personal expertise and to represent relevant professional bodies. The guidelines, which are set out below, include and extend the chief medical officer's 1994 update.
The objective of this study was to examine the susceptibility of clinical isolates to levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone with extended activity against Gram-positive bacteria, and other antibiotics in 12 Swiss clinical microbiology laboratories using the NCCLS disc diffusion technique. Isolates were prospectively collected from intensive care units (ICUs (59%), oncology wards (7%) and other units with haematology/oncology patients (34%) from June 1995 to March 1996. The levofloxacin breakpoints used were as recommended by the manufacturer. A total of 310 Gram-positive and 580 Gram-negative isolates from the respiratory tract (36%), skin/wounds (12%), blood (16%), urine (17%) and other sources (19%) were tested. The percentage of isolates susceptible to levofloxacin was 100% for Enterococcus spp. (38 strains), Streptococcus agalactiae (13), Streptococcus pneumoniae (65), Acinetobacter spp. (11), Citrobacter diversus (6), Citrobacter freundii (17), Klebsiella oxytoca (39), Morganella morganii (16), Proteus mirabilis (20), Proteus vulgaris (23), Serratia spp. (19), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (10) and Haemophilus influenzae (41). The percentage of isolates susceptible to levofloxacin for Staphylococcus aureus (95 strains, including 2% MRSA) was 94%, coagulase-negative staphylococci (85) 65%, Enterobacter spp. (75) 99%, Escherichia coli (111) 97%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (45) 98% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (124) 87%. In conclusion, levofloxacin is a new fluoroquinolone to which the most common clinical isolates in Switzerland are susceptible. The susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. and S. pneumoniae to levofloxacin was particularly remarkable. This compound appears to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. PMID:10404338
A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinicalchemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)
Background Hand-held dynamometry is a portable and inexpensive method to quantify muscle strength. To determine if muscle strength has changed, an examiner must know what part of the difference between a patient's pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements is attributable to real change, and what part is due to measurement error. This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of intra and inter-observer strength measurements with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Methods Two observers performed maximum voluntary peak torque measurements (MVPT) for isometric knee extension in 24 patients with haematological malignancies. For each patient, the measurements were carried out on the same day. The main outcome measures were the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ± 95%CI), the standard error of measurement (SEM), the smallest detectable difference (SDD), the relative values as % of the grand mean of the SEM and SDD, and the limits of agreement for the intra- and inter-observer '3 repetition average' and the 'highest value of 3 MVPT' knee extension strength measures. Results The intra-observer ICCs were 0.94 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.86–0.97) and 0.86 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.71–0.94). The ICCs for the inter-observer measurements were 0.89 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.75–0.95) and 0.77 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.54–0.90). The SEMs for the intra-observer measurements were 6.22 Nm (3.98% of the grand mean (GM) and 9.83 Nm (5.88% of GM). For the inter-observer measurements, the SEMs were 9.65 Nm (6.65% of GM) and 11.41 Nm (6.73% of GM). The SDDs for the generated parameters varied from 17.23 Nm (11.04% of GM) to 27.26 Nm (17.09% of GM) for intra-observer measurements, and 26.76 Nm (16.77% of GM) to 31.62 Nm (18.66% of GM) for inter-observer measurements, with similar results for the limits of agreement. Conclusion The results indicate that there is acceptable relative reliability for evaluating knee strength with a HHD, while the measurement error observed was modest. The HHD may be useful in detecting changes in knee extension strength at the individual patient level.
Knols, Ruud H; Aufdemkampe, Geert; de Bruin, Eling D; Uebelhart, Daniel; Aaronson, Neil K
Background Preanalytical variability, including biological variability and patient preparation, is an important source of variability in laboratory testing. In this study, we assessed whether a regular light meal might bias the results of routine clinicalchemistry testing. Methods We studied 17 healthy volunteers who consumed light meals containing a standardized amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. We collected blood for routine clinicalchemistry tests before the meal and 1, 2, and 4 hr thereafter. Results One hour after the meal, triglycerides (TG), albumin (ALB), uric acid (UA), phosphatase (ALP), Ca, Fe, and Na levels significantly increased, whereas blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and P levels decreased. TG, ALB, Ca, Na, P, and total protein (TP) levels varied significantly. Two hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, and Na levels remained significantly high, whereas BUN, P, UA, and total bilirubin (BT) levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were recorded for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Fe, Na, P, BT, and direct bilirubin (BD) levels. Four hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, Na, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), P, Mg, and K levels significantly increased, whereas UA and BT levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were observed for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Na, Mg, K, C-reactive protein (CRP), AST, UA, and BT levels. Conclusions A significant variation in the clinicalchemistry parameters after a regular meal shows that fasting time needs to be carefully considered when performing tests to prevent spurious results and reduce laboratory errors, especially in an emergency setting.
Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare
Proteomics has stimulated the development of very powerful methods for protein analysis. Implementation of some of these methods in clinicalchemistry laboratories could offer clinicians better tools for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic follow-up of human diseases. However, laboratory medicine activities are bound by a number of constraints and rules for ensuring quality of results for clinical practice. There is therefore a gap to be filled between the research and routine medical laboratories. In this opinion article, we present the proteomic methods that will most likely be implemented in clinicalchemistry laboratories in the short term, and we discuss the major issues yet to be addressed before considering such a transfer. PMID:20359762
Lescuyer, Pierre; Farina, Annarita; Hochstrasser, Denis F
Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep), normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW) sheep and Old Norse (ON) sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220). The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008) and twelve (2009) weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.
A two-year study using inter-laboratory surveys has been carried out to assess the analytical quality of Jordanian clinicalchemistry laboratories. The study surveyed greater than 65% (60 laboratories) of Jordanian laboratories using 18 control specimens and covering a total of 15 analytes. Close agreement was obtained between the consensus values and the designated values for analytes which had mean values within the normal range, whereas significantly lower consensus values were obtained for glucose, creatinine, bilirubin and urea in the pathological range. Considerable interlaboratory variation was observed in Jordan relative to EQA schemes in other countries. This study highlighted several problems in Jordanian laboratories, and stressed the need for a national EQA scheme with an effective means of providing continuous advice, education and training in clinicalchemistry. PMID:1610107
Iodophor preparations are commonly used in all medical specialties for antisepsis of the skin prior to injections, invasive procedures, and surgery. Povidone-iodine has some very intriguing properties that make it extremely effective as a broad spectrum bacteriocidal agent with no known bacterial resistance, potentially lending itself to broader applications than its current uses. In this article the background, formulations, chemistry, and microbiology of iodine will be reviewed and recent clinical investigations of utility beyond skin antisepsis will be discussed. PMID:23217942
The relevance of medicinal chemistry to pharmacy practice has been questioned by many pharmacy educators as more emphasis has been placed on linking clinical knowledge and practice to pharmacy student educational outcomes. Faculty teaching in medicinal chemistry and other biomedical and pharmaceutical science courses have embraced this challenge. Various teaching methods and approaches within medicinal chemistry that emphasize application of this knowledge have been sought to improve the usefulness of this scientific discipline to the future careers of students. The newly revised ACPE guidelines and standards have reemphasized the role of the sciences in the curriculum. With this mandate, it is essential that all science faculty members adjust the way they teach to meet the new desired outcomes for pharmacy graduates. This manuscript describes an instructional model for teaching medicinal chemistry explicitly designed to meet these outcomes. A process of collaboration between experienced pharmacy faculty scholars was used to derive this approach. Pedagogy for cognitive and affective learning was incorporated. A case study using a representative drug class is presented to illustrate this model.
Alsharif, Naser Z.; Galt, Kimberly A.; Mehanna, Ahmed; Chapman, Robert; Ogunbadeniyi, Alaba M.
Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, potential toxic pollutant and significant direct risk to the aquatic ecosystems, was investigated in the present study for its toxic impact on adult monosex Nile tilapia on the basis of acute static bioassay test, and comparison of clinical, biochemical and haemato logical examinations with deltamethrin-free control group. The 96hLC50 value of deltamethrin for monosex tilapia
Laboratory medicine's practitioners across the European community include medical, scientific and pharmacy trained specialists whose contributions to health and healthcare is in the application of diagnostic tests for screening and early detection of disease, differential diagnosis, monitoring, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations in translating knowledge and skills into ability to practice. In a 'Specialist knowledge' division, the expectations from the individual disciplines of ClinicalChemistry/Immunology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion, Microbiology/ Virology, Genetics and In Vitro Fertilisation are described. Beyond providing a common platform of knowledge, skills and competency, the syllabus supports the aims of the European Commission in providing safeguards to increasing professional mobility across European borders at a time when demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing and the labour force is declining. It continues to act as a guide for the formulation of national programmes supplemented by the needs of individual country priorities. PMID:23035263
Objective The presence of numerical and/or structural chromosomal abnormalities is a frequent finding in clonal hematopoietic malignant disease, typically diagnosed through routine karyotyping and/or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Recently, the application of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has uncovered many new cryptic genomic copy number imbalances, most of which are now recognized as clinically useful markers of haematological malignancies. In view of the limitations of both FISH and aCGH techniques, in terms of their routine application as a first line screening test, we designed a new multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probemix for use in addition to classic karyotype analysis. Methods A novel MLPA probemix was developed to interrogate copy number changes involving chromosomal regions: 2p23-24 (MYCN, ALK), 5q32-34 (MIR145A, EBF1, MIR146A), 6q21-27, 7p12.2 (IKZF1), 7q21-36, 8q24.21 (MYC), 9p24 (JAK2 V617F point mutation), 9p21.3 (CDKN2A/2B), 9p13.2 (PAX5), 10q23 (PTEN), 11q22.3 (ATM), 12p13.2 (ETV6), 13q14 (RB1, MIR15A, DLEU2, DLEU1), 17p13.1 (TP53), and 21q22.1 (RUNX1/AML1) and was applied to DNA extracted from 313 consecutive bone marrow patient samples, referred for routine karyotype analysis. Results More than half of the samples originated from newly investigated patients. We discovered clinically relevant genomic aberrations, involving a total of 24 patients (8%) all with a normal karyotype, which would have remained undiagnosed. Discussion Our data clearly indicate that routine application of this MLPA screening panel, as an adjunct to karyotype analysis, provides a sensitive, robust, rapid and low-cost approach for uncovering clinically important genomic abnormalities, which would have otherwise remained undetected. PMID:23928116
The Konelab 20XT (Thermo Electron Oy, Finland) is a clinicalchemistry analyzer for colorimetric, immunoturbidimetric and ion-selective electrode measurements. The aim of our work was to evaluate the analytical performances of the Konelab 20XT according to the European ClinicalChemistry Laboratory Standards Guidelines. A total of 30 analytes including substrates, enzymes, electrolytes and specific proteins were tested. Investigation results showed low imprecision (within-run coefficient of variation was below 3.5% and between-day coefficient of variation was less than 2.5% for most analytes at all three levels studied) and acceptable accuracy of the analyzer. No significant sample- or reagent-related carry-over was found. It was demonstrated that the analytical system operates within the claimed linearity ranges. The results compared well with those obtained by instruments routinely used in our laboratory (Olympus AU2700, Behring Nephelometer II). In general, the data on interference by hemoglobin, hyperbilirubinemia and turbidity are in accordance with known facts. However, slight hemolysis was found to interfere with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and mild lipemia affected the glucose assay. The Konelab 20XT is an easy-to-use analyzer that is suitable for routine and emergency analyses in small laboratories. PMID:16006262
Stojanovi?, Natasa; Rogi?, Dunja; Stavljeni?-Rukavina, Ana
Background The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features, haematological findings and CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts of severely malnourished children in relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Methods The study was conducted in the paediatric wards of Mulago hospital, which is Uganda's national referral and teaching hospital. We studied 315 severely malnourished children (presence of oedema and/or weight-for-height: z-score < -3) and have presented our findings. At admission, the CD4+ and CD8+ cells were measured by the flow cytometry and HIV serology was confirmed by Enzyme linked Immunoassay for children >18 months of age, and RNA PCR was performed for those ?18 months. Complete blood count, including differential counts, was determined using a Beckman Coulter counter. Results Among the 315 children, 119 (38%) were female; the median age of these children was 17 months (Interquartile range 12–24 months), and no difference was observed in the HIV status with regard to gender or age. The children showed a high prevalence of infections: pneumonia (68%), diarrhoea (38%), urinary tract infection (26%) and bacteraemia (18%), with no significant difference with regard to the HIV status (HIV-positive versus HIV-negative children). However, the HIV-positive children were more likely to have persistent diarrhoea than the HIV-uninfected severely malnourished children (odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–3.6). When compared with the HIV-negative children, the HIV-positive children showed a significantly lower median white blood cell count (10700 versus 8700) and lymphocyte count (4033 versus 2687). The CD4+ cell percentages were more likely to be lower in children with non-oedematous malnutrition than in those with oedematous malnutrition even after controlling for the HIV infection. The novel observation of this study is that the CD4+ percentages in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative children without oedema were lower that those in children with oedema. These observations appear to imply that the development of oedema requires a certain degree of immunocompetence, which is an interesting clue to the pathophysiology of oedema in severe malnutrition.
Bachou, Hanifa; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Downing, Robert; Tumwine, James K
Introduction The validation process is essential in accredited clinical laboratories. Aim of this study was to validate five kinds of serum vacuum tubes for routine clinicalchemistry laboratory testing. Materials and methods: Blood specimens from 100 volunteers in five diff erent serum vacuum tubes (Tube I: VACUETTE®, Tube II: LABOR IMPORT®, Tube III: S-Monovette®, Tube IV: SST® and Tube V: SST II®) were collected by a single, expert phlebotomist. The routine clinicalchemistry tests were analyzed on cobas® 6000 module. The significance of the diff erences between samples was assessed by paired Student’s t-test after checking for normality. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.005. Finally, the biases from Tube I, Tube II, Tube III, Tube IV and Tube V were compared with the current desirable quality specifications for bias (B), derived from biological variation. Results and conclusions: Basically, our validation will permit the laboratory or hospital managers to select the brand’s vacuum tubes validated according him/her technical or economical reasons, in order to perform the following laboratory tests: glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, alkaline phosphatise, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, calcium, iron, sodium and potassium. On the contrary special attention will be required if the laboratory already performs creatinine, amylase, phosphate and magnesium determinations and the quality laboratory manager intend to change the serum tubes. We suggest that laboratory management should both standardize the procedures and frequently evaluate the quality of in vitro diagnostic devices.
Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare
For more than a decade, flow cytometry-based automated haematology analysers have been studied for malaria diagnosis. Although current haematology analysers are not specifically designed to detect malaria-related abnormalities, most studies have found sensitivities that comply with WHO malaria-diagnostic guidelines, i.e. ? 95% in samples with > 100 parasites/?l. Establishing a correct and early malaria diagnosis is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment and to minimizing adverse outcomes. Expert light microscopy remains the 'gold standard' for malaria diagnosis in most clinical settings. However, it requires an explicit request from clinicians and has variable accuracy. Malaria diagnosis with flow cytometry-based haematology analysers could become an important adjuvant diagnostic tool in the routine laboratory work-up of febrile patients in or returning from malaria-endemic regions. Haematology analysers so far studied for malaria diagnosis are the Cell-Dyn®, Coulter® GEN·S and LH 750, and the Sysmex XE-2100® analysers. For Cell-Dyn analysers, abnormal depolarization events mainly in the lobularity/granularity and other scatter-plots, and various reticulocyte abnormalities have shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 49% to 97% and 61% to 100%, respectively. For the Coulter analysers, a 'malaria factor' using the monocyte and lymphocyte size standard deviations obtained by impedance detection has shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 82% to 98% and 72% to 94%, respectively. For the XE-2100, abnormal patterns in the DIFF, WBC/BASO, and RET-EXT scatter-plots, and pseudoeosinophilia and other abnormal haematological variables have been described, and multivariate diagnostic models have been designed with overall sensitivities and specificities of 86% to 97% and 81% to 98%, respectively. The accuracy for malaria diagnosis may vary according to species, parasite load, immunity and clinical context where the method is applied. Future developments in new haematology analysers such as considerably simplified, robust and inexpensive devices for malaria detection fitted with an automatically generated alert could improve the detection capacity of these instruments and potentially expand their clinical utility in malaria diagnosis.
Autocorrelation of clinicalchemistry quality-control (Q/C) measurements causes one of the basic assumptions underlying the use of Levey-Jennings control charts to be violated and performance to be degraded. This is the requirement that the observations be statistically independent. We present a proposal for a new approach to statistical quality control that removes this difficulty. We propose to replace the current single control chart of raw Q/C data with two charts: (a) a common cause chart, representing a Box-Jenkins ARIMA time-series model of any underlying persisting nonrandomness in the process, and (b) a special cause chart of the residuals from the above model, which, being free of such persisting nonrandomness, fulfills the criteria for use of the standard Levey-Jennings plotting format and standard control rules. We provide a comparison of the performance of our proposed approach with that of current practice. PMID:3390910
Objectives. To design, implement, and evaluate student performance on clinically relevant chemical and spectral laboratory exercises on antibiotics. Design. In the first of 2 exercises, second-year pharmacy students enrolled in an integrated laboratory sequence course studied the aqueous stability of ß-lactam antibiotics using a spectral visual approach. In a second exercise, students studied the tendency of tetracycline, rifamycins, and fluoroquinolones to form insoluble chelate complexes (turbidity) with polyvalent metals. Assessment. On a survey to assess achievement of class learning objectives, students agreed the laboratory activities helped them better retain important information concerning antibiotic stability and interactions. A significant improvement was observed in performance on examination questions related to the laboratory topics for 2012 and 2013 students compared to 2011 students who did not complete the laboratory. A 1-year follow-up examination question administered in a separate course showed >75% of the students were able to identify rifamycins-food interactions compared with <25% of students who had not completed the laboratory exercises. Conclusion. The use of spectral visual approaches allowed students to investigate antibiotic stability and interactions, thus reinforcing the clinical relevance of medicinal chemistry. Students’ performance on questions at the 1-year follow-up suggested increased retention of the concepts learned as a result of completing the exercises.
The Abbott Cell Dyn 3500 haematology analyzer was employed to study haematological parameters in 41 adult and young Friesian cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Comparison was made with clinically healthy adult and young Friesian cattle. Changes in blood parameters in T. annulata-infected cattle indicated severe macrocytic hypochromic anaemia, panleukopenia, lymphocytopenia, eosinopenia, neutropenia
O. H Omer; K. H El-Malik; O. M Mahmoud; E. M Haroun; A Hawas; D Sweeney; M Magzoub
The content of body iron is regulated primarily by absorption since humans have no physiological mechanism by which excess iron is excreted. This regulation, however, is not absolute. Many factors such as the content of diets, iron doses, life styles, etc. influence iron absorption. In the past, nutrition programs for iron fortification and the ingestion of iron preparations have been widely practiced because of the seriousness of worldwide iron deficiency. Also, we now know that a significant number of asymptomatic people carry the hemochromatosis gene, HFE, indicating that these people have the potential to accumulate excess body iron in their lifetime. Excess body iron can be highly toxic. This toxicity involves many organs leading to a variety of serious diseases such as liver disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hormonal abnormalities, dysfunctional immune system, etc. The tissue damage associated with iron overload is believed to result primarily from free radical reactions mediated by iron. Iron is an effective catalyst in free radical reactions. The diseases associated with iron overload can be managed effectively or prevented. Therefore, early diagnosis of iron overload and appropriate therapy are critical. By providing the necessary laboratory data, clinicalchemistry laboratories can play the pivotal role in the management of these health problems. PMID:11517632
The results of an external proficiency test of clinicalchemistry laboratories in Sweden when the target analyte was ethylene glycol (EG) are presented. Specimens of plasma were spiked with EG (10% w/v) to give assigned concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 mmol/L. Over a period of 6 years, two control specimens of plasma were sent for analysis on 21 occasions to between 14 and 20 participating laboratories as a declared proficiency trial. The analytical precision between and within laboratories was determined by spiking the plasma specimens with the same concentration of EG so that the results reported back could be considered a duplicate determination. On one occasion propylene glycol (PG) was substituted for EG without informing the participants. The standard deviation (SD) within laboratories expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV) was 4.5% compared with 11.4% between laboratories. Results reported by laboratories using gas chromatography (GC) were in good agreement with those when an enzymatic method was used. The between-laboratory SD increased with concentration of EG in the specimen and at a mean concentration of 18 mmol/L, the pooled SD was 4.11 mmol/L (CV = 23%). Four laboratories reported finding EG in plasma when PG was the diol present; three laboratories used an enzymatic method and one used GC. Clinical laboratories that provide a toxicology service should regularly participate in external quality assurance schemes that include low-molecular-weight alcohols such as EG. Efforts should be made to standardize the analytical methods used for toxicological analysis. PMID:15513319
In order to establish reference haematological and blood chemistry parameters, blood samples were obtained from 50 healthy\\u000a specimens ofBothrops ammodytoides kept in captivity. The haematological parameters determined were: red blood cell count (RBC); total leucocyte (WBC) and differential\\u000a leucocyte cell count; thrombocyte count; haematocrit (PCV); haemoglobin concentration; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean\\u000a corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration
J. C. Troiano; J. C. Vidal; E. F. Gould; G. Malinskas; J. Gould; M. Scaglione; L. Scaglione; J. J. Heker; C. Simoncini; H. Dinápoli
Twenty patients with haematological malignancies who developed Clostridium difficile bowel infection or colonisation are described. All isolates of C difficile were toxigenic in vitro and faecal cytotoxin (toxin B) was detected in 20/26 episodes. Ten of 20 episodes with detectable faecal cytotoxin were associated with typical antibiotic associated diarrhoea. In the other 10 episodes (nine patients), there was a severe unusual illness which was associated with detection of C difficile. The unusual features of the illness were pronounced jaundice (total bilirubin greater than or equal to 44 mumol/l), abdominal pain and distension, and initial constipation followed either by diarrhoea or by large bowel stasis. Four of these patients died within seven days. Bacteraemia was often a presenting feature in neutropenic patients subsequently shown to have C difficile. This was not the case in non-neutropenic patients. Bacteraemia was commonly polymicrobial and in two cases C difficile was isolated from blood culture. The clinical implications of recognition of this atypical C difficile associated syndrome are discussed.
Rampling, A; Warren, R E; Bevan, P C; Hoggarth, C E; Swirsky, D; Hayhoe, F G
Imaging morphology and metabolic activity of splenic lesions is of paramount importance in patients with haematological malignancies; it can alter tumour staging, treatment protocols and overall prognosis. CT, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT have been shown to be powerful tools for the non-invasive assessment of splenic involvement in various haematological malignancies. Since many haematological malignancies and non-neoplastic conditions can involve the spleen and imaging manifestations can overlap, imaging and clinical findings outside of the spleen should be looked for to narrow the differential diagnosis; confirmation can be obtained by pathological findings. Radiologists should be familiar with the cross-sectional imaging patterns of haematological malignancies involving the spleen as well as non-neoplastic splenic findings common in these patients to facilitate their care and follow-up. This pictorial review provides the common and uncommon imaging appearances and complications of various haematological malignancies involving the spleen on CT, MRI and PET/CT, and common pitfalls in diagnosis.
Saboo, S S; Krajewski, K M; O'Regan, K N; Giardino, A; Brown, J R; Ramaiya, N; Jagannathan, J P
A serum pool programme in clinicalchemistry was started in Addis Ababa as a control for 5 participating laboratories. Basic statistical indices were calculated to determine the variation within each laboratory and to compare interlaboratory results. Stat...
ABSTR^CT.--Clinical hematology and serum chemistry values for 23 clinically normal Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo) have provided reference values for use in clinical pathology. Hematological values, including red and white blood cell counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, leukocyte differential count and red cell indices were established. Reference values of blood chemical parameters, including total plasma protein, total plasma solids, fibrinogen, glucose, aspartate
Interpretation of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) and PCR results in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with haematological malignancies requires clarification. A total of 116 patients underwent BAL for investigation of new lung infiltrates: 40% were neutropenic, 68% and 36% were receiving mould-active antifungal agents and ?-lactam antibiotics. The diagnosis of proven IPA (n=3), probable IPA (n=15), and possible invasive fungal disease (IFD, n=50) was made without inclusion of GM results. BAL GM (at cut-off of 0.8) had lower diagnostic sensitivity for IPA than PCR (61% versus 78%) but higher specificity (93% versus 79%). Both tests had excellent negative predictive values (85-90%), supporting their utility in excluding IPA. The use of BAL GM and PCR results increased the certainty of Aspergillus aetiology in 7 probable IPA cases where fungal hyphae were detected in respiratory samples by microscopy, and upgraded 24 patients from possible IFD to probable IPA. Use of BAL GM and PCR improves the diagnosis of IPA. PMID:24768294
Heng, Siow-Chin; Chen, Sharon C-A; Morrissey, C Orla; Thursky, Karin; Manser, Renee L; De Silva, Harini D; Halliday, Catriona L; Seymour, John F; Nation, Roger L; Kong, David C M; Slavin, Monica A
(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The development of clinicalhaematology in Macedonia has taken place over the past nine decades. The greatest expansion of its development took place in the second half of the 20th century. The oficial start of clinicalhaematology dates from 1956, when the Department of Haematology was founded within the fra-mework of the Internal Medicine Clinic in Skopje. In the beginning, haematology represented a form of virtual sub-specialty, but its expansion was so progressive and rapid that it reached the highest peaks of Yugoslav haematology in those times. The period from 1968 to 1979 was a period of integral development of haema-tology and blood-transfusion science in Macedonia. Nowadays, the autonomous Public Health Institution, the University Hematology Clinic, is a unique healthcare, educational and scientific establishment in the Republic of Macedonia in its field of work. The diagnostics algorithm comprises cyto-morphologic and cyto-chemical analysis, through immunologic characterization with the assistance of a flow cytometer, to sophisticated molecular analysis for detecting genetic abnormalities. The therapeutic approach is based upon modern poly-haemotherapeutic protocols, application of monoclonal antibodies, immuno-modulatory agents, molecular target therapy and the use of alogeneic and autologous transplantation of fresh bone-marrow and frozen haemopoietic stem-cells. The current motto of the HaematologyClinic is: always help those who seek help, provide precise and early diagnostics, and apply all up-to-date therapeutic strategies, scientific research, continual education and day-to-day implementation of the latest achievements in the field of haematology in daily practice. Key words: haematology, history, chemotherapy, flow-cytometry, molecular analysis, stem cell transplant, target therapy, immuno-modulatory agents. PMID:23921481
A capillary blood collection technique which facilitates the estimation of routine haematological parameters, including platelet count and sedimentation rate, is described. The technique requires 0·5 ml of blood, allows closer reproducibility than pipette collection methods, is suitable for monitoring blood counts in patients receiving cytotoxic agents, and can be integrated with semi-and fully-automated production lines. Images
Summary Microscopic images of haematological cells are now routinely photographed using digital cameras. Advances in technology mean that the quality of such digital images can now approach that viewed through a microscope. At the same time there is an emerging appreciation that such images can be used in many roles: digital images are now being used to construct digital virtual
Toluidine blue is a basic thiazine metachromatic dye with high affinity for acidic tissue components, thereby staining tissues rich in DNA and RNA. It has found wide applications both as vital staining in living tissues and as a special stain owing to its metachromatic property. Toluidine blue has been used in vivo to identify dysplasia and carcinoma of the oral cavity. Use of toluidine blue in tissue sections is done with the aim to highlight components, such as mast cells granules, mucins, and cartilage. This article provides an overview on chemistry, technique, and the various applications of toluidine blue.
When monitoring analyzer performance in the clinical setting, laboratories are required to test multiple con- centrations of control material on a daily basis. Because of the nature of laboratory testing, there is the potential for correlation between the concentrations of control material being monitored. Although traditional clinical quality-control approaches make an underlying as- sumption of independence with respect to the
Chemistry is the scientific study of matter and its interaction with other matter and with energy. It is the branch of natural science that deals with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions.
Numerous clinical laboratories and manufacturers of diagnostic products were invited to participate in an experiment to assess the present status of assays for the quantitation of digoxin. The response was excellent, and a cooperative digoxin experiment w...
Care for patients with a malignant haematological disorder in Wales has been revised significantly since the mid-1990s. Recommendations from expert groups stated that a uniformly high standard of care should be provided as close to the patient's home as possible and variations in practice that had been causing concern and distress to patients and their families be reduced. The All Wales Haematology Nurses Group was established to promote and disseminate standards and guidelines that would contribute to achieving these aims. The basis for the group's work was transformational leadership and collaborative practice. Work is ongoing and the group is planning to consolidate achievements to date through country-wide audit and professional education. PMID:11998241
Background A set of standard clinicalchemistry and hematology parameters are usually measured during clinical studies. The major outcome of these standard tests is to control that the drug investigated does not lead to pathophysiological changes in respective organs or blood. In some cases based on scientific rationale such tests may not be needed. In this paper we report on a standard set of clinicalchemistry and hematology laboratory parameters measured before and after treatment in three different immunotherapy studies, representing different routes of administration and different formulations. Methods Thirteen hematological laboratory parameters and eight clinicalchemistry parameters were evaluated from three double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multi-centre, phase III studies. The three studies include one with sublingual immunotherapy (n?=?185), one subcutaneous immunotherapy trial with an aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed recombinant hypoallergenic Bet v1-FV (n?=?211) and one with pre-seasonal subcutaneous immunotherapy with a 6-grass pollen allergoid (n?=?154). Results Allergen specific immunotherapy with both administration forms and formulations respectively did not show any influence on any of the 21 laboratory parameters analyzed. Few patients had a change in laboratory parameters from within normal range at baseline to either below or above at end-of-treatment. No differences between active and placebo were seen with respect to number of patients with such a change. Conclusions This study with different preparations and routes of application indicates that the value of repeated measurements of standard clinicalchemistry and hematology parameters during allergen immunotherapy should be discussed further.
Problems of sexual function and fertility in long-term survivors (?5 years) of haematological malignancy are often neglected in clinic. Our centre carried out a questionnaire study in this population addressing patient-perceived fertility and sexual function. 718 patients responded (56% of those invited; 39% Hodgkin, 45% non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 16% acute leukaemia). Respondent women were more likely to remain childless than a normal control population. Self-reported infertility was more likely in men than women [odds ratio (OR) 1·77, P = 0·001]. Myeloablative therapy increased the likelihood of childlessness (OR 2·48, P = 0·004). Few attended fertility support services (12%). 24% of men banked sperm and 29% of these used the sample, of which 46% resulted in successful pregnancy. Fertility clinic attendance and sperm storage was more likely post-1990 (OR 4·05, P < 0·001; OR 5·05, P < 0·001 respectively). Reporting a negative impact of cancer on sexual function was more common in women than men (OR 2·20, P < 0·001), and increased with current age and age at diagnosis (by 3-4% per year, P ? 0·001) but decreased with longer follow-up (by 2%/year, P = 0·005). Patients on anti-depressants and those reporting cancer-related body change/appearance concerns more frequently reported a negative impact (P < 0·04 and P < 0·03 respectively). These self-reported outcomes confirm literature findings, suggest improvement over time, but highlight a need for involvement of support services. PMID:24236665
Greaves, Paul; Sarker, Shah-Jalal; Chowdhury, Kashfia; Johnson, Rachel; Matthews, Janet; Matthews, Rebecca; Smith, Matthew; Korszun, Ania; Gribben, John G; Lister, T Andrew
Nine patients with immunoglobulin deficiency and various haematological disorders are presented. In all patients, recurrent infections had antedated the onset of the haematological disorder but, in most, the possibility of primary immunodeficiency had not been considered until after the haematological diagnosis had been established. The recognition of immunodeficiency is important since such patients may require steroids, immunosuppressive therapy or splenectomy. Gammaglobulin would appear to be the appropriate therapy in this situation. Infections were reduced in all 6 patients so treated.
The influence of training and competition workloads is crucial for evaluation of longitudinal haematological data in athletes.\\u000a There are only a few papers on the variation of haematological parameters during long-lasting periods and, especially, during\\u000a an entire competitive season. We summarized that some haematological parameters can be influenced by long-term training and\\u000a competition periods. Haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Ht) are
Giuseppe Banfi; Carsten Lundby; Paul Robach; Giuseppe Lippi
There is much clinical interest in increasing the radiosensitivity of radioresistant hypoxic tumour cells by developing drugs which will take part in radiation-chemical reactions to increase cell killing. This article discusses several aspects of radiosensitization by electron affinic nitroaryl compounds. The problem of correlating radiobiological effects with reactions of a particular radical by means of relative rate constants is illustrated, and chemical models of the radiosensitization phenomena discussed in this context. The implications of free-energy relationships between biological responses or rate constants of radical reactions are stressed, as is the need to characterise the competitive, protective reaction with thiols. The importance of phase-distribution relationships in controlling pharmacological properties is noted, and the application of these principles to improving the therapeutic ratio of radiosensitizers explained. A brief outline is presented of the current status of clinical trials of radiosensitizers, and future prospects for the improvement of the efficacy of radiotherapy by modifying radiation-chemical reactions are discussed.
Clinicalchemistry data are decisive for evaluating altered organ function or damage in experimental animals. Few publications provide reliable clinicalchemistry reference intervals, and analytical methods are often not described. Here, we investigated common clinicalchemistry values in adult male and female Wistar rats and C57/BL6 mice (n=30/group). Blood samples were taken and analysed for electrolytes, substrates, metabolites and enzymes. In addition, we investigated cystatin C, an important marker of glomerular dysfunction. All data were obtained using commercially available kits frequently employed in most clinicalchemistry laboratories and compared with data from other studies, as well as with human data. Significant gender-specific differences were observed in rats (electrolytes, retention parameters and transaminases) and in mice (cholesterol, glucose). High variability was noted for sodium, potassium, glucose, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and transaminase levels. Both rodent species showed markedly higher alpha-amylase activity than humans. This report demonstrates significant differences between genders for many analytes in rats and for fewer parameters in mice. Some reference values displayed major discrepancies between rodents and humans. PMID:17516851
Diseases of blood and lymphoreticular system can have multisystem manifestations. Rheumatologic involvement has been reported\\u000a in association with many benign and malignant haematological disorders; these patients are equally likely to present to both\\u000a clinical rheumatologists and haematologists. This review focuses on the well-described rheumatologic features, other occasionally\\u000a reported rheumatologic manifestations and unusual musculoskeletal complications related to the treatment in patients
In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of ClinicalChemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in ClinicalChemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 12 years, more than 2200 specialists in ClinicalChemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Forum of European Societies of ClinicalChemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of ClinicalChemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). Two previous Guides to the Register have been published, one in 1997 and another in 2003. The third version of the Guide is presented in this article and is based on the experience gained and development of the profession since the last revision. Registration is valid for 5 years and the procedure and criteria for re-registration are presented as an Appendix at the end of the article. PMID:20406129
Clinical signs of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome were observed in Holstein cows in a private farm in Egypt. There were\\u000a heat intolerance (fever), panting, profuse salivation, hirsutism, lameness and reduced milk production. Blood and serum samples\\u000a were collected from ten diseased cows and five apparently healthy cows as control. Serological tests confirmed the presence\\u000a of non-structural protein of foot-and-mouth disease
Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies are an important phase in drug discovery research. Compounds are administered via the intravascular or extravascular routes to animals to calculate various pharmacokinetic parameters. An important step in this process is dissolving the novel compound in a safe vehicle. This procedure is particularly challenging for compounds that must be administered intravenously, as the solution must be clear before injection. There are no published guidelines on which vehicles, or combination of vehicles, are acceptable in a particular species, nor are there published data on the effects these vehicles have on clinicalchemistry or hematology parameters, particularly in dogs. In this study, 9 vehicles commonly used at sanofi-aventis USA (propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400, glycofurol, hydroxypropyl Beta-cyclodextrin, dimethyl sulfoxide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylacetamide, ethyl alcohol, and saline) were tested for adverse clinical reactions (such as vomiting or diarrhea) and for their effect on hematology and clinicalchemistry parameters. Each vehicle was administered to a group of 8 Beagles by slow intravenous infusion, and blood was collected prior to infusion and at 24 h and 7 d postinfusion. Of 8 dogs given propylene glycol, 2 developed mild gastrointestinal signs (vomitus, diarrhea) after their infusions. None of the vehicles tested induced significant hematology or serum clinicalchemistry abnormalities, nor were significant clinical signs noted after administration. We conclude that at the dose, route, and manner described, all of the vehicles tested in this study are clinically safe to use and have no acute effects on hematology or serum chemistry parameters. PMID:16539331
Ruble, Gaye R; Giardino, Odessa Z; Fossceco, Stewart L; Cosmatos, Dennis; Knapp, Richard J; Barlow, Norman J
In the early 1960s, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) was found to be present in body fluids and to act as a natural inhibitor of calcification by its interaction with hydroxyapatite. In addition to inhibiting the formation of calcium phosphate, PPi also inhibited dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystals, which made it interesting for pharmacologic applications in the treatment of diseases associated with excessive bone resorption. However, PPi is metabolically unstable because of rapid hydrolysis of the P-O-P backbone by hydrolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. In the search for more stable analogues of PPi, attention turned to the chemical class of bisphosphonates (BPs). The first BPs were synthesized in the 19th century and widely used for industrial applications. Bisphosphonates are formally derived from PPi by replacement of the bridging oxygen atom by a carbon atom, resulting in a P-C-P moiety that is resistant to hydrolysis. In addition to its decisive role in stability, the central carbon atom also provides an attachment point for 2 additional substituents (R¹ and R²). While R¹ is preferentially a hydroxy group, allowing such derivatives to act as powerful tridentate ligands for calcium (bone hook), R² is mainly responsible for antiresorptive potency. The clinically available BPs can be divided into 2 subclasses based on their structure and molecular mechanism of action. The simple, non-nitrogen-containing derivatives can be incorporated into non-hydrolyzable cytotoxic ATP analogues. The more potent nitrogen-containing BPs inhibit FPPS, a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. Details of this crucial molecular interaction have recently been elucidated. Members of this class have a wide therapeutic window between therapeutic inhibition of bone resorption and undesired inhibition of bone formation, and several have found widespread use for the treatment of benign and malignant bone disease. PMID:21864230
We report a 20-year-old female with sickle cell anaemia and with an HbF concentration of 15.8%. The patient was not using hydroxyurea and was not receiving regular blood transfusions. The patient never had chronic manifestations of sickle cell anaemia, only pain crises of a mild intensity. After laboratory tests, we found that she was homozygous for HbS with the Bantu/atypical haplotype, and was heterozygous for the XmnI site. The influence of the XmnI site on the expression of HbF can explain the amelioration in clinical features in this haplotype association in a case of sickle cell anaemia.
Last quarter of twentieth century and the first 10 years of 21st century has seen phenomenal development in haematological pharmacotherapy. Tailor made chemotherapeutic agents, vast array of monoclonal antibodies, epigenetic modifiers, growth factors for red cells white cells and platelets, peptidomimetics as growth factors, newer thrombin inhibitors, safer plasma derived protein molecules, recombinant molecules, newer immunomodulators, enzyme replacement therapy and above all a plethora of targetted molecules targeting innumerable pathways involved in cell division, growth, proliferation and apoptosis has given immense number of clinically usable molecules in the hand of modern haematologists to treat diverse hitherto untreatable haematological disorders effectively. In addition many old molecules are finding newer uses in diverse fields, thalidomide as an antiangiogenic molecule is a prime example of this genre. Present overview has tried to capture this rapidly evolving area in a broad canvas without going into details of indications and contraindications of the use of various drugs.
The aim of this study was to examine concentration and composition of lipoproteins and levels of apolipoproteins in serum of 46 lacto-ovo-vegetarians in comparison with 49 non-vegetarians. Other clinical-chemistry parameters were also included in this study. Both male and female lacto-ovo-vegetarians showed a favourable lipoprotein profile characterized by low concentrations of atherogenic LDL-cholesterol, low ratios of cholesterol\\/HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol\\/ HDL-cholesterol and
Volker Richter; Kathrin Purschwitz; Anne Bohusch; Hermann Seim; Christoph Weisbrich; Wolfgang Reuter; Dietlind Sorger; Fausi Rassoul
MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area (in USA Integrated MODULAR ANALYTICS, MODULAR ANALYTICS is a trademark of a member of the Roche Group) represents a further approach to automation in the laboratory medicine. This instrument combines previously introduced modular systems for the clinicalchemistry and immunochemistry laboratory and allows customised combinations for various laboratory workloads. Functionality, practicability, and workflow behaviour of MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area were evaluated in an international multicenter study at six laboratories. Across all experiments, 236000 results from 32400 samples were generated using 93 methods. Simulated routine testing which included provocation incidents and anomalous situations demonstrated good performance and full functionality. Heterogeneous immunoassays, performed on the E-module with the electrochemiluminescence technology, showed reproducibility at the same level of the general chemistry tests, which was well within the clinical demands. Sample carryover cannot occur due to intelligent sample processing. Workflow experiments for the various module combinations, with menus of about 50 assays, yielded mean sample processing times of <38 minutes for combined clinicalchemistry and immunochemistry requests; <50 minutes including automatically repeated samples. MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area offered simplified workflow by combining various laboratory segments. It increased efficiency while maintaining or even improving quality of laboratory processes.
Mocarelli, Paolo; Horowitz, Gary L.; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Cecere, Rossana; Imdahl, Roland; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke; Luthe, Hilmar; Calatayud, Silvia Pesudo; Salve, Marie Luisa; Kunst, Albert; McGovern, Margaret; Ng, Katherine; Stockmann, Wolfgang
Early and accurate pre-clinical and clinical biomarkers of hepatotoxicity facilitate the drug development process and the safety monitoring in clinical studies. We selected eight known model compounds to be administered to male Wistar rats to identify biomarkers of drug induced liver injury (DILI) using transcriptomics, metabolite profiling (metabolomics) and conventional endpoints. We specifically explored early biomarkers in serum and liver tissue associated with histopathologically evident acute hepatotoxicity. A tailored data analysis strategy was implemented to better differentiate animals with no treatment-related findings in the liver from animals showing evident hepatotoxicity as assessed by histopathological analysis. From the large number of assessed parameters, our data analysis strategy allowed us to identify five metabolites in serum and five in liver tissue, 58 transcripts in liver tissue and seven clinicalchemistry markers in serum that were significantly associated with acute hepatotoxicity. The identified markers comprised metabolites such as taurocholic acid and putrescine (measured as sum parameter together with agmatine), classical clinicalchemistry markers like AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), and bilirubin, as well as gene transcripts like Igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1) and Egr1 (early growth response protein 1). The response pattern of the identified biomarkers was concordant across all types of parameters and sample matrices. Our results suggest that a combination of several of these biomarkers could significantly improve the robustness and accuracy of an early diagnosis of hepatotoxicity.
Background Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinicalchemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. Methods and findings Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors’ questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4%) males, 125 (32.6%) non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2%) with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB) and Hematocrit (HCT) had significant gender difference (p?=?0.000) but not for total white blood count (p>0.05) which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p?=?0.000). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P?=?0.000). Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p?=?0.001) but lower in pregnant women (p?=?0.001) with marked difference in gestational period. For clinicalchemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05) but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p<0.05). Total bilirubin was significantly higher in males than females (p?=?0.000). Significant differences exist for all chemistry parameters between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study (p<0.05), except Amylase and total cholesterol (p>0.05). Conclusions Hematological and ClinicalChemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.
: The haematology of Persian fallow deer was studied and the means of various parameters were determined for sex and age groups.\\u000a For total samples, the mean ± standard deviation of haematological parameters were: red blood cells (RBC), 7.42 ± 1.27 × 1012\\/l; haematocrit (PCV), 38.83 ± 7.38%; haemoglobin (Hb), 148.0 ± 17.3 g\\/l; mean cell volume (MCV), 50.84 ±
For more than a decade, flow cytometry-based automated haematology analysers have been studied for malaria diagnosis. Although current haematology analysers are not specifically designed to detect malaria-related abnormalities, most studies have found sensitivities that comply with WHO malaria-diagnostic guidelines, i.e. ? 95% in samples with > 100 parasites\\/?l. Establishing a correct and early malaria diagnosis is a prerequisite for an
Germán Campuzano-Zuluaga; Thomas Hänscheid; Martin P Grobusch
Advances in image-guided therapy for vertebral fractures and other bone-related disorders have made acrylic bone cement an integral part of the interventional armamentarium. Unfortunately, information on the properties and chemistry of these compounds is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the interventional community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the properties of components in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based polymers, the most commonly used bone cements in interventional procedures such as percutaneous vertebroplasty. The effects of altering the concentration of components such as methylmethacrylate monomers, PMMA beads, benzoyl peroxide activator, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) initiator, and radiopacifiers on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also considered. This information will allow interventional radiologists to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific applications and maximize the clinical potential of image-guided interventions. PMID:14963178
Nussbaum, David A; Gailloud, Philippe; Murphy, Kieran
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that causes more than 1 million deaths worldwide every year. In addition, it is estimated that one third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis in a latent state, which involves an eventual risk of progressing to active TB disease. Patients with immunodeficiencies, such as those suffering from haematological malignancies, have a greater risk of progressing to TB disease once infected. It is estimated that the Relative Risk of TB disease in patients with hematologic malignancies is 2–40 times that of the general population. The diagnosis of TB in these patients is often challenging as they often present clinical characteristics that are distinct to those of patients without any other underlying disease. Mortality due to TB is higher. Therefore, it is recommended to diagnose latent TB infection and consider preventive therapy that could avoid the progression from a latent state to active TB disease. There are currently two methods for diagnosing latent TB infection: the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRA). Due to the lack of sensitivity in patients with immunodeficient conditions, a combined TST-IGRA testing is probably the best way for latent TB diagnosis in order to gain sensitivity. Treatment of latent TB infection and TB disease should follow the general principles to that in the general population.
Four erythrocyte variables (erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, mean cell volume, packed cell volume), 14 serum variables (alanine transferase, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, total protein, triglycerides, urea nitrogen), and 7 venous acid-base variables (base excess, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, oxygen saturation, pH, and total carbon dioxide) were evaluated for heritability in domestic cats (Felis catus). Values used for individual cats were expressed as the mean over all lifetime measurements, using 444-530 animals for clinicalchemistry, 629 animals for acid-base, and 564 animals for erythrocyte metrics. Gender and age at death (where applicable) also were evaluated for correlation with variables. Heritabilities for clinicalchemistry, acid-base, and erythrocyte variables ranged, respectively, from 0.13 to 0.78, from 0.23 to 0.59, and from 0.41 to 0.69 (P < 0.05). This result indicates that serum variability has a genetic basis and is segregating in this feline population. These findings may have important implications in both research and clinical medicine. PMID:17158462
Lawler, Dennis F; Chase, Kevin; Teckenbrock, Robert; Lark, Karl G
There is a growing pressure on clinicalchemistry laboratories to conform to quality standards that require the evaluation and expression of the uncertainty of results of measurement. Nevertheless, there is some reluctance to accept the uncertainty concept in the analytical community due to difficulty in evaluating uncertainty in practice. For example, often the uncertainty of some uncertainty components is not known very well in clinicalchemistry measurements, such as those associated with matrix effects or with the values of the calibrators. Moreover, it is not clear how to interpret uncertainty in relation to diagnostic criteria, reference ranges and other decision limits in clinicalchemistry practice. Hence, the value of reporting the uncertainty of the measurement result is not obvious. In this paper it is suggested a relatively simple, logical procedure for evaluating measurement uncertainty based on the principles in the Guide for the Expression of Uncertainty of Measurement (GUM). The measurement process is partitioned into elements that are well known to the analyst, namely sampling, calibration, and analysis. The corresponding model function expresses the result of a measurement as the value obtained by the analytical procedure multiplied by the correction factors for sampling bias, for bias caused by the calibrators, and for other types of bias. Under normal conditions, when the measurement procedure is validated and corrected for all known bias, the expected value of each correction factor is one. The uncertainty that remains with regard to sampling, manufacturing of calibrators and other types of bias is combined with the analytical imprecision to yield a combined uncertainty of a result of measurement. The advantages of this approach are: (i) Data from the method validation, internal quality control and from participation in external quality control schemes can be used as input in the uncertainty evaluation process. (ii) The partition of the measurement into well-defined tasks highlights the different responsibilities of the clinicalchemistry laboratory and of the manufacturer of reagents and calibrators. (iii) The approach can be used to harmonize the uncertainty evaluation process, which is particularly relevant for laboratories seeking accreditation under ISO 17025. The application of the proposed model is demonstrated by evaluating the uncertainty of a result of a measurement of prolactin in human serum. In the example it is shown how to treat the uncertainty associated with a calibrator supplied with a commercial analytical kit, and how to evaluate the uncertainty associated with matrix effects. PMID:11758604
A locally developed, computer-based clinicalchemistry laboratory system has been in operation since 1970. This utilises a Digital Equipment Co Ltd PDP 12 and an interconnected PDP 8/F computer. Details are presented of the performance and quality control techniques incorporated into the system. Laboratory performance is assessed through analysis of results from fixed-level control sera as well as from cumulative sum methods. At a simple level the presentation may be considered purely indicative, while at a more sophisticated level statistical concepts have been introduced to aid the laboratory controller in decision-making processes.
Results from hematology and clinicalchemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.
Background: Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinicalchemistry core laboratory. Subjects and Methods: At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS) to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs), delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and ‘absurd’ (physiologically improbable) values. Results: The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinicalchemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%), albumin (99.8%), and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%). The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate) and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda), mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection) and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a high rate of autoverification is possible with modern clinicalchemistry analyzers. The ability to autoverify a high percentage of results increases productivity and allows clinical laboratory staff to focus attention on the small number of specimens and results that require manual review and investigation.
Krasowski, Matthew D.; Davis, Scott R.; Drees, Denny; Morris, Cory; Kulhavy, Jeff; Crone, Cheri; Bebber, Tami; Clark, Iwa; Nelson, David L.; Teul, Sharon; Voss, Dena; Aman, Dean; Fahnle, Julie; Blau, John L.
The Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology, a peer-reviewed online journal and database provided by Infobiogen, is "devoted to genes, cytogenetics, and clinical entities in cancer, and cancer-prone diseases." Users can search the materials by genes, leukaemias, solid tumors, cancer prone diseases, and chromosomes. Researchers can find links to scientific societies and meetings. Students can explore educational materials on Mendelian and non-Mendelian Inheritance, chromosomes, population genetics, and additional human genetics topics. The website also offers reviews and case reports.
Haematological and biochemical studies were conducted on 12 clinically healthy tigers of Central India. The range and mean\\u000a (with one standard deviation), respectively for the parameters examined were: red blood cells, 4.66 to 9.15, 7.9?±?1.42, 106\\/?l; haemoglobin, 7.8 to 13.8, 12.8?±?1.65 g\\/dl; packed cell volume, 36 to 45, 38?±?2.54; icterus index, 2 to 5, 2?±?1.51 U;\\u000a erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 14 to 26,
A. B. Shrivatav; K. P. Singh; S. K. Mittal; P. K. Malik
...Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information...Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information...Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control...
...Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information...Trials with Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information...Trials with Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control...
Toxicosis was induced in pregnant heifers by feeding 25,000 mg/head/day of FireMaster BP-6, a commercial blend of polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). The PBB feeding decreased dry matter intake approximately 50% by 4 days exposure. Emaciated animals became anorexic a few days prior to death at 33 to 66 days. Weight losses of heifers average 80 kg. Other clinical signs observed were dehydration, diarrhea, excessive salivation and lacrimation, fetal death, abortion, and general depression as evidenced by depressed heart and respiratory rates. Clinical signs were apparent after 10 days exposure and progressively intensified along with loss of condition until death. Clinicopathologic changes included significantly increased serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and decreased serum calcium by 30 days exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase, urea nitrogen, and bilirubin were elevated, and serum albumin decreased by 36 to 40 days. Principal urine changes were decreased specific gravity and moderate proteinuria. Pregnant heifers fed 0.25 or 250 mg/head/day for 60 days and nonpregnant heifers fed 250 mg/head/day for 180 days displayed neither clinical signs nor clinicopathologic changes indicating adverse effects from PBB exposure. Post-exposure, all heifers exposed to PBB for 60 days calved normally with zero calf mortality and were successfully rebred. Milk production was not different from control animals. Birth weights of calves from dams exposed to 250 mg PBB/head/day were significantly greater than calves of dams exposed to 0 mg or 0.25 mg/head/day. PBB exposure of dams produced no detrimental effects on calves as indicated by clinical signs, clinicopathologic changes, or performance. PMID:210005
Durst, H I; Willett, L B; Schanbacher, F L; Moorhead, P D
Background Hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) cause preanalytical interference and vary unpredictably with different analytical equipments and measurement methods. We developed an integrated reporting system for verifying HIL status in order to identify the extent of interference by HIL on clinicalchemistry results. Methods HIL interference data from 30 chemical analytes were provided by the manufacturers and were used to generate a table of clinically relevant interference values that indicated the extent of bias at specific index values (alert index values). The HIL results generated by the Vista 1500 system (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA), Advia 2400 system (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), and Modular DPE system (Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland) were analyzed and displayed on physicians' personal computers. Results Analytes 11 and 29 among the 30 chemical analytes were affected by interference due to hemolysis, when measured using the Vista and Modular systems, respectively. The hemolysis alert indices for the Vista and Modular systems were 0.1-25.8% and 0.1-64.7%, respectively. The alert indices for icterus and lipemia were <1.4% and 0.7% in the Vista system and 0.7% and 1.0% in the Modular system, respectively. Conclusions The HIL alert index values for chemical analytes varied depending on the chemistry analyzer. This integrated HIL reporting system provides an effective screening tool for verifying specimen quality with regard to HIL and simplifies the laboratory workflow.
Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Se Il; Seo, Dong Min; Kim, Kab Seung; Jang, Jae Yun; Lee, Man Hee; Yoon, Kwang Ro; Yoon, Kap Jun
The risk of venous or arterial thrombosis is routinely assessed by clinical variables (risk factors) supplemented by measurement of blood lipids and glucose for arterial thrombotic events. Haematological tests that might play a role in risk prediction include haemostatic variables, haematocrit and inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, plasma viscosity, white cell count). Recent epidemiological studies of these phenotypes and related genotypes are reviewed. For the risk prediction of first venous thrombosis, screening for thrombophilias in 'high-risk' situations does not appear clinically effective or cost-effective; with the possible exception of women considering oral hormone replacement therapy. General screening after a first venous event to predict recurrence (or risk in asymptomatic relatives) does not appear effective; with the possible exception of d-dimer, which requires further study. For risk prediction of first arterial thrombosis, screening adds little to prediction by current clinical risk scores. Screening of persons after a first arterial event, or with atrial fibrillation (e.g. with D-dimer for stroke prediction), requires further study. In conclusion, haematological tests have very limited roles in the prediction of cardiovascular risk, and should only be used according to evidence-based guidelines. The need for management studies is highlighted. PMID:16643425
So far, the only specific chromosome abnormality in haematological disorders is the Ph1-chromosome. Chromosome abnormalities have been described in so-called idiopathic side-roblastic or refractory anaemias1 but a constant cytogenetic abnormality associated with a defined clinical syndrome has not been reported.
Herman van den Berghe; Jean-Jacques Cassiman; Guido David; Jean-Pierre Fryns; JEAN-LOUIS MICHAUX; GERARD SOKAL
Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and rheumatic manifestations associated with chronic haematological malignancies. Methods. Two groups of patients were prospectively studied (group I: 60 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and group II: 140 patients with lymphoid malignancies) for clinical 'immune' manifestations and ANCA. Results. In the myelodysplastic group, six patients had ANCA-negative systemic medium- size vasculitis,
M. A. Hamidou; S. Derenne; M. A. P. Audrain; J. M. Berthelot; A. Boumalassa; J. Y. Grolleau
To determine the incidence of haematological malignancies in French Polynesia from 1990 to 1995, we collected cases from the local cancer registry, sanitary evacuation files and all the histopathology and clinical biology laboratories. All leukaemias, non Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and multiple myelomas incidence was slightly lower among French Polynesians than among Maoris from New-Zealand and Hawaiians of Hawaii. Standardised Incidence Ratio
Laurent Roda; Florent de Vathaire; Bernard Rio; Agnes Le Tourneau; Patrice Petididier; François Laudon; Robert Zittoun
Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss weighing 87 ± 15 g (mean ± SD) were infected with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and the haematological and biochemical profiles of peripheral blood examined. Depending on the clinical signs and gross pathology, the fish were divided into 2 groups: Group A included fish in the acute stage, Group B comprised fish in the chronic
Background: Very little is documented in the medical literature on the association between malaria parasitemia and febrile neutropenia in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Methods: This report will concentrate on the clinical presentation and outcome of 3 patients with haematological malignancies undergoing chemotherapy who developed febrile neutropenia and malaria parasitemia concurrently. Results: Three patients infected with documented malaria during a febrile
1. Male broilers of two different genetic stocks, a pure broiler sire line (A) and commercially available Ross broilers (B), were used to study the effect of haematological characteristics in juvenile chickens on the development of clinical ascitic signs. Production performance (body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR)) from 448 birds per stock was measured from
C. W. Scheele; J. D. Van Der Klis; C. Kwakernaak; N. Buys; E. Decuypere
Background Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug users. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the clinicalchemistry profiles and identifying the key laboratory markers of HIV infection during ART in injection heroin users (IHUs). Methods Clinicalchemistry measurements were performed on serum samples collected from HIV-1 infected ART-experienced (n?=?22), naive (n?=?16) and HIV-1 negative (n?=?23) IHUs, and healthy controls (n?=?15) from Mombasa, coastal Kenya. Results HIV uninfected IHUs had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P?=?0.023) as ART-exposed IHUs exhibited lower albumin (P?=?0.014) and higher AST to platelet index (APRI) (P?0.0001). All IHUs presented with lower aspartate aminotransferase to ALT values (P?=?0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P?=?0.002). ART-naive IHUs had higher globulin levels (P?=?0.013) while ART-experienced and naive IHUs had higher albumin to total protein (P?0.0001) and albumin to globulin (P?0.0001) values. In addition, CD4+ T cells correlated with ALT (? = ?0.522, P = 0.011) and CRP (rho, ??=?0.529, P?=?0.011) in HIV negative and ART-experienced IHUs, respectively. HIV-1 viral load correlated with albumin to globulin index in ART-experienced (??=??0.468, P?=?0.037) and naive (??=??0.554, P?=?0.040) IHUs; and with albumin to total protein index (??=??0.554, P?=?0.040) and globulin (??=?0.570, P?=?0.033) in ART-naive IHUs. Conclusion Absolute ALT, albumin, globulin, and CRP measurements in combination with APRI, AST to ALT, albumin to total protein and albumin to globulin indices may be useful laboratory markers for screening IHUs for initiating and monitoring treatment.
Objectives To evaluate an instructional model for teaching clinically relevant medicinal chemistry. Methods An instructional model that uses Bloom's cognitive and Krathwohl's affective taxonomy, published and tested concepts in teaching medicinal chemistry, and active learning strategies, was introduced in the medicinal chemistry courses for second-professional year (P2) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students (campus and distance) in the 2005-2006 academic year. Student learning and the overall effectiveness of the instructional model were assessed. Student performance after introducing the instructional model was compared to that in prior years. Results Student performance on course examinations improved compared to previous years. Students expressed overall enthusiasm about the course and better understood the value of medicinal chemistry to clinical practice. Conclusion The explicit integration of the cognitive and affective learning objectives improved student performance, student ability to apply medicinal chemistry to clinical practice, and student attitude towards the discipline. Testing this instructional model provided validation to this theoretical framework. The model is effective for both our campus and distance-students. This instructional model may also have broad-based applications to other science courses.
The application of cytostatics has brought about a breakthrough in the treatment of childhood haematological malignancies in the past 20 years. Chemotherapy appears to be least successful in the rare, low and very high mitotic index diseases, which often have an enormous tumour-burden. The suitability of chemotherapy in minimal residual leukaemia is also of some doubt. In these situations a
Summary The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that functions as a key regulator of cell growth, protein synthesis, and cell-cycle progression through interactions with a number of signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT, ras, TCL1, and BCR/ABL. Many haematologic malignancies have aberrant activation of the mTOR and related signaling pathways. Accordingly, mTOR inhibitors, a class of signal transduction inhibitors that were originally developed as immunosuppressive agents, are being investigated in preclinical models and clinical trials for a number of haematologic malignancies. Sirolimus and second generation mTOR inhibitors such as temsirolimus and everolimus, are safe and relatively well-tolerated, making them potentially attractive as single agents or in combination with conventional cytotoxics and other targeted therapies. Promising early clinical data suggests activity of mTOR inhibitors in a number of haematologic diseases, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and lymphoproliferative disorders. This review describes the rationale for using mTOR inhibitors in a variety of haematologic diseases with a focus on their use in leukemia.
Teachey, David T.; Grupp, Stephan A.; Brown, Valerie I.
: Results on more than 1000 complete blood counts (CBC) performed on hot-blooded horses, including Thoroughbred, Standardbred,\\u000a and Arabian, have been reviewed. All the data were processed and stored at the Laboratory of Haematology, Department Veterinary\\u000a Clinic, University of Pisa, over the last 2 years, and involved samples withdrawn from both inpatients and outpatients of\\u000a the clinic.\\u000a \\u000a ?The CBC is
A. GAVAZZA; A. J. DELGADILLO; B. GUGLIUCCI; A. PASQUINI; G. LUBAS
Over the last few years there has been rapid and radical change in the way clinical research in the UK is funded and supported within the NHS. This has resulted from restructuring and major new investment in research infrastructure, co-ordinated through Clinical Local Research Networks (CLRNs) and equivalent organisations in the devolved nations. CLRNs have resources to support local researchers undertake studies that have been adopted on to the national research portfolio. For example, CLRNs can help with gaining local approvals or provide research nurses to recruit patients, undertake study procedures and perform data entry. CLRNs can establish Local Speciality Groups in a number of areas of medicine, including nonmalignant haematology. These new networks offer non-malignant haematology access to significant new resources and a major opportunity to support clinical research for the benefit of our patients. PMID:21105240
Collins, P W; Baglin, T P; Dang, R; Evans, G; Greaves, M; Laffan, M; Pasi, K J; Rose, P; Stanworth, S; Toh, C H
Abstract Patients with haematological malignancies are at increased risk of experiencing work-related problems. The aims of this study were to compare the risk of disability pension (DP) among patients diagnosed with eight subtypes of haematological malignancies to a reference cohort, and to determine if relative risks differ between these subtypes; to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors, demographic factors, and clinical factors on the risk of DP; and to investigate if these associations differ between the reference cohort and the patient cohort. Material and methods. We combined data from national registers on Danish patients diagnosed with haematological malignancies between 2000 and 2007 and a reference cohort without a history of these diseases. A total of 3194 patients and 28 627 reference individuals were followed until DP, emigration, old age pension or anticipatory pension, death or 26 February 2012, whichever came first. Results. A total of 550 (17%) patients and 1511 (5%) reference individuals were granted DP. Age- and gender-adjusted relative risks differed significantly between the subgroups of haematological malignancies and ranged from 2.64 (95% CI 1.84-3.78) for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma to 12.53 (95% CI 10.57-14.85) for patients with multiple myeloma. In the patient cohort we found that gender, age, comorbidity, ethnicity, educational level, household income, history of long-term sick leave, and need of treatment with anxiolytics or antidepressants after diagnosis were associated with receiving DP. However, most of these associations were stronger in the reference cohort. Conclusion. All eight subtypes of haematological malignancies were associated with an increased risk of DP compared to the reference cohort. The relative risks differed according to subtype, and patients with multiple myeloma had the highest risk of DP. Furthermore, most socioeconomic, demographic and clinical factors had a stronger impact on the risk of DP in the reference cohort than in the patient cohort. PMID:24456498
Background Malaria is a major mosquito-borne public health problem in Thailand with varied haematological consequences. The study sought to elucidate the haematological changes in people who suspected malaria infection and their possible predictive values of malaria infection. Methods Haematological parameters of 4,985 patients, including 703 malaria-infected and 4,282 non-malaria infected, who admitted at Phop Phra Hospital, Tak Province, an area of malaria endemic transmission in Thailand during 2009 were evaluated. Results The following parameters were significantly lower in malaria-infected patients; red blood cells (RBCs) count, haemoglobin (Hb), platelets count, white blood cells (WBCs) count, neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were higher in comparison to non-malaria infected patients. Patients with platelet counts?150,000/uL were 31.8 times (odds ratio) more likely to have a malaria infection. Thrombocytopenia was present in 84.9% of malaria-infected patients and was independent of age, gender and nationality (P value?0.0001). Conclusion Patients infected with malaria exhibited important changes in most of haematological parameters with low platelet, WBCs, and lymphocyte counts being the most important predictors of malaria infection. When used in combination with other clinical and microscopy methods, these parameters could improve malaria diagnosis and treatment.
iEDTA (2 mg ml- ) for haematology and sodium fluoride for glucose measurement (Hawk, 1965). Serum samples were assayed for total protein (Wooton, 1974), calcium (Clark and Collip, 1925) and inorganic phosphorus (Fiske and Subba Row, 1925). Hair samples from both control and mite-infested goats were collected in sterilized tubes and washed successively with de-ionized water, ethanol and ethyl ether
M. R. Dalapati; M. K. Bhowmik; S. Sarkar; N. K. Sasmal
Despite the continuous advances in immunology and cancer biology, haematological malignancies are often incurable. Conventional\\u000a chemotherapy and radiation are efficacious for some lymphoma and leukaemia, however relapse and progressive disease often\\u000a occurs. The evidence that the immune system can play an essential role in controlling cancer progression provide a basis for\\u000a the development of active therapies, such as immunization, aimed
Michela Cesco-Gaspere; Emma Morris; Hans J. Stauss
Objective The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. Methods In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinicalchemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. Results The questionnaire items ‘Red joints’, ‘Swollen joints’, ‘Warm joints’ suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RHF) levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Conclusion Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient.
van der Kooij, Anita J.; Reijmers, Theo H.; Schroen, Yan; Wang, Mei; Xu, Zhiliang; Wang, Xinchang; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang; Hankemeier, Thomas; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; van der Greef, Jan
Known concentrations of ethanol, methanol, isopropanol and its metabolite acetone were added to plasma or whole blood and aliquots of each specimen were sent to clinicalchemistry laboratories in Sweden as a declared collaborative study. All participants used gas-liquid chromatography (GC) for quantitative determination of ethanol and other low molecular weight volatiles. The mean within laboratory precision for analysis of ethanol, expressed as coefficient of variation (CV), was 4.7% (range 0-15%). The corresponding between-laboratory CV spanned from 8.0 to 19.4% for 23 control specimens analysed between 1987 and 1992. The mean concentration of ethanol reported was not significantly different from the target value assigned. Between 0 and 3 laboratories reported deviant results (Z-score > 1.96) for each of the control specimens. One laboratory reported the presence of methanol instead of ethanol and three laboratories saw traces of acetone instead of the actual concentration present. One laboratory failed to report that methanol was present and another failed to report the presence of isopropanol. The between-laboratory CV ranged between 9.4 and 30.3% for analysis of methanol in 8 control specimens. The larger variability between laboratories compared with within laboratories probably reflects the different calibration procedures used, such as the preparation and source of the alcohol standards. PMID:8571075
A simple, rapid method for isolating human DNA has been developed, which can be routinely used in clinicalchemistry laboratories. The entire procedure takes less than 90 min, and as many as 12 blood samples can be handled in one cycle. One milliliter of EDTA-treated blood is lysed and centrifuged to yield a nuclear fraction. The nuclear pellet is treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate/urea and phenol/chloroform to remove contaminating proteins, then the crude DNA extract is purified by use of a Sephadex G-25 spin-column. Typical 260 nm/280 nm absorbance ratio (used to assess purity) and yield for DNA so purified were 1.84 and 24.5 micrograms/mL, respectively. Within- and between-day CVs for recovery of DNA from pooled blood were 8% and 11% respectively. Such DNA preparations were found quite suitable for digestion by a variety of restriction endonucleases and for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We are using this method to isolate DNA from whole blood of myocardial infarction patients for studies on the apolipoprotein B gene. PMID:1967986
A pilot programme for assessing laboratory performance in clinicalchemistry laboratories in Zimbabwe is described (ZEQAS). Twenty four laboratories providing patient care services participated. Eight lyphilised bovine sera were distributed over one year. Consensus values and the spread of interlaboratory agreement were calculated for each of 12 analytes and compared with results previously obtained in a large mature national EQA scheme in the UK (UK NEQAS). For all analytes except phosphate, the mean consensus value obtained in ZEQAS was between 94 and 108 pc of the UK target, although the spread of results in ZEQAS was generally two to threefold greater for individual analytes than in UK NEQAS. It is concluded the ZEQAS consensus values for the analytes surveyed provide a valid target against which individual laboratory performance can be assessed. The wide spread of results from individual laboratories suggests there is considerable scope for improving interlaboratory agreement. This is being addressed by the continuing programme, with increased interaction and production of local specimens. PMID:7882415
Mujaji, W B; Mazhindu, H N; Gomo, Z; Marima-Matarira, H T; Samuwi, C; Nyamayaro, T; Bullock, D G; Ratcliffe, J G
We describe the adaptation of the decision limit cumulative sum method (cusum) to internal quality control in clinicalchemistry. With the decision limit method, the cusum is interpreted against a numerical limit, rather than by use of a V-mask. The method can be readily implemented in computerized quality-control systems or manually on controls charts. We emphasize the manual application here and demonstrate how the technique can be implemented on existing Shewhart or Levey-Jennings control charts. This permits both cusum and Shewhart control rules to be used simultaneously on a single control chart and also minimizes the data calculations necessary for the cusum method. Computer simulation studies are used to determine the performance characteristics of several different cusum rules, alone and in combination with a Shewhart rule. These studies indicate that improvements in existing quality-control systems should be possible by addition of this simple cusum method and by use of a combined Shewhart-cusum control chart. This should be particularly advantageous when introducing the cusum method in laboratories with manual quality-control systems. PMID:902415
Westgard, J O; Groth, T; Aronsson, T; de Verdier, C H
In a preclinical research laboratory, using serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly is sometimes unavoidable when needing to confirm previous results or perform additional analysis. Here we determined the effects of multiple cycles of refrigeration or freezing and thawing of rat serum at 3 temperature conditions for different storage times on clinicalchemistry analytes. Serum samples obtained from adult Wistar rats were stored at 2 to 8 °C and -10 to -20 °C for as long as 72 h and at -70 °C for as long as 30 d. At different time points (24, 48, and 72 h for samples stored at 2 to 8 °C or -10 to -20 °C and 1, 7, and 30 d for samples stored at -70 °C), the samples were brought to room temperature, analyzed, and then stored again at the designated temperature. The results obtained after each storage cycle were compared with those obtained from the initial analysis of fresh samples. Of the 18 serum analytes evaluated, 14 were stable without significant changes, even after 3 freeze-thaw cycles at the tested temperature ranges. Results from this study will help researchers working with rat serum to interpret the biochemical data obtained from serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly. PMID:23043814
Twenty-three lizards were captured for this study, both males and females (12 males, 10 females, 1 undetermined), with a large range in body weights (40-286 g) appeared to be healthy based on activity level, physical examinations, and body condition scores. Heparinized blood samples from 20 free-ranging basilisk lizards (Basiliscus plumifrons) in Costa Rica were used for determining complete blood cell counts, plasma, and heparinized whole blood biochemical analysis. This information will serve as baseline reference data for future health assessment studies of free-ranging and captive basilisk lizards, as well as epidemiologic, conservation, and captive-breeding studies. A point-of-care analyzer was useful for this field study, and clinicalchemistry values from heparinized whole blood samples were similar to values from plasma, which indicates that separation of plasma may not be necessary to process blood samples on site in remote areas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of hematologic and plasma biochemical data from free-ranging B. plumnifrons. PMID:22946396
In a preclinical research laboratory, using serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly is sometimes unavoidable when needing to confirm previous results or perform additional analysis. Here we determined the effects of multiple cycles of refrigeration or freezing and thawing of rat serum at 3 temperature conditions for different storage times on clinicalchemistry analytes. Serum samples obtained from adult Wistar rats were stored at 2 to 8 °C and ?10 to ?20 °C for as long as 72 h and at ?70 °C for as long as 30 d. At different time points (24, 48, and 72 h for samples stored at 2 to 8 °C or ?10 to ?20 °C and 1, 7, and 30 d for samples stored at ?70 °C), the samples were brought to room temperature, analyzed, and then stored again at the designated temperature. The results obtained after each storage cycle were compared with those obtained from the initial analysis of fresh samples. Of the 18 serum analytes evaluated, 14 were stable without significant changes, even after 3 freeze–thaw cycles at the tested temperature ranges. Results from this study will help researchers working with rat serum to interpret the biochemical data obtained from serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly.
Basic haematological values were obtained in the field from shot, clinically normal, wild East African ungulates. The species studied were: Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii), Grant's gazelle (Gazella grantii), blue wildebeest (Conochaetes taurinus), Coke's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), impala (Aepyceros melampus) and Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli). Red cell parameters compared well with previous reports although the mean cell haemoglobin concentrations were higher. The white cell counts were considerably lower in all species. The red and white cells of all species studied had standard mammalian morphology. Generally, the field equipment used worked well under the conditions encountered, although the field microscope made cell counting troublesome and the heat made the preservation of fixed slides difficult. PMID:8460271
Background The effect of centrifugation time of heparinized blood samples on clinicalchemistry and immunology results has rarely been studied. WHO guideline proposed a 15 min centrifugation time without citing any scientific publications. The centrifugation time has a considerable impact on the turn-around-time. Methods We investigated 74 parameters in samples from 44 patients on a Roche Cobas 6000 system, to see whether there was a statistical significant difference in the test results among specimens centrifuged at 2180 g for 15 min, at 2180 g for 10 min or at 1870 g for 7 min, respectively. Two tubes with different plasma separators (both Greiner Bio-One) were used for each centrifugation condition. Statistical comparisons were made by Deming fit. Results Tubes with different separators showed identical results in all parameters. Likewise, excellent correlations were found among tubes to which different centrifugation conditions were applied. Fifty percent of the slopes lay between 0.99 and 1.01. Only 3.6 percent of the statistical tests results fell outside the significance level of p < 0.05, which was less than the expected 5%. This suggests that the outliers are the result of random variation and the large number of statistical tests performed. Further, we found that our data are sufficient not to miss a biased test (beta error) with a probability of 0.10 to 0.05 in most parameters. Conclusion A centrifugation time of either 7 or 10 min provided identical test results compared to the time of 15 min as proposed by WHO under the conditions used in our study.
Abstract Background: Six Sigma metrics were used to assess the analytical quality of automated clinicalchemistry and immunoassay tests in a large Belgian clinical laboratory and to explore the importance of the source used for estimation of the allowable total error. Clinical laboratories are continually challenged to maintain analytical quality. However, it is difficult to measure assay quality objectively and quantitatively. Methods: The Sigma metric is a single number that estimates quality based on the traditional parameters used in the clinical laboratory: allowable total error (TEa), precision and bias. In this study, Sigma metrics were calculated for 41 clinicalchemistry assays for serum and urine on five ARCHITECT c16000 chemistry analyzers. Controls at two analyte concentrations were tested and Sigma metrics were calculated using three different TEa targets (Ricos biological variability, CLIA, and RiliBÄK). Results: Sigma metrics varied with analyte concentration, the TEa target, and between/among analyzers. Sigma values identified those assays that are analytically robust and require minimal quality control rules and those that exhibit more variability and require more complex rules. The analyzer to analyzer variability was assessed on the basis of Sigma metrics. Conclusions: Six Sigma is a more efficient way to control quality, but the lack of TEa targets for many analytes and the sometimes inconsistent TEa targets from different sources are important variables for the interpretation and the application of Sigma metrics in a routine clinical laboratory. Sigma metrics are a valuable means of comparing the analytical quality of two or more analyzers to ensure the comparability of patient test results. PMID:24615486
In late November 1988 large numbers of thoroughbred horses in training in Hong Kong developed a transient pyrexia with, in some cases, the clinical signs of viral respiratory disease. Serial blood samples for haematological examination were taken from 10 of the horses which were stabled in six different blocks. They had developed a high temperature within three days of each
This review presents a wide-ranging selection of key literature examples in the histone deacetylase\\u000a (HDAC) field. The review starts off with the biological background of HDACs and their link to cancer and\\u000a cancer treatment. The body of the work consists of a categorized and chronological medicinal chemistry\\u000a overview. This part describes key medicinal chemistry contributions ranging from the very early HDAC inhibitors
P. Holte; K. Emelen; M. Janicot; P. C. Fong; J. S. Bono; J. Arts
Even though there is an abundance of information on the reference values of haematological parameters in adult rabbits, a little is known about the changes in haematology in newborn rabbits or during their postnatal development. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate changes in red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and differential leukocyte counts in SPF
Background. Dialysis bath production, at least in Europe, is currently based on pre-produced aqueous solutions of dialysis salts (concentrate), which are re-handled by dialysis machines to deliver the final dialysate concentrations. Because of the logistics of aqueous solution creation, a large amount of transportation capacity is needed. Therefore, we changed this process to use pre-produced dry salt containers and to undertake in-clinic dissolution of salts and concentration production. Because no preclinical control for solute concentrations is available so far using this new process, we employed routine clinicalchemistry analytics. Methods. We report the controls of solute concentrations created by these methods for 746 samples of concentrates and 151 dissolution processes. For analysis, absolute and relative deviations from prescriptions and associations between the solute concentrations and the density controls of the concentrates were computed. Results. A total of 98% of all the concentrates were found to be within a 10% margin of error from the prescriptions. The mean relative deviation of the solute concentrations from the prescriptions was ?0.635 ± 3.83%. Among particular solutes, sodium had the highest maximum deviation of 26 mmol/L from the prescription. Calcium and magnesium (small concentration solutes) exhibited small systematic errors of 1.37 and 1.22%, respectively. Other solute concentrations showed random errors only and no associations with the mean relative deviations of all the solutes within a production batch or with the density controls. Conclusions. Single solute concentration control by routine clinicalchemistry after dry salt production of concentrates is a valuable additional tool for monitoring clinical risk with dialysate concentrates. The analytical random error of clinicalchemistry exceeds the weight tolerance of production; therefore, such analytics cannot be used for precision production and control of dry salt containers.
BACKGROUND.: Dialysis bath production, at least in Europe, is currently based on pre-produced aqueous solutions of dialysis salts (concentrate), which are re-handled by dialysis machines to deliver the final dialysate concentrations. Because of the logistics of aqueous solution creation, a large amount of transportation capacity is needed. Therefore, we changed this process to use pre-produced dry salt containers and to undertake in-clinic dissolution of salts and concentration production. Because no preclinical control for solute concentrations is available so far using this new process, we employed routine clinicalchemistry analytics. METHODS.: We report the controls of solute concentrations created by these methods for 746 samples of concentrates and 151 dissolution processes. For analysis, absolute and relative deviations from prescriptions and associations between the solute concentrations and the density controls of the concentrates were computed. RESULTS.: A total of 98% of all the concentrates were found to be within a 10% margin of error from the prescriptions. The mean relative deviation of the solute concentrations from the prescriptions was -0.635 ± 3.83%. Among particular solutes, sodium had the highest maximum deviation of 26 mmol/L from the prescription. Calcium and magnesium (small concentration solutes) exhibited small systematic errors of 1.37 and 1.22%, respectively. Other solute concentrations showed random errors only and no associations with the mean relative deviations of all the solutes within a production batch or with the density controls. CONCLUSIONS.: Single solute concentration control by routine clinicalchemistry after dry salt production of concentrates is a valuable additional tool for monitoring clinical risk with dialysate concentrates. The analytical random error of clinicalchemistry exceeds the weight tolerance of production; therefore, such analytics cannot be used for precision production and control of dry salt containers. PMID:22833811
Zygomycosis is an invasive and increasingly emerging life-threatening infection. Diabetes is the most common risk factor; however, zygomycosis has increased among patients with haematologic malignancy, which is now the second most common risk factor with an incidence of 16%. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are essential for patient survival. In the Danish literature, only a few cases have been reported. We present two cases of zygomycosis, both with a fatal outcome, and we discuss the pathogenesis and treatment of invasive zygomycosis. PMID:21276400
Jensen, Eva Magrethe Precht; Clemmensen, Stine; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise
To determine the incidence of haematological malignancies in French Polynesia from 1990 to 1995, we collected cases from the local cancer registry, sanitary evacuation files and all the histopathology and clinical biology laboratories. All leukaemias, non Hodgkin's lymphomas, and multiple myelomas incidence was slightly lower among French Polynesians than among Maoris from New-Zealand and Hawaiians of Hawaii. Standardised Incidence Ratio (SIR) for Hodgkin's disease among females was 0.08 when comparing to Hawaiians and 0.33 when comparing to Maoris. Other salient features were a high proportion of high grade and Burkitt's lymphoma, the absence of Hodgkin's disease after 40 years of age, a low incidence of chronic lymphoid leukaemia, and a high non lymphoblastic/lymphoblastic acute leukaemia ratio in childhood. This study stresses the peculiar incidence of some haematological malignancies in this south pacific area. PMID:10229320
Roda, L; de Vathaire, F; Rio, B; Le Tourneau, A; Petididier, P; Laudon, F; Zittoun, R
Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT…
Studies of haematological parameters were performed on 366 (177 male and 189 female) normal Malawian neonates with mean +/- s.d. birthweight of 2.99 +/- 0.37 (range 2.1-4.0) kg using a Nova Cell Track, Model Nova CT11. Cord anaemia (Cord Hb < 13.5g dl-1) was detected in 100 (27.3%) of the neonates. It was also shown that although the male babies had a significantly higher erythrocyte protoporphyrin level (p < 0.001) than the females, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the red cell, white cell and platelet indices between the two sexes. When the haematological parameters of the 266 (72.7%) non-anaemic (Cord Hb > 13.5g dl-1) neonates were analysed, the mean +/- s.d. values which may serve as local reference standards were: Hb 16.0 +/- 1.7 (range 13.5-21.3) g dl-1, Hct 47.0 +/- 6.0 (range 36.5-67.5) percent, MCV 112.6 +/- 8.9 (range 72.2-131.0) fl, MCH 31.9 +/- 5.5 (range 24.4-48.5) pg, MCHC 33.5 +/- 2.8 (range 29.1-48.9) g dl-1 reticulocyte count 6.9 +/- 3.6 (range 1.2-25.0) percent, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin 3.3 +/- 0.9 (range 1.9-7.7) mgs ZPP gm-1 Hb, platelet count 269.9 +/- 57.7 (range 134.0-454.0) x 10(9) l-1 and total leucocyte count 12.3 +/- 4.8 (range 5.5-35.3) x 10(9) l-1. Further analysis of the differential wbc count disclosed normal levels of eosinophils and neutrophils similar to those given in standard haematology textbooks for Caucasian neonates; thus strengthening the belief that eosinophilia and relative neutropenia previously reported in adult Africans is not of genetic origin, but rather an acquired phenomena. PMID:7781547
Mukiibi, J M; Mtimavalye, L A; Broadhead, R; Mzula, E; Dzinyemba, W E; Merrick, R; Khoromana, C O; Ching'ani, G W
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is rapidly gaining ground in special clinicalchemistry laboratories. It significantly increases the analytic potential in clinicalchemistry, especially in the field of low molecular weight biomarker analysis. This review overviews current LC-MS/MS methods used for the quantification of biogenic amines and their metabolites. New possibilities offered by this technique are illustrated by recently developed assays for biogenic amines. Major shortcomings of conventional chromatographic techniques, such as labor-intensive sample preparation, long analysis times and often the relatively low specificity, are circumvented by using LC-MS/MS. In addition, LC-MS/MS has broad analyte compatibility and high analytical performance. In the last 5 years introduction of LC-MS/MS in routine diagnostics has resulted in improved assays for diagnosis and follow-up of neuroendocrine tumors characterized by the secretion of biogenic amines. Due to their labile nature and low concentration ranges biogenic amines require extensive and careful sample preparation. Introduction of new sophisticated techniques such as selective sorbents adsorption is evolving. This enables not only more specific analyte selection, but also automation of the complicated clean-up procedure. Automated sample clean-up can be directly coupled to LC-MS/MS, which facilitates reproducible and efficient handling of the growing number of samples to be analyzed in laboratories. PMID:20627097
de Jong, Wilhelmina H A; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Kema, Ido P
Summary The Sysmex SE-9c500 is a new, fully automated haematology analyser, providing a complete blood count (CBC), including a five-part differential count (DC), with flagging of morphological abnormalities. The SE-9500 was evaluated according to guidelines published by the International Committee for Standardisation in Haematology (ICSH). The results demonstrated minimal carryover (< 0.01%) and excellent linearity for WBC, RBC, HGB and
Liming Peng; Xingjun Gao; Hong Jiang; Zhiyong Peng; Jun Su
Although scarce, available data suggest that the epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in North Africa differs from northern countries, where more than 80 % is caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. This study aimed at describing the epidemiology of IA in the region of Sousse, Tunisia, and at assessing the usefulness of the available diagnostic tools. For 2 years, clinical and mycological data were prospectively collected from 175 neutropenia episodes of 91 patients hospitalised in the haematology department at the Farhat Hached hospital in Sousse (Tunisia). Screening for galactomannan antigen was positive in 40 % of neutropenia episodes; Aspergillus PCR was positive in 42 % of the tested sera. Nine patients were classified as probable and two as possible IA according to the EORTC/MSG criteria. Twelve patients who prematurely died, had no CT scan and could not be classified. Fifty-six Aspergillus spp. were isolated in 53 (6.5 %) sputa collected from 35 (20 %) patients. The following species were identified with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA sequencing: A. niger, 35 %; A. flavus, 38 %; A. tubingensis, 19 %; A. fumigatus, 4 %; A. westerdijkiae, 2 % and A. ochraceus, 2 %. Our findings highlight the epidemiological features of IA in Tunisia, which is characterised by the predominance of Aspergillus spp. from sections Nigri and Flavi. PMID:24728707
The aim of this study was to characterise the sequential haematological changes in vervet monkeys infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and subsequently treated with sub-curative diminazene aceturate (DA) and curative melarsoprol (MelB) trypanocidal drugs. Fourteen vervet monkeys, on a serial timed-kill pathogenesis study, were infected intravenously with 10(4) trypanosomes of a stabilate T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537. They were treated with DA at 28 days post infection (dpi) and with MelB following relapse of infection at 140 dpi. Blood samples were obtained from the monkeys weekly, and haematology conducted using a haematological analyser. All the monkeys developed a disease associated with macrocytic hypochromic anaemia characterised by a reduction in erythrocytes (RBC), haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), platelet count (PLT), and an increase in the red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV). The clinical disease was characteristic of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) with a pre-patent period of 3 days. Treatment with DA cleared trypanosomes from both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The parasites relapsed first in the CSF and later in the blood. This treatment normalised the RBC, HCT, HB, PLT, MCV, and MPV achieving the pre-infection values within two weeks while RDW took up to 6 weeks to attain pre-infection levels after treatment. Most of the parameters were later characterised by fluctuations, and declined at one to two weeks before relapse of trypanosomes in the haemolymphatic circulation. Following MelB treatment at 140 dpi, most values recovered within two weeks and stabilised at pre-infection levels, during the 223 days post treatment monitoring period. It is concluded that DA and MelB treatments cause similar normalising changes in the haematological profiles of monkeys infected with T. b. rhodesiense, indicating the efficacy of the drugs. The infection related changes in haematology parameters, further characterise the vervet monkey as an optimal induced animal model of HAT. Serial monitoring of these parameters can be used as an adjunct in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease outcome in the vervet monkey model. PMID:21420376
Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, John M; Kariuki, Christopher; Maina, Naomi; Thuita, John K; Mwangangi, David M; Farah, Idle O; Hau, Jann
Background Reference values are very important in clinical management of patients, screening participants for enrolment into clinical trials and for monitoring the onset of adverse events during these trials. The aim of this was to establish gender-specific haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy adults in the central part of Ghana. Methods A total of 691 adults between 18 and 59 years resident in the Kintampo North Municipality and South District in the central part of Ghana were randomly selected using the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System and enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. Out of these, 625 adults made up of 316 males and 309 females were assessed by a clinician to be healthy. Median values and nonparametric 95% reference values for 16 haematology and 22 biochemistry parameters were determined for this population based on the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute guidelines. Values established in this study were compared with the Caucasian values being used currently by our laboratory as reference values and also with data from other African and western countries. Results Reference values established include: haemoglobin 113–164 g/L for males and 88–144 g/L for females; total white blood cell count 3.4–9.2×109/L; platelet count 88–352×109/L for males and 89–403×109/L for females; alanine aminotransferase 8–54 U/L for males and 6–51 U/L for females; creatinine 56–119 µmol/L for males and 53–106 µmol/L for females. Using the haematological reference values based on the package inserts would have screened out up to 53% of potential trial participants and up to 25% of the population using the biochemical parameters. Conclusion We have established a panel of locally relevant reference parameters for commonly used haematological and biochemical tests. This is important as it will help in the interpretation of laboratory results both for clinical management of patients and safety monitoring during a trial.
This fifteenth biannual report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group (CHMG) highlights recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of hemato-oncology, covering the publication period from October 2011 to May 2012. Implications for clinical practice and methodological aspects are the main principles for selecting trials for this report. Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE using a broad search filter that covers all topics in hemato-oncology combined with a highly sensitive search filter for randomized trials (Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions). PMID:23852951
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent important complications in patients with haematological malignancies. Chemoprevention of IFIs may play an important role in this setting, but in the past decades the majority of antifungal drugs utilized demonstrated poor efficacy, particularly in the prevention of invasive aspergillosis. The new triazoles are very useful antifungal drugs, more suitable for prophylaxis of IFIs than amphotericin B and echinocandins. In this review, the main clinical data about antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole are analysed. At present, posaconazole appears to be the most efficacious azole in antifungal prophylaxis, particularly in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. PMID:24372659
Clinicalchemistry reference values in blood from 48 nonfasting Chester White/Yorkshire and 48 Hanford Miniature swine were determined. Subsequently, 40 animals of each breed were restrained in a cloth sling and fasted for 24 hours while exposed percutaneously to pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman). The range of dosages for the Hanford Miniature swine was 2.0 to 15.8 mg/kg, and for the Chester White/Yorkshire swine, the range was 4.0 to 25.0 mg/kg. Sham-exposed groups, consisting of 8 animals of each breed, were treated in an identical manner, except no anticholinesterase agent was administered. Samples of blood were drawn at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after soman or sham exposure. In the sham-exposed groups, significant changes from the reference values were observed as a result of the 24-hour restraint. In both breeds, skeletal muscle enzyme activities were increased, plasma cholinesterase activity (ChEPL) was decreased, calcium concentration was decreased, and phosphorus concentration was increased. Percutaneous exposure to soman resulted in decreases of ChEPL and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities (ChERBC). The ChEPL recovered more quickly than the ChERBC in both breeds. Even in asymptomatic swine, the decrease of ChERBC was greater than 60% after 24 hours. In the swine of each breed given the largest dosage, hyperglycemia was apparent in blood samples taken at the onset of apnea, especially when the animal survived for greater than 2 hours. We conclude that both breeds of swine, on the basis of dispersion in clinicalchemistry reference values, were equally suited for this type of dermatotoxicity study. The sling method of restraint, however, caused some undesirable changes in biochemical values. PMID:3826868
James, J T; Manthei, J H; Goodwin, B S; Heitkamp, D; Liebenberg, S P
Bovine placental lactogen (PL) is a partial somatotropin agonist in the cow and decreases urea nitrogen, indicating increased nitrogen retention. In the present study, the somatogenic effects of bovine PL (bPL; 4 and 8 mg/d) were compared with those of bovine somatotropin (bST; 4 and 8 mg/d) in finishing lambs. Measures of comparison included growth performance, carcass composition, and growth-related clinicalchemistry traits. Although feed efficiency during the first 3 wk of treatment with bPL was improved by 14% (P < .05), feed efficiency for the full 6-wk treatment period did not differ from that of control lambs. Responsiveness to bPL may have been attenuated by high titer antibodies present after 2 wk of treatment. However, bPL also did not influence growth-related clinicalchemistry traits during short-term (7 d) treatment, strongly suggesting that bPL was ineffective in finishing lambs at the doses tested. In contrast, bST improved 6-wk feed efficiency by an average of 17% (P < .05) and decreased feed intake by an average of 12% (P < .05). In addition, measures of carcass composition including longissimus muscle area, specific gravity of the rack, kidney and pelvic fat, and fat thickness demonstrated that bST, but not bPL, treatment decreased carcass fatness and increased carcass leanness. Treatment with bST, but not with bPL, affected IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and urea nitrogen in a dose-related manner. Thus, daily injections of bPL did not affect either performance or carcass quality, whereas performance and carcass responses of finishing lambs to bST were consistent with those reported by others. PMID:8294282
McLaughlin, C L; Byatt, J C; Hedrick, H B; Veenhuizen, J J; Curran, D F; Hintz, R L; Hartnell, G F; Kasser, T R; Collier, R J; Baile, C A
Context.-Clinical consultation is a key role of pathologists. Many have advocated that pathologists expand their consulting activities to improve laboratory utilization. Although many have suggested that residency programs need to provide experience in clinical consultation, little has been written on the nature of consultation or on the methods of training. Objective.-To characterize the content of consultations and to describe training in consultation in chemical pathology within the residency program at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Design.-Retrospective review of the consultation database for the period between July 2011 and July 2012. Results.-Residents performed an average of 159 consultations a month covering 276 topics during the course of a year. Each topic involved 1 or more specific tests. Eighty percent of the topics received fewer than 12 calls. The most common topics involved virus testing (eg, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus). Consultations most often involved test interpretation (53%), selection (38%), and performance characteristics (21%). Twenty-seven percent of consultations involved 2 or more consultation categories (eg, interpretation and performance). Conclusions.-Consultation calls in chemical pathology are widely distributed across topics. Consultations most often involve test interpretation and selection. Methods to assess the effectiveness of consultations and resident teaching should be devised. PMID:24786125
Schmidt, Robert L; Garcia, Christopher A; Panlener, Jeanne; Ashwood, Edward R; Jackson, Brian R; Hussong, Jerry W
During an 8-year period (1980–1989), 199 samples were taken from 52 clinically healthy white-tailed gnu (Connochaetes gnou), 24 males and 28 females, to estimate basic haematological values and to find possible age- and sex-related differences.\\u000a In nine of the animals under investigation, four males and five females, the effect of sedating agents on blood parameters\\u000a was studied.\\u000a \\u000a A decrease of
Haematological and biochemical data were collected over a period of six years from grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups undergoing rehabilitation. Pups bled during the first three days were allocated retrospectively to one of seven clinical groups and statistical analyses were carried out on six of these groups (130 pups). Compared with reference ranges, all the groups had lower mean packed-cell volumes (pcv), red blood cell (rbc) counts haemoglobin and albumin levels, pups with severe trauma had higher total white blood cell (wbc) and neutrophil counts, pups with severe trauma and malnourished pups had higher total bilirubin levels, and pups in all the clinical groups except those with severe trauma had lower sodium levels. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between some clinical groups for mean pcv, rbc counts, all wbc counts except monocytes, haemoglobin, total bilirubin, creatine kinase, amylase and potassium levels. Forty-nine pups were bled more than once during the first 10 days of rehabilitation for haematology, and 11 were bled more than once for biochemistry. There were significant decreases (P<0.05) during this period in pcv, and in the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and significant increases in all wbc counts, total protein, globulin, amylase and calcium levels. PMID:17906226
Even though there is an abundance of information on the reference values of haematological parameters in adult rabbits, a little is known about the changes in haematology in newborn rabbits or during their postnatal development. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate changes in red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and differential leukocyte counts in SPF New Zealand White rabbits from the age of one day to 20 weeks. Significant age-related changes during the first four weeks of life were detected. These included an increase of RBC and WBC, reversal of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and increase of total counts of eosinophils and basophils. From the age of six weeks of life, all of the studied haematological parameters were comparable to those of adult rabbits. PMID:19041105
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes C. difficile infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in developed countries has become increasingly high due to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, a growing elderly population, extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and limited therapies for this diarrheal disease. Because treatment options currently available for C. difficile infection have some drawbacks, including cost, promotion of resistance, and selectivity problems, new agents are urgently needed to address these challenges. This review article focuses on two parts: the first part summarizes current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection; the second part reviews newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years and are in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Antibiotics are divided into natural product inspired and synthetic small molecule compounds that may have the potential to be more efficacious than currently approved treatments. This includes potency, selectivity, reduced cytotoxicity, and novel modes of action to prevent resistance.
Clinical laboratory diagnostic capabilities are needed to guide health and medical care of astronauts during long-duration space missions. Clinical laboratory diagnostics, as defined for medical care on Earth, offers a model for space capabilities. Interpretation of laboratory results for health and medical care of humans in space requires knowledge of specific physiological adaptations that occur, primarily because of the absence of gravity, and how these adaptations affect reference values. Limited data from American and Russian missions have indicated shifts of intra- and extracellular fluids and electrolytes, changes in hormone concentrations related to fluid shifts and stresses of the missions, reductions in bone and muscle mass, and a blunting of the cellular immune response. These changes could increase susceptibility to space-related illness or injury during a mission and after return to Earth. We review physiological adaptations and the risk of medical problems that occur during space missions. We describe the need for laboratory diagnostics as a part of health and medical care in space, and how this capability might be delivered. PMID:8419055
Summary Objective To determine the normal haematological and immunological reference intervals for healthy Tanzanian children. Methods We analysed data from 655 HIV-seronegative, healthy children from 1 month to 18 years of age from the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania for this cross-sectional study. Median and 95% reference ranges were determined for haematological and immunological parameters and analysed by age cohorts, and by gender for adolescents. Results Median haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) for all age groups were higher than established East African reference intervals. Compared to U.S. intervals, reference ranges encompassed lower values for Hb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume, and platelets. Applying the U.S. National Institute of Health Division of AIDS (DAIDS) adverse event grading criteria commonly used in clinical trials to the reference range participants, 128 (21%) of 619 children would be classified as having an adverse event related to Hb level. CD4-positive T-lymphocyte absolute counts declined significantly with increasing age (P < 0.0001). For those aged under five years, CD4-positive T-lymphocyte percentages are lower than established developed country medians. Conclusions Country-specific reference ranges are needed for defining normal laboratory parameters among children in Africa. Knowledge of appropriate reference intervals is critical not only for providing optimal clinical care, but also for enrolling children in medical research. Knowledge of normal CD4-positive T-lymphocyte parameters in this population is especially important for guiding the practice of HIV medicine in Tanzania.
Buchanan, Ann M.; Muro, Florida J.; Gratz, Jean; Crump, John A.; Musyoka, Augustine M.; Sichangi, Moses W.; Morrissey, Anne B.; M'rimberia, Jane K.; Njau, Boniface N.; Msuya, Levina J.; Bartlett, John A.; Cunningham, Coleen K.
To face the economic pressures arising from the current socio-economic conjuncture, hospital laboratories are endangered by an increasing trend towards the outsourcing of clinical laboratory tests to external (mega-) laboratories. This should allow hospitals to meet their economic requirements, but with an increased risk of loss of medical quality and, mid- to long-term, loss of cost effectiveness of healthcare at the national level. To anticipate current developments (economical and technological) that inevitably will affect the future of laboratory medicine, hospital laboratories should be proactive and enhance efficiency, reduce costs by consolidation, integrate into regional networks, and form alliances or partnerships. To create additional value, the core competency of laboratory professionals must be refocused to provide medical knowledge services (consultative support to clinicians) related to in vitro diagnostic testing. To integrate cost-efficiency with medical quality, implementation of a matricial organization - operational vs. biomedical level - could be an interesting approach. This integrated structure should create total quality of laboratory testing, managing the entire medical diagnostic cycle from the pre-preanalytical to post-postanalytical phase. PMID:19663541
The course of 260 adults with haematological malignancies admitted to a medical intensive care unit was studied to evaluate the value of life support techniques and to research predictive factors. The overall in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) and hospital mortality rates were respectively 43% (113 patients) and 57% (148 patients). Among survivors, 64% (49 patients) were still alive
F. Brunet; J. J. Lanore; J. F. Dhainaut; F. Dreyfus; J. F. Vaxelaire; S. Nouira; T. Giraud; A. Armaganidis; J. F. Monsallier
In a cohort study, 40 pig finishing herds were selected twenty pig herds with a low and twenty pig herds with a high prevalence of several pathological lesions recorded at slaughter in a six?month period before the start of the study. Blood samples were taken from 20 pigs per herd at the end of the finishing period to investigate haematological
A. R. W. Elbers; G. H. M. Counotte; M. J. M. Tielen
This prospective longitudinal study investigated the progression of haematological changes in 32 transfused and 54 non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi over the 1st 6 days following diagnosis and treatment. The effect of patient age on the results of complete blood counts was determined. Haematology data were analysed at presentation and at 24 hours, 3 days and 6 days after presentation. Dogs were treated with diminazene aceturate at diagnosis and a blood transfusion was given if deemed clinically required. Mildly to moderately regenerative normocytic normochromic anaemia was observed in all dogs throughout the study period. Transfused dogs more often had an inflammatory leukogram at presentation and at 24 hours, than dogs that were not transfused. In dogs with a left shift, a concurrent normal or decreased segmented neutrophil count was found more commonly than neutrophilia. Severe thrombocytopenia that resolved within a week was common. Blood transfusion alleviated the anaemia, but had no significant effect on white blood cell or platelet responses. Blood cell responses were not significantly influenced by age. In conclusion, the red blood cell and white blood cell responses were less than expected in dogs with babesiosis, given the degree of anaemia and inflammation present. The magnitude of thrombocytopenia and rapid return of the platelet count to normal suggested a possible immune-mediated mechanism for the thrombocytopenia. PMID:22332296
Scheepers, E; Leisewitz, A L; Thompson, P N; Christopher, M M
The Sysmex XS-1000i is a compact new, fully automated haematology analyser, designed to generate complete blood counts with five-part leucocyte differential. In our study, a Sysmex XS-1000i instrument was evaluated according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) guidelines. Precision, carry-over and linearity were determined. Using a total of 700 patient samples, results from the Sysmex XS-1000i were compared with those from a Sysmex XE-2100, an Abbott Cell Dyn 4000 and the manual reference leucocyte differential. Using quality control material, total and within-run imprecision was less than 3% except for platelets. The system demonstrated good linearity over the entire reporting range and no carry-over (<0.5%). The Sysmex XS-1000i showed good correlation with XE-2100, CD-4000 and the manual reference leucocyte differential. Overall flagging sensitivity and specificity were 91% and 48%, respectively. In conclusion, the Sysmex XS-1000i demonstrated good analytical performance, is able to generate a complete blood count with five-part differential on low blood volumes and has considerable back-up capacity. PMID:18616754
The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A 'bench-to-bedside and back' attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345
Cytogenetics has played a pivotal role in haematological malignancy, both as an aid to diagnosis and in identifying recurrent\\u000a chromosomal rearrangements, an essential prerequisite to identifying genes involved in leukaemia and lymphoma pathogenesis.\\u000a In the late 1980s, a series of technologies based around fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) revolutionised the field.\\u000a Interphase FISH, multiplex-FISH (M-FISH, SKY) and comparative genomic hybridisation
Haematological changes due to Trypanosoma evansi infection were studied in 12 Barbari male goats of 6–9 months of age. These were divided in two groups, A and B, consisting of eight infected and four control animals, respectively. The animals were kept in strict hygienic conditions and on a zero grazing schedule. Animals of group A were exposed to 1×106T. evansi
D. K. Sharma; Chauhan; V. K. Saxena; R. D. Agrawal
MicroRNAs are a recently discovered class of small ( approximately 22nt) endogenously expressed translational-repressor RNAs that play key roles in many cellular pathways and whose aberrant expression appears to be a common feature of malignancy. MicroRNAs are expressed in specific haematological cell types and play important regulatory roles in early haematopoietic differentiation, erythropoiesis, granulocytosis, megakaryocytosis and lymphoid development. Additionally, there is an emerging body of research to suggest that microRNAs play an important role in the pathology of haematological malignancies. MicroRNAs have been found to act as both tumour suppressor molecules [e.g. MIRN15A (miR-15a), MIRN16-1 (miR-16-1)] in leukaemias and have oncogenic properties [e.g. MIRN155 (miR-155) and MIRN17-92 (miR-17-miR-92) cluster] in lymphomas. This review discusses the rapidly accumulating research that points to the major role microRNAs play in both haematopoiesis and haematological malignancy. PMID:17539773
This article reports on the performance of two "dry" chemistry devices, (Reflotron, Roche Diagnostics and Vitros, Johnson & Johnson) and compared them with classical "wet" chemistry analysers in four commercially produced quality assessment samples (Roche PNU and PPU and Seronorm Human and Human High Controls) sent repeatedly over a 12-month observation period. Eleven analytes (including five enzymes) were studied, eight of which had target values set by reference method procedures. The results showed that both devices gave comparative results for the same sample sent in different EQA-surveys. Statistically significant differences which occurred were due to the high precision of measurement with a minimal shift in the measured concentrations. They had no clinical relevance in interpretation of results. Comparisons between "dry" and "wet" chemistry results for the same analyte were almost always statistically significantly different and often large enough to influence the clinical interpretation of results. Examples here were glucose and uric acid measured with the Reflotron and compared with other Roche devices (Cobas, Hitachi). The Vitros showed deviant values for urea and creatinine, when compared with other measuring devices using liquid reagents. Differences seen were constant over time, but must be seen in context with the matrices of the samples sent. The results show the long term stability of both reagents and test kits, a necessary prerequisite for long-term controlling of precision and indirectly accuracy of patient measurements. PMID:19097494
This sixteenth biannual report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group highlights recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of hemato-oncology, with special focus on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The report covers the publication period June 2012 to July 2013. Trials are selected regarding their methodology and implication for clinical practice. Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE using a broad search filter that covers all topics in hemato-oncology combined with a highly sensitive search filter for randomized trials (Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions). Four RCTs are presented in detail, followed by two further RCTs of high importance in a short version. The report is finalized with an overview of new and updated Cochrane Reviews. PMID:25031306
The role that educational preparation may play in the delivery of care and the development of expertise is a point of some debate [Manley, K., Garbett, R., 2000. Paying Peter and Paul reconciling concepts of expertise with competency for a clinical career structure. Journal of Clinical Nursing 9 (3), 347; King, L., Macleod Clark, J., 2002. Intuition and the development of expertise in surgical ward and intensive care nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 37(4), 322-329; Bonner, A., 2003. Recognition of expertise: an important concept in the acquisition of nephrology nursing expertise. Nursing & Health Sciences Journal 5, 123-131; Dunphy, B.C., Williamson, S.L., 2004. In pursuit of expertise. Advances in Health Sciences Education 9, 107-127]. Though education is a concept that may be universally valued, it may be more difficult to clearly discern the significance it has for practitioners who are developing their expertise. This research project employed an interpretive phenomenological design to explore the perceptions of specialist haematology nursing staff on the extent to which specialist education contributes to care delivery and the development of expert practice. A non-representative purposive sample of qualified nurses who had undertaken specialist education in haemopoiesis and work in specialist haematology participated in a focus group and semi-structured interviews. The report concludes that, for these specialist practitioners, specialist educational input had a beneficial impact on their levels of knowledge and confidence. Further to this, involvement in higher education had enabled them to become more active in the learning process. Perhaps the key finding of the study was the assertion by respondents that specialist educational input had enabled them to develop their specialist practice to a level that experience alone could not achieve. PMID:17126955
Early detection and therapy of haematological abnormalities and/or diseases may improve the prognosis of metabolic disorders. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the frequency and types of haematological abnormalities in children[-31pc] with various inherited metabolic disorders. The study group comprised 46 children with metabolic disorders who were followed at the Pediatric Metabolism Unit and were referred to the Pediatric Hematology Unit for evaluation of anaemia between June 2000 and 2005. The mean age of the children was 55.2 +/- 64.8 months at haematological evaluation (range 1 month-18 years, median 22.0 months); 16 were female and 30 were male. Of these 46 patients with anaemia, 25 of (54.3%) had anaemia of chronic disease (ACD), 9 (19.6%) had iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA), 7 (15.2%) had megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B(12) deficiency, 3 (6.5%) had chronic haemolytic anaemia, 2 (4.3%) had autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, 1 had beta-thalassaemia major, and 1 had hereditary spherocytosis. In addition to the anaemia, bicytopenia or pancytopenia was found in 8 of 46 children (17.4%). The study indicated that in organic acidaemias including methylmalonic acidaemia, propionic acidaemia, isovaleric acidaemia, and argininosuccinic acidaemia, the majority of patients had ACD (75%), which was followed by vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia and IDA (p < 0.001). In PKU, both nutritional anaemias and ACD were present at about same frequency: 46.7% and 40%, respectively (p > 0.05). This study suggested that congenital anaemias such as hereditary spherocytosis or thalassaemias should be kept in mind as a coexisting haematological diseases in young patients with inborn errors of metabolism. In conclusion, ACD and nutritional anaemias are the most prevalent anaemias seen in patients with inborn errors of metabolism. Early detection of the disease, early administration of specific diet, and close monitoring of the patients are very important factors to prevent the development of haematological diseases in patients with inborn errors of metabolism. PMID:16906472
The Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology (http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org) is a peer-reviewed internet journal/encyclopaedia/database focused on genes implicated in cancer, cytogenetics and clinical entities in cancer and cancer-prone hereditary diseases. The main goal of the Atlas is to provide review articles that describe complementary topics, namely, genes, genetic abnormalities, histopathology, clinical diagnoses and a large iconography. This description, which was historically based on karyotypic abnormalities and in situ hybridization (fluorescence in situ hybridization) techniques, now benefits from comparative genomic hybridization and massive sequencing, uncovering a tremendous amount of genetic rearrangements. As the Atlas combines different types of information (genes, genetic abnormalities, histopathology, clinical diagnoses and external links), its content is currently unique. The Atlas is a cognitive tool for fundamental and clinical research and has developed into an encyclopaedic work. In clinical practice, it contributes to the cytogenetic diagnosis and may guide treatment decision making, particularly regarding rare diseases (because they are numerous and are frequently encountered). Readers as well as the authors of the Atlas are researchers and/or clinicians.
Sub-lethal concentrations of zinc administered to freshwater teleost, Channa punctatus for a period of 135 days brought about significant haematological alterations. The RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit content progressively decreased while WBC count, MCV, MCH and MCHC increased. Alterations in the haematological parameters were dose and duration dependent and can thus serve as a useful physiological index. PMID:16334279
Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinicalchemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...
Invasive fungal disease (IFD), predominantly aspergillosis, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, especially those with haematological malignancies and recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There has been a great deal of scientific debate as to the effectiveness of antifungal prophylaxis in preventing infection in different patient groups and in which patients it is an appropriate management option. Deciding on an appropriate prophylaxis regimen for IFD is challenging as the incidence varies among different patient groups, due to the varied nature of their underlying haematological disease, and in different regions and centres. Attempts have been made to define risk factors and include them in treatment protocols. Impaired immune status of the patient, especially neutropenia, is a key risk factor for IFD and can sometimes be related to specific polymorphisms of genes controlling innate immunity. Risk factors also vary according to the type of fungal pathogen. Consequently, prophylaxis needs to be tailored to individual patient groups. Furthermore, the choice of antifungal agent for prophylaxis depends on the potential for drug-drug interactions with the patients' concomitant medications. Additional challenges are optimal timing of antifungal prophylaxis, when to change from prophylaxis to antifungal treatment and how to prevent recurrence of IFD. This article considers the use of antifungal prophylaxis for patients at risk of IFD in daily clinical practice, with clinical profiles that may be distinct from those covered by guidelines, and aims to provide practical advice for treatment of these patient groups. PMID:24155144
Limited information exists on serum biochemistry and haematology of the European wild boar, and few correlations have been found between parasitic burden and clinical parameters in this species. Naturally infected wild boars were experimentally treated to study the effect of nematode parasites and ivermectin treatment on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin reaction and haematological and serum biochemical parameters. White blood cells decreased
Jorge R. López-Olvera; Ursula Höfle; Joaquín Vicente; Isabel G. Fernández-de-Mera; Christian Gortázar
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies.
Background The haematological profile of the pregnant woman has an impact on the outcome of the pregnancy. Published guidelines indicate acceptable levels for haematological indices in pregnancy but they are population specific. Indicators of haemoglobin concentration are the most commonly utilized of the indices. These published international norms are used across populations, however, there is no evidence confirming their applicability to a population such as the Jamaican pregnant woman. This study was therefore undertaken with the intent of documenting the haematological profile of pregnant primigravid Jamaican women and comparing these to the established norms to determine whether the norms apply or whether there was a need to establish local norms. Methods This was a longitudinal study done on a cohort of 157 healthy primigravid women ages 15 to 25 and without anaemia, and who were recruited from the antenatal clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. The haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count, red blood cell count and platelet count were measured on samples of blood obtained from each consenting participant during each of the three trimesters. The results were analysed using SPSS for windows (Version 11) and the data expressed as means ± S.D. Means were compared using the student's paired t-test. Comparison was then made with the international norms as recommended by the United States Center for Disease Control (1989). Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the University Hospital of the West Indies/University of the West Indies Ethics Committee. Results The results showed changes by trimester in all measured variables. For most of the indices the changes achieved levels of significance across trimesters. These changes were however in keeping with the expected physiological response in pregnancy and the values were similar to the published international norms. Conclusion The findings suggest that the international norms for haematological indices in pregnancy are applicable across populations and to the pregnant Jamaican primigravid woman. This finding may be reassuring to others with a similar population and stage of development as Jamaica.
James, Tameika R; Reid, Harvey L; Mullings, Anthony M
Introduction: The majority of human sarcomas, particularly soft tissue sarcomas, are relatively resistant to traditional cytotoxic therapies. The proof-of-concept study by Ray-Coquard et al., using the Nutlin human double minute (HDM)2-binding antagonist RG7112, has recently opened a new chapter in the molecular targeting of human sarcomas. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the challenges and prospective remedies for minimizing the significant haematological toxicities of the cis-imidazole Nutlin HDM2-binding antagonists. Furthermore, they also chart the future direction of the development of p53-reactivating (p53-RA) drugs in 12q13-15 amplicon sarcomas and as potential chemopreventative therapies against sarcomagenesis in germ line mutated TP53 carriers. Drawing lessons from the therapeutic use of Imatinib in gastrointestinal tumours, the authors predict the potential pitfalls, which may lie in ahead for the future clinical development of p53-RA agents, as well as discussing potential non-invasive methods to identify the development of drug resistance. Expert opinion: Medicinal chemistry strategies, based on structure-based drug design, are required to re-engineer cis-imidazoline Nutlin HDM2-binding antagonists into less haematologically toxic drugs. In silico modelling is also required to predict toxicities of other p53-RA drugs at a much earlier stage in drug development. Whether p53-RA drugs will be therapeutically effective as a monotherapy remains to be determined. PMID:24579771
Biswas, Swethajit; Killick, Emma; Jochemsen, Aart G; Lunec, John
Median values and confidence intervals for hematology and serum and plasma chemistry parameters were established for 29 male and female healthy New Guinea snapping turtles (Elseya novaeguineae) held at 24.5 degrees C and 30.0 degrees C. Creatine kinase, albumin, potassium, and phosphorus values were significantly higher at 24.5 degrees C than at 30.0 degrees C. Glucose, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, total carbon dioxide, and chloride values were significantly higher at 30.0 degrees C than at 24.5 degrees C. Cholesterol and calcium values were significantly higher in females than in males. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and bilirubin were significantly higher in males than in females, and bile acid values were significantly higher in serum than in plasma. PMID:9523632
Two commonly used berberine-containing Chinese herbs, Rhizoma coptidis (RC) and Cortex phellodendri (CP), have been banned in Singapore for the past three decades due to implication of berberine in aggravating jaundice and kernicterus in neonates with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Here we conducted a single arm, phase I/II clinical study on Chinese herbal medicine for patients with chronic cytopenic haematological conditions and we analysed a subset of 20 patients who also had RC, CP or both in their herbal concoction. We found no organ toxicity or electrolyte imbalance in these 20 patients where RC was administered for 1055 patient-days and CP for 1252 patient-days. In three patients with thalassemia intermedia, transient elevation in serum bilirubin level was observed but this was not associated with any aggravation of anaemia or liver dysfunction. A review of the literature found conflicting evidence of varying levels either supporting or refuting the allegation of neonatal jaundice and kernicterus caused by berberine. There were, however, very few clinical reports of adverse reaction attributable to RC or CP in oral TCM concoction. We conclude that based on traditional dosage and indication, the use of RC and CP in oral concoction is safe. PMID:22002596
Our objective was to evaluate diagnostic tools for the detection of Inclusion Body Disease (IBD) in bold snakes. The aetiology of IBD is unknown, and the disease has non-specific clinical signs, hence there is a need for a clinically-applicable, specific diagnostic method. We examined blood smears and liver biopsies from 26 bold snakes (17 boas and nine pythons; some of which were suspected of having IBD) for the presence of characteristic inclusion bodies. We used haematology, histology and electron microscopy to characterise samples as IBD-positive or -negative. Our results indicate that examination of a simple blood smear is sufficient to diagnose IBD in boas. Inclusion bodies in lymphocytes, erythrocytes and thrombocytes were observed. In both, boas and pythons, we detected inclusion bodies within hepatocytes. We demonstrated also that IBD was more common in boas than in pythons: only samples from two Ball Pythons (Python regius) tested positive, whereas no other Pythonidae were positive. We consider that blood smears represents a rapid, non-invasive technique for detection of IBD. PMID:23045804
This paper reviews the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties of Echinacea species used medicinally. The Echinacea species Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea have a long history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, particularly infections, and today echinacea products are among the best-selling herbal preparations in several developed countries. Modern interest in echinacea is focused on its immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. The chemistry of Echinacea species is well documented, and several groups of constituents, including alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives, are considered important for activity. There are, however, differences in the constituent profile of the three species. Commercial echinacea samples and marketed echinacea products may contain one or more of the three species, and analysis of samples of raw material and products has shown that some do not meet recognized standards for pharmaceutical quality. Evidence from preclinical studies supports some of the traditional and modern uses for echinacea, particularly the reputed immunostimulant (or immunomodulatory) properties. Several, but not all, clinical trials of echinacea preparations have reported effects superior to those of placebo in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. However, evidence of efficacy is not definitive as studies have included different patient groups and tested various different preparations and dosage regimens of echinacea. On the basis of the available limited safety data, echinacea appears to be well tolerated. However, further investigation and surveillance are required to establish the safety profiles of different echinacea preparations. Safety issues include the possibility of allergic reactions, the use of echinacea by patients with autoimmune diseases and the potential for echinacea preparations to interact with conventional medicines. PMID:16102249
Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A; Gibbons, Simon; Phillipson, J David
Autophagy is a cellular process that maintains the homeostasis of the normal cell. It not only allows for cell survival in times of metabolic stress with nutrient recycling but also is able to lead to cell death when required. During malignant transformation the cell is able to proliferate and survive. This is due to altered cell metabolism and the presence of altered genetic changes that maintain the cell survival. Metabolism was considered an innocent bystander that was a consequence of the increased nutrient requirement for the survival and proliferation of haematological malignancies. The interdependency of metabolism and cellular mechanisms such as autophagy are becoming more evident and important. This interdependence contributes to increased cancer progression and drug resistance. In this paper we aim to discuss autophagy, how it pertains to metabolism in the context of hematologic malignancies, and the implications for therapy.
A prospective study was undertaken to establish the haematological and haemorheological changes associated with long standing cigarette smoking in 20 heavy smokers and to assess whether any such changes were reversible after smoking was stopped. Highly significant differences were observed in whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, plasma fibrinogen concentrations, packed cell volume, and carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations between smokers and non-smokers. Ten of the subjects were followed up for two weeks after stopping smoking by which time whole blood viscosity and carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations had improved significantly and indications of improvement could be seen in all other measurements. Two of these subjects were further followed up for two months when all the measured variables were comparable with those in non-smokers. No correlation could be established between carboxyhaemoglobin concentration and any of the other variables. Although patients' compliance may be difficult to obtain, further prospective studies would be required to confirm our findings.
Background Several observational studies have shown that statin use may modify the risk of haematological malignancies. To quantify the association between statin use and risk for haematological malignancies, we performed a detailed meta-analysis of published studies regarding this subject. Methods We conducted a systematic search of multiple databases including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database up to July 2013. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results A total of 20 eligible studies (ten case-control studies, four cohort studies, and six RCTs) reporting 1,139,584 subjects and 15,297 haematological malignancies cases were included. Meta-analysis showed that statin use was associated with a statistically significant 19% reduction in haematological malignancies incidence (RR?=?0.81, 95% CI [0.70, 0.92]). During subgroup analyses, statin use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of haematological malignancies among observational studies (RR?=?0.79, 95% CI [0.67, 0.93]), but not among RCTs (RR?=?0.92, 95% CI [0.77, 1.09]). Conclusions Based on this comprehensive meta-analysis, statin use may have chemopreventive effects against haematological malignancies. More studies, especially definitive, randomized chemoprevention trials are needed to confirm this association.
Describes experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of chemistry to be used in chemistry courses of secondary schools. Three experiments concerning differential thermal analysis are among these notes presented. (HM)
Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)
Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)
AIMS--To determine the optimal working conditions of the alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase (APAAP) method to establish a specific and sensitive assay for the detection of low numbers of MDR positive cells in patients with hematological malignancies. METHODS--Three monoclonal antibodies (C-219, JSB-1, MRK-16) were used for the detection of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in cell lines and in samples from 43 patients with haematological malignancies. The results of the APAAP method were compared with western blotting for specificity and sensitivity. RESULTS--Excellent correlation was obtained between optimised APAAP and western blotting, except in the case of multiple myeloma. JSB-1 seemed to be the more useful monoclonal antibody for the APAAP which was more sensitive than western blotting in its ability to detect single P-gp positive cells. CONCLUSIONS--Methods for P-gp detection, as defined by multidrug resistant (MDR) cell lines, are not necessarily optimal and specific for clinical samples and may lead to higher false positive and negative results, according to the conditions and the monoclonal antibodies used. Images
Gala, J L; McLachlan, J M; Bell, D R; Michaux, J L; Ma, D D
Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is
R. H. Logan, an chemistry instructor at North Lake College, created this introduction to organic chemistry. The introduction covers a eight types of organic compounds, including Alkanes, Alkyl Halides, and Acyl Compounds (forthcoming); Conformational Analysis and Stereoisomerism; and Instrumental Analysis of Organic Compounds, as well an extensive lesson in general chemistry.
Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, and deoxynivalenol (DON), a prevalent Fusarium-derived contaminant of cereal grains, are each reported to have detrimental effects on the liver. A potentiating toxic effect of the combined exposure was reported previously in a mouse model and hepatocytes in vitro, but not in swine as the most DON-susceptible species. Thus, pigs were fed either a control diet (CON) or a Fusarium contaminated diet (DON, 3.1mg DON/kg diet) for 37 days. At day 37 control pigs were infused for 1h either with physiological saline (CON_CON), 100?g/kg BW DON (CON_DON), 7.5?g/kg BW LPS (CON_LPS), or both toxins (CON_DON/LPS) and Fusarium-pigs with saline (DON_CON) or 7.5?g/kg BW LPS (DON_LPS). Blood samples were taken before and after infusion (-30, +30, +60, +120, and +180min) for clinical blood chemistry. Pigs were sacrificed at +195min and liver histopathology was performed. LPS resulted in higher relative liver weight (p<0.05), portal, periportal and acinar inflammation (p<0.05), haemorrhage (p<0.01) and pathological bilirubin levels (CON_CON 1.0?mol/L vs. CON_LPS 5.4?mol/L, CON_DON/LPS 8.3?mol/L; p<0.001). DON feeding alleviated effects of LPS infusion on histopathology and blood chemistry to control levels, whereas DON infusion alone had no impact. PMID:23123154
Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.
Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence. PMID:20636064
Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.
This is a 15-session course on the technologies, techniques, and tools of computational chemistry. By using the same computational tools as research computational chemists, educators will have the opportunity to study chemistry in a manner very different than traditional teaching and education in chemistry.
A secondary reference material for lipoprotein(a) is required to standardize the measurement of lipoprotein(a) in clinical laboratories worldwide. Towards this aim, the International Federation of ClinicalChemistry Working Group for the Standardization of Lipoprotein(a) Assays has initiated a standardization project involving a total of 33 diagnostic company and clinicalchemistry laboratories from 12 countries. In Phase 1, the analytical performance of 40 lipoprotein(a) assay systems was evaluated by testing sera and manufactured lipoprotein(a) calibrator materials for precision, linearity, and parallelism. Twenty test systems were nonoptimized according to the results for a pooled serum, which tested nonlinear in 16 systems and imprecise in 4. Acceptable analytical properties and harmonization of lipoprotein(a) values were shown by some commercial calibrators, suggesting their possible use as reference materials. This study highlights the problems that currently occur for lipoprotein(a) measurement in existing assay systems. PMID:9702949
Tate, J R; Rifai, N; Berg, K; Couderc, R; Dati, F; Kostner, G M; Sakurabayashi, I; Steinmetz, A
This study was designed to determine the haematological and biochemical profiles of growing Yankasa rams fed sorghum stover supplemented with Sun-Dried Poultry Droppings diets (SDPD). Poultry dropping is a good source of protein supplement. Its high nitrogen content suggests feeding it to ruminant would be an excellent avenue to convert nutrients in the waste into animal products. But a major challenge for it utilization is the danger of pathogenic organisms. Sun-drying of the droppings can render the waste free of pathogens. Thirty growing Yankasa rams aged 9-12 months, weighing 11.5-15.5 kg were randomly divided into five groups (3 in each) and assigned to five experimental diets T1-T5 which contained 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% SDPD. Blood samples were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. Results showed that White Blood Cell (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) were significantly influenced by Dried Poultry Droppings based diets (DPD). Their values were WBC, 10.6, 12.9, 9.5, 7.0 and 10.7 L(-1), Hb, 8.6, 9.3, 8.6, 8.4 and 9.7 g dL(-1) and PCV, 22.9, 29.4, 27.1, 23.6 and 21.5%, respectively. Additionally, urea, sodium and total protein were significantly influenced by treatment diet. Their values were urea, 6.1, 6.3, 6.8, 6.9 and 8.1 mg dL(-1), sodium, 102.9, 128.8, 129.2, 130.7 and 130.7 mmol L(-1). total protein, 6.3, 6.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 7.1 g dL(-1). Most haematological and biochemical values obtained were within the normal range for sheep. SDPS diet can satisfactorily supplement sorghum stover without any deleterious effect on the blood chemistry and haematological profile of growing Yankasa rams. PMID:24517007
The haematological mechanisms in the course of liver abscess formation were evaluated. They were examined by employing viable cells of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme in comparison with their endotoxins. Whole cell infection with F.n. necrophorum led to neutrophilia and to a concomitant monocytosis in parallel with those responses induced by the in vivo injection of its endotoxin. Viable infection with F.n. funduliforme was characterized by a sustained endotoxin-related monocytosis against neutropenia. The stimulatory impact of endotoxin on monocytes when released from a viable F.n. funduliforme infection suggested an inherently peculiar mechanism which differed from the induction of both neutrophilia and monocytosis when F.n. funduliforme endotoxin was administered alone. The neutrophilic inducing capacity of the F.n. necrophorum endotoxin was equally illustrated by its positive chemotactic effect on polymorphonuclear neutrophils in vitro. The data presented here emphasize the virulence of F.n. necrophorum viewed in reference to changes in leucocyte trafficking and as complemented by a relatively high endotoxin content. PMID:10817519
Objective. Vaccinations are the most important tool to prevent infectious diseases. Chemotherapy-induced immune depression may impact the efficacy of vaccinations in children. Patients and Methods. A panel of experts of the supportive care working group of the Italian Association Paediatric Haematology Oncology (AIEOP) addressed this issue by guidelines on vaccinations in paediatric cancer patients. The literature published between 1980 and 2013 was reviewed. Results and Conclusion. During intensive chemotherapy, vaccination turned out to be effective for hepatitis A and B, whilst vaccinations with toxoid, protein subunits, or bacterial antigens should be postponed to the less intensive phases, to achieve an adequate immune response. Apart from varicella, the administration of live-attenuated-virus vaccines is not recommended during this phase. Family members should remain on recommended vaccination schedules, including toxoid, inactivated vaccine (also poliomyelitis), and live-attenuated vaccines (varicella, measles, mumps, and rubella). By the time of completion of chemotherapy, insufficient serum antibody levels for vaccine-preventable diseases have been reported, while immunological memory appears to be preserved. Once immunological recovery is completed, usually after 6 months, response to booster or vaccination is generally good and allows patients to be protected and also to contribute to herd immunity.
Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte counts, erythrocyte indices, serum iron, iron binding capacities, total and differential leucocyte counts, platelet counts, total plasma protein, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and icterus index values were determined at 14 different ages in eight Thoroughbred and 14 Quarterhorse foals during the first year of life. Absolute neutrophil numbers in blood decreased and lymphocyte numbers increased during the first months. Absolute eosinophil numbers tended to increase until three months old. Haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume decreased significantly during the first two weeks and generally stayed in the lower portion of adult horse normal ranges during the remainder of the first year. Mean cell volume decreased to minimum values at approximately four months and then gradually increased. Serum iron was high at birth and decreased rapidly to a minimum at three days old. Total iron-binding capacity increased to a maximum at one month. Serum haptoglobin was generally within the adult normal range at birth. A moderate, but significant, decrease occurred at one week old. Fibrinogen concentration increased to a maximum at five months. Icterus index values decreased rapidly during the first two weeks of life. Minor changes occurred in other parameters measured. Possible causes for the various changes in haematological parameters are discussed. PMID:6479131
Harvey, J W; Asquith, R L; McNulty, P K; Kivipelto, J; Bauer, J E
The incidence and pattern of liver involvement in 127 liver specimens (2 biopsy and 125 autopsy specimens) from cases of acute myelogenous leukaemia (25), chronic myelogenous leukaemia (7), acute lymphatic leukaemia (5), chronic lymphatic leukaemia (9), multiple myeloma (25), low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (25), high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (24) and myeloproliferative diseases (7) were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically. Liver infiltration was found frequently in chronic leukaemia and myeloproliferative diseases (80-100%), acute leukaemia (60-70%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (50-60%), but was significantly less common in multiple myeloma (32%) than in any of the other diagnostic groups. Hepatomegaly was found in over 50% of cases in all the diagnostic groups, but was not always associated with infiltration. Diffuse, non-destructive infiltration was most common: in acute myelogenous leukaemia, both the portal triads and sinusoids were usually involved; in chronic myelogenous leukaemia, multiple myeloma and myeloproliferative diseases, infiltration was mainly sinusoidal; and in lymphatic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma the portal triads were mainly involved. Nodular infiltration was seen in multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The primary tumours and liver infiltrates generally exhibited the same immunophenotype, although reactivity with the antibody L26 (CD20) was only found in the primary lesion in many high-grade B-cell lymphomas. Thus, liver involvement is common in haematological malignancies, but the incidence and pattern of infiltration vary amongst the different types. PMID:9842637
Walz-Mattmüller, R; Horny, H P; Ruck, P; Kaiserling, E
Twenty five biochemical and haematological measurements were determined on nonfasting blood and serum samples collected between 9 am and 7 pm from a representative group of 7685 British middle-aged men. Most measurements showed significant diurnal variations, but only for bilirubin, phosphate, and triglyceride did time of day account for more than 5% of the between subject variance. Serum bilirubin concentrations showed a pronounced downward trend in the afternoon, the mean value after 6 pm being 30% lower than the mean value in the morning. Mean serum triglyceride and phosphate concentrations increased steadily through the day. Mean concentrations of potassium, haemoglobin, and haematocrit and red cell count were higher in the morning, while urea and creatinine concentrations and white cell count had higher means in the afternoon. Glucose showed a pattern consistent with short term response to meals. The effects of these diurnal trends on routine use of biochemical tests needs careful consideration, and a greater understanding of their biological mechanisms is required. PMID:2921359
Pocock, S J; Ashby, D; Shaper, A G; Walker, M; Broughton, P M
Clinical, biochemical, haematological and erythrokinetic studies were performed on 63 adult males with prolonged lead exposure. Their most common symptoms and findings were abdominal pain (62%), gingival lead lines (48%), headache and/or dizziness (33%), ...
Y. F. Hwang G. T. Strickland N. K. Chang W. M. Beckner R. Q. Blackwell
The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment.
The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469
UK National External Quality Assessment Service surveys indicate continuing problems in malaria diagnosis: inaccurate calculation of parasitaemia or failure to estimate it altogether, difficulty distinguishing Plasmodium vivax from P. ovale, reporting malaria parasites when none were present and misidentification of P. falciparum as another species still occur. Therefore, the British Committee for Standards in Haematology Guidelines for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria have been revised. They are intended for use in the UK but may also prove useful in other non-endemic areas. Routine use of thick and thin films is advised for malaria diagnosis. Thick films should be stained using Giemsa or Field stain. Thin films should be stained with Giemsa stain or Leishman stain. Thick films should be examined by two observers, each viewing a minimum of 200 high power fields. If thick films are positive, the species should be determined by examination of a thin film. In the case of P. falciparum or P. knowlesi infection, the percentage of parasitized cells or the number of parasites per microlitre (/?l) should be estimated and reported. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malarial antigen cannot replace microscopy but are indicated as a supplementary test when malaria diagnosis is performed by relatively inexperienced staff. Malaria RDTs are negative in babesiosis. PMID:24219330
Bailey, J Wendi; Williams, John; Bain, Barbara J; Parker-Williams, John; Chiodini, Peter L
Context.- Systems-based practice (SBP) is 1 of 6 core competencies required in all resident training programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Reliable methods of assessing resident competency in SBP have not been described in the medical literature. Objective.- To develop and validate an analytic grading rubric to assess pathology residents' analyses of SBP problems in clinicalchemistry. Design.- Residents were assigned an SBP project based upon unmet clinical needs in the clinicalchemistry laboratories. Using an iterative method, we created an analytic grading rubric based on critical thinking principles. Four faculty raters used the SBP project evaluation rubric to independently grade 11 residents' projects during their clinicalchemistry rotations. Interrater reliability and Cronbach ? were calculated to determine the reliability and validity of the rubric. Project mean scores and range were also assessed to determine whether the rubric differentiated resident critical thinking skills related to the SBP projects. Results.- Overall project scores ranged from 6.56 to 16.50 out of a possible 20 points. Cronbach ? ranged from 0.91 to 0.96, indicating that the 4 rubric categories were internally consistent without significant overlap. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.63 to 0.81, indicating moderate to strong interrater reliability. Conclusions.- We report development and statistical analysis of a novel SBP project evaluation rubric. The results indicate the rubric can be used to reliably assess pathology residents' critical thinking skills in SBP. PMID:24878020
Vitek, Carolyn R; Dale, Jane C; Homburger, Henry A; Bryant, Sandra C; Saenger, Amy K; Karon, Brad S
After a brief introduction on the chemistry of indazoles in general, the most important clinically used drugs of this series, i.e. benzydamine, bendazac and its salts and esters, are mentioned. The possible synthetic processes for benzydamine are then reviewed and any possible occurring by-products and impurities, including their quantitative limits, are discussed. PMID:3899968
Maternal HIV-1 status and antiretroviral drug exposure may influence the haematological profiles of infants. We recruited infants from 118 uninfected control women and from 483 HIV-1 infected women who received no antiretroviral drugs (n=28), or received single-dose Nevirapine (sdNVP) (n=424) or triple-drug combination therapy (n=31) to reduce HIV-1 transmission. Blood was drawn from infants within 24 hours of delivery or 6-12 weeks post-delivery and full blood counts performed using a fully automated AcT-5-diff haematology analyser and reference controls. Exposed uninfected (EU; no NVP) differed from control infants only in having lower basophil counts and percentages. In all infant groups, leukocyte profiles showed characteristic quantitative changes with age in the first 6 weeks of life. HIV-1 infected infants displayed by 6 weeks elevations in white blood cells, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil counts, and monocyte and basophil percentages, when compared to EU infants. At birth EU NVP-treated infants exhibited elevated monocyte percentages and counts and basophil counts that did not persist at 6 weeks. Interestingly, EU newborns of mothers with high CD4 counts (> 500 cells/?l) that had taken sdNVP had significantly elevated white blood cell, monocyte and basophil counts when compared to newborn infants of mothers with similar CD4 counts that had not taken sdNVP; this was not evident in infants of mothers with CD4 counts <200 cells/?l. These previously undescribed features may affect immune response capability in early life and clinical consequences of such changes need to be further investigated.
The understanding of pathological processes is based on the comparison between physiological and pathological conditions, and transcriptomic analysis has been extensively applied to various diseases for this purpose. However, the way in which the transcriptomic data of pathological cells relate to the transcriptomes of normal cellular counterparts has not been fully explored, and may provide new and unbiased insights into the mechanisms of these diseases. To achieve this, it is necessary to develop a method to simultaneously analyse components across different levels, namely genes, normal cells, and diseases. Here we propose a multidimensional method that visualises the cross-level relationships between these components at three different levels based on transcriptomic data of physiological and pathological processes, by adapting Canonical Correspondence Analysis, which was developed in ecology and sociology, to microarray data (CCA on Microarray data, CCAM). Using CCAM, we have analysed transcriptomes of haematological disorders and those of normal haematopoietic cell differentiation. First, by analysing leukaemia data, CCAM successfully visualised known relationships between leukaemia subtypes and cellular differentiation, and their characteristic genes, which confirmed the relevance of CCAM. Next, by analysing transcriptomes of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), we have shown that CCAM was effective in both generating and testing hypotheses. CCAM showed that among MDS patients, high-risk patients had transcriptomes that were more similar to those of both haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEP) than low-risk patients, and provided a prognostic model. Collectively, CCAM reveals hidden relationships between pathological and physiological processes and gene expression, providing meaningful clinical insights into haematological diseases, and these could not be revealed by other univariate and multivariate methods. Furthermore, CCAM was effective in identifying candidate genes that are correlated with cellular phenotypes of interest. We expect that CCAM will benefit a wide range of medical fields. PMID:23301083
The effects of artificial photoperiod regimes on reproductive patterns have been studied in several species, as have haematological parameters. However, information on how artificial photoperiods may affect blood components is scarce, especially under field conditions. We have assessed the effects of constant light [long day (LD) photoperiod: 24 h (light):0 h (dark)] on haematological parameters of cultured rainbow trout in Chile
Ariel E. Valenzuela; Victor M. Silva; Alfredo E. Klempau
BACKGROUND: Several models for mortality prediction have been constructed for critically ill patients with haematological malignancies in recent years. These models have proven to be equally or more accurate in predicting hospital mortality in patients with haematological malignancies than ICU severity of illness scores such as the APACHE II or SAPS II 1. The objective of this study is to
T Verplancke; S Van Looy; D Benoit; S Vansteelandt; P Depuydt; F De Turck; J Decruyenaere
1. Basic haematological values in 34 animals of eight carnivorous species are reported. 2. In four Northern lynxs (Lynx lynx lynx), two male and two female animals, the mean values are given: erythrocyte counts 8.51 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.392/l, haemoglobin content 148.0 g/l and leukocyte count 7.92 X 10(9)/l. 3. In six male pumas (Puma concolor missolensis) the mean values estimated are: erythrocyte count 9.35 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.43/l, haemoglobin content 163.9 g/l and leukocyte count 7.73 X 10(9)/l. Individual values in one female puma are also given. 4. In six jaguars (Panthera onca), three male and three female animals, the mean values are given: erythrocyte count 8.27 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.37/l, haemoglobin content 137.1 g/l and leukocyte count 15.15 X 10(9)/l. 5. Only individual values are reported in one clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), in one leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), in one Corbett's tiger (Panthera tigris Corbetti) and in one Altaic tiger (Panthera tigris Altaica). 6. In four lions (Panthera leo leo), two male and two female animals, the mean estimated values are: erythrocyte count 10.14 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.462/l, haemoglobin content 159.0 g/l and leukocyte count 11.05 X 10(9)/l. In six female cheetahs (Acinonox jubatus jubatus) the mean values estimated are: erythrocyte count 7.86 X 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.373/l, haemoglobin content 142.8 g/l and leukocyte count 8.65 X 10(9)/l. For three male cheetahs only individual values are reported. 8. All results achieved are compared with those abstracted from the literature and discussed. PMID:2886279
Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…
the photoinitiated forma- tion of substituted tropy- lium salts from arylcyclo- heptatrienes bearing a leaving group such as the methoxy group. Two topics of supramolecular chemistry are studied in the Supramolecular Photo- chemistry group: host-guest complexes based on calixarenes and photoswitchable rotaxanes. - Newly designed calix(4)arenes, substituted with a different number of cycloheptatrienyl or tropylium functions at the upper rim
A comparative study of haematological changes subsequent to Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense infections was carried out using 24 Zebu bulls during a period of 12 weeks. Eight bulls were infected with T. vivax, another eight with T. congolense and eight served as controls. Infected bulls developed chronic trypanosomiasis which was characterized by many clinical manifestations including intermittent pyrexia. Elevated rectal temperatures of up to 105 and 106 degrees F were recorded, respectively, in all bulls infected with T. vivax or T. congolense. Mean parasitaemia was higher and more chronic in T. congolense-infected bulls and ranged between means of 0 and 3.06 in all infected bulls. There was a slight and transient drop in packed cell volume (PCV) of T. vivax-infected bulls as against a marked and more chronic drop in T. congolense-infected bulls. Mean PCV of T. vivax- and T. congolense-infected bulls and controls ranged between 28 and 38, 17 and 38, and 31 and 38%, respectively. Haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations also decreased in infected bulls. The decrease was greater and more chronic in the T. congolense-infected bulls. Values ranged between means of 10.47 and 13.84, 5.44 and 14.16, and 10.24 and 14.12 g dl-1 in T. vivax- and T. congolense-infected and control bulls, respectively. Total plasma proteins also decreased in infected bulls; this was more marked in the T. congolense-infected group. Values for T. vivax-infected, T. congolense-infected and control bulls ranged between means of 7.66 and 8.99, 6.26 and 8.81, and 7.94 and 8.78 g dl-1, respectively.2+ that the indigenous T. vivax strains are more PMID:2343522
Sekoni, V O; Saror, D I; Njoku, C O; Kumi-Diaka, J; Opaluwa, G I
During the season of high malaria transmission, most children are infected by Plasmodium, which targets red blood cells (RBCs), affecting haematological parameters. To describe these variations, we examined the haematological profiles of two groups of children living in a malaria-endemic area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the peak of the malaria transmission season in a rural area of Burkina Faso. After informed consent and clinical examination, blood samples were obtained from the participants for malaria diagnosis and a full blood count. Of the 414 children included in the analysis, 192 were not infected with Plasmodium, whereas 222 were asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium infection. The mean age of the infected children was 41.8 months (range of 26.4-57.2) compared to 38.8 months (range of 22.4-55.2) for the control group (p = 0.06). The asymptomatic infected children tended to have a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level (10.8 g/dL vs. 10.4 g/dL; p < 0.001), mean lymphocyte count (4592/µL vs. 5141/µL; p = 0.004), mean platelet count (266 x 103/µL vs. 385 x 103/µL; p < 0.001) and mean RBC count (4.388 x 106/µL vs. 4.158 x 106/µL; p < 0.001) and a higher mean monocyte count (1403/µL vs. 1192/µL; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Special attention should be applied when interpreting haematological parameters and evaluating immune responses in asymptomatic infected children living in malaria-endemic areas and enrolled in vaccine trials.
The German Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (GPOH) runs nation-wide multicentre clinical trials to improve the treatment of children suffering from malignant diseases. We want to provide methods and tools to support the centres of these trials in developing trial specific modules for the computer-based DOcumentation System for Paediatric Oncology (DOSPO). For this we carried out an object-oriented business process analysis for the Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Trial at the Olgahospital Stuttgart for Child and Adolescent Medicine. The result is a comprehensive business process model consisting of UML-diagrams and use case specifications. We recommend the object-oriented business process analysis as a method for the definition of requirements in information processing projects in the field of clinical trials in general. For this our model can serve as basis because it slightly can be adjusted to each type of clinical trial. PMID:11604706
Weber, R; Knaup, P; Knietitg, R; Haux, R; Merzweiler, A; Mludek, V; Schilling, F H; Wiedemann, T
The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.
This website provides a course on the use of radionuclides in analytical chemistry. Types of radioactive decay are discussed as well as the techniques of scintillation counting, neutron activation analysis, and gamma spectroscopy.
Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)
Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)
Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)
Discusses how the concept of organoleptic chemistry permeates every modern chemical experiment. Six approaches for developing organoleptic attitudes which are crucial to the experimental aspects are also presented. (HM)
Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)
Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)
Chemistry - urine ... For this test, a clean-catch (midstream) urine sample is needed. For more information, see: Urine collection - clean catch . Some tests require that you collect all of your urine for 24 ...
Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)
Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.
Brune, W.H. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))
The California State University Stanislaus developed these interactive chemistry Web tutorials to assist college students in mass spectrometry, proton NMR chemical shifts, and more. With the many animations and figures, visitors will find assistance with the subtraction and absorption of light and with infrared absorption frequencies for numerous compounds. The titration tutorials simulate laboratory experiments without the hazards of dealing with chemicals. Students will also find a very informative lesson describing how to use Excel to record and analyze their chemistry data.
Five cases of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were diagnosed in adult patients following intensive chemotherapy in the Royal Group of Hospitals haematology unit, Belfast, within a space of six months. The common features and the risk factors contributing to the increased susceptibility of these patients are discussed, as are the likely mechanisms of transmission of infection.
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major opportunistic infection in haematology patients. Spore inhalation is the usual route of Aspergillus infection, suggesting a determining role of environmental contamination by spores in the epidemiology of IA. We prospectively examined the relationship between environmental contamination by Aspergillus and other fungal species and the incidence of invasive nosocomial aspergillosis (INA) in a bone marrow
C. Alberti; A. Bouakline; P. Ribaud; C. Lacroix; P. Rousselot; T. Leblanc; F. Derouin
BACKGROUND: Malaria is the commonest cause of childhood morbidity in Western Kenya with varied heamatological consequences. The t study sought to elucidate the haemotological changes in children infected with malaria and their impact on improved diagnosis and therapy of childhood malaria. METHODS: Haematological parameters in 961 children, including 523 malaria-infected and 438 non-malaria infected, living in Kisumu West District, an
Robert N Maina; Douglas Walsh; Charla Gaddy; Gordon Hongo; John Waitumbi; Lucas Otieno; David Jones; Bernhards R Ogutu
This study evaluated the haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae). Thirty-seven fish were captured in October 2010 from the Mogi Guaçu River, Porto Ferreira, SP, Brazil. Infected fish presented increased mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and lower thrombocyte and higher monocyte counts than uninfected fish. PMID:23557315
Belo, M A A; Souza, D G F; Faria, V P; Prado, E J R; Moraes, F R; Onaka, E M
The impact of the current nursing shortage on the health care system is receiving attention by both state and federal governments. This study, using a convenience sample of 243 oncology\\/haematology nurses working in 11 Queensland health care facilities, explored factors that influence the quality of nurses' working lives. Although nurses reported high levels of personal satisfaction and personal accomplishment, results
Invasive aspergillosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particularly in individuals with haematological malignancy and in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Nowadays, the galactomannan (GM) assay has been widely used as an indication of invasive aspergillosis, even though the test is known to generate false-positive results. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of GM and real-time PCR (qPCR) to detected Aspergillus in blood samples obtained from high-risk haematological patients. Haematological patients were screened twice weekly with GM testing, which was performed by the Platelia ELISA kit. An additional sample of whole blood (4 ml) was obtained for the purpose of qPCR testing. Sixty-four samples from 12 patients with haematopoietic stem cell transplant or haematological malignancy were studied. The overall accordance between GM and qPCR tests was 96.9 % (62 samples). Only two samples showed contradictory results, with positive GM test and negative real-time PCR results. Based on the high concordance between GM and qPCR in terms of negative results, the main utility of qPCR could be in the confirmation of positive results seen with GM testing. PMID:24309908
da Silva, Thomas Victor Maciel; Carneiro, Lilian Carla; Ramos, Francine dos Santos; Baethgen, Ludmila Fiorenzano; Paz, Alessandra Aparecida; Larentis, Daniela Zilio; Daudt, Liane Esteves; Tusset, Cintia; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C
ADEDAPO, A. A., M. O. ABATAN, O. O. OLORUNSOGO: Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats. Vet. arhiv 74, 53-62, 2004. ABSTRACT The toxic effects of 5 suspected poisonous plants of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton, E. heterophylla L., E. hirta L., E. hyssopifolia L., and E. lateriflora Schum and
Adeolu A. Adedapo; Matthew O. Abatan; Olufunso O. Olorunsogo
The effect of bendiocarbamate application (5 mg\\/kg b.w.) on the haematological and immunological parameters in rabbits was evaluated. Total leukocyte cell count, erythrocyte cell count, differential cell count were determined during the period of three months of bendiocarbamate application and compared with those in healthy animals. The immunotoxic effect was evaluated by the test of ingestion ability of phagocytes (phagocytic
Jana Mojzisova; Peter Massányi; Jan Danko; Alexandra Trbolova; Eva Petrovova; David Mazensky; Katarina Vdoviakova; Lenka Luptakova; Norbert Torma
OBJECTIVESTo investigate the effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) on haematology and reproduction in exposed workers.METHODS53 Impregnation workers from two factories that make copper clad laminate with EGME as a solvent were recruited as the exposed group. Another group of 121 lamination workers with indirect exposure to EGME was recruited as the control group. Environmental monitoring of concentrations of
The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for pneumothorax during percutaneous subclavian Hickman line insertion in patients with haematological (HT) or solid tumours (ST). One hundred and twelve patients (55 HT, 57 ST) had 132 subclavian Hickman lines inserted under fluoroscopic control. Lines were inserted on the left on 116 occasions and the right in 16. Thirty-five
K. J. Harrington; H. S. Pandha; J. S. Hollyer; S. A. Kelly; A. R. Bateman; C. Lewanski; P. Morris; J. E. Jackson
Changes in the haematological indices like haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, colour index, iron, total red blood\\u000a corpuscles, white blood corpuscles and blood glucose in albino rats duringTrypanosoma evansi infection and the influence of some hormones like hydrocortisone, insulin and thyroxine on these changes have been investigated.
Objectives: To determine if a relationship exists in mitral stenosis, in patients with either sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation, between left atrial spontaneous echo contrast and the haematologic indices haematocrit, red cell concentration, mean corpuscular volume, platelet count and volume. Methods: Left atrial spontaneous echo contrast severity was graded on a scale of 0–4 in 163 patients with symptomatic mitral
Roger E Peverill; Richard Graham; John Gelman; Lynette A Yates; Richard W Harper; Joseph J Smolich
The haematological role of the spleen has been investigated in a series of 22 patients with active chronic hepatitis. Severe pancytopenia occurred in one patient after three years of steroid therapy and this episode was associated with an increase in spleen size and a high splenic index of red cell destruction. Although the spleen was usually enlarged in the remainder
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinicalchemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. PMID:24894523
Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T
Introduction Immunotherapy with the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab has been shown to improve overall survival in previously treated and treatment-naïve patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma. Consistent with its proposed immunomodulating mechanism of action, the most common toxicities associated with ipilimumab therapy are immune-related in nature and include those related to the skin and gastrointestinal tract, with endocrine and hepatic events also frequent. Other rare adverse events, including haematological aberrations, may also occur and can have serious consequences if unrecognised. Here we describe three patients who developed serious haematological adverse events during or after treatment with ipilimumab. Case presentation Three Caucasian patients (two women aged 68 and 49 years and one man aged 70 years) with metastatic melanoma experienced anaemia and/or leukopenia (neutropenia) with toxicity of various grades during or after treatment with ipilimumab, without significant changes to other haematological values. Two of the patients stopped treatment after the third ipilimumab dose, one because of severe anaemia that required blood transfusion and the other due to febrile neutropenia that was treated with antibiotics and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulation. The third patient developed anaemia and leukopenia after treatment during the follow-up period. The results of autoimmunity tests performed were positive and corticosteroids were used to treat these events as per side-effects treatment algorithms specifically developed for the management of immune-related adverse events associated with ipilimumab, an approach that was safe and effective. Conclusions Haematological toxicity is a rare but potentially serious immune-related side effect of ipilimumab therapy. However, if promptly recognised and treated, haematological toxicity is manageable and can be reversed with standard corticosteroid treatment as recommended for other ipilimumab immune-related side effects.
Background Hematological and biochemical abnormalities are among the most common clinicopathological manifestations of HIV patients on ART. Consequently, the development and assessment of indigenous antiretroviral drugs with minimal abnormalities becomes a necessity. The objective of this investigation was to assess potential haematological and biochemical abnormalities that may be associated with the administration of Winniecure ART in HIV patients undergoing treatment in Nigeria. Fifty (50) confirmed HIV positive ART naïve patients aged 36?±?10 were observed for haematological and biochemical responses for 12 weeks. Haematological responses were assessed thrice at 6 weeks interval using coulter Ac-T differential analyser and biochemical indicators (bilirubin, creatine, urea, amylase, ALT, ALP, AST, albumin) assayed spectrophotometrically. Results The biochemical parameters ALP (P?0.05), ALT (P?0.0001), AST (P?0.001) and amylase (P?0.05) slightly increased at the 12th week, no significant change was observed in plasma creatinine and urea concentrations while albumin levels decreased non-significantly (P?>?0.002). Haematological results showed consistent reduction of ESR, eosinophil, absolute and differential lymphocytes, granulocytes and total WBC in the test subjects throughout the assessment period. Conversely, haemoglobin, platelet and PCV increased significantly (P?0.05). At the 12th week thrombocytopenia (10.30%) and anaemia (76%) were reduced to 2% and 31% respectively while neutropenia (4.2 to 8%), leucopenia (26.8 to 30%) and lymphopenia (1 to 10%) increased. No cases of neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia and leukocytosis was observed. Conclusion The drug has a reduced haematological abnormalities and normal kidney function was unaffected though there were signs of possible abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes beyond 12 weeks of treatment.
In this paper we describe an ongoing project where the goal is to develop competence and confidence among chemistry faculty so they are able to utilize computational chemistry as an effective teaching tool. Advances in hardware and software have made research-grade tools readily available to the academic community. Training is required so that faculty can take full advantage of this technology, begin to transform the educational landscape, and attract more students to the study of science.
Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.
Chemistry and Industry Magazine, a bimonthly product of the Society of Chemical Industry, provides selected full-text articles from the print magazine in the areas of news, commentary, features, latest results from chemical literature, and highlights from the latest European patents. In addition, there is a searchable and browsable archive of past issues, a daily news section, and searchable jobs and meetings databases. The Society of Chemical Industry is "an international association of about 6000 members aimed at furthering applied chemistry." One of the highlights of its web site is its publication section, where, under "electronic publications," readers can find updated daily news, jobs and meetings listings on chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and the environment.
There is a great deal of chemistry going on in every kitchen, even though most cooks may not be cognizant of the various interactions going on in the pot, wok, or oven. MIT's popular OpenCourseWare Initiative has recently made the contents of Dr. Patricia Christie's course on kitchen chemistry available on this site. Visitors to the site can download the syllabus, take in some assigned readings (and recipes), and look over the assignments. The assignments include investigations that involve emulsifiers, ice cream, peer teaching, and pancakes, among other things. The site also includes links to helpful readings, such as those on chocolate, the health benefits of capsicum, and the world of gluten. For people who wish to bring back the frayed connective tissue between chemistry and the culinary arts, this site is absolutely essential.
The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.
Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa
The Sysmex XT-2000iV is a dedicated haematology analyser with full blood count, reticulocyte and five-population differential\\u000a leucocyte capabilities for several laboratory animal species. The laboratory animal species chosen for this study were rat,\\u000a dog and mouse. Results from dipotassium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (K2EDTA) samples from these species were compared with the laboratory’s established haematology analyser, the Bayer (now Siemens)\\u000a Advia
In the present single institution study of 66 leukaemia patients (28 AML, 23 ALL, 15 CML), the factors influencing haematological\\u000a recovery after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) were analysed retrospectively to identify the optimal conditions\\u000a required for rapid haematological recovery after alloBMT. All patients received GVHD prophylaxis with cyclosporine A plus\\u000a methotrexate. The mean number of days required to achieve
H. T. Hassan; C. Krog; M. Stockschläder; W. Zeller; W. Krüger; R. Erttmann; A. R. Zander
Goals of work Corticosteroid treatments have been well documented to cause severe emotional and even psychiatric disturbances. Despite that\\u000a corticosteroid use is at the core of most treatment protocols for haematological malignancies, there is a dearth of published\\u000a research (and controversy in the existing research) on the emotional and psychiatric sequelae of corticosteroid use for haematology\\u000a patients and its connection with
The haematological (Hb, RBC, WBC) and biochemical (protein and glucose) profiles of a freshwater fish Catla catla were studied under sub-lethal toxicity of cadmium chloride for 25 days (Treatment I). In addition, the influence of zinc\\u000a on cadmium toxicity was investigated for haematological and biochemical parameters (Treatment II). In both the experiments,\\u000a blood haemoglobin and plasma protein level decreased in the
Sweety R. Remyla; Mathan Ramesh; Kenneth S. Sajwan; Kurunthachalam Senthil Kumar
This page, from the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill Chemistry Fundamentals program and the Shodor Education Foundation, discusses five different types of radioactive decay: alpha, beta negative, gamma, positron emission, and electron capture. After examining the numerous equations, students can test their dating skills by solving three practice problems. Solutions are included.
Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)
Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)
Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)
Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…
Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…
Chemistry activities and demonstrations that use common household items and kitchen chemicals. There are activities appropriate for students in elementary school, middle school, and high school. The activities were designed and tested by the Science House, the science and mathematics learning outreach program of North Carolina State University.
A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry NumberÂ® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.
This site from the Princeton Section of the American Chemical Society consists of articles about common chemical misconceptions along with examinations of the scientific explanation. The purpose of this page is to reveal common misconceptions in the field of Chemistry. The intended audience is secondary school students and their teachers. The page is at present just beginning, and additions are welcome.
Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…
The effect of sublethal concentration (29 mg/l) of cadmium on haematological parameters of Channa punctatus after the exposure periods of 7, 15 and 30 days were studied. In treated groups of cadmium exposed fish have been found to significantly decreased in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin content, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and oxygen carrying capacity of blood, and at the same time the white blood cell count, mean cell volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were found to significantly increased. Both increasing and decreasing of the above mentioned haematological characteristics of blood cells of cadmium intoxicant are mainly with time dependent effects. With regard to the pathological characteristics of blood cells of cadmium intoxicant fish shows fragility and rupture of erythrocytic membrane and leads to haemolysis, which are very severe on 30 day of exposure group. PMID:16114472
Wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) of various size classes were captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood was collected from the post occipital sinus and used for the determination of a wide range of haematological and biochemical parameters. These values were compared between the sexes and between 3 size classes. The values were also compared with the limited data available from farmed Nile crocodiles, as well as from other wild Nile crocodiles. The Okavango crocodiles were comparatively anaemic, and had comparatively low total protein and blood glucose levels. There was a high prevalence of Hepatozoon pettiti infection, however, there was no significant difference in haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles. The values reported here will be useful in diagnostic investigations in both zoo and farmed Nile crocodiles. PMID:18237036
Pups free from helminth infection were obtained by treating the bitch prior to parturition, and the bitch and her pups after whelping, with oxfendazole and praziquantel. They were then housed in an area free from contamination with helminth eggs. Freedom from infection was confirmed by necropsy examinations and by serological tests using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Groups of pups were infected with Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia ovis, T. pisiformis and T. hydatigena and bled at 5-day intervals. Haematological examinations and measurement of serum proteins were performed on blood samples obtained throughout 30 days of infection. Levels of serum proteins were not significantly altered in any infection. Pups infected with T. canis showed a marked increase in numbers of circulating eosinophils during the phase of larval migration through the liver and lungs; they also showed marked antibody responses to T. canis larval ES antigen. Haematological values were not significantly altered in any other pups. PMID:6525114
The Sysmex NE 8000 (TOA-Japan) is a haematology analyser that performs blood cells count and leukocyte differential count. For facilitating the work of technical validation, we developed a software adapted to any IBM® or compatible PC running under MS-DOS®, to manage the analyser. Data are automatically collected via the RS-232 interface from the analyser or keyed in for the other
We report an outbreak of cutaneous Rhizopus oryzae infection associated with adhesive polyethylene tapes used to stabilize peripheral venous catheters in four patients. All patients were suffering from haematological diseases; the infection severity was proportional to the duration of neutropenia. Intervention with systemic antifungal treatment and surgical debridement was required for resolution of the infection. The entire batch of tapes was withdrawn and the outbreak subsided. PMID:22633275
Lalayanni, C; Baliakas, P; Xochelli, A; Apostolou, C; Arabatzis, M; Velegraki, A; Anagnostopoulos, A
The study was conducted to ascertain the epidemiology, together with effects of bovine tuberculosis, on certain haematological parameters and serum proteins at two Livestock Experiment Stations in Pakistan. The results on prevalence of tuberculosis in buffaloes on the basis of comparative intradermal tuberculin test revealed it to be from as high as 8.48% (14\\/165) to as low as 2.45% (4\\/163)
Muhammad Tariq Javed; Mahmood Usman; Muhammad Irfan; Monica Cagiola
Normal haematological values and fibrinogen levels were obtained from a number of healthy adult Felidae in the collection of the Zoological Society of London. The group comprised 29 pumas (Felis concolor), 32 lions (Panthera leo), 27 tigers (P tigris), 19 leopards (P pardus), 18 jaguars (P onca) and 22 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The values provided a basis for identifying abnormalities in the blood of sick individuals of these species and for undertaking interspecies comparisons. PMID:3775118
Voriconazole can prolong the QT interval contributing to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Torsades de pointes is an uncommon but serious complication of voriconazole use which may be under-recognised. We present torsades de pointes in two patients with underlying haematological malignancy being treated for invasive fungal infection with voriconazole. Patients receiving voriconazole should be screened and monitored for evidence of QT prolongation, and if prolongation detected, consideration given to alternative treatments or more intensive cardiac monitoring.
Haematological data were obtained through analysis of blood samples taken from sixteen donkeys randomly selected from a donkey population in Kiambu District, Kenya. Nine out of sixteen of the donkeys examined were anaemic, with low RBC counts (ranging between 3.2 - 4.18 x 106\\/ml) and low Hb concentrations (ranging between 6.6 - 9.7 gm%). Seven out of nine of these
A. K. Lew; T. A. Ngati; W. K. Munyua; N. E. Maingi
Background In contrast to other haematological cancers, mortality from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma increased dramatically during the second half of the 20th century in most developed countries. This widespread upward trend remains controversial, as it may be attributable either to progressive improvements in diagnosis and certification or to increasing exposures to little-known but relevant risk factors. Methods To assess the relative contribution of these factors, we analysed the independent effects of age, death period, and birth cohort on haematological cancer mortality rates in Spain across the period 1952-2006. Weighted joinpoint regression analyses were performed to detect and estimate changes in period and cohort curvatures. Results Although mortality rates were consistently higher among men, trends across periods and cohorts were virtually identical in both sexes. There was an early period trend reversal in the 1960s for Hodgkin’s disease and leukaemia, which was delayed to the 1980s for multiple myeloma and the 1990s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Birth cohort patterns showed a first downturn for generations born in the 1900s and 1910s for all haematological cancers, and a second trend reversal for more recent cohorts born in the 1950s and 1960s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and leukaemia. Conclusions The sustained decline in Hodgkin’s disease mortality and the levelling off in leukaemia seem to be driven by an early period effect linked to improvements in disease treatment, whereas the steep upward trends in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma mortality in Spain are more likely explained by a cohort effect linked to better diagnosis and death certification in the elderly. The consistent male excess mortality across all calendar periods and age groups points to the importance of possible sex-related genetic markers of susceptibility in haematological cancers.
It has been suggested that obstruction of coronary veins can induce myocardial infarction similar to coronary artery obstruction.\\u000a In this study, the coronary veins of the sheep heart were blocked experimentally and haematological and inflammatory indices\\u000a (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-?) alterations were studied. Twenty sheep were used\\u000a for this study. Anaesthesia was induced by ketamine
Fatemeh Dehghani Nazhvani; M. B. Sharifkazemi; S. N. Dehghani; S. Nazifi; M. Shafa
Pharmacokinetic studies in ten patients with haematological disorders were undertaken on the first and second days of one course of chemotherapy. Patients received chlorambucil under fasting and non-fasting conditions. Plasma concentrations of chlorambucil were determined by a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Statistical analysis by the Wilcoxon signed rank test for non-parametric data indicated that food caused a significant reduction
Bone marrow transplantation is frequently used as a consolidation therapy in patients with haematological malignancies to\\u000a improve the outcome of these patients. Obese individuals have larger absolute lean body and fat masses than non-obese individuals\\u000a of the same age, gender and height, which might lead to altered pharmacokinetics of chemotherapeutic agents. Data on the impact\\u000a of body mass on transplant
Emmanouil Nikolousis; Sandeep Nagra; Shankara Paneesha; Julio Delgado; Kathy Holder; Lynn Bratby; Sridhar Chaganti; Richard Lovell; Donald Milligan
The purpose of this study was to determine whether diploid, triploid and tetraploid loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) differed in terms of their main haematological and physiological characteristics. Diploid and tetraploid fish were produced by crossing of natural diploids (2n×2n) and natural tetraploids (4n×4n), respectively. Triploid fish were produced by hybridization between diploid males and tetraploid females. The blood cells were significantly
Zexia Gao; Weimin Wang; Khalid Abbas; Xiaoyun Zhou; Yi Yang; James S. Diana; Hanping Wang; Huanling Wang; Yang Li; Yuhua Sun
The study was conducted to determine the effects of iron glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) on growth, haematological and immunological characteristics in weanling pigs. One hundred and eighty pigs (initial weight of 7.81±0.72kg) were allotted to six treatments based on live weight and litter origin. Treatments consisted of: (1) control (no Fe supplementation); (2) 30mgFe\\/kg diet from Fe-Gly; (3) 60mgFe\\/kg diet from
J. Feng; W. Q. Ma; Z. R. Xu; Y. Z. Wang; J. X. Liu
Forty two weaner rabbits of mixed breeds and sexes with an average initial weight of 956.7±45.6 g were used to evaluate the effect of stocking densit y on welfare and haematological characteristics. Th e rabbits were allotted to four stocking densities of 10, 14.3, 20 and 25 rabbits\\/m 2. This corresponded to 2, 3, 4 and 5 rabbits per cage
The Chemistry Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of chemistry-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources pertaining to many areas of the discipline - general chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, and others - and intended for a wide range of audiences: educators and learners, the general public, and chemistry research communities.
This book is designed to be understandable and interesting without being overly simplistic. Topics addressed include an overview of basic chemistry; matter and the basis of its physical nature and behavior; organic chemistry; biological chemistry; the chemistry of water, soil, and air; industrial chemistry; toxicological chemistry as it pertains to occupational health and human exposure to pollutants and toxicants; energy;
Introduction: Radiation is increasingly being used for medical purposes and it is an established weapon in the diagnosis and the therapy of cancer. An exposure to 1-2 Gys causes the NVD (Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea) syndrome, whereas an exposure to 2-6 Gys causes the haematopoietic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the Nardostachys jatamansi root extract (NJE) on the radiation induced haematological damage in rats. Materials and Methods: EBR was performed at the Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, India. Rats were treated with NJE once daily for 15 days before and after the irradiation. After the irradiation, blood was collected for determining the peripheral blood counts (RBC and WBC), haemoglobin, the platelet count and the packed cell volume (PCV) at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 5, 10 and 15 days post irradiation. The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey’s test for multiple comparisons. Result: NJE provided protection against the radiation induced haematological disorders. The rats treated with NJE exhibited a time dependent significant elevation in all the haematological parameters which were studied and its modulation upto the near normal level was recorded. Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that, NJE provides protection by modulating the radiation induced damage on the haematopoietic system.
Gowda, Damodara K M; Shetty, Lathika; A P, Krishna; Kumari, Suchetha N; Sanjeev, Ganesh; P, Naveen
Introduction: Radiation is increasingly being used for medical purposes and it is an established weapon in the diagnosis and the therapy of cancer. An exposure to 1-2 Gys causes the NVD (Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea) syndrome, whereas an exposure to 2-6 Gys causes the haematopoietic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the Nardostachys jatamansi root extract (NJE) on the radiation induced haematological damage in rats. Materials and Methods: EBR was performed at the Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, India. Rats were treated with NJE once daily for 15 days before and after the irradiation. After the irradiation, blood was collected for determining the peripheral blood counts (RBC and WBC), haemoglobin, the platelet count and the packed cell volume (PCV) at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 5, 10 and 15 days post irradiation. The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. Result: NJE provided protection against the radiation induced haematological disorders. The rats treated with NJE exhibited a time dependent significant elevation in all the haematological parameters which were studied and its modulation upto the near normal level was recorded. Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that, NJE provides protection by modulating the radiation induced damage on the haematopoietic system. PMID:23905085
Gowda, Damodara K M; Shetty, Lathika; A P, Krishna; Kumari, Suchetha N; Sanjeev, Ganesh; P, Naveen
C-reactive protein (CRP) has been proposed as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, this association is confounded by mutual relationships with both classical and haematological cardiovascular risk factors. We, therefore, measured CRP with a high-sensitivity assay in stored plasma samples from 414 men and 515 women in the north Glasgow MONICA (MONItoring trends in CArdiovascular diseases) survey, to study its correlation with haematological variables, classical risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular disease. CRP correlated with age, oral contraceptive use, menopause and most classical cardiovascular risk factors (except blood pressure). CRP also correlated with plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6, and haematocrit, viscosity, red cell aggregation, white cell count, and coagulation factors [fibrinogen, factor (F) VII in women, FVIII, FIX] and inhibitors (antithrombin and protein C in women; protein S) but not coagulation activation markers. CRP was significantly associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease in both men (P = 0.03) and women (P = 0.009), however, the association became non-significant after adjustment for firstly classical risk factors, then fibrinogen. We conclude that correlations with classical and haematological risk factors account for a substantial component of the association of CRP with prevalent cardiovascular disease, but there is evidence of a residual, independent effect among women. PMID:12823355
Woodward, Mark; Rumley, Ann; Lowe, Gordon D O; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh
Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists.
With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.
In this case report, the authors described the first case of a patient with adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) who presents advanced periodontal infection. AOSD is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by spiking fever, usually exceeding 39°C, an evanescent salmon pink rash, arthritis and multiorgan involvement. Periodontal infection is a pathogen-induced oral inflammatory disease affecting the supporting tissues of teeth and is currently considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several cytokines capable of inducing systemic effects are produced during the course of this infection and the values of serum markers of inflammation, such as C reactive protein (CRP), may significantly decrease after periodontal treatment. Although AOSD can produce elevations in CRP, similar increase may be produced by periodontal infection, suggesting the need for medical and dental diagnosis when evaluating the sources of acute-phase responses in systemic autoimmune disease patients.
The stability of haematological parameters is crucial to guarantee accurate and reliable data for implementing and interpreting the athlete's biological passport (ABP). In this model, the values of haemoglobin, reticulocytes and out-of-doping period (OFF)-score (Hb-60?Ret) are used to monitor the possible variations of those parameters, and also to compare the thresholds developed by the statistical model for the single athlete on the basis of its personal values and the variance of parameters in the modal group. Nevertheless, a critical review of the current scientific literature dealing with the stability of the haematological parameters included in the ABP programme, and which are used for evaluating the probability of anomalies in the athlete's profile, is currently lacking. In addition, we collected information from published studies, in order to supply a useful, practical and updated review to sports physicians and haematologists. There are some parameters that are highly stable, such as haemoglobin and erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]), whereas others, (e.g. reticulocytes, mean RBC volume and haematocrit) appear less stable. Regardless of the methodology, the stability of haematological parameters is improved by sample refrigeration. The stability of all parameters is highly affected from high storage temperatures, whereas the stability of RBCs and haematocrit is affected by initial freezing followed by refrigeration. Transport and rotation of tubes do not substantially influence any haematological parameter except for reticulocytes. In all the studies we reviewed that used Sysmex instrumentation, which is recommended for ABP measurements, stability was shown for 72 hours at 4 ° C for haemoglobin, RBCs and mean curpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); up to 48 hours for reticulocytes; and up to 24 hours for haematocrit. In one study, Sysmex instrumentation shows stability extended up to 72 hours at 4 ° C for all the parameters. There are significant differences among methods and instruments: Siemens Advia shows lower stability than Sysmex as regards to reticulocytes. However, the limit of 36 hours from blood collection to analysis as recommended by ABP scientists is reasonable to guarantee analytical quality, when samples are transported at 4 ° C and are accompanied by a certified steadiness of this temperature. There are some parameters that are highly stable, such as haemoglobin and RBCs; whereas others, such as reticulocytes, mean cell volume and haematocrit are more unstable. The stability of haematological parameters might be improved independently from the analytical methodology, by refrigeration of the specimens. PMID:22060177
Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Colombini, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe
Background & objectives: Pre-clinical toxicology evaluation of biotechnology products is a challenge to the toxicologist. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the safety profile of the first indigenously developed recombinant DNA anti-rabies vaccine [DRV (100 ?g)] and combination rabies vaccine [CRV (100 ?g DRV and 1.25 IU of cell culture-derived inactivated rabies virus vaccine)], which are intended for clinical use by intramuscular route in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: As per the regulatory requirements, the study was designed for acute (single dose - 14 days), sub-chronic (repeat dose - 28 days) and chronic (intended clinical dose - 120 days) toxicity tests using three dose levels, viz. therapeutic, average (2x therapeutic dose) and highest dose (10 x therapeutic dose) exposure in monkeys. The selection of the model i.e. monkey was based on affinity and rapid higher antibody response during the efficacy studies. An attempt was made to evaluate all parameters which included physical, physiological, clinical, haematological and histopathological profiles of all target organs, as well as Tiers I, II, III immunotoxicity parameters. Results: In acute toxicity there was no mortality in spite of exposing the monkeys to 10XDRV. In sub chronic and chronic toxicity studies there were no abnormalities in physical, physiological, neurological, clinical parameters, after administration of test compound in intended and 10 times of clinical dosage schedule of DRV and CRV under the experimental conditions. Clinicalchemistry, haematology, organ weights and histopathology studies were essentially unremarkable except the presence of residual DNA in femtogram level at site of injection in animal which received 10X DRV in chronic toxicity study. No Observational Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of DRV is 1000 ug/dose (10 times of therapeutic dose) if administered on 0, 4, 7, 14, 28th day. Interpretation & conclusions: The information generated by this study not only draws attention to the need for national and international regulatory agencies in formulating guidelines for pre-clinical safety evaluation of biotech products but also facilitates the development of biopharmaceuticals as safe potential therapeutic agents.
Kumar, B. Dinesh; Kumar, P. Uday; Krishna, T. Prasanna; Kalyanasundaram, S.; Suresh, P.; Jagadeesan, V.; Hariharan, S.; Naidu, A. Nadamuni; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Rangarajan, P.N.; Srinivasan, V.A.; Reddy, G.S.; Sesikeran, B.
Chromogenic peptide substrates were first introduced into research laboratories in the early 1970s and were quickly utilised to develop assays for the determination of enzymes, proenzymes and inhibitors of the coagulation system. These assays were gradually introduced into coagulation and clinicalchemistry laboratories as laboratory tools in the diagnosis and treatment of coagulation disorders. From the knowledge of the structures of the natural substrates attacked by enzymes other than those of the coagulation system or by synthesis and random screening, substrates for enzymes of the fibrinolytic, plasma and glandular kallikrein and complement systems were produced. These allowed various research groups to develop assays for components of these systems and subsequently led to the use of these assays in studies on various clinical conditions. Substrates for activated protein C ensured that assays for this enzyme and its inhibitors could be developed and introduced into the haematological routine. With the introduction of substrates for limulus lysate not only were assays for endotoxins in clinical samples produced but the control of all disposable products and injectables for endotoxin contamination can now be effected. Initially high costs and time-consuming manual assays were a hinderence to the general acceptance of the use of chromogenic peptide substrate assays and they were only used routinely in a few specialised laboratories. With the introduction of automated and microtitre plate methods however, these assays are are now available in most hospital laboratories. Since the first chromogenic peptide substrate was described thousands of articles have been published on the use of chromogenic substrate assays to measure proenzymes, enzyme activators, enzyme cofactors and inhibitors in blood and other body fluids in normal subjects and clinical material. We have endeavoured to cover as many of these as possible in this review. PMID:1912757
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can induce hyperacetylation of both histone and non-histone target resulting in epigenetic reprogramming and altered activity, stability and localisation of non-histone proteins to ultimately mediate diverse biological effects on cancer cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials have demonstrated single agent HDACi to have activity in hematological malignancies, in particular T-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Combination strategies with standard therapies based on pre-clinical data are being employed with significant success due to their excellent side effect profile. Correlative studies will provide valuable information on the sub-groups of patients more likely to respond or be resistant to HDACi therapy, while long-term monitoring for toxicities is also needed.
Bishton, Mark J.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Dickinson, Michael; Harrison, Simon; Prince, H. Miles
The aim of the present study was to estimate the between-dog, within-dog and analytical components of variance for red blood\\u000a cell (RBC) concentration, white blood cell (WBC) concentration, haematocrit (HT) and haemoglobin (HGB) in clinically healthy\\u000a dogs and to use these estimates to calculate the critical difference for significance between serial results, to assess the\\u000a utility of the conventional population-based
The present report describes the non-haematological toxicity and the influence of growth factor administration on haematological toxicity and haematopoietic recovery observed after high-dose carboplatin (1200 mg m(-2)), etoposide (900 mg m(-2)) and melphalan (100 mg m(-2)) (CEM) followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation (PBPCT) in 40 patients with high-risk cancer during their first-line treatment. PBPCs were collected during the previous outpatient induction chemotherapy programme by leukaphereses. CEM administration with PBPCT was associated with low non-haematological toxicity and the only significant toxicity consisted of a reversible grade III/IV increase in liver enzymes in 32% of the patients. Haematopoietic recovery was very fast in all patients and the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plus erythropoietin (EPO) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plus EPO after PBPCT significantly reduced haematological toxicity, abrogated antibiotic administration during neutropenia and significantly reduced hospital stay and patient's hospital charge compared with patients treated with PBPCT only. None of the patients died early of CEM plus PBPCT-related complications. Low non-haematological toxicity and accelerated haematopoietic recovery renders CEM with PBPC/growth factor support an acceptable therapeutic approach in an adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting.
Benedetti Panici, P.; Pierelli, L.; Scambia, G.; Foddai, M. L.; Salerno, M. G.; Menichella, G.; Vittori, M.; Maneschi, F.; Caracussi, U.; Serafini, R.; Leone, G.; Mancuso, S.
In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature.
The month's featured molecules come from the paper An Azulene-Based Discovery Experiment: Challenging Students To Watch for the "False Assumption" by Charles Garner illustrating some of the chemistry of a substituted azulene. Azulene is a structural isomer of naphthalene and differs from it in several important ways, the most obvious being azulene's intense blue color, which arises from the S0 → S2 transition. Another unusual feature of this molecule is that its fluorescence arises from the reverse of this transition rather than from S1 → S0.
This Web site addresses Professor Dr. J. Gmehling's research group activities in "the synthesis and design of chemical processes with an emphasis on thermal separation processes." Ranging from the development of thermodynamic models to the construction of software tools and data banks, their research at the University of Oldenburg, covers a broad range in the field of Industrial Chemistry. Students and educators can view informative figures and images such as the Isothermal Flow Calorimeter and the Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Users can download the free software, Dortmund Data Bank (DDB), which searches the literature for experimental information.
In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the context of industrial chemistry
A man in his 60s with a history of multiple myeloma diagnosed 6 months previously was referred with a diagnosis of a sellar mass. He reported a 3-month history of headaches associated with double vision which appeared to improve with corticosteroid treatment. An MRI scan revealed a 3.7 cm × 3 cm × 2.6 cm sellar mass with erosion into the sphenoid sinus and extending to the right cavernous sinus. Pituitary function tests were normal apart from hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. A diagnosis of plasmacytoma was considered and so transphenoidal biopsy of the sellar lesion was organised, which revealed sheets of mature appearing plasma cells, staining exclusively for ?-light chain immunoglobulins. He was to be started on chemotherapy for the myeloma and radiotherapy for the plasmacytoma. The patient's clinical course was complicated by community-acquired pneumonia and renal failure resulting in his death a month after the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. PMID:23175000
Udiawar, Maneesh; Bejnariu, Christina; Davies, Stephen
In veterinary medicine a complete blood cell count (CBC) cannot always be performed within 24 h as usually recommended, particularly for specimens shipped to a reference laboratory. This raises the question of the stability of the variables, especially in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) feline blood specimens, known to be prone to in vitro platelet aggregation. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) has been reported to limit platelet aggregation in feline blood specimens. The aim of this study was to measure the stability of the haematological variables and the platelet aggregation score in EDTA and EDTA plus CTAD (EDCT) feline blood specimens during 48 h of storage at room temperature. Forty-six feline EDTA and EDCT blood specimens were analysed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser, and the platelet count and score of platelet aggregation were estimated immediately and after 24 and 48 h of storage. A significant increase in mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit, reticulocyte and eosinophil counts, and a significant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and monocyte count were observed. Haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and red blood cell, white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts remained stable. Changes in reticulocyte indexes with time (low fluorescence ratio, medium fluorescence ratio, high fluorescence ratio and immature reticulocyte fraction) were not significant. Changes were generally more pronounced in EDTA than in EDCT. Platelet aggregation decreased markedly in initially highly aggregated EDTA specimens, and increased slightly in initially non- or mildly-aggregated EDTA or EDCT specimens. Platelet counts increased and decreased, or remained stable, respectively. CTAD can reduce storage-induced changes of the haematological variables in feline samples, thus improving the reliability of a CBC and limiting clinical misinterpretations. PMID:23264612
Objective: To evaluate left ventricular morphology and function in a large population of patients with ? thalassaemia. Design: Echo Doppler assessment of left ventricular function and correlation of cardiovascular data with haematological data. Setting: Thalassaemia unit in a tertiary referral centre. Patients: 197 young adults with ? thalassaemia, following an adequate transfusional and chelation treatment regimen, without clinical signs of cardiopulmonary involvement. The control group consisted of 213 healthy subjects. Results: Left ventricular volumes, mass index, and mass/volume ratio were increased. Diastolic and systolic shapes were different, the left ventricle maintaining an ellipsoidal shape. The ejection fraction was reduced, and was < 50% in 33 patients. Stroke volume and cardiac index were increased, and systemic vascular resistance was decreased. Fractional shortening and mean velocity of circumferential shortening were decreased. Meridional end systolic and peak systolic stress were increased, as was circumferential end systolic stress. The contractile state was reduced while the functional preload index did not differ. Left ventricular diastolic function, evaluated from the mitral inflow, showed a slightly prolonged isovolumic relaxation time, increased flow velocity integrals, and an increased E/A ratio. Among the haematological data, only serum ferritin showed a weak negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction. The patients with the highest serum ferritin (> 2500 ng/ml) had the lowest ejection fraction. Conclusions: Patients with ? thalassaemia on an adequate transfusion and chelation treatment regimen show abnormal left ventricular remodelling with increased volumes, mass, and mass/volume ratio. Systolic chamber function and contractile state are reduced, with a slightly increased afterload. These findings seem mainly to be related to the increased cardiac output caused by chronic anaemia. Left ventricular performance is better preserved when chelation treatment is adjusted to maintain the serum ferritin concentration at < 1000 ng/ml.
Bosi, G; Crepaz, R; Gamberini, M R; Fortini, M; Scarcia, S; Bonsante, E; Pitscheider, W; Vaccari, M
Summary To determine the incidence and outcome of critical illness amongst the total population of hospital patients with haematological malignancy (including patients treated on the ward as well as those admitted to the intensive care unit), consecutive patients with haematological malign- ancy were prospectively studied. One hundred and one of the 1437 haemato-oncology admis- sions (7%) in 2001 were complicated
A. C. Gordon; H. E. Oakervee; B. Kaya; J. M. Thomas; M. J. Barnett; A. Z. S. Rohatiner; T. A. Lister; J. D. Cavenagh; C. J. Hinds
An outbreak of a fatal haemolytic anaemia in a dairy herd of cattle in Switzerland was shown to be associated with infections\\u000a with five vector-borne pathogens, namely Anaplasma marginale, A. phagocytophilum, Babesia bigemina, a Theileria spp belonging to the buffeli\\/sergenti\\/orientalis complex and haemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. The latter three had not been documented before this outbreak in Switzerland. To characterise the
Barbara Riond; Marina L. Meli; Ueli Braun; Peter Deplazes; Kaspar Joerger; Rudolf Thoma; Hans Lutz; Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
The Computational Chemistry List (CCL) was established as an independent electronic forum for chemistry researchers and educators from around the world. The discussions cover all aspects of computational chemistry.
In view of the fact that stray dogs are a reservoir for many diseases, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Ehrlichia canis in stray dogs in North Trinidad and to evaluate the diagnostic implications of haematological alterations associated with seropositivity. Overall, 41 (44.6%) of 92 stray dogs were seropositive to E. canis by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Dogs, one year of age and older (59.7%) were more likely to be seropositive than dogs less than one year old (13.3%) (p<0.001). No significant differences in seropositivity between females and males were found. The odds ratios showed that seropositive dogs were 3.34 (CI 95%; 1.33-8.59) and 5.17 (CI 95%; 0.19-1.26) times more likely to have low platelet counts and elevated total serum protein concentrations (p=0.014 and p<0.001, respectively) than seronegative dogs. Lower mean platelet counts and a higher mean total protein concentration were associated with seropositivity (p<0.01). Mean eosinophil and segmented neutrophil counts were elevated in dogs that tested negative for E. canis antibodies (p=0.002 and p<0.005, respectively). Other haematological parameters were not different between the 2 groups. The high percentage of stray dogs infected with E. canis should alert veterinarians to the potential risk of transmission of the disease. A comprehensive study possibly using molecular methods such as nested PCR should be undertaken to determine how co-infection with other pathogens may alter haematological profiles. In general, control of ticks and stray dog populations may help to control the spread of tick-borne diseases. PMID:22658916
This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline) and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters. PMID:23038078
Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Emadi, Ladan; Sakhaee, Ehsanollah; Sharifi, Hamid; Mehdizadeh, Sara
The risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is increased in immunodeficiencies or during the treatment of some autoimmune diseases. The development of new therapeutic agents has highlighted the risk of unusual lymphoid proliferations, particularly classical HL (cHL). We report the clinicopathological findings of 13 cHL arising in patients treated for a primary haematological malignancy. Eight patients had received an immunomodulator, protein tyrosine-kinase inhibitor or monoclonal antibody, which may have contributed to the cHL development. Most patients had disseminated disease with poor prognostic factors at cHL diagnosis. Despite the initial presentation, good outcomes were achieved with standard cHL chemotherapy. PMID:22734472
Mucormycosis has emerged as an increasingly important infection in oncology centres with high mortality, especially in severely immunocompromised patients. We carried out a retrospective study of 11 children with mucormycosis treated in seven French oncology-haematology paediatric wards during the period from 1991 to 2011. Lichtheimia corymbifera and Mucor spp. were the predominant pathogens. Treatment regimens included antifungal therapy, reversal of underlying predisposing risk factors and surgical debridement. Although mucormycosis is associated with high mortality, this infection could be cured in eight of our cases of severely immunocompromised paediatric cancer patients. PMID:23020159
Studies were conducted on haematological constituents such as Red blood cells (RBC), White blood cells (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), Packed cell volume (PCV), Mean cell volume (MCV), Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Blood volume (BV), Blood water content (BWC) and Whole animal oxygen consumption (WAOC) in the fish exposed to sublethal concentration of atrazine. Significant changes were seen in the constituents of the blood and O2 consumption of fish suggesting the existence of respiratory distress in the fish as a consequence of atrazine toxicity. PMID:1863269
We investigated the iron-related haematological parameters in both male and female athletes participating in different sporting\\u000a disciplines necessitating different metabolic energy demands. A total of 873 athletes (514 males, mean age: 22.08 ± 4.95 years\\u000a and 359 females, mean age: 21.38 ± 3.88 years) were divided according to gender and to the predominant energy system required\\u000a for participation in sport (aerobic, anaerobic or mixed) and haematological
Radoje Milic; Jelena Martinovic; Milivoj Dopsaj; Violeta Dopsaj
Background The physiological challenges posed by hypobaric hypoxia warrant exploration of pharmacological entities to improve acclimatization to hypoxia. The present study investigates the preclinical efficacy of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) to improve acclimatization to simulated hypobaric hypoxia. Experimental Approach Efficacy of intravenously administered S1P in improving haematological and metabolic acclimatization was evaluated in rats exposed to simulated acute hypobaric hypoxia (7620m for 6 hours) following S1P pre-treatment for three days. Major Findings Altitude exposure of the control rats caused systemic hypoxia, hypocapnia (plausible sign of hyperventilation) and respiratory alkalosis due to suboptimal renal compensation indicated by an overt alkaline pH of the mixed venous blood. This was associated with pronounced energy deficit in the hepatic tissue along with systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. S1P pre-treatment improved blood oxygen-carrying-capacity by increasing haemoglobin, haematocrit, and RBC count, probably as an outcome of hypoxia inducible factor-1? mediated erythropoiesis and renal S1P receptor 1 mediated haemoconcentation. The improved partial pressure of oxygen in the blood could further restore aerobic respiration and increase ATP content in the hepatic tissue of S1P treated animals. S1P could also protect the animals from hypoxia mediated oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusion The study findings highlight S1P’s merits as a preconditioning agent for improving acclimatization to acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure. The results may have long term clinical application for improving physiological acclimatization of subjects venturing into high altitude for occupational or recreational purposes.
The guideline group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and NCBI Pubmed were searched systematically for publications in English from 1980 to 2012 using the MeSH subheading 'lymphoma, CNS', 'lymphoma, central nervous system', 'lymphoma, high grade', 'lymphoma, Burkitt's', 'lymphoma, lymphoblastic' and 'lymphoma, diffuse large B cell' as keywords, as well as all subheadings. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemato-oncology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of ~50 UK haematologists, the BCSH and the British Society for Haematology (BSH) Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found in Appendix I. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the optimal prevention of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The guidance may not be appropriate to patients of all lymphoma sub-types and in all cases individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. Acronyms are defined at time of first use. PMID:24033102
Twenty-four male albino rats, 4 weeks old were randomly distributed into 4 groups (A-D) and fed growers' mash as the control diet and 25, 50 and 75% oven-dried, ground Macrotermes nigeriensis fortified diets respectively for a total period of 28 days. The effects of the diets on hepatic, renal and haematologic function indices of albino rats were studied. The animals fed the fortified diets had non-significantly (p > 0.05) lesser body weight gains than the control animals. The fortified diets elicited dose-dependent increases in the levels of blood total protein, albumin, packed cell volume, hemoglobin and red blood cell counts as well as on the calculated red cell indices. The fortified diets did not significantly (p > 0.05) alter the activities of plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferases as well as the concentrations of total bilirubin, urea and creatinine. The results indicate that the fortified diets do not have detrimental hepatic, renal or haematologic effects but rather may be recommended for fortification of human and animal food, especially in weaning diets of growing children and nursing mothers to combat food insecurity and malnutrition. PMID:24783815
Igwe, C U; Ojiako, A O; Okwara, J E; Emejulu, A A; Nwaoguikpe, R N
The opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Aspergillus genus are present in almost all seasons of the year, and their concentration is related to meteorological conditions. The high density of Aspergillus spp. conidia in a haematological hospital ward may be a significant risk factor for developing invasive fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the variability of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia contamination in a Haematological Unit (HU) within a period of 16 months in relation with some meteorological parameters. An environmental Aspergillus surveillance was conducted in the HU in four rooms and their bathrooms, in the corridor and in three external sites using an agar impact sampler. During each sampling, temperature and relative humidity at each site were recorded and current wind speed and rainfall events were taken from the official weather service. Aspergillus spp. conidia concentration differed significantly across the sampling sites. Internal Aspergillus spp. loads were significantly dependent on temperature, internal relative humidity and rain. External conidia concentrations were significantly influenced by outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A suitable indicator was introduced to evaluate the seasonal distribution of Aspergillus spp. conidia in the sampling sites, and a significant dependence on this indicator was observed inside the HU. Seventeen different fungal species belonging to the Aspergillus genus were detected during the sampling period. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated species and its distribution depended significantly on the seasonal indicator both inside and outside the hospital ward. PMID:24158616
Cavallo, M; Andreoni, S; Martinotti, M G; Rinaldi, M; Fracchia, L
Haematological and serum biochemical values were measured in blood samples collected over a 12-mo period from 37 unsedated chital deer (Axis axis). Stags and hinds, ranging in age from birth to maturity, were sampled. Haemoglobin, total erythrocyte and haematocrit values were low at birth and sex differences were not apparent in neonates and juveniles, but were in adults. Chital stags had higher erythrocyte parameters (P less than 0.001) and lower erythrocyte indices than hinds, and the total leucocyte count was higher in stags (P less than 0.01). Some parameters (erythrocytes, muscle enzymes, glucose, cortisol) decreased over successive serial sampling. The differential leucocyte count of older stags decreased during the initial handling period. The major rutting period in February and March was characterised by changes in the differential leucocyte count, elevations in serum muscle enzymes, and lower serum cortisol levels. Alkaline phosphatase activity in serum reflected the annual antler cycle of chital stags. Serial sampling over many weeks, either weekly or tri-weekly, produced haematological and biochemical changes in successive samples which may have reflected a reduction in stress and excitement associated with restraint. PMID:1920658
Chapple, R S; English, A W; Mulley, R C; Lepherd, E E
The semiautomated fluorimetric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) was used for evaluation of the ability of cyclosporin A (CsA) and its novel non-immunosuppressive derivative SDZ PSC 833 (PSC) to modify the response to doxorubicin or vincristine in vitro in different haematological and solid human tumour types. Primary cultures of 322 tumour samples were analysed. Both cyclosporins showed resistance-modifying activity in all haematological tumours tested, and in solid tumours activity was observed in ovarian carcinoma and childhood tumours. Little or no effect was found in the remaining tumour types, including breast, renal and adrenal cortical carcinomas and adult sarcomas. In most of the responsive cases the interaction between the modifier and the cytotoxic drug was synergistic. There was a tendency to higher activity in samples from previously treated patients, and an inverse relationship between degree of cytotoxic drug resistance and resistance-modifying activity was noted. No difference in potency between CsA and PSC could be discerned. The results indicate differential in vitro resistance-modifying activity of the cyclosporins depending on tumour type. The results also suggest that treatment with resistance modifiers should be considered also for primary therapy of drug-sensitive tumours. Drug resistance assays such as the FMCA may become useful in preclinical evaluation of resistance modifiers.
We examined population-based information on relapsed childhood haematological cancers, investigating factors that might influence both overall survival and survival following relapse among the 1177 children (0–14 years) diagnosed with a haematological malignancy in Yorkshire from 1974 to 2003, of whom 342 (29%) relapsed at least once. Leukaemia patients from more deprived areas were significantly less likely to relapse (odds ratio=0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.32–0.93 for most deprived quintile vs least deprived quintile; Ptrend=0.06), especially those with acute myeloid leukaemia (P=0.04). Neither ethnic group nor distance to the main treatment centre was associated with risk of relapse. Overall, patients who relapsed at least once had 5-year survival rates of 46% (41–51%) compared with 79% (76–81%) of those who did not. Five-year survival rates from the time of first relapse increased from 20% in 1974–1983 to 45% in 1984–2003. Length of first remission was a strong predictor of survival for leukaemia with a 46% reduced risk of death for every additional year of event-free survival. Of children who experienced a relapse, 46% survived at least 5 years, whereas just under half of patients survived 5 years beyond disease recurrence. This provides a baseline for future comparisons and demonstrates that relapsed childhood cancer need not imply a poor outcome.
Feltbower, R G; Kinsey, S E; Richards, M; Shenton, G; Michelagnoli, M P; McKinney, P A
Blood characteristics in dielectric, haematological and biochemical terms of the fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to a sublethal concentration of sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate were compared with those from untreated control fish; recovery from the test solution was also checked. Trends of change in the majority of chosen parameters of blood with time of fish exposure to anionic detergent were significantly linear. A decline was noted in erythrocyte count, haematocrit, blood haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular haemoglobin with the exception of mean cellular volume. An uptake of sodium into red blood cells and a rise of intracellular potassium were seen. Practical indicators of the presence of detergent in fish blood were obtained from dielectric beta dispersion measurements. It has been shown that dielectric parameters could be correlated with haematological parameters but not with a biochemical one. Results indicate that the changes in haematocrit induce corresponding variation of the maximum of the dielectric loss factor tan delta. An increase in the electrical conductivity and permittivity of the erythrocytes' interior in exposed fish was associated with a decline of mean corpuscular haemoglobin. PMID:3035591
Papers in this Proceedings are grouped under the following headings: (1) primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry; (2) radiation chemistry - general chemistry; (3) radiation chemistry - DNA and model systems; (4) radiation chemistry - other mo...
J. J. Broerse G. W. Barendsen H. B. Kal A. J. van der Kogel
The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and, in addition, of the pressure, temperature, and velocity. A near term goal of the experimental program should be to confirm the nonlinear effects of sulfur speciation, and if present, to provide an explanation for them. It is also desirable to examine if the particulate matter retains any sulfur. The recommendation is to examine the effects on SOx production of variations in fuel-bound sulfur and aromatic content (which may affect the amount of particulates formed). These experiments should help us to understand if there is a coupling between particulate formation and SO, concentration. Similarly, any coupling with NOx can be examined either by introducing NOx into the combustion air or by using fuel-bound nitrogen. Also of immediate urgency is the need to establish and validate a detailed mechanism for sulfur oxidation/aerosol formation, whose chemistry is concluded to be homogeneous, because there is not enough surface area for heterogeneous effects. It is envisaged that this work will involve both experimental and theoretical programs. The experimental work will require, in addition to the measurements described above, fundamental studies in devices such as flow reactors and shock tubes. Complementing this effort should be modeling and theoretical activities. One impediment to the successful modeling of sulfur oxidation is the lack of reliable data for thermodynamic and transport properties for several species, such as aqueous nitric acid, sulfur oxides, and sulfuric acid. Quantum mechanical calculations are recommended as a convenient means of deriving values for these properties. Such calculations would also help establish rate constants for several important reactions for which experimental measurements are inherently fraught with uncertainty. Efforts to implement sufficiently detailed chemistry into computational fluid dynamic codes should be continued. Zero- and one-dimensional flow models are also useful vehicles for elucidating the minimal set of species and reactions that must be included in two- and three-dimensional modeling studies.
This special feature page from the American Chemical Society (ACS) showcases the up-and-coming field of "green chemistry," that is, the development of chemical products and processes that eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. A list of principles behind green chemistry, a searchable bibliography of green chemistry references, and green chemistry links (including conferences). This page comes from ACS's Green Chemistry Project, a three-year educational project to develop and disseminate green chemistry educational materials for graduate and undergraduate chemistry students.
This multicentre observational study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy and toxicity of antifungal combination therapy (combo) as treatment of proven or probable invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in patients with haematological malignancies. Between January 2005 and January 2010, 84 cases of IFDs (39 proven and 45 probable) treated with combo were collected in 20 Hematological Italian Centres, in patients who underwent chemotherapy or allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases. Median age of patients was 34 years (range 1-73) and 37% had less than 18 years. Acute leukaemia was the most common underlying haematological disease (68/84; 81%). The phase of treatment was as follows: first induction in 21/84 (25%), consolidation phase in 18/84 (21%) and reinduction/salvage in 45/84 (54%). The main site of infection was lung with or without other sites. The principal fungal pathogens were as follows: Aspergillus sp. 68 cases (81%), Candida sp. six cases (8%), Zygomycetes four cases (5%) and Fusarium sp. four cases (5%). The most used combo was caspofungin+voriconazole 35/84 (42%), caspofungin + liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) 20/84 (24%) and L-AmB+voriconazole 15/84 (18%). The median duration of combo was 19 days (range 3-180). The overall response rate (ORR) was 73% (61/84 responders) without significant differences between the combo regimens. The most important factor that significantly influenced the response was granulocyte (PMN) recovery (P 0.009). Only one patient discontinued therapy (voriconazole-related neurotoxicity) and 22% experienced mild and reversible adverse events (hypokalaemia, ALT/AST increase and creatinine increase). The IFDs-attributable mortality was 17%. This study indicates that combo was both well tolerated and effective in haematological patients. The most used combo regimens were caspofungin + voriconazole (ORR 80%) and caspofungin + L-AmB (ORR 70%). The ORR was 73% and the mortality IFD related was 17%. PMN recovery during combo predicts a favourable outcome. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT00906633. PMID:24373120
Candoni, A; Caira, M; Cesaro, S; Busca, A; Giacchino, M; Fanci, R; Delia, M; Nosari, A; Bonini, A; Cattaneo, C; Melillo, L; Caramatti, C; Milone, G; Scime', R; Picardi, M; Fanin, R; Pagano, L
Three randomized clinical studies were conducted in 2000 to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide paediatric suspension compared to albendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis and praziquantel in the treatment of hymenolepiasis in children from Cajamarca, Peru. Nitazoxanide was administered at a dose of 100 mg (age 1-3 years) or 200 mg (age 4-11 years) twice daily for 3 days, albendazole as a 400-mg single dose and praziquantel as a 25-mg/kg single dose. Post-treatment parasitological examinations were carried out on 3 faecal samples, each collected on a different day between 21 and 30 days following initiation of treatment. Nitazoxanide cured 89% (25/28), 89% (16/18) and 82% (32/39) of the cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis respectively compared with 91% (32/35), 58% (11/19) and 96% (47/49) for the comparator drugs. Each of the drugs produced egg reduction rates in excess of 98%. There were no significant adverse events or abnormalities in haematology or clinicalchemistry values or urinalysis. PMID:12055813
Haematological and cytokine alterations in malaria are a broad and controversial subject in the literature. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated various cytokines in a single patient group during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. The aim of this study was to sequentially characterise alterations in haematological patters and circulating plasma cytokine and chemokine levels in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum from a Brazilian endemic area during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. During the acute phase, thrombocytopaenia, eosinopaenia, lymphopaenia and an increased number of band cells were observed in the majority of the patients. During the convalescent phase, the haematologic parameters returned to normal. During the acute phase, P. vivax and P. falciparum patients had significantly higher interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon-?, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, macrophage inflammatory protein-1? and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels than controls and maintained high levels during the convalescent phase. IL-10 was detected at high concentrations during the acute phase, but returned to normal levels during the convalescent phase. Plasma IL-10 concentration was positively correlated with parasitaemia in P. vivax and P. falciparum-infected patients. The same was true for the TNF-? concentration in P. falciparum-infected patients. Finally, the haematological and cytokine profiles were similar between uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax infections. PMID:24676654
Rodrigues-da-Silva, Rodrigo Nunes; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa; e Fonseca, Bruna de Paula Fonseca; Antas, Paulo Renato Zuquim; Baldez, Arlete; Storer, Fabio Luiz; Santos, Fátima; Banic, Dalma Maria; de Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli
SUMMARY These guidelines provide information on how to develop and manage a point-of-care (POCT) service so that reliable haematology results are produced regardless of where the test is performed. Many of the issues addressed here are relevant to POCT within hospitals or health centres; however, the principles are equally applicable to care in the commu- nity and doctors' offices. Other
C. BRIGGS; J. CARTER; S.-H. LEE; L. SANDHAUS; R. SIMON-LOPEZ; J.-L. VIVES CORRONS
Whether children with malarial anaemia should receive supplementation with iron or folic acid is uncertain. Therefore, the effects of supplementary treatment with iron or folic acid, given together with chloroquine or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (Fansidar®), has been assessed in 600 Gambian children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. After one month, haematological recovery was significantly better in the group treated with Fansidar® than in
Michaël Boele van Hensbroek; Stephen Morris-Jones; Sarah Meisner; Shabbar Jaffar; Lang Bayo; Raduwan Dackour; Christine Phillips; Brian M. Greenwood
The aim of this study was first to investigate cardio-ventilatory and haematological responses induced by intermittent acclimation and second to study de-adaptation from high altitude observed after descent. To achieve these objectives nine subjects were submitted to intermittent acclimation in a low barometric chamber (8 h daily for 5 days, day 1 at 4500 m, day 5 at 8500 m)
1. A trial was conducted to examine the effects of dietary vitamin E content, age and sex on haematological indices and liver enzymes of Japanese quails. A total of 800 1-d-old quail chicks were assigned at random into 4 equal groups and fed on starter and layer diets containing 0, 1, 5 or 10 times the NRC recommended supplements of
M. A. Elaroussi; M. A. Fattah; N. H. Meky; I. E. Ezzat; M. M. Wakwak
The pervasive occurrence of vanadium in nature and its use in various industrial processes has increased its inputs in the environment. This has prompted us to elucidate the impact of vanadium on aquatic environ-ment, the primary body for industrial effluent discharge. The energy response of the fish, Clarias batra-chus, its haematological status including haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), leutocrit (Lt), mean
Anaemia and immunosuppresion have been shown to be a cardinal feature in African try- panosomosis. In this study, we have evaluated and compared the capacity of two registered veterinary trypanocides Novidium® (homidium chloride) and Berenil® (diminazene acetu- rate) to reduce haematological and biochemical lesions in rats experimentally infected with T. brucei. Packed cell volume (PCV), lymphocyte and eosinophil values in
Sulaiman Faoziyat Adenike; Adeyemi Oluyomi Stephen
Haematological and cytokine alterations in malaria are a broad and controversial subject in the literature. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated various cytokines in a single patient group during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. The aim of this study was to sequentially characterise alterations in haematological patters and circulating plasma cytokine and chemokine levels in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum from a Brazilian endemic area during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. During the acute phase, thrombocytopaenia, eosinopaenia, lymphopaenia and an increased number of band cells were observed in the majority of the patients. During the convalescent phase, the haematologic parameters returned to normal. During the acute phase, P. vivax and P. falciparum patients had significantly higher interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon-?, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, macrophage inflammatory protein-1? and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels than controls and maintained high levels during the convalescent phase. IL-10 was detected at high concentrations during the acute phase, but returned to normal levels during the convalescent phase. Plasma IL-10 concentration was positively correlated with parasitaemia in P. vivax and P. falciparum-infected patients. The same was true for the TNF-? concentration in P. falciparum-infected patients. Finally, the haematological and cytokine profiles were similar between uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax infections.
Rodrigues-da-Silva, Rodrigo Nunes; Lima-Junior, Josue da Costa; Fonseca, Bruna de Paula Fonseca e; Antas, Paulo Renato Zuquim; Baldez, Arlete; Storer, Fabio Luiz; Santos, Fatima; Banic, Dalma Maria; de Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli
Developed by the University of Leeds, the Delights of Chemistry promotes the art of chemistry demonstrations. Users can find illustrations and explanations of forty chemistry experiments. Many animations of demonstrations including the magnesium lamp, thermite reaction, and the volcano reaction are available. The website is full of pictures of chemistry equipment and scientists at work. Through this site, students and educators are able to explore fun chemistry experiments without having to worry about the many hazards associated with working with chemicals.
In this work we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n=50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA®) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was < 9% both within-run and between-day at and above the cutoff limit of 300 ng ml?1. This study validates the analytical screening capability of label-free PSi opiate immunosensors in authentic patient samples and is the first semi-quantitative demonstration of the technology’s successful clinical use. These results motivate future development of PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting.
Bonanno, Lisa M.; Kwong, Tai C.; DeLouise, Lisa A.
Lylmphocyte subsets/CD4 T Helper cell enumeration in HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings can be difficult to ascertain as a result of the lack of the necessary instrumentation, capacity and infrastructure. However. it is imperative to gain such information for patient monitoring in HIV. The Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) is useful as a surrogate marker for CD4 count as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and to calculate CD4% for pacdiatric use. This study therefore sets out to determine and compare the accuracy of the total lymphocyte counts obtained from three haematology analysers designated A. B and C. that are in regular use for routine haemnatological parameters at the main referral hospital in Barbados. West Indies. The TLC of 263 HIV treatment naive individuals attending the HIV Reference Unit in Barbados were enumnerated on the three haematology analysers. The lymphosumn (Sum of lymphocyte subsets: T-helper cell. T-cytotoxic cells. B lymphocytes and Natural killer cells) should be equal to the TLC. and is derived by immunophenotypic analysis on a 4-colour flowcytometer. Machine C had the highest positive correlation between the TLC and the lymphosumn with and R' of 0.9031 compared to machine A with an R values of 0.7119 and Machine B with R(2) values of 0.637. These results show that there can be dramatic inaccuracies when using routine haematology analysers for both routine use. as a surrogate marker of CD4 or for derivation of CD4% in HIV management. It further demonstrates that all haematology analyzers require some form of Quality control. The possible lack of accuracy of the TLC by haematology analysers should be taken into consideration when following the recommendations of the WHO in resource poor settings or using it as a denominator for calculating CD4%. PMID:17209312
Background Several models for mortality prediction have been constructed for critically ill patients with haematological malignancies in recent years. These models have proven to be equally or more accurate in predicting hospital mortality in patients with haematological malignancies than ICU severity of illness scores such as the APACHE II or SAPS II . The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of predicting hospital mortality in patients with haematological malignancies admitted to the ICU between models based on multiple logistic regression (MLR) and support vector machine (SVM) based models. Methods 352 patients with haematological malignancies admitted to the ICU between 1997 and 2006 for a life-threatening complication were included. 252 patient records were used for training of the models and 100 were used for validation. In a first model 12 input variables were included for comparison between MLR and SVM. In a second more complex model 17 input variables were used. MLR and SVM analysis were performed independently from each other. Discrimination was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (± SE). Results The area under ROC curve for the MLR and SVM in the validation data set were 0.768 (± 0.04) vs. 0.802 (± 0.04) in the first model (p = 0.19) and 0.781 (± 0.05) vs. 0.808 (± 0.04) in the second more complex model (p = 0.44). SVM needed only 4 variables to make its prediction in both models, whereas MLR needed 7 and 8 variables in the first and second model respectively. Conclusion The discriminative power of both the MLR and SVM models was good. No statistically significant differences were found in discriminative power between MLR and SVM for prediction of hospital mortality in critically ill patients with haematological malignancies.
Verplancke, T; Van Looy, S; Benoit, D; Vansteelandt, S; Depuydt, P; De Turck, F; Decruyenaere, J
It is not certain whether clinical or laboratory findings help to distinguish true bacteraemia from contamination among acute leukaemic patients with one or more blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis. We studied 31 patients treated at the Haematological Unit between 1 January, 1992 and 30 June, 1995 who were considered to have ‘true bacteraemia’, indicated by at least two positive
O. Lyytikäinen; V. Valtonen; V.-J. Anttila; P. Ruutu
Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)
The chemistry, microbiology and mode of action of teicoplanin, as well as the mechanism, control and epidemiology of glycopeptide resistance, are discussed in detail. The antibacterial activity of teicoplanin against Gram-positive bacteria, including those expressing resistance to unrelated compounds, is similar to that of vancomycin but with increased potency, particularly against Streptococcus spp and Enterococcus spp. Some strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp, particularly S. haemolytieus, are less susceptible to teicoplanin than to vancomycin. Teicoplanin is active against vancomycin resistance caused by VanB and VanC, but is not active against VanA resistant strains. The epidemiology of GISA and VISA strains of S. aureus is, as yet, poorly understood with more work necessary to elucidate the sequence of events leading to their evolution. Despite the increasing importance of glycopeptide resistance, teicoplanin has proved its clinical worth and continues to have important potential in the treatment of life-threatening Gram-positive sepsis. PMID:11131964
A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinicalchemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.
Therapeutic adhesion is essential because it modulates the efficiency of treatment, the occurrence of side effects and the socioeconomic costs possibly associated with it. In haematology, in the particular case of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, the "ADAGIO" study performed by Noens and co-workers demonstrated that therapeutic observance is lower than the practitioners, the patients and the family members believe it is. This lack of adhesion can engender a decrease of the efficiency of treatment, in particular by imatinib. Factors such as the chronicity of the disease and the length of treatment modify therapeutic adhesion over time. Simple methods, addressing both the patient and the doctor should be developed to improve this therapeutic adhesion. PMID:20684429
Laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) were infected with Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). The rodents received 150 metacercariae each and blood samples were collected weekly until the fifth week of infection. The blood samples were analyzed for determination of haematocrit, total red blood cells with their dimensions, haemoglobin and haematimetric index (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; mean corpuscular haemoglobin, MCH; and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, MCHC) and platelets. Red blood cells, haematocrit and haemoglobin in the first week had significantly lower levels than those of uninfected (control) rats, suggesting the development of normocytic and normocromic anaemia with anisocytic alteration. The number of eosinophils did not increase significantly among the groups. We concluded that E. paraensei produces haematological alterations in R. norvegicus, causing regenerative anaemia. This system can therefore be a useful model to study the direct and indirect effects of gastrointestinal infections. PMID:22579577
Garcia, J S; Pinheiro, J; Hooper, C S; Simões, R O; Ferraz, J S; Maldonado, A
The effect of bendiocarbamate application (5 mg/kg b.w.) on the haematological and immunological parameters in rabbits was evaluated. Total leukocyte cell count, erythrocyte cell count, differential cell count were determined during the period of three months of bendiocarbamate application and compared with those in healthy animals. The immunotoxic effect was evaluated by the test of ingestion ability of phagocytes (phagocytic activity and index of phagocytic activity) and proliferation activity of lymphocytes after mitogen stimulation. The significant decrease of total leukocytes, lymphocytosis and neutropaenia were found after bendiocarbamate application. The functional activities of phagocytes (expressed as phagocytic activity) and lymphocytes (proliferative activity) were significantly suppressed in rabbits treated with bendiocarbamate compared with those in control groups and values before the experiment. PMID:22540647
Blood samples were collected from a high density population of wild badgers in Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire, England, where animals were routinely captured and examined as part of a long-term ecological study, and a selection of haematological and biochemical variables were measured. The badger cubs had lower red blood cell counts and haemoglobin concentrations than the adults, consistent with physiological anaemia, and lower serum protein concentrations. Growth of muscle and active bone formation in the cubs probably accounted for their higher serum concentrations of creatinine and calcium, and higher activities of alkaline phosphatase. Only triglyceride concentrations varied between the sexes. The serum concentration of urea was higher than observed in other mustelids, consistent with a protein-rich diet and possibly related to the consumption of earthworms. PMID:18441351
Winnacker, H; Walker, N J; Brash, M G I; MacDonald, J A; Delahay, R J
Systemic candidiasis with Candida-induced abscesses, predominantly in the liver and the spleen, was diagnosed in 27 patients with haematologic malignancies after intensive cytostatic therapy. Specific features included septic fever unresponsive to antimicrobial therapy, hepatosplenomegaly with multiple lesions in the liver and spleen (diameter up to 2 cm) as detected by computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound, and an elevation in liver enzymes. During treatment, induced neutropenia, hepatic and splenic foci were poorly defined histologically and were not identified by imaging procedures. After granulocyte recovery these foci showed characteristic histological patterns. Ultrasound and/or CT investigations of the abdomen now revealed characteristic lesions in the liver and the spleen. Gamma-GT and alkaline phosphatase were early indicators of hepatic involvement in Candida septicaemia and were often already elevated in aplasia. PMID:2337685
von Eiff, M; Essink, M; Roos, N; Hiddemann, W; Büchner, T; van de Loo, J
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bifenthrin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The 96-h LC50 value of Talstar EC 10 (active substance 100 g l(-1) bifenthrin) was found to be 57.5 microg l(-1). Examination of haematological and biochemical profiles and histological tissue examination was performed on common carp after 96 h of exposure to Talstar EC 10 (57.5 microg l(-1)). The experimental group showed significantly higher (P < 0.01) values of plasma glucose, ammonia, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase as well as the relative and absolute monocyte count, compared with the control group. Histological examination revealed teleangioectasiae of secondary gill lamellae and degeneration of hepatocytes. The bifenthrin-based Talstar EC 10 pesticide preparation was classified as a substance strongly toxic for fish. PMID:18766454
The Danish Thorotrast Study was recently reestablished and improved. The cohort has been reidentified and followed up, and now comprises 1003 Thorotrast-exposed patients. For all suspected haematological cases, cytological and histological material has been revised and malignant diseases have been reclassified. The numbers of cases of leukemia and other related haematological disorders were as follows: 16 acute myeloid leukemia (AML); 8 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); 1 acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL); 3 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); 4 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL); 2 multiple myeloma (MM); 2 myelofibrosis (MF); 2 chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL). Except for CLL, all cases might be Thorotrast-induced. (Expected number of leukemias: < 2.5.) The findings in the German, Japanese, Portuguese and Danish studies are very similar. Some of the characteristic features include a high incidence of AML with several erythroleukemias, many cases of MDS, and a relatively low incidence of CML. In several studies of leukemia induced by alkylating agents, erythroleukemia is also described as a prominent feature. The possibility exists that a phase of relative predominance of erythroid elements in the bone marrow may be a common and not an unusual feature in the pathogenesis of these secondary leukemias. The findings are also compared with histopathological data from a Danish control group of de novo leukemia patients and from atomic bomb survivors with radiation-induced leukemia. The relative frequency of AML is higher among the Thorotrast-exposed patients than among the Danish control group and the A-bomb survivors. In contrast, low relative frequencies are seen for ALL and CML in Thorotrast cases in comparison with de novo leukemia cases and A-bomb survivors. It can be concluded that differences in relative and absolute frequency of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndrome exist not only between the irradiated populations and the unexposed control group, but even between groups exposed to low-LET (linear energy transfer) and high-LET radiation. PMID:7695889
Before this study was undertaken, biochemical and haematological changes in collapsed fun runners have been interpreted only by comparison with changes observed in trained marathon runners, or by comparison with normal subjects. This study was undertaken to establish the pattern of biochemical and haematological changes to be expected in non-collapsed fun runners as a result of competition, and to use this pattern as the basis for comparison with changes observed in collapsed fun runners after similar competition. Forty-three fun runners (28 males, 15 females) who competed in the 1978 City-to-Surf run volunteered as non-collapsed "controls", while 10 runners (nine males, one female) who collapsed during the 1978 City-to-Surf run became "casualties" for comparison. Blood for detailed analysis was collected from the controls two weeks before the 1978 City-to-Surf run, immediately after the run and one month later; blood from the casualties was collected immediately after the run, and one month later. As a result of competition, three patterns of changes were observed, namely, haemoconcentration; tissue damage and altered organ system function; and alteration in carbohydrate metabolism. More intense tissue damage probably accounts for disproportionate changes of some variables in male controls compared with female controls, and in casualties compared with controls. Casualties differed most from controls in degree fo depression of serum bicarbonate levels, and degree of elevation of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, uric acid and bilirubin levels. A wide scatter of blood sugar levels immediately after run both in controls and in casualties reflects the stress of prolonged exertion. PMID:522770
The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes.
Evaluation of haematological indicators is carried out as routing in medical surveillance of workers exposed to ionizing radiation, in order to assest the initial and continuing fitness for their intended tasks. The purpose of this work is to analize the ...
Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)
Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)
Reports on a study exploring why students are not studying chemistry. Three groups of graduating high school students and their chemistry teachers stayed at a research institute working on molecular modeling and wrote essays on school chemistry versus chemistry in research. Concludes that school chemistry does not convey today's chemistry in…
Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)
Reviews current research interests in photographic chemistry, involving two proposed models for spectral sensitization of crystal defects and impurities in the photolysis reactivity and the mechanisms of development and complexation. Establishment of photographic chemistry in a chemistry curriculum is recommended. (CC)
This eight-chapter book is intended for use by chemistry teachers, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and other key personnel working in the field of chemical education. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Face of Chemistry" (J. A. Campbell); (2) "Curriculum Innovation in School Chemistry" (R. B. Ingel and A. M. Ranaweera); (3) "Some…
The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…
Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…
Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)
Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.
Papers are presented under the following symposia titles: advances in fuel cell research; biorefineries - renewable fuels and chemicals; chemistry of fuels and emerging fuel technologies; fuel processing for hydrogen production; membranes for energy and fuel applications; new progress in C1 chemistry; research challenges for the hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage; SciMix fuel chemistry; and ultraclean transportation fuels.
Roy M. Harrison, Editor RSC Publishing; ISBN 0854043713; x + 363 pp.; 2006; $69.95 Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes chemistry of the air, water, and soil. Although it may be confused with green chemistry, which deals with potential pollution reduction, environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical principles that occur in nature. Therefore, it is the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, water, and soil environments, and the effect of human activity on them. Environmental chemistry not only explores each of these environments, but also closely examines the interfaces and boundaries where the environments intersect.
Skin colonisation is an important source for central venous catheter (CVC) colonisation and infection. This study intended to identify risk factors for skin colonisation prior to CVC placement (baseline colonisation) and within 10 days after CVC insertion (subsequent colonisation), for CVC-tip colonisation and for bloodstream infection (BSI). Within a randomised clinical trial, data of 219 patients with haematological malignancies and inserted CVC (with a total of 5,501 CVC-days and 4,275 days at risk) in two university hospitals were analysed. Quantitative skin cultures were obtained from the insertion site before CVC placement and at regular intervals afterwards. CVC-tip cultures were taken on CVC removal and data collection was performed. Statistical analysis included linear and logistic regression models. Age was an independent risk factor for colonisation prior to CVC placement (baseline colonisation). Independent risk factors for subsequent colonisation were baseline colonisation and male gender. High level of subsequent skin colonisation at the insertion site was a predictor of CVC-tip colonisation, and a predictor of BSI. High level of skin colonisation predicts catheter tip colonisation and possibly subsequent infection. Sustained reduction of bacterial growth at the CVC insertion site is therefore indispensable. Male patients are at particular risk for skin colonisation and may be a target population for additional insertion-site care before and during catheterisation. PMID:20532506
Luft, Dirk; Schmoor, Claudia; Wilson, Christine; Widmer, Andreas F; Bertz, Hartmut; Frei, Reno; Heim, Dominik; Dettenkofer, Markus
The aim of this study was to follow up whether the modification of pro-antioxidant status by 8-day oral application of N-acetylcysteine\\u000a (NAC) in healthy men affects the haematological response, whether there is a direct relationship between antioxidant defences\\u000a and erythropoietin (EPO) secretion and whether NAC intake enhances exercise performance. Fifteen healthy men were randomly\\u000a assigned to one of two groups:
A. Zembron-Lacny; M. Slowinska-Lisowska; Z. Szygula; Z. Witkowski; K. Szyszka
The electronic surveillance system Hema e-Chart allowed us to prospectively collect data and to perform an analysis of invasive fungal infections (IFI) diagnosed in febrile patients as well as the procedures allowing their diagnosis and outcome according to the treatment given. Every patient admitted to 26 Italian Haematology Units with a new diagnosis of haematological malignancy and who was a candidate for chemotherapy was consecutively registered between March 2007 and March 2009. In all, 147 haematological patients with mycoses were identified. Yeasts were found in 23 infections; moulds were diagnosed in 17 proven, 35 probable and 72 possible mycoses. Galactomannan (GM) antigen was the most important test to diagnose probable mould infection; it was positive (cut-off >0.5) in 27 (77%) probable and in nine (53%) proven mould infections. Among patients with probable/proven mould infection who received no prophylaxis or non-mould-active prophylaxis with fluconazole, more patients (n = 26, 78.8%) had GM antigen positivity compared with patients (n = 10, 52.6%) given prophylaxis with mould-active drugs (p <0.05). First-line antifungal therapy was effective in 11/23 (48%) yeast infections and in 37/52 (71.2%) proven/probable mould infections. Twenty patients (14%) died within 12 weeks. The fungal attributable mortality was 30.4% and 17.3% in yeast and proven/probable mould infections, respectively. Among risk factors only age was independently associated (p 0.013) with mortality; sex, underlying haematological malignancy, previous prophylaxis and presence of neutropenia at diagnosis were not significant. A diagnosis of mould infection seemed to have a trend for a better outcome than the diagnosis of yeast infection (p 0.064). PMID:23279327
Nosari, A M; Caira, M; Pioltelli, M L; Fanci, R; Bonini, A; Cattaneo, C; Castagnola, C; Capalbo, S F; De Fabritiis, P; Mettivier, V; Morselli, M; Pastore, D; Aversa, F; Rossi, G; Pagano, L
Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. It is known for its wide toxic manifestations. The present experiment pertains to the protective role of vitamin C against haematological and biochemical toxicity induced by deltamethrin during 4 weeks. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight each: Group I served as control rats; Group II received deltamethrin (1.28mg\\/kg BW) in
Haematological and serum biochemical studies of natural population of Synodontis membranacea from Jebba Lake, North Central Nigeria were investigated in order to establish their mean and reference values. Bi-monthly\\u000a collection of 1,408 live fish samples was carried out between April 2002 and March 2004, using gill nets of various mesh sizes\\u000a ranging from 5.08 to 10.16 cm. The mean baseline value
The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro cytotoxicity of calcein acetoxymethyl ester (Calcein\\/AM) on primary cultures derived from solid and haematological human tumours. Calcein\\/AM is a fluorescent dye that localises intracellularly after esterase-dependent cellular trapping and which has shown cytotoxic activity against various established human tumour cell lines at relatively low concentrations. The semi-automated fluorometric microculture
B. Jonsson; G. Liminga; K. Csoka; H. Fridborg; S. Dhar; P. Nygren; R. Larsson
We hypothesised that haematological malignancies increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis. The population-based study comprised all first-time Salmonella\\/Campylobacter gastroenteritis cases in two Danish counties (1991–2003), with age- and gender-matched controls from the background population.\\u000a We linked the study cohort to registries to obtain data on malignancies, chemotherapy (yes\\/no), and main comorbidities diagnosed\\u000a before Salmonella\\/Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Based
Kim O. Gradel; Mette Nørgaard; Claus Dethlefsen; Henrik C. Schønheyder; Brian Kristensen; Tove Ejlertsen; Henrik Nielsen
This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160?mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80?ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80?mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128
Objective: The objective of the current study was to establish the reference ranges of haematological indices amongst five healthy infantile (<1 year) age groups. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi. Non probability convenience sampling was adopted for the proceedings for the study. A sample size was 2000 which was equally distributed as 400 samples for all the five age groups i.e. <27 days, 3 month, 6 month, 9 month and one year. One thousands were males and 1000 were the females. An informed consent from the guardian was the pre requisite of study, while those candidates having an evidence of any systemic illness were not excluded. Results : The values of haematological indices i.e. MCV, MCHC, MCH, PCV and RDW varies with growing age of an infant. A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. Conclusion : A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. The values reported in this study can be used as a local reference for the newborn aged between <27 days and 1 year of age. PMID:24353580
Objective: The objective of the current study was to establish the reference ranges of haematological indices amongst five healthy infantile (<1 year) age groups. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi. Non probability convenience sampling was adopted for the proceedings for the study. A sample size was 2000 which was equally distributed as 400 samples for all the five age groups i.e. <27 days, 3 month, 6 month, 9 month and one year. One thousands were males and 1000 were the females. An informed consent from the guardian was the pre requisite of study, while those candidates having an evidence of any systemic illness were not excluded. Results : The values of haematological indices i.e. MCV, MCHC, MCH, PCV and RDW varies with growing age of an infant. A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. Conclusion : A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. The values reported in this study can be used as a local reference for the newborn aged between <27 days and 1 year of age.
Malaria and HIV are the two most important health challenges of our time. Haematologic abnormalities are features in Plasmodium falciparum infection, and anaemia is a well-known outcome. The prevalence and haematological impact of P. falciparum parasitaemia were determined among HIV-infected individuals in Nigeria. Parasite detection was carried out using microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated machine while CD4+ T-cells count was analyzed using flow cytometer. Thirty-seven (18.5%) out of the 200 HIV individuals enrolled had malaria parasites detected in their blood. All the positive cases were detected by PCR while only 20 (10%) were detected by thick blood microscopy. The mean haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) of HIV individuals with malaria parasitaemia were lower compared to those without malaria parasitaemia but the difference was not statistically significant. Also no significant difference was observed in malaria positivity in respect to sex and mean CD4+ cell count. The study highlights the effects of P. falciparum parasitaemia on the haematologic and immune components of HIV individuals.
Introduction Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and provided a daily oral supplement of multivitamins (vitamin B complex, C and E) or placebo at age 6 weeks for 24 months. Among them, 2008 infants provided blood samples and had haemoglobin concentrations measured at baseline and during a follow-up period. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentrations<11 g/dL and severe anaemia<8.5 g/dL. Results Haemoglobin concentrations among children in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group at 12 (9.77 vs. 9.64 g/dL, p=0.03), 18 (9.76 vs. 9.57 g/dL, p=0.004), and 24 months (9.93 vs. 9.75 g/dL, p=0.02) of follow-up. Compared to those in the placebo group, children in the treatment group had a 12% lower risk of anaemia (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.99; p=0.03). The treatment was associated with a 28% reduced risk of severe anaemia among children born to women without anaemia (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56–0.92; p=0.008), but not among those born to women with anaemia (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.79–1.54; p=0.57; p for interaction=0.007). One thousand seven hundred fifty three infants who tested HIV-negative at baseline and had HIV testing during follow-up were included in the analysis for MTCT of HIV. No association was found between multivitamin supplements and MTCT of HIV. Conclusions Multivitamin supplements improve haematologic status among children born to HIV-positive women. Further trials focusing on anaemia among HIV-exposed children are warranted in the context of antiretroviral therapy.
Objectives Although haematological abnormalities are common manifestations of HIV infection, few studies on haematological parameters in HIV-infected persons have been undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors assessed factors associated with haematological parameters in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve and HIV-uninfected Rwandan women. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal cohort. Setting Community-based women's associations. Participants 710 HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral-naïve and 226 HIV-uninfected (HIV?) women from the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study Assessment. Haematological parameters categorised as (abnormal vs normal) were compared by HIV status and among HIV+ women by CD4 count category using proportions. Multivariate logistic regression models using forward selection were fit. Results Prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb) <12.0?g/dl) was higher in the HIV+ group (20.5% vs 6.3%; p<0.001), and increased with lower CD4 counts: ?350 (7.6%), 200–349 (16%) and <200 cells/mm3 (32.2%). Marked anaemia (Hb <10.0?g/dl) was found in 4.2% of HIV+ and none of the HIV? women (p<0.001), and was highest in HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (8.4%). The HIV+ were more likely than HIV? women (4.2 vs 0.5%, respectively, p=0.002) to have moderate neutropenia with white blood cells <2.0×103 cells/mm3 and 8.4% of HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 had moderate neutropenia. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (OR 0.87/kg/m2, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.93; p<0.001), CD4 200–350 vs HIV? (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.89 to 6.83; p<0.001) and CD4 <200 cells/mm3 vs HIV? (OR 8.09, 95% CI 4.37 to 14.97; <0.001) had large independent associations with anaemia. There were large independent associations of CD4 <200 cells/mm3 vs HIV? (OR 7.18, 95% CI 0.78 to 65.82; p=0.081) and co-trimoxazole and/or dapsone use (OR 5.69, 95% CI 0.63 to 51.45; p=0.122) with moderate neutropenia. Conclusions Anaemia was more common than neutropenia or thrombocytopenia in the HIV-infected Rwandan women. Future comparisons of haematological parameters in HIV-infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy initiation are warranted.
Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p < 0.05) high in negative control group when compared with positive control group. It could be concluded that Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p < 0.05) reduction in haematological and serum biochemical parameters of all the treatment groups were recorded in comparison with negative control group. In addition, T4 and T5 groups showed significantly (p < 0.05) high superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin (Hb). However, higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), blood glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in T5 group revealed that higher concentration of azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis. PMID:23090629
Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay
General Chemistry Online, created by Frederick Senese, a professor at Frostburg State University, is a guide and resource for introductory chemistry students. This site provides five areas of information: The Chemistry Home Companion, Just Ask Antoine!, Chemistry Exam Survival Guide, Tutorials, and a Featured Article. The Companion is a study guide covering the basic concepts of an introductory general chemistry course. Topics include measurement, molecules and compounds, and the quantum theory. Just Ask Antoine! allows students to post their chemistry questions. An archived list provides questions and answers for the past year. The Exam Survival Guide provides tips on passing exams, checklists of objectives and skills, and two online practice exams. The Tutorial currently contains only problems and quizzes for the measurement topic. The featured article for February is about Anandamide, a "messenger molecule that plays a role in pain, depression, appetite, memory, and fertility."
Some haematological and physical properties of Clarias gariepinus cultivated in water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane over a period of 56 days were examined. The haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) concentrations of test animals were found to be significantly lower than those of control (p<0.05). The gain in body weight of male C. gariepinus cultivated in uncontaminated water (control), water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane was found to be 11.88 ± 0.55, 13.5 ± 0.62, 21.60 ± 1.03 and 27.54 ± 1.22 g, respectively. Serum cholesterol concentrations of fish cultivated in contaminated water were found to be significantly higher than those of control (p<0.05). The experimental results suggested that the pollutants may cause anaemia in the fish as evident in the Hb and PCV results. It could also be inferred that the gain in body weight may be due to impaired fat metabolism which might have led to elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the fish. It is our view that consumption of such fish may cause hypercholesterolemia. PMID:19801186
Adeyemi, Olalekan; Oginni, Olatunde; Igbakin, Ayanfe P; Adeyemi, Oyeyemi; Osubor, Chris C
It is not clear whether the anaesthetic agents tiletamine and zolazepam have antioxidant or pro-oxidant effects. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of tiletamine-zolazepam anaesthesia on oxidant/antioxidant status in blood plasma and on haematological parameters in 10 healthy Awassi ewes. The tiletamine-zolazepam combination was administrated in a dose of 7.5 mg/kg intramuscularly. The animals were spontaneously breathing air during the procedure. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture before induction and at 30, 60, 120 min, 24 h and 3 days after anaesthesia. Malondialdehyde concentration, an index of lipid peroxidation, was higher at 30, 60, 120 min and 24 h (P < 0.05) than the baseline value in the plasma. The level of glutathione decreased (P < 0.05) at 30, 60 and 120 min, then returned to the baseline level. Beta-carotene concentration was lower (P < 0.05) than the baseline value during anaesthesia with the exception of its level at 120 min. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities decreased (P < 0.05) at the onset of anaesthesia, then returned to baseline values. There was no significant change in vitamin A level. Red blood cell count, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) only at 30 min and thereafter they gradually returned to the baseline values. Based on the results tiletamine-zolazepam anaesthesia seems to accelerate lipid peroxidation and to impair the enzymatic antioxidant defence in the blood plasma. PMID:17555283
The aim of the study was to observe the changes in haematological parameters and blood lipid profile through copper (Cu) deficiency. Eighty broiler chicks were used in the study. The chicks were separated into two equal groups (n = 40), feed treatment according to the groups started on day 7. The animals in the control group were fed with normal feed. Those in the Cu-deficient group were fed with feed that did not contain supplemental Cu. Blood samples were taken from all the animals on days 7, 21 and 49. Fibrinogen and prothrombin time were assayed in plasma; total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), triglyceride and ceruloplasmin were assayed in sera; and haematocrit and thrombocyte levels were assayed in the blood samples. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the Cu-deficient group than in the control group. Serum ceruloplasmin levels were lower in the Cu-deficient group than in the control group. Prothrombin time was higher in the Cu-deficient group than in the control group. Haematocrit levels were lower in the Cu-deficient group than in the control group. It was concluded that Cu deficiency created hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, insufficient growth and anaemia in broilers. PMID:16970628
Prenatal Ultrasound (US) is commonly used as a routine procedure on pregnant women. It is generally perceived as a safe procedure due to the use of non-ionizing radiation. However, the neurotoxicity of diagnostic prenatal US was detected to have a correlation with high susceptibility to early developing fetus. This research involved in vivo experimental model by using 3rd trimester pregnant Oryctolagus cuniculus and exposing them to US exposures for 30, 60, and 90 minutes at their gestational day (GD) 28-29. The output power and intensities, spatial peak temporal average intensity (ISPTA) of US were varied from 0.4 to 0.7 W and 0.13 to 0.19 W/cm2 respectively were tested initially in free-field, water. Haematological analysis was carried out to detect any changes in blood constituents. Statistically significant differences were detected in red blood cell (RBC) count (P<0.001), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (P<0.001) and also platelet (PLT) count (P<0.001) in newborn of Oryctolagus cuniculus. These findings indicate the possibility of US heating in causing defects on studied animal.
Md. Dom, Sulaiman; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri
To assess the impact of cancer (IOC) on subsequent quality of life (QOL), 718 long-term haematological cancer survivors completed validated psychosocial, functional and QOL scales, including IOC. Fifteen percent reported significant psychological distress, 18% high levels of fatigue and 10% moderate to severe functional impairment. These groups of participants also showed poorer QOL. There were no significant differences in psychological distress (P = 0·76), fatigue (P = 0·23) or functional impairment (P = 0·74) across different cancer subtypes. Two separate hierarchical regression analyses examined the combined association of disease-type, psychosocial and other factors on negative and positive IOC scores respectively. Higher negative IOC scores were significantly associated (P ? 0·001) with medical comorbidity, psychological distress, lower social support, high fatigue levels and functional impairment. Paediatric patients (diagnosed at <17 years) had significantly higher negative IOC scores than adult patients (P = 0·001); greater years since diagnosis was significantly (P < 0·001) associated with less negative IOC. Higher positive IOC was associated with acute leukaemia (P = 0·01); lower positive IOC with paediatric patients (P < 0·001), white ethnicity (P < 0·001), higher education (P = 0·003), no partner (P = 0·01) and lower social support (P = 0·01). Screening for medical comorbidity, psychological distress and fatigue identifies those needing most support and should allow earlier interventions to address negative and positive IOC to improve the well-being of cancer survivors. PMID:24372352
Middle school science resource from ACS. It includes activity-based lesson plans for teaching basic chemistry concepts that cover all the main concepts in middle school chemistry. Each lesson also contains integrated animations and video that a teacher can use to help explain student observations on the molecular level. Online professional development will also be available to introduce and familiarize teachers with the demonstrations, activities, and chemistry content in the site.
Correlates high school chemistry curriculum with high school algebra curriculum and makes the case for an integrated approach to mathematics and science instruction. Focuses on process integration. (DDR)
Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)
European studies have suggested that the esp gene and other virulence factors have roles in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) infections. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the spectrum of clinical disease and putative virulence factors in vanB VREfm isolates. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify potential virulence genes (asa1, gel E, cylA, esp and hyl) in VREfm isolates obtained from an Australian population of haematology patients. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and automated ribotyping. Infection, requirement for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and all-cause 30-day mortality were used as clinical indicators of organism virulence. Forty-one VREfm vanB isolates (41 patients; 14 infected and 27 colonised only) were analysed. Thirty-five of these isolates were typed by PFGE, 31 of which were represented by three clusters. The esp gene was identified in 22 of 27 (81.5%) screening and 11 of 14 (78.6%) infection-associated isolates. One isolate was hyl gene positive, and no isolate contained asa1, gel E or cylA genes. VREfm infection was independently associated with host factors (underlying diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia, age
Worth, L J; Slavin, M A; Vankerckhoven, V; Goossens, H; Grabsch, E A; Thursky, K A
In a clinical non-trial setting, the efficacy and safety of caspofungin was compared with liposomal amphotericin B for the management of febrile neutropenia or invasive fungal infections in 73 episodes in patients with haematological malignancy. There were fewer episodes of drug toxicity with caspofungin than liposomal amphotericin B (58.3 vs 83.7 %, P=0.02). The favourable response rate for episodes of febrile neutropenia treated with caspofungin or liposomal amphotericin B was similar at 37.5 and 53.8 %, respectively, but more breakthrough fungal infections occurred with caspofungin than with liposomal amphotericin B (33.3 vs 0 %, P<0.05) in these patients who did not receive antifungal prophylaxis. None of four episodes of candidaemia or hepatosplenic candidiasis responded to caspofungin compared with three of four episodes treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Mortality was significantly higher with caspofungin treatment compared with liposomal amphotericin B (6/24 vs 2/49, P=0.01), mainly due to an excess of fungal infections (P=0.04). Caspofungin treatment was a significant independent predictor of mortality [odds ratio=7.6 (95 % confidence interval 1.2-45.5)] when sepsis severity, prolonged neutropenia and length of antifungal therapy were considered in a multiple logistic regression model. In clinical practice, there is a suggestion that caspofungin may not be as effective as liposomal amphotericin B in preventing breakthrough invasive fungal infections in febrile neutropenia or in preventing fungus-related deaths. Because of the potential biases in this observational study, these preliminary findings should be interpreted with caution and clarified with a larger cohort of patients. PMID:17005784
Describes a credit/no credit course which focuses on career options in chemistry. The course (consisting of 15 one-hour seminar-type sessions) includes guest speakers for several sessions and an emphasis (in introductory sessions) on graduate school in chemistry, the chemical industry, resumes, and interviews. Also briefly describes an internship…
Halogens are very reactive chemicals that are known to play an important role in anthropogenic stratospheric ozone depletion chemistry, first recognized by Molina and Rowland (1974). However, they also affect the chemistry of the troposphere. They are of special interest because they are involved in many reaction cycles that can affect the oxidation power of the atmosphere indirectly by influencing
Presents an activity designed for use during National Chemistry Week 2002 with the theme "Chemistry Keeps Us Clean". Allows students to discover more about a cleaning product they use everyday. Students make their own toothpaste and compare its properties with those of commercial toothpaste. (MM)
Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…
Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.
Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)
Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)
Describes nine minicourses in chemistry designed to acquaint the non-science major with practical applications of chemistry in everyday experiences. Each course consists of daily classes for two weeks for one credit and is offered on a credit/no credit basis. (MLH)
This award is given to sites, that somehow are related to chemistry. The criteria to rank the sites are information content and design (layout, navigation, graphical design). Sites must contain chemistry related topics as innovative and attractive as possible. This award is given away to the best 5% of the submissions to the website and other sites reviewed by site author.
Suggests chemistry of cooking and analysis of culinary recipes as subject matter for introducing chemistry to an audience, especially to individuals with neutral or negative attitudes toward science. Includes sample recipes and experiments and a table listing scientific topics with related cooking examples. (JN)
An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.
From science writer David Bradley, this blog has brought the "latest news from the world of chemistry to web surfers everywhere" since 1999. The site crosses a research orientation with a popular look and feel. Features examine current chemistry developments in areas such as chromatography and nanotechnology, as well as news pertaining to work being done by researchers.
This book contains the proceedings from SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering conference on June 5-6, 1986. Topics are presented under the following session heads: Isotope Separation and Related Photochemistry, Laser Induced Chemistry I, Laser Spectroscopy, and Laser Induced Chemistry II. There are 33 papers in this volume.
Organic Chemistry Worldwide is an excellent organic chemistry metasite that is not to be missed. Geared toward synthetic organic chemists involved in academic or industrial research, Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide has a mission to collect and independently annotate "all useful organic chemistry sites and to present them in an intuitive way." This extensive metasite is divided into sections on literature, laboratory resources, spectroscopy and spectrometry, nomenclature and teaching, and conferences and organizations. The Literature section contains links to over 75 journals (some restricted access), 14 free databases (and many more commercial), dissertation collections, reviews, guides, patents, and current awareness sources. Examples of resources for laboratory work include links to chemical product databases, laboratory safety bulletins (.pdf), products and services, etc. Highlights of the site are an in-depth section on mass spectrometry, with links to publications and databases, and a plethora of links to organic chemistry labs worldwide, from Armenia to Uruguay.
Introduction Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8–10 years old in one study. Aim To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. Material and methods From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count – CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity – TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and ?2 tests were used for comparison. Results Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein level was positive in 1.46% of cases and 0.5% of controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Frequency of serum iron < 120 was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions The ESR, CRP and occult blood was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection.
To investigate the effects of practical amounts of n-3 highly-unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) on a number of parameters involved in haemostasis, 12 healthy men were fed three diets in a 3 x 3 cross-over design. The diets, fed as the evening meal for 6-week periods, were: Control diet (essentially fish-free), Fish diet (200 g/d of lean Australian fish flesh) and the same fish-based diet but supplemented with 5 g/d fish oil (Fish + Oil). The diets supplied about 0, 0.6, and 2.0 g n-3 HUFA/d, respectively. Relative to the Control diet, the number of circulating leukocytes was significantly reduced after both the Fish and Fish + Oil diets (by 13% and 15%, respectively). This reduction occurred in the number of neutrophils, although this did not reach significance on the Fish diet alone. Platelet count fell on the Fish + Oil diet (by 6%) but not on the Fish diet alone. There was an apparent enhancement of fibrinolytic potential after both fish-containing diets, which tended to be accentuated with the fish oil supplementation. The mechanisms underlying some if not all of these observations may be eicosanoid-mediated as indicated by a diminution in the platelet arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) ratios after the Fish + Oil (13.7 +/- 1.8) and Fish (34.4 +/- 8.9) diets relative to the Control diet (66.1 +/- 15.6). These data suggest that a practical amount of lean fish can improve certain haematological parameters implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. PMID:1811337
The experiment was conducted to study the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on growth, haematological and immunological characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 100 male piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with a body weight of 8.0 ± 0.2 kg weaned at the age of 28 days were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicates and 10 pigs per replicate. Piglets received a basal diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1000 mg/kg SB. The feeding trial lasted for 21 days. The results showed that dietary SB significantly decreased (p < 0.05) diarrhoea incidence of weaned piglets, but did not affect (p > 0.05) the average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed to gain (F/G). Furthermore, piglets fed dietary SB had higher (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of glucose and triglycerides and lower (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, cortisol, D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase when compared with the control group. However, dietary SB did not affect concentrations of serum albumin, total protein, insulin and glucagon (p > 0.05). There were no significant (p > 0.05) treatment effects on serum IgA and IgM, whereas serum IgG concentration and IgA+ cell count in jejunum from pigs fed SB were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in those given the basal diet. In conclusion, the present study indicated that dietary SB significantly decreased diarrhoea incidence of weaned piglets and increased the efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Also, dietary SB could regulate and enhance the immune function of piglets by increasing the serum IgG concentration and IgA+ cell count in jejunum. Our results suggest that SB may reduce some of the adverse effects of weaning stress and play an important role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal mucosa. PMID:24024579
A five-week course for fourth- and fifth-grade students (titled "Chemistry for Kids") was developed. Each class session consisted of a brief lecture, a demonstration, and one or more experiments. An outline of concepts fostered, instructional strategies, and procedures used is provided. (JN)
Describes a program in which six experiments in chemistry were used in an elementary school science program. Discusses the problems encountered in initiating the program, and some of the ways the problems were solved. Lists the six experiments, along with the reaction or process being studied, and the application of each. (TW)
The comparative effects of iron-supplemented levels on growth, tissue distribution, haematology and immunology of gilthead\\u000a sea bream, Sparus aurata (2 g) were investigated, using four organic (50, 100, 200, 300 mg ORG\\/kg diet) and one inorganic iron source (200 INOR mg\\/kg diet).\\u000a Fish were treated for 12 weeks with the experimental diets and maintained at a water temperature of 19–22°C. Growth (final\\u000a weight and specific growth
George RigosAlexandros; Alexandros Samartzis; Morgane Henry; Eleni Fountoulaki; Efthimia Cotou; John Sweetman; Simon Davies; Ioannis Nengas
Haematological parameters are often used as health status and stress indicators in fish. However, information on the effects\\u000a of artificial photoperiods on these parameters is scarce and ambiguous. The consequences of three different artificial photoperiod\\u000a regimes [light\\/day 12 h:12 h (LD 12:12) for 150 days as controls; LD 14:10 and LD 24:0, both for an initial 60 days, and then\\u000a LD 12:12 for the remaining 90 days] were evaluated
Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.
Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.
Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)
BACKGROUND: Hand-held dynamometry is a portable and inexpensive method to quantify muscle strength. To determine if muscle strength has changed, an examiner must know what part of the difference between a patient's pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements is attributable to real change, and what part is due to measurement error. This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of
Ruud H Knols; Geert Aufdemkampe; Eling D de Bruin; Daniel Uebelhart; Neil K Aaronson
Background Relevant and psychometrically sound needs assessment tools are necessary for accurate assessment of haematological cancer survivors unmet needs. No previous study has developed nor psychometrically evaluated a comprehensive needs assessment tool for use with population-based samples of haematological cancer survivors. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (SUNS) with haematological cancer survivors. Methods The relevance, content and face validity of the SUNS to haematological cancer survivors was assessed using qualitative interviews. Psychometric evaluation was conducted using data collected from haematological cancer survivors, aged 18–80 years at recruitment and recruited from four Australian cancer registries. Construct, convergent and discriminant validity; internal reliability and floor and ceiling effects were assessed. A second survey was completed by a sub-sample of survivors recruited from two of the four registries to assess test-retest reliability. Results Results from 17 qualitative interviews confirmed the relevance, face and content validity of the original items of the SUNS for use with haematological cancer survivors. Overall, 1,957 eligible haematological cancer survivors were contacted by the cancer registries. Of these 1,280 were sent a survey, and 715 returned a survey (37% of eligible survivors contacted and 56% of survivors sent a survey). A total of 529 survivors completed all 89 items of the SUNS and were included in the exploratory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis supported the original five-factor structure of the SUNS. Evidence for convergent validity was established, with all five domains of the SUNS illustrating a moderate positive correlation with all three subscales of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). All Cronbach’s alpha values were above 0.9 and all corrected item-total correlations were acceptable (>0.2). Criteria for discriminant validity was not met, with only 10 of the 15 (67%) a-priori hypotheses supported. Test-retest reliability was acceptable for 40 of the 89 items (45%) and for three of the five domains. Significant floor effects were evident for all five domains. Conclusions The SUNS demonstrates evidence for multiple features of validity and reliability as a measure of unmet needs for haematological cancer survivors. However, evidence supporting some psychometric properties was limited.
The number of consultant clinical chemists (NCCC) in the 15-nation European Union (EU) (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom) has been ascertained. These data were analysed in relation to several established national parameters, including demographics, gross domestic product (GDP), cost of healthcare, cost of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) testing and the number of physicians and pharmacists. Large differences in the population-corrected costs of IVD testing (range approximately 2.4-fold) and NCCC (range approximately 30-fold) were observed between the countries, which could not be satisfactorily explained by any of the parameters assessed. The differences in IVD testing and NCCC might reflect different practices in laboratory medicine across the EU, but could not be estimated independently. In recognition of the different scope of laboratory medicine practised under the title of clinicalchemistry, a simple staffing model was derived in an attempt to give a better estimate of the appropriate number of consultant laboratory medicine specialists. This model allocated a fixed number of laboratory specialists per million inhabitants for the five disciplines: clinicalchemistry, 10; haematology, 10; serology, 7.5; microbiology, 12.5; and blood banking, 2. The staffing model also allowed for the contribution of the primary care sector by including one full-time consultant laboratory medicine specialist for each small private laboratory and two extra consultant laboratory specialists per million inhabitants where there are not large numbers of private laboratories. Application of the model to the available data helped to reduce the variation observed in the primary analysis of NCCC (range approximately 9-fold) but still revealed important differences between countries. These differences could arise from the poor quality of published data as much as from true differences in laboratory medicine practice. We conclude that a more sophisticated analysis of laboratory practice and of all professionals working in laboratory medicine disciplines would be required before any conclusions could be drawn about relative staffing, efficiency or cost effectiveness. The staffing model derived is a first step towards objective estimation of the number of consultant laboratory specialists in the EU. PMID:15843242
Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.
Created by Professor Bruce M. Mattson, PhD, of Creighton University's Department of Chemistry, the Microscale Gas Chemistry Website "provides instructions for the generation of gases on a microscale level along with instructions for chemical demonstrations and student laboratory experiments with the gases." The no-frills site, designed for high school and university chemistry teachers, contains clear and careful instructions for experiments with carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, ethene, chlorine, carbon monoxide, and more. An introduction offers two low-tech methods for gas generation. Data pages for relevant gases are linked to each experiment.
The Environmental Chemistry group at Harvard University created this website to promote its research in the understanding and quantification of chemistry of surfaces in environmental chemical systems. Users can learn about the group's many projects that deal with the shared topic: "What controls the formation and reactivity of a surface?" Researchers can find out about the group's seminars held at Harvard and can download many of the related publications. The website publicizes the efforts and backgrounds of the eleven people involved with environmental chemistry. Students and educators can view short, fascinating movies dealing with its results.
The Analytical Chemistry Springboard Web site is provided by Umea University Department of Chemistry. The metadata site provides a large number of annotated links that relate to analytical chemistry. Categories include Atomic Spectroscopy, Chemometrics, Electron Spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, X-Ray Spectroscopy, and many more. Another section on the site provides links to informational resources such as newsgroups, nonprofit organizations, and scientific literature sources. Each site has a brief description, a direct link, and informational icons that tell if the site is new, updated, or contains graphics -- all of which culminate in a simple but very helpful resource for those working in a related field.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) has created these excellent resources via the Green Chemistry Institute and the ACS Education Division. The goal of these materials is "to increase awareness and understanding of Green Chemistry principles, alternatives, practices, and benefits within traditional educational institutions and among practicing scientists." In the Online Resources section, visitors will find downloadable pocket guides to basic green chemistry principles, "Greener Education Materials for Chemists" from the University of Oregon, and more. Perhaps the best section of the site is Activities and Experiments, where visitors can look over activities like "Gassing Up Without Air Pollution" and "Cleaning Up With Atom Economy."
This case study looks at cocaine, including its addictive properties and the chemistry involved in the synthesis of the drug in its different forms. The lesson can be used to teach nucleophilic addition reactions, nucleophilic acyl substitution, and cocaine metabolism. The material was designed for use in an undergraduate organic chemistry course but could also be used in medicinal chemistry coursework. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.
The Materials Science group at Simon Fraser University (SFU) developed this website to address the group's primary research interests in material synthesis, molecular, electronics, and photonics. Visitors will find explanations covering sixteen research topics including chemical sensors, lithography, non-linear optics, and supramolecular chemistry. Under each topic heading, users will find links discussing the faculties' current goals, recent publications, and patents. The site also features links to the Pacific Centre for Advanced Materials and Microstructures; a collaborative effort between the Materials Science group at SFU and the physics and chemistry departments at the University of British Columbia. Anyone searching for the latest investigations in materials chemistry will find this website very informative.
Students learn how common pop culture references (Harry Potter books) can relate to chemistry. While making and demonstrating their own low-intensity sparklers (muggle-versions of magic wands), students learn and come to appreciate the chemistry involved (reaction rates, Gibb's free energy, process chemistry and metallurgy). The fun part is that all wands are personalized and depend on how well students conduct the lab. Students end the activity with a class duelâa face-off between wands of two different chemical compositions. This lab serves as a fun, engaging review for stoichiometry, thermodynamics, redox and kinetics, as well as advanced placement course review.
Part of the WWW Virtual Library, the Linux4Chemistry page is a metasite listing a variety of chemistry-related software available on the Web for Linux interface. The site is maintained by Nikodem Kuznik, an undergraduate at the Silesian Technical University in Gliwice, Poland. The list indicates whether the software is free, shareware, or commercial and gives brief descriptions of applications. A few of the programs listed are AllChem, AMMP molecular modeling program, CDA charge composition analysis, and Kmol molecular weight calculator. Besides the seemingly exhaustive list of Linux software for chemistry, this site also gives links to other software resources.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) has created these excellent resources via the Green Chemistry Institute and the ACS Education Division. The goal of these materials is "to increase awareness and understanding of Green Chemistry principles, alternatives, practices, and benefits within traditional educational institutions and among practicing scientists." In the Online Resources section, visitors will find downloadable pocket guides to basic green chemistry principles, "Greener Education Materials for Chemists" from the University of Oregon, and more. Perhaps the best section of the site is Activities and Experiments, where visitors can look over activities like "Gassing Up Without Air Pollution" and "Cleaning Up With Atom Economy."
The Combinatorial Chemistry Review website was created by Dr. Oleg Larin at the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology "to provide a basic introduction to the field of combinatorial chemistry describing the development of major techniques and some applications." After reading an introduction discussing the goals, principles, and applications of combinatorial synthesis, users can find more in-depth descriptions and educational figures of the polymers and linkers related to the solid phase combinatorial chemistry. The comprehensive website supplies a discussion of the methods, a helpful glossary of terms, and more.