Normal haematological values and cholesterol values (total, HDL?cholesterol, LDL?cholesterol) were determined in free?living Herring and Great Black?backed Gulls, taking into account species, age and sex. These figures were then used as a basis of comparison with findings on birds with apparent clinical abnormalities (the birds were either oiled, emaciated, extensively infested with endoparasites, had external injuries or organic abnormalities).Species?specific differences
Normal haematological values and cholesterol values (total, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol) were determined in free-living Herring and Great Black-backed Gulls, taking into account species, age and sex. These figures were then used as a basis of comparison with findings on birds with apparent clinical abnormalities (the birds were either oiled, emaciated, extensively infested with endoparasites, had external injuries or organic abnormalities). Species-specific differences were found only in cholesterol content; sex-specific differences were not found. There were statistical differences between older birds and nestlings in RBC, PCV, Hb, MCV, MCHC and MCH. An age-related increase between 3- and 6-month-old birds and adults concerning total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was evident. The haematological values of healthy gulls showed statistical significant differences in RBC, Hb, MCV, MCHC, MCH, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol compared to the values obtained from sick gulls. PMID:18670934
Blood counts of healthy juvenile and adult llamas (Lama glama) and guanacoes (L guanacoe) showed that guanacoes have higher red cell counts, haemoglobin values and packed cell volumes than llamas. In both species, the numbers of lymphocytes and platelets were higher in juveniles than in adults. By reference to the values found in normal animals, abnormal haematological variations were detected in a number of sick individuals. Neutrophilia, hyperfibrinogenaemia and a tendency to develop regenerative hypochromic anaemia were observed in animals with acute and chronic inflammatory diseases and hypochromic macrocytic anaemia occurred in animals with parasitic infections. Many individuals in which subclinical intestinal parasitic infections were suspected had relatively high eosinophil counts although their other haematological values were normal. PMID:3363814
Hawkey, C M; Gulland, F M
The purpose of our study was to share experience on demographic characteristics and clinical outcome of the patients infected with extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) in haematology clinics, focusing on the period with a sudden increase in the number of XDRAB cases. A regular patient-based infection control programme was set up in haematology clinics and haematopoietic stem cell transplant centre starting from 2008. An infection control nurse visited all patients daily. A form including demographic data and laboratory results were recorded for all patients. The source of infections was identified according to the criteria proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While haematology ward-acquired XRDAB was rare before 2012, between January 2012 and July 2013, 29 A. baumannii infection episodes were detected in 28 patients. All but one isolate were MDR and 72.4% (21 out of 29) were XDR. Blood cultures revealed A. baumannii in 26 out of 29 episodes. While the haematological malignancy was relapsing or not under remission in 15 patients, four patients were under remission, and 10 patients were newly diagnosed. The mortality rate was 81.2%. All patients with a poor outcome died in the first week after the index blood culture was performed. In 16 out of 29 episodes, the patients died before the culture results became available. Colistin was initiated for the treatment in 11 out of 29 episodes. Three patients received colistin combined with sulbactam or sulbactam containing beta-lactams; the remaining eight patients who received colistin monotherapy were already under carbapenems. In conclusion, XDRAB infections can easily become nightmares for haematology clinics without any reliable treatment option. PMID:25551842
Metan, Gokhan; Pala, Cigdem; Kaynar, Leylagul; Cevahir, Fatma; Alp, Emine
The haematological parameters of healthy great bustards (Otis tarda L.) have been determined. The values obtained were red cell count (3.0 x 10(12) +/- 0.2 x 10(12/)1), white cell count (33.0 x 10(9) +/- 2.6 x 10(9)/1), haematocrit value (0.51 +/- 0.01 1/1), haemoglobin (13.0 +/- 0.3 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (178.7 +/- 12.5 fl), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (25.0 +/- 0.6 g/dl), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (42.5 +/- 3.2 pg), differential white cell count: heterophils (22.5 x 10(9) +/- 0.7 x 10(9)/1), lymphocytes (6.0 x 10(9)+/-0.7 x 10(9)/1), eosinophils (2.7 x 10(9) +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/1) and monocytes (1.8 x 10(9)+/-0.2 x 10(9)/1). PMID:18680064
Jimenez, A; Barrera, R; Sanchez, J; Cuenca, R; Rodriguez, J; Andres, S; Mane, M C
The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited. PMID:23800626
Abutarbush, S M
Invasive mould diseases (IMDs) are often encountered in haematologic patients who undergo chemotherapy or who require allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), and still represent a challenge for physicians. The availability of antifungals with different targets has set the foundation to improve the outcomes of patients with IMDs and also to develop innovative therapeutic approaches. Among these, using combinations of antifungal drugs is an attractive option for reasons such as the broader spectrum of activity, synergy between compounds with different targets, and a reduced risk of fungal resistance. In addition, in vitro studies and animal models have provided evidence supporting the use of combination strategies. Although no controlled, well-powered, prospective clinical trials are yet available to demonstrate the superiority of combination versus monotherapy, the persistently high mortality rate associated with IMDs has stimulated the use of combinations of antifungal drugs, both in adult and paediatric patients. In this paper, we review the recent published literature on combination therapy for the treatment of IMDs in adult and paediatric haematologic patients. PMID:25466728
Candoni, Anna; Aversa, Franco; Busca, Alessandro; Cesaro, Simone; Girmenia, Corrado; Luppi, Mario; Rossi, Giuseppe; Venditti, Adriano; Nosari, Anna Maria; Pagano, Livio
Blood samples were taken from the ventral coccygeal vein of 15 El Hierro giant lizards (Gallotia simonyi) (seven females and eight males), six La Gomera giant lizards (Gallotia bravoana) (four males and two females) and four Tenerife giant lizards (Gallotia intermedia) (two males and two females), and 31 blood parameters were measured. Among the haematological parameters there were significant differences
A. Martinez Silvestre; M. A. Rodriguez Dominguez; J. A. Mateo; J. Pastor; L. Marco; S. Lavin; R. Cuenca
This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…
The clinical, biochemical, and haematological aspects of a recent outbreak of lead poisoning, in which exposure was related to the oxyacetylene cutting of red lead painted ironwork, were investigated. Initial suspicion was raised when a blood film showed punctate basophilia which remains a simple and useful method of picking up lead toxicity. Estimations of blood lead concentration and conventional laboratory data confirmed the diagnosis. Although there was prominent punctate basophilia, spectrophotometric analysis showed only negligible accumulation of pyrimidine-5'-nucleotides despite severe suppression of pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase activity. The pattern of the red cell glycolytic intermediates, investigated for the first time, suggested that lead may also affect glycolysis at the hexokinase step. Once the diagnosis was made intravenous chelation treatment was begun with a rapid improvement in symptoms. Long term follow up is required to assess any sequelae of intoxication. These cases emphasise the classic features of lead poisoning, and despite the currently available diagnostic tests, lead intoxication may still go unrecognised unless a thorough occupational history is taken. Images PMID:2341563
Pagliuca, A; Mufti, G J; Baldwin, D; Lestas, A N; Wallis, R M; Bellingham, A J
Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a frequent complaint in adolescence. Although HMB is often caused by immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, bleeding disorders are another common yet often unidentified cause. The aim of this study was to examine the bleeding patterns and prevalence of inherited bleeding disorders among females referred for HMB to a multidisciplinary adolescent haematology clinic. We retrospectively reviewed the first 105 patients (ages 8-18 years) referred to this specialty clinic from February 2009 to December 2011. Using menstrual bleeding questionnaires and medical records, data were extracted regarding demographics, bleeding patterns, frequency and types of bleeding disorders identified, and prescribed interventions. Sixty-two per cent of patients were diagnosed with a bleeding disorder, including platelet storage pool deficiency (36%), von Willebrand's disease (9%), other platelet function defect (8%), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (7%) and combined bleeding disorders (2%). Comparison of the bleeding profiles for females with and without a bleeding disorder revealed only three factors that were significantly different, including the reported regularity of patients' periods (P = 0.02), description of period flow (P = 0.04) and number of days of each period that the bleeding was described as 'heavy' (P = 0.007). Bleeding disorders are prevalent in adolescent females presenting to a specialty clinic. Specifically, a relatively high proportion of adolescents were diagnosed with platelet storage pool deficiency. In our small population, menstrual bleeding profiles, as examined by a standardized questionnaire, could not identify females with an underlying bleeding disorder, demonstrating the important role of haemostasis testing in the evaluation of adolescents with HMB. PMID:23005346
Vo, K T; Grooms, L; Klima, J; Holland-Hall, C; O'Brien, S H
Mycoplasma suis causes infectious anaemia in pigs (IAP), which can manifest in various degrees of severity depending on the virulence and the host's susceptibility. As M. suis cannot be cultured in vitro experimental infections of splenectomised animals play an essential role for pathogenesis research. The aim of the present study was to characterise the course of experimental infection using the highly virulent and red blood cell (RBC-) invasive M. suis strain KI3806, to compare the experimental course in splenectomised and non-splenectomised pigs and to correlate clinical and haematological parameters with M. suis blood loads. All infected splenectomised pigs (n=7) were PCR-positive 2 days post infection (DPI) with maximum mean bacterial loads of 1.61 × 10(10)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed severe anaemia and massive hypoglycaemia by 8 DPI and had to be euthanised preterm (until 8 DPI) without seroconversion. The non-splenectomised pigs (n=7) became PCR-positive within 23 DPI and reached a maximum mean M. suis load of 1.64 × 10(5)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed mild anaemia, massive skin alterations with petechiae and haemorrhagic diathesis and seroconverted within 35 DPI. The study demonstrated that experimental infection of splenectomised pigs with the highly virulent M. suis strain KI3806 induces a fulminant course of infection. In contrast, M. suis strain KI3806 induces a mild course of disease in non-splenectomised pigs, which resembles the situation in naturally infected pigs. Therefore, these infection models are valuable for future pathogenesis studies on acute and chronic M. suis infections. PMID:24933162
Stadler, J; Jannasch, C; Mack, S L; Dietz, S; Zöls, S; Ritzmann, M; Hoelzle, K; Hoelzle, L E
An effective infection control surveillance programme is essential for the management of patients in a haematology unit. The programme can contribute to the production of antibiotic policies, the monitoring of current clinical practice and has potential in the cost analysis of infection. The use of a computerized database facilitates the management of such a programme. We describe an infection control database using dBASE IV software which runs on a personal computer. The system can accept data sets from other relevant databases and allows the generation of infection control data appropriate to the unit. PMID:7903087
Smyth, E T; Barr, J G; Bamford, K B
Summary This study was conducted to evaluate effectiveness and safety of oral administration of toltrazuril at a dose of 25 mg\\/kg\\/day for two consecutive days. The present study was carried out in a goat flock, reared in Kirikkale province of Turkey. Faeces samples were collected from 26 goat kids (6,716 - 1.11 weeks old) exhibiting the clinical sings of acute
BUGRAHAN B. YAGCI; SIBEL YASA DURU; OGUZ KUL
The American Association for Clinical Chemistry has recently made available online Clinical Chemistry: International Journal of Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics. Clinical Chemistry contains full-text articles, figures, and tables in a searchable (by keyword) format. Coverage begins with the January 1998 issue. Abstracts begin with the January 1980 issue. Clinical Chemistry is made available through Stanford University's HighWire Press.
A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.
Twelve carriers of thalassaemia intermedia were studied. Their clinical and haematological picture was distinctly different from that in both heterozygotes and homozygotes for beta thalassaemia. Several genetic patterns were found responsible for thalassaemia intermedia: beta/delta beta thalassaemia, alpha 2 beta/beta thalassaemia-heterocellular HPFH. In a few subjects the genetic picture indicated that the patients were homozygous for beta thalassaemia, in spite of the mildness of the clinical situation. The lack of genetic uniformity was refelcted in very wide Hb A2 (2.5--8.7%) and Hb F (7.5--96.9%) ranges, as opposed to the noticeable degree of biochemical uniformity indicated by the very similar imbalance of globin chain synthesis: 0.33-0.54 for the non-alpha/alpha chain ratio in the peripheral blood. The mean for this parameter (0.43 +/- 0.05) was significantly different (P less than 0.001) from that observed in heterozygous carriers (0.60 +/- 0.10) and homozygous carriers (0.11 +/- 0.05) for beta thalassaemia. The marrow blood displayed a comparable pattern. It is therefore suggested that the severity of thalassaemia is attributable to the degree of chain synthesis imbalance. PMID:427031
Gallo, E; Massaro, P; Miniero, R; David, D; Tarella, C
...2013-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2160...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...
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... 2013-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862.2140...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...
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Patients with E/beta(0) thalassaemia, the most common haemoglobinopathy in many Asian countries, might benefit from drugs that increase fetal and total haemoglobin and thereby decrease the need for transfusions. The long-term clinical efficacy and safety of such therapy is unknown, limiting its use in countries where resources for safe and regular transfusion are scarce. In this study, 45 patients were treated with hydroxyurea (18-20 mg/kg) for 24+/-9 months, hydroxyurea with sodium phenyl butyrate (n=8) and hydroxyurea with erythropoietin (n=9), each for approximately 6 months, and followed for 3 years from study exit. Hydroxyurea had minimal toxicity, resulted in a mean 1.3 g/dl steady-state increase in haemoglobin in 40% of patients, and a milder response ( Singer, Sylvia T; Kuypers, Frans A; Olivieri, Nancy F; Weatherall, David J; Mignacca, Robert; Coates, Thomas D; Davies, Sally; Sweeters, Nancy; Vichinsky, Elliott P 2005-11-01
Singer, Sylvia T; Kuypers, Frans A; Olivieri, Nancy F; Weatherall, David J; Mignacca, Robert; Coates, Thomas D; Davies, Sally; Sweeters, Nancy; Vichinsky, Elliott P
...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES...2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use... A discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical...components that may also serve as reaction units. (b)...
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a)...
...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro chemistry analyzer for...
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro chemistry analyzer for...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use...Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro chemistry analyzer for...
...2010-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical...862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical...Identification. A continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer...
depending on the needs of the project. Areas of expertise include: Â· Materials and Nanochemistry Â· Analytical Chemistry Â· Chemical Biology Â· Forensic Science Â· Inorganic Synthesis Â· Organic Synthesis scientific advice, or they may want their current processes and materials assessed or developed. If so
Strathclyde, University of
21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01... Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical... Section 862.2160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL...
21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01... false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical... Section 862.2140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL...
21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01...flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical... Section 862.2150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL...
This review aims to update the reader on advances in the understanding of haematological conditions that may arise in neurological practice. Thrombophilia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, sickle cell and clonal disorders associated with neuropathy are discussed. PMID:17369588
Austin, Steven; Cohen, Hannah; Losseff, Nick
A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)
Gochman, Nathan; And Others
The emergence of drug resistant cells is one of the main obstacles for successful chemotherapeutic treatment of haematological malignancies. Most patients initially respond to chemotherapy at the time of first clinical admission, but often relapse and become refractory to further treatment not only to the drugs used in the first treatment but also to a variety of other drugs. Laboratory
K. Nooter; P. Sonneveld
Haemobartonella felis infection was demonstrated in 38 cats which could be divided into four groups as follows: group A, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) free cats with H felis infection alone; group B, FeLV free cats with H felis infection and other clinical conditions; group C, FeLV positive cats with H felis infection but no clinical manifestation of FeLV related or any other intercurrent disease; and group D, FeLV positive cats with H felis infection and clinical manifestations of FeLV related or other diseases. Cats in group A were healthy carriers of the infection and none was anaemic, whereas some in group B had clinical haemobartonellosis and anaemia. This anaemia was mainly mild, normocytic and normochromic. Most of the cats in group C and all in group D were more severely ill and anaemic, the anaemia usually being macrocytic and hypochromic. Splenomegaly occurred only in groups C and D. Treatment with tetracyclines did not eliminate H felis from any of the cats and blood transfusions were ineffective in promoting long term recovery from anaemia in cats with intercurrent H felis and FeLV infections. The findings in the cats in groups C and D were further compared with those in a fifth group of cats which were infected with FeLV but free of H felis. PMID:2834861
Bobade, P A; Nash, A S; Rogerson, P
The purpose of this study was to assess agreement between a wet reagent and a dry reagent analyzer. Thirteen analytes (albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase, urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, potassium, total bilirubin, and total protein) for both canine and feline serum were evaluated. Concordance correlations, linear regression, and plots of difference against mean were used to analyze the data. Concordance correlations were excellent for 8 of 13 analytes (r > or = 0.90); the correlations for albumin, potassium, and calcium were clinically unreliable. The linear regression analysis revealed that several analytes had slopes significantly different from unity, which was likely related to methodological differences. Compared to the wet reagent analyzer, the dry reagent analyzer showed excellent agreement for alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase (feline), urea nitrogen, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin (canine), and total protein. However, it showed only slight to substantial agreement for amylase (canine), calcium, albumin, potassium, and total bilirubin (feline). PMID:10200882
Sutton, A; Dawson, H; Hoff, B; Grift, E; Shoukri, M
A rapid and simple UHPLC-fluorescence detection method for the quantification of doxorubicin and its main metabolite, doxorubicinol, in human plasma has been developed. The method was also validated for its application in therapeutic drug monitoring, a clinical approach used in the optimization of oncologic treatments. Following a single protein precipitation step, chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column (50mm×2.10mm, particle size 1.7?m) at 50°C with a mobile phase consisting of water (containing 0.4% triethylamine and 0.4% orthophosphoric acid)/acetonitrile (77:23, v/v). Flow rate was 0.50mL/min and fluorescence detection with an excitation wavelength of 470nm and an emission wavelength of 548nm was used. The method met the specifications of linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and stability of the FDA and EMA guidelines for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Linearity for the drug (8-3000ng/mL) and the metabolite (3-150ng/mL) was observed (R(2)>0.992) and the maximum intra-day and inter-day precision coefficients of variation were less than 14% for both. The lower limits of quantification were 8 and 3ng/mL for doxorubicin and doxorubicinol, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the quantify plasma concentrations of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol in 33 patients diagnosed with haematological malignancies in which broad ranges for drug (8.3-2766.0ng/mL) and metabolite (4.8-104.9ng/mL) levels were measured adequately. PMID:24631816
Pérez-Blanco, Jonás Samuel; Fernández de Gatta, María del Mar; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús María; García Sánchez, María José; Sayalero Marinero, María Luisa; González López, Francisco
Mucositis is an inevitable side-effect of the conditioning regimens used for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The condition is better referred to as mucosal barrier injury (MBI) since it is primarily the result of toxicity and is a complex and dynamic pathobiological process manifested not only in the mouth but also throughout the entire digestive tract. A model has been proposed for oral MBI and consists of four phases, namely inflammatory, epithelial, ulcerative and healing phases. A variety of factors are involved in causing and modulating MBI including the nature of the conditioning regimen, the elaboration of pro-inflammatory and other cytokines, translocation of the resident microflora and their products, for example, endotoxins across the mucosal barrier, exposure to antimicrobial agents and whether or not the haematopoietic stem cell graft is from a donor. Neutropenic typhlitis is the most severe gastrointestinal manifestation of MBI, but it also influences the occurrence of other major transplant-related complications including acute GVHD, veno-occlusive disease and systemic infections. The pathobiology, clinical counterparts and the means of measuring MBI are discussed together with potential approaches for prevention, amelioration and, perhaps, even cure. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 1269-1278. PMID:10871732
Blijlevens, N M; Donnelly, J P; De Pauw, B E
Laboratory medicine's practitioners across the European community include medical, scientific and pharmacy trained specialists whose contributions to health and healthcare is in the application of diagnostic tests for screening and early detection of disease, differential diagnosis, monitoring, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations in translating knowledge and skills into ability to practice. In a 'Specialist knowledge' division, the expectations from the individual disciplines of Clinical Chemistry/Immunology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion, Microbiology/ Virology, Genetics and In Vitro Fertilisation are described. Beyond providing a common platform of knowledge, skills and competency, the syllabus supports the aims of the European Commission in providing safeguards to increasing professional mobility across European borders at a time when demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing and the labour force is declining. It continues to act as a guide for the formulation of national programmes supplemented by the needs of individual country priorities. PMID:23035263
Wieringa, Gijsbert; Zerah, Simone; Jansen, Rob; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Queralto, José; Solnica, Bogdan; Gruson, Damien; Tomberg, Karel; Riittinen, Leena; Baum, Hannsjörg; Brochet, Jean-Philippe; Buhagiar, Gerald; Charilaou, Charis; Grigore, Camelia; Johnsen, Anders H; Kappelmayer, Janos; Majkic-Singh, Nada; Nubile, Giuseppe; O'Mullane, John; Opp, Matthias; Pupure, Silvija; Racek, Jaroslav; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Rogic, Dunja; Špa?ár, Július; Štrakl, Greta; Szekeres, Thomas; Tzatchev, Kamen; Vitkus, Dalius; Wallemacq, Pierre; Wallinder, Hans
Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. PMID:24831856
Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Hamed, Maha I; Ibrahim, Derar R; Rateb, Hassan Z
In the present study, the effects of cefquinome, a 4th generation cephalosporin, on clinical, biochemical, haematological, and blood gas variables were investigated. Five healthy dogs were injected with cefquinome (1 mg/kg body weight, IM, daily) for 14 days. Negative effects of cefquinome on clinical, biochemical, and haematological variables were not observed, but it did change some blood gas variables. PMID:11205999
Maden, M; Tra?, B; Ba?, A L; Elmas, M; Yazar, E; Birdane, F M
Introduction The validation process is essential in accredited clinical laboratories. Aim of this study was to validate five kinds of serum vacuum tubes for routine clinical chemistry laboratory testing. Materials and methods: Blood specimens from 100 volunteers in five diff erent serum vacuum tubes (Tube I: VACUETTE®, Tube II: LABOR IMPORT®, Tube III: S-Monovette®, Tube IV: SST® and Tube V: SST II®) were collected by a single, expert phlebotomist. The routine clinical chemistry tests were analyzed on cobas® 6000
Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare
In this history, I review developments leading toward the establishment of clinical chemistry in Britain. Chemical research by certain physicians occurred in the context of medical traditions founded on vitalism, distillation analysis, and limited chemical knowledge. Urine chemistry figured prominently in this period together with the analysis of kidney and bladder stones. Bright's team studying albuminuria was the first clinical research school in Britain, whereas Prout's survey of physiological chemistry, based on meticulous attention to analysis, was the best summary of human metabolism before Liebig's Animal Chemistry. Liebig's ideas influenced all physicians who were interested in chemistry. Henry Bence Jones based his medical practice on Liebig's theories. His research relating urinary phosphates to diet and exercise revealed the so-called Bence Jones proteins and investigated the distribution and persistence of drugs in the body. J.L.W. Thudichum used analytical skills learned from Liebig in his brain chemistry work. George Owen Rees investigated urine analysis and the relationship between urine and blood, using Liebig's practical methods while condemning an uncritical acceptance of his theories. These and similar studies showed that chemistry could improve clinical medicine, and because it could also reveal the onset of disease even before clinical symptoms developed, it offered valuable support to preventive medicine. However, so many physicians resisted the introduction of chemistry that progress toward the establishment of clinical chemistry in nineteenth-century Britain was slow. PMID:15105362
Coley, Noel G
Imaging morphology and metabolic activity of splenic lesions is of paramount importance in patients with haematological malignancies; it can alter tumour staging, treatment protocols and overall prognosis. CT, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT have been shown to be powerful tools for the non-invasive assessment of splenic involvement in various haematological malignancies. Since many haematological malignancies and non-neoplastic conditions can involve the spleen and imaging manifestations can overlap, imaging and clinical findings outside of the spleen should be looked for to narrow the differential diagnosis; confirmation can be obtained by pathological findings. Radiologists should be familiar with the cross-sectional imaging patterns of haematological malignancies involving the spleen as well as non-neoplastic splenic findings common in these patients to facilitate their care and follow-up. This pictorial review provides the common and uncommon imaging appearances and complications of various haematological malignancies involving the spleen on CT, MRI and PET/CT, and common pitfalls in diagnosis. PMID:22096219
Saboo, S S; Krajewski, K M; O'Regan, K N; Giardino, A; Brown, J R; Ramaiya, N; Jagannathan, J P
Kabuki syndrome (also called Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disease described for the first time in Japan, characterised by anomalies in multiple organ systems and often associated with autoimmune disorders and impaired immune response. We herein report the clinical history, the therapeutic approach and the outcome of two children with Kabuki syndrome who developed autoimmune haematological disorders (haemolytic anaemia and immune thrombocytopenia). Factors regarding differential diagnosis and interventions in better management of this syndrome and its complications are discussed. This is the first report of Italian children with autoimmune haematological disorders complicating Kabuki syndrome. PMID:24460868
This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…
Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.
Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation. Methods: In the present study, 129 HIV seropositive patients were included. Lymph node aspirates were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) stains. Special stains and cultures were done in selected patients. Peripheral smears were taken from all the patients and CD4 counts were recorded. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was further categorized. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) grading was done on Z-N positive smears. Each lesion was compared with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging and haematological picture. Results: Cytological diagnosis in 129 patients included tuberculous (n=54, 41.9%), reactive lymphadenopathy (n=46, 35.6%), suppurative (n=16, 12.4%) lymphadenitis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=4, 3.1%), and Hodgkin's lymphoma, secondary deposits, other granulomatous lesions, and cryptoccocal lymphadenitis in one patient each. The predominant cytomorphological pattern in tuberculous lymphadenitis was caseous necrosis + epithelioid granuloma formation (51.85%). Grade 2+ Z-N grading was noted in 62.96 per cent of AFB positive smears. CD4 counts showed a descending pattern with progression of WHO clinical staging. Cytopenia was more common in WHO clinical stage IV disease. Interpretation & conclusions: Lymph node cytology was found to be a useful tool for segregating lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation and for identification of opportunistic infections, neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Comparison of lymph node lesions with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging, haematological alterations and AFB grading reflects immunity, stage of disease and disease activity aiding better treatment. PMID:24718407
Tirumalasetti, Neelima; Prema Latha, P.
Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, required for the degradation of glycosphingolipids. Clinical manifestations include hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, bone disease and a bleeding diathesis, frequently resulting in presentation to haematologists. Historically managed by splenectomy, transfusions and orthopaedic surgery, the development of specific therapy in the form of intravenous enzyme replacement therapy in the 1990s has resulted in dramatic improvements in haematological and visceral disease. Recognition of complications, including multiple myeloma and Parkinson disease, has challenged the traditional macrophage-centric view of the pathophysiology of this disorder. The pathways by which enzyme deficiency results in the clinical manifestations of this disorder are poorly understood; altered inflammatory cytokine profiles, bioactive sphingolipid derivatives and alterations in the bone marrow microenvironment have been implicated. Further elucidating these pathways will serve to advance our understanding not only of GD, but of associated disorders. PMID:24588457
Thomas, Alison S; Mehta, Atul; Hughes, Derralynn A
1. Clinical chemistry is definitely an interdisciplinary subject between natural science and medicine. The major part of clinical chemistry is natural science and therefore theoretical science. To a lesser extent, however, clinical chemistry is practical science or "action science" which is aimed at a certain action. 2. The question "Is clinical chemistry a professional field for physicians, for scientists or for both?" can be answered with the statement: It follows from its historical development and its characteristic theory and practice, and is de facto true throughout the world, that clinical chemistry is a professional field for physicians and natural scientists. 3. The broad scope of the technical field and the challenges to be expected in future within the framework of the European Community will require the recruiting aspiring clinical chemists both from medicine and from the natural sciences. 4. Qualified postgraduate training is more important than the nature of the initial study course. 5. Apart from providing special knowledge and particular abilities, postgraduate training must make the younger generation familiar with the ways of thought of the physician and of the natural scientist. 6. Successful work as a clinical chemist requires "extra-functional" qualifications, such as the ability to conduct dialogue and teamwork with the clinician. 7. The national differences which exist in the definition of the professional pattern "clinical chemist" are a hindrance to the future development of the discipline in the European Community. The starting point for recognition of the profession must be an agreed definition among the professionals of the countries of the European Community of the professional field of the clinical chemist. PMID:2049472
Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489
Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R
Haematological studies were conducted on 61 clinically normal pashmina producing goats of the Cheghu breed, acclimatised to the temperate, humid climatic condition of Mukteswar, about 2400 m above sea level. The experimental goats comprised four age groups (birth to one month, six to nine months, three to five years and six to 10 years) of both sexes. The overall values, irrespective of age and sex, for the parameters examined were: red blood cells, 14.17 +/- 1.96 X 10(12) litre-1; haemoglobin, 7.46 +/- 0.79 g dl-1; packed cell volume, 0.31 +/- 0.04 litres litre-1; mean corpuscular volume, 21.62 +/- 2.46 fl; mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, 23.72 +/- 1.80 g dl-1; mean corpuscular haemoglobin, 5.11 +/- 0.67 pg; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 0.00 mm at one hour; plasma protein 6.58 +/- 0.78 g dl-1; icterus index, 9.15 +/- 2.92 units; white blood cells 12.26 +/- 2.66 X 10(9) litre-1; absolute count of lymphocytes, 4.62 +/- 1.40; neutrophils, 5.91 +/- 2.84; monocytes, 0.38 +/- 0.15; eosinophils, 0.32 +/- 0.17 and basophils, 0.05 +/- 0.05 (X 10(9) litre-1). The sex of the animal did not affect the haematological parameters but the effect of age was evident. In newborn kids the haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and packed cell volume values were higher and the total leucocyte count was lower than in other age groups. As the kids grew older lymphocyte numbers decreased while neutrophils increased. PMID:3823626
Somvanshi, R; Biswas, J C; Sharma, B; Koul, G L
BackgroundThis study aimed to investigate risk factors for colonisation with extensively drug-resistant P. aeruginosa (XDR-PA) in immunocompromised patients and to build a clinical risk score (CRS) based on these results.MethodsWe conducted a matched case¿control study with 31 cases and 93 controls (1:3). Cases were colonised with XDR-PA during hospitalisation. Independent risk factors were determined using a three step conditional logistic regression procedure. A CRS was built with respect to the corresponding risk fraction of each risk factor, and its discriminatory power was estimated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.ResultsThe presence of a central venous catheter (OR 7.41, P¿=¿0.0008), the presence of a urinary catheter (OR 21.04, P¿<¿0.0001), CRP¿>¿10 mg/dl (OR 7.36, P¿=¿0.0015), and ciprofloxacin administration (OR 5.53, P¿=¿0.025) were independent risk factors. The CRS exhibited a high discriminatory power, defining a high risk population with an approximately fourteen times greater risk for XDR-PA colonisation.ConclusionsUnnecessary use of antibiotics, particularly ciprofloxacin should be avoided, and a high standard of infection control measures must be achieved when using medical devices. A CRS can be used for adaptation of the active screening culture policy to the local setting. PMID:25490897
Willmann, Matthias; Klimek, Anna M; Vogel, Wichard; Liese, Jan; Marschal, Matthias; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Peter, Silke; Buhl, Michael
Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) studies are an important phase in drug discovery research. Compounds are administered via the intravascular or extravascular routes to animals to calculate various pharmacokinetic parameters. An important step in this process is dissolving the novel compound in a safe vehicle. This procedure is particularly challenging for compounds that must be administered intravenously, as the solution must be clear before injection. There are no published guidelines on which vehicles, or combination of vehicles, are acceptable in a particular species, nor are there published data on the effects these vehicles have on clinical chemistry or hematology parameters, particularly in dogs. In this study, 9 vehicles commonly used at sanofi-aventis USA (propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400, glycofurol, hydroxypropyl Beta-cyclodextrin, dimethyl sulfoxide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylacetamide, ethyl alcohol, and saline) were tested for adverse clinical reactions (such as vomiting or diarrhea) and for their effect on hematology and clinical chemistry parameters. Each vehicle was administered to a group of 8 Beagles by slow intravenous infusion, and blood was collected prior to infusion and at 24 h and 7 d postinfusion. Of 8 dogs given propylene glycol, 2 developed mild gastrointestinal signs (vomitus, diarrhea) after their infusions. None of the vehicles tested induced significant hematology or serum clinical chemistry abnormalities, nor were significant clinical signs noted after administration. We conclude that at the dose, route, and manner described, all of the vehicles tested in this study are clinically safe to use and have no acute effects on hematology or serum chemistry parameters. PMID:16539331
Ruble, Gaye R; Giardino, Odessa Z; Fossceco, Stewart L; Cosmatos, Dennis; Knapp, Richard J; Barlow, Norman J
Adenosine is a physiological nucleoside which acts as an autocoid and activates G protein-coupled membrane receptors, designated A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3). Adenosine plays an important role in many (patho)physiological conditions in the CNS as well as in peripheral organs and tissues. Adenosine receptors are present on virtually every cell. However, receptor subtype distribution and densities vary greatly. Adenosine itself is used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia and arrhythmias and as a vasodilatatory agent in cardiac imaging. During the past 20 years, a number of selective agonists for A(1), A(2A) and A(3) adenosine receptors have been developed, all of them structurally derived from adenosine. Several such compounds are currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (A(1)and A(2A)), pain (A(1)), wound healing (A(2A)), diabetic foot ulcers (A(2A)), colorectal cancer (A(3)) and rheumatoid arthritis (A(3)). Clinical evaluation of some A(1) and A(2A) adenosine receptor agonists has been discontinued. Major problems include side effects due to the wide distribution of adenosine receptors; low brain penetration, which is important for the targeting of CNS diseases; short half-lifes of compounds; or a lack of effects, in some cases perhaps due to receptor desensitisation or to low receptor density in the targeted tissue. Partial agonists, inhibitors of adenosine metabolism (adenosine kinase and deaminase inhibitors) or allosteric activators of adenosine receptors may be advantageous for certain indications, as they may exhibit fewer side effects. PMID:14662005
Yan, Luo; Burbiel, Joachim C; Maass, Astrid; Müller, Christa E
Newborn screening (NBS) program is a complex and organized system consisting of family and personnel education, biochemical tests, confirmatory biochemical and genetic tests, diagnosis, therapy, and patient follow up. The program identifies treatable metabolic disorders possibly when asymptomatic by using dried blood spot (DBS). During the last 20 years tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) has become the leading technology in NBS programs demonstrating to be versatile, sensitive and specific. There is consistent evidence of benefits from NBS for many disorders detected by TMS as well as for congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia by immune-enzymatic methods. Real time PCR tests have more recently been proposed for the detection of some severe combined immunodeficiences (SCID) along with the use of TMS for ADA and PNP SCID; a first evaluation of their cost-benefit ratio is still ongoing. Avoiding false negative results by using specific biomarkers and reducing the false positive rate by using second tier tests, is fundamental for a successful NBS program. The fully integration of NBS and diagnostic laboratories with clinical service is crucial to have the best effectiveness in a comprehensive NBS system. PMID:24844843
la Marca, Giancarlo
Abstract Nanomaterials are known to cause interference with several standard toxicological assays. As part of an in vivo study of PEG-coated gold nanorods in mice, nanorods were added to reference serum, and results for standard clinical chemistry parameters were compared with serum analyzed without nanorods. PEG-coated gold nanorods produced several concentration-dependent interferences. Comparisons were then made with PEG-coated gold and silica nanospheres. Interferences were observed for both materials that differed from gold nanorods. Removal of the particles from serum by centrifugation prior to analysis resolved most, but not all of the interferences. Additional clinical chemistry analyzers were used to further investigate trends in assay interference. We conclude that PEG-coated gold and silica nanoparticles can interfere with standard clinical chemistry tests in ways that vary depending upon material, shape, and specific assay methodology employed. Assay interferences by nanomaterials cannot always be predicted, underscoring the need to verify that nanomaterials under study do not interfere with methods used to evaluate potential biological effects. PMID:24620736
Hinkley, Georgia K; Carpinone, Paul L; Munson, John W; Powers, Kevin W; Roberts, Stephen M
Early and accurate pre-clinical and clinical biomarkers of hepatotoxicity facilitate the drug development process and the safety monitoring in clinical studies. We selected eight known model compounds to be administered to male Wistar rats to identify biomarkers of drug induced liver injury (DILI) using transcriptomics, metabolite profiling (metabolomics) and conventional endpoints. We specifically explored early biomarkers in serum and liver tissue associated with histopathologically evident acute hepatotoxicity. A tailored data analysis strategy was implemented to better differentiate animals with no treatment-related findings in the liver from animals showing evident hepatotoxicity as assessed by histopathological analysis. From the large number of assessed parameters, our data analysis strategy allowed us to identify five metabolites in serum and five in liver tissue, 58 transcripts in liver tissue and seven clinical chemistry markers in serum that were significantly associated with acute hepatotoxicity. The identified markers comprised metabolites such as taurocholic acid and putrescine (measured as sum parameter together with agmatine), classical clinical chemistry markers like AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), and bilirubin, as well as gene transcripts like Igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1) and Egr1 (early growth response protein 1). The response pattern of the identified biomarkers was concordant across all types of parameters and sample matrices. Our results suggest that a combination of several of these biomarkers could significantly improve the robustness and accuracy of an early diagnosis of hepatotoxicity. PMID:24836604
Buness, Andreas; Roth, Adrian; Herrmann, Annika; Schmitz, Oliver; Kamp, Hennicke; Busch, Kristina; Suter, Laura
chemistry and toxicology: a review AurÃ©lie Rouxa , Dominique Lisonb , Christophe Junota* and Jean-sur- Yvette cedex, France. b UniversitÃ© catholique de Louvain, Louvain centre for Toxicology and Applied in the field of toxicology and clinical chemistry have initially been performed using NMR, the use of liquid
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Many feline breeds have been generated from a small number of ancestors. Thus, breed-specific peculiarities can be expected, which could include haematological and biochemical measurements. Despite this, there are only a few reports on breed-specific reference intervals (RI). This information is essential in routine practice where results from individual patients are usually compared with an RI. The aim was to compare haematological and biochemical data from clinically healthy Abyssinian, Holy Birman, Norwegian Forest and Siberian cats with published RIs to assess whether the published RIs are acceptable in these breeds. Comparison with established RIs using guidelines from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards and the American Society of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, revealed a number of breed-related clinicopathological differences. New RIs were established, but in most cases the new RIs overlapped with published RIs, and the use of the breed-specific data would minimally affect the clinical interpretation of laboratory results. Important differences that could result in misinterpretation of laboratory results were as follows: microcytosis and high ?2-globulin concentrations in Abyssinian cats; high serum creatinine, ?2-globulin and glucose concentrations in Holy Birman cats; high serum alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium and phosphate concentration in Norwegian Forest cats; low ?2-globulin and ?-globulin concentrations in Norwegian Forest and Siberian cats. Breed-specific RIs should be used for these analytes. In addition, care should be taken in interpreting clinicopathological data in purebred cats for which specific RIs have not been established. PMID:23906706
Paltrinieri, Saverio; Ibba, Fabrizio; Rossi, Gabriele
The combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a powerful and indispensable analytical tool that is widely applied in many areas of chemistry, medicine, pharmaceutics and biochemistry. In this review recent MS instrumental developments are presented as part of a special issue covering various aspects of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in clinical chemistry. Improvements, new inventions as well as new combinations in ion source technology are described focusing on dual or multimode sources and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Increasing demands regarding sensitivity, accuracy, resolution and both quantitation and identification guarantee on-going improvements in mass analyzer technology. This paper discusses new hybrid MS instruments that can perform novel scan modes as well as high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS) that finally seem to be able to overcome, or at least significantly reduce, their weaknesses in quantitative applications. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) itself is not an invention of the last 10 years, but a lot of progress was made within the last decade that reveals the potential benefits of this combination. This is clearly reflected by the increased number of commercially available instruments and the various designs of IMMS are covered in detail in this review. Selected applications for all these instrumental developments are given focusing on the perspective of clinical chemistry. PMID:22177236
The Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology, a peer-reviewed online journal and database provided by Infobiogen, is "devoted to genes, cytogenetics, and clinical entities in cancer, and cancer-prone diseases." Users can search the materials by genes, leukaemias, solid tumors, cancer prone diseases, and chromosomes. Researchers can find links to scientific societies and meetings. Students can explore educational materials on Mendelian and non-Mendelian Inheritance, chromosomes, population genetics, and additional human genetics topics. The website also offers reviews and case reports.
Clinico-haematological and mineral studies were carried out in experimental chickens given maduramicin medicated feed at 5 and 10ppm for 21 days. Maduramicin medication in both medicated groups caused growth retardation. Clinical signs namely watery diarrhoea, depression, dullness and ruffled feathers were noticed in chickens from second week of the medication at 10ppm but this effect was seen from third week
Tersem Singh; R. P Gupta
There is a growing pressure on clinical chemistry laboratories to conform to quality standards that require the evaluation and expression of the uncertainty of results of measurement. Nevertheless, there is some reluctance to accept the uncertainty concept in the analytical community due to difficulty in evaluating uncertainty in practice. For example, often the uncertainty of some uncertainty components is not known very well in clinical chemistry measurements, such as those associated with matrix effects or with the values of the calibrators. Moreover, it is not clear how to interpret uncertainty in relation to diagnostic criteria, reference ranges and other decision limits in clinical chemistry practice. Hence, the value of reporting the uncertainty of the measurement result is not obvious. In this paper it is suggested a relatively simple, logical procedure for evaluating measurement uncertainty based on the principles in the Guide for the Expression of Uncertainty of Measurement (GUM). The measurement process is partitioned into elements that are well known to the analyst, namely sampling, calibration, and analysis. The corresponding model function expresses the result of a measurement as the value obtained by the analytical procedure multiplied by the correction factors for sampling bias, for bias caused by the calibrators, and for other types of bias. Under normal conditions, when the measurement procedure is validated and corrected for all known bias, the expected value of each correction factor is one. The uncertainty that remains with regard to sampling, manufacturing of calibrators and other types of bias is combined with the analytical imprecision to yield a combined uncertainty of a result of measurement. The advantages of this approach are: (i) Data from the method validation, internal quality control and from participation in external quality control schemes can be used as input in the uncertainty evaluation process. (ii) The partition of the measurement into well-defined tasks highlights the different responsibilities of the clinical chemistry laboratory and of the manufacturer of reagents and calibrators. (iii) The approach can be used to harmonize the uncertainty evaluation process, which is particularly relevant for laboratories seeking accreditation under ISO 17025. The application of the proposed model is demonstrated by evaluating the uncertainty of a result of a measurement of prolactin in human serum. In the example it is shown how to treat the uncertainty associated with a calibrator supplied with a commercial analytical kit, and how to evaluate the uncertainty associated with matrix effects. PMID:11758604
Background: Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinical chemistry core laboratory. Subjects and Methods: At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS) to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs), delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and ‘absurd’ (physiologically improbable) values. Results: The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinical chemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%), albumin (99.8%), and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%). The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate) and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda), mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection) and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a high rate of autoverification is possible with modern clinical chemistry analyzers. The ability to autoverify a high percentage of results increases productivity and allows clinical laboratory staff to focus attention on the small number of specimens and results that require manual review and investigation. PMID:24843824
Krasowski, Matthew D.; Davis, Scott R.; Drees, Denny; Morris, Cory; Kulhavy, Jeff; Crone, Cheri; Bebber, Tami; Clark, Iwa; Nelson, David L.; Teul, Sharon; Voss, Dena; Aman, Dean; Fahnle, Julie; Blau, John L.
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Recent clinical data indicate that the measurement of the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) requires a higher sensitivity and wider dynamic range than most of the current methods can offer. Our goal was to develop a totally automated and highly sensitive CRP assay with an extended range on the Dimension((R)) clinical chemistry system based on particle-enhanced turbidimetric-immunoassay (PETIA) technology. The improved method was optimized and compared to the Binding Site's radial immunodiffusion assay using disease state specimens to minimize interference. Assay performance was assessed on the Dimension((R)) system in a 12-instrument inter-laboratory comparison study. A split-sample comparison (n = 622) was performed between the improved CRP method on the Dimension system and the N Latex CRP mono method on the Behring Nephelometer, using a number of reagent and calibrator lots on multiple instruments. The method was also referenced to the standard material, CRM470, provided by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). The improved CRP method was linear to 265.1 mg/l with a detection limit between 0.2 and 0.5mg/l. The method detects antigen excess from the upper assay limit to 2000 mg/l, thereby allowing users to retest the sample with dilution. Calibration was stable for 60 days. The within-run reproducibility (CV) was less than 5.1% and total reproducibility ranged from 1.1 to 6.7% between 3.3 and 265.4 mg/l CRP. Linear regression analysis of the results on the improved Dimension method (DM) versus the Behring Nephelometer (BN) yielded the following equation: DM = 0.99 x BN - 0.37; r = 0.992. Minimal interference was observed from sera of patients with elevated IgM, IgG and IgA. The recovery of the IFCC standard was within 100 +/- 7 % across multiple lots of reagent and calibrator. The improved CRP method provided a sensitive, accurate and rapid approach to quantify CRP in serum and plasma on the Dimension clinical chemistry system. The ability to detect antigen excess eliminated reporting falsely low results caused by the 'prozone effect'. PMID:18924698
Wei, T Q; Kramer, S; Chu, V P; Hudson, D; Kilgore, D; Salyer, S; Parker, G; Eyberger, A; Arentzen, R; Koiv, H
Medicinal chemistry strategies have contributed to the development, experimental study of and clinical trials assessment of the first type of protein kinase small molecule inhibitor to target the Janus kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. The orally administered small molecule inhibitor, tofacitinib, is the first drug to target the JAK/STAT pathway for entry into the armamentarium of the medical therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of tofacitinib into general rheumatologic practice coupled with increasing understanding that additional cellular signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways as well as spleen tyrosine kinase also contribute to immune-mediated inflammatory in rheumatoid arthritis makes it likely that further development of orally administered protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis will occur in the near future. PMID:25232525
Malemud, Charles J; Blumenthal, David E
Eighteen analytes were compared using the Coulter Dacos and Kodak Ektachem DT-60 chemistry analyzers. All analytes were significantly linearly related. Correlations were excellent for fifteen analytes (r > 0.95); the correlations for sodium, chloride, and total protein were less than 0.95 but greater than 0.90. Several analytes had slopes significantly different from unity which was likely related to methodological differences. Regression equations are presented for the conversion of data generated using the Kodak Ektachem DT-60 to Coulter Dacos values so that, in the University of Guelph clinical pathology laboratory, one set of reference intervals serves both instruments. These data are directly applicable only in the laboratory in which they were developed. They should not be utilized directly in other laboratories, but can be used as general guidelines until confirmatory studies are done. PMID:17423718
Jacobs, Robert M.; Lumsden, John H.; Taylor, Judith A.; Grift, Evert
Background Malaria is a major mosquito-borne public health problem in Thailand with varied haematological consequences. The study sought to elucidate the haematological changes in people who suspected malaria infection and their possible predictive values of malaria infection. Methods Haematological parameters of 4,985 patients, including 703 malaria-infected and 4,282 non-malaria infected, who admitted at Phop Phra Hospital, Tak Province, an area of malaria endemic transmission in Thailand during 2009 were evaluated. Results The following parameters were significantly lower in malaria-infected patients; red blood cells (RBCs) count, haemoglobin (Hb), platelets count, white blood cells (WBCs) count, neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were higher in comparison to non-malaria infected patients. Patients with platelet counts?150,000/uL were 31.8 times (odds ratio) more likely to have a malaria infection. Thrombocytopenia was present in 84.9% of malaria-infected patients and was independent of age, gender and nationality (P value?0.0001). Conclusion Patients infected with malaria exhibited important changes in most of haematological parameters with low platelet, WBCs, and lymphocyte counts being the most important predictors of malaria infection. When used in combination with other clinical and microscopy methods, these parameters could improve malaria diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24898891
At least several types of human haematological malignancies can now be seen as ‘stem-cell diseases’. The best-studied in this context is acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). It has been shown that these diseases are driven by a pool of ‘leukaemia stem cells (LSC)’, which remain in the quiescent state, have the capacity to survive and self-renew, and are responsible for the recurrence of cancer after classical chemotherapy. It has been understood that LSC must be eliminated in order to cure patients suffering from haematological cancers. Recent advances in LSC research have allowed for description of LSC phenotype and identification of potential targets for anti-LSC therapies. This concise review summarises the current view on LSC biology and targeted approaches against LSC.
Background Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug users. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the clinical chemistry profiles and identifying the key laboratory markers of HIV infection during ART in injection heroin users (IHUs). Methods Clinical chemistry measurements were performed on serum samples collected from HIV-1 infected ART-experienced (n?=?22), naive (n?=?16) and HIV-1 negative (n?=?23) IHUs, and healthy controls (n?=?15) from Mombasa, coastal Kenya. Results HIV uninfected IHUs had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P?=?0.023) as ART-exposed IHUs exhibited lower albumin (P?=?0.014) and higher AST to platelet index (APRI) (P?0.0001). All IHUs presented with lower aspartate aminotransferase to ALT values (P?=?0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P?=?0.002). ART-naive IHUs had higher globulin levels (P?=?0.013) while ART-experienced and naive IHUs had higher albumin to total protein (P?0.0001) and albumin to globulin (P?0.0001) values. In addition, CD4+ T cells correlated with ALT (? = ?0.522, P = 0.011) and CRP (rho, ??=?0.529, P?=?0.011) in HIV negative and ART-experienced IHUs, respectively. HIV-1 viral load correlated with albumin to globulin index in ART-experienced (??=??0.468, P?=?0.037) and naive (??=??0.554, P?=?0.040) IHUs; and with albumin to total protein index (??=??0.554, P?=?0.040) and globulin (??=?0.570, P?=?0.033) in ART-naive IHUs. Conclusion Absolute ALT, albumin, globulin, and CRP measurements in combination with APRI, AST to ALT, albumin to total protein and albumin to globulin indices may be useful laboratory markers for screening IHUs for initiating and monitoring treatment. PMID:25057262
Haematological and Immunological Data Data set n Input 1 WBC 2 Hgb Haematology 3 MCV 4 Plat 5 Lymph 6 Neut 1 PanT% 2 CD4% Immunology 3 CD8% 4 PanT 5 CD4 6 CD8 slideÂ1 #12; Data Type Data set KS+ (class 1) KS-- (class 3) Haematology Training 24 82 Test 4 10 Immunology Training 24 81 Test 4 10 KS
Numerous studies have reported some haematological characteristics of diurnal raptors; however, few of these have characterised\\u000a the haematological response to disease. We investigated the haematological characteristics, exhibited in response to a range\\u000a of injuries and naturally occurring inflammatory disease, of seven birds from six species of Falconiformes. A spectrum of\\u000a leukocyte responses was observed. Some form of morphological atypia was
P. Clark; S. R. Raidal
Blood samples were collected from six juvenile (age 4–6 months) and 14 adult (two years and more) clinically normal captive rufous-crested bustards (Eupodotis ruficrista). Standard haematology assays were carried out to establish normal reference values for the species and to investigate any age-related differences. Compared with adults, juveniles showed low haemoglobin levels, mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations
M. A. D'Aloia; J. C. Howlett; J. H. Samour; T. A. Bailey; J. Naldo
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major opportunistic infection in haematology patients. Preventive measures are important to control IA because diagnosis is difficult and the outcome of treatment is poor. We prospectively examined the environmental contamination by Aspergillus and other fungal species and evaluated the prevalence of invasive aspergillosis in the protect unit of haematology. A three-year prospective study (December 2004-September 2007) was carried out in the department of haematology of Hedi Chaker Hospital. Suspected invasive aspergillosis cases were reviewed and classified as proven, probable and possible invasive aspergillosis using the EORTC criteria. During the study period, we collected weekly environmental samples (patient's rooms, tables and acclimatisers) and clinical samples from each patient (nasal, expectoration and auricular). Among 105 neutropenic patients, 16 had probable and 13 had possible IA. A total of 1680 clinical samples were collected and A. flavus was most frequently isolated (79.2%). Analysis of 690 environmental samples revealed that Penicillium (44%) was the most frequent followed by Cladosporium (20%), Aspergillus spp. (18%) and Alternaria (13%). The PCR-sequencing of 30 A. flavus isolates detected from clinical and environmental samples confirmed the mycological identification. Our findings underline the importance of environmental surveillance and strict application of preventive measures. PMID:19500260
Hadrich, I; Makni, F; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Sellami, A; Bouaziz, H; Hdiji, S; Elloumi, M; Ayadi, A
Objective Debate still exists as to whether the Stewart (modern) or traditional model of acid–base chemistry is best in assessing the\\u000a acid–base status of critically ill patients. Recent studies have compared various parameters from the modern and traditional\\u000a approaches, assessing the clinical usefulness of parameters such as base excess, anion gap, corrected anion gap, strong ion\\u000a difference and strong ion gap.
S. Matousek; J. Handy; S. E. Rees
Broiler chicks were subjected to experimentally?induced hypoxia and the haematology, together with the histopathology and ultrastructure of heart, liver, lung and kidney and the ultracytochemistry of heart tissues were examined. The haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell counts were significantly increased compared with controls. The results resembled the haematology of similar aged broilers with an ascitic syndrome
M. H. Maxwell; S. Spence; G. W. Robertson; M. A. Mitchell
p53 gene mutations are rarely detected at diagnosis in common haematological cancers such as multiple myeloma (MM), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and Hodgkin's disease (HD), although their prevalence may increase with progression to more aggressive or advanced stages. Therapeutic induction of p53 might therefore be particularly suitable for the treatment of haematological malignancies. Some of the
Manujendra N Saha; Johann Micallef; Lugui Qiu; Hong Chang
Background The effect of centrifugation time of heparinized blood samples on clinical chemistry and immunology results has rarely been studied. WHO guideline proposed a 15 min centrifugation time without citing any scientific publications. The centrifugation time has a considerable impact on the turn-around-time. Methods We investigated 74 parameters in samples from 44 patients on a Roche Cobas 6000 system, to see whether there was a statistical significant difference in the test results among specimens centrifuged at 2180 g for 15 min, at 2180 g for 10 min or at 1870 g for 7 min, respectively. Two tubes with different plasma separators (both Greiner Bio-One) were used for each centrifugation condition. Statistical comparisons were made by Deming fit. Results Tubes with different separators showed identical results in all parameters. Likewise, excellent correlations were found among tubes to which different centrifugation conditions were applied. Fifty percent of the slopes lay between 0.99 and 1.01. Only 3.6 percent of the statistical tests results fell outside the significance level of p < 0.05, which was less than the expected 5%. This suggests that the outliers are the result of random variation and the large number of statistical tests performed. Further, we found that our data are sufficient not to miss a biased test (beta error) with a probability of 0.10 to 0.05 in most parameters. Conclusion A centrifugation time of either 7 or 10 min provided identical test results compared to the time of 15 min as proposed by WHO under the conditions used in our study. PMID:21569233
...Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products...Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products...submission of INDs for early clinical trials with live biotherapeutic...
...Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products...Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials with Live Biotherapeutic Products...submission of INDs for early clinical trials with live biotherapeutic...
The Matsumoto Eosinophilic Shinshu (MES) rat originated from an inbred mutant colony of rats with spontaneous eosinophilia. As part of an investigation of the pathogenesis of the MES rat, we examined the haematology data for 106 males and 88 females and age-associated changes using an automated haematology analyser, flow cytometric analysis and morphological examination. The data at 10 weeks of age showed the MES rats had higher counts for eosinophils and neutrophils, slightly higher counts for lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and large unstained cells (LUCs), and slightly lower values for the erythrocytic parameters when compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In data for MES rats aged 8 to 20 weeks, eosinophil counts increased with age up to 20 weeks together with some increased neutrophil counts. After 11 weeks of age, counts for lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and LUCs in the MES rats were also slightly increased. In female MES rats, flow cytometric analysis showed increased counts for pan-T+ cells, but blasts, abnormal granulocytes and lymphocytes were not detected morphologically. The MES rat characterized by the haematological findings could be a useful animal model for studies of hypereosinophilia. PMID:15703134
Muto, S; Kawakubo, M; Matsushita, N; Maeda, N; Momose, Y; Matsumoto, K
A system for computerising full blood picture reporting developed in-house using dBASE IV on IBM-compatible microcomputers in a local area network environment is described. The software package has a user-friendly interface which consists of a horizontal main menu bar with associated pull-down submenus. The package captures data directly from an automatic blood cell counter and provides options to modify or delete records, search for records, print interim, final or cumulative reports, record differential counts with an emulator, facilitate house-keeping activities which include backing-up databases and repairing corrupted indices. The implementation of this system has helped to improve the efficiency of reporting full blood picture in the haematology laboratory. PMID:8935130
Ag, Z; Cheong, S K
Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...
We prospectively observed 36 haematological patients with mucormycosis from nine hospitals of St. Petersburg during 2004-2013. The most frequent underlying diseases were acute leukaemia (64%), and main risk factors were prolonged neutropenia (92%) and lymphocytopenia (86%). In 50% of the patients, mucormycosis was diagnosed 1-65 days after invasive aspergillosis. Main clinical form of mucormycosis was pulmonary (64%), while two or more organ involvement was noted in 50% of the cases. The most frequent aetiological agents of mucormycosis were Rhizopus spp. (48%). Twelve-week survival rate was 50%. Combination therapy (echinocandins + amphotericin B forms) and recovery from the underlying disease significantly improved the survival rate. PMID:25187314
Klimko, Nikolay N; Khostelidi, Sofya N; Volkova, Alisya G; Popova, Marina O; Bogomolova, Tatyana S; Zuborovskaya, Ludmila S; Kolbin, Aleksey S; Medvedeva, Nadezhda V; Zuzgin, Ilya S; Simkin, Sergey M; Vasilyeva, Nataliya V; Afanasiev, Boris V
A morphology session is held each year at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the British Society of Haematology. Prior to the meeting this year, eight morphology cases were made available to BSH members as glass slides and also digitally as 'virtual slides'. A panel of invited commentators who had no prior knowledge of the diagnosis discussed the eight cases. An initial limited history and blood count are given with representative images from the case material; this is followed by the discussants' comments and suggested diagnosis. The actual clinical diagnosis is then given with other relevant information. PMID:19364371
Hutchinson, C V; Burthem, J; Bisland, M; Carey, P; Crotty, G; Devalia, V; Janda, B; Gordon, W; Harrison, C N; Murray, J; Shlebak, A; Thomas, A; Wilkins, B; McMullin, M F
This fifteenth biannual report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group (CHMG) highlights recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of hemato-oncology, covering the publication period from October 2011 to May 2012. Implications for clinical practice and methodological aspects are the main principles for selecting trials for this report. Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE using a broad search filter that covers all topics in hemato-oncology combined with a highly sensitive search filter for randomized trials (Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions). PMID:23852951
Rancea, Michaela; Will, Andrea; Borchmann, Peter; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas; Skoetz, Nicole
Haematological parameters were determined in healthy Nigerian breeds of goats and sheep. Most values in the Nigerian goats were similar to those reported for temperate breeds of goats although the haemoglobin concentrations and the MCHC were lower. The haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and red cell counts of the West African Dwarf sheep were lower while the MCV were higher than those reported for sheep in the temperate climate. RBC values decreased with age in both Nigerian goats and sheep. Although sex pregnancy appeared to have little or no influence on the erythrocytic values, pregnant ewes had higher haematocrit and haemoglobin values. The low erythrocytic values were attributed to a low but constant parasitic burden which affected the flocks studied. Total leucocyte counts were considerably higher in the Nigerian goats and sheep than those reported for temperate breeds of animals. Young goats had higher total leucocyte counts while pregnant goats had reduced leucocyte counts. The leucocytic values were not affected by age and sex. Pregnant ewes also had higher leucocyte counts than non-pregnant ewes and rams. PMID:968949
Oduye, O O
Presented is a project that developed a competency-based clinical chemistry course for associate degree medical laboratory technicians (MLT) in a medical technology (MT) baccalaureate program. Content of the course was based upon competencies expected of medical technologists at career-entry as defined in the statements adopted in 1976 by the…
Antifungal agents may be associated with significant toxicity or drug interactions leading to sub-therapeutic antifungal drug concentrations and poorer clinical outcomes for patients with haematological malignancy. These risks may be minimised by clinical assessment, laboratory monitoring, avoidance of particular drug combinations and dose modification. Specific measures, such as the optimal timing of oral drug administration in relation to meals, use of pre-hydration and electrolyte supplementation may also be required. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal agents is warranted, especially where non-compliance, non-linear pharmacokinetics, inadequate absorption, a narrow therapeutic window, suspected drug interaction or unexpected toxicity are encountered. Recommended indications for voriconazole and posaconazole TDM in the clinical management of haematology patients are provided. With emerging knowledge regarding the impact of pharmacogenomics upon metabolism of azole agents (particularly voriconazole), potential applications of pharmacogenomic evaluation to clinical practice are proposed. PMID:25482746
Chau, M M; Kong, D C M; van Hal, S J; Urbancic, K; Trubiano, J A; Cassumbhoy, M; Wilkes, J; Cooper, C M; Roberts, J A; Marriott, D J E; Worth, L J
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes C. difficile infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in developed countries has become increasingly high due to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, a growing elderly population, extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and limited therapies for this diarrheal disease. Because treatment options currently available for C. difficile infection have some drawbacks, including cost, promotion of resistance, and selectivity problems, new agents are urgently needed to address these challenges. This review article focuses on two parts: the first part summarizes current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection; the second part reviews newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years and are in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Antibiotics are divided into natural product inspired and synthetic small molecule compounds that may have the potential to be more efficacious than currently approved treatments. This includes potency, selectivity, reduced cytotoxicity, and novel modes of action to prevent resistance. PMID:24236721
Tsutsumi, Lissa S.; Owusu, Yaw B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Sun, Dianqing
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes C. difficile infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in developed countries has become increasingly high due to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, a growing elderly population, extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and limited therapies for this diarrheal disease. Because treatment options currently available for C. difficile infection have some drawbacks, including cost, promotion of resistance, and selectivity problems, new agents are urgently needed to address these challenges. This review article focuses on two parts: the first part summarizes current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection; the second part reviews newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years and are in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Antibiotics are divided into natural product inspired and synthetic small molecule compounds that may have the potential to be more efficacious than currently approved treatments. This includes potency, selectivity, reduced cytotoxicity, and novel modes of action to prevent resistance. PMID:24236721
Tsutsumi, Lissa S; Owusu, Yaw B; Hurdle, Julian G; Sun, Dianqing
Vanadium, abbreviated V, is an early transition metal that readily forms coordination complexes with a variety of biological products such as proteins, metabolites, membranes and other structures. The formation of coordination complexes stabilizes metal ions, which in turn impacts the biodistribution of the metal. To understand the biodistribution of V, V in oxidation state IV in the form of vanadyl sulfate (25, 50, 100 mg V daily) was given orally for 6 weeks to 16 persons with type 2 diabetes. Elemental V was determined using Graphite Furnas Atomic Absorption Spectrometry against known concentrations of V in serum, blood or urine. Peak serum V levels were 15.4±6.5, 81.7±40 and 319±268 ng/ml respectively, and mean peak serum V was positively correlated with dose administered (r=0.992, p=0.079), although large inter-individual variability was found. Total serum V concentration distribution fit a one compartment open model with a first order rate constant for excretion with mean half times of 4.7±1.6 days and 4.6±2.5 days for the 50 and 100 mg V dose groups respectively. At steady state, 24 hour urinary V output was 0.18±0.24 and 0.97±0.84 mg in the 50 and 100 mg V groups respectively, consistent with absorption of 1 percent or less of the administered dose. Peak V in blood and serum were positively correlated (r=0.971, p<0.0005). The serum to blood V ratio for the patients receiving 100 mg V was 1.7±0.45. Regression analysis showed that glycohemoglobin was a negative predictor of the natural log (ln) peak serum V (R2=0.40, p=0.009) and a positive predictor of the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp results at high insulin values (R2=0.39, p=0.010). Insulin sensitivity measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was not significantly correlated with ln peak serum V. Globulin and glycohemoglobin levels taken together were negative predictors of fasting blood glucose (R2=0.49, p=0.013). Although V accumulation in serum was dose-dependent, no correlation between total serum V concentation and the insulin-like response was found in this first attempt to correlate anti-diabetic activity with total serum V. This study suggests that V pools other than total serum V are likely related to the insulin-like effect of this metal. These results, obtained in diabetic patients, document the need for consideration of the coordination chemistry of metabolites and proteins with vanadium in anti-diabetic vanadium complexes. PMID:23982218
Halvorsen, Katherine; Godzala, Michael E.; Chi, Lai-Har; Most, Mathew; Kaszynski, Peter; Crans, Debbie C.; Goldfine, Allison B.; Kostyniak, Paul J.
The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A 'bench-to-bedside and back' attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345
The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A ‘bench-to-bedside and back’ attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345
Monocrotophos is an organophosphate pesticide used in agriculture to control insect pests. Changes in performance and haematological parameters (such as packed cell volume, white blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes) were used to assess the effect of the pesticide on rats chronically exposed to 12.5 parts per million (ppm), 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm for 10
T. O. Sunmonu; O. B. Oloyede
The haematological profile in neonatal dwarf and Danish landrace kids was investigated in 62 healthy Danish landrace and 34 dwarf kids from birth to 12 months of age in 7 herds. The objective was to determine the reference values in the breeds, and evaluate the influence of age and environment on haematological parameters. Parametric (means and standard deviations) and non-parametric (5th, 95th percentile, median) values were calculated for each analysis. Results of the two statistical methods were close to each other. The number of erythrocytes in both breeds increased with age from neonatal minimum values. Haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit decreased from the neonatal values in the following two weeks of life, whereafter they increased. Haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volumes were significantly higher in neonatal dwarf than in landrace kids. Differences in erythrocyte counts and haematocrit were observed with subsequent growth. There were significant differences in erythrocyte counts, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin, between breeds (in kids of similar age), age groups (within the breeds) and herds (in kids of similar age within the breeds). Statistically significant differences in haematological values between female and male kids of similar young ages within the same breed were not observed. Age, breed and environment influenced the level of haematological parameters in kids. PMID:1950242
Mbassa, G K; Poulsen, J S
147Chemistry Chemistry (Chem) Bayly Foundation PROFESSORS FRANCE, PLEVA ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS ALty A student may complete only one of the majors listed in the Department of Chemistry. The major in chemistry leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree requires completion of 44 credits as follows: 1. Chemistry 111, 112
Background: Sigma metrics provide a uniquely defined scale with which we can assess the performance of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the internal quality control (QC) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Cape Cost Hospital (UCC) using the six sigma metrics application. Materials and Methods: We used commercial control serum [normal (L1) and pathological (L2)] for validation of quality control. Metabolites (glucose, urea, and creatinine), lipids [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (AST)], electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and total protein were assessed. Between-day imprecision (CVs), inaccuracy (Bias) and sigma values were calculated for each control level. Results: Apart from sodium (2.40%, 3.83%), chloride (2.52% and 2.51%) for both L1 and L2 respectively, and glucose (4.82%), cholesterol (4.86%) for L2, CVs for all other parameters (both L1 and L2) were >5%. Four parameters (HDL-C, urea, creatinine and potassium) achieved sigma levels >1 for both controls. Chloride and sodium achieved sigma levels >1 for L1 but <1 for L2. In contrast, cholesterol, total protein and AST achieved sigma levels <1 for L1 but >1 for L2. Glucose and ALP achieved a sigma level >1 for both control levels whereas TG achieved a sigma level >2 for both control levels. Conclusion: Unsatisfactory sigma levels (<3) where achieved for all parameters using both control levels, this shows instability and low consistency of results. There is the need for detailed assessment of the analytical procedures and the strengthening of the laboratory control systems in order to achieve effective six sigma levels for the laboratory.
Afrifa, Justice; Gyekye, Seth A.; Owiredu, William K. B. A.; Ephraim, Richard K. D.; Essien-Baidoo, Samuel; Amoah, Samuel; Simpong, David L.; Arthur, Aaron R.
Introduction: Preanalytical variables account for most of laboratory errors. There is a wide range of factors that affect the reliability of laboratory report. Most convenient sample type for routine laboratory analysis is serum. BD Vacutainer® Rapid Serum Tube (RST) (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) blood collection tube provides rapid clotting time allowing fast serum separation. Our aim was to evaluate the comparability of routine chemistry parameters in BD Vacutainer® RST blood collection tube in reference with the BD Vacutainer® Serum Separating Tubes II Advance Tube (SST) (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). Materials and methods: Blood specimens were collected from 90 participants for evaluation on its results, clotting time and stability study of six routine biochemistry parameters: glucose (Glu), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), calcium (Ca), lactate dehidrogenase (LD) and potassium (K) measured with Olympus AU2700 analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Tokyo, Japan). The significance of the differences between samples was assessed by paired t-test or Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Rank test after checking for normality. Results: Clotting process was significantly shorter in the RSTs compared to SSTs (2.49 min vs. 19.47 min, respectively; P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between the RST and SST II tubes for glucose, calcium and LD (P < 0.001). Differences for glucose and LD were also clinically significant. Analyte stability studies showed that all analytes were stable for 24 h at 4 °C. Conclusions: Most results (except LD and glucose) from RST are comparable with those from SST. In addition, RST tube provides shorter clotting time. PMID:25351355
Kocijancic, Marija; Cargonja, Jelena; Delic-Knezevic, Alma
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin on some hematological parameters and to determine the preventive effectiveness of added glucomannan. In the study, 32 Merino rams were used, and the rams were separated equally to four groups as control (C), glucomannan (G), glucomannan?+?aflatoxin (AG), and aflatoxin (A). Erythrocyte, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were decreased in A group compared with the other groups, and there was a reduction in similar parameters in AG group compared to control values. On the other hand, these parameters were tended to increase in AG group compared to A group values. Aflatoxicosis caused the lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia but increased percentage of neutrophil counts. In conclusion, the results determined in the study might be important to demonstrate the effects of aflatoxicosis and glucomannan on some haematological parameters before the clinical symptoms appear. PMID:22629132
Dönmez, Nurcan; Dönmez, H. H.; Keskin, E.; K?sadere, ?.
Bloodstream infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the haematology population, and may contribute to delayed administration of chemotherapy, increased length of hospitalisation, and increased healthcare expenditure. For gram-positive, gram-negative, anaerobic and fungal infections, specific risk factors are recognised. Unique host and environmental factors contributing to pathogenesis are acknowledged in this population. Trends in spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens are examined, and potential contributing factors are discussed. These include the widespread use of empiric antimicrobial therapy, increasingly intensive chemotherapeutic regimens, frequent use of central venous catheters, and local infection control practices. In addition, the risks and benefits of prophylaxis, and spectrum of endemic flora are identified as relevant factors within individual centres. Finally, challenges are presented regarding prevention, early detection, surveillance and prophylaxis. To reduce the rate and impact of bloodstream infections multifaceted and customised strategies are required within individual haematology units. PMID:19046796
Worth, Leon J; Slavin, Monica A
Autopsy material from 72 patients with haematological malignancies treated in India was reviewed. Thirty-seven patients (51%) had documented infections; 20 (27%) had bacterial infections, 14 of which were Gram-negative organisms (Pseudomonas species in 10); tuberculosis was present in 2 patients (2.7%). Twenty-one patients (29%) had systemic fungal infections; invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and gastrointestinal candidiasis were present in 10 patients each.
Vivi M. Srivastava; Hemalatha Krishnaswami; Alok Srivastava; David Dennison; Mammen Chandy
1. Basic haematological values in 165 Cameroon goats (Capra hircus) are reported. 2. The erythrocyte count, mean 14.36 x 10(12) l-1, ranged from 8.24 to 24.7 x 10(12) l-1; the haematocrit values, mean 0.304, varied from 0.20 to 0.38; the haemoglobin content, mean 113.4 g/l, was in the range from 83.0 to 143.0 g/l and the leukocyte count, mean 13.67 x 10(9) l-1, had lowest and highest values between 5.4 and 24.5 x 10(9) l-1. 3. Comparing these blood constituents in 47 male and 118 female Cameroon goats we demonstrated statistically significant lower values of the haematocrit and haemoglobin content and a statistically significant higher proportion of lymphocytes in the female animals. 4. In 16 pregnant and 30 non-pregnant female Cameroon goats, all animals older than 3 years, no statistically significant differences of the red blood picture were noted. 5. Also in three groups, assorted according to age, no significant changes in basic haematological parameters were seen. 6. During one year follow-up of some haematological parameters, statistically significant seasonal changes were found. 7. All presented data are compared with values abstracted from the literature and discussed. PMID:2892620
Pospísil, J; Kase, F; Váhala, J
Chemistry 321 Organic Chemistry Fall 2010 MWF 1:00-2:00 Reichardt Bldg 202 Instructor: Thomas Dept.) Office Hours: By appointment Required Materials: Organic Chemistry 7th Ed., J. McMurry, Brooks of Organic Chemistry 7th Ed. by John McMurry. The course will focus on the bonding, stability, and shapes
CHEMISTRY 11500 General Chemistry Spring 2014 Professor Dr. John J. Nash; BRWN 4103C; phone: 494.edu (Lab) Required Course Materials Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 6th Ed., by M. S. Silberberg, McGraw-Hill, 2012. Chemistry 11500 Laboratory Manual, 2013-2014, Hayden-McNeil Publishing, Inc
Summary Pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMGDF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) promote haematopoietic progenitor cell maturation. We reviewed the findings for healthy volunteers\\/donors who developed haematological malignancies following PEG-rHuMGDF or G-CSF administration. Information was reviewed for three of 538 volunteers who received PEG- rHuMGDF in clinical trials and two of 200 donors who underwent G-CSF mobilised
Charles L. Bennett; Andrew M. Evens; Leslie A. Andritsos; Lakshmi Balasubramanian; Mark Mai; Matthew J. Fisher; Timothy M. Kuzel; Cara Angelotta; June M. McKoy; Julie M. Vose; Philip J. Bierman; David J. Kuter; Steven M. Trifilio; Steven M. Devine; Martin S. Tallman
??Haematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a revolutionary treatment for haematological malignancies. Although HSCT is potentially curative, patients usually develop stomatitis which is a common… (more)
Introduction Nowadays Enterococcus faecium has become one of the most emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors in haematology patients who are at risk of an Enterococcus faecium bloodstream infection (BSI) and should be considered for pre-emptive glycopeptide treatment. With these identified risk factors a prediction model can be developed for clinical use. Methods Retrospectively clinical and microbiological data in 33 patients with an E. faecium BSI were compared to 66 control patients during a 5-year period at the haematology ward. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the independent risk factors and a prediction model was developed to determine the risk of an E. faecium BSI. Results E. faecium BSIs were found to be associated with high mortality rates. Independent risk factors for E. faecium BSI were colonization with E. faecium 30 days prior to blood culture (OR 5.71; CI 1.7-18.7), combination of neutropenia and abdominal focus (4.37; 1.4-13.4), age?>?58 years (4.01; 1.3-12.5), hospital stay prior to blood culture?>?14 days (3.55; 0.98-12.9) and CRP (C-reactive protein) level >125 mg/L (4.37; 1.1-10.2). Conclusion Using data from this study, risk stratification for the development of an E. faecium BSI in patients with haematological malignancies is possible. Pre-emptive treatment should be considered in those patients who are at high risk. Using a prediction model as designed in this study, antibiotic stewardship in terms of prudent use of glycopeptides can be improved and might be helpful in controlling further spread of VRE (vancomycin resistant enterococci). PMID:24025668
Viral respiratory tract infections (VRTI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in haematology patients, particularly after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The incidence, clinical presentation and outcome of symptomatic and asymptomatic VRTI in HSCT outpatient unit were prospectively evaluated during a single influenza season (January-March 2011). Pharyngeal swabs were performed at the first visit and if new symptoms were present. Molecular multiplex assay for 12 respiratory viruses was performed by the regional reference laboratory. Among 264 swabs from 193 outpatients, 58 (22 %) resulted positive for 61 viruses (influenza, n?=?20; respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], n?=?21; rhinovirus, n?=?12; coronavirus, n?=?4; adenovirus, n?=?3; parainfluenza, n?=?1). VRTI were detected more frequently in the presence of symptoms than in asymptomatic patients: 49 out of 162 (30 %) vs. 9 out of 102 (9 %), p?0.001. Influenza-like illness syndrome (ILI) was significantly associated with a VRTI if compared to other presentations (42 %), while the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control definition was not (30 %). Positive predictive value (PPV) of ILI for influenza was 17 %. Influenza and RSV peak periods were contemporary. Influenza prophylaxis was given to 25 patients following exposure. Low rate of progression from upper to lower respiratory tract infection (approximately 5 % for influenza and RSV), no nosocomial epidemics and no VRTI-related deaths were observed. VRTI are very frequent in high-risk haematology outpatients, but symptoms are aspecific and PPV of ILI is low. Symptoms of influenza and RSV overlap. Thus, microbiological diagnosis and contact preventive measures are crucial. Rather than universal influenza prophylaxis, prompt diagnosis and treatment of only documented infections could be pursued. PMID:24097084
Mikulska, Ma?gorzata; Del Bono, Valerio; Gandolfo, Nemo; Dini, Simone; Dominietto, Alida; Di Grazia, Carmen; Bregante, Stefania; Varaldo, Riccardo; Orsi, Andrea; Ansaldi, Filippo; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Viscoli, Claudio
Summary Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major opportunistic infection in haematology patients. Preventive measures are important to control IA because diagnosis is difficult and the outcome of treatment is poor. We prospectively examined the environmental contamination by Aspergillus and other fungal species and evaluated the prevalence of invasive aspergillosis in the protect unit of haematology. A three-year prospective study (December
I. Hadrich; F. Makni; H. Sellami; F. Cheikhrouhou; A. Sellami; H. Bouaziz; S. Hdiji; M. Elloumi; A. Ayadi
Reports from some Western countries indicate that mandatory folate food fortification (FFF) has substantially reduced the prevalence of folate deficiency, leading to calls for folate testing following FFF to be limited to specific indications such as macrocytic anaemia. This is premature for low-income countries, where folate deficiency is predominantly the result of poor intake coupled with the increasing demand in pregnancy. There is also evidence that HIV infection is prejudicial to folate nutrition, and low-income HIV-infected women and their offspring could be among the most susceptible to folate deficiency. In assessing folate nutrition, the value of serum folate has been compromised by FFF, and both serum and red cell folate are necessary for optimal assessment of folate status. Although the limited data available suggest that large-scale masking of vitamin B12 deficiency by FFF has not occurred, it has been suggested that B12 be incorporated into folate-fortified foods. However, significant B12 deficiency is usually due to malabsorption, and physiological doses added to food would be of questionable value because they would not be absorbed. Extensive work, especially randomised clinical trials, must be done before dietary intervention with B12 on a national scale can be justified. PMID:24300642
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem, autoimmune disease characterized by periods of increased disease activity caused by inflammation of blood vessels and connective tissue. Pediatric patients with SLE have a more severe clinical course when compared with adults. Patients commonly present with rash, fever, and arthritis, although the presentation may be unpredictable. Hematological findings are more predominant in children than adults. Thirty-nine percent of children with SLE will develop hematological abnormalities, one of the American Rheumatic Association criteria for classifying the disease. In our case series we found varied hematological picture and presentation. We present here four case reports of SLE cases with interesting hematological features. Our first case is a 13 month old female child who was initially diagnosed as Evans syndrome and 2 years later diagnosed as SLE. Second case is a 3 year old male child who had SLE with warm antibody AIHA. Third case is a 6 year old female child who presented with AIHA and was diagnosed with SLE 6 years later. Fourth case is a 6 year old female child diagnosed as SLE with aplastic anemia. Hematological findings should be carefully assessed and treated in order to decrease disease related morbidity. PMID:25548448
Thakur, Neha; Chandra, Jagdish; Dhingra, Bhavna; Singh, V
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies. PMID:23887658
Garitano-Trojaola, Andoni; Agirre, Xabier; Prósper, Felipe; Fortes, Puri
Objectives To study the geographical pattern of mortality caused by haematological tumours in Spain at the municipal level using three Bayesian models and to compare their goodness of fit. Methods The fitted Bayesian hierarchical models were: (1) the Besag York and Molliè (BYM) model; (2) a model based on zero?inflated Poisson (ZIP) distribution, which allowed a large number of event?free areas; and (3) a mixture of distributions that enabled discontinuities (jumps in the pattern) to be modelled. The three models allow smoothed relative risk maps to be obtained for the all countries. The goodness of fit was evaluated using the deviance information criteria. Results The three models yielded similar results. The ZIP model plotted a pattern almost identical with the BYM model. The goodness?of?fit criteria indicate that the mixture model is the one that best fits our data. Haematological tumours display a geographical pattern that could be partly explained by environmental determinants, as many of the highest?risk towns are located in heavily industrialised areas. Conclusions The choice of one or another model has scant practical consequences. The pattern of distribution supports the hypothesis that differences in lifestyles, air/industrial pollution and migratory phenomena may determine the pattern of urban mortality due to these tumours. PMID:17234878
Prieto, Rebeca Ramis; García?Pérez, Javier; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez?Gómez, Beatriz; López?Abente, Gonzalo
Our objective was to evaluate diagnostic tools for the detection of Inclusion Body Disease (IBD) in bold snakes. The aetiology of IBD is unknown, and the disease has non-specific clinical signs, hence there is a need for a clinically-applicable, specific diagnostic method. We examined blood smears and liver biopsies from 26 bold snakes (17 boas and nine pythons; some of which were suspected of having IBD) for the presence of characteristic inclusion bodies. We used haematology, histology and electron microscopy to characterise samples as IBD-positive or -negative. Our results indicate that examination of a simple blood smear is sufficient to diagnose IBD in boas. Inclusion bodies in lymphocytes, erythrocytes and thrombocytes were observed. In both, boas and pythons, we detected inclusion bodies within hepatocytes. We demonstrated also that IBD was more common in boas than in pythons: only samples from two Ball Pythons (Python regius) tested positive, whereas no other Pythonidae were positive. We consider that blood smears represents a rapid, non-invasive technique for detection of IBD. PMID:23045804
Keilwerth, Melanie; Bühler, Ilina; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour
Previous studies have shown that total platelet count (TPC) inadequately predicts bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with haematological malignancies. This prospective cohort study evaluated whether rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), coagulation or other platelet parameters were more strongly associated with bleeding than TPC. Adults treated at two UK haematology centres for haematological malignancy were enrolled if they had thrombocytopenia (TPC ? 50 × 10(9) /l) at beginning of, or during treatment (International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number 81226121). TPC and bleeding symptoms were recorded daily for up to 30 d or until platelet count recovery, hospital discharge or death. Blood samples were tested thrice weekly using ROTEM, Platelet Function Analyser (PFA)-100(®) , coagulation and platelet cytometry assays. Bleeding symptoms and TPC from 49/50 enrolled participants who completed the study were recorded on 754/760 study days. Mean platelet volume and PFA-100(®) closure times were frequently inestimatable because of thrombocytopenia. TPC, absolute immature platelet number (AIPN) and ROTEM maximum clot firmness were significantly associated with bleeding on the day after blood sampling. Only AIPN was associated with bleeding after adjustment of test results for TPC (Odds Ratio 0·52, 95% confidence interval 0·28-0·97; P = 0·038). In a predictive model, AIPN was superior to TPC for predicting bleeding. This study indicates that AIPN may be more clinically useful than TPC at predicting bleeding. PMID:24797282
Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Harrison, Paul; Powter, Gillian; McClure, Marianne; Murphy, Michael F; Mumford, Andrew D
and silicosis patients. mt J Cancer 1992;50:881-5. 8. Curtis C, Harris MD, Hollstein M. Clinical implications. Mudena B, Green JA, Green B, Jenkins JR, Robertson L, Tarunina M, et al. The relationship between serum p
California at Berkeley, University of
Autophagy is a cellular process that maintains the homeostasis of the normal cell. It not only allows for cell survival in times of metabolic stress with nutrient recycling but also is able to lead to cell death when required. During malignant transformation the cell is able to proliferate and survive. This is due to altered cell metabolism and the presence of altered genetic changes that maintain the cell survival. Metabolism was considered an innocent bystander that was a consequence of the increased nutrient requirement for the survival and proliferation of haematological malignancies. The interdependency of metabolism and cellular mechanisms such as autophagy are becoming more evident and important. This interdependence contributes to increased cancer progression and drug resistance. In this paper we aim to discuss autophagy, how it pertains to metabolism in the context of hematologic malignancies, and the implications for therapy. PMID:22829831
Banerji, Versha; Gibson, Spencer B.
The use of automated analysers in population screening for beta-thalassaemia has been a matter of controversy. The new fully automated haematology analyser Sysmex E-5000 (Toa Medical Electronics Co. Ltd) facilitates the discrimination of heterozygous thalassaemia from iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume, the red cell size-distribution width is measured. In patients with hypochromic microcytic red cells, the Sysmex data have been evaluated and compared with the indices described by England and Fraser [Lancet i, pp. 449-452, 1973], Mentzer [Lancet i, p. 882, 1973] and by Shine and Lal [Lancet i, pp. 692-694, 1977]. For the detection of beta-thalassaemia trait, the size-distribution width is superior to the previously described indices. The sensitivity is 79%, the specificity 95% and the predictive value for a positive test 94%. PMID:3120468
Marti, H R; Fischer, S; Killer, D; Bürgi, W
Within a period of 15 months 8 cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis were seen in a haematologic unit; 7 of them between January and October 1984. No previous cases of invasive aspergillosis had been encountered during the existence of the unit since 1979. Environmental studies did not prove a single likely source for the fungal spores. Previous window renovation with concomitant fiber deposits on ventilation grids, poor sealing of air filter fittings in patient rooms, occasional ventilation through windows in the ward, and low speed of booster fans in the ventilation system may have created a condition favourable for the entry of Aspergillus fumigatus spores into the patient rooms. Environmental sanitation including cleaning of the ventilation ducts and change of filters in the ventilation system stopped the outbreak. Two sporadic cases have appeared during a follow-up period of 26 months. PMID:3303306
Ruutu, P; Valtonen, V; Tiitanen, L; Elonen, E; Volin, L; Veijalainen, P; Ruutu, T
This is the first report of the chemical and biological properties of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) endotoxin isolated from Burkholderia dolosa IST4208, an isolate recovered from a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient in a Portuguese CF center. B. dolosa is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of closely related species that are highly problematic and opportunistic pathogens in CF. B. dolosa infection leads to accelerated loss of lung function and decreased survival. The structural determination of its endotoxin was achieved using a combination of chemistry and spectroscopy, and has revealed a novel endotoxin structure. The purified LOS was tested for its immunostimulatory activity on human HEK 293 cells expressing TLR-4, MD-2, and CD-14. In these assays, the LOS showed strong proinflammatory activity. PMID:23733445
Lorenzo, Flaviana Di; Sturiale, Luisa; Palmigiano, Angelo; Lembo-Fazio, Luigi; Paciello, Ida; Coutinho, Carla P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Bernardini, MariaLina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Garozzo, Domenico; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio
148 Chemistry/Chinese Chemistry 347 (3)--Advanced Organic Chemistry Prerequisite: Chemistry 242,syntheticmethodology,mod- ernsyntheticreactions,protectinggroups,naturalprod- uctssynthesis,andcombinatorialchemistry.France. Spring Chemistry 350 (3)--Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Prerequisites: Chemistry 250, 252, and 262. Anintro
Clinico-haematological and mineral studies were carried out in experimental chickens given maduramicin medicated feed at 5 and 10 ppm for 21 days. Maduramicin medication in both medicated groups caused growth retardation. Clinical signs namely watery diarrhoea, depression, dullness and ruffled feathers were noticed in chickens from second week of the medication at 10 ppm but this effect was seen from third week in the birds given maduramicin at 5 ppm. Maduramicin medication caused significant reduction in haemoglobin in both the medicated group from day 14 and total erythrocyte count and packed cell volume in 10 ppm group on day 21. There was an increase in MCV in 10 ppm group on day 21 indicating macrocytic anaemia and decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in both the medicated groups indicating hypochromic anaemia. The leucopenia due to lymphopenia was observed in 10 ppm group on day 21. Maduramicin medication caused significant increase in serum Zn in 10 ppm group and decrease in Cu concentration in both the medicated groups from day 14. It is concluded that maduramicin caused toxic effects from day 14 in both the medicated groups. PMID:14580805
Singh, Tersem; Gupta, R P
This paper reviews the evidence for beneficial effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis on haematological responses, morbidity, mortality, health service utilization and rebound immunity in children. As anaemia may play an important role in childhood mortality, it is important to assess evidence from controlled trials of the potential of chemoprophylaxis to reduce childhood anaemia. An analysis of trials found good evidence that malaria chemoprophylaxis improves mean haemoglobin levels and reduces severe anaemia, clinical malaria attacks, parasite and spleen rates. Significant reductions in outpatient attendance and hospital admissions have been achieved, and substantial evidence from Gambian studies shows reductions in mortality. Chemoprophylaxis in children does not seem to produce any sustained impairment of immunity to malaria, although rebound effects may be greater in children who receive prophylaxis during infancy. Short periods of targeted prophylaxis are likely to be preferable to continuous drug administration. Evidence of the protective efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children shows that this strategy could be considered within integrated health programmes for specific time periods. Intermittent routine combination therapy early in childhood may be appropriate for those living under holoendemic conditions. Large-scale studies over a number of years are needed to address this issue and the impact of this approach on health service utilization, mortality, and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. PMID:12764517
Geerligs, Paul D. Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard J.; Eggelte, Teunis A.
This study examined the experiential relationship between the parasite density and haematological parameters in male patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection in Port Harcourt, Nigeria reporting to malaria clinics. A total of one hundred and thirty-six (136) male patients were recruited. QBC haematological analysis, QBC malaria parasite specie identification and quantification and thin blood film for differential leucocytes count was used. The mean values of the haematological parameters in each quartile of parasite densities were determined using Microsoft Excel statistical package. Regression analysis was employed to model the experiential relationship between parasite density and haematological parameters. All regression relationships were tested and the relationship with the highest coefficient of determination (R2) was accepted as the valid relationship. The relationships tested included linear, polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and power relationships. The X- axis of the regression graphs stand for the parasite density while Y-axis stands for the respective haematological parameters Neutrophil count had a negative exponential relationship with the parasite density and is related to the parasite density by a polynomial equation model: ynm = -7E-07x2 - 0.0003x + 56.685.The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.6140. This means that the rate of change of the parasitemia will depend on the initial value of the neutrophil. As the neutrophil increases, the parasitemia will tend to decrease in a double, triple and quadruple manner. The relationship between lymphocyte count, monocyte count and eosinophil count and parasite density was logarithmic and expressed by the following linear equation models: ylm = -2.371ln(x) + 37.296, ymm = 0.6965ln(x) + 5.7692 and yem = 0.9334ln(x) + 4.1718 in the same order. Their respective high coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.8027, 0.8867 and 0.9553. This logarithmic relationship means that each doubling of monocyte count and eosinophil count will cause the same amount of increase in parasitemia whereas each doubling of lymphocyte count will cause the same amount of decrease in parasitemia. The best fitting regression model for total white cell count (WBC), haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV)(haematocrit) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and parasite density was a linear model and expressed by the following linear equation models: yWBCm = 1.2314x + 8533.8, yHbm = -0.0014x + 13.004, yPCVm = -0.0046x + 41.443 and yMCHCm = -0.0008x + 32.336. Their respective coefficients of determination are 0.7397, 0.6248, 0.9758 and 0.8584. This linear relationship means that as the parasite density is increasing that there is a corresponding decrease in haemoglobin concentration, PCV and MCHC and a corresponding increase in total white cell count. The best fitting regression model between platelet count and parasite density is a power model with a very high coefficient of determination (R2=0.9938) and expressed by: yPltm = 278047x-0.122. These equation models could be very useful in areas where there may not be functional microscopes or competent microscopists and in medical emergencies. PMID:22980350
M, Eze Evelyn; Ezeiruaku, F C; Ukaji, D C
Peromyscus leucopus mice share physical similarities with laboratory mice Mus musculus (MM) but have higher agility and longer lifespan. We compared domesticated P. leucopus linville (PLL) and M. musculus C57BL/6 (MMB6) mice for cellular composition of peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM) and spleen. PLL mice had significantly fewer platelets and significantly more monocytes in the blood, and notably fewer megakaryocytes in the BM. Spleens of PLL mice were significantly smaller, with 50% fewer cells and reduced 'red pulp'. There was no obvious haematological change in PLL mice between 2-8 and 16-26 months of age, except for a significant increase in blood monocytes. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content showed no change with age but differed significantly between different cell types. Treating two to eight month-old PLL mice with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine in drinking water for three months did not affect cellular ROS content, but increased blood leucocytes especially the concentration of monocytes. The low platelets, low megakaryocytes, high monocytes and low splenic erythropoiesis in PLL mice resemble human measurements better than the values seen in MMB6. PMID:25116892
Sun, Yu; Desierto, Marie J; Ueda, Yasutaka; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Chen, Jichun; Young, Neal S
Background Candida krusei infections are associated with high mortality. In order to explore ways to prevent these infections, we investigated potential routes for nosocomial spread and possible clonality of C. krusei in a haematological unit which had experienced an unusually high incidence of cases. Methods We searched for C. krusei contamination of the hospital environment and determined the level of colonization in patients and health care workers. We also analyzed the possible association between exposure to prophylactic antifungals or chemotherapeutic agents and occurrence of C. krusei. The C. krusei isolates found were genotyped by pulsed-field electrophoresis method in order to determine possible relatedness of the cases. Results Twelve patients with invasive C. krusei infection and ten patients with potentially significant infection or mucosal colonization were documented within nine months. We were unable to identify any exogenic source of infection or colonization. Genetic analysis of the isolates showed little evidence of clonal transmission of C. krusei strains between the patients. Instead, each patient was colonized or infected by several different closely related genotypes. No association between medications and occurrence of C. krusei was found. Conclusion Little evidence of nosocomial spread of a single C. krusei clone was found. The outbreak may have been controlled by cessation of prophylactic antifungals and by intensifying infection control measures, e.g. hand hygiene and cohorting of the patients, although no clear association with these factors was demonstrated. PMID:17711592
Hautala, Timo; Ikäheimo, Irma; Husu, Heidi; Säily, Marjaana; Siitonen, Timo; Koistinen, Pirjo; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Koskela, Markku; Kujala, Pekka
A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis). PMID:25320488
Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi
Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a rare haematological malignancy, with approximately 175 new incident cases in France. Diagnosis is based on a careful examination of the blood smear and immunophenotyping of the tumour cells, with a panel of four markers being used specifically to screen for hairy cells (CD11c, CD25, CD103 and CD123). In 2011, the V600E mutation of the BRAF gene in exon 15 was identified in HCL; being present in HCL, it is absent in the variant form of HCL (HCL-v) and in splenic red pulp lymphoma (SRPL), two entities related to HCL. The management of patients with HCL has changed in recent years. A poorer response to purine nucleoside analogues (PNAs) is observed in patients with more marked leukocytosis, bulky splenomegaly, an unmutated immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IgVH) gene profile, use of VH4-34 or with TP53 mutations. We present the recommendations of a group of 11 experts belonging to a number of French hospitals. This group met in November 2013 to examine the criteria for managing patients with HCL. The ideas and proposals of the group are based on a critical analysis of the recommendations already published in the literature and on an analysis of the practices of clinical haematology departments with experience in managing these patients. The first-line treatment uses purine analogues: cladribine or pentostatin. The role of BRAF inhibitors, whether or not combined with MEK inhibitors, is discussed. The panel of French experts proposed recommendations to manage patients with HCL, which can be used in a daily practice. PMID:24994538
Cornet, Edouard; Delmer, Alain; Feugier, Pierre; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Ghez, David; Leblond, Véronique; Levy, Vincent; Maloisel, Frédéric; Re, Daniel; Zini, Jean-Marc; Troussard, Xavier
Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria which is one of the most prevalent and deadly infectious diseases in the world. The antimalarial therapeutic arsenal is hampered by the onset of resistance to all known pharmacological classes of compounds, so new drugs with novel mechanisms of action are critically needed. Albitiazolium is a clinical antimalarial candidate from a series of choline analogs designed to inhibit plasmodial phospholipid metabolism. Here we developed an original chemical proteomic approach to identify parasite proteins targeted by albitiazolium during their native interaction in living parasites. We designed a bifunctional albitiazolium-derived compound (photoactivable and clickable) to covalently crosslink drug–interacting parasite proteins in situ followed by their isolation via click chemistry reactions. Mass spectrometry analysis of drug–interacting proteins and subsequent clustering on gene ontology terms revealed parasite proteins involved in lipid metabolic activities and, interestingly, also in lipid binding, transport, and vesicular transport functions. In accordance with this, the albitiazolium-derivative was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi network of P. falciparum. Importantly, during competitive assays with albitiazolium, the binding of choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase (the enzyme involved in the last step of phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was substantially displaced, thus confirming the efficiency of this strategy for searching albitiazolium targets. PMID:25470252
Penarete-Vargas, Diana Marcela; Boisson, Anaïs; Urbach, Serge; Chantelauze, Hervé; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Fraisse, Laurent; Vial, Henri J.
We studied the uncertainty of measurement for the calcium and glucose (amount of) substance concentrations in serum. The evaluation follows a four-step procedure, which complies with the ISO document Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The applications were chosen to represent commonly used measuring systems in medical laboratories. The uncertainty components are quantified using observations of the measuring system, and information from calibration certificates, instrument specifications and literature. The evaluation focuses on the measurement step but empirical terms are used to illustrate how the pre-analytical phase and patient-related issues can be accounted for. The software GUM Workbench was used to facilitate calculations and to visualize the importance of each uncertainty component. The combined standard uncertainties (u(c)) for the measurands were < or =2% including the pre-analytical uncertainty sources. The patient-related source is discussed in relation to clinician's diagnosis and decision-making. The evaluation, as carried out here for calcium and glucose substance concentration measurements, can easily be applied to many other measurands in clinical chemistry. This work emphasizes that the internal quality control can provide much of the information needed in the uncertainty evaluation, and that external quality assessment (EQA) schemes are important in the control of the uncertainty evaluated by the individual laboratories. Due to statistical and metrological limitations routine EQA schemes should themselves not be used as a means of uncertainty evaluation. PMID:12059081
Linko, Solveig; Ornemark, Ulf; Kessel, Rüdiger; Taylor, Philip D P
The German Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (GPOH) runs nation-wide multicentre clinical trials to improve the treatment of children suffering from malignant diseases. We want to provide methods and tools to support the centres of these trials in developing trial specific modules for the computer-based DOcumentation System for Paediatric Oncology (DOSPO). For this we carried out an object-oriented business process analysis for the Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Trial at the Olgahospital Stuttgart for Child and Adolescent Medicine. The result is a comprehensive business process model consisting of UML-diagrams and use case specifications. We recommend the object-oriented business process analysis as a method for the definition of requirements in information processing projects in the field of clinical trials in general. For this our model can serve as basis because it slightly can be adjusted to each type of clinical trial. PMID:11604706
Weber, R; Knaup, P; Knietitg, R; Haux, R; Merzweiler, A; Mludek, V; Schilling, F H; Wiedemann, T
Fall 2014 Chemistry 675 Advanced Organic Chemistry MWF 10:35-11:30 AM 200 LSB Professor John D Description: CHE675 is a graduate-level organic chemistry course focused on physical organic chemistry, which deals with the structure and reactivity of organic molecules and provides the foundation
Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n?=?366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675
Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.
Infections due to resistant and multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms in haematology patients and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are an increasingly complex problem of global concern. We outline the burden of illness and epidemiology of resistant organisms such as gram-negative pathogens, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and Clostridium difficile in haematology cohorts. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing the impact of these organisms are reviewed: infection prevention programmes, screening and fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. The role of newer therapies (e.g. linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline) for treatment of resistant and MDR organisms in haematology populations is evaluated, in addition to the mobilization of older agents (e.g. colistin, pristinamycin and fosfomycin) and the potential benefit of combination regimens. PMID:24341410
Trubiano, Jason A; Worth, Leon J; Thursky, Karin A; Slavin, Monica A
This special feature page from the American Chemical Society (ACS) showcases the up-and-coming field of "green chemistry," that is, the development of chemical products and processes that eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. A list of principles behind green chemistry, a searchable bibliography of green chemistry references, green chemistry links (including conferences), and an online preview of the ACS-published book Real-World Cases in Green Chemistry are all found at the site. Five video clips on green chemistry from the standpoint of academia, industry, and small business are also featured (Windows Media Player). This page comes from ACS's Green Chemistry Project, a three-year educational project to develop and disseminate green chemistry educational materials for graduate and undergraduate chemistry students. Check back often for updates.
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2700 Nephelometer for clinical use. (a)...
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2560 Fluorometer for clinical use. (a)...
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2730 Osmometer for clinical use. (a)...
Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...
Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…
School Science Review, 1983
Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)
Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.
R. H. Logan, an chemistry instructor at North Lake College, created this introduction to organic chemistry. The introduction covers a eight types of organic compounds, including Alkanes, Alkyl Halides, and Acyl Compounds (forthcoming); Conformational Analysis and Stereoisomerism; and Instrumental Analysis of Organic Compounds, as well an extensive lesson in general chemistry.
Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…
School Science Review, 1982
... This AACC online certificate program helps physicians, lab managers, and technologists to minimize the risk of unnecessary ... in 2016. Deadline: February 12 Nominate AACC’s 2016 leaders Latest News & Updates The Consequences of Rejected Specimens ...
Luminescent phenomena are widespread in nature and found in glow worms, luminous fish, and bacteria, when metabolic energy is partly converted to cold light, and in plants. Most of these phenomena can be explained by chemiluminescence. Chemiluminescence is characteristic for a variety of organic compounds oxidizable by H2O2. In those chemiluminescence reactions light is produced by oxidation of an aromatic
Mathias M. Müller; Andrea Griesmacher; Martin Grabenwöger
This study evaluated the haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae). Thirty-seven fish were captured in October 2010 from the Mogi Guaçu River, Porto Ferreira, SP, Brazil. Infected fish presented increased mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and lower thrombocyte and higher monocyte counts than uninfected fish. PMID:23557315
Belo, M A A; Souza, D G F; Faria, V P; Prado, E J R; Moraes, F R; Onaka, E M
Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, ?-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149
Haematological indices were investigated in 261 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, 29 of whom had developed proliferative sickle retinopathy (PSR). After allowing for age-related effects, male patients with high Hb (> 9 g\\/dl) and low HbF (< 5%) levels appeared to constitute a high risk group for PSR. This relationship was not evident in females, PSR being observed in
R. J. Hayes; P. I. Condon; G. R. Serjeant
The impact of the current nursing shortage on the health care system is receiving attention by both state and federal governments. This study, using a convenience sample of 243 oncology\\/haematology nurses working in 11 Queensland health care facilities, explored factors that influence the quality of nurses' working lives. Although nurses reported high levels of personal satisfaction and personal accomplishment, results
Linda Barrett; Patsy Yates
In the present investigation, the haematology and pathology of young broiler chicks with an ascitic syndrome were examined.Gross changes included cardiomegaly, ascites, congested lungs, shrunken livers, enlarged kidneys, dark breast muscle and congested intestines. Many blood parameters were significantly raised including the packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red (Rbc) and white blood cell (Wbc) counts. The heterophils and monocytes
M. H. Maxwell; G. W. Robertson; S. Spence
Introduction Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may aid engraftment post high-dose chemo-/radiotherapy in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT); however, the effects of G-CSF on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), relapse, and survival are not well defined. Methods In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 study, the effects of the G-CSF Filgrastim on neutrophil and platelet recovery, and on clinical outcomes were evaluated. Patients (12–55 years) receiving an allogeneic BMT for a haematological malignancy were randomized to receive Filgrastim 5 µg/kg or placebo. Study treatment was continued until patients achieved an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ?0.5 × 109/L, or until day 42. Results Fifty-one patients (Filgrastim, N = 25; placebo, N = 26) were evaluable. Patients treated with Filgrastim had significantly faster engraftment with ANC ?0.5 × 109/L being achieved after a median (range) of 15.0 (1.0–22.0) days vs. 19.0 (15.0–28.0) days for placebo (P< 0.0001). The incidence of GvHD was comparable for both groups. During the limited follow-up (2 years), Filgrastim had no adverse effect on mortality and possibly reduced the rate of relapse. PMID:19639030
Ernst, Peter; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Ringdén, Olle; Ruutu, Tapani; Kolb, Hans J; Lawrinson, Susan; Skacel, Tomas
Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.
A study of haematological and bone marrow changes in symptomatic patients with human immune deficiency virus infection with special mention of functional iron deficiency, anaemia of critically ill and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
Background Haematological abnormalities are among the most common complications of HIV. These involve all lineages of blood cells. Bone marrow studies form integral part of complete workup of the HIV positive patients specially when they present as case of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO), refractory anaemia and pancytopenia. Method 55 HIV infected symptomatic patient requiring bone marrow examination were included in the study. Relevant clinical history, baseline haematological investigations including full blood count, CD4 cell counts using flow cytometry were recorded. Results Median ANC values in males were found to be significantly lower than females (p = 0.046). CD4 cell count statistically significantly correlated with age, TLC, ANC & platelet count. Anaemia was present in 45 patients and out of which 66.66% patients had normocytic normochromic anaemia. Iron deficiency anaemia was present in (37.77%) patients and anaemia of chronic disease in (62.22%) patients. 2 patients had anaemia of the critically ill. Two patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and showed lymphoma deposit in the bone marrow. Gelatinous degeneration was seen in 3 patients. Ill formed epithelioid cell granulomas were seen in 7 cases, and 2 cases were positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB). Haemophagocytosis was seen in 8 cases; two cases later diagnosed as a case of infection induced HLH. Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies seen in 2 cases. Conclusions Bone marrow study is an important investigation in HIV infected symptomatic patients with peripheral haematological abnormalities. PMID:24600136
Kotwal, Jyoti; Singh, Vikram; Kotwal, Anupam; Dutta, Vibha; Nair, Velu
Background Cannulation of the internal jugular vein (CVC) is a blind surface landmark-guided technique that could be potentially dangerous in patients with very low platelet counts. In such patients, ultrasonography (US)-guided CVC may be a valid approach. There is a lack of published data on the efficacy and safety of urgent US-guided CVC performed in haematological patients with severe thrombocytopenia. Materials and methods We retrospectively studied the safety of urgent CVC procedures in haematological patients including those with severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <30×109/L). From January 1999 to June 2009, 431 CVC insertional procedures in 431 consecutive patients were evaluated. Patients were included in the study if they had a haematological disorder and required urgent CVC insertion. Patients were placed in Trendelenburg's position, an 18-gauge needle and guide-wire were advanced under real-time US guidance into the last part of the internal jugular vein; central venous cannulation of the internal jugular vein was performed using the Seldinger technique in all the procedures. Major and minor procedure-related complications were recorded. Results All 431 patients studied had haematological disorders: 39 had severe thrombocytopenia, refractory to platelet transfusion (group 1), while 392 did not have severe thrombocytopenia (group 2). The general characteristics of the patients in the two groups differed only for platelet count. The average time taken to perform the procedure was 4 minutes. Success rates were 97.4% and 97.9% in group 1 and group 2, respectively. No major complications occurred in either group. Discussion US-guided CVC is a safe and effective approach in haematological patients with severe thrombocytopenia requiring urgent cannulation for life support, plasma-exchange, chemotherapy and transfusion. PMID:23399356
Napolitano, Mariasanta; Malato, Alessandra; Raffaele, Francesco; Palazzolo, Manuela; Iacono, Giorgio Lo; Pinna, Roberto; Geraci, Girolamo; Modica, Giuseppe; Saccullo, Giorgia; Siragusa, Sergio; Cajozzo, Massimo
The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment. PMID:12897214
Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I
This document contains a list of detailed lecture notes covering a wide range of topics including equilibrium, titrations, sample preparation, acids and bases, buffers, spectrophotometry, potentiometry and chromatography. This site is part of a collection of notes from a general chemistry course taught at the State University of West Georgia. This document gives supplementary material that could be useful to intermediate chemistry majors in an analytical chemistry course or new faculty developing a course.
Henderson, David E.
This thesis follows the research portfolio format and is carried out in part fulfilment of the academic component of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at the University of Edinburgh. An abstract provides an overview ...
Caldwell, Ellie M.
Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)
School Science Review, 1972
This website includes over 150 chemistry experiments in the following areas: Atomic Structure, Bonding, Chemical Reactions, Colligative Properties, Condensed States, Electrochemistry, Equilibrium Gases, Instrumentation, Limiting Reactant and more.
Brooks, David W.
Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).
Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Barrera, J. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States); Hall, K. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Burrell, A. [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand)
Autopsy studies remain an essential tool for understanding the patterns of fungal disease not detected ante mortem with current diagnostic approaches. We collected data concerning the microbiological trends, patient clinical characteristics and sites of involvement for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) identified at autopsy in a single large cancer treatment centre over a 20-year period (1989-2008). The autopsy rate and IFI prevalence both declined significantly during the study period. The prevalence of Aspergillus spp. decreased significantly from the first 15 years of the study (from 0.12 to 0.14 cases per 100 autopsies to 0.07 in 2004-2008; P = 0.04), with only Mucorales accounting for a greater proportion of IFIs over the duration of the study period (0.06 to 0.2 cases per 100 autopsies, P = 0.04). After 2003, moulds accounted for the majority of infections identified at autopsy in the spleen, kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Despite a trend of decreasing prevalence from 1989 to 2004, invasive candidiasis increased in prevalence during later periods 2004-2008 (0.02-0.05 per 100 autopsies) with decreasing kidney, heart and spleen involvement. Despite a declining autopsy rate, these data suggest a decreasing prevalence overall of IFIs with changing patterns of dissemination in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23551865
Lewis, Russell E; Cahyame-Zuniga, Lizebeth; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Chamilos, Georgios; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Tamboli, Pheroze; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Bodey, Gerald P; Luna, Mario; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P
Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…
School Science Review, 1981
The alterations of haematological parameters in albino rats were studied after oral administration of an aqueous extract of silken styles of corn (Zea maize Linn.) at 50, 100 and 150 mg kg-1 daily for 21 days. The following haematological values were significantly reduced on the 7th and 21st day following extract administration: haemoglobin (Hb), red blood corpuscles (RBC), clotting time (CT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (Ht), serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), calcium, total protein, total albumin and total acid phosphatase; and white blood corpuscles (WBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), alkaline phosphatase and creatinine increased. The remaining parameters were not significantly affected, except body weight parameters at the two highest doses. The results emphasize that the biochemical changes caused through aqueous extract of silken styles of corn (Zea maize Linn.) are not significantly toxic at low and medium doses (50 and 100 mg kg-1). PMID:1447482
Garg, D K; Goyal, R N
The degree of increase in foetal haemoglobin (HbF) synthesis in haematological malignancies may be associated with the degree of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to quantify HbF levels in various childhood haematological malignancies and also, to ascertain its prognostic significance by comparing the results with the already established standard prognostic factors. Newly diagnosed cases of haematological malignancies in the paediatric age group were included in the study. HbF levels were estimated in each case of the study group along with HbF levels of control group comprising healthy children of same age group. The estimation was done by HPLC and Modified Betke's method. 50 cases of newly diagnosed haematological malignancies were studied out of which most of the cases were of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) [n = 30(60 %)] followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) [n = 8(16 %)], Hodgkin's lymphoma [n = 7(14%)], non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [n = 5(10 %)]. Raised HbF levels were found in 43.3 % cases of ALL (13/30) and 37.5 % cases of AML (3/8). No significant rise in HbF level was found in cases of lymphomas. There was correlation between raised HbF level and poor prognostic factors in cases of ALL but no such correlation was found in cases of AML. HbF levels are often elevated in childhood leukaemias as compared to childhood lymphomas. Thus, the concentration of HbF in acute childhood leukaemia may be considered as a prognostic factor. PMID:25548456
Mallick, Debjani; Karmakar, Rupam; Barui, Gopinath; Gon, Sonia; Chakrabarti, Sudipta
AdEdApO, A. A., M. O. AbA t An, O. O. OlOrunsOgO: Effects of some plants of the spurge family on haematological and biochemical parameters in rats. Vet. arhiv 77, 29-38, 2007. AbstrAct The effects of five suspected poisonous plants of the spurge family ( euphorbiaceae ) i.e. alchornea cordifolia Schum and Thorn, Cnidoscolus acontifolius Mill, Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thorn,
Adeolu Alex Adedapo; Matthew Oluwole Abatan; Olufunso Olabode Olorunsogo
Pubertal development after total-body irradiation (TBI) was investigated in 40 children (21 boys) treated with allogeneic\\u000a bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for haematological malignancies at a mean age of 11.3 years. The mean age at the last visit\\u000a was 19.0 years. Twenty-five patients (15 boys) were prepubertal at BMT. Data on secondary sexual characteristics, the pituitary-gonadal\\u000a axis and longitudinal growth were
B. Bakker; G. G. Massa; W. Oostdijk; M. H. Van Weel-Sipman; J. M. Vossen; J. M. Wit
\\u000a Although classical mutations in genes such as PIK3CA and PTEN occur at a relatively low frequency in haematological malignancies,\\u000a activation of PI3K signalling is often detected in these tumours. In some conditions, for example acute myeloid leukaemia\\u000a (AML), this is due to activating mutations of upstream regulators such as the FLT3 tyrosine kinase or RAS. Primary tumour\\u000a cells taken from
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world is steadily increasing. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic haematological changes. Lichens are used as food supplements and are also used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. We hypothesized that antioxidant activity of lichens may decrease hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and prevent the development of diabetic complications, including abnormality in haematological condition. Therefore, the effects of Cetraria islandica water extract (CIWE) and Pseudevernia furfuracea water extract (PFWE) on the haematological parameters of rats with type 1 DM were investigated for the first time in the present study. Control Sprague-Dawley or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with water lichen extracts (5-500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 2 weeks, starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized and haematological and metabolic parameters were determined between control and experimental groups. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS), a specific indicator of oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by biochemical studies. In diabetic rats, CIWE of 250-500 mg/kg bw dose showed more prominent results when compared with doses of PFWE for TAC. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the antioxidant activities of lichens might be the possible reason behind the observed antihaematological status. However, the protective effect of lichen extracts were inadequate on diabetes-induced microcytic hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the extracts have no effect on metabolic complications. Our experimental data showed that high doses of CIWE and PFWE alone have no detrimental effect on blood cells and TOS status of plasma. Hence, they are safe and suitable for different administration routes. PMID:23114377
Colak, Suat; Geyiko?lu, Fatime; Aslan, Ali; Deniz, Gül?ah Y?ld?z
"Effective Microorganisms" (EM)--a mixture of lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, yeasts and fungi are used mainly in agriculture and organic waste treatment. Recently, they have also been added to water and feed for animals, as well as to processing their excrements into compost and to eliminate the stench. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of a 14-day administration of an EM solution in drinking water to layer hens on chosen haematological and biochemical indexes. The research was carried out on 120 hens divided into two equal groups. The birds in the experimental group were given drinking water with dissolved EM (5% solution), and those in the control group--water without the preparation. On the 64th day of the aviculture, the hens were weighted and their blood was taken from the wing vein for haematological and biochemical examinations. Administering EM with water to hens did not influence significantly their body weight nor chosen haematological and biochemical indexes. A significant increase was found only in the number of platelets, the level of albumins, the content of total cholesterol and the LDH activity, however, a decrease in the ALT activity was observed. PMID:20169927
Sokó?, R; Michalczyk, M; Spodniewska, A; Barski, D
This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable. PMID:24140311
Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R
Reference values for some haematological and plasma biochemical constituents were established in Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) restrained either physically or chemically with tiletamine-zolazepam. The following variables were studied: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, total erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, haematological indices, erythrocyte dimensions, differential count of leucocytes, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, total plasma protein, albumin, globulins, albumin-globulin ratio, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total phosphorus, chloride and osmolality. No haematological data have been published before but the values observed were in the general range of other artiodactyls, with the exception of the number and size of the erythrocytes which were respectively larger and smaller than in most other ruminants. Significant differences were found for a number of the variables between the values recorded in physically restrained animals and the values recorded in anaesthetised animals; they included the number of erythrocytes and related parameters, the plasma proteins and some inorganic ions. PMID:8337802
Peinado, V I; Fernandez-Arias, A; Viscor, G; Palomeque, J
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can induce hyperacetylation of both histone and non-histone target resulting in epigenetic reprogramming and altered activity, stability and localisation of non-histone proteins to ultimately mediate diverse biological effects on cancer cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials have demonstrated single agent HDACi to have activity in hematological malignancies, in particular T-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Combination strategies with standard therapies based on pre-clinical data are being employed with significant success due to their excellent side effect profile. Correlative studies will provide valuable information on the sub-groups of patients more likely to respond or be resistant to HDACi therapy, while long-term monitoring for toxicities is also needed.
Bishton, Mark J.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Dickinson, Michael; Harrison, Simon; Prince, H. Miles
Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)
Chemical and Engineering News, 1979
Concept mapping in the organic chemistry laboratory can supplant cookbook activities with higher cognitive exercises. The common thread of most organic lab experiments is the synthesis, isolation, purification, and characterization of a carbon compound. T
Allan A. Gahr
Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)
School Science Review, 1973
Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)
School Science Review, 1981
Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)
Borer, Londa; And Others
This website provides a course on the use of radionuclides in analytical chemistry. Types of radioactive decay are discussed as well as the techniques of scintillation counting, neutron activation analysis, and gamma spectroscopy.
Hardy, James K.
The California State University Stanislaus developed these interactive chemistry Web tutorials to assist college students in mass spectrometry, proton NMR chemical shifts, and more. With the many animations and figures, visitors will find assistance with the subtraction and absorption of light and with infrared absorption frequencies for numerous compounds. The titration tutorials simulate laboratory experiments without the hazards of dealing with chemicals. Students will also find a very informative lesson describing how to use Excel to record and analyze their chemistry data.
Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.
Brune, W.H. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))
In this paper we describe an ongoing project where the goal is to develop competence and confidence among chemistry faculty so they are able to utilize computational chemistry as an effective teaching tool. Advances in hardware and software have made research-grade tools readily available to the academic community. Training is required so that faculty can take full advantage of this technology, begin to transform the educational landscape, and attract more students to the study of science.
Sendlinger, Shawn C.; Metz, Clyde R.
Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.
John Grey Position: Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 505.277.1658; Fax: 505.277.2609 Office: Clark Hall B70 Homepage: http://chemistry.unm.edu/faculty_web/jgrey Education B.S. in Chemistry, 1999, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Ph.D. in Chemistry
CHEMISTRY 107-01 GENERAL CHEMISTRY I Spring 2002 8:00 am - 8:50 am, MTuWTh Rm. CNSB 243 INSTRUCTOR-1835 Email: email@example.com URL: http://www.ulm.edu/chemistry/findley COURSE Content: Principles of modern chemistry. Goals/ Objectives: CHEM 107 is the first semester of a fundamental introduction to chemistry
Findley, Gary L.
There is a great deal of chemistry going on in every kitchen, even though most cooks may not be cognizant of the various interactions going on in the pot, wok, or oven. MIT's popular OpenCourseWare Initiative has recently made the contents of Dr. Patricia Christie's course on kitchen chemistry available on this site. Visitors to the site can download the syllabus, take in some assigned readings (and recipes), and look over the assignments. The assignments include investigations that involve emulsifiers, ice cream, peer teaching, and pancakes, among other things. The site also includes links to helpful readings, such as those on chocolate, the health benefits of capsicum, and the world of gluten. For people who wish to bring back the frayed connective tissue between chemistry and the culinary arts, this site is absolutely essential.
Chemistry and Industry Magazine, a bimonthly product of the Society of Chemical Industry, provides selected full-text articles from the print magazine in the areas of news, commentary, features, latest results from chemical literature, and highlights from the latest European patents. In addition, there is a searchable and browsable archive of past issues, a daily news section, and searchable jobs and meetings databases. The Society of Chemical Industry is "an international association of about 6000 members aimed at furthering applied chemistry." One of the highlights of its web site is its publication section, where, under "electronic publications," readers can find updated daily news, jobs and meetings listings on chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and the environment.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) recently teamed up with NBC and the National Science Teachers Association to celebrate the International Year of Chemistry. Their big joint project was to create Chemistry Now, a weekly online video series that uncovers and explains the science of common, physical objects. There are over two dozen short films here that cover topics like the chemistry of salt, grapheme, safety glass, and the common cheeseburger. All of the videos are lively and interesting, and they can be used in a wide range of classroom settings to provide visual and audio reinforcement of topics that might be addressed in course lectures and other activities. The videos are completely free and the site includes links to other organizations that have created similar videos.
Chemistry and Industry Magazine, a bimonthly product of the Society of Chemical Industry, provides selected full-text articles from the print magazine in the areas of news, commentary, features, latest results from chemical literature, and highlights from the latest European patents. In addition, there is a searchable and browsable archive of past issues, a daily news section, and searchable jobs and meetings databases. The Society of Chemical Industry is "an international association of about 6000 members aimed at furthering applied chemistry." One of the highlights of its web site is its publication section, where, under "electronic publications," readers can find updated daily news, jobs and meetings listings on chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and the environment.
Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in future studies of HEV infection. PMID:24148233
Background Sickle cell disease is a genetic abnormality involving the haemoglobin. Although, it is primarily a red cell disorders, the white blood cells and platelets are also affected by the mutation. The consequent haemoglobin S causes polymerization of haemoglobin resulting in haemolysis and anaemia. This study aims to provide baseline haematological values in sickle cell disease patients in steady state and compare the deviation from haemoglobin phenotype AA control values. Methods A case–control study was conducted amongst homozygous sickle cell patients attending the sickle cell clinics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja and haemoglobin phenotype AA controls. About 4.5mls of blood sample was collected from each participant for full blood count analysis. All blood samples were screened for HIV and haemoglobin phenotypes confirmed using cellulose acetate haemoglobin electrophoresis at pH 8.6. Results A total of 103 cases and 98 controls were enrolled. The overall mean haemoglobin concentration for cases was 7.93?±?1.47?g/dl, packed cell volume 24.44?±?4.68%, mean cell volume 81.52?±?7.89?fl, and mean cell haemoglobin 26.50?±?3.20?pg. While for controls, mean haemoglobin concentration was 13.83?±?1.32?g/dl, packed cell volume 43.07?±?3.95%, mean cell volume 86.90?±?4.69?fl, and mean cell haemoglobin 28.50?±?1.34?pg. The overall mean white blood cell counts for the cases was 10.27?±?3.94 *103/?l and platelet counts of 412.71?±?145.09*103/?l. While white blood cell count for the controls was 5.67?±?1.59*103/?l and platelet counts of 222.82?±?57.62*103/?l. Conclusion Homozygous sickle cell disease patients have lower values of red cell parameters, but higher values of white cell and platelets counts compared to haemoglobin phenotype AA controls. PMID:22849350
...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section 862.3200...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section 862.3200...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical...
...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...
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...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section 862.3200...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical...
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section 862.3200...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical...
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...
/6582 Biophysical Chemistry Fall 1 CHEM /6582 Biophysical Chemistry Course meeting place concepts in biophysical chemistry. You will develop an understanding of how thermodynamics, kinetics literature concerning the application of biophysical techniques to characterize biological molecules
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is characterized by hyperglycemia and altered metabolism. The administration of D-Nil plus (a polyherbal drug) showed effective treatment for alloxan induced diabetes in rats. In diabetic rats, haematological profiles namely RBC, WBC, platlet count and haemoglobin were decreased whereas ESR was increased. Similarly biochemical parameters creatinine, urea and protein were decreased but cholesterol level was increased. After the treatment with D-Nil plus, haematological parameters and biochemical parameters were reversed. The results suggest that the D-Nil plus can be used for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22557203
Vanithamani, J.; Selvi, V.; Krishnaswamy, B. G.
This collection of resource features demonstrations, laboratory investigations, teaching tips, worksheets and other chemistry-related activities. Materials include investigations of mols, nuclear energy, the periodic table, weight and mass, elements, calculations, equations, pH, atomic weight, half-lives, and reactions.
1 Â· Definition Â· Chemistry Â· Factors Â· Mitigation MinE 422 Acid Rock Drainage Online `Gard Guide is a great source of information Terminology Â· acid rock drainage (ARD) Â· saline drainage (SD) Â· acid mine or acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD) Â· mining influenced water (MIW) Â· neutral mine drainage (NMD
Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…
School Science Review, 1982
This set of links provides access to resources on atmospheric chemistry, especially acid deposition, air pollution, and air quality. The sites include personal and government pages, universities and research groups, non-governmental organizations and meetings, and products and services. There are also links to related search topics.
Chemistry activities and demonstrations that use common household items and kitchen chemicals. There are activities appropriate for students in elementary school, middle school, and high school. The activities were designed and tested by the Science House, the science and mathematics learning outreach program of North Carolina State University.
Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…
School Science Review, 1983
Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)
School Science Review, 1978
A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)
Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…
School Science Review, 1976
From poolcenter.com comes the Chlorine Chemistry Web site. Ten questions related to chlorine are answered such as What's the History of Chlorine, How Does Chlorine Work to Sanitize, and What Effect Does pH Have on Chlorine. Each is briefly explained in simple and non-technical language.
This site from the Princeton Section of the American Chemical Society consists of articles about common chemical misconceptions along with examinations of the scientific explanation. The purpose of this page is to reveal common misconceptions in the field of Chemistry. The intended audience is secondary school students and their teachers. The page is at present just beginning, and additions are welcome.
Lehmann, Kevin; University, Princeton
Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…
School Science Review, 1983
Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084
Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A
Infection of poultry with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 typically results in mortality within six days of inoculation. However, the exact mechanisms that induce death are unknown, even as birds may die in the absence of overt clinical signs of disease. In human and many veterinary ...
The Chemistry Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of chemistry-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources pertaining to many areas of the discipline - general chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, and others - and intended for a wide range of audiences: educators and learners, the general public, and chemistry research communities.
Examinations for heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) were performed on 175 impounded dogs from a hyperendemic area of the Po Valley (Italy). Each blood sample was used with five haematological diagnostic methods (filtration, direct smear, modified Knott, clotted blood and capillary tube) and three commercial ELISA kits (PetChek, Diasystems, Uni-Tec). The results were compared with the true infection status obtained from post-mortem examination of the heart, pulmonary arteries, thoracic venae cavae and lungs. The prevalence of the infection by adult worms at necropsy was 63%. The sensitivity of the tests ranged from 60% (capillary tube) to 81% (Diasystems) and the specificity from 88% (filtration) to 98% (PetChek). The results of all the tests differed significantly (p < 0.01) from those obtained at necropsy. The sensitivity of the tests was also assessed with respect to the differing numbers of worms in the hosts. A positive correlation between the worm burden and the sensitivity was observed in all the tests. It is apparent that the ELISA methods were better able to detect cases with a low number of worms than the haematological tests. PMID:8865575
Martini, M; Capelli, G; Poglayen, G; Bertotti, F; Turilli, C
Aims: To investigate the haematological effects in 2-EEA exposed workers. Methods: Workers from one silk screening shop (n = 29), using 2-EEA as the major cleaning and printing solvent, were recruited as a high exposure group. Workers with indirect and non-exposure to 2-EEA (n = 56) were recruited as the comparison group. Venous blood was collected for blood routine examination. Air concentration of 2-EEA in this plant was measured by eight hour personal sampling. Results: The geometric mean (GM) of air concentration of 2-EEA in the high exposure group was 7.41 ppm (range 1.35–16.5 pppm). The mean exposure of female workers (GM = 9.34 ppm) was significantly higher than that of male workers (GM = 4.87 ppm). The GM of air 2-EEA concentration in the comparison group was 0.07 ppm (range: non-detectable to 3.62 ppm, n = 26). The haemoglobin and haematocrit in the female high 2-EEA exposure workers were significantly lower than those of female workers in the comparison group. No difference was found between male 2-EEA high exposure and comparison group workers. The haemoglobin, haematocrit, and RBC count in the study population had a significant dose-response relation with air 2-EEA levels. Conclusion: Results suggest that 2-EEA is a haematological toxicant, which leads to anaemic status in high exposure female workers. PMID:12937203
Loh, C; Shih, T; Liou, S; Lin, Y; Hsieh, A; Chen, C; Liao, G
The incidence of a malignant disease reflects the genetic and cumulative exposure to the environment of a population. Therefore, evaluation of the incidence and trends of a disease in different populations may provide insights into its aetiology and pathogenesis. To evaluate the incidence of haematological malignancies according to specific subtypes, we used population-based registry data in Japan (N = 125 148) and the United States (US; N = 172 925) from 1993 to 2008. The age-adjusted incidence of haematological malignancies in Japan was approximately one-half that in the US but has been increasing significantly, whereas no significant change was seen in the US [annual percent change (95% C confidence interval): Japan, +2·4% (1·7, 3·1); US, +0·1% (?0·1, 0·2)]. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) showed the largest differences in incidence, with the most remarkable differences observed for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, HL-nodular sclerosis, mycosis fungoides and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. HL and NHL are increasing substantially in Japan but not in the US, suggesting that environmental exposures, such as Westernization of the life style may be causing this increase. Differences in the incidence and trends for specific subtypes also showed a marked contrast across subtypes, which, in turn, may provide significant new insights into disease aetiology in the future. PMID:24245986
Chihara, Dai; Ito, Hidemi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katsumi, Akira; Nakamura, Shigeo; Tomotaka, Sobue; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Matsuo, Keitaro
Blood count abnormalities are a recognized feature of many viral infections and immunizations but little is known about the haematological effects of influenza vaccination. We report a 67-year-old patient who developed thrombocytopenia and severe neutropenia 3 weeks after she was vaccinated against influenza. The case led us to study prospectively the blood counts of 70 people aged over 65 before and after they received influenza vaccine. There were no significant changes in the levels of haemoglobin, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils or platelets after vaccination, but the total WBC counts (mean +/- SD, 6.86 +/- 1.52) and lymphocyte counts (1.69 +/- 0.61) were significantly lower at 4 weeks than at baseline (7.22 +/- 1.60 [P = 0.02] and 1.86 +/- 0.62 [P = 0.001] respectively) and in four subjects the lymphocyte count fell to below 0.7 x 10(9)/l. Since influenza vaccine does not contain live virus, its haematological effects presumably relate to the host immune response rather than to viral replication. PMID:9807675
Cummins, D; Wilson, M E; Foulger, K J; Dawson, D; Hogarth, A M
The primary objective of this study was to determine the volume of distribution (Vd) (L/kg) of intravenous aminoglycosides (AGs) in critically ill haematological malignancy patients. Secondary objectives were to determine the body weight (actual, ideal, adjusted or lean) that yields the most precise estimate of Vd when normalised in L/kg as well as the frequency that current first-dose strategies result in post-distributional peak concentrations (Cpeak) within the target range (tobramycin 16-24mg/L; amikacin 32-48mg/L). In total, 58 AG doses were included (tobramycin, n=34; amikacin, n=24). Median Vd was 0.38L/kg normalised per the most precise dose weight, which was actual body weight (ABW). The median dose was 445mg (5.8mg/kg ABW) for tobramycin and 1200mg (13.8mg/kg ABW) for amikacin. Target Cpeak (tobramycin 20mg/L; amikacin 40mg/L) was achieved in only 25% of all AG episodes, with 4% exceeding the target and 71% falling below the target. Twenty-four organisms were isolated in the study sample; target Cpeak achievement (tobramycin 20mg/L; amikacin 40mg/L) would yield a peak:minimum inhibitory concentration of 10 in 75% and 52% of organisms, respectively. In conclusion, an increased Vd of AGs was identified in this critically ill haematological malignancy patient sample, and current dosing yielded a suboptimal Cpeak in the majority of patients. PMID:25455848
Blackburn, Laura M; Tverdek, Frank P; Hernandez, Mike; Bruno, Jeffrey J
Describes an introductory chemistry course for nurses in which students learn basic chemical principles by performing 12 chemical analyses that are routinely conducted on body fluids and listed on a patient's clinical laboratory chart. (MLH)
Jones, Theodore H. D.
The Accreditation Sub-Committee of the EBMT regularly publishes special reports on current practice of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders. Major changes have occurred since the last report in 1998. Haemopoietic stem cell transplantation today includes allogeneic and autologous stem cells derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. With reduced intensity conditioning
A Urbano-Ispizua; N Schmitz; T de Witte; F Frassoni; G Rosti; H Schrezenmeier; E Gluckman; W Friedrich; C Cordonnier; G Socie; A Tyndall; D Niethammer; P Ljungman; A Gratwohl; J Apperley; D Niederwieser; A Bacigalupo
Some of potential causes proposed to explain the reported increase of haematological malignancies in childhood during or after the war period in several countries include depleted uranium, chemical pollution and population mixing theory. The aim of this study was to define the population of Croatian children aged 0–14 years who were potentially exposed to each of those risks during the
B. Labar; I. Rudan; D. Ivankovic; Z. Biloglav; M. Mrsic; M. Strnad; A. Fucic; A. Znaor; T. Bradic; H. Campbell
Whether children with malarial anaemia should receive supplementation with iron or folic acid is uncertain. Therefore, the effects of supplementary treatment with iron or folic acid, given together with chloroquine or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (Fansidar®), has been assessed in 600 Gambian children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. After one month, haematological recovery was significantly better in the group treated with Fansidar® than in
Michaël Boele van Hensbroek; Stephen Morris-Jones; Sarah Meisner; Shabbar Jaffar; Lang Bayo; Raduwan Dackour; Christine Phillips; Brian M. Greenwood
Haematological and cytokine alterations in malaria are a broad and controversial subject in the literature. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated various cytokines in a single patient group during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. The aim of this study was to sequentially characterise alterations in haematological patters and circulating plasma cytokine and chemokine levels in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum from a Brazilian endemic area during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. During the acute phase, thrombocytopaenia, eosinopaenia, lymphopaenia and an increased number of band cells were observed in the majority of the patients. During the convalescent phase, the haematologic parameters returned to normal. During the acute phase, P. vivax and P. falciparum patients had significantly higher interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon-?, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, macrophage inflammatory protein-1? and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels than controls and maintained high levels during the convalescent phase. IL-10 was detected at high concentrations during the acute phase, but returned to normal levels during the convalescent phase. Plasma IL-10 concentration was positively correlated with parasitaemia in P. vivax and P. falciparum-infected patients. The same was true for the TNF-? concentration in P. falciparum-infected patients. Finally, the haematological and cytokine profiles were similar between uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax infections. PMID:24676654
Rodrigues-da-Silva, Rodrigo Nunes; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa; Fonseca, Bruna de Paula Fonseca e; Antas, Paulo Renato Zuquim; Baldez, Arlete; Storer, Fabio Luiz; Santos, Fátima; Banic, Dalma Maria; de Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli
1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye Chemistry", 5th Edition, Freeman Press. Available at SU bookstore. The solution manual is optional. (Suggested for CHE611 Students pursuing Inorganic) Huheey, "Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure
Mather, Patrick T.
Chemistry 675 (CHE 675) Advanced Organic Chemistry Fall Semester 2011 Professor James Hougland675 is a graduate-level organic chemistry course that can be continued in the Spring semester as CHE685. These two courses focus on physical organic chemistry, which deals with the structure
Mather, Patrick T.
SYLLABUS for CHEMISTRY 2310 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1 Lectures: Monday, Wednesday and Friday 8:35 AM-9 Â· Highly Recommended Equipment: Turning Point Clicker Â· Highly Recommended: (1) "Organic Chemistry I Homework. Â· Class Objective: To study and begin to understand organic chemistry Â· Methods: Lectures
SYLLABUS CHEMISTRY 5710 ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY T, Th 9:40AM-10:30AM HEB 2006 understanding of organic chemistry. Methods: lectures, problem solving, laboratory experiments, laboratory reports, Prerequisites: Organic Chemistry II and Lab (Chem 2320 and Chem 2325) DATES (Approximate (except
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY UCLA Organic Chemistry Faculty perform research in molecular machines, exotic Harran, Professor and D.J. & J.M Cram Chair in Organic Chemistry: The Harran Group explores new, Distinguished Professor and Saul Winstein Chair in Organic Chemistry: The Houk Group develops qualitative rules
Levine, Alex J.
CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT Chem 315 (Honors Organic Chemistry) Fall 2014 Important Registration Information Admission to Honors Organic Chemistry (Fall 2014) is restricted to the following students are interested in taking CHE315 in the fall should register for Organic Chemistry CHE307 and apply for admission
Lawson, Catherine L.
With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.
Arnold, J. O.
This site highlights chemistry resources that we consider essentiala fabulous periodic table, a database of chemical compounds, a set of demonstrations of chemical reactions that are just plain spectacular, and, dont forget, laboratory safety. Articles from the web sites Whats That Stuff? and Science News for Kids can be used as supplemental reading all through the year. This site explains the history and characteristics of over 20 substances, such as sunscreen, Cheese Whiz, baseballs, fluoride, new car smell, ink, lipstick, bug spray, and licorice. The individual articles are nontechnical for the most part and are presented in a fun way that readers will enjoy. Also, if a ...
Many of the most significant electroanalytical advances may still lie ahead, according to Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin. Listening to Bard's presentation at the Eastern Analytical Symposium last November, one could not help but come away with the impression that electroanalytical chemistry may be entering the most exciting era in its history. It is an era in which we will see electrochemistry in the gas and solid phases, electrochemical resolution on the order of angstroms (scanning tunneling electrochemistry), and electrochemical expert systems.
The month's featured molecules come from the paper An Azulene-Based Discovery Experiment: Challenging Students To Watch for the "False Assumption" by Charles Garner illustrating some of the chemistry of a substituted azulene. Azulene is a structural isomer of naphthalene and differs from it in several important ways, the most obvious being azulene's intense blue color, which arises from the S0 ? S2 transition. Another unusual feature of this molecule is that its fluorescence arises from the reverse of this transition rather than from S1 ? S0.
CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM SEMESTER Â I Chemistry-I: Physical principles (2:1) Atomic structure-state approximation, Arrhenius equation and collision theory and catalysis. SEMESTER Â II Chemistry-II: Structure orbital theory: polyatomic molecules - Walsh diagram; Main group chemistry: periodic properties, chemistry
Haematological features were compared between diploid and triploid specimens of the ray-finned fish Umbrina cirrosa. No significant differences between diploids and triploids were reported in haematocrit and total haemoglobin concentration, but erythrocytes and thrombocytes were significantly greater in size in triploids. Glycaemia was significantly lower in diploids, whereas triploid erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress. In triploids, a greater fraction of leukocytes was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, when stimulated with Bacillus clausii spores, otherwise no significant increase of oxygen consumption was observed in triploid leukocytes after stimulation, based on assays for superoxide anions. Triploids were characterized by a lower concentration of circulating blood cells with a lower surface/volume ratio when compared with diploids. These features may lead to a general disadvantage of triploids in withstanding stress conditions: a situation that needs to be taken into account in aquaculture practice. PMID:15165570
Ballarin, Loriano; Dall'Oro, Manuela; Bertotto, Daniela; Libertini, Angelo; Francescon, Antonia; Barbaro, Alvise
Haematological and serum biochemical values were estimated in blood samples collected from 21 apparently adult golden eagles\\u000a (Aquila chrysaetos) of both sexes. The mean values of red blood cells, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cells, heterophils, lymphocytes,\\u000a monocytes and eosinophils were 1.63?±?0.11?×?1012\\/l, 0.47?±?0.009 l\\/l, 91.73?±?1.52 g\\/l, 24.31?±?1.97?×?109\\/l, 4.40?±?0.22?×?109\\/l, 16.81?±?0.65?×?109\\/l, 0.99?±?0.19?×?109\\/l and 2.10?±?0.30?×?109\\/l, respectively. The leucocytes had 69.14%, 4.09%, 18.12% and 8.65%
S. Nazifi; A. Nabinejad; M. Sepehrimanesh; S. L. Poorbaghi; F. Farshneshani; M. Rahsepar
Public concern for animal welfare has progressively grown over the recent years. In this context, stress has a great economical impact on growth of animals and quality of animal products. The development and validation of methods to assess animal stress, particularly at the farm level, are desirable to evaluate animal production systems. Piemontese breed is traditionally tie-stall housed in the fattening period. Hence, the objective of this study was to characterise a profile of physiological and haematological changes of Piemontese beef cattle under different management conditions (tie-stall and loose housing). Our results suggest that the housing system is an important factor in animal welfare. Indeed, the values of the total protein, lysozyme, cortisol, serum and faecal corticosterone concentration and GR-? gene expression indicate that the tie-stall housing is more stressful than the loose system. All the alterations highlighted in this study considered together may be effective biomarkers of stress and disease susceptibility. PMID:25168461
Starvaggi Cucuzza, L; Riondato, F; Macchi, E; Bellino, C; Franco, G; Biolatti, B; Cannizzo, F T
A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated in Mexico and called Chimalhuacan strain was characterised by gene F restriction enzyme analysis and found to be a genotype II velogenic virus. Haematological evaluations and histological studies of bone marrow were conducted on chickens experimentally infected with the Chimalhuacan virus and on control chickens. Within 72 hours post infection (hpi), a 50% decrease in thrombocyte and monocyte counts and a complete cellular depletion in bone marrow islands were evident in the infected group. These findings suggest that the Chimalhuacan strain of NDV causes an early and severe damage of the haematopoietic cells including thrombocyte precursors, which might explain the marked thrombocytopenia detected in early stages of this disease. PMID:16363152
Calderón, Norma L; Galundo-Muñiz, Felipa; Ortiz, Mireya; Lomniczi, B; Fehervari, T; Paasch, L H
Blood samples were collected from 46 domestic ruminants comprising of 23 trypanosomiasis infected and 23 uninfected control groups to study some biochemical and haematological effects of trypanosomiasis under natural condition. The effect of trypanosome infection in ruminant animals showed that infected animals had significantly lower (P<0.05) packed cell volume, erythrocyte count and higher (P<0.01) mean cell volumes than uninfected animals. Leucocytosis, reticulocytosis and thrombocytopenia were also observed. The infection also produced a decrease in albumin (P<0.001), significant increase in total protein and bilirubin levels. These changes were not seen in the animals that were not infected. The outcome of the work shows that herds are severely affected by the disease, and therefore supports the prospect of routine check as an epidemiologic tool in trypanosomiasis based on its abnormal effects in blood. PMID:21382664
Ohaeri, C C; Eluwa, M C
Granulocytic sarcoma, also known as myeloid sarcoma, is an extramedullary tumour composed of immature myeloid cells. Granulocytic sarcoma is typically found in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, accelerated phase or blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or as an isolated event without bone marrow involvement. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia in the setting of complete haematological, molecular and cytogenetic remission. Our patient was first treated with imatinib for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia. After maintaining remission for 42?months, he developed a granulocytic sarcoma in his spine. In this case report, we describe our case, along with the three other cases reported in the literature. In addition to being a rare diagnosis, this case demonstrates the importance of being vigilant in diagnosing the cause of back pain and atypical symptoms in patients with a history of leukaemia. PMID:25538217
Kittai, Adam; Yu, Eun-Mi; Tabbara, Imad
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2680 Microtitrator for clinical use. (a) Identification....
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2680 Microtitrator for clinical use. (a) Identification....
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin produced by a variety of fresh-water cyanobacterial species worldwide and induces significant adverse effects in both livestock and humans. This study investigated the course of CYN-induced toxicity in pregnant mice exposed daily during either the period of major organogenesis (gestation days [GD] 8-12) or fetal growth (GD13-17). Endpoints include clinical signs of toxicity, serum analyses to evaluate hepatic and renal function, histopathology of liver and kidney, and hematology. Study animals were administered 50 ?g/kg CYN once daily by ip route and euthanized 24 h after 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 consecutive doses, or 6 or 13 d after the dosing period. The course of the CYN-induced effects was determined at all euthanasia times for the endpoints just outlined. Results indicated that CYN is a toxin, producing lethality in dams during the early part of gestation, significant weight loss, and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, tail tip, and peri-orbital tissues. Effects also included alterations in serum markers for liver function, histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues, electrolyte abnormalities, leukocytosis, and posttreatment thrombocytopenia and reticulocytosis. The onset of symptoms was rapid, producing reductions in weight gain in GD8-12 animals, bleeding in the vaginal area in GD13-17 animals, and significant increases in sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) in both groups after a single dose. Although the GD8-12 dams displayed a 50% lethality, in GD13-17 animals only a single death occurred. Alterations seen in hepatic and renal function or histopathology do not appear to be of sufficient severity to produce death. Evidence indicates that bleeding may play a critical role in the onset of symptoms and eventually, in the observed lethality. PMID:25072824
Chernoff, N; Rogers, E H; Zehr, R D; Gage, M I; Travlos, G S; Malarkey, D E; Brix, A; Schmid, J E; Hill, D
Provided by Kiwi Web Chemistry & New Zealand, the "What is Chemistry?" Web site offers a wealth of chemistry information and links. Visitors can read the definition of and link to other sites on inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, stoichiometry, nuclear chemistry, alchemy, and biochemistry. Other pages of the site explore acids and bases, redox reductions, equations, moles, periodic tables, and more. This extensive and interesting site does a good job of clearly explaining some difficult concepts as well as providing educators and students a good source of other quality sites containing similar content.
The fundamental processes that control the chemical composition and cycles of the global troposphere and how these processes and properties affect the physical behavior of the atmosphere are examined. The long-term information needs for tropospheric chemistry are: to be able to predict tropospheric responses to perturbations, both natural and anthropogenic, of these cycles, and to provide the information required for the maintenance and effective future management of the atmospheric component of our global life support system. The processes controlling global tropospheric biogeochemical cycles include: the input of trace species into the troposphere, their long-range transport and distribution as affected by the mean wind and vertical venting, their chemical transformations, including gas to particle conversion, leading to the appearance of aerosols or aqueous phase reactions inside cloud droplets, and their removal from the troposphere via wet (precipitation) and dry deposition.
This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).
Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry Syracuse University The Department of Chemistry at Syracuse University invites applications for a tenure track faculty position at the Assistant Professor level in inorganic chemistry with specialization in materials chemistry (broadly defined
Chemistry 320N Organic Chemistry II for Prehealth Professionals Unique number: 52365 Spring 2013 M students can access the information. #12;Required Text: Brown, Foote, Iverson, & Anslyn Organic Chemistry are less important for Organic II than Organic I, but still incredibly useful at times). Weekly Recitation
Chemistry 224 Fall 2008 Honors General Chemistry Dr. Greg Williams Office hours: Onyx 182 Tu and Th regularly learn more chemistry and earn higher grades. Classroom office hours will be held in Onyx 171; there will be no formal presentations during office hours. There is also an office hour on Wednesday 2-3 pm in Onyx 182
Richmond, Geraldine L.
Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially 'atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.131. PMID:25052315
Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison
Plasma biochemical and haematological parameters were examined in 4-week-old to 12-week-old game birds. Healthy, uninfected pheasants and partridges had similar levels of total protein, albumin, osmolality, Na, Cl, K, Mg and glucose. Triglyceride, globulin and Ca were significantly higher and PO4 was lower in the partridges. Pheasants carrying a light to moderate infection with Spironucleus had significantly lower total protein,
S. Lloyd; J. S. Gibson
Haematological profile—haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows
B KUMAR; S. P PACHAURI
The effects of transporting Holstein Friesian bulls (n=72; bodyweight 403±3.5kg) for 12h by road were examined. Adrenal, haematological and immune responses, body temperature and performance were recorded. The animals had been previously housed for 96 days at three space allowances (1.2, 2.7 or 4.2m2 per bull). The bulls were allocated to one of two treatments: T (transport for 12h; n=16
S. Gupta; B. Earley; M. A. Crowe
Malaria and HIV are the two most important health challenges of our time. Haematologic abnormalities are features in Plasmodium falciparum infection, and anaemia is a well-known outcome. The prevalence and haematological impact of P. falciparum parasitaemia were determined among HIV-infected individuals in Nigeria. Parasite detection was carried out using microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated machine while CD4+ T-cells count was analyzed using flow cytometer. Thirty-seven (18.5%) out of the 200 HIV individuals enrolled had malaria parasites detected in their blood. All the positive cases were detected by PCR while only 20 (10%) were detected by thick blood microscopy. The mean haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) of HIV individuals with malaria parasitaemia were lower compared to those without malaria parasitaemia but the difference was not statistically significant. Also no significant difference was observed in malaria positivity in respect to sex and mean CD4+ cell count. The study highlights the effects of P. falciparum parasitaemia on the haematologic and immune components of HIV individuals. PMID:24729787
Ojurongbe, Olusola; Oyeniran, Oluwatoyin Adeola; Alli, Oyebode Armstrong Terry; Taiwo, Sunday Samuel; Ojurongbe, Taiwo Adetola; Olowe, Adekunle Olugbenga; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega
Objective: The objective of the current study was to establish the reference ranges of haematological indices amongst five healthy infantile (<1 year) age groups. Methodology: It was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi. Non probability convenience sampling was adopted for the proceedings for the study. A sample size was 2000 which was equally distributed as 400 samples for all the five age groups i.e. <27 days, 3 month, 6 month, 9 month and one year. One thousands were males and 1000 were the females. An informed consent from the guardian was the pre requisite of study, while those candidates having an evidence of any systemic illness were not excluded. Results : The values of haematological indices i.e. MCV, MCHC, MCH, PCV and RDW varies with growing age of an infant. A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. Conclusion : A decrease in all these values was observed from <27days to one year of age infants. The values reported in this study can be used as a local reference for the newborn aged between <27 days and 1 year of age. PMID:24353580
Tauseef Bukhari, Kiran; Zafar, Humaira
A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.
Edsall, Carol Cotant
The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and, in addition, of the pressure, temperature, and velocity. A near term goal of the experimental program should be to confirm the nonlinear effects of sulfur speciation, and if present, to provide an explanation for them. It is also desirable to examine if the particulate matter retains any sulfur. The recommendation is to examine the effects on SOx production of variations in fuel-bound sulfur and aromatic content (which may affect the amount of particulates formed). These experiments should help us to understand if there is a coupling between particulate formation and SO, concentration. Similarly, any coupling with NOx can be examined either by introducing NOx into the combustion air or by using fuel-bound nitrogen. Also of immediate urgency is the need to establish and validate a detailed mechanism for sulfur oxidation/aerosol formation, whose chemistry is concluded to be homogeneous, because there is not enough surface area for heterogeneous effects. It is envisaged that this work will involve both experimental and theoretical programs. The experimental work will require, in addition to the measurements described above, fundamental studies in devices such as flow reactors and shock tubes. Complementing this effort should be modeling and theoretical activities. One impediment to the successful modeling of sulfur oxidation is the lack of reliable data for thermodynamic and transport properties for several species, such as aqueous nitric acid, sulfur oxides, and sulfuric acid. Quantum mechanical calculations are recommended as a convenient means of deriving values for these properties. Such calculations would also help establish rate constants for several important reactions for which experimental measurements are inherently fraught with uncertainty. Efforts to implement sufficiently detailed chemistry into computational fluid dynamic codes should be continued. Zero- and one-dimensional flow models are also useful vehicles for elucidating the minimal set of species and reactions that must be included in two- and three-dimensional modeling studies.
Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip
The aim of this study was to assess haematological changes in hand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) transported from intensive housing facilities to a pheasantry. Selected haematological parameters were monitored in a group of 100 pheasants (50 males and 50 females) aged of 9 weeks that were transported for 4 hours by a covered lorry in crates, with a total body weight of 12 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C12 - floor space: 290 cm2/kg) and with a total body weight of 18 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C18 - floor space: 195 cm2/kg). Blood samples were taken from 10 randomly selected males and 10 females before transport (CON group) and 20 hours after transport (C12 and C18 groups). Examinations consisted in determining the total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin levels and differential leukocyte counts, whereby the proportions of heterophil, basophil and eosinophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of the total leukocytes were computed. The changes in the parameters of red blood cell count were manifested by an increase (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin level, MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) values and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the total erythrocyte count and haematocrit level in both C12 and C18 pheasants, when compared with the control group of non-transported pheasants. C18 pheasants exhibited also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MCV (mean cell value) value. When analyzing differential leukocyte counts, C18 pheasants showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in heterophil counts and H/L ratio, whereas values in C12 pheasants did not differ from the non-transported control group. Individual counts of lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.05) in C12 pheasants, whereas basophil counts were increased (P < 0.01) in both C12 and C18 pheasants. Total leukocyte count was decreased (P < 0.01) in C12 and C18 pheasants. In conclusion, the specific requirements of pheasants, as primarily wild animals, for the density in crates should be respected during transportation and they should be transported at lower densities than other poultry species, at least 290 cm2/kg live weight should be provided. PMID:17078531
Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Vecerek, V; Pistekova, V; Chloupek, P; Suchy, P
This special feature page from the American Chemical Society (ACS) showcases the up-and-coming field of "green chemistry," that is, the development of chemical products and processes that eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. A list of principles behind green chemistry, a searchable bibliography of green chemistry references, and green chemistry links (including conferences). This page comes from ACS's Green Chemistry Project, a three-year educational project to develop and disseminate green chemistry educational materials for graduate and undergraduate chemistry students.
Developed by the University of Leeds, the Delights of Chemistry promotes the art of chemistry demonstrations. Users can find illustrations and explanations of forty chemistry experiments. Many animations of demonstrations including the magnesium lamp, thermite reaction, and the volcano reaction are available. The website is full of pictures of chemistry equipment and scientists at work. Through this site, students and educators are able to explore fun chemistry experiments without having to worry about the many hazards associated with working with chemicals.
Background Reference procedures are required for evaluating the accuracy of routine analytical systems for uric acid (UA). External quality assessment (EQA) for UA has only been conducted with quality controls in China, and the results have not been published. This study was designed to investigate both the trueness and inter-laboratory precision of UA measurements among routine analytical systems using a candidate reference method. Methods We performed the HPLC method recommended by the Japan Society of Clinical Chemistry (JSCC). Next, we evaluated its analytical performance and validated its trueness. The performance of 4 routine analytical systems (5 instruments per system, n=20) for UA was assessed by using 4 frozen pooled serum samples measured by the HPLC method according to biologically relevant quality goals. Results Within-run, between-run, inter-day, and total CV of the method were less than 0.3%, 0.4%, 1.8%, and 2.6%, respectively. The UA measurements were consistent with the target values of standard reference material (SRM) 909b, the sixth ring trial for Reference Laboratories (RELA-2008) specimen, and national primary reference materials. The 4 frozen pooled serum samples were homogeneous, stable, and commutable. All routine systems achieved the desirable performance goal (total error <11.9%). Conclusions We successfully reproduced the JSCC's HPLC method, which was simple, specific, precise, and accurate. We recommend this method as a reference method for UA measurement in human serum. Four routine analytical systems for UA measurement had acceptable traceability, and their UA results showed good concordance. PMID:24624345
Jiang, Yaping; Liu, Ou
Chemistry Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science that underlies many technology. A chemistry degree gives you the understanding to contribute to our future in very topical areas) in Chemistry BSc (Hons) in Chemistry MChem (Hons) in Chemistry (with an industrial placement year) MChem (Hons
Sussex, University of
Ten West African Dwarf (WAD) female goats and twelve Djallonké ewes were artificially infected with a West African strain of Trypanosoma congolense and monitored during 36 weeks over an acute phase (weeks 0-12) and chronic phase (weeks 13-36) to evaluate their haematological and immunological response. Parasitaemia, packed cell volume, red blood cells, haemoglobin, white blood cells and trypanosomal antibodies were assessed. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were calculated. The infected animals showed a persistent parasitaemia together with a chronic anaemia and significantly lower packed cell volume, red blood cell count and haemoglobin. The infected sheep developed a macrocytic, hypochromic anaemia during the acute phase changing to normocytic, hypochromic during the chronic phase, whereas, the infected goats developed a normocytic, normochromic anaemia during the acute phase and normocytic, hypochromic during the chronic phase. A significant increase in WBC counts was observed only in the infected sheep during the chronic phase. Trypanosomal antibody titres were significantly higher in the infected sheep than in the infected goats. Both species are regarded as trypanotolerant but Djallonké sheep mount a better haematopoietic and immunological response to infection with T. congolense than WAD goats. PMID:9831952
Goossens, B; Osaer, S; Kora, S; Ndao, M
The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700
Lck/yes-related novel (Lyn) tyrosine kinase overexpression has been suggested to be important for leukaemic cell growth making it an attractive target for therapy. By contrast, Lyn deficiency was shown to be responsible for a phenotype resembling myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in mice. We aimed to shed more light on Lyn's role in haematological neoplasm and systematically investigated Lyn expression in MPN, acute and chronic leukaemia subtypes (n = 236). On top, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and chronic myeloid leukaemia significantly overexpressed Lyn when compared to de novo acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and Philadelphia-chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (p < 0.001). Most of acute leukaemia subtypes showed a notable down-regulation of Lyn mRNA but anyhow individual cases were labelled for the active form of Lyn protein. Intriguingly, secondary AML evolved in myelodysplastic syndromes revealed almost undetectable Lyn. Overexpression of Lyn in B-CLL was associated with a significant down-regulation of microRNA-337-5p suggesting that aberrant expression of this particular microRNA could be involved in post-transcriptional control of Lyn mRNA fate. We conclude that tyrosine kinase Lyn contributes to the malignant phenotype in certain leukaemia subtypes and therefore attracts targeted therapy. PMID:19290526
Hussein, Kais; von Neuhoff, Nils; Büsche, Guntram; Buhr, Thomas; Kreipe, Hans; Bock, Oliver
Potassium bromate used widely in foods has been associated with various complications in humans. However there is paucity of literature on adverse effects on haematological parameters. Thus we decided to carry out an experimental study to determine the effects of potassium bromate on some blood indices using Wistar rats. Twenty (20) male Wistar rats aged 2-3 months obtained from the department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria Nsukka were acclimatized for two weeks. They were divided into five groups and fed with graded doses of potassium bromate solution for six weeks. One of the groups served as the control. Pre and post administration blood samples were collected and analyzed the same day using standard methods. The results revealed significant [P<0.05] decrease in the platelet count when compared with the controls. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, and total leukocyte counts between the test and control rats. Potassium bromate is injurious to health if consumed continuously and in high quantity. It has been shown to reduce platelet count in rats, and thus may cause thrombocytopenia in humans. It is therefore imperative to take adequate measures to eliminate the use of potassium bromate in the preparation of food products. PMID:19826465
Achukwu, P U; Ufelle, S A; Ukaejiofo, E O; Ejezie, F E; Nwachukwu, D N; Nwagha, U I; Nworie, W C; Anyaehie, U S B
Abstract Pharmaceuticals are used extensively in human and veterinary medicine to eradicate or prevent diseases. The residues of these drugs have been detected in aquatic ecosystem; nevertheless, their toxicological effects on Clarias gariepinus have not been critically investigated. In this study, the toxic effects of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, were studied in C. gariepinus by acute and chronic static renewable bioassay. The 96?h LC50 of DCF to C. gariepinus was 25.12?mg/L. Exposure to acute toxicity resulted in abnormal behavior and mortality of some fish. Compared with the control, chronic exposure of the fish to concentration (1.57, 3.14 and 6.28?mg/L) showed significantly higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cell (WBC), with significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) with increase in the concentration of the drug. Furthermore, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose values significantly increased while protein levels were reduced (p?0.05) in serum and gills throughout the 42-day exposure period. The study reports that DCF-induced enzymatic and haematological changes in the fish and recommends that these parameters be used as potential biomarkers for assessing residual pharmaceuticals available in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:25367777
Ajima, Malachy N O; Ogo, Ogo A; Audu, Bala S; Ugwoegbu, Kyrian C
In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the…
Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri
Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)
Burns, Mary Sue
Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria. PMID:24627875
Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu; Ramasamy, Ramesh; Gopal, Niranjan; Kuzhandaivelu, V.
Chemistry Mills, Rebecca Chemistry Morawski, Adrian Chemistry Mountford, Daniel Chemistry Newman, Aidan 1.67 Prof G S Beddard Room 2.89 Dr J Fisher Room G.01 Dr D Shalashilin Room 2.86 Dr D Shalashilin
Rzepa, Henry S.
Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)
Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.
ACTH (microgram kg-1 i.v.) and prednisolone (1 microgram-1 i.v.) caused a moderate but statistically significant inhibition of rumen contractions, whereas no effects on heart rate and body temperature were observed. Both hormones induced hyperglycaemia and leucocytosis, characterised by moderate lymphopenia and a profound increase in the number of circulating neutrophils. A significant decrease in plasma iron and increase in plasma zinc concentrations were observed. After 3 daily i.m. injections of ACTH (10 micrograms-1 day-1) decreases were seen in both serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and plasma trace metal concentrations; heart rate was significantly higher. Intraveneous injection of E. coli endotoxin (0.1 microgram kg-1) caused shivering, fever, inhibition of rumen contractions, changes in heart rate, lymphopenia, neutropenia followed by neutrophilic leucocytosis, hypoferraemia, hypozincaemia, hypoglycaemia and a decline in serum ALP activity. ACTH, given i.m. for 3 days, reduced the febrile responses to E. coli endotoxin, modified the changes in heart rate, intensified the inhibition of rumen contractions, and induced a more marked decrease in the number of circulating neutrophils. ACTH pretreatment did not affect the endotoxin-induced decrease in blood glucose concentrations nor the drop in plasma zinc and iron values. These results suggest that glucocorticosteroids are not primarily involved in the fall in plasma iron and zinc concentrations during E. coli endotoxin-induced fever, the effects of endotoxin released glucocorticosteroids on white blood cells and blood glucose are masked by some other effect(s) of endotoxin, and in dwarf goats, ACTH has antipyretic properties without influencing normal body temperature. This effect is probably not dependent on adrenal cortical activity. PMID:3018991
van Miert, A S; van Duin, C T; Wensing, T
Students learn about the concepts of spectral chemistry, combustion, and the nature of fire through the use of visually rich fireworks resources. Optional resources address chemical reactions for those who want a more advanced chemistry lesson.
Foundation, Wgbh E.
This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.
This cost-free resource is a chapter from a textbook on introductory chemistry, developed for learners with little background in physics or chemistry. This chapter deals with the atomic nucleus and radiation, nuclear energy, and uses of radioactive substances. It is appropriate for teachers seeking additional content knowledge, high school physics and chemistry courses, and college-level preparatory chemistry. It builds a foundation to understand the physical forces in the nucleus (electrostatic force and strong force), and explains how chemical reactions differ from nuclear reactions. Graphs and diagrams depict what happens in radioactive decay. The section on chemical nuclear equations is straightforward and comprehensible for non-scientists. This collection is part of An Introduction to Chemistry, a set of resources developed by Mark Bishop which includes two textbooks, 15 animated tutorials, downloadable Power Point presentations for teachers, concept maps, and 3D molecular models.
Chemistry Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science that underlies many technology. A chemistry degree allows you to understand and to contribute to our future. Chemistry is challenging: understanding the very fabric of matter is both stimulating and rewarding. Studying chemistry
Sussex, University of
Reports on a study exploring why students are not studying chemistry. Three groups of graduating high school students and their chemistry teachers stayed at a research institute working on molecular modeling and wrote essays on school chemistry versus chemistry in research. Concludes that school chemistry does not convey today's chemistry in…
Habraken, Clarisse L.; Buijs, Wim; Borkent, Hens; Ligeon, Willy; Wender, Harry; Meijer, Marijn
A stratified probability sample (n = 986) with quotas was drawn from black residential areas in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. Subjects (n = 819) aged 15-64 years, participated in a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor survey, the BRISK Study. Nutritional status and prevalence of CHD was determined in this population undergoing rapid urbanization. Full blood and differential white blood cell counts provided data to calculate population reference values based on the 95% reference limits of the haematological parameter. Mean haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) in men (14.0 g/dl) and women (12.4 g/dl) were +/- 1.5 g/dl lower than previous South African reports. Mean BRISK Hb values were very similar to the World Health Organization's Hb cutoff criteria (< 13 g/dl men; < 12 g/dl women), indicating a possible high prevalence of anaemia. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) mean values for red cell indices were confirmed in men, which also reflected equally higher red blood cell counts (RBC), haematocrit (HCT) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) values. Mean Hb values were significantly lower in the younger (15-24 years) and older (55-64 years) men compared with 25-54 year-olds (P < 0.05). Hypochromic microcytic anaemia was more prevalent in women, possibly due to iron deficiency (ID), while macrocytic anaemia was more prevalent in men. No significant differences were noted in mean total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC) between men and women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7781549
Badenhorst, C J; Fourie, J; Steyn, K; Jooste, P L; Lombard, C J; Bourne, L; Slazus, W
We evaluated the adverse effect of asymptomatic Helicobacter pylori infection in children on the response to Fe supplementation. One hundred and sixty-nine children aged 1-10 years from the urban poor community underwent a [13C]urea breath test for H. pylori and haematological tests at admission and after 8 weeks. Both H. pylori-positive and -negative children were randomly assigned to receive ferrous fumarate syrup (20 mg elemental Fe twice daily) or placebo for 8 weeks and a single dose of vitamin A (33,000 microg). Admission findings were compared between H. pylori-positive and -negative children. Response to Fe was compared between Fe-supplemented H. pylori-positive and -negative children. Seventy-nine per cent of the children were aged 1-5 years and half of them were boys. In eighty-five H. pylori-positive and eighty-four H. pylori-negative children, the differences in mean Hb (112 (sd 12.6) v. 113 (sd 12.0) g/l), haematocrit (34 (sd 3.5) v. 35 (sd 3.2) %) and ferritin (23.8 v. 21.0 microg/l) were similar. After 8 weeks of Fe supplementation, mean Hb was 5.3 g/l more (95 % CI 1.59, 9.0) and haematocrit was 1.4 % more (95 % CI 0.2, 2.6) in H. pylori-negative (n 44) compared with H. pylori-positive (n 42) children. Mean ferritin was similar at admission and improved in both H. pylori-positive and -negative children. Asymptomatic H. pylori infection was not associated with higher rates of anaemia or Fe deficiency in children, but had a significant adverse effect on response to Fe therapy. However, this result is based on exploratory analysis and needs confirmation. PMID:16351775
Mahalanabis, Dilip; Islam, M Aminul; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Chakrabarty, Monilal; Kurpad, Anura V; Mukherjee, Swagata; Sen, Bandana; Khaled, M Abu; Vermund, Sten H; Varmund, Sten H
The tolerance and effects of nitrite on ion balance and haematology were investigated in the striped snakehead, Channa striata Bloch 1793, which is an air-breathing fish with reduced gills of importance for aquaculture in South East Asia. C. striata was nitrite tolerant with a 96 h LC50 of 4.7 mM. Effects of sub-lethal exposures to nitrite (0mM, 1.4mM, and 3.0mM) were determined during a 7-day exposure period. Plasma nitrite increased, but the internal concentration remained well below ambient levels. Extracellular nitrate rose by several mM, indicating that a large proportion of the nitrite taken up was converted to nitrate. Nitrite reacted with erythrocyte haemoglobin (Hb) causing methaemoglobin (metHb) to increase to 30% and nitrosylhaemoglobin (HbNO) to increase to 10% of total Hb. Both metHb and HbNO stabilised after 4 days, and functional Hb levels accordingly never fell below 60% of total Hb. Haematocrit and total Hb were unaffected by nitrite. Although the effects of nitrite exposure seemed minor in terms of plasma nitrite and metHb increases, ion balance was strongly affected. In the high exposure group, total osmolality decreased from 320 mOsm to 260 mOsm, and plasma sodium from 150 mM to 120 mM, while plasma chloride fell from 105 mM to 60mM and plasma bicarbonate rose from 12 mM in controls to 20mM in exposed fish. The extreme changes in ion balance in C. striata are different from the response reported in other fish, and further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism behind the observed changes in regulation. PMID:22516674
Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark
The experiment was conducted to study the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on growth, haematological and immunological characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 100 male piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with a body weight of 8.0 ± 0.2 kg weaned at the age of 28 days were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicates and 10 pigs per replicate. Piglets received a basal diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1000 mg/kg SB. The feeding trial lasted for 21 days. The results showed that dietary SB significantly decreased (p < 0.05) diarrhoea incidence of weaned piglets, but did not affect (p > 0.05) the average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed to gain (F/G). Furthermore, piglets fed dietary SB had higher (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of glucose and triglycerides and lower (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, cortisol, D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase when compared with the control group. However, dietary SB did not affect concentrations of serum albumin, total protein, insulin and glucagon (p > 0.05). There were no significant (p > 0.05) treatment effects on serum IgA and IgM, whereas serum IgG concentration and IgA+ cell count in jejunum from pigs fed SB were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in those given the basal diet. In conclusion, the present study indicated that dietary SB significantly decreased diarrhoea incidence of weaned piglets and increased the efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Also, dietary SB could regulate and enhance the immune function of piglets by increasing the serum IgG concentration and IgA+ cell count in jejunum. Our results suggest that SB may reduce some of the adverse effects of weaning stress and play an important role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal mucosa. PMID:24024579
Fang, C L; Sun, H; Wu, J; Niu, H H; Feng, J
We evaluated the adverse effect of asymptomatic Helicobacter pylori infection in children on the response to Fe supplementation. One hundred and sixty-nine children aged 1-10 years from the urban poor community underwent a [13C]urea breath test for H. pylori and haematological tests at admission and after 8 weeks. Both H. pylori-positive and -negative children were randomly assigned to receive ferrous fumarate syrup (20 mg elemental Fe twice daily) or placebo for 8 weeks and a single dose of vitamin A (33,000 ?g). Admission findings were compared between H. pylori-positive and -negative children. Response to Fe was compared between Fe-supplemented H. pylori-positive and -negative children. Seventy-nine per cent of the children were aged 1-5 years and half of them were boys. In eighty-five H. pylori-positive and eighty-four H. pylori-negative children, the differences in mean Hb (112 (SD 12·6) v. 113 (SD 12·0) g/l), haematocrit (34 (SD 3·5) v. 35 (SD 3·2) %) and ferritin (23·8 v. 21·0 ?g/l) were similar. After 8 weeks of Fe supplementation, mean Hb was 5·3 g/l more (95 % CI 1·59, 9·0) and haematocrit was 1·4 % more (95 % CI 0·2, 2·6) in H. pylori-negative (n 44) compared with H. pylori-positive (n 42) children. Mean ferritin was similar at admission and improved in both H. pylori-positive and -negative children. Asymptomatic H. pylori infection was not associated with higher rates of anaemia or Fe deficiency in children, but had a significant adverse effect on response to Fe therapy. However, this result is based on exploratory analysis and needs confirmation. PMID:16351775
Mahalanabis, Dilip; Islam, M. Aminul; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Chakrabarty, Monilal; Kurpad, Anura V.; Mukherjee, Swagata; Sen, Bandana; Khaled, M. Abu; Varmund, Sten H.
At present, bone marrow analysis is performed microscopically, but is time consuming and labour intensive. No automated methods have been successfully applied to classification of bone marrows cells because automated blood cell analysers have been incapable of identifying erythroblasts. The present study was designed to evaluate automated analysis of bone marrow aspirates with the CELL-DYN 4000 (CD4000) haematology analyser, which enables automated determination of erythroblast counts in both the normal mode (haemolytic time; 11.5s) and the resistant RBC mode (34.0s). The percentages of subpopulations including lymphocytes, neutrophils and erythroblasts were obtained with the CD4000, and as a reference, differential counts by microscopic observation of May–Grünwald–Giesa-stained films of bone marrow aspirates were performed (n=98). Significant correlations (P < 0.01) between the results obtained with the two methods were observed for total nucleated cell count and lymphocytes, neutrophils, erythroblasts and myeloid/erythroid (M/E) ratio. However, there were biases in the average percentages of erythroblasts, lymphocytes and M/E ratio obtained using the normal mode with the CD4000 toward values lower than those obtained with the microscopic method. Using the RBC resistant mode with the CD4000, the average percentages of erythroblasts, lymphocytes and M/E ratio approximated those obtained with the microscopic method. In conclusion, the CD4000 in resistant RBC mode is more useful for analysis of bone marrow aspirates than is the normal mode, because the former better approximates the M/E ratio than the latter. PMID:18924861
Yamamura, Ryousuke; Yamane, Takahisa; Hino, Masayuki; Ohta, Kensuke; Koh, Ki-Ryang; Tsuda, Izumi; Takubo, Takayuki; Tatsumi, Noriyuki
At present, bone marrow analysis is performed microscopically, but is time consuming and labour intensive. No automated methods have been successfully applied to classification of bone marrows cells because automated blood cell analysers have been incapable of identifying erythroblasts. The present study was designed to evaluate automated analysis of bone marrow aspirates with the CELL-DYN 4000 (CD4000) haematology analyser, which enables automated determination of erythroblast counts in both the normal mode (haemolytic time; 11.5 s) and the resistant RBC mode (34.0 s). The percentages of subpopulations including lymphocytes, neutrophils and erythroblasts were obtained with the CD4000, and as a reference, differential counts by microscopic observation of May-Grünwald-Giesa-stained films of bone marrow aspirates were performed (n=98). Significant correlations (P < 0.01) between the results obtained with the two methods were observed for total nucleated cell count and lymphocytes, neutrophils, erythroblasts and myeloid/erythroid (M/E) ratio. However, there were biases in the average percentages of erythroblasts, lymphocytes and M/E ratio obtained using the normal mode with the CD4000 toward values lower than those obtained with the microscopic method. Using the RBC resistant mode with the CD4000, the average percentages of erythroblasts, lymphocytes and M/E ratio approximated those obtained with the microscopic method. In conclusion, the CD4000 in resistant RBC mode is more useful for analysis of bone marrow aspirates than is the normal mode, because the former better approximates the M/E ratio than the latter. PMID:18924861
Yamamura, R; Yamane, T; Hino, M; Ohta, K; Koh, K R; Tsuda, I; Takubo, T; Tatsumi, N
Introduction Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8–10 years old in one study. Aim To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. Material and methods From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count – CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity – TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and ?2 tests were used for comparison. Results Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein level was positive in 1.46% of cases and 0.5% of controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Frequency of serum iron < 120 was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions The ESR, CRP and occult blood was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection. PMID:24868297
Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Soltani, Shahrzad; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Yousefi, Elham
1 Chemistry Division Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Illinois Institute-13 Chemistry Division invites nominations for Kilpatrick Fellowship for the academic year 2012's Chemistry Department from 1947Â1960. Mary Kilpatrick was a chemistry faculty member from 1947
Introduction Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most serious side-effects of severe thrombocytopenia in haematology patients. ICH is rare, but can have devastating consequences (death or major morbidity). It is unknown why some patients with severe thrombocytopenia bleed and others do not. Study aims Primary aim was to identify risk factors for ICH in patients with haematological malignancies. Secondary aims were to identify short-term outcomes for these patients at 30?days (major morbidity and mortality) and produce a more accurate estimate of ICH incidence in this population. This information is key to identifying means to improve treatment and quality of care. Methods/analysis This is a UK-wide case–control study of ICH nested within a 4-year prospective surveillance study set up specifically for the case–control study. Each case will be matched to one control. Cases will be adult haematology patients (?16?years) who have had any type or severity of ICH who are receiving, about to receive or have just received myeloablative chemotherapy (defined as chemotherapy expected to cause a significant thrombocytopenia <50×109/L for >5?days) or a haemopoietic stem cell transplant. Only patients being treated with curative intent will be included. Controls will be patients who fulfil the same inclusion criteria as cases (apart from ICH) and were treated at the same hospital immediately before the index case. Cases and controls will be matched to type of treatment (myeloablative chemotherapy or haemopoietic stem cell transplant). Hospitals across the UK will participate in a monthly email reporting strategy (started June 2011), as to whether a case of ICH occurred during the preceding calendar month. Case and control forms will be sent to any hospital reporting an eligible case. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate ORs. Denominator data for incidence estimates will use national registry data. Study Registration ISRCTN05026912 (prospective registration). NIHR Portfolio (UKCRN ID 10712). PMID:24508852
Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Collett, Dave; Murphy, Mike F
#12;Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation of Acridine Country: United States #12;Amit Gangar Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Design and Development Wagner Home Country: India #12;Dan Wang Medicinal Chemistry M.S. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation
Thomas, David D.
CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT HANDBOOKFOR STUDENTS Millersville University Millersville, Pennsylvania in the ChemistryDepartment. It brings together material not collected in other places and is not meant Resources 2 Programs in Chemistry and The General Education Curriculum Record Form 3 The Major Requirements
Hardy, Christopher R.
Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact to Chemistry and Biochemistry entering graduate students who have asked for consideration to serve as research senior in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry based on faculty recommendation for undergraduate
Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)
Servos, John W.
Reviews current research interests in photographic chemistry, involving two proposed models for spectral sensitization of crystal defects and impurities in the photolysis reactivity and the mechanisms of development and complexation. Establishment of photographic chemistry in a chemistry curriculum is recommended. (CC)
Sahyun, M. R. V.
Brooklyn College Department of Chemistry General Chemistry I Syllabus GENERAL CHEMISTRY I Â SPRING Manual for General Chemistry, M. N. Kobrak, Ed., First Edition," Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, IA 2008 Coordinator for General Chemistry TBA Undergraduate Chemistry Advisor: TBA Undergraduate Deputy Chair: Prof
Kobrak, Mark N.
Population-based survival after childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia in time periods corresponding to specific clinical trials from 1979 to 1998—a report from the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont (Italy)
This study evaluated the outcome after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in a population aged 0–14 years served by the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont (CCRP) during the accrual periods to nationwide clinical studies run by the Italian Association for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP). In the time period considered (March 1979–December 1998) the CCRP recorded 498 incident cases of
G Pastore; S Viscomi; G. L Gerov; B Terracini; E Madon; C Magnani
Hyperleukocytosis is a rare but potentially serious complication of haematological malignancies. It is usually treated with rehydration, prevention of tumour lysis syndrome and the administration of cytotoxic therapy. Leukapheresis may be life-saving in emergency cases. In this article we describe how, in a resource-limited setting where leukapheresis was not available, manual exchange transfusion was utilised as a life-saving intervention in three patients with different haematological malignancies complicated by hyperleukocytosis. Further we outline the procedure that was carried out and evaluated possible complications associated with this rarely used practice. PMID:24100166
Barrett, Claire L; Louw, Vernon J; Webb, Michael J
Developed by Kennesaw State University, ChemCases.com is a series of curriculum units that link responsible decision making in product development with chemical principles taught in college General Chemistry. Alcohol, Chemistry and You, by Dr. Bill Boggan, is the latest offering by the Web site, which "looks at the chemistry of beverage alcohol (ethyl alcohol) through the eyes of a General Chemistry student." The fourteen chapter lessons cover everything from what ethyl alcohol is to alcohol addiction, relating it to various principles learned in a general chemistry course.
Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chemistry 51B Reactions(s). Chapter 7: Nucleophilic Substitution + + NaOH CH3O- #12;Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chapter 8: Elimination Reactions #12;Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013
Rose, Michael R.
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2850 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer for clinical use....
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2570 Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems. (a)...
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2100 Calculator/data processing module for clinical use....
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2540 Flame emission photometer for clinical use. (a)...
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2570 Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems. (a)...
...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2250 Gas liquid chromatography system for clinical use. (a)...
Data on fungal epidemiology in sub-Saharan African countries are scarce. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the fungal flora at the Onco-Haematology ward of the National Teaching Hospital of Point G in Bamako, Mali. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dry and in the rainy seasons. Nasal swab and sputum samples were collected from the hospitalized patients while airborne fungal spores were collected using electrostatic dust-fall collectors. Fungi were identified by their morphological characteristics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Candida albicans was the most frequent yeast species colonizing patients; Aspergillus species were isolated in 86 % of the patients and were the main airborne environmental contaminants. Overall, airborne fungal contamination rates increased from 33.8 % in the dry to 66.2 % in the rainy season (p < 0.001). The most frequent Aspergillus species were Aspergillus niger (36.6 %) and Aspergillus flavus (32.92 %). In contrast, Aspergillus fumigatus (5.43 %) was relatively rare. This high level of fungal exposure raises concern regarding the management of at-risk patients in this Onco-Haematology ward and stresses the need for strengthening the mycological diagnostic capacities to accompany the implementation of adapted fungal infection prevention and management policies. PMID:24889723
Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Normand, Anne Cécile; Diallo, Yacouba Lazarre; Dembelé, Abdoul Karim; Thera, Mahamadou A; Diallo, Dapa; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ranque, Stéphane
Although about 75-80% of neutropenic fevers are thought to be caused by infections, a causal organism can be confirmed microbiologically or suspected clinically in only 30-50%, and even fewer of these cases (16%) have a documented bacteraemia. The cause of neutropenic fever in the remaining cases remains elusive. The reasons for this failure may be due to the difficulty in recovering low numbers of organisms, fastidious organisms which fail to grow using conventional culture media, the presence of non-culturable organisms, or the presence of inhibitory substances in specimens. Previously, the authors showed the presence of Acinetobacter in peripheral blood of febrile neutropenic patients with a haematological malignancy, using 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing techniques. However, conventional culture was unable to detect these organisms. Hence, it was felt necessary to examine the antibacterial properties of four antineoplastic agents used in the treatment of haematological malignancy, namely bleomycin, cisplatin, doxorubicin and vincristine. A total of 56 wild-type Acinetobacter including seven species (A. calcoaceticus [n=17], A. septicus [n=11], A. baumannii [n=10], A. johnsonii [n=7], A. lwoffii [n=8] A. haemolyticus [n=2] and A. radioresistens [n=1]) were examined for their susceptibility to the four antineoplastic agents at therapeutic concentration. No inhibition was observed, but inhibition was seen at higher concentrations of both bleomycin and doxorubicin. Time to detection of blood culture bottles containing separate antineoplastic agents (i.e., bleomycin and doxorubicin) was compared to that containing saline using a paired t-test. Samples containing doxorubicin at 1 pg/mL were shown to have a mean time to detection of 21.8 h (range: 15.6-31.4 h). Bottles containing saline had a mean time to detection of 22.9 h (range: 18.2-31.3 h). Statistical analysis showed no significant difference (P=0.3361) between time to detection for blood culture bottles containing doxorubicin at achievable plasma concentration and corresponding negative controls. With regard to bleomycin (300 miu/mL), the mean time to detection was 27.29 h (range: 20.2-38.4 h) in the test bottles, with mean time to detection in the saline negative controls of 22.56 h (range: 17.0-30.1 h). Paired t-test gave P=0.000451, hence a significant difference in time to detection for blood cultures containing therapeutic levels of bleomycin. Overall, the antineoplastic agents vincristine, cisplatin or doxorubicin did not have any inhibitory effects on the Acinetobacter organisms examined. At worst, therapeutic concentrations of bleomycin may delay automated detection of an Acinetobacter bacteraemia by a mean time of 5.9 h. PMID:22558799
McCarron, A J; Armstrong, C; Glynn, G; Millar, B C; Rooney, P J; Goldsmith, C E; Xu, J; Moore, J E
Background Accurate platelet counts (PC) are necessary in order to follow recommendations for prophylactic platelet transfusion. We carried out a study comparing the standard way of counting platelets using a routine analyser and compared it with PC determined by flow cytometry (FC) and haemostatic data obtained with thromboelastography (TEG). Materials and methods The study was carried out on 24 patients with haematological malignancies, all given one adult dose of platelets. The PC was determined before and after transfusion using an automated blood cell counter and FC. Citrated, “native” whole blood TEG was carried out before and after platelet transfusion to assess global haemostasis. Results No bleeding was observed in any of the subjects. Thirty-one assessments were performed in the 24 patients. The mean pre-transfusion PC were 9.8 and 13×109/L with the automated counter and FC, respectively with a difference of 3.7 (p=0.0011). Excellent correlation was observed between the two counts (r=0.89; p<0.0001). Mean post-transfusion increments were 23 and 29×109/L for the routine counter and FC, respectively. Using the immunological PC, patients would not have qualified for transfusion in 18.2% of cases since their PC was >20×109/L. TEG showed a shortened reaction time in 69.6% of cases and a normal mean K time of 6.7 min. Only 9% had a low ? angle signifying hypocoagulability. The maximum amplitude was reduced in the majority of cases but normal in 25% despite PC<20×109/L. Mean activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and fibrinogen were normal prior to transfusion. Discussion Although higher PC as assessed by FC could potentially have an impact on platelet transfusion practices, TEG was sensitive enough to detect PC<10×109/L and some between 10–20×109/L. Whether patients with the latter PC are more prone to bleeding remains to be verified in larger studies. PMID:24960660
Gatt, Alex; Bonello, Fabian; Buttigieg, Raphael; Debono, Samuel; Brincat, Patricia; Grima, Charlie; Gatt, Peter; Lofaro, Thomas; Laspina, Stefan
Objectives: To investigate the effects of strenuous exercise on commonly used biochemical and haematological variables in subjects running the 2002 London marathon.Methods: 34 healthy volunteers (7 female, 27 male) were recruited for the study. Blood was taken before the start (at registration) and immediately after completion of the marathon. Samples were analysed for urea and electrolytes, liver function tests, creatine
J E Smith; G Garbutt; P Lopes; D Tunstall Pedoe
The aim of the study was to compare the angiogenic status, potential qualitative differences in microvessels and carbonic anhydrase IX expression in bone-marrow (BM) metastases and different haematological tumours at time of diagnosis. The microvessel density (MVD), endothelial-cell proliferation (ECP) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) immunoreactivity were determined on 210 trephine biopsies from 57 patients with multiple myeloma (MM),
H. R. De Raeve; P. B. Vermeulen; K. Vanderkerken; A. L. Harris; E. Van Marck
We retrospectively evaluated 107 fiberoptic bronchoscopies with and without transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) in 98 consecutive patients with haematologic malignancies and pulmonary infiltrates. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in 45 and BAL plus TBLB in 62 procedures. There was no procedure-related severe haemorrhage, pneumothorax or death. Infectious aetiology was identified in 26 of 107 (24%), toxic pneumonitis in 17 of
A. Mulabecirovic; P. Gaulhofer; H. W. Auner; H. Popper; R. Krause; C. Hesse; H. Sill
Chemistry 2321 SPRING 2013 Honors Organic Chemistry II Instructor: Prof. Matt Sigman, Office HEB: "Organic Chemistry" Janice Smith (3rd addition) Recommended: "Organic Chemistry II as a Second Language. Course Description: This class is the second half of honors organic chemistry. Lecture topics include
Organic Chemistry Laboratory I Â Fall 2014 Chemistry 341 Instructor Office Phone Email Office Hours Organic Chemistry - Gilbert & Martin (5th Ed.) Supplemental Text: Organic Chemistry Â McMurry (8th Ed that someone skilled in the art of chemistry could successfully repeat the experiment. 3. Relevant Data (10 Pts
Nickrent, Daniel L.
Organic Chemistry Laboratory II Â Fall 2014 Chemistry 443 Instructor Office Phone Email Office Organic Chemistry - Gilbert & Martin (5th Ed.) Supplemental Text: Organic Chemistry Â McMurry (8th Ed in the art of chemistry could successfully repeat the experiment. 3. Relevant Data (9 Pts.) 4. Results
Nickrent, Daniel L.
Organic Chemistry Laboratory II Â Spring 2014 Chemistry 443 Instructor Office Phone Email Office Organic Chemistry - Gilbert & Martin (5th Ed.) Supplemental Text: Organic Chemistry Â McMurry (7th Ed.) Lectures are Mondays at 3 pm in Neckers 240 and Laboratories are in Neckers 203/205 Textbook website: http://thomsonedu.com/chemistry
Nickrent, Daniel L.
The versatile chemistry of nitrogen is important to pulmonary physiology. Indeed, almost all redox forms of nitrogen are relevant to pulmonary physiology and to pathophysiology. Here we review the relevance to pulmonary biology of (a) elemental nitrogen; (b) reduced forms of nitrogen such as amines, ammonia, and hydroxylamine; and (c) oxidized forms of nitrogen such as the nitroxyl anion, the nitric oxide free radical, and S-nitrosothiols. Our focus is on oxidized nitrogen in the form of S-nitrosothiol bond-containing species, which are now appreciated to be important to every type of cell-signaling process in the lung. We also review potential clinical applications of nitrogen oxide biochemistry. These principles are being translated into clinical practice as diagnostic techniques and therapies for a range of pulmonary diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25668023
Marozkina, Nadzeya V; Gaston, Benjamin
TAUGHT Chemistry 110 Â General Chemistry (as of 2012) Chemistry 111 Â General Chemistry Chemistry 112Matthew F. Tuchler Associate Professor of Chemistry EMPLOYER: Department of Chemistry, Washington: firstname.lastname@example.org EDUCATION: B.A. in Chemistry, Haverford College, 1986 M.A. in Chemistry, University
This case study on the chemistry of cocaine is in the form of a classroom discussion between a professor and her students about cocaine, its addictive properties, a search for an addiction treatment, and the chemistry involved in the synthesis of cocaine in its various forms. The case can be used to teach nucleophilic addition reactions, nucleophilic acyl substitution, and cocaine metabolism. In addition, it provides students with experience in locating, reading, and analyzing a research paper. The case was designed for the second course in a two-course sequence in undergraduate organic chemistry, but it could be adapted for medicinal chemistry classes.
Chemistry @ Imperial College 2007 #12;2 Introduction Imperial College is a world leading University. As the central science Chemistry has been a major contributor to this success. The Chemistry Department is at the forefront of modern Chemistry research, both in our core discipline and at the interfaces of Chemistry
to familiarize you with your teaching responsibilities for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry and to provideGuide for Teaching Assistants Department of Chemistry The University of Chicago #12;Â© 2012 Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago (2nd edition) #12;i Preface Welcome to the Chemistry
Twenty-five barrier-maintained cats had been experimentally infected for 9.5 months with an FIV strain of low pathogenicity, FIV Zurich 2. Animals were clinically healthy and did not exhibit any haematological changes. FIV proviral DNA was demonstrated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of all cats and in monocytes of most animals, identifying FIV Zurich 2 as a both lympho- and monocytotropic strain.
A. Kipar; F. S. Boretti; M. M. Meli; K. Failing; M. Reinacher; H. Lutz
Suggesting that descriptive chemistry is basic to basic chemical literacy, offers examples of descriptive chemistry problems (with answers) based on inexpensive, short, safe, striking, and simple lecture experiments. Issues related to the teaching of descriptive chemistry are also addressed. (JN)
Bent, Henry A.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has put online a draft of recommendations for the correct use of the terms "selectivity" and "specificity" in analytical chemistry. The provisional report, available for download in .pdf format, was drafted by the IUPAC's Analytical Division Task Force, and reader comments are welcomed until September 30, 2001.
This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…
Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois
From science writer David Bradley, this blog has brought the "latest news from the world of chemistry to web surfers everywhere" since 1999. The site crosses a research orientation with a popular look and feel. Features examine current chemistry developments in areas such as chromatography and nanotechnology, as well as news pertaining to work being done by researchers.
An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.
This award is given to sites, that somehow are related to chemistry. The criteria to rank the sites are information content and design (layout, navigation, graphical design). Sites must contain chemistry related topics as innovative and attractive as possible. This award is given away to the best 5% of the submissions to the website and other sites reviewed by site author.
This educational site features: A searchable database of over 800 common compound names; Hyperlinked notes for first semester general chemistry; Interactive graphing, popup tables, and calculators; an index of self-guided tutorials, quizzes, and drills on specific topics; a searchable glossary; and a Chemistry Exam Survival Guide
Presents an activity designed for use during National Chemistry Week 2002 with the theme "Chemistry Keeps Us Clean". Allows students to discover more about a cleaning product they use everyday. Students make their own toothpaste and compare its properties with those of commercial toothpaste. (MM)
Chemistry and Biochemistry Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact Endowment Fund To provide support for undergraduate biomedical research in the Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry and biochemistry undergraduate majors. Deadline is based on University Awards Day deadline. Virginia Rogers 803
Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)
Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo
A Chemical Tracer Model (CTM) that can use wind field data generated by the General Circulation Model (GCM) is developed to implement chemistry in the three dimensional GCM of the middle atmosphere. Initially, chemical tracers with simple first order losses such as N2O are used. Successive models are to incorporate more complex ozone chemistry.
Prather, Michael; Garcia, Maria M.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has put online a draft of recommendations for the correct use of the terms "selectivity" and "specificity" in analytical chemistry. The provisional report, available for download in .pdf format, was drafted by the IUPAC's Analytical Division Task Force, and reader comments are welcomed until September 30, 2001.
This presentation provides a basic introduction to the chemistry involved with fuel cell technology. The material covers chemical bonds, some basic atomic properties, the Noble Gas Theory and how the chemistry of fuel cells works.This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.
Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the secretion rate from minor salivary glands in 16 patients (mean age 62 years) with myeloma, lymphoma or other malignant haematological diseases receiving chemotherapy (study group). An age- and sex-matched control group (n = 16) was recruited. The secretion rate from the minor salivary glands on the inside of the lower lip, measured using the Periotron method, was in mean 2.8 microliters/cm2/min in the study group compared with 4.5 microliters/cm2/min in the control group (p < 0.01). No difference was found in the secretion rate of paraffin-stimulated whole saliva. There were more individuals who experienced dry mouth in the study group (n = 7) than in the control group (n = 2). The conclusion from this pilot study is that the secretion rate from the minor salivary glands might be reduced in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:12462875
Blomgren, Johan; Jansson, Sigbritt; Rödjer, Stig; Birkhed, Dowen
The study objective was to characterise the impact of negative energy balance (NEB) on immune-stress responsiveness in beef heifers. A short term (18-day) dietary restriction model was used. Dietary restriction (0.4 maintenance (Mn) energy requirements) induced abrupt onset of anoestrus in nine heifers (Restricted Anovulatory; RA) while nineteen heifers maintained oestrous cyclicity (Restricted Ovulatory; RO). In addition a control (C) group of 12 heifers received a higher level of feeding (1.2?Mn). Haematological related biomarkers of husbandry stress, leukocyte gene expression of seven cytokine genes and five immunological biomarkers were investigated. After 18 days of differential feeding of the heifers alterations in eosinophil and monocyte numbers and altered expression of CXCL8, IL2 and TNF? could be attributed to diet restriction. More specifically, changes in these five variables were found in heifers that became anovulatory (RA) and are therefore considered to be more sensitive biomarkers to an energy deficit. PMID:25496833
Matthews, Daragh; Waters, Sinéad M; Diskin, Michael G; Kenny, David A; Morris, Dermot G; Earley, Bernadette
Organic Chemistry Worldwide is an excellent organic chemistry metasite that is not to be missed. Geared toward synthetic organic chemists involved in academic or industrial research, Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide has a mission to collect and independently annotate "all useful organic chemistry sites and to present them in an intuitive way." This extensive metasite is divided into sections on literature, laboratory resources, spectroscopy and spectrometry, nomenclature and teaching, and conferences and organizations. The Literature section contains links to over 75 journals (some restricted access), 14 free databases (and many more commercial), dissertation collections, reviews, guides, patents, and current awareness sources. Examples of resources for laboratory work include links to chemical product databases, laboratory safety bulletins (.pdf), products and services, etc. Highlights of the site are an in-depth section on mass spectrometry, with links to publications and databases, and a plethora of links to organic chemistry labs worldwide, from Armenia to Uruguay.
Van Aken, Koen
The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either Mycoplasma haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), ‘Candidatus M. haemominutum’ (Group HM: 3 cats) or ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’ (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs’ testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated measures experiment with significance set as P < 0.05. Cats in Group TU had significantly lower blood copy numbers than cats in Group HF (P < 0.001) and HM (P < 0.001). All Group HF cats developed anaemia (often severe), macrocytosis and evidence of erythrocyte-bound antibodies whereas Groups HM and TU cats did not. Group HF had significantly lower PCVs, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts, and significantly higher mean cell volumes, than Groups HM and TU. In Group HF, erythrocyte-bound antibodies reactive at 4 °C (both IgM and IgG) appeared between 8 and 22 DPI and persisted for two to four weeks, whereas those reactive at 37 °C (primarily IgG) appeared between 22 and 29 DPI and persisted for one to five weeks. In most cats antibodies appeared after the fall in haemoglobin started. Although Group TU had significantly lower glucose concentrations than Groups HF (P = 0.006) and HM (P = 0.027), mean blood glucose concentrations remained within the reference range in all groups. This study demonstrates that M. haemofelis infection, in contrast to ‘Candidatus M. haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’ infection, can result in a severe macrocytic anaemia and the development of cold and warm reactive erythrocyte-bound antibodies. PMID:19615832
Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R.; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M.; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Knowles, Toby G.; Day, Michael J.; Helps, Chris R.
There is paucity of information from eastern India with regard to observed dominant micro-organisms causing febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients with haematological malignancies. To identify the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms associated with FN. A total number of 268 episodes of FN were analysed from September'2010 to October'2013. The blood samples were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth, glucose broth, Hicombi dual performance media (Himedia, LQ-12) at 37° C for 168 h and Bactec method was also performed for these samples. Blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey's agar and cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar were used for isolation of the microorganisms. A total number of 78 (29.10 %) episodes revealed positive growths. Gram negative bacilli and Gram positive cocci were isolated in 61.53 and 34.61 % cases respectively. The eight commonest isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.10 %), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-12.82 %), Acinetobacter sps (11.53 %), coagulase negative Staphylococcus (10.25 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.97 %), Escherichia coli (8.97 %), ESBL E. coli (6.41 %), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA-6.41 %). Amongst other less common isolates were Citrobacter kosseri (3.84 %), Citrobacter freundii (2.56 %), Ralstonia paucula (2.56 %), Cedecia neteri (1.28 %), methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (2.56 %). Candida spp. including two cases of Candida non-albicans was isolated in 3.84 % of cases. P. aeruginosa was the commonest pathogenic isolates in FN patients associated with haematological malignancies in this study. Gram negative bacteria were the commonest isolates in FN including significant numbers of rare opportunistic micro-organisms. PMID:25548444
Mandal, Prakas Kumar; Maji, Suman Kumar; Dolai, Tuphan Kanti; De, Rajib; Dutta, Shyamali; Saha, Sandeep; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee
ADAMs (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are a recently discovered family of proteins with significant primary sequence similarity to the reprolysin family of snake venomases. These ADAMs closest known homologues are the type III reprolysin enzymes which have been demonstrated to be, among other things potent type IV collagenases. ADAMs are putative membrane linked proteins with several domains including a metalloproteinase domain, a potential integrin binding domain, a cysteine rich sequence and an EGF like sequence. They have been implicated in a wide variety of functions including basement membrane degradation and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. We have used RT-PCR and Northern blotting to characterise the expression of members of this family in cells derived from a variety of haematological malignancies including leukaemia (HL60 and Jurkat), erythroleukaemia (K562), lymphoma (U937 and Cupillo) and myeloma (U266B1). We find clear expression of four members of this novel family of proteins but note differences in the expression levels of each member. The ADAMs known as MADM (ADAM10), MCMP (ADAM12, MDC9) and Metargidin (ADAM15) which all possess potentially active metalloproteinase domains are expressed in all these cell types to significant levels. The putative tumour suppressor gene MDC (ADAM11) is expressed at very low levels in all cells examined. As ADAMs may have both potential metalloproteinase activity and adhesive domains we wish to explore the role of these proteins with regard to pathophysiology of haematological malignancy such as egression of leukaemic cells from the bone marrow. PMID:9199213
Wu, E; Croucher, P I; McKie, N
The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91 days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200 mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35 mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p < 0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029
Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I
The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744
Aghwan, Z. A.; Sazili, A. Q.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Hilmi, M.
The aim of this study was to follow up whether the modification of pro-antioxidant status by 8-day oral application of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in healthy men affects the haematological response, whether there is a direct relationship between antioxidant defences and erythropoietin (EPO) secretion and whether NAC intake enhances exercise performance. Fifteen healthy men were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control or NAC (1,200 mg d(-1) for 8 days prior to and 600 mg on the day of exercise trial). To measure the ergogenic effectiveness of NAC, subjects performed incremental cycle exercise until exhaustion. NAC administration significantly influenced the resting and post-exercise level of glutathione (+31%) as well as the resting activity of glutathione enzymes (glutathione reductase, -22%; glutathione peroxidase, -18%). The oxidative damage markers, i.e., protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) were reduced by NAC by more than 30%. NAC noticeably affected the plasma level of EPO (+26%), haemoglobin (+9%), haematocrit (+9%) and erythrocytes (-6%) at rest and after exercise. The mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin increased by more than 12%. Plasma total thiols increased by 17% and directly correlated with EPO level (r = 0.528, P < 0.05). NAC treatment, contrary to expectations, did not significantly affect exercise performance. Our study has shown that 8-day NAC intake at a daily dose of 1,200 mg favours a pro-antioxidant status and affects haematological indices but does not enhance exercise performance. PMID:20354834
Zembron-Lacny, A; Slowinska-Lisowska, M; Szygula, Z; Witkowski, Z; Szyszka, K
Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were used to evaluate the effect of dietary fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, on growth, haematological and serum biochemical parameters. The fingerlings were sorted, weighed and randomly stocked in 16 plastic tanks at the rate of 20 fingerlings per tank. Fusarium-cultured maize grains containing FB1 were used to formulate three diets containing approximately 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg FB1/kg, constituting diets 2, 3, and 4 respectively. These three diets, plus diet 1, which contained non-Fusarium cultured maize grains that served as the control, were used in a 6-week feeding trial. The final weight gains by the fingerlings were significantly (P?0.05) influenced by FB1. The final weights of the fingerlings fed diets 2, 3 and 4 ranged from 70.07 to 87.10% of the controls. The haematocrit, erythrocytes, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the serum protein constituents (total protein, albumin and globulin) values significantly (P?0.05) decreased, while the leucocytes, MCV and MCH increased significantly (P?0.05) with increase in the dietary FB1. The total serum protein values of the fingerlings fed diets 2, 3 and 4 were 34.53, 39.42 and 50.17% lower than the total serum protein values of those fed the control diet. These results indicate that Fusarium-contaminated diets containing about 5.0 mg or more FB1/kg reduced weight gain and significantly altered haematological parameters and serum protein constituents in the fingerlings. These may have a significant impact on physiological activities and may be vital in immunosuppression in the fingerlings with a strong negative impact on subsequent performance of the fish. PMID:23605483
Gbore, Francis A; Adewole, Adeyemo M; Oginni, Olatunde; Oguntolu, Mercy F; Bada, Ayodeji M; Akele, Olatunbosun
The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...
Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…
Background The approval of epoetin biosimilars in the European Union requires extensive scientific evaluation and stringent regulatory procedures, including post-marketing studies. The ORHEO (place of biOsimilaRs in the therapeutic management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology) study was an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study performed in France to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetins for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA) in the clinical setting. Methods Patients >18 years with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for treatment with an epoetin biosimilar were included in this study. Patient characteristics were recorded at baseline along with anaemia-related information, such as observed and target Hb (as chosen by the treating clinician), brand and dose of epoetin biosimilar prescribed, and details of any other treatments. Patients were then followed-up at 3 and 6 months. The primary endpoint was Hb response (defined as Hb reaching ?10 g/dL, an increase of Hb ?1 g/dL since inclusion visit or reaching physician-defined target Hb, with no blood transfusions in the 3 weeks prior to measurement). Other endpoints included adverse events, achievement of target Hb and associated treatments. Results Overall, 2333 patients >18 years (mean age 66.5 years) with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for biosimilar epoetin treatment were included. 99.9% of patients received epoetin zeta (median dose 30,000 IU/week). Mean baseline Hb was 9.61 g/dL, with 35.6% of patients having moderate anaemia (Hb 8–9.5 g/dL). Hb response was achieved in 81.6% and 86.5% of patients at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall mean change in Hb level was 1.52?±?1.61 and 1.72?±?1.61 g/dL at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Transfusion and thromboembolic event rates were 9.4% and 2.4% at 3 months, and 5.8% and 1.5% at 6 months, respectively. Conclusions Epoetin zeta was effective and well tolerated in the management of CIA in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT02140736 (date of registration: 14 May 2014). PMID:25011615
Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.
Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.
Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.
Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.
This Topic in Depth explores the field of surface chemistry. First, the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry publicizes its members initiatives to "investigate the interaction of surfaces with fluids having molecular densities spanning the range from liquids to ultra-high vacuum" (1). Researchers can find out about upcoming meetings, awards, and membership opportunities. The second website presents Chalmers University of Technology's research activities in surfactants and microemulsions, environmental catalysis, fuels engineering, and metal working chemistry (2). Students and teachers can discover the basics of surface chemistry and its benefits to society. Next, University of Canterbury features its studies which "help in the development of portable devices in freshwater analysis, microelectrodes, chemically modified electrodes & biochips for sensors, nanoparticle assemblies for smart materials, [and] novel electrode material for catalysis of industrial processes" (3). Users can view posters detailing their research as well as articles describing the group's latest news and results. Fourth, the US Naval Research Lab describes its surface chemistry research interests, facilities, and its strengths (4). Individuals can find lists of the Lab's journal articles, reports, and technical papers. The fifth website, provided by the University of Virginia, addresses how the chemistry of aerogels makes them "attractive materials for use as catalysts, catalyst substrates, and adsorbents" (5). The website contains illustrations of the interaction between water and aerogel compounds. Sixth, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory presents its Ultra-high Vacuum (UHV) Surface Chemistry-High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) System capabilities to "study the molecular-level chemistry of adsorbates on metal oxide surfaces" (6 ). The website offers a concise overview of sample preparation, handling, and manipulation. Lastly, the University of Michigan provides links to in-depth discussions and informational images of the research projects of its four surface chemistry research groups (7). Researchers can find slide show presentations of the group's work, lists of its publications, and information on the individual researchers' education and work. [RME
Advisor: Advisee: I. Required core Chemistry Courses (1905 & 1925) Chemistry CH 111 PY 211 _____ PY 212 _____ (or PY 242 _____ or PY 252 ______) II. Chemistry Options (one required) 1905 (Concentration in Chemistry) Option A (2 advanced CH courses, 401 or higher, only one may
National Chemistry Week Theme: "Candy: The Sweet Side of Chemistry" Super Science Saturday Saturday-on chemistry and science demonstrations! All students & families are welcome! Fun & educational for all ages! Sponsored by: American Chemical Society LSU Department of Chemistry LSU Athletic Department Free admission
Organic Chemistry Laboratory I Â Spring 2014 Chemistry 341 Instructor Office Phone Email Office Text: Experimental Organic Chemistry - Gilbert & Martin (5th Ed.) Supplemental Text: (Chem. 340) Organic Chemistry Â McMurry (7th Ed.) Lectures are Mondays at 4 pm in Neckers 240 and Laboratories
Nickrent, Daniel L.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I: CHEMISTRY 360 SYLLABUS SPRING 2014 Classroom: SL104 Dr. Craig P. Jasperse of Carey's Organic Chemistry as used at NDSU, contact me in order to use what you have.) 2) Solutions Manual: "Solutions Manual, Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition OR 7th edition", by Simek, Wade Note
Jasperse, Craig P.
Legendre Functions Quantum Chemistry: Chemistry 180-345A In class we showed that the the angular Fall 2003 #12;Quantum Chemistry -2- Chemistry 180-345A which is divergent at x = Â±1 (i.e., at = 0 to normalize the wavefunction. Finally, returning to the more general case of m 0 we simply note
Ronis, David M.
CHEMISTRY 243: Introductory Physical Chemistry II. General Information Lectures: Monday & Wednesday, Inc., 2006) J.R. Barrante, Applied Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, 3rd edition (Pearson Education, Inc., 2004) Supplementary Texts 1. G. W. Castellan, Physical Chemistry 3rd edition (Benjamin Cummings
Ronis, David M.
This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.
Created by Professor Bruce M. Mattson, PhD, of Creighton University's Department of Chemistry, the Microscale Gas Chemistry Website "provides instructions for the generation of gases on a microscale level along with instructions for chemical demonstrations and student laboratory experiments with the gases." The no-frills site, designed for high school and university chemistry teachers, contains clear and careful instructions for experiments with carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, ethene, chlorine, carbon monoxide, and more. An introduction offers two low-tech methods for gas generation. Data pages for relevant gases are linked to each experiment.
The Materials Science group at Simon Fraser University (SFU) developed this website to address the group's primary research interests in material synthesis, molecular, electronics, and photonics. Visitors will find explanations covering sixteen research topics including chemical sensors, lithography, non-linear optics, and supramolecular chemistry. Under each topic heading, users will find links discussing the faculties' current goals, recent publications, and patents. The site also features links to the Pacific Centre for Advanced Materials and Microstructures; a collaborative effort between the Materials Science group at SFU and the physics and chemistry departments at the University of British Columbia. Anyone searching for the latest investigations in materials chemistry will find this website very informative.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) has created these excellent resources via the Green Chemistry Institute and the ACS Education Division. The goal of these materials is "to increase awareness and understanding of Green Chemistry principles, alternatives, practices, and benefits within traditional educational institutions and among practicing scientists." In the Online Resources section, visitors will find downloadable pocket guides to basic green chemistry principles, "Greener Education Materials for Chemists" from the University of Oregon, and more. Perhaps the best section of the site is Activities and Experiments, where visitors can look over activities like "Gassing Up Without Air Pollution" and "Cleaning Up With Atom Economy."
Part of the WWW Virtual Library, the Linux4Chemistry page is a metasite listing a variety of chemistry-related software available on the Web for Linux interface. The site is maintained by Nikodem Kuznik, an undergraduate at the Silesian Technical University in Gliwice, Poland. The list indicates whether the software is free, shareware, or commercial and gives brief descriptions of applications. A few of the programs listed are AllChem, AMMP molecular modeling program, CDA charge composition analysis, and Kmol molecular weight calculator. Besides the seemingly exhaustive list of Linux software for chemistry, this site also gives links to other software resources.
This case study looks at cocaine, including its addictive properties and the chemistry involved in the synthesis of the drug in its different forms. The lesson can be used to teach nucleophilic addition reactions, nucleophilic acyl substitution, and cocaine metabolism. The material was designed for use in an undergraduate organic chemistry course but could also be used in medicinal chemistry coursework. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.
The potential of incorporating three-quanta annihilation into positron emission tomography (PET) to detect local tissue chemistry was investigated using the GAMMASPHERE facility, which features a spherical array of 110 Compton-suppressed high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) containing F18 was introduced into 11 samples of haemolysed blood, serum, cell concentrate and whole blood, some of which had been either oxygenated or deoxygenated. The relative three-quanta yield was estimated from the reduced counts in the full-energy photopeak at 511 keV. Compton-suppression produced larger effects in the calculations than time-gating, suggesting its importance for this method of estimation. The relative three-quanta yields were found to vary as much as 11% between the samples. This level of sensitivity to different biological samples commends three-quanta annihilation for molecular imaging.
Chin, M. P. W.; Seweryniak, D.; Alkhorayef, M.; Spyrou, N. M.
Student Orientation Guide CHEM N3AL Organic Chemistry June 22-August 14, 2015 Organic Chemistry Understanding the Principles of Organic Chemistry, A Laboratory Experience by Steven F. Pedersen and Arlyn M. Myers. (ISBN: 9781111428167) Organic Chemistry Laboratory Notebook, by Steven F. Pedersen, Jesse H
1 Fall 2010 CHEMISTRY 324W ORGANIC LABORATORY Course Information Title: Chemistry 324W, Organic a scientific paper consistent with the format of the Journal of Organic Chemistry, American Chemical Society. 7 of Organic Chemistry format. #12;2 Experiment sources: While the text for this course is an excellent guide
CHE 325 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II Spring 2012 Instructor: Professor James Kallmerten 4-014A Center: Carey and Giuliano, "Organic Chemistry" 8th Edition "Solutions Manual for Organic Chemistry" Molecular of a two-semester sequence presenting a foundational introduction to the science of organic chemistry
Class activities and independent projects for high school students using household plastic wraps can help students understand more about the chemistry of everyday objects. The activities described in this article reinforce one of the fundamental principle
Jeffrey M. Pristera
Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)
Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric
CAChe software is used for computational chemistry. It is simple to use and is therefore suitable for educational endeavors. Different versions include molecular mechanics, semiempirical, and density functional theory (DFT) methods of calculation.
David N. Blauch
The Chemistry Hypermedia Project was started by Professor Brian Tissue of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1993. One of the goals stated for the site is to use the Internet to provide supplemental educational resources to chemistry students. That's accomplished by providing a large collection of hypermedia indices, which are online tutorials on various chemistry topics such as analytical chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and many others. Additional activities for students include self-paced tutorials that give students practice with equilibrium problems and a section on analytical spectroscopy. Although the student sections are a bit unorganized, the site does gives a lot of good information that kids can use to help understand these often confusing topics.
Any aspect of forensic science can be quite tricky, and educators will be delighted to learn about this helpful educational resource designed just for them. Created by Professor Robert Thompson of Oberlin College this online forensic chemistry lab manual is designed to help chemistry faculty in developing forensic chemistry project laboratories for both undergraduate and graduate courses. In this manual, visitors will find sample preparations, procedural details, instructions for students, and typical results in a variety of formats. Along the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors can look through the forensic chemistry analyses, which include explosives, fabric, glass, and arson. The site is rounded out by a selection of "Stories", which are meant to provide the background for chemical analyses of crime scene samples.
Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)
Kybett, B. D.
An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)
Patnoe, Richard L.
The Royal Society of Chemistry has created this most useful website to help teachers and students of chemistry learn about the field via interactive experiments, diagrams, animations, and so on. The site includes over 3,300 resources. Visitors can get started by using the Resource Type tab. Here they can browse through ten different headings, including Worksheet, Quiz, Tutorial, and Podcast. The Experiments area is quite wonderful, as it includes over 340 different experiments that can be conducted in the classroom. A few highlights in this area include "Challenging Medicines: Making Medicines," "The Salt Cellar Mystery," and "Which solution is which?" Overall, it's a tremendous site and one that visitors will want to share with friends.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies in a non-randomised trial (n = 36, intervention group; n = 129, control group). Art therapy was administered over a period of 22 weeks in small groups. Post-traumatic growth was measured with the Stress-Related Growth Scale. After controlling for the effect of potential confounders, no difference in post-traumatic growth was observed between the intervention and control groups after 22 weeks. There was no evidence for an effect of weekly group sessions with art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23027781
Singer, Susanne; Götze, Heide; Buttstädt, Marianne; Ziegler, Corinna; Richter, Robert; Brown, Anna; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dorst, Jana; Jäkel, Nadja; Geue, Kristina
Some significant results are collected with a view to ascertain whether a Darwinian chemical evolution is at work in chemistry\\u000a and, if so, to define its specific characters. To this aim prebiotic chemistry, homochirality; chemical reactions and emergence\\u000a of new properties are considered. The Darwinian process of mutation by chance, selection and replication appears to translate\\u000a into chemical exploration of
Gian Paolo Chiusoli
The featured molecules this month come from the paper Using "Basic Principles" To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies by Jeffrey Seeman detailing some of the complexities involved in the volatilization of two alkaloids, nicotine and cocaine. Students could be asked to identify how chemistry is involved in the various steps described in the paper, and most beginning students will be surprised to learn just how complex a process the volatilization of a molecule such as nicotine is.
Aura is the EOS chemistry mission which aims to answer three important questions: is the ozone layer recovering, is air quality getting worse, and is the Earth's climate changing? Aura will continue the long term series of atmospheric chemistry measurements made by earlier missions. The Aura spacecraft operates in a 705 km sun-synchronous polar orbit, with an ascending equator crossing at 1:45 PM. On the site, visitors will find an overview of the mission, documentation, tools, links, and FAQs.
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.
The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833
Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin
Influence of esterified-glucomannan on performance and organ morphology, serum biochemistry and haematology in broilers exposed to individual and combined mycotoxicosis (aflatoxin, ochratoxin and T-2 toxin)
1. A study was conducted to evaluate the individual and combined effects of aflatoxin B 1 (AF), ochratoxin A (OA) and T-2 toxin (T-2) on performance, organ morphology, serum biochemistry and haematology of broiler chickens and the efficacy of esterified-glucomannan (E-GM), a cell wall derivative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1026 in their counteraction. 2. Two dietary inclusion rates of AF (0
M. V. L. N. Raju; G. Devegowda
1. The study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SC) on haematological parameters, immune function, and the antioxidant defence system in breeder hens fed a diet contaminated with low level aflatoxin (AF).2. Forty-eight Ross 308 breeder hens were fed on diets containing AF (0 or 100?µg\\/kg) and SC (0 or 1?g\\/kg) in a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement.
E. Matur; E. Ergul; I. Akyazi; E. Eraslan; G. Inal; S. Bilgic; H. Demircan
Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and symptomatic seizures are in need of a sufficient antiepileptic treatment. Haematological toxicity is a limiting side effect of both, first line radio-chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and co-medication with antiepileptic drugs. Valproic acid (VPA) and levetiracetam (LEV) are considered favourable agents in brain tumor patients with seizures, but are commonly reported to induce haematological side effects on their own. We hypothesized, that antiepileptic treatment with these agents has no increased impact on haematological side effects during radio-chemotherapy in the first line setting. We included 104 patients from two neuro-oncologic centres with GBM and standard radio-chemotherapy in a retrospective cohort study. Patients were divided according to their antiepileptic treatment with either VPA, LEV or without antiepileptic drug therapy (control group). Declines in haemoglobin levels and absolute blood cell counts for neutrophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and thrombocytes were analyzed twice during concomitant and once during adjuvant phase. A comparison between the examined groups was performed, using a linear mixed model. Neutrophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and thrombocytes significantly decreased over time in all three groups (all p < 0.012), but there was no significant difference between the compared groups. A significant decline in haemoglobin was observed in the LEV treated group (p = 0.044), but did not differ between the compared groups. As a novel finding, this study demonstrates that co-medication either with VPA or LEV in GBM patients undergoing first line radio-chemotherapy with TMZ has no additional impact on medium-term haematological toxicity. PMID:25359262
Tinchon, Alexander; Oberndorfer, Stefan; Marosi, Christine; Gleiss, Andreas; Geroldinger, Angelika; Sax, Cornelia; Sherif, Camillo; Moser, Walter; Grisold, Wolfgang
Summary We describe haematological and DNA characterization of haemoglobinopathies in Thai adolescents caused by compound heterozygosities for Hb E (b26(B8) Glu-Lys) and two other b-globin chain variants, Hb Pyrgos (b83(EF7) Gly-Asp) and Hb J Bangkok (b56(D7) Gly- Asp). Hb analysis demonstrated that although these two b-chain variants have separated elution profiles on liquid chromatography-based Hb analysis, they have similar alkaline
S. FUCHAROEN; S. SINGSANAN; K. SANCHAISURIYA; G. FUCHAROEN
The study aimed at determining the effect of inulin and\\/or a multispecies probiotic formulation on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) morphology, immunological and haematological parameters. Forty-eight newly weaned piglets were assigned to four feeding groups, receiving a standard basal diet (control), supplemented with 0.4% inulin, probiotics (1 · 10 CFU\\/kg as fed, enterococci, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria) or a combination of both (synbiotic). After four weeks
Christiane Mair; Christian Plitzner; Michael W. Pfaffl; Karl Schedle; Heinrich H. D. Meyer; Wilhelm Windisch
R306465 is a novel hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with broad-spectrum antitumour activity against solid and haematological malignancies in preclinical models. R306465 was found to be a potent inhibitor of HDAC1 and -8 (class I) in vitro. It rapidly induced histone 3 (H3) acetylation and strongly upregulated expression of p21waf1,cip1, a downstream component of HDAC1 signalling, in A2780 ovarian carcinoma
J Arts; P Angibaud; A Mariën; W Floren; B Janssens; P King; J van Dun; L Janssen; T Geerts; R W Tuman; D L Johnson; L Andries; M Jung; M Janicot; K van Emelen
Blood samples were obtained from clinically normal captive adult kori bustards (Ardeotis kori) in order to establish normal reference blood chemistry values for the species. Twenty-four different tests were conducted using a Kodak Ektachem DT II dry-chemistry system. A comparison of the values obtained was made with those of two sub-species of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii and Chlamydotis undulata undulata) and the great bustard (Otis tarda), and showed some similarities between the different species. The results obtained from this study provide the first set of published data for normal blood chemistry of the kori bustard. PMID:18645847
D'aloia, M A; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A; Naldo, J; Howlett, J C
Effect of a Probiotic Containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis and Ferroin Solution on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Haematological Parameters in Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) Fry.
This study aimed to assess the efficacy of BioPlus 2B, a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis and Ferroin solution on growth performance, body composition and haematological parameters in kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, fry. The fish were fed dry pellets containing various ratios of probiotics and Ferroin for 60 days after absorption of the yolk sac. At the end of the trial, growth indices (final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, daily growth rate, food conversion ratio and condition factor), body composition (crude protein, crude lipid, ash and moisture) and haematological parameters [haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NEUTR), lymphocytes (LYM), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)] were assessed. Regarding body composition, total protein levels were higher, and ash, moisture and lipid levels were lower in fish receiving the probiotic and Ferroin treatments compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Fish receiving diets supplemented with probiotics and Ferroin solution showed significantly better growth than those fed the basal diet (control). RBC, Hct, Hb, MCV, MCH and LYM were all highest in fish fed probiotic (1.6 × 10(9) CFU/g dry pellet) + Ferroin solution (7 mg/kg dry pellet) + dry pellets. These results indicate that the combination of probiotic and Ferroin solution represents an effective dietary supplement for improving carcass quality, growth performance and haematological parameters in kutum fry. PMID:25431124
Azarin, Hajar; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza; Rajabpour, Mina
Despite the burden of illness associated with haematological cancers, little research is available about improving psychosocial outcomes for this group. Given scarce research funds, it is important to ensure that resources are used strategically for improving their psychosocial well-being. This study aimed to identify the perceptions of professionals, patients and carers regarding prioritising psychosocial research efforts. First, an expert panel's views on priorities for research were identified. This was followed by a web survey to obtain the perceptions of 117 health professionals, patients and carers. The value-weighting survey used points allocation, allowing respondents to indicate the relative priority of each option. A substantial proportion of resources were allocated to patients who were newly diagnosed or receiving treatment. Less priority was given to other stages of the cancer journey or non-patient populations. There was no indication that any type of psychosocial research was a priority; however, some differences were identified when comparing the priorities of the three respondent groups. To improve psychosocial outcomes for haematological cancer patients, resources should be directed towards patients in the early stages of the cancer journey. There may be a need for research investigating potential interventions to improve psychosocial outcomes for patients with haematological cancers. PMID:21414052
Paul, CL; Sanson-Fisher, R; Douglas, HE; Clinton-Mcharg, T; Williamson, A; Barker, D
Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.27×10?9) in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3) in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3), while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3). However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis) and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma). Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve?=?0.842). Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein using GWAS. The results may also provide an explanation for the reported pleiotropy and antagonistic effects of loci involved in autoimmune diseases and haematological cancer. PMID:23382691
Mužini?, Ana; Novokmet, Mislav; Polašek, Ozren; Gornik, Olga; Krišti?, Jasminka; Keser, Toma; Vitart, Veronique; Scheijen, Blanca; Uh, Hae-Won; Molokhia, Mariam; Patrick, Alan Leslie; McKeigue, Paul; Kol?i?, Ivana; Luki?, Ivan Krešimir; Swann, Olivia; van Leeuwen, Frank N.; Ruhaak, L. Renee; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Deelder, André M.; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Wuhrer, Manfred; Wright, Alan F.; Rudan, Igor
Background: Greater adiposity and height have been associated with increased risk of haematological malignancies. Associations for disease subtypes are uncertain. Methods: A cohort of 1.3 million middle-aged UK women was recruited in 1996–2001 and followed for 10 years on average. Potential risk factors were assessed by questionnaire. Death, emigration, and incident cancer were ascertained by linkage to national registers. Adjusted relative risks were estimated by Cox regression. Results: During follow-up, 9162 participants were diagnosed with lymphatic or haematopoietic cancers. Each 10?kg?m?2 increase in body mass index was associated with relative risk of 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.13–1.28) for lymphoid and 1.37 (1.22–1.53) for myeloid malignancy (P=0.06 for heterogeneity); similarly, Hodgkin lymphoma 1.64 (1.21–2.21), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 1.36 (1.17–1.58), plasma cell neoplasms 1.21 (1.06–1.39), acute myeloid leukaemia 1.47 (1.19–1.81), and myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndromes 1.32 (1.15–1.52). Each 10?cm increase in height was associated with relative risk of 1.21 (1.16–1.27) for lymphoid and 1.11 (1.02–1.21) for myeloid malignancy (P=0.07 for heterogeneity); similarly, mature T-cell malignancies 1.36 (1.03–1.79), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 1.28 (1.14–1.43), follicular lymphoma 1.28 (1.13–1.44), plasma cell neoplasms 1.12 (1.01–1.24), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma 1.23 (1.08–1.40), and acute myeloid leukaemia 1.22 (1.04–1.42). There was no significant heterogeneity between subtypes. Conclusion: In middle-aged women, greater body mass index and height were associated with modestly increased risks of many subtypes of haematological malignancy. PMID:23640394
Murphy, F; Kroll, M E; Pirie, K; Reeves, G; Green, J; Beral, V
Chemistry Student Handbook College of Science React. Science #12;Contents 2 Welcome to the Department of Chemistry 2 Course Advice 3 What is Chemistry? 4 Career Profiles in Chemistry 5 An Undergraduate Degree in Chemistry 6 Chemistry Streams 13 Chemistry Honours Programme 14 Research
It has long been recognized that shock compression of condensed matter can generate chemical reactions. The best-known examples of this are the reactions that release energy during the detonation of a high explosive. Despite this, very little is known about molecular processes occurring behind the shock front in a condensed phase. I will describe a domain of ``extreme chemistry'' that is of particular interest and relevance. Extreme chemistry occurs when temperatures are comparable to molecular bond energies, and when molecular bond energies are strongly modified by pressure. In this region the notions of conventional chemistry must be completely rethought. I will review extreme chemistry in several contexts: the reactions of shocked liquids and plastics, reactions of detonating high explosives, and reactions under static compression. In the area of shocked liquids and plastics, I will ask whether traditional shock Hugoniot measurements can provide any information on underlying chemistry. For high explosives, I will discuss the nature of reactions at the Chapman-Jouget state. Finally, I will discuss the discovery of a novel superionic phase of water and a symmetric hydrogen bonded phase of formic acid under static compression. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy for haematological malignancy. Much of these adverse outcomes are due to the limited ability of traditional diagnostic tests (i.e. culture and histology) to make an early and accurate diagnosis. As persistent or recurrent fevers of unknown origin (PFUO) in neutropenic patients despite broad-spectrum antibiotics have been associated with the development of IFD, most centres have traditionally administered empiric antifungal therapy (EAFT) to patients with PFUO. However, use of an EAFT strategy has not been shown to have an overall survival benefit and is associated with excessive antifungal therapy use. As a result, the focus has shifted to developing more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for early and more targeted antifungal treatment. These tests, including the galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have enabled the development of diagnostic-driven antifungal treatment (DDAT) strategies, which have been shown to be safe and feasible, reducing antifungal usage. In addition, the development of effective antifungal prophylactic strategies has changed the landscape in terms of the incidence and types of IFD that clinicians have encountered. In this review, we examine the current role of EAFT and provide up-to-date data on the newer diagnostic tests and algorithms available for use in EAFT and DDAT strategies, within the context of patient risk and type of antifungal prophylaxis used. PMID:25482742
Morrissey, C O; Gilroy, N M; Macesic, N; Walker, P; Ananda-Rajah, M; May, M; Heath, C H; Grigg, A; Bardy, P G; Kwan, J; Kirsa, S W; Slavin, M; Gottlieb, T; Chen, S
Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is applied to consolidate first remission in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). However, outcome after ASCT widely varies among AML patients. We analyzed the prognostic significance of haematological recovery for neutrophils [absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1·0 × 10(9) /l] and platelets (platelet count >20·0 × 10(9) /l), stratifying at day 20 after ASCT in 88 consecutive and homogeneously treated AML patients in first remission. We observed that patients with delayed recovery had better overall survival (OS; ANC: P < 0·0001 and platelets: P = 0·0062) and time to progression (TTP; ANC: P = 0·0003 and platelets: P = 0·0125). Delayed recovery was an independent marker for better OS and TTP in a multivariate analysis including age, gender, number of transfused CD34+ cells, cytogenetics, FLT3-internal tandem duplication and NPM1 mutation. Our results suggest that delayed neutrophil and platelet recovery is associated with longer OS and TTP in AML patients consolidated with ASCT in first remission. PMID:25212255
Wetzel, Dana; Mueller, Beatrice U; Mansouri Taleghani, Behrouz; Baerlocher, Gabriela M; Seipel, Katja; Leibundgut, Kurt; Pabst, Thomas
Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2?mg/kg feed. The fish (n = 40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225??g/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964??g/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P < 0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P < 0.05), and ammonia (P < 0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967
Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of urea-treated fibrous diets on the intake, nutrient digestibility, performance and haematological parameters of Yankasa rams. A total of 48 Yankasa rams (BW 10.00 ± 1.50 kg; 6-8 months old) were allocated into four treatment groups in a completely randomised design (12 rams per treatment). Animals were placed on complete rations of yam peels, maize bran and rice husk treated with 0, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0% urea. The experiment lasted for 18 weeks. Yankasa rams fed with urea-treated diets had higher feed intake (949.88 and 938.04 g/day for U?? and U??, respectively), daily weight gain (227.67 and 181.00 g/day for U?? and U??, respectively) and better feed conversion ratio (4.17 and 5.18 for U?? and U??, respectively). Rams on urea-treated diets had higher haemoglobin and red blood cell contents and higher weight gains, indicating that urea treatment enhanced nutrient supply and utilisation at the tissue level. It was concluded that urea treatment of fibrous farm by-products is a promising feeding strategy especially during the dry season when there is scarcity of high-quality forages. Addition of 1.5% urea to roughage diets and farm by-products to form a total mixed ration may preclude the search for supplements. PMID:23397549
Alabi, John Olushola; Arigbede, Moses; Ng'ambi, Jones; Norris, David; Shiawoya, Emma; Onyekachi, Sunday
1. Haematological analysis was performed in young and adult non-pregnant, non-lactating, early and late pregnant, early mid- and late lactating Danish landrace goats from five herds. The purpose was to determine whether their levels are significantly different in these states and the effect of age and parity on the changes. 2. The haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, number of erythrocytes and leukocytes were higher in 8-12 month old non-pregnant and 1-2 year old pregnant goats than in adult pregnant and lactating goats of over 2 years of age. Haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and the number of erythrocytes decreased in late pregnancy and early lactation. 3. At the same time mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration slightly increased. 4. The changes were directly proportional to parity, more in pluriparous than in primiparous goats. 5. After parturition the former group of parameters increased and the latter decreased. 6. There was an increase in the number of total leukocytes close to and after parturition due to neutrophils and lymphocytes and it was more pronounced in the first lactation than in pluriparous goats. 7. There were significant differences in many parameters between goats from different herds (within similar physiological states). PMID:1799982
Mbassa, G K; Poulsen, J S
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is an expensive lifesaving procedure, which is increasingly performed in patients with haematological diseases. Developments in the protocol for SCT have resulted in cost estimates that require updating. We aimed to calculate actual costs for SCT and to identify major cost drivers by means of a daily practice cost study. We randomly selected 191 patients, treated at three university hospitals, who underwent an autologous (auto) SCT or allogeneic (allo) SCT in 2007, 2008 or 2009. Allo-SCT included sibling donors, matched unrelated donors (MUD) and umbilical cord blood (UCB). Resource use was collected from the hospital registration systems and medical files. The total costs included selection and harvesting of stem cells, transplantation and 1-year follow-up. The average costs per patient were 45,670 € for auto-SCT and 101,919 € for sibling allo-SCT. The costs of transplantations from unrelated donors were much higher: 171,478 € for allo-SCT-MUD and 254,689 € for allo-SCT-UCB. Hospital inpatient days together with laboratory and other activities were the main cost drivers across all types of SCT. Besides, donor search costs were a large cost component in allo-SCT-sib (18 %) and allo-SCT-MUD (12 %). Real-world costs were above routine reimbursement and appropriate financing is necessary to guarantee the continuation of SCT. The costs calculated in this study provide reliable up-to-date input for cost-effectiveness studies and budget revision. PMID:22864761
Blommestein, H M; Verelst, S G R; Huijgens, P C; Blijlevens, N M A; Cornelissen, J J; Uyl-de Groot, C A
The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000?mg/kg?bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549
Onu, A.; Saidu, Y.; Ladan, M. J.; Bilbis, L. S.; Aliero, A. A.; Sahabi, S. M.
Have you ever wondered about the chemistry of a cheeseburger? Well you are in luck because that is one of the subjects covered on the topical and delightful "Chemistry" section of the popular Science360 website. As it states on the site, "everything you hear, see, taste, smell and touch involves chemistry and chemicals", and here visitors can watch videos and learn about the molecular structure of water, the science behind glass blowing, and how a curious mud-like mixture is being used to soak up oil spills and insulate homes. Currently, there are about fifteen videos on the site, and visitors can sign up via a host of social media (Twitter, Facebook, and so on), to stay abreast of new additions to the site. Teachers will find that this material can be integrated into the classroom quite easily, and everyone else will just enjoy wandering through these offerings.
Global environmental changes are occurring all around us, and the energy industry is a major player in the changes that are taking place. Wise energy policy can only be generated from a position of informed enlightenment and understanding about the environmental consequences of energy production and utilization. The atmospheric chemistry research being conducted at the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research is geared toward providing the knowledge necessary to allow industrial and legislative officials to make responsible energy decisions in the 1990's and beyond. Three programs are described: the Kentucky Acid Deposition Program Precipitation chemistry network; modeling of regional and urban photochemistry and acid deposition; and modeling of global tropospheric chemistry.
Saylor, R.D. (Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (USA))
Young people and others should know about the foundations of modern chemistry and this novel site from the Nuffield Foundation provides a nice mixture of resources to accomplish this goal. The Foundation partnered with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) to create this trove, which visitors will find easy to use and navigate. As the authors describe it, these practical activities are designed to "enable students to apply and extend their knowledge and understanding of chemistry in novel investigative situations." It's important to browse the Topics area, as this contains sections like States of Matter, Bonding, structure, properties, Analysis, Energy and entropy, and The Earth and atmosphere. The great thing about these activities is that they are self-contained, and they require only a modest investment in actual materials and educational background. Finally, the Standard Techniques area will help visitors learn some lab basics, including the heating of various substances, using thermometers properly, and the correct use of a Bunsen burner.
This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.
The results of a chemical model of SO, CS, and OCS chemistry in dense clouds are summarized. The results are obtained from a theoretical study of sulfur chemistry in dense interstellar clouds using a large-scale time-dependent model of gas-phase chemistry. Among the results are the following: (1) owing to activation energy, the reaction of CS with O atoms is efficient as a loss mechanism of CS during the early phases of cloud evolution or in hot and oxygen-rich sources such as the KL nebula; (2) if sulfur is not abnormally depleted in dense clouds, then the observed abundances of SO, SO2, H2S, CS, OCS, H2CS, and SiS indicate that sulfur is mostly atomic in dense clouds; and (3) OCS is stable against reactions with neutral atoms and radicals in dense clouds.
Prasad, S. S.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.
Free-electron induced chemistry Theoretical Chemistry Section, BARC, Mumbai Chemical reactions in chemical physics and biophysics. The central quantity in the theoretical description of such chemical, I shall present the quantum chemical methodologies for computing the potential energy surfaces
This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and cellular analysis. Microfluidics will impact digital biology and chemistry and will also benefit from them if it becomes massively distributed. PMID:24889331
Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F
In this chapter, the chemical properties of the man-made transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf (element 104), dubnium, Db (element 105), seaborgium, Sg (element 106), bohrium, Bh (element 107), hassium, Hs (element 108), and copernicium, Cn (element 112) are reviewed, and prospects for chemical characterizations of even heavier elements are discussed. The experimental methods to perform rapid chemical separations on the time scale of seconds are presented and comments are given on the special situation with the transactinides where chemistry has to be studied with single atoms. It follows a description of theoretical predictions and selected experimental results on the chemistry of elements 104 through 108, and element 112.
Kratz, J. V.
Produced by Kenneth Barbalace with help from Roberta and Julia Barbalace, the EnvironmentalChemistry.com website supplies innumerable environmental, chemistry, and hazardous materials information and resources. Under the Environmental Issues header, students can learn about the chemical and physical properties of asbestos, the Chernobyl disaster, and the proper way to handle household chemicals. One of the newest additions to the website is the Emergency Response Guidebook, which is used during a Dangerous goods / Hazardous Materials incident. The numerous, in-depth chemical resources include a directory of common chemicals used in industry and household products, an article explaining the structure of atoms, and a periodic table with data on elements' properties.
Our work in chemistry and materials science exemplifies disciplinary research and programmatic support. The disciplinary research is intended to sharpen the skills of our scientists, advance the frontiers of scientific knowledge, and provide the seeds for programs of the future. The programmatic support provides the very best scientific and engineering talent for Laboratory programs and offers the potential for new program areas. We are convinced that chemistry and materials science will be key to the future success of the Laboratory whatever its mission, and we are firmly committed to supporting this mission with the very best in scientific talent.
Parallel hardware has become readily available to the computational chemistry research community. This perspective will review the current state of parallel computational chemistry software utilizing high-performance parallel computing platforms. Hardware and software trends and their effect on quantum chemistry methodologies, algorithms, and software development will also be discussed. PMID:20532308
de Jong, Wibe A; Bylaska, Eric; Govind, Niranjan; Janssen, Curtis L; Kowalski, Karol; Müller, Thomas; Nielsen, Ida M B; van Dam, Hubertus J J; Veryazov, Valera; Lindh, Roland
Describes a novel modeling and simulation package and assesses its impact on students' understanding of chemistry. Connected Chemistry was implemented inside the NetLogo modeling environment. Using Connected Chemistry, students employed problem -solving techniques characterized by stronger attempts at conceptual understanding and logical…
Stieff, Mike; Wilensky, Uri
For the year 2001 the theme of National Chemistry Week, the American Chemical Society’s annual outreach program, is “Celebrating Chemistry and Art.” Various examples of chemists who also made contributions to music, literature, and poetry are presented. The relationship of chemistry to such visual arts as painting, sculpture, photography, and art conservation is discussed. Useful resource articles are also cited.
George B. Kauffman
Illinois Chemistry 247 Analytical Chemistry #12;Institute of Technology Fall 2011 Instructor: Prof: Analytical Chemistry (CHEM 247) focuses on the use of analytical techniques to quantify the components and electroanalytical techniques 7. Spectroscopy: molecular (UV-Vis), fluorescence, and AA 8. Analytical separations
... NICHD Publications Scientific Research Planning Scientific Resources Research Clinical Trials & Clinical Research Skip sharing on social media links ... their behavior or samples of their tissue. A clinical trial is one type of clinical research that follows ...
These European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and European Confederation of Medical Mycology Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis. Only a few of the numerous recommendations can be summarized here. To diagnose mucormycosis, direct microscopy preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended. Pathogen identification to species level by molecular methods and susceptibility testing are strongly recommended to establish epidemiological knowledge. The recommendation for guiding treatment based on MICs is supported only marginally. Imaging is strongly recommended to determine the extent of disease. To differentiate mucormycosis from aspergillosis in haematological malignancy and stem cell transplantation recipients, identification of the reverse halo sign on computed tomography is advised with moderate strength. For adults and children we strongly recommend surgical debridement in addition to immediate first-line antifungal treatment with liposomal or lipid-complex amphotericin B with a minimum dose of 5 mg/kg/day. Amphotericin B deoxycholate is better avoided because of severe adverse effects. For salvage treatment we strongly recommend posaconazole 4×200 mg/day. Reversal of predisposing conditions is strongly recommended, i.e. using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in haematological patients with ongoing neutropenia, controlling hyperglycaemia and ketoacidosis in diabetic patients, and limiting glucocorticosteroids to the minimum dose required. We recommend against using deferasirox in haematological patients outside clinical trials, and marginally support a recommendation for deferasirox in diabetic patients. Hyperbaric oxygen is supported with marginal strength only. Finally, we strongly recommend continuing treatment until complete response demonstrated on imaging and permanent reversal of predisposing factors. PMID:24479848
Cornely, O A; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Dannaoui, E; Groll, A H; Lagrou, K; Chakrabarti, A; Lanternier, F; Pagano, L; Skiada, A; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Boekhout, T; Chowdhary, A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Freiberger, T; Guinea, J; Guarro, J; de Hoog, S; Hope, W; Johnson, E; Kathuria, S; Lackner, M; Lass-Flörl, C; Lortholary, O; Meis, J F; Meletiadis, J; Muñoz, P; Richardson, M; Roilides, E; Tortorano, A M; Ullmann, A J; van Diepeningen, A; Verweij, P; Petrikkos, G
Describes how the synthesis of urea, 150 years ago, was a major factor in breaking the artificial barrier that existed between organic and inorganic chemistry, and this contributed to the rapid growth of organic chemistry. (GA)
Benfey, Otto Theodor; Kaufman, George B.
Discusses the chemistry of comets. How comets provide clues to the birth of the solar system, photolytic reactions on comets involving water, chemical modeling, nuclear chemistry, and research findings are among the areas considered. (JN)
A'Hearn, Michael F.
Reviews the recently established curriculum for teaching chemistry in the Soviet Union. Examines guidelines for teaching methodology. Also looks at basic pupil knowledge and skills in several different areas of chemistry. (RKM)
Ivanova, R. G.
Spring 2013 CHEMISTRY 691 LASERS AND RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES #12;LASERS #12;3 THE WORD "LASER irradiated (A). It is a concept of central importance in laser safety. The symbol for irradiance is "E SAFETY STANDARDS The primary laser safety standard in use today is the ANSI Z- 136.5 The standard can
Rhode Island, University of
Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...
A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…
Hites, Ronald A.
Gives an overview of the World Wide Web, describes what is required to access it, and highlights some of the features of interest to chemists such as Web-based chemical databases that feature user-interactive molecular structures and chemical movies. Lists Internet chemistry resources designed for Web browsers and locations for obtaining Web…
Mounts, Richard D.
Topics addressed in this review of chemistry in the troposphere (layer of atmosphere extending from earth's surface to altitude of 10-16km) include: solar radiation/winds; earth/atmosphere interface; kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions; tropospheric free-radical photochemistry; instruments for nitric oxide detection; sampling…
Chameides, William L.; Davis, Douglas D.
This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…
Jenkins, David; And Others
A wonderful way to engage science students is to make them think a demonstration is not turning out the way the instructor intended. Basically, throw a little humor into teaching, and they will be hooked. Described in this article is a demonstration that uses Milk of Magnesia (MOM) as a visual and humorous method to review equilibrium chemistry…
The 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded jointly to William E. Moerner, Stefan W. Hell, and Eric Betzig "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy." I discuss the contributions made by this year's awardees and how advances in understanding the behavior of fluorophores and research in light microscopy converged to allow the improved visualization of biological structures. PMID:25480287
Stelzer, Ernst H K
Complex organic molecules that are stable against radiation may pervade interstellar space, with their degradation products a source of those molecules observed. The connexion between biological and interstellar organic chemistry is, however, analogical rather than substantive, and the prospect for interstellar biology is dim. This article is based on Professor Sagan's contribution to a symposium at the National Radio Astronomy
This article describes the structure and content of a one-semester course dealing with chemistry, science, and technology designed for nonscience majors. The course uses a hybrid of two active learning methodologies--problem-based team learning and the cas
Dinan, Frank J.
The special issue on Greener and Sustainable Chemistry highlights various strategies that can be adopted to address the pollution preventive measures promoting the use of energy efficient reactions that utilize benign and bio-renewable raw materials in a relatively safer reaction...
ACD provides a large set of chemistry software. ChemSketch and Chem 3-D include freely downloadable versions. ChemSketch can be used for drawing and publishing chemical structures; Chem 3-D can be used for three dimensional visualization, and includes a molecular mechanics geometry optimizer.
This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, describes how basic chemistry and biochemistry research can spur a better understanding of human health. It reveals how networks of chemical reactions keep our bodies running smoothly. Some of the tools and technologies used to explore these reactions are…
National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.
"COMETS on Careers" describes science-related careers, introduces activities illustrating a science concept being studied, and encourages use of professional persons as activity leaders. Several COMETS chemistry activities are described. These activities, which can be performed in school or at home, focus on colloids, acid/base indicators, and…
Smith, Walter S.
Plasma deposition and plasma conversion can be characterized by five steps: pro- duction by ionization, transfer of chemistry to precursors, transport of radicals to the surface, surface interactions with deposition, recirculation and generation of new monomers. For very fast deposition, large flows of radicals are needed and a regime is reached, in which mono- layer coverage is reached in a
Daniel C. Schram
The growing field of applications of plasma as deposition, etching, surface modification and chemical conversion has stimulated a renewed interest in plasma science in the atomic physical chemistry regime. The necessity to optimize the various plasma processing techniques in terms of rates, and material properties has made it mandatory to take a new look at the various processes, as fragmentation,
D C Schram; J A M van der Mullen; M C M van de Sanden
A unit is presented for the secondary school teacher of physics, chemistry, astronomy, or earth sciences. Included are a list of reference materials, teaching aids, and projects. Discussion questions and a glossary are also provided. Concepts developed are: the nature of interstellar space, spectroscopy, molecular signals from space and interstellar molecules and other areas of astronomy.
Gammon, R. H.
Presents an activity that involves making peanut butter in the laboratory as a way to teach students the chemistry concepts of emulsification, solubility, and formulation. Enables students to realize that they can actually create or modify the physical and sensory characteristics of peanut butter and taste the differences in their work. (JRH)
Rupnow, John; And Others
Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)
The use of chemometrics in electroanalytical chemistry is not as popular as in spectroscopy, although recently, application of these methods for mathematical resolution of overlapping signals, calibration and model identification have been increasing. Self-modelling curve resolution and multivariate analysis have been shown to be very powerful for in the analysis of electroanalytical data, especially for multianalyte calibration and modelling in
M. Esteban; C. Ariño; J. M. Díaz-Cruz
This booklet is part of an American Astronomical Society curriculum project designed to provide teaching materials to teachers of secondary school chemistry, physics, and earth science. The following topics are covered: the physical conditions in interstellar space in comparison with those of the earth, particularly in regard to gas density,…
Gammon, Richard H.
This site from the University of Michigan provides links to in-depth discussions and informational images of the research projects of its four surface chemistry research groups. Visitors to the site can find slide show presentations of the group's work, lists of its publications, and information on the individual researchers' education and work.
The chemistry and mineralogy of the sulfate-rich sandstone outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Mars, have been inferred from data obtained by the Opportunity rover of the MER mission and reported in recent publications [1-6]. Here, we provide an update on more recent samples and results derived from this extensive data set.
Clark, B. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A.; Gellert, R.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.
In this chemistry activity, learners perform three chemical reactions in a sealed zip-top bag. Learners will record their observations and classify the changes as chemical or physical. This resource includes questions for answers to help learners interpret their observations and better understand chemical reactions. The answers to these questions are included on the resource guide.
The Science House
This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable chemistry reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.
Virginia Tech Chemistry Department GRADUATE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES "The Orange Book" Blacksburg, Virginia August 2012 #12;2 Non-Discrimination Statement Virginia Tech does not discriminate against (http://www.hr.vt.edu/). Diversity Statement Â The Virginia Tech Principles of Community We affirm
Crawford, T. Daniel
The development of syringes having free movement while remaining gas-tight enabled methods in chemistry to be changed. Successfully containing and measuring volumes of gas without the need to trap them using liquids made it possible to work with smaller quantities. The invention of the LuerLok syringe cap also allowed the gas to be stored for a…
Mattson, Bruce; Anderson, Michael P.
Chemistry & Biology Brief Communication Natural ProductÂGuided Discovery of a Fungal Chitinase: email@example.com DOI 10.1016/j.chembiol.2010.07.018 SUMMARY Natural products are often large as a fungal natural product. It competitively inhibits family 18 chitinases by mimicking
van Aalten, Daan
For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…
Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…
This lively collection looks at science as filtered through literature, film, and television. It discusses classic works in science fiction and provides an in-depth look at the chemistry depicted in popular culture, particularly in Start Trek , Star Wars , and Doctor Who . It includes an examination by Nebula Award winner Connie Willis of how science fiction authors use
Jack H. Stocker
Do people realize that chemistry plays a key role in helping solve some of the most serious problems facing the world today? Chemists want to find the building blocks of the chemical universe--the molecules that form materials, living cells and whole organisms. Many chemists are medical explorers looking for new ways to maintain and improve…
The fundamental principles of atmospheric chemistry are examined in a textbook for graduate science students. Topics addressed include the bulk composition, structure, and dynamics of the atmosphere; photochemical processes and elementary reactions; the chemistry of the stratosphere; tropospheric chemistry and the methane oxidation cycle; and ozone in the troposphere. Consideration is given to volatile hydrocarbons and halocarbons, the atmospheric aerosol,
Chemistry Department Colloquium: Spring, 2012 Friday, March 16; 3:30 Seminar Hall (room 1315 Chemistry) Lost in Translation: How Regulators Use Science and How Scientists Can Help Bridge Gaps Stephanie to combine her Chemistry background with a legal education to improve the use of science in environmental
Computing Policy Department of Chemistry Michigan Technological University This document describes, reports, structure, charters, etc. Each user of the computing facilities of the Department of Chemistry. Disciplinary action 11. Acronyms 1. Computing facilities in the Department of Chemistry: Most of the computing
Honrath, Richard E.
This article describes an approach to teaching organic chemistry, which is to have students build their knowledge of organic chemistry upon a strong foundation of the fundamental concepts of the subject. Specifically, the article focuses upon a core set of concepts that I call "the six pillars of organic chemistry": electronegativity, polar…
Mullins, Joseph J.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Dr. William Donaldson TW 654, 288-7374, William.Donaldson@mu.edu Prerequisites: Chem 2111/2113 or 2112/2114 Research Interests: Organic chemistry; Use of organoÂiron complexes Interests: Organic supramolecular chemistry; Preparation of electroactive organic materials for molecular
Reid, Scott A.
The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program is a project designed to devise experiments to coordinate the use of instruments in the laboratory programs of physical chemistry, instrumental analysis, and inorganic chemistry at the advanced undergraduate level. It is intended that such experiments would incorporate an introduction to the instrument…
Wise, John H.
This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…
University, Department of Chemistry. Taught General Chemistry lab and Advanced Physical Chemistry lab. 1997-1999 Teaching Assistant University of Dayton, Department of Chemistry. Supervised General Chemistry lab. 1996Adam D. McFarland Chemistry Department Northwestern University 2145 Sheridan Road Evanston
.firstname.lastname@example.org Organic Chemistry Chris Bates email@example.com General Chemistry Lecture/Lab Organic Chemistry Amy Bonaparte firstname.lastname@example.org General and Organic Chemistry Shelly Casciato email@example.com General Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry Ken Clevenger firstname.lastname@example.org Biochemistry lecture
At this website, the University of Minnesota supplies numerous chemistry experiments. The activities are divided into two categories: demos and recipe cards. The demonstrations, which usually require a chemistry lab setting and chemistry supplies, are helpful for chemistry teachers in a classroom environment. The recipe cards, however, can usually be easily performed in the home. For example, students can learn about osmosis with a simple demonstration using an egg, vinegar, and water. The website features a short checklist to help visitors become better scientists. With a quick visit to this site, users can find fun activities to enhance the chemistry learning experience.
Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at higher risk of haematological malignancies (HMs) than the general population. Most reports have focused on HM diagnosed after SLE, and have excluded concurrent and preceding diagnoses. Information on response to therapy is also limited. Methods We identified 13?296 cases of HM and 10?539 potential patients with SLE at our centre; 45 patients were confirmed to have HM and SLE. Our retrospective case series was based on these 45 patients. Results Of the 45 patients, 64% were diagnosed with HM ?1?year after diagnosis with SLE, and 36% with HM before or concurrent with SLE. Of the 29 patients with HM after SLE, 13 had diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 6 indolent lymphoma, 4 leukaemia, 3 Hodgkin's disease, and 1 each Burkitt's lymphoma, T cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Eleven patients with DLBCL were treated with cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab-CHOP; hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisone; only four achieved durable remission. Of the 16 patients diagnosed with HM before or concurrent with SLE, 9 were diagnosed with HM more than 2?years before SLE and tended to be in remission prior to SLE diagnosis. Seven patients were diagnosed with HM and SLE concurrently; in terms of their HM, six achieved remission or stable disease. Conclusions In summary, DLBCL was the most common type of lymphoma in patients diagnosed with HM after SLE; these patients presented with advanced-stage disease and had poor outcomes. In contrast, patients diagnosed with HM before or concurrent with SLE had early stage disease and typically achieved remission. PMID:25452880
Knight, Jason S; Blayney, Douglas W; Somers, Emily C
Recommendations for reference method for haemoglobinometry in human blood (ICSH standard 1986) and specifications for international haemiglobincyanide reference preparation (3rd edition). International Committee for Standardization in Haematology; Expert Panel on Haemoglobinometry.
Scientific symposia on haemoglobinometry were held at the 9th Congress of the European Society of Haematology, Lisbon, 1963 (ESH 1964) and the 10th Congress of the International Society of Haematology (ISH), Stockholm, 1964 (ISH 1965). The International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) made recommendations endorsed by the General Assembly of ICSH in Sydney on 23 August 1966 (ICSH 1967), for a reference method for haemoglobinometry and for the manufacture and distribution of an international reference preparation. Further symposia were held at the 12th Congress of the ISH, New York, 1968 (Astaldi, Sirtori & Vanzetti 1979) and at the 13th Congress of ISH, Munich, 1970 (Izak & Lewis 1972). The recommendations were reissued in 1978 (ISH 1978). On the basis of continuing experimental studies, the reference method and the specifications for the international reference preparation have been modified. The revised recommendations are described in this document. PMID:3581717
Background Petroselinum crispum, a bright green biennial shrub is widely used traditionally as a food additive and herbal remedies for many ailments. This study therefore aimed to assess the toxic effects of its leaf extract using some biochemical, haematological parameters. Methods The toxic effects were assessed by quantifying liver enzymes such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein and liver weight. Effects on haematological parameters were assessed by analysis of parked cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Histopathological studies were done on the liver and kidneys. Results The extract caused significant increase in serum activity of alanine amino transferase and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the dose of 1000 mg/kg. Other biochemical and haematological parameters were not affected at lower doses. Conversely, the liver weight was not affected after eight weeks of treatment at the dose levels studied. The organs obtained for pathological study, were structurally unchanged under histopathological evaluation at lower doses but inflammatory and necrotic features were observed at doses???1000 mg/kg. Conclusion The results indicate that the leaf ethanol extract of Petroselinum crispum was hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic at continued oral doses equal to or more than 1000 mg/kg, but no obvious toxicity when used at lower doses. Therefore, there should be caution in its administration to avoid overdosing and known interaction with some medications. In addition, the plant should be kept away from pets and domestic animals and should not be cultivated on soil irrigated with waste water due to their ability to bio-accumulate toxic metals. PMID:23557241
We evaluated the myelotoxicity and the anti-tumor potential of tallimustine, three of its analogues and carzelesin, with melphalan as reference substance. Tallimustine was tested by clonogenic assays on both human bone marrow (BM) and cord blood (hCB) cells, the other compounds on hCB only. The degree of inhibition of the haemopoietic progenitors GM-CFC, CFC-E and BFU-E was evaluated after exposure to different concentrations. The same schedules were tested on five tumour cell lines. We found that the dose-response curves for tallimustine on BM and hCB cells were similar. Carzelesin was shown to be the most potent of the substances tested and to be the one with the best in vitro therapeutic index; of the distamycin analogues, the one bearing an alpha-bromoacrylic group (FCE 25450) had the best index. For melphalan, tallimustine and carzelesin, the concentration inhibiting the growth of 70% of progenitor cells in vitro (ID70) was similar to the concentrations found in the serum of patients treated at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). We conclude that hCB cells may be used instead of BM cells for in vitro myelotoxicity tests. Therapeutic indexes can be extrapolated from this model and could help in sele