Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues. PMID:25052229
Cox, A J; West, N P; Horn, P L; Lehtinen, M J; Koerbin, G; Pyne, D B; Lahtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W
Background: Errors, introduced through poor assessment of physical measurement or because of inconsistent or inappropriate standard operating procedures for collecting, processing, storing or analysing haematological and biochemistry analytes, have a negative impact on the power of association studies using the collected data. A dataset from UK Biobank was used to evaluate the impact of pre-analytical variability on the power of association studies. Methods: First, we estimated the proportion of the variance in analyte concentration that may be attributed to delay in processing using variance component analysis. Then, we captured the proportion of heterogeneity between subjects that is due to variability in the rate of degradation of analytes, by fitting a mixed model. Finally, we evaluated the impact of delay in processing on the power of a nested case-control study using a power calculator that we developed and which takes into account uncertainty in outcome and explanatory variables measurements. Results: The results showed that (i) the majority of the analytes investigated in our analysis, were stable over a period of 36?h and (ii) some analytes were unstable and the resulting pre-analytical variation substantially decreased the power of the study, under the settings we investigated. Conclusions: It is important to specify a limited delay in processing for analytes that are very sensitive to delayed assay. If the rate of degradation of an analyte varies between individuals, any delay introduces a bias which increases with increasing delay. If pre-analytical variation occurring due to delays in sample processing is ignored, it affects adversely the power of the studies that use the data. PMID:25085103
Gaye, Amadou; Peakman, Tim; Tobin, Martin D; Burton, Paul R
Normal haematological values and cholesterol values (total, HDL?cholesterol, LDL?cholesterol) were determined in free?living Herring and Great Black?backed Gulls, taking into account species, age and sex. These figures were then used as a basis of comparison with findings on birds with apparent clinical abnormalities (the birds were either oiled, emaciated, extensively infested with endoparasites, had external injuries or organic abnormalities).Species?specific differences
Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8?months old sheep, weighing on average 30?kg, from which 15?mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8?days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p?0.05). Haematological variables including globular volume and erythrocyte counts showed a significant decrease (p?0.01) at all time points after collection and increased (p?0.01) at all time points after reinfusion. There was a significant increase in total protein and calcium at all time points after reinfusion (p?0.05). Conclusion Autologous transfusion in sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection. PMID:22607611
The clinical, biochemical, and haematological aspects of a recent outbreak of lead poisoning, in which exposure was related to the oxyacetylene cutting of red lead painted ironwork, were investigated. Initial suspicion was raised when a blood film showed punctate basophilia which remains a simple and useful method of picking up lead toxicity. Estimations of blood lead concentration and conventional laboratory
A Pagliuca; G J Mufti; D Baldwin; A N Lestas; R M Wallis; A J Bellingham
Aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in cats, dogs and rabbits. Although no serious side effects have been reported, there is no information available about the effects of the medicine on haematological parameters. For the first time clinical and ultrasonographic features and haematological profiles were evaluated in rabbits treated with aglepristone 15 and 16 days after mating. Ten healthy 10-14 month-old New Zealand White female rabbits were mated with fertile bucks and pregnancies were con?rmed by ultrasound 15 days later. Of these, 5 does were treated with aglepristone (test group, n = 5) whilst the remaining five (control group, n = 5) were treated with a saline solution (0.9% NaCl). The treatment dose was 10 mg/kg body weight, administered subcutaneously once daily on two consecutive days (day 15 and 16 post mating). Ultrasonographic, clinical and haematological assessments were performed daily. Aglepristone treatment induced embryonic fluid resorptions without foetal death in mid-gestation terminations. Following ultrasonographic and haematological examinations, it was established that aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in rabbits. PMID:23718772
Özalp, Gözde R; Temizel, Ethem M; Özocak-Batmaz, Elçin
The haematological parameters of healthy great bustards (Otis tarda L.) have been determined. The values obtained were red cell count (3.0 x 10(12) +/- 0.2 x 10(12/)1), white cell count (33.0 x 10(9) +/- 2.6 x 10(9)/1), haematocrit value (0.51 +/- 0.01 1/1), haemoglobin (13.0 +/- 0.3 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (178.7 +/- 12.5 fl), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (25.0 +/- 0.6 g/dl), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (42.5 +/- 3.2 pg), differential white cell count: heterophils (22.5 x 10(9) +/- 0.7 x 10(9)/1), lymphocytes (6.0 x 10(9)+/-0.7 x 10(9)/1), eosinophils (2.7 x 10(9) +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/1) and monocytes (1.8 x 10(9)+/-0.2 x 10(9)/1). PMID:18680064
Jimenez, A; Barrera, R; Sanchez, J; Cuenca, R; Rodriguez, J; Andres, S; Mane, M C
Haematological malignancies result from a heterogeneous mix of genetic mutations and chromosome aberrations and translocations. Targeted therapies, such as the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, or the BCR-ABL1 inhibitor imatinib, have proven to be effective treatments in the management of some of these malignancies, though relapsing or refractory disease is still common. Nucleic acid-based therapies have also entered the clinical arena, providing an alternative, complementary approach. The forerunner of these therapies were the antisense oligonucleotides, but their scope has expanded to include short-interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA, decoy oligonucleotides and aptamers. These can be used either as mono-therapeutics, in conjunction with current chemotherapy regimens, or in combination with each other to improve therapeutic efficacy. Not only can these nucleic acid-based therapies silence target genes, they also have the potential of restoring gene function. While challenges remain in delivering effective doses of nucleic acid in vivo, these are steadily being met, suggesting an optimistic future in the treatment of haematological malignancies. This review summarizes the application of nucleic acid-based therapeutics, particularly aptamers, in the diagnosis and treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:21810089
Shigdar, Sarah; Ward, Alister C; De, Abhijit; Yang, Chaoyong J; Wei, Mingqian; Duan, Wei
Since its introduction, capillary electrophoresis has diversified, spreading out into different specialized fields covering solutions for almost any analytical questions arising in research laboratories. In the context of clinical chemistry, results must be provided at low costs and in a clinically relevent time frame; however, the attributes which have made capillary electrophoresis such a successful tool in basic research are
Rainer Lehmann; Wolfgang Voelter; Hartmut M. Liebich
As chairman of the Expert Panel on Instrumentation (EPI) of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), I presided over its closed and open meetings held on June 29, 1987, and July 2, 1987, respectively. As chairman-elect of the Organizing Committee of the 1990 International Congress on Clinical Chemistry, I also attended the meeting of the IFCC Congress Committee to give a progress report. This report was subsequently also presented to the IFCC Executive Board and Council and to its corporate members. These meetings were held prior to, or in conjunction with, the 13th International Congress of Clinical Chemistry. Consequently, I had an opportunity to attend several of the scientific sessions and the Trade Exposition of the Congress.
A wide range of clinical, pathological and haematological effects were found over a 40?week period in chickens inoculated at 1?day?old with a low?passage, cell?culture preparation of an Australian strain of reticulo?endotheliosis virus. Feathering defects and statistically significant depression of body weights occurred in chickens up to 8 weeks of age. Other findings in birds that died or were culled during
T. M. Grimes; T. J. Bagust; Corinne K. Dimmock
Thirty-five juvenile (mean age 6.3 weeks) and 35 adult (mean age 2.0 years) healthy degus (Octodon degus) were studied to investigate selected haematological and plasma biochemistry parameters. Animals were anaesthetised with isoflurane, and blood was withdrawn from the cranial vena cava. Erythrocyte, haematocrit and neutrophil counts (including the percentage of neutrophils) were significantly higher in the adult degus than in the juveniles. In contrast, the reticulocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, number of platelets and percentage of lymphocytes were significantly lower in the adult animals. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly higher in the adult degus. The albumin:globulin ratio and plasma levels of urea nitrogen, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, potassium, total calcium and inorganic phosphorus were significantly lower in adults than in juveniles. PMID:21709052
Jekl, V; Hauptman, K; Jeklova, E; Knotek, Z
The objectives of the work were to study the features of experimentally induced canine mastitis and to present hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. The right caudal abdominal mammary gland of six bitches was inoculated on day 8 after whelping with Staphylococcus intermedius to induce mastitis; adjacent mammary glands were used as controls. Clinical examination, bacteriological and cytological (whiteside test, Giemsa) examination of mammary secretion, as well as haematological tests were performed from 5 days before until 34 days after challenge. Mastectomy was sequentially performed 1, 2, 4, 18, 26 and 34 days after challenge in each of the bitches, in order to carry out a pathological examination of mammary glands. All animals developed clinical mastitis: challenged glands became painful, hot, enlarged and oedematous; secretion was brownish, purulent, with flakes or clots, subsequently becoming yellowish and thick. Staphylococci were isolated from all inoculated glands (up to 22 days). WST was positive in 41/46 samples from inoculated glands and 66/138 samples from control glands; neutrophils predominated during the acute stage. Blood leukocyte counts increased, whilst platelet counts decreased. Gross pathological findings initially included congestion, purulent discharge and subcutaneous oedema; then abscesses, brownish areas and size decrease were seen. Salient histopathological features were initially neutrophilic infiltration, haemorrhages, destruction of mammary epithelial cells and alveoli, and then infiltration by lymphocytes, shrunken alveoli, loss of glandular architecture and fibrous tissue proliferation. We conclude that in bitches, intrammamary inoculation of Staphylococcus intermedius can induce clinical mastitis, followed by subclinical disease. The disorder is characterized by bacterial isolation and leukocyte influx in challenged glands, by leukocyte presence in adjacent mammary glands, by increased blood leukocyte counts and by destruction of mammary parenchyma. PMID:17481831
Ververidis, H N; Mavrogianni, V S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Gougoulis, D A; Tzivara, A; Gouletsou, P G; Athanasiou, L; Boscos, C M; Fthenakis, G C
Mycoplasma suis causes infectious anaemia in pigs (IAP), which can manifest in various degrees of severity depending on the virulence and the host's susceptibility. As M. suis cannot be cultured in vitro experimental infections of splenectomised animals play an essential role for pathogenesis research. The aim of the present study was to characterise the course of experimental infection using the highly virulent and red blood cell (RBC-) invasive M. suis strain KI3806, to compare the experimental course in splenectomised and non-splenectomised pigs and to correlate clinical and haematological parameters with M. suis blood loads. All infected splenectomised pigs (n=7) were PCR-positive 2 days post infection (DPI) with maximum mean bacterial loads of 1.61 × 10(10)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed severe anaemia and massive hypoglycaemia by 8 DPI and had to be euthanised preterm (until 8 DPI) without seroconversion. The non-splenectomised pigs (n=7) became PCR-positive within 23 DPI and reached a maximum mean M. suis load of 1.64 × 10(5)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed mild anaemia, massive skin alterations with petechiae and haemorrhagic diathesis and seroconverted within 35 DPI. The study demonstrated that experimental infection of splenectomised pigs with the highly virulent M. suis strain KI3806 induces a fulminant course of infection. In contrast, M. suis strain KI3806 induces a mild course of disease in non-splenectomised pigs, which resembles the situation in naturally infected pigs. Therefore, these infection models are valuable for future pathogenesis studies on acute and chronic M. suis infections. PMID:24933162
Stadler, J; Jannasch, C; Mack, S L; Dietz, S; Zöls, S; Ritzmann, M; Hoelzle, K; Hoelzle, L E
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features, haematological findings and CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts of severely malnourished children in relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: The study was conducted in the paediatric wards of Mulago hospital, which is Uganda's national referral and teaching hospital. We studied 315 severely malnourished children (presence of
Hanifa Bachou; Thorkild Tylleskär; Robert Downing; James K Tumwine
Describes the continuing education program for clinical chemistry instrumentation training established at The College of Staten Island, New York. A course consisting of 14 sessions is outlined and discussed. (CS)
LeBlanc, Jacqueline; Frankel, Saundra
A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.
The work performed by the clinical chemist may deeply affect the decisions of the doctor and the well-being of the patient. Yet in contrast to the doctor and to the nurse the clinical chemist usually has no personal relationship with the patient. Being encumbered by much technology and anonymity is itself a reason for scrutinising his involvement in issues of health care ethics. This is an attempt at clarifying some major aspects: the relationship of his professional ethics to medical ethics as a whole, his ethical obligations to the patient and to society, and other aspects. PMID:6199500
In the presented study the influence of stress and environmental factors on selected haematological and blood-chemical parameters in racing pigeons was examined. Blood was taken at three defined days and haematological as well as blood-chemical parameters of clinical relevance were determined. In comparison to reference values published for pigeons, the majority of the values obtained in this study were within physiological borders. The daily handling of the pigeons did not have any significant effect on the examined parameters. Also the heterophile/lymphocyte ratio did not show any changes characteristic of a stress reaction. In contrast, after change of the housing dies with pigeons originating normally from a flock, the first blood sampling should be performed after a 4 or 5-day lasting period of acclimatisation to the the individual housing conditions. PMID:17078530
Krautwald-Junghanns, M E; Bartels, T; Richter, A; Pees, M
Background: In clinical chemistry, traceability of measurements is of high priority. Methods: In this literature review, current recommendations on the process of establishing traceability (or standardization) are critically discussed. Results: Traceability is to be established to the highest international standards by a comprehensive reference measurement system. Elementary to this system are a metrological basis, a measurement unit system, i.e., the
Linda M. Thienpont; Katleen Van Uytfanghe; André P. De Leenheer
Classifying and describing bleeding symptoms is essential in the diagnosis and management of patients with mild bleeding disorders (MBDs). There has been increased interest in the use of bleeding assessment tools (BATs) to more objectively quantify the presence and severity of bleeding symptoms. To date, the administration of BATs has been performed almost exclusively by clinicians; the accuracy of a parent-proxy BAT has not been studied. Our objective was to determine the accuracy of a parent-administered BAT by measuring the level of agreement between parent and clinician responses to the Condensed MCMDM-1VWD Bleeding Questionnaire. Our cross-sectional study included children 0-21 years presenting to a haematology clinic for initial evaluation of a suspected MBD or follow-up evaluation of a previously diagnosed MBD. The parent/caregiver completed a modified version of the BAT; the clinician separately completed the BAT through interview. The mean parent-report bleeding score (BS) was 6.09 (range: -2 to 25); the mean clinician report BS was 4.54 (range: -1 to 17). The mean percentage of agreement across all bleeding symptoms was 78% (mean ? = 0.40; Gwet's AC1 = 0.74). Eighty percent of the population had an abnormal BS (defined as ?2) when rated by parents and 76% had an abnormal score when rated by clinicians (86% agreement, ? = 0.59, Gwet's AC1 = 0.79). While parents tended to over-report bleeding as compared to clinicians, overall, BSs were similar between groups. These results lend support for further study of a modified proxy-report BAT as a clinical and research tool. PMID:25298191
Lang, A T; Sturm, M S; Koch, T; Walsh, M; Grooms, L P; O'Brien, S H
...No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel...public. Name of Committee: Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel...disability, please contact James Clark, Conference Management Staff, at...
Analyses of serotonin and other 5-hydroxyindoles, such as its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan and major metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), are indispensable for the elucidation of their (patho)physiological roles. In clinical chemistry attention is mainly focused on the diagnosis and follow-up of carcinoid tumours. For this most laboratories routinely measure urinary 5-HIAA. More recently, measurements of serotonin in platelets and urine have been
Ido P Kema; Elisabeth G. E de Vries; Frits A. J Muskiet
The chemistry of urinary stones around 1800: A first in clinical chemistry. At the end of the 18th century, as soon as modern chemistry was created, dedicated physicians tried to apply it to medicine. A rewarding field was that of urinary lithiasis. Stones offered a sufficient amount of a relatively pure chemical present in the body. Indeed, urine and the
The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory, limited only by the imagination and ingenuity of laboratory scientists. PMID:25336760
Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime
Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical…
Skogerboe, Kristen J.
Five clinically healthy Sella Italiana horses were used in order to assess the haematological response to different workload. Blood samples were collected on each horse at rest, immediately after the exer- cise and 30 min after the end of the exercise. An automated haematology analyzer was used to assess red blood cells counts, haemglobin concentration, haematocrit (Hct) and white blood
G. PICCIONE; C. GIANNETTO; F. FAZIO; S. DI MAURO; G. CAOLA
An account is given of the first applications of atomic absorption spectrometry in clinical chemistry. These include the determination of calcium and magnesium in blood serum and of these elements, together with a range of heavy metals, in urine.
Willis, J. B.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a widely distributed enzyme that catalyses O-methylation of catecholamines and other compounds having a catechol structure. Because there has been some concern about the consequences of a low COMT activity in the development of oestrogen-dependent cancers and because one of the COMT inhibitors, tolcapone, has caused serious liver injuries in Parkinsonian patients, the histopathology and clinical chemistry of Comt-gene-disrupted mice were studied at the age of 12 months. Owing to the high COMT activities in liver and kidney and the role of COMT in the metabolism of catechol oestrogens, special emphasis was given to the histology of the liver, kidney and oestrogen-dependent organs such as mammary glands and uterus. The mice of both heterozygous and homozygous genotypes appear to be physically healthy and fertile. Diurnal motility rhythm and behaviour in measuring anxiety and depression were equal in all genotypes. At the age of 12 months, the body weight of homozygous mice was 7-9% lower than that of the other groups. This was reflected in histology as a diminished incidence of vacuolation of liver cells (fatty change). Macroscopic pathology and histopathology revealed no abnormal findings in any COMT genotype. The values of some clinical chemistry parameters, such as alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, glucose, calcium and proteins, were at a higher level in homozygous animals compared with the wild-type mice. However, all the values remained within the normal physiological range, and the differences in enzyme levels between genotypes were not reflected as histopathological findings in the relevant organs. No changes in haematological parameters or plasma catecholamine concentrations were noted but plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol levels were high in COMT null mice. The results suggest that the full or 50% lack of Comt gene as such is not associated with any toxic consequences. PMID:12884403
Haasio, Kristiina; Huotari, Marko; Nissinen, Erkki; Männistö, Pekka T
Background Hand-held dynamometry is a portable and inexpensive method to quantify muscle strength. To determine if muscle strength has changed, an examiner must know what part of the difference between a patient's pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements is attributable to real change, and what part is due to measurement error. This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of intra and inter-observer strength measurements with a hand-held dynamometer (HHD). Methods Two observers performed maximum voluntary peak torque measurements (MVPT) for isometric knee extension in 24 patients with haematological malignancies. For each patient, the measurements were carried out on the same day. The main outcome measures were the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ± 95%CI), the standard error of measurement (SEM), the smallest detectable difference (SDD), the relative values as % of the grand mean of the SEM and SDD, and the limits of agreement for the intra- and inter-observer '3 repetition average' and the 'highest value of 3 MVPT' knee extension strength measures. Results The intra-observer ICCs were 0.94 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.86–0.97) and 0.86 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.71–0.94). The ICCs for the inter-observer measurements were 0.89 for the average of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.75–0.95) and 0.77 for the highest value of 3 MVPT (95%CI: 0.54–0.90). The SEMs for the intra-observer measurements were 6.22 Nm (3.98% of the grand mean (GM) and 9.83 Nm (5.88% of GM). For the inter-observer measurements, the SEMs were 9.65 Nm (6.65% of GM) and 11.41 Nm (6.73% of GM). The SDDs for the generated parameters varied from 17.23 Nm (11.04% of GM) to 27.26 Nm (17.09% of GM) for intra-observer measurements, and 26.76 Nm (16.77% of GM) to 31.62 Nm (18.66% of GM) for inter-observer measurements, with similar results for the limits of agreement. Conclusion The results indicate that there is acceptable relative reliability for evaluating knee strength with a HHD, while the measurement error observed was modest. The HHD may be useful in detecting changes in knee extension strength at the individual patient level. PMID:19272149
Knols, Ruud H; Aufdemkampe, Geert; de Bruin, Eling D; Uebelhart, Daniel; Aaronson, Neil K
Background: Clinical interpretation of laboratory re- sults is an integral part of clinical chemistry. However, the performance goals for assessing interpretative com- menting in this discipline have not been as well estab- lished as for the quality of analytical requirements. Methods: We present a review of the 10 case reports circulated in the 2002 Patient Report Comments Pro- gram by
Ee Mun Lim; Ken A. Sikaris; Janice Gill; John Calleja; Peter E. Hickman; John Beilby; Samuel D. Vasikaran
Looking for prognosticators in ovine anaplasmosis: discriminant analysis of clinical and haematological parameters in lambs belonging to differently susceptible breeds experimentally infected with Anaplasma ovis
Background A study was carried out to evaluate the response of different native sheep breeds to experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis, the most prevalent sheep tick-borne pathogen in Apulia (Southern Italy). Thirty-four lambs belonging to a Northern European breed (Suffolk) and two Southern Italian breeds (Comisana and Altamurana) were infected. Eleven clinical as well as haematological parameters were monitored at different temporal resolutions on the same subjects before and after the infection, resulting in a data set of 435 observations. The present work, aiming to further the research, presents the results of a multivariate analysis carried out to identify which parameters out of the eleven considered are the most reliable parameters to be considered as markers of the disease phenotype as well as prognosticators of practical clinical importance. Results Data were analysed by discriminant analysis. Out of the eleven considered variables (red blood cells, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin content, haemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, neutrophils, leukocytes, platelets, rectal temperature), only seven were included in the step-wise model since significantly increasing the Mahlanobis distance between the two closest groups. Both discriminant functions resulted to be highly significant (P?0.0001) and the percentage of variation accounted for by the first discriminant function was 63.6% of the variance in the grouping variable. Conclusions Taken together, the observed results stress the marked differentiation among the three breeds in terms of physio-pathological phenotypes indicating packed cell volume and red blood cell count as the most informative parameters in the routine clinical practice for A. ovis infection in sheep. PMID:24053615
The aim of this study was to establish population-based canine clinical chemistry reference values for the Hitachi 912 (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Germany) with regard to age, sex, breed, housing and intended use. Reference biochemistry values for 22 variables are presented from 308 clinical healthy dogs, 145 females and 163 males, approximately 1 month to 13 years of age and of
Saskia Kley; Peter Tschudi; André Busato; Frédéric Gaschen
Objective: To critically review the elements of laboratory services that result in inappropriate ordering of clinical chemistry tests and the efficacy of corrective interventions.Methods and Results: In our experience, inappropriate use of laboratory services derives from multiple factors, including the use of multitest profiles, organ- or disease-specific test panels, indiscriminate ordering, standing orders, excessive reporting delays, poor audit trails of
J. Thomas Hindmarsh; Andrew W. Lyon
In 1979, 304 healthy elderly individuals in New Mexico were recruited for a longitudinal study ofnutrition and aging. Repeat measurements on a yearly basis of commonly requested clinical chemistry analytes allowed the calculation of reference intervals, between and within-subject variance components, and percentiles for change in concentration between two yearly measurements. The latter was furtherdivided into analytical and biological variance
Philip J Garry; William C Hunt; Dorothy J VanderJagt; Robert L Rhyne
The analytical accuracy of the results of routine clinical chemistry measurements is contributed by a two-steps mechanism, involving transferring trueness from a higher metrological and monitoring the time-stability of trueness itself. In both operations, different materials are used: however, accuracy in the routine assay of genuine patient samples has to be the end product of this overall process. To such
Carlo Franzini; Ferruccio Ceriotti
A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)
Gochman, Nathan; And Others
Organized and chaired session on instrument evaluation at the XIV Congreso Nacional De Quimica Clinica which is the National Meeting of the Mexican Society of Clinical Chemistry. In addition, I presented a paper on calibration at a Congress workshop and spoke on the impact of technology in a symposium on quality control.
April 27, 2011 NOTIFICATION Clinical Chemistry (Monthly) Program (BC5L/50) Cycle 10 Sample Dates Clinical Chemistry (Monthly) Program (Cycle 10)) Â lot #210900, are different than those noted on the Order
Laboratory medicine's practitioners across the European community include medical, scientific and pharmacy trained specialists whose contributions to health and healthcare is in the application of diagnostic tests for screening and early detection of disease, differential diagnosis, monitoring, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations in translating knowledge and skills into ability to practice. In a 'Specialist knowledge' division, the expectations from the individual disciplines of Clinical Chemistry/Immunology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion, Microbiology/ Virology, Genetics and In Vitro Fertilisation are described. Beyond providing a common platform of knowledge, skills and competency, the syllabus supports the aims of the European Commission in providing safeguards to increasing professional mobility across European borders at a time when demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing and the labour force is declining. It continues to act as a guide for the formulation of national programmes supplemented by the needs of individual country priorities. PMID:23035263
Wieringa, Gijsbert; Zerah, Simone; Jansen, Rob; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Queralto, José; Solnica, Bogdan; Gruson, Damien; Tomberg, Karel; Riittinen, Leena; Baum, Hannsjörg; Brochet, Jean-Philippe; Buhagiar, Gerald; Charilaou, Charis; Grigore, Camelia; Johnsen, Anders H; Kappelmayer, Janos; Majkic-Singh, Nada; Nubile, Giuseppe; O'Mullane, John; Opp, Matthias; Pupure, Silvija; Racek, Jaroslav; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Rogic, Dunja; Špa?ár, Július; Štrakl, Greta; Szekeres, Thomas; Tzatchev, Kamen; Vitkus, Dalius; Wallemacq, Pierre; Wallinder, Hans
Triggered by recent criticism from parties outside the clinical chemistry community on poor analytical accuracy of measurement procedures used for evaluating the calcium-parathyroid hormone-vitamin D axis, I argue, in this opinion paper, strongly in favor of prioritizing the establishment of accuracy. I make a proposal on how the clinical chemistry profession could tackle the challenges focused at the conceptual, technical, and organizational level. The profession should "rehearse" the basic concepts of measurement, because they need to be understood before one can look for pragmatic solutions when a purist's approach cannot be realized in a foreseeable time. This is illustrated for the measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). To solve problems encountered at the technical level of establishing reference measurement systems, in particular when this is not possible according to the point of view of purism, the profession should have the courage to agree on pragmatic solutions, without neglecting, however, the technical progress. This is exemplified by way of a solution for measurement of FT4 in serum water and TSH. Because the technical question is also inseparably connected to the specification of the analytical quality required for measurements, I propose that the profession sets realistic specifications for calibration tolerance, limits for batch acceptance, linearity, etc. Last but not least, I call upon organizing and implementing the accuracy process with utmost care, i.e., in a concerted action with all parties involved in patient care. The driving force towards accuracy should come from the test developers, while the lead should be taken by the clinical chemistry community, itself being guided by the clinical professions. PMID:18597589
Thienpont, Linda M
Approximately since 1945, progress in the field of photometric analysis also found its way into the laboratories of clinical chemistry. These techniques almost completely replaced the then prevailing gravimetric and titrimetric methods. At the same epoch, many of the biochemical reagents which up to then had to be prepared by the clinical laboratories themselves with great expenditure of work became commercially available. The increasing number of analytical orders could only be mastered thanks to the newly developed analyzers. Novel microliter techniques made it possible to diminish drastically the volumes of samples and reagents necessary. The radioimmunoassay opened up new analytical dimensions, the limits of detection and of quantification were expanded downwards to the picomol range. Soon afterwards, enzymes and/or fluorochromes were used as markers in immunoassays. The development of monoclonal antibodies constituted further important progress in this field. The latest revolutionary invention is doubtlessly the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and related techniques. These methods are bound to bring about fundamental change not only in clinical chemistry but in the medical laboratory diagnostics in general. PMID:7770813
The development and diffusion of automated clinical chemistry analyzers are described as an example of the process of technological change in medicine. This involves an elaboration and refinement of the conceptual framework, a historical description of development and use of three classes of analyzer, an investigation of user innovation, and the use of survey data to study patterns of diffusion. The emerging theory of development and diffusion differs from traditional theory in significant respects, assigning a more prominent and active role to the user in development, and characterizing development and diffusion as incremental and iterative rather than discrete and sequential.
Marks, H.; Fineberg, H. V.
The European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) opened a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemis- try and Laboratory Medicine in 1997. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Committee (EC4RC). During the last 6 years more than 1500 spe- cialists in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine have joined the Register. In this
Gerard Sanders; Matthias Opp; Janet McMurray; Ursula Koeller; Vic Blaton; Erik Lund; Aimo Harmoinen; Simone Zerah; Hannsjoerg Baum; Demetrios Rizos; Desmond Kenny; Mario Pazzagli; Hans Hoffman; Henrique Reguengo; Jose M. Queralto; Hans Wallinder; Rob Jansen; Michael Hallworth
Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays. PMID:24627713
Bowen, Raffick A.R.; Remaley, Alan T.
In order to establish reference haematological and blood chemistry parameters, blood samples were obtained from 50 healthy\\u000a specimens ofBothrops ammodytoides kept in captivity. The haematological parameters determined were: red blood cell count (RBC); total leucocyte (WBC) and differential\\u000a leucocyte cell count; thrombocyte count; haematocrit (PCV); haemoglobin concentration; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean\\u000a corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration
J. C. Troiano; J. C. Vidal; E. F. Gould; G. Malinskas; J. Gould; M. Scaglione; L. Scaglione; J. J. Heker; C. Simoncini; H. Dinápoli
Using paediatric devices to collect venous blood from a cephalic vein in cats offers numerous practical advantages over traditional jugular venepuncture and vacuum closed systems: minimal restraint is required; there is minimal risk of serious injury to the cat; the discomfort associated with venepuncture is reduced by the use of small diameter (25 gauge) needles; very small volumes (200 microl) of blood are extracted; and the risk of vein collapse or haematoma is low. The aim of this study was to compare the haematological and plasma chemistry results obtained from six healthy cats using the two sampling techniques. Five plasma biochemical analytes were measured and a complete haematological examination was performed on each specimen. No clinically relevant difference between the two blood sampling techniques was observed for any variable, indicating that paediatric devices provide a useful alternative to vacuum tubes for venous blood collection in the cat. PMID:17498993
Reynolds, Brice S; Boudet, Karine G; Faucher, Mathieu R; Germain, Claude; Geffre, Anne; Lefebvre, Herve P
Imaging morphology and metabolic activity of splenic lesions is of paramount importance in patients with haematological malignancies; it can alter tumour staging, treatment protocols and overall prognosis. CT, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT have been shown to be powerful tools for the non-invasive assessment of splenic involvement in various haematological malignancies. Since many haematological malignancies and non-neoplastic conditions can involve the spleen and imaging manifestations can overlap, imaging and clinical findings outside of the spleen should be looked for to narrow the differential diagnosis; confirmation can be obtained by pathological findings. Radiologists should be familiar with the cross-sectional imaging patterns of haematological malignancies involving the spleen as well as non-neoplastic splenic findings common in these patients to facilitate their care and follow-up. This pictorial review provides the common and uncommon imaging appearances and complications of various haematological malignancies involving the spleen on CT, MRI and PET/CT, and common pitfalls in diagnosis. PMID:22096219
Saboo, S S; Krajewski, K M; O'Regan, K N; Giardino, A; Brown, J R; Ramaiya, N; Jagannathan, J P
Objectives. To design, implement, and evaluate student performance on clinically relevant chemical and spectral laboratory exercises on antibiotics. Design. In the first of 2 exercises, second-year pharmacy students enrolled in an integrated laboratory sequence course studied the aqueous stability of ß-lactam antibiotics using a spectral visual approach. In a second exercise, students studied the tendency of tetracycline, rifamycins, and fluoroquinolones to form insoluble chelate complexes (turbidity) with polyvalent metals. Assessment. On a survey to assess achievement of class learning objectives, students agreed the laboratory activities helped them better retain important information concerning antibiotic stability and interactions. A significant improvement was observed in performance on examination questions related to the laboratory topics for 2012 and 2013 students compared to 2011 students who did not complete the laboratory. A 1-year follow-up examination question administered in a separate course showed >75% of the students were able to identify rifamycins-food interactions compared with <25% of students who had not completed the laboratory exercises. Conclusion. The use of spectral visual approaches allowed students to investigate antibiotic stability and interactions, thus reinforcing the clinical relevance of medicinal chemistry. Students’ performance on questions at the 1-year follow-up suggested increased retention of the concepts learned as a result of completing the exercises. PMID:24672070
Chelette, Candace T.
Interpretation of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) and PCR results in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with haematological malignancies requires clarification. A total of 116 patients underwent BAL for investigation of new lung infiltrates: 40% were neutropenic, 68% and 36% were receiving mould-active antifungal agents and ?-lactam antibiotics. The diagnosis of proven IPA (n = 3), probable IPA (n = 15), and possible invasive fungal disease (IFD, n = 50) was made without inclusion of GM results. BAL GM (at cut-off of 0.8) had lower diagnostic sensitivity for IPA than PCR (61% versus 78%) but higher specificity (93% versus 79%). Both tests had excellent negative predictive values (85-90%), supporting their utility in excluding IPA. The use of BAL GM and PCR results increased the certainty of Aspergillus aetiology in 7 probable IPA cases where fungal hyphae were detected in respiratory samples by microscopy, and upgraded 24 patients from possible IFD to probable IPA. Use of BAL GM and PCR improves the diagnosis of IPA. PMID:24768294
Heng, Siow-Chin; Chen, Sharon C-A; Morrissey, C Orla; Thursky, Karin; Manser, Renee L; De Silva, Harini D; Halliday, Catriona L; Seymour, John F; Nation, Roger L; Kong, David C M; Slavin, Monica A
There is no consensus guideline concerning the management of chronic hepatitis C patients during chemotherapy, and immunosuppression. However, there are some suggestions in literature that hepatitis C viral load increases during chemotherapy and there is a risk of rebound immunity against hepatitis C after discontinuation of immunosuppression with a consequent liver injury. A close monitoring of liver function of these patients is prudent during treatment of haematological malignancy. Antiviral treatment is deferred after the completion of chemotherapy and recovery of patients' immunity to minimize the toxicity of treatment. A combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is the standard therapy in hepatitis C infected haematological patients. PMID:21188204
Hwang, Y Y; Liang, R H S
Clinical chemistry values were examined in 90 monkeys administered a purified preparation of staphylococcal enterotoxin, type B, intravenously. These studies showed an early release of epinephrine accompanied by a mild increase in blood glucose. This was followed by progressively developing prolonged hypoglycemia. An early increase in bloodurea nitrogen occurred, presumably as a result of both prerenal azotemia and functional renal failure seen in association with the observed hypotension. Serum protein, Ca, and Cl concentrations decreased with time. Pi levels increased, whereas Na and K concentrations in serum remained unchanged. Serum enzyme concentrations were unchanged, with the exception of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, which rose rapidly when compared with prechallenge control observations or with values from sham-challenged monkeys. These changes were statistically significant. These results suggested that enterotoxin administered intravenously produced early change in glucose metabolism, possibly related initially to catecholamine release and later to increased utilization of glucose and metabolic acidosis. Other findings were compatible with tissue breakdown at as yet undetermined locations and with loss of endothelial membrane integrity, as evidenced by loss of protein from the vascular space. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4961554
Crawley, Gerald J.; Black, John N.; Gray, Irving; Blanchard, Jack W.
Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation. Methods: In the present study, 129 HIV seropositive patients were included. Lymph node aspirates were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) stains. Special stains and cultures were done in selected patients. Peripheral smears were taken from all the patients and CD4 counts were recorded. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was further categorized. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) grading was done on Z-N positive smears. Each lesion was compared with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging and haematological picture. Results: Cytological diagnosis in 129 patients included tuberculous (n=54, 41.9%), reactive lymphadenopathy (n=46, 35.6%), suppurative (n=16, 12.4%) lymphadenitis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=4, 3.1%), and Hodgkin's lymphoma, secondary deposits, other granulomatous lesions, and cryptoccocal lymphadenitis in one patient each. The predominant cytomorphological pattern in tuberculous lymphadenitis was caseous necrosis + epithelioid granuloma formation (51.85%). Grade 2+ Z-N grading was noted in 62.96 per cent of AFB positive smears. CD4 counts showed a descending pattern with progression of WHO clinical staging. Cytopenia was more common in WHO clinical stage IV disease. Interpretation & conclusions: Lymph node cytology was found to be a useful tool for segregating lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation and for identification of opportunistic infections, neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Comparison of lymph node lesions with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging, haematological alterations and AFB grading reflects immunity, stage of disease and disease activity aiding better treatment. PMID:24718407
Tirumalasetti, Neelima; Prema Latha, P.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-Tof-MS) has recently become a popular and versatile method to analyze macromolecules from biological origin. In this paper, we will review the application of MALDI-Tof-MS in clinical chemistry and biology. MALDI-Tof-MS is used in clinical chemistry, e.g. disease markers can be identified with MALDI-MS analysis in combination with 1-D and 2-D gel electrophoresis separations
Laure F. Marvin; Matthew A. Roberts; Laurent B. Fay
An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…
service guidance is to guide the commissioning of services and is therefore different from clinical practice guidelines. Health services in England and Wales have organisational arrangements in place for securing improvements in cancer services and those responsible for their operation should take this guidance into account when planning, commissioning and organising services for cancer patients. The recommendations in the guidance concentrate on aspects of services that are likely to have significant impact on health outcomes. Both the anticipated benefits and the resource implications of implementing the recommendations are considered. This guidance can be used to identify gaps in local provision and to check the appropriateness of existing services.
Background: ROC curves have become the standard for describing and comparing the accuracy of diagnostic tests. Not surprisingly, ROC curves are used often by clinical chemists. Our aims were to observe how the accuracy of clinical laboratory diagnostic tests are as- sessed, compared, and reported in the literature; to identify common problems with the use of ROC curves; and to
Nancy A. Obuchowski; Michael L. Lieber; Frank H. Wians
Last quarter of twentieth century and the first 10 years of 21st century has seen phenomenal development in haematological pharmacotherapy. Tailor made chemotherapeutic agents, vast array of monoclonal antibodies, epigenetic modifiers, growth factors for red cells white cells and platelets, peptidomimetics as growth factors, newer thrombin inhibitors, safer plasma derived protein molecules, recombinant molecules, newer immunomodulators, enzyme replacement therapy and above all a plethora of targetted molecules targeting innumerable pathways involved in cell division, growth, proliferation and apoptosis has given immense number of clinically usable molecules in the hand of modern haematologists to treat diverse hitherto untreatable haematological disorders effectively. In addition many old molecules are finding newer uses in diverse fields, thalidomide as an antiangiogenic molecule is a prime example of this genre. Present overview has tried to capture this rapidly evolving area in a broad canvas without going into details of indications and contraindications of the use of various drugs. PMID:21629633
Abstract Matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass,spectrometry,(MALDI-Tof-MS) has recently become,a popular and versatile method to analyze macromolecules from biological origin. In this paper, we will review the application of MALDI-Tof-MS in clinical chemistry and biology. MALDI-Tof-MS is used in clinical chemistry, e.g. disease markers can be identified with MALDI-MS analysis in combination,with 1-D and 2-D gel electrophoresis separations thanks to either
Laure F. Marvin; Matthew A. Roberts; Laurent B. Fay
Objective: To summarize recent developments in our understanding of homocysteine as a clinically relevant and independent predictor of vaso-occlusive disease (including atherosclerosis and thromboembolism), as an early indicator of folate or cobalamin deficiency, and as a key factor in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects.Methods and Results: To determine total homocysteine, plasma or serum must be separated shortly after collection
Steven E. S. Miner; Jovan Evrovski; David E. C. Cole
Tandem mass spectrometry is becoming an increasingly important analytical technology in the clinical laboratory environment. Applications in toxicology and therapeutic drug monitoring have opened the door for tandem mass spectrometry and now we are seeing a vast array of new applications being developed. It has been the combination of tandem mass spectrometry with sample introduction techniques employing atomospheric pressure ionization
Kent C. Dooley
A definition has been agreed for the most senior pro- fessional (consultant) in clinical chemistry and labor- atory medicine. A model job description for a consultant has been determined, which is intended to act as a toolkit to assist employing authorities and professional bodies to define the role of individual consultant posts. A total of 86 competences for a con-
Graham Beastall; Desmond Kenny; Paivi Laitinen; Joop ten Kate
In the early 1960s, Joachim Brugsch, one of the founders of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) (then Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie), had the idea to found a journal in the upcoming field of clinical chemistry. He approached Ernst Schütte, who was associated with the De Gruyter publishing house through another journal, to participate, and Schütte thus became the second founder of this Journal. The aim was to create a vehicle allowing the experts to express their opinions and raise their voices more clearly than they could in a journal that publishes only original experimental papers, a laborious and difficult, but important endeavor, as the profession of clinical chemistry was still in the early stages of development at this time. The first issue of this Journal was published in early 1963, and today, we are proud to celebrate the 50th anniversary of CCLM. This review describes the development of this Journal in light of the political situation of the time when it was founded, the situation of the publisher Walter De Gruyter after the erection of the Berlin Wall, and the development of clinical chemistry, and later on, laboratory medicine as a well-acknowledged discipline and profession. PMID:23241683
Körber, Friedrich; Plebani, Mario
The relative sensitivities of eight commonly used clinical chemistry end points and histopathology to detect potential toxic effects in liver and kidney were evaluated for a series of 61 13-week rat toxicity studies conducted for the National Toxicology Program. The data consisted of 1-, 2- to 3-, and 13-week clinical chemistry measurements and 13-week histopathological assessments of liver and kidney.
G. S. Travlos; R. W. Morris; M. R. Elwell; A. Duke; S. Rosenblum; M. B. Thompson
in the field of toxicology and clinical chemistry have initially been performed using NMR, the use of liquid1 Applications of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in clinical chemistry and toxicology: a review AurÃ©lie Rouxa , Dominique Lisonb , Christophe Junota* and Jean
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
This is intended to be a practical review for the clinical chemist of the laboratory procedures most commonly used to quantitate hormone receptors in various cellular fractions. These procedures include use of charcoal adsorption and hydroxylapatite for intracellular receptors and of centrifugation and filtration for membrane receptors. We discuss the use of the Scatchard analysis to establish the steroid-receptor affinity and the quantity of steroid-receptor binding sites. Both pre- and post-labeled sucrose density gradient methods are outlined. One section is devoted to the direct and indirect methods used in nuclear ''exchange'' assays. Basic theory underlying each assay is presented, but, more importantly, we assess the advantages and disadvantages of each procedure. On the basis of this information, one may decide which assay is best suited for a particular laboratory and (or) specimen.
Smith, R.G.; Sestili, M.A.
We assessed the analytical performance of the Axon system (Bayer Diagnostici), according to the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines, for assay of 12 analytes: cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, total protein, urea, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, alpha-amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, sodium, and potassium. The field evaluation lasted approximately 5 months and involved the collection of approximately 10,000 data points with the Axon. The following results were obtained: The highest CVs for controls and human sera at different concentration/activity values were 2.2% for within-run imprecision (n = 60; 3 days, pooled estimate) and 3.5% for the between-day imprecision (n = 20 days). Close correlation was found with results for patients' specimens assayed with comparative instruments (Hitachi 717 for substrates and enzymes, Beckman Synchron EL/E4A for electrolytes). No drift was observed during 8 h of operation. The linearity range was broad, sometimes exceeding the manufacturer's claims. No sample-, reagent-, or cuvette-related carryover was found. Measurement of control sera gave results within +/- 5% of the assigned values. We conclude that good reliability and practicability make the Axon system suitable for laboratories with various needs. PMID:1394998
Brenna, S; Prencipe, L
Background A set of standard clinical chemistry and hematology parameters are usually measured during clinical studies. The major outcome of these standard tests is to control that the drug investigated does not lead to pathophysiological changes in respective organs or blood. In some cases based on scientific rationale such tests may not be needed. In this paper we report on a standard set of clinical chemistry and hematology laboratory parameters measured before and after treatment in three different immunotherapy studies, representing different routes of administration and different formulations. Methods Thirteen hematological laboratory parameters and eight clinical chemistry parameters were evaluated from three double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multi-centre, phase III studies. The three studies include one with sublingual immunotherapy (n?=?185), one subcutaneous immunotherapy trial with an aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed recombinant hypoallergenic Bet v1-FV (n?=?211) and one with pre-seasonal subcutaneous immunotherapy with a 6-grass pollen allergoid (n?=?154). Results Allergen specific immunotherapy with both administration forms and formulations respectively did not show any influence on any of the 21 laboratory parameters analyzed. Few patients had a change in laboratory parameters from within normal range at baseline to either below or above at end-of-treatment. No differences between active and placebo were seen with respect to number of patients with such a change. Conclusions This study with different preparations and routes of application indicates that the value of repeated measurements of standard clinical chemistry and hematology parameters during allergen immunotherapy should be discussed further. PMID:24955235
The Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology, a peer-reviewed online journal and database provided by Infobiogen, is "devoted to genes, cytogenetics, and clinical entities in cancer, and cancer-prone diseases." Users can search the materials by genes, leukaemias, solid tumors, cancer prone diseases, and chromosomes. Researchers can find links to scientific societies and meetings. Students can explore educational materials on Mendelian and non-Mendelian Inheritance, chromosomes, population genetics, and additional human genetics topics. The website also offers reviews and case reports.
Zygomycoses caused by fungi of the mucorales order (mucormycoses) are emerging fungal diseases with a high fatality rate. The most important risk factors include neutropenia or functional neutropenia, diabetic ketoacidosis, iron overload, major trauma, prolonged use of corticosteroids, illicit intravenous drug (ID) use, neonatal prematurity, malnourishment, and maybe a previous exposure to antifungal agents with no activity against zygomycetes, such as voriconazole and echinocandins. A high index of suspicion is crucial for the diagnosis, as prompt and appropriate management can considerably reduce morbidity and mortality. Suspicion index can be increased through recognition of the differential patterns of clinical presentation. In the non- haematological immunocompromised patients, mucormycosis can manifest in various clinical forms, depending on the underlying condition: mostly as rhino-orbital or rhino-cerebral in diabetes patients, pulmonary infection in patients with malignancy or solid organ transplantation, disseminated infection in iron overloaded or deferoxamine treated patients, cerebral - with no sinus involvement - in ID users, gastrointestinal in premature infants or malnourishment, and cutaneous after direct inoculation in immunocompetent individuals with trauma or burns. Treating a patient’s underlying medical condition and reducing immunosuppression are essential to therapy. Rapid correction of metabolic abnormalities is mandatory in cases such as uncontrolled diabetes, and corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs should be discontinued where feasible. AmphotericinB or its newer and less toxic lipid formulations are the drugs of choice regarding antifungal chemotherapy, while extensive surgical debridement is essential to reduce infected and necrotic tissue. A high number of cases could be prevented through measures including diabetes control programmes and proper pre- and post-surgical hygiene. PMID:21625316
Petrikkos, George; Drogari-Apiranthitou, Miranda
Early and accurate pre-clinical and clinical biomarkers of hepatotoxicity facilitate the drug development process and the safety monitoring in clinical studies. We selected eight known model compounds to be administered to male Wistar rats to identify biomarkers of drug induced liver injury (DILI) using transcriptomics, metabolite profiling (metabolomics) and conventional endpoints. We specifically explored early biomarkers in serum and liver tissue associated with histopathologically evident acute hepatotoxicity. A tailored data analysis strategy was implemented to better differentiate animals with no treatment-related findings in the liver from animals showing evident hepatotoxicity as assessed by histopathological analysis. From the large number of assessed parameters, our data analysis strategy allowed us to identify five metabolites in serum and five in liver tissue, 58 transcripts in liver tissue and seven clinical chemistry markers in serum that were significantly associated with acute hepatotoxicity. The identified markers comprised metabolites such as taurocholic acid and putrescine (measured as sum parameter together with agmatine), classical clinical chemistry markers like AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), and bilirubin, as well as gene transcripts like Igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1) and Egr1 (early growth response protein 1). The response pattern of the identified biomarkers was concordant across all types of parameters and sample matrices. Our results suggest that a combination of several of these biomarkers could significantly improve the robustness and accuracy of an early diagnosis of hepatotoxicity. PMID:24836604
Buness, Andreas; Roth, Adrian; Herrmann, Annika; Schmitz, Oliver; Kamp, Hennicke; Busch, Kristina; Suter, Laura
Background Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. Methods and findings Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors’ questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4%) males, 125 (32.6%) non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2%) with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB) and Hematocrit (HCT) had significant gender difference (p?=?0.000) but not for total white blood count (p>0.05) which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p?=?0.000). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P?=?0.000). Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p?=?0.001) but lower in pregnant women (p?=?0.001) with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05) but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p<0.05). Total bilirubin was significantly higher in males than females (p?=?0.000). Significant differences exist for all chemistry parameters between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study (p<0.05), except Amylase and total cholesterol (p>0.05). Conclusions Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations. PMID:24832127
Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash'le
Advances in image-guided therapy for vertebral fractures and other bone-related disorders have made acrylic bone cement an integral part of the interventional armamentarium. Unfortunately, information on the properties and chemistry of these compounds is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the interventional community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the properties of components in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based polymers, the most commonly used bone cements in interventional procedures such as percutaneous vertebroplasty. The effects of altering the concentration of components such as methylmethacrylate monomers, PMMA beads, benzoyl peroxide activator, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) initiator, and radiopacifiers on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also considered. This information will allow interventional radiologists to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific applications and maximize the clinical potential of image-guided interventions. PMID:14963178
Nussbaum, David A; Gailloud, Philippe; Murphy, Kieran
Measurements of fluorescence lifetimes, rather than intensity or intensity ratios, offer many advantages in clinical chemistry and imaging. However, measurements of time-resolved fluorescence are normally associated with complex laser light sources and instrumentation. In this lecture, we show how emerging technology is enabling the design and use of simple instrumentation for time-resolved fluorescence. In particular, it is now possible to imagine lifetime-based measurements of blood gases and blood glucose, and lifetime imaging of calcium and other ions in microscopic samples.
Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Szmacinski, Henryk; Thompson, Richard B.
Background: Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinical chemistry core laboratory. Subjects and Methods: At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS) to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs), delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and ‘absurd’ (physiologically improbable) values. Results: The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinical chemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%), albumin (99.8%), and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%). The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate) and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda), mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection) and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a high rate of autoverification is possible with modern clinical chemistry analyzers. The ability to autoverify a high percentage of results increases productivity and allows clinical laboratory staff to focus attention on the small number of specimens and results that require manual review and investigation. PMID:24843824
Krasowski, Matthew D.; Davis, Scott R.; Drees, Denny; Morris, Cory; Kulhavy, Jeff; Crone, Cheri; Bebber, Tami; Clark, Iwa; Nelson, David L.; Teul, Sharon; Voss, Dena; Aman, Dean; Fahnle, Julie; Blau, John L.
The QBC Star haematology system includes the QBC Star centrifugal analytical analyser and the QBC Star tube system. Together, they are capable of producing a haematology profile on venous or capillary whole blood. The aim of this study is to compare full blood count (FBC) including differential white cell count performance between the QBC Star analyser and a gold standard Sysmex XE-2100 haematology analyser. The FBC performance was evaluated according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) document H20-A. Imprecision, correlation and linearity studies all showed excellent results. Overall, the haemoglobin, haematocrit, white cell count (WCC) and platelet count parameters showed excellent correlation. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) results showed poor comparability. The white cell differential parameters showed good correlation within certain clinically significant limits. Imprecision for haemoglobin, haematocrit, WCC, MCHC and platelet count was considered acceptable. The re-read function was found to be stable over the five-hour testing period under the authors' laboratory environmental conditions. The subjective assessment by biomedical scientist staff demonstrated that the system was user friendly, required little maintenance, and no user calibration was required. Staff considered the user manual to be excellent. Overall, the QBC Star appears to be an excellent point-of-care (POC) dry haematology analyser that delivers clinically significant nine-parameter complete blood count and will make a good POC analyser for use in field hospitals, research, screening programmes, GP surgeries as well as in emergency and intensive care units. It is a health and safety-friendly analyser considering the fact that it uses dry haematology reagents instead of the bulky wet reagents that are often associated with liquid biohazard waste. PMID:23888608
Erhabor, O; Richardson, G; Mohammed, I; Thornton, C; Bark, J; Hurst, M; Hamer, D; Kinsella, P
Proteomics studies typically aim to exhaustively detect peptides/proteins in a given biological sample. Over the past decade, the number of publications using proteomics methodologies has exploded. This was made possible due to the availability of high-quality genomic data and many technological advances in the fields of microfluidics and mass spectrometry. Proteomics in biomedical research was initially used in 'functional' studies for the identification of proteins involved in pathophysiological processes, complexes and networks. Improved sensitivity of instrumentation facilitated the analysis of even more complex sample types, including human biological fluids. It is at that point the field of clinical proteomics was born, and its fundamental aim was the discovery and (ideally) validation of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, or therapeutic monitoring of disease. Eventually, it was recognized that the technologies used in clinical proteomics studies [particularly liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)] could represent an alternative to classical immunochemical assays. Prior to deploying MS in the measurement of peptides/proteins in the clinical laboratory, it seems likely that traditional proteomics workflows and data management systems will need to adapt to the clinical environment and meet in vitro diagnostic (IVD) regulatory constraints. This defines a new field, as reviewed in this article, that we have termed quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP). PMID:23183755
Lehmann, Sylvain; Hoofnagle, Andrew; Hochstrasser, Denis; Brede, Cato; Glueckmann, Matthias; Cocho, José A; Ceglarek, Uta; Lenz, Christof; Vialaret, Jérôme; Scherl, Alexander; Hirtz, Christophe
Background Malaria is a major mosquito-borne public health problem in Thailand with varied haematological consequences. The study sought to elucidate the haematological changes in people who suspected malaria infection and their possible predictive values of malaria infection. Methods Haematological parameters of 4,985 patients, including 703 malaria-infected and 4,282 non-malaria infected, who admitted at Phop Phra Hospital, Tak Province, an area of malaria endemic transmission in Thailand during 2009 were evaluated. Results The following parameters were significantly lower in malaria-infected patients; red blood cells (RBCs) count, haemoglobin (Hb), platelets count, white blood cells (WBCs) count, neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were higher in comparison to non-malaria infected patients. Patients with platelet counts?150,000/uL were 31.8 times (odds ratio) more likely to have a malaria infection. Thrombocytopenia was present in 84.9% of malaria-infected patients and was independent of age, gender and nationality (P value?0.0001). Conclusion Patients infected with malaria exhibited important changes in most of haematological parameters with low platelet, WBCs, and lymphocyte counts being the most important predictors of malaria infection. When used in combination with other clinical and microscopy methods, these parameters could improve malaria diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24898891
Haematological and Immunological Data Data set n Input 1 WBC 2 Hgb Haematology 3 MCV 4 Plat 5 Lymph 6 Neut 1 PanT% 2 CD4% Immunology 3 CD8% 4 PanT 5 CD4 6 CD8 slideÂ1 #12; Data Type Data set KS+ (class 1) KS-- (class 3) Haematology Training 24 82 Test 4 10 Immunology Training 24 81 Test 4 10 KS
Distributions of nine clinical chemistry determinations (serum bilirubin, globulin, creatinine, thyroxine, alkaline phosphatase, hematocrit, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, and plasma glucose) were assessed for 1,605 schoolchildren aged 6 to 17 years, in the Cincinati Lipid Research Clinic's Princeton School District study. Nine hundred and sixteen children were randomly recalled, and 689 were recalled by virtue of elevated (top decile) plasma cholesterol or triglyceride or both. For each clinical chemistry measurement, the following factors were considered: random and hyperlipidemic recall groups, age, sex, and race. The data were arrayed to provide the fifth percentile, the median, and the ninety-fifth percentile levels, as well as the 90% confidence interval of about the fifth and ninety-fifth percentile estimates. These data allow black-white age and sex, and normal-hyperlipidemic comparisons of commonly measured clinical chemistry determinations among a large population of children. This study also provides, for the methods used, accurate estimations of age-, sex-, race-, and recall group-specific percentile distributions for selected clinical chemistry determinations for children. PMID:7424820
Laskarzewski, P; Kelly, K A; Mellies, M J; Morrison, J A; Khoury, P; Tillett, S; Glueck, C J
Medicinal chemistry strategies have contributed to the development, experimental study of and clinical trials assessment of the first type of protein kinase small molecule inhibitor to target the Janus kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. The orally administered small molecule inhibitor, tofacitinib, is the first drug to target the JAK/STAT pathway for entry into the armamentarium of the medical therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of tofacitinib into general rheumatologic practice coupled with increasing understanding that additional cellular signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways as well as spleen tyrosine kinase also contribute to immune-mediated inflammatory in rheumatoid arthritis makes it likely that further development of orally administered protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis will occur in the near future. PMID:25232525
Malemud, Charles J; Blumenthal, David E
Objectives To evaluate an instructional model for teaching clinically relevant medicinal chemistry. Methods An instructional model that uses Bloom's cognitive and Krathwohl's affective taxonomy, published and tested concepts in teaching medicinal chemistry, and active learning strategies, was introduced in the medicinal chemistry courses for second-professional year (P2) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students (campus and distance) in the 2005-2006 academic year. Student learning and the overall effectiveness of the instructional model were assessed. Student performance after introducing the instructional model was compared to that in prior years. Results Student performance on course examinations improved compared to previous years. Students expressed overall enthusiasm about the course and better understood the value of medicinal chemistry to clinical practice. Conclusion The explicit integration of the cognitive and affective learning objectives improved student performance, student ability to apply medicinal chemistry to clinical practice, and student attitude towards the discipline. Testing this instructional model provided validation to this theoretical framework. The model is effective for both our campus and distance-students. This instructional model may also have broad-based applications to other science courses. PMID:18483599
Galt, Kimberly A.
A UK survey was carried out to discover the frequency, circumstances, and outcome of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) complicating idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) of childhood. A questionnaire was circulated through the membership of the UK Paediatric Haematology Forum, and thence to local paediatricians and haematologists. It sought information on any child with ITP who had had an ICH during the 20
J S Lilleyman
Broiler chicks were subjected to experimentally?induced hypoxia and the haematology, together with the histopathology and ultrastructure of heart, liver, lung and kidney and the ultracytochemistry of heart tissues were examined. The haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell counts were significantly increased compared with controls. The results resembled the haematology of similar aged broilers with an ascitic syndrome
M. H. Maxwell; S. Spence; G. W. Robertson; M. A. Mitchell
Background Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug users. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the clinical chemistry profiles and identifying the key laboratory markers of HIV infection during ART in injection heroin users (IHUs). Methods Clinical chemistry measurements were performed on serum samples collected from HIV-1 infected ART-experienced (n?=?22), naive (n?=?16) and HIV-1 negative (n?=?23) IHUs, and healthy controls (n?=?15) from Mombasa, coastal Kenya. Results HIV uninfected IHUs had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P?=?0.023) as ART-exposed IHUs exhibited lower albumin (P?=?0.014) and higher AST to platelet index (APRI) (P?0.0001). All IHUs presented with lower aspartate aminotransferase to ALT values (P?=?0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P?=?0.002). ART-naive IHUs had higher globulin levels (P?=?0.013) while ART-experienced and naive IHUs had higher albumin to total protein (P?0.0001) and albumin to globulin (P?0.0001) values. In addition, CD4+ T cells correlated with ALT (? = ?0.522, P = 0.011) and CRP (rho, ??=?0.529, P?=?0.011) in HIV negative and ART-experienced IHUs, respectively. HIV-1 viral load correlated with albumin to globulin index in ART-experienced (??=??0.468, P?=?0.037) and naive (??=??0.554, P?=?0.040) IHUs; and with albumin to total protein index (??=??0.554, P?=?0.040) and globulin (??=?0.570, P?=?0.033) in ART-naive IHUs. Conclusion Absolute ALT, albumin, globulin, and CRP measurements in combination with APRI, AST to ALT, albumin to total protein and albumin to globulin indices may be useful laboratory markers for screening IHUs for initiating and monitoring treatment. PMID:25057262
This study was designed to create a snapshot of Australian haematology reference intervals (RIs) in use, in particular red cell parameters. We present an analysis of survey results conducted across Australian laboratories between November 2012 and January 2013.All Australian laboratories enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were invited to participate in the December 2012 Survey Monkey survey, with a response from 85 laboratories (17%) received. The scope included laboratory demographics (location, size/throughput, and network), RIs in use for the full blood count and selected derived parameters, their frequency of revision, source and statistical approach for derivation. Further questions related to uncertainty of measurement, pregnancy values, paediatric/adult cut-off, haematology profiles reported and the use of extended parameters.There is more consistency with some upper and lower limits than others, and wide ranges for reported uncertainty of measurement (UM). There is no apparent consistency with RIs used for particular instruments and technologies. When laboratories change their RIs, most obtain them from a text book, paper or another laboratory and have difficulty in determining the source. If they do determine their own, most don't have a standard operating procedure and calculations are not consistent in terms of sample size and statistical methods used.We have presented evidence of the wide variations in RIs used in Australian laboratories and that arguably these do not differ significantly from each other. The paediatric age cut-off requires standardisation. PMID:25158822
Sinclair, Leanne; Hall, Sara; Badrick, Tony
Objective The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. Methods In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. Results The questionnaire items ‘Red joints’, ‘Swollen joints’, ‘Warm joints’ suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RHF) levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Conclusion Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient. PMID:22984493
van der Kooij, Anita J.; Reijmers, Theo H.; Schroen, Yan; Wang, Mei; Xu, Zhiliang; Wang, Xinchang; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang; Hankemeier, Thomas; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; van der Greef, Jan
Automated haematology analysers can rapidly provide accurate blood cell counts and white blood cell differentials. In this study, we evaluated four different haematology analysers for the detection of apoptotic lymphocytes in peripheral blood: MAXM A/L Retic, H*2, Cell-Dyn 3500 and NE-8000. With the MAXM A/L Retic haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared below the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF1, and to the right under the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF2 scattergrams. With the H*2 haematology analyser, the apoptotic polymorphonuclear lymphocytes produced a higher lobularity index on the BASO channel. With the Cell-Dyn 3500 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared to the right side of the original lymphocyte cluster on the 0D/10D scattergram and to the left side of the polymorphonuclear cluster on the 90D/10D scattergram. With the NE-8000 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster was not distinguishable. Thus, apoptotic lymphocytes are readily detected on scattergrams generated by selected haematology analysers. PMID:12067276
Taga, K; Sawaya, M; Yoshida, M; Kaneko, M; Okada, M; Taniho, M
The variation in growth and carcass composition responses of lambs to somatotropin ( S T ) treatment may depend on the source of ST used as well as on other experimental conditions. In the present experiment, growth, carcass composition, and clinical chemistry responses to recombinantly produced ovine ST (oST) and two bovine ST (N- methionyl-bST(M-bST1 and N-alanyl-bST(A-bST1 were compared. Lambs
C. L. McLaughlin; H. B. Hedrickt; J. J. Veenhuizen; R. L. Hintz; G. F. Hartnell; T. R. Kasser; C. A. Baile
The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117
Hrab?áková, Petra; Voslá?ová, Eva; Bedá?ová, Iveta; Pišt?ková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimír
The issue of tailored dosing adjusted according to a range of patient-specific factors other than bodyweight or body surface area is of large and increasing clinical and financial concern. Even if it is known that dosing alterations are likely to be required for parameters such as body composition, gender and pharmacogenetics, the amount of dosing change is unknown. Thus, pharmacokinetically guided dosing is making a resurgence, particularly in areas of medicine where there are cost constraints or safety issues, such as in haematology medications. However, the evidence to support the behaviour is minimal, particularly when long-term outcomes are considered. In haematology, there are particular issues around efficacy, toxicity and overall cost. Newer targeted agents, such as the monoclonal antibody rituximab and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, whilst clearly being highly effective, are dosed on a milligram per square metre (rituximab) or fixed dose basis (imatinib), regardless of body composition, tumour aspects or comorbidity. This review questions this practice and raises important clinical issues; specifically, the clinical potential for combined pharmacokinetically and pharmacodynamically guided dosing of new targeted agents in haematological malignancies. This pharmacokinetically and pharmacodynamically guided dosing is an emerging area of clinical pharmacology, driven predominantly by toxicity, efficacy and cost issues, but also because reasonable outcomes are being noted with more appropriately dosed older medications adjusted for patient-specific factors. Clinical trials to investigate the optimization of rituximab dose scheduling are required. PMID:24433338
Arpon, David Rey; Gandhi, Maher K; Martin, Jennifer H
Although scarce, available data suggest that the epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in North Africa differs from northern countries, where more than 80 % is caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. This study aimed at describing the epidemiology of IA in the region of Sousse, Tunisia, and at assessing the usefulness of the available diagnostic tools. For 2 years, clinical and mycological data were prospectively collected from 175 neutropenia episodes of 91 patients hospitalised in the haematology department at the Farhat Hached hospital in Sousse (Tunisia). Screening for galactomannan antigen was positive in 40 % of neutropenia episodes; Aspergillus PCR was positive in 42 % of the tested sera. Nine patients were classified as probable and two as possible IA according to the EORTC/MSG criteria. Twelve patients who prematurely died, had no CT scan and could not be classified. Fifty-six Aspergillus spp. were isolated in 53 (6.5 %) sputa collected from 35 (20 %) patients. The following species were identified with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and DNA sequencing: A. niger, 35 %; A. flavus, 38 %; A. tubingensis, 19 %; A. fumigatus, 4 %; A. westerdijkiae, 2 % and A. ochraceus, 2 %. Our findings highlight the epidemiological features of IA in Tunisia, which is characterised by the predominance of Aspergillus spp. from sections Nigri and Flavi. PMID:24728707
Gheith, Soukeina; Saghrouni, Fatma; Bannour, Wadiaa; Ben Youssef, Yosra; Khelif, Abderrahim; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ben Said, Moncef; Piarroux, Renaud; Njah, Mansour; Ranque, Stéphane
Tremendous strides have been made in improving the outcomes of haematological malignancies (HM) over the last three decades, but adolescents and young adult (AYA) patients have not benefitted equally compared to younger and older patients. Excellent outcomes in Hodgkin lymphoma have allowed tailoring of highly effective regimens that limit the incidence of late effects. Early successes in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia set the stage for a series of studies in young adults utilizing a paediatric-type treatment strategy. These studies have determined that AYAs benefit from paediatric-type chemotherapy regimens. Despite the increased incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the AYA age group, optimal strategies for these patients have not been systematically pursued. There is renewed interest in improving HM outcomes in AYA patients and this will rely on the development of clinical trials that specifically target these patients. Understanding and addressing the unique psychosocial challenges of this population will be critical in supporting this endeavor. PMID:24007213
Place, Andrew E; Frederick, Natasha N; Sallan, Stephen E
Introduction Khat (Catha edulis) is a recreational psychoactive drug with psychostimulant properties. While the use of this drug is widespread in eastern Africa, including the Horn of Africa, surveys and anecdotal data show that its use has become cosmopolitan, with users now living in Europe and North America as well. Recent data in Uganda suggest an increasing pattern of simultaneous khat and ethanol use particularly among young adults. However, the effects of this pattern of use remain largely unknown, even though long-term use of either drug alone is known to be harmful. The aim of this study was to examine the toxic effects of simultaneous chronic administration of khat and ethanol on hematological parameters, clinical chemistry, and testosterone in a rat model. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of six dose groups: 2 g/kg khat; 4 g/kg khat; 4 g/kg ethanol; combined khat and ethanol (4 g/kg each); control; and an untreated group. Treatments were given by gavage twice daily for 28 days, followed by determination of hematological parameters, blood clinical chemistry, and testosterone. Results Ethanol alone significantly reduced platelet counts compared to control-, untreated and low-dose khat-treated rats; conversely low-dose khat significantly increased both the hemoglobin and hematocrit values, while ethanol alone also significantly increased the hemoglobin value compared to controls. Simultaneous khat and ethanol administration per se did not produce more toxic consequences in chronic use than either drug alone. Conclusion Chronic short-term khat use and ethanol dependence individually produce note-worthy effects on the blood, but not on clinical chemistry or testosterone. Chronic short-term combined khat and ethanol use does not produce more toxic effects compared to use of either drug alone. This provides an opportunity for appropriate clinical interventions to avert the chronic long-term effects that result from use of these drugs of abuse. PMID:24348075
Alele, Paul E; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Imanirampa, Lawrence
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent important complications in patients with haematological malignancies. Chemoprevention of IFIs may play an important role in this setting, but in the past decades the majority of antifungal drugs utilized demonstrated poor efficacy, particularly in the prevention of invasive aspergillosis. The new triazoles are very useful antifungal drugs, more suitable for prophylaxis of IFIs than amphotericin B and echinocandins. In this review, the main clinical data about antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole are analysed. At present, posaconazole appears to be the most efficacious azole in antifungal prophylaxis, particularly in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. PMID:24372659
Pagano, L; Caira, M
This fifteenth biannual report of the Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group (CHMG) highlights recently published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of hemato-oncology, covering the publication period from October 2011 to May 2012. Implications for clinical practice and methodological aspects are the main principles for selecting trials for this report. Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE using a broad search filter that covers all topics in hemato-oncology combined with a highly sensitive search filter for randomized trials (Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions). PMID:23852951
Rancea, Michaela; Will, Andrea; Borchmann, Peter; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas; Skoetz, Nicole
Haematological parameters were determined in healthy Nigerian breeds of goats and sheep. Most values in the Nigerian goats were similar to those reported for temperate breeds of goats although the haemoglobin concentrations and the MCHC were lower. The haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and red cell counts of the West African Dwarf sheep were lower while the MCV were higher than those reported for sheep in the temperate climate. RBC values decreased with age in both Nigerian goats and sheep. Although sex pregnancy appeared to have little or no influence on the erythrocytic values, pregnant ewes had higher haematocrit and haemoglobin values. The low erythrocytic values were attributed to a low but constant parasitic burden which affected the flocks studied. Total leucocyte counts were considerably higher in the Nigerian goats and sheep than those reported for temperate breeds of animals. Young goats had higher total leucocyte counts while pregnant goats had reduced leucocyte counts. The leucocytic values were not affected by age and sex. Pregnant ewes also had higher leucocyte counts than non-pregnant ewes and rams. PMID:968949
Oduye, O O
Introduction Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC) intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals. Methods Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup. Results Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men) were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800. Conclusion Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs. PMID:24642526
Ambayya, Angeli; Su, Anselm Ting; Osman, Nadila Haryani; Nik-Samsudin, Nik Rosnita; Khalid, Khadijah; Chang, Kian Meng; Sathar, Jameela; Rajasuriar, Jay Suriar; Yegappan, Subramanian
AIM--To determine whether iron metabolism influences the incidence of systemic fungal infection in patients with haematological malignancies. METHODS--The study population comprised 74 patients who had undergone myeloablative chemotherapy. Systemic fungal infections were classified as confirmed (histological confirmation or characteristic septate hyphae) or possible (antibiotic resistant fever which resolved following administration of intravenous amphotericin B, together with either typical radiographic lesions or massive oropharyngeal candidiasis). Parameters of iron metabolism included serum iron concentrations, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin, and ferritin concentrations and transferrin saturation values. RESULTS--Patients who developed a fungal infection had substantially increased transferrin saturation values and ferritin concentrations at diagnosis together with low serum transferrin and high serum iron concentrations. This profile was present in patients with a fungal infection regardless of the underlying haematological disorder. CONCLUSION--Increased transferrin saturation values and high ferritin concentrations may be additional risk factors for the development of systemic fungal infection in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:7730481
Iglesias-Osma, C; Gonzalez-Villaron, L; San Miguel, J F; Caballero, M D; Vazquez, L; de Castro, S
Background In vitro diagnostic tests play a key role in patients’ management (e.g., guiding red blood cell transfusions). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an innovative device (Buzzy®) which is claimed to be able to relieve venipuncture pain by means of cold and vibration. This device was applied during collection of venous blood by venipuncture for conventional haematology testing. Materials and methods Blood was drawn from 100 volunteers by a single, expert phlebotomist. A vein was located in the left forearm without applying a tourniquet but using a subcutaneous tissue transilluminator device, so that venous stasis was avoided. Blood samples were collected with a 20G straight needle directly into 4mL K3EDTA vacuum tubes. In sequence, external cold and vibration was established by Buzzy® on the right forearm ?5 cm above the venipuncture site- for 1 minute before venipuncture and continued until the end of the same procedure already performed in the left forearm. Conventional haematological tests were performed using the same instrument (Sysmex® XE-2100D) in all cases. Results When Buzzy® was applied before drawing blood, erythrocyte counts and associated parameters (i.e., haemoglobin and haematocrit) were higher, whereas platelet number, leucocyte count and differential were lower. Statistically and clinically significant differences (P <0.001) were observed for erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Discussion From a practical perspective, cold-induced haemoconcentration promotes the efflux of water, diffusible ions and low molecular weight molecules from the vessel, thus increasing the concentration of other blood analytes at the puncture site. These variations may influence test results, especially for erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit. The novel Buzzy® device should, therefore, be used with caution when collecting blood for conventional haematological testing because of the observed bias introduced in some parameters. PMID:24120583
Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Campelo, Marise Danielle Raulino; Tajra, Katharyne Soares Adala; Gomes, Flavio dos Santos; Valentim, Carlos David; Romano, Sylvio Jose Colonna; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare
Aims: Although systemic mastocytosis (SM) with an associated clonal haematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD) is a major subtype of SM, little is known about its frequency among myelogenous neoplasms, and mastocytosis in particular, or about AHNMD subtype frequencies. Methods: Approximately 19 500 routine bone marrow biopsies were evaluated. Immunostaining with antibodies against tryptase, KIT, and CD25 and molecular analysis for detection of C-KIT point mutations were performed in approximately 550/4100 myelogenous malignancies including mastocytosis, almost all subtypes of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative syndrome (MDS/MPD), MPD, and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Results: SM was rare—it was diagnosed in only 64 bone marrows (0.3%) and made up 1.5% of myelogenous tumours. SM-AHNMD was the second most frequent subtype (20). SM-AHNMD was never included in the clinical differential diagnoses and was confirmed histologically in most cases only after appropriate immunostaining. The abnormal mast cell phenotype was confirmed by immunohistochemical demonstration of tryptase and CD25 coexpression. The following associated haematological neoplasms were found: MDS/MPS, AML, MPS, MDS, plasma cell myeloma, and unclassifiable myelogenous malignancy. C-KIT point mutations were detected in 16 of 20 cases. Conclusions: SM-AHNMD can be diagnosed histologically in bone marrow trephines only after immunostaining with antibodies against tryptase, KIT, and CD25. Eighteen of 20 AHNMDs were of myeloid origin. C-KIT point mutations were present in 16 of 20 cases. The prognostic relevance of detecting SM associated with another haematological neoplasm remains unclear, but mast cell resistance to most cytoreductive agents is of major importance for treatment planning. PMID:15166264
Horny, H-P; Sotlar, K; Sperr, W R; Valent, P
We have analyzed hematology data from 504 individual male C57BL/6 X DBA/2 (hereafter called B6D2F1) mice. Clinical chemistry data from an additional 304 individual male B6D2F1 mice have also been analyzed. The mice had served as drug-diluent controls in 24 toxicological evaluations of anticancer drugs administered singly or in combination. The studies were carried out under standardized conditions during an 18-month period between July 1975 and December 1976. Test values corresponding to 9 percentiles have been selected from an ordered ranking of values for each of 18 hematologic tests and 18 clinical chemistry tests. Since 95% of the values for a given test are found between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles, test values corresponding to these percentiles provide reference values ("normal" values) for these mice. The other percentiles (5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th) indicate the distribution of values between the reference limits for each test. Since values for all tests do not conform to the Gaussian distribution, this nonparametric analysis provides reference values that are more accurate than might be obtained from calculation of the mean and standard deviation of a given test. The B6D2F1 mouse, commonly referred to as BDF1, has been widely used for preclinical evaluation of anticancer drugs, and these data should be useful to investigators who are conducting qualitative and quantitative toxicity evaluations in these mice. PMID:667857
Harrison, S D; Burdeshaw, J A; Crosby, R G; Cusic, A M; Denine, E P
Radix Puerariae has been traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea, acute dysentery, deafness and cardiovascular diseases. Yege (Gegen or Radix Puerariae lobatae), the dried root of Pueraria lobata (Wild.) Ohwi, has been widely used in China and, to a lesser extent, in Japan, Korea, and the United States. Although they have been classified into different categories in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Yege is often used interchangeably in practice with Fenge (Radix Puerariae thomsonii), which is the dried root of Pueraria thomsonii Benth. Among various commercially available products of Radix Puerariae, injection of puerarin, the major isoflavone from Radix Puerariae, has been most widely used as a vasodilator for the treatment of angina and myocardial infarction. Considering the extensive clinical usage and recent alert of fatal herb-drug interaction of Radix Puerariae, the current review is proposed to cover its traditional applications, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and potential herb-drug interactions aiming to fill in the information gaps of this herb for frontline practitioners. Although various small, poorly designed clinical trials have demonstrated the safety, efficacy, and significant clinical benefits of Radix Puerariae, prospective randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to further establish its effective and safe use. PMID:23677886
Zhang, Zhen; Lam, Tai-Ning; Zuo, Zhong
Cancer-testis (CT) antigens/genes show restricted expression in normal tissues but widespread expression in many tumour types. This, coupled with their ability to induce cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses, makes them attractive vaccine candidates. Following our identification of PASD1, we have used RT-PCR to analyse the mRNA expression profile of a large panel of CT genes in cell lines derived from haematological malignancies, and have studied Sp17 protein expression in the same cell lines and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) biopsies. Our extensive analysis revealed multiple CT transcripts exhibiting widespread expression across cell lines derived from 21 B- and 4 T-cell malignancies. The broadest mRNA expression profiles were observed for the following eight CT genes: Sp17 (25/25), PRAME (25/25), CSAGE (24/25), PASD1 (22/25), CAGE/DDX53 (19/25), CTAGE1 (19/25), HAGE/DDX43 (16/25) and PLU-1/JARID1B (15/25). Cell lines derived from more aggressive lymphoma subtypes generally expressed CT transcripts at higher frequency. Sp17 protein was detected in a number of cell lines and in six of eleven (54.5%) DLBCL biopsies. Analysis of Sp17 protein expression, by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, broadens the scope of this CT antigen as a potentially relevant clinical target in haematological malignancies. Further studies of protein expression are now needed to validate these antigens as vaccine candidates. PMID:20726502
Liggins, Amanda P.; Lim, Seah H.; Soilleux, Elizabeth J.; Pulford, Karen
Presented is a project that developed a competency-based clinical chemistry course for associate degree medical laboratory technicians (MLT) in a medical technology (MT) baccalaureate program. Content of the course was based upon competencies expected of medical technologists at career-entry as defined in the statements adopted in 1976 by the…
RefVal is a computer program that implements the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. The program performs the following main tasks: graphical display of the distribution of reference values, identification or elimination of outliers, testing of the fit of the distribution to Gaussian shape (coefficients of skewness and kurtosis, Anderson-Darling's test,
Helge Erik Solberg
Over a decade has passed since the first report describing farnesyl protein transferase (FTase)\\u000a and tetrapeptide inhibitors triggered a search for small-molecule inhibitors that could be developed\\u000a as oral therapeutics. There are now several farnesyl protein inhibitors (FTIs) in various phases of clinical\\u000a development and at least two compounds have entered phase III. The published data suggest some disappointing\\u000a activity in the major
D. W. End; L. Mevellec; P. Angibaud
Vanadium, abbreviated V, is an early transition metal that readily forms coordination complexes with a variety of biological products such as proteins, metabolites, membranes and other structures. The formation of coordination complexes stabilizes metal ions, which in turn impacts the biodistribution of the metal. To understand the biodistribution of V, V in oxidation state IV in the form of vanadyl sulfate (25, 50, 100 mg V daily) was given orally for 6 weeks to 16 persons with type 2 diabetes. Elemental V was determined using Graphite Furnas Atomic Absorption Spectrometry against known concentrations of V in serum, blood or urine. Peak serum V levels were 15.4±6.5, 81.7±40 and 319±268 ng/ml respectively, and mean peak serum V was positively correlated with dose administered (r=0.992, p=0.079), although large inter-individual variability was found. Total serum V concentration distribution fit a one compartment open model with a first order rate constant for excretion with mean half times of 4.7±1.6 days and 4.6±2.5 days for the 50 and 100 mg V dose groups respectively. At steady state, 24 hour urinary V output was 0.18±0.24 and 0.97±0.84 mg in the 50 and 100 mg V groups respectively, consistent with absorption of 1 percent or less of the administered dose. Peak V in blood and serum were positively correlated (r=0.971, p<0.0005). The serum to blood V ratio for the patients receiving 100 mg V was 1.7±0.45. Regression analysis showed that glycohemoglobin was a negative predictor of the natural log (ln) peak serum V (R2=0.40, p=0.009) and a positive predictor of the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp results at high insulin values (R2=0.39, p=0.010). Insulin sensitivity measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was not significantly correlated with ln peak serum V. Globulin and glycohemoglobin levels taken together were negative predictors of fasting blood glucose (R2=0.49, p=0.013). Although V accumulation in serum was dose-dependent, no correlation between total serum V concentation and the insulin-like response was found in this first attempt to correlate anti-diabetic activity with total serum V. This study suggests that V pools other than total serum V are likely related to the insulin-like effect of this metal. These results, obtained in diabetic patients, document the need for consideration of the coordination chemistry of metabolites and proteins with vanadium in anti-diabetic vanadium complexes. PMID:23982218
Halvorsen, Katherine; Godzala, Michael E.; Chi, Lai-Har; Most, Mathew; Kaszynski, Peter; Crans, Debbie C.; Goldfine, Allison B.; Kostyniak, Paul J.
After the occurrence of septicaemia with a vancomycin-resistantEnterococcus faecalis strain in a patient, it was decided to determine the number of carriers of vancomycin-resistant cocci among haematologic patients. During a period of six months 135 stool samples from 25 children, and 400 samples from 70 adults were studied. All samples from the children were negative for vancomycin-resistant cocci. Nine of
H. F. L. Guiot; W. E. Peetermans; F. W. Sebens
International Federation of Clinical Chemistry standardization project for the measurement of lipoprotein(a). Phase I. Evaluation of the analytical performance of lipoprotein(a) assay systems and commercial calibrators
A secondary reference material for lipoprotein(a) is required to standardize the measurement of lipopro- tein(a) in clinical laboratories worldwide. Towards this aim, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Working Group for the Standardization of Lipopro- tein(a) Assays has initiated a standardization project involving a total of 33 diagnostic company and clinical chemistry laboratories from 12 countries. In Phase 1, the
Jillian R. Tate; Nader Rifai; Kare Berg; Remy Couderc; Francesco Dati; Gert M. Kostner; Ikunosuke Sakurabayashi; Armin Steinmetz
The Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology (http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org) is a peer-reviewed internet journal/encyclopaedia/database focused on genes implicated in cancer, cytogenetics and clinical entities in cancer and cancer-prone hereditary diseases. The main goal of the Atlas is to provide review articles that describe complementary topics, namely, genes, genetic abnormalities, histopathology, clinical diagnoses and a large iconography. This description, which was historically based on karyotypic abnormalities and in situ hybridization (fluorescence in situ hybridization) techniques, now benefits from comparative genomic hybridization and massive sequencing, uncovering a tremendous amount of genetic rearrangements. As the Atlas combines different types of information (genes, genetic abnormalities, histopathology, clinical diagnoses and external links), its content is currently unique. The Atlas is a cognitive tool for fundamental and clinical research and has developed into an encyclopaedic work. In clinical practice, it contributes to the cytogenetic diagnosis and may guide treatment decision making, particularly regarding rare diseases (because they are numerous and are frequently encountered). Readers as well as the authors of the Atlas are researchers and/or clinicians. PMID:23161685
Huret, Jean-Loup; Ahmad, Mohammad; Arsaban, Melanie; Bernheim, Alain; Cigna, Jeremy; Desangles, Francois; Guignard, Jean-Christophe; Jacquemot-Perbal, Marie-Christine; Labarussias, Maureen; Leberre, Vanessa; Malo, Anne; Morel-Pair, Catherine; Mossafa, Hossein; Potier, Jean-Claude; Texier, Guillaume; Viguie, Franck; Yau Chun Wan-Senon, Sylvie; Zasadzinski, Alain; Dessen, Philippe
Introduction Nowadays Enterococcus faecium has become one of the most emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors in haematology patients who are at risk of an Enterococcus faecium bloodstream infection (BSI) and should be considered for pre-emptive glycopeptide treatment. With these identified risk factors a prediction model can be developed for clinical use. Methods Retrospectively clinical and microbiological data in 33 patients with an E. faecium BSI were compared to 66 control patients during a 5-year period at the haematology ward. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore the independent risk factors and a prediction model was developed to determine the risk of an E. faecium BSI. Results E. faecium BSIs were found to be associated with high mortality rates. Independent risk factors for E. faecium BSI were colonization with E. faecium 30 days prior to blood culture (OR 5.71; CI 1.7-18.7), combination of neutropenia and abdominal focus (4.37; 1.4-13.4), age?>?58 years (4.01; 1.3-12.5), hospital stay prior to blood culture?>?14 days (3.55; 0.98-12.9) and CRP (C-reactive protein) level >125 mg/L (4.37; 1.1-10.2). Conclusion Using data from this study, risk stratification for the development of an E. faecium BSI in patients with haematological malignancies is possible. Pre-emptive treatment should be considered in those patients who are at high risk. Using a prediction model as designed in this study, antibiotic stewardship in terms of prudent use of glycopeptides can be improved and might be helpful in controlling further spread of VRE (vancomycin resistant enterococci). PMID:24025668
Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinical chemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...
Introduction: Preanalytical variables account for most of laboratory errors. There is a wide range of factors that affect the reliability of laboratory report. Most convenient sample type for routine laboratory analysis is serum. BD Vacutainer® Rapid Serum Tube (RST) (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) blood collection tube provides rapid clotting time allowing fast serum separation. Our aim was to evaluate the comparability of routine chemistry parameters in BD Vacutainer® RST blood collection tube in reference with the BD Vacutainer® Serum Separating Tubes II Advance Tube (SST) (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). Materials and methods: Blood specimens were collected from 90 participants for evaluation on its results, clotting time and stability study of six routine biochemistry parameters: glucose (Glu), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), calcium (Ca), lactate dehidrogenase (LD) and potassium (K) measured with Olympus AU2700 analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Tokyo, Japan). The significance of the differences between samples was assessed by paired t-test or Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Rank test after checking for normality. Results: Clotting process was significantly shorter in the RSTs compared to SSTs (2.49 min vs. 19.47 min, respectively; P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between the RST and SST II tubes for glucose, calcium and LD (P < 0.001). Differences for glucose and LD were also clinically significant. Analyte stability studies showed that all analytes were stable for 24 h at 4 °C. Conclusions: Most results (except LD and glucose) from RST are comparable with those from SST. In addition, RST tube provides shorter clotting time. PMID:25351355
Kocijancic, Marija; Cargonja, Jelena; Delic-Knezevic, Alma
Limited information exists on serum biochemistry and haematology of the European wild boar, and few correlations have been found between parasitic burden and clinical parameters in this species. Naturally infected wild boars were experimentally treated to study the effect of nematode parasites and ivermectin treatment on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin reaction and haematological and serum biochemical parameters. White blood cells decreased
Jorge R. López-Olvera; Ursula Höfle; Joaquín Vicente; Isabel G. Fernández-de-Mera; Christian Gortázar
Biosensors are analytical devices composed of a recognition element of biological origin and a physico-chemical transducer. The biological element is capable of sensing the presence, activity or concentration of a chemical analyte in solution. The sensing takes place either as a binding event or a biocatalytical event. These interactions produce a measurable change in a solution property, which the transducer
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry UCLA Chemistry, Biochemistry & Chemistry Material Science ...........................................................................................................................................4 Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Office..............................................................................................6 Majors in Chemistry & Biochemistry
Levine, Alex J.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies. PMID:23887658
Garitano-Trojaola, Andoni; Agirre, Xabier; Prósper, Felipe; Fortes, Puri
This study was designed to examine haemodynamic and haematologic effects of the crown-of-thorns starfish venom (Acanthaster planci venom: APV) in dogs. Severe systemic hypotension, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were induced by APV (1.0 mg protein/kg i.v.), followed by gradual return to the baseline level within 60 min. Hypotension was presumably caused by two factors: an early decrease in systemic vascular resistance and the large reduction in cardiac output due to reduced ventricular filling. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, remarkably suppressed systemic hypotension induced by APV. The peak reduction in systemic pressure was associated with concomitant rise of plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a major stable metabolite of prostacyclin. Thus, the hypotensive effect of APV may be caused primarily by prostacyclin and/or some vasodilating prostaglandins. In contrast, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were not affected by cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor or platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist. When APV was administered repeatedly, tachyphylaxis was developed in haemodynamic effects, but not in haematologic effects. These findings suggest that APV-induced hypotensive effects may occur mainly through endogenous production of vasodilating prostaglandins including prostacyclin, although APV-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia may be caused by other mechanism(s) unrelated to arachidonate metabolites and/or PAF. PMID:7846692
Shiroma, N; Noguchi, K; Matsuzaki, T; Ojiri, Y; Hirayama, K; Sakanashi, M
Support persons of haematological cancer survivors may be faced with unique challenges due to the course of these diseases and the treatments required. This study aimed to examine the social and financial impacts associated with their role. Eight hundred adult survivors of haematological cancer within 3 years of diagnosis were invited via an Australian state population-based cancer registry to complete a survey. Survivors were mailed two questionnaire packages, one for themselves and one for their primary support person. Non-respondents were mailed reminders via the survivor after 3 weeks. One hundred and eighty-two support persons completed the questionnaire (85% response rate). Of these, 67 (46%) support persons reported having at least one personal expense and 91 (52%) experienced at least one financial impact. Male support persons and support persons of survivors in active treatment reported experiencing more personal expenses than other support persons. Older participants reported fewer financial consequences. A greater number of social impacts were reported by those born outside Australia, those who had to relocate for treatment and support persons of survivors in active treatment. Future research should focus on practical solutions to reducing these impacts on support persons. PMID:22070745
CAREY, M; PAUL, C; CAMERON, E; LYNAGH, M; HALL, A; TZELEPIS, F
In a chronic toxicity study in the rat, bidisomide administered as a dietary admixture produced a dose-related lowering of reticulocytes and leucocytes. Plasma alanine aminotransferase activity was increased at 300 mg/kg and decreased at 900 mg/kg. The potential mechanisms of these effects were investigated by comparing the responses in groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving a control diet, or 300 or 1200 mg/kg/day bidisomide. Subsets of these groups were co-treated subcutaneously with folinic acid or with a vitamin B1, B6, B12 complex. Subsets of control and 300 mg/kg groups were maintained on a 20-25% feed restriction regimen for 3 months, to mimic the depression in body weight gain observed in animals receiving 1200 mg/kg. Body weight gains were significantly reduced at 1200 mg/kg and in all feed-restricted animals. Plasma and liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were also reduced at this dose level. At 300 mg/kg, plasma transaminases, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activities were increased. These changes were prevented in animals receiving folinic acid supplementation. Plasma glucose, triglycerides, and unsaturated and total iron binding capacities were decreased, while plasma iron levels tended to increase, mainly at the high dose. Vitamin supplementation prevented a decrease in reticulocyte counts at 300 mg/kg. Bidisomide increased urinary formimino-glutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion but did not affect methylmalonic acid (MMA) or taurine excretion. The effect on FIGLU at 1200 mg/kg was prevented by folinic acid co-treatment. Absolute liver weight was lowered at both dose levels and in feed-restricted animals. However, the relative liver weights were unaffected. Thymidine kinase and thymidylate synthase activity of the bone marrow cells were not altered by the bidisomide treatment. Except for the increase in plasma transaminase, GLDH and SDH levels at 300 mg/kg, changes in clinical chemistry parameters are considered to result mainly from nutritional restrictions. Changes in hematologic parameters appear to be related to the combination of decreased feed consumption (leukocytes) and decreased availability or utilization of folates (reticulocytes). This alteration, however, did not affect DNA synthesis in bone marrow. The prevention by folinic acid, but not by feed restriction, of the elevation of liver enzymes at 300 mg/kg is an intriguing, yet unexplained finding. There was no evidence that bidisomide affected B6 and B12 availability. PMID:8586020
Vandenberghe, Y; Masson, M; Palate, B; Roba, J
This study assesses the use of different dry K2 (dipotassium) EDTA vacuum tubes and whether or not they might represent a bias in haematological testing. Blood was collected in three dipotassium EDTA vacuum tubes from different manufacturers: Venosafe, Vacuette and Vacutainer. Samples were analysed on an Advia 2120i analyser. Significant differences among results and biases were compared with current quality specifications. Significant differences were found for haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet distribution width (PDW) when comparing Venosafe vs. Vacuette; for MCV, WBC and PDW when comparing Venosafe vs. Vacutainer; and for HCT and MCV when comparing Vacuette vs. Vacutainer. Clinically significant variations were observed for HCT and PDW in Venosafe vs. Vacuette; PDW in Venosafe vs. Vacutainer; and HCT and MCV in Vacuette vs. Vacutainer. The use of dipotassium EDTA vacuum tubes from different manufacturers represent a clinically relevant source of variation for HCT, MCV and PDW. PMID:23617091
Lima-Oliveira, G; Lippi, G; Salvagno, G L; Montagnana, M; Poli, G; Solero, G P; Picheth, G; Guidi, G C
Two commonly used berberine-containing Chinese herbs, Rhizoma coptidis (RC) and Cortex phellodendri (CP), have been banned in Singapore for the past three decades due to implication of berberine in aggravating jaundice and kernicterus in neonates with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Here we conducted a single arm, phase I/II clinical study on Chinese herbal medicine for patients with chronic cytopenic haematological conditions and we analysed a subset of 20 patients who also had RC, CP or both in their herbal concoction. We found no organ toxicity or electrolyte imbalance in these 20 patients where RC was administered for 1055 patient-days and CP for 1252 patient-days. In three patients with thalassemia intermedia, transient elevation in serum bilirubin level was observed but this was not associated with any aggravation of anaemia or liver dysfunction. A review of the literature found conflicting evidence of varying levels either supporting or refuting the allegation of neonatal jaundice and kernicterus caused by berberine. There were, however, very few clinical reports of adverse reaction attributable to RC or CP in oral TCM concoction. We conclude that based on traditional dosage and indication, the use of RC and CP in oral concoction is safe. PMID:22002596
Linn, Yeh-ching; Lu, Jiahui; Lim, Lay-Cheng; Sun, Huili; Sun, Jue; Zhou, Yongming; Ng, Han-seong
Previous studies have shown that total platelet count (TPC) inadequately predicts bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with haematological malignancies. This prospective cohort study evaluated whether rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), coagulation or other platelet parameters were more strongly associated with bleeding than TPC. Adults treated at two UK haematology centres for haematological malignancy were enrolled if they had thrombocytopenia (TPC ? 50 × 10(9) /l) at beginning of, or during treatment (International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number 81226121). TPC and bleeding symptoms were recorded daily for up to 30 d or until platelet count recovery, hospital discharge or death. Blood samples were tested thrice weekly using ROTEM, Platelet Function Analyser (PFA)-100(®) , coagulation and platelet cytometry assays. Bleeding symptoms and TPC from 49/50 enrolled participants who completed the study were recorded on 754/760 study days. Mean platelet volume and PFA-100(®) closure times were frequently inestimatable because of thrombocytopenia. TPC, absolute immature platelet number (AIPN) and ROTEM maximum clot firmness were significantly associated with bleeding on the day after blood sampling. Only AIPN was associated with bleeding after adjustment of test results for TPC (Odds Ratio 0·52, 95% confidence interval 0·28-0·97; P = 0·038). In a predictive model, AIPN was superior to TPC for predicting bleeding. This study indicates that AIPN may be more clinically useful than TPC at predicting bleeding. PMID:24797282
Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Harrison, Paul; Powter, Gillian; McClure, Marianne; Murphy, Michael F; Mumford, Andrew D
The EC4 Syllabus for Postgraduate Training is the basis for the European Register of Specialists in Clin- ical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The syllabus: • Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); • Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience;
Simone Zerah; Janet McMurray; Bernard Bousquet; Hannsjorg Baum; Graham H. Beastall; Vic Blaton; Marie-Josèphe Cals; Danielle Duchassaing; Marie-Françoise Gaudeau-Toussaint; Aimo Harmoinen; Hans Hoffmann; Rob T. Jansen; Desmond Kenny; Klaus P. Kohse; Ursula Köller; Jean-Gérard Gobert; Christine Linget; Erik Lund; Giuseppe Nubile; Matthias Opp; Mario Pazzagli; Georges Pinon; José M. Queralto; Henrique Reguengo; Demetrios Rizos; Thomas Szekeres; Michel Vidaud; Hans Wallinder
Haematological values were determined in 50 Rockhopper (Eudyptes crestatus), 19 Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and 12 Magellanic (Spheniscus magellanicus) penguins from various sites on the Falkland Islands. Adult Magellanic penguins had significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb) levels, packed cell volumes (PCV) and red cell counts (RBC) than adults of the other two species. Hb, PCV and RBC values were also lower in juvenile birds than in adults and lower in post-moult than in pre-moult adults. Comparison of findings in wild Rockhopper and Gentoo penguins with values obtained from captive birds showed slight but significant differences in Hb and mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and in the relative numbers of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils present. PMID:18679879
Hawkey, C M; Horsley, D T; Keymer, I F
Parameters of disease progression in long-term experimental feline retrovirus (feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus) infections: hematology, clinical chemistry, and lymphocyte subsets.
After several years of latency, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) cause fatal disease in the cat. The aim of this study was to determine laboratory parameters characteristic of disease progression which would allow a better description of the asymptomatic phase and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the two infections. Therefore, experimentally infected cats (FIV and/or FeLV positive) and control animals were observed over a period of 6.5 years under identical conditions. Blood samples were analyzed for the following: complete hematology, clinical chemistry, serum protein electrophoresis, and determination of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets. The following hematological and clinical chemistry parameters were markedly changed in the FIV-infected animals from month 9 onwards: glucose, serum protein, gamma globulins, sodium, urea, phosphorus, lipase, cholesterol, and triglyceride. In FeLV infection, the markedly changed parameters were mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, and urea. In contrast to reports of field studies, neither FIV-positive nor FeLV-positive animals developed persistent leukopenia, lymphopenia, or neutropenia. A significant decrease was found in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in FIV-positive and FIV-FeLV-positive animals mainly due to loss of CD4+ lymphocytes. In FeLV-positive cats, both CD4+ and, to a lesser degree, CD8+ lymphocytes were decreased in long-term infection. The changes in FIV infection may reflect subclinical kidney dysfunction, changes in energy and lipid metabolism, and transient activation of the humoral immune response as described for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The changes in FeLV infection may also reflect subclinical kidney dysfunction and, in addition, changes in erythrocyte and immune function of the animals. No severe clinical signs were observed in the FIV-positive cats, while FeLV had a severe influence on the life expectancy of persistently positive cats. In conclusion, several parameters of clinical chemistry and hematology were changed in FIV and FeLV infection. Monitoring of these parameters may prove useful for the evaluation of candidate FIV vaccines and antiretroviral drugs in cats. The many parallels between laboratory parameters in FIV and HIV infection further support the importance of FIV as a model for HIV. PMID:9008278
Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Holznagel, E; Ossent, P; Lutz, H
This study was designed to evaluate possible organ and system disorders associated with experimentally induced levamisole poisoning in dogs. For this purpose, twelve clinically healthy dogs of different ages, sexes and breeds were used. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B) and given levamisole orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight daily for three days. The dogs in Group B were also injected with atropin sulphate (0.04 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously (sc) 1 hour after each administration of levamisole. Routine clinical examinations were made and some haematological, biochemical and blood gas parameters were established at various times after administration of levamisole. The dogs in Group A developed severe neurological signs, gastric haemorrhage, bloody vomiting, colic, anaemia and four dogs died. In Group B these signs were mild and only one dog died. Levamisole poisoning was characterised by a significant reduction in the total number of red blood cells (RBCs), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV), and by anaemia. Peripheral blood pH, actual bicarbonate of plasma (HCO3), actual base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and saturated oxygen (O2SAT) increased in both groups of animals and these dogs developed metabolic alkalosis 48 hours after the first administration of levamisole. The results of the study also show that levamisole poisoning in dogs causes a significant increase in the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and in the concentration of urea in both Group A and Group B. In the study, atropin sulphate reduced the severity of the clinical signs and the number of deaths, but it was not alone sufficient to remedy levamisole poisoning in dogs. PMID:15032267
Gokce, H I; Gunes, V; Erdogan, H M; Citil, M; Akca, A; Yuksek, N
In the present study, the influence of stress from handling and transport on some frequently examined blood parameters of racing pigeons was evaluated. After 3 hr, there was a highly significant (P < 0.01) increase in the number as well as in the percentage of heterophils and decrease of lymphocytes. In clinical chemistries, increases of creatine kinase and glucose and a decrease of uric acid were observed. There was a mean decrease of the total white blood count of >15% that was less significant (P < 0.05). Changes in lactate dehydrogenase, basophils, and monocytes did not prove to be significant; eosinophils, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, and the packed cell volume were not influenced by stress. PMID:11922340
Scope, Alexandra; Filip, T; Gabler, Cornelia; Resch, Franziska
RefVal is a computer program that implements the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. The program performs the following main tasks: graphical display of the distribution of reference values, identification or elimination of outliers, testing of the fit of the distribution to Gaussian shape (coefficients of skewness and kurtosis, Anderson-Darling's test, Cramér-von Mises' test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test), non-parametric and parametric estimation of reference limits (fractiles, percentiles). The parametric estimation method is based on a two-stage mathematical transformation of data: (1) Manly's exponential transformation (to remove skewness) and (2) John and Draper's modulus transformation (to adjust for remaining kurtosis). The program exists in different versions. The paper describes two of these: (1) a library of FORTRAN functions and subroutines and (2) a Pascal PC program that runs under MS-DOS. PMID:8925652
Solberg, H E
Peromyscus leucopus mice share physical similarities with laboratory mice Mus musculus (MM) but have higher agility and longer lifespan. We compared domesticated P. leucopus linville (PLL) and M. musculus C57BL/6 (MMB6) mice for cellular composition of peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM) and spleen. PLL mice had significantly fewer platelets and significantly more monocytes in the blood, and notably fewer megakaryocytes in the BM. Spleens of PLL mice were significantly smaller, with 50% fewer cells and reduced 'red pulp'. There was no obvious haematological change in PLL mice between 2-8 and 16-26 months of age, except for a significant increase in blood monocytes. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content showed no change with age but differed significantly between different cell types. Treating two to eight month-old PLL mice with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine in drinking water for three months did not affect cellular ROS content, but increased blood leucocytes especially the concentration of monocytes. The low platelets, low megakaryocytes, high monocytes and low splenic erythropoiesis in PLL mice resemble human measurements better than the values seen in MMB6. PMID:25116892
Sun, Yu; Desierto, Marie J; Ueda, Yasutaka; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Chen, Jichun; Young, Neal S
The incidence and pattern of liver involvement in 127 liver specimens (2 biopsy and 125 autopsy specimens) from cases of acute myelogenous leukaemia (25), chronic myelogenous leukaemia (7), acute lymphatic leukaemia (5), chronic lymphatic leukaemia (9), multiple myeloma (25), low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (25), high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (24) and myeloproliferative diseases (7) were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically. Liver infiltration was found frequently in chronic leukaemia and myeloproliferative diseases (80-100%), acute leukaemia (60-70%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (50-60%), but was significantly less common in multiple myeloma (32%) than in any of the other diagnostic groups. Hepatomegaly was found in over 50% of cases in all the diagnostic groups, but was not always associated with infiltration. Diffuse, non-destructive infiltration was most common: in acute myelogenous leukaemia, both the portal triads and sinusoids were usually involved; in chronic myelogenous leukaemia, multiple myeloma and myeloproliferative diseases, infiltration was mainly sinusoidal; and in lymphatic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma the portal triads were mainly involved. Nodular infiltration was seen in multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The primary tumours and liver infiltrates generally exhibited the same immunophenotype, although reactivity with the antibody L26 (CD20) was only found in the primary lesion in many high-grade B-cell lymphomas. Thus, liver involvement is common in haematological malignancies, but the incidence and pattern of infiltration vary amongst the different types. PMID:9842637
Walz-Mattmüller, R; Horny, H P; Ruck, P; Kaiserling, E
A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis). PMID:25320488
Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi
Objective. Vaccinations are the most important tool to prevent infectious diseases. Chemotherapy-induced immune depression may impact the efficacy of vaccinations in children. Patients and Methods. A panel of experts of the supportive care working group of the Italian Association Paediatric Haematology Oncology (AIEOP) addressed this issue by guidelines on vaccinations in paediatric cancer patients. The literature published between 1980 and 2013 was reviewed. Results and Conclusion. During intensive chemotherapy, vaccination turned out to be effective for hepatitis A and B, whilst vaccinations with toxoid, protein subunits, or bacterial antigens should be postponed to the less intensive phases, to achieve an adequate immune response. Apart from varicella, the administration of live-attenuated-virus vaccines is not recommended during this phase. Family members should remain on recommended vaccination schedules, including toxoid, inactivated vaccine (also poliomyelitis), and live-attenuated vaccines (varicella, measles, mumps, and rubella). By the time of completion of chemotherapy, insufficient serum antibody levels for vaccine-preventable diseases have been reported, while immunological memory appears to be preserved. Once immunological recovery is completed, usually after 6 months, response to booster or vaccination is generally good and allows patients to be protected and also to contribute to herd immunity. PMID:24868544
Cesaro, Simone; Giacchino, Mareva; Fioredda, Francesca; Barone, Angelica; Battisti, Laura; Bezzio, Stefania; Frenos, Stefano; De Santis, Raffaella; Livadiotti, Susanna; Marinello, Serena; Zanazzo, Andrea Giulio; Caselli, Desiree
Blood samples were taken from 75 free-ranging southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) captured in drive-nets in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain, and 20 haematological and 24 serum biochemical variables were analysed. The values were similar to those of other species of the Caprinae subfamily, except for cortisol, the concentration of which was higher. The red blood cell count (RBC), platelets and leucocytes, and the concentrations of cortisol, lactate, muscular enzymes and gamma-globulins were higher in summer than in spring, whereas the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and the concentrations of cholesterol, total bilirubin and creatinine were lower. Adult males had higher RBCs and haemoglobin values than females in summer, and lower leucocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts than females and yearling males. The concentrations of triglycerides, total bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, urea, chloride and alpha2-globulins were higher in adult males than yearling males. In summer the adult females had higher values for platelets, lymphocytes, cortisol, sodium and muscular enzymes. PMID:16603553
López-Olvera, J R; Marco, I; Montané, J; Lavín, S
Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography
One hundred and ninety consecutive patients discharged with congestive heart failure were examined with clinical evaluation, blood chemistry, 24 h Holter monitoring, exercise test and radionuclide angiography. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.30, 46% were in New York Heart Association class II and 44% in III. Total mortality after 1 year was 21%, after 2 years 32%. Of 60
Bente Kühn Madsen; Verner Rasmussen; Jørgen Fischer Hansen
In a study of 27,864 patients with haematological malignancies, 40 patients with candidaemia were identified, among whom 21 developed candidaemia while receiving systemic antifungal therapy [breakthrough candidaemia (BTC)]. Demographic, clinical, microbiological and molecular features of these episodes were analysed. Compared with 19 patients with de novo candidaemia, patients with BTC were more likely to have neutropenia (81% vs. 63%), longer median duration of neutropenia (27 days vs. 15 days), hypogammaglobulinaemia (62% vs. 37%) and central venous catheters (CVCs) (86% vs. 68%). The median duration of prior antifungal exposure was 46 days (range 3-108 days). Among the 18 available Candida spp. isolates, 15 (83%) were phenotypically susceptible to the antifungal agent that the patient was receiving. Emergence of resistance was the mechanism leading to BTC in three cases of patients receiving echinocandins. Other possible mechanisms of BTC were (i) elevated (?2) minimum lethal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration (MLC/MIC) ratio (reduced ability for a fungicidal agent to kill a fungal pathogen) in all patients receiving amphotericin B and (ii) elevated MLC/MIC ratios in all Candida parapsilosis isolates with MICs?1 ?g/mL to echinocandins. DNA sequencing of the hotspot 1 region of the fks1 and fks2 genes in seven different isolates of C. parapsilosis group demonstrated P660A in Fks1 but no polymorphisms in fks2. In conclusion, mechanisms for BTC in the setting of prolonged neutropenia may be host-based (hypogammaglobulinaemia and CVC) and pathogen-based. CLSI interpretive breakpoints do not reliably predict BTC in patients with haematological malignancies and warrant further investigation. PMID:25108876
Gamaletsou, Maria N; Daikos, George L; Walsh, Thomas J; Perlin, David S; Ortigosa, Cristina Jimenez; Psaroulaki, Anna; Pagoni, Maria; Argyropoulou, Athina; Nepka, Martha; Perivolioti, Efstathia; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Perloretzou, Stavroula; Marangos, Markos; Kofteridis, Diamantis; Grammatikou, Maria; Goukos, Dimitrios; Petrikkos, George; Sipsas, Nikolaos V
Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a rare haematological malignancy, with approximately 175 new incident cases in France. Diagnosis is based on a careful examination of the blood smear and immunophenotyping of the tumour cells, with a panel of four markers being used specifically to screen for hairy cells (CD11c, CD25, CD103 and CD123). In 2011, the V600E mutation of the BRAF gene in exon 15 was identified in HCL; being present in HCL, it is absent in the variant form of HCL (HCL-v) and in splenic red pulp lymphoma (SRPL), two entities related to HCL. The management of patients with HCL has changed in recent years. A poorer response to purine nucleoside analogues (PNAs) is observed in patients with more marked leukocytosis, bulky splenomegaly, an unmutated immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IgVH) gene profile, use of VH4-34 or with TP53 mutations. We present the recommendations of a group of 11 experts belonging to a number of French hospitals. This group met in November 2013 to examine the criteria for managing patients with HCL. The ideas and proposals of the group are based on a critical analysis of the recommendations already published in the literature and on an analysis of the practices of clinical haematology departments with experience in managing these patients. The first-line treatment uses purine analogues: cladribine or pentostatin. The role of BRAF inhibitors, whether or not combined with MEK inhibitors, is discussed. The panel of French experts proposed recommendations to manage patients with HCL, which can be used in a daily practice. PMID:24994538
Cornet, Edouard; Delmer, Alain; Feugier, Pierre; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Ghez, David; Leblond, Véronique; Levy, Vincent; Maloisel, Frédéric; Re, Daniel; Zini, Jean-Marc; Troussard, Xavier
The G8 screening tool was developed to separate fit older cancer patients who were able to receive standard treatment from those that should undergo a geriatric assessment to guide tailoring of therapy. We set out to determine the discriminative power and prognostic value of the G8 in older patients with a haematological malignancy. Between September 2009 and May 2013, a multi-dimensional geriatric assessment was performed in consecutive patients aged ?67 years diagnosed with blood cancer at the Innsbruck University Hospital. The assessment included (instrumental) activities of daily living, cognition, mood, nutritional status, mobility, polypharmacy and social support. In parallel, the G8 was also administered (cut-off ? 14). Using a cut-off of ?2 impaired domains, 70 % of the 108 included patients were considered as having an impaired geriatric assessment while 61 % had an impaired G8. The G8 lacked discriminative power for impairments on full geriatric assessment: sensitivity 69, specificity 79, positive predictive value 89 and negative predictive value 50 %. However, G8 was an independent predictor of mortality within the first year after inclusion (hazard ratio 3.93; 95 % confidence interval 1.67-9.22, p?0.001). Remarkably, patients with impaired G8 fared poorly, irrespective of treatment choices (p?0.001). This is the first report on the clinical and prognostic relevance of G8 in elderly patients with haematological malignancies. Although the G8 lacked discriminative power for outcome of multi-dimensional geriatric assessment, this score appears to be a powerful prognosticator and could potentially represent a useful tool in treatment decisions. This novel finding certainly deserves further exploration. PMID:24488257
Hamaker, Marije E; Mitrovic, M; Stauder, R
Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n?=?366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675
Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.
Goals of work This article seeks to address the lack of information in the literature, by providing preliminary findings on the experience\\u000a of managing catastrophic bleeds for haematology patients, from the perspective of health professionals involved in the care\\u000a of such patients and their families.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Insights from qualitative interviews with seventeen (n?=?17) haematological nurses, four (n?=?4) palliative care nurses
Pam McGrath; Michael Leahy
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of haematological disorders characterized by ineffective haematopoiesis and an increased risk for leukemic transformation. In recent years several new therapeutics have emerged that have demonstrated to alter the natural course of the disease. This document summarizes the state of the art in diagnosis and treatment of this heterogeneous disease, as proposed by a group of expert haematologists in the field of MDS from the Belgian Haematological Society. Its main purpose is to guide clinicians in daily practice to treat patients with this disease, within the limitations of current reimbursement modalities in Belgium. PMID:24455794
Meers, S; Breems, D; Bries, G; Delforge, M; Graux, C; Ravoet, C; Selleslag, D; Noens, L
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in haematological malignancy patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients1. Detection of IPA represents a formidable diagnostic challenge and, in the absence of a 'gold standard', relies on a combination of clinical data and microbiology and histopathology where feasible. Diagnosis of IPA must conform to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycology Study Group (EORTC/MSG) consensus defining "proven", "probable", and "possible" invasive fungal diseases2. Currently, no nucleic acid-based tests have been externally validated for IPA detection and so polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not included in current EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria. Identification of Aspergillus in histological sections is problematic because of similarities in hyphal morphologies with other invasive fungal pathogens3, and proven identification requires isolation of the etiologic agent in pure culture. Culture-based approaches rely on the availability of biopsy samples, but these are not always accessible in sick patients, and do not always yield viable propagules for culture when obtained. An important feature in the pathogenesis of Aspergillus is angio-invasion, a trait that provides opportunities to track the fungus immunologically using tests that detect characteristic antigenic signatures molecules in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. This has led to the development of the Platelia enzyme immunoassay (GM-EIA) that detects Aspergillus galactomannan and a 'pan-fungal' assay (Fungitell test) that detects the conserved fungal cell wall component (1 ?3)-?-D-glucan, but not in the mucorales that lack this component in their cell walls1,4. Issues surrounding the accuracy of these tests1,4-6 has led to the recent development of next-generation monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based assays that detect surrogate markers of infection1,5. Thornton5 recently described the generation of an Aspergillus-specific MAb (JF5) using hybridoma technology and its use to develop an immuno-chromatographic lateral-flow device (LFD) for the point-of-care (POC) diagnosis of IPA. A major advantage of the LFD is its ability to detect activity since MAb JF5 binds to an extracellular glycoprotein antigen that is secreted during active growth of the fungus only5. This is an important consideration when using fluids such as lung BAL for diagnosing IPA since Aspergillus spores are a common component of inhaled air. The utility of the device in diagnosing IPA has been demonstrated using an animal model of infection, where the LFD displayed improved sensitivity and specificity compared to the Platelia GM and Fungitell (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucan assays7. Here, we present a simple LFD procedure to detect Aspergillus antigen in human serum and BAL fluids. Its speed and accuracy provides a novel adjunct point-of-care test for diagnosis of IPA in haematological malignancy patients. PMID:22473419
Thornton, Christopher; Johnson, Gemma; Agrawal, Samir
ADEDAPO, A. A., M. O. ABATAN, O. O. OLORUNSOGO: Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats. Vet. arhiv 74, 53-62, 2004. ABSTRACT The toxic effects of 5 suspected poisonous plants of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton, E. heterophylla L., E. hirta L., E. hyssopifolia L., and E. lateriflora Schum and
Adeolu A. Adedapo; Matthew O. Abatan; Olufunso O. Olorunsogo
Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, ?-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149
Since rapid blood count analysis as near patient testing is expanding, we evaluated the use of a Sysmex pocH-100i compact haematology analyser in an outdoor oncology setting according to the recently published International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) guidelines. In total, 838 blood samples from oncology patients were analysed by pocH-100i and re-analysed by a high-throughput haematology analyser for comparison (Abbott CD-4000 or Sysmex XE-2100) to evaluate in use imprecision, comparability and vote-outs. Imprecision was less than 5%, except for platelet enumeration in the low range (within-run imprecision 7%). Good comparability was found even for platelet enumeration in the low range (r2 = 0.82). Vote-outs were found in 10.6% of examined samples. In conclusion, the Sysmex pocH-100i demonstrates good imprecision conform with former publications, produces reliable results in normal and in lower ranges comparable to the results of high throughput haematology analysers. In a well controlled management plan the Sysmex pocH-100i is suitable for near patient testing in oncology. PMID:20954464
Van Hecke, I; Vanden Bempt, I; Malfait, R; Van Den Bossche, J
In the present investigation, the haematology and pathology of young broiler chicks with an ascitic syndrome were examined.Gross changes included cardiomegaly, ascites, congested lungs, shrunken livers, enlarged kidneys, dark breast muscle and congested intestines. Many blood parameters were significantly raised including the packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), red (Rbc) and white blood cell (Wbc) counts. The heterophils and monocytes
M. H. Maxwell; G. W. Robertson; S. Spence
Reference levels of some biochemical and haematological variables were determined for mute swans (Cygnus olor Gmelin). Immaturity was identified as a factor which broadened the references ranges. Blood variables of six acutely lead?poisoned swans weredetermined and compared with the reference distribution. Protoporphyrin IX, cholesterol and two serum enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate amino?transferase, were increased; concentrations of haemoglobin and mean
J. Ohalloran; P. F. Duggan; A. A. Myers
The impact of the current nursing shortage on the health care system is receiving attention by both state and federal governments. This study, using a convenience sample of 243 oncology\\/haematology nurses working in 11 Queensland health care facilities, explored factors that influence the quality of nurses' working lives. Although nurses reported high levels of personal satisfaction and personal accomplishment, results
Linda Barrett; Patsy Yates
This paper reports on an audit undertaken on a population of adult clients with Down's syndrome with regard to haematological and thyroid status in order to detect their state of health in these areas. A letter was sent requesting the clients to attend their local hospital for the relevant blood tests, i.e. full blood count, random blood glucose and thyroid
Thirty adults with proved typhoid fever were treated with amoxycillin 1 g six-hourly by mouth for an average of 14 days because of haematological contraindications to chloramphenicol. Eighteen patients were Egyptian men with the Mediterranean variety of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and an enzyme activity in the red cells fanging from 0 to 3%, and 12 patients had a history of
A M Afifi; M Adnan; A A El Garf
BACKGROUND: Malaria is the commonest cause of childhood morbidity in Western Kenya with varied heamatological consequences. The t study sought to elucidate the haemotological changes in children infected with malaria and their impact on improved diagnosis and therapy of childhood malaria. METHODS: Haematological parameters in 961 children, including 523 malaria-infected and 438 non-malaria infected, living in Kisumu West District, an
Robert N Maina; Douglas Walsh; Charla Gaddy; Gordon Hongo; John Waitumbi; Lucas Otieno; David Jones; Bernhards R Ogutu
Invasive aspergillosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particularly in individuals with haematological malignancy and in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Nowadays, the galactomannan (GM) assay has been widely used as an indication of invasive aspergillosis, even though the test is known to generate false-positive results. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of GM and real-time PCR (qPCR) to detected Aspergillus in blood samples obtained from high-risk haematological patients. Haematological patients were screened twice weekly with GM testing, which was performed by the Platelia ELISA kit. An additional sample of whole blood (4 ml) was obtained for the purpose of qPCR testing. Sixty-four samples from 12 patients with haematopoietic stem cell transplant or haematological malignancy were studied. The overall accordance between GM and qPCR tests was 96.9 % (62 samples). Only two samples showed contradictory results, with positive GM test and negative real-time PCR results. Based on the high concordance between GM and qPCR in terms of negative results, the main utility of qPCR could be in the confirmation of positive results seen with GM testing. PMID:24309908
da Silva, Thomas Victor Maciel; Carneiro, Lilian Carla; Ramos, Francine dos Santos; Baethgen, Ludmila Fiorenzano; Paz, Alessandra Aparecida; Larentis, Daniela Zilio; Daudt, Liane Esteves; Tusset, Cintia; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C
This special feature page from the American Chemical Society (ACS) showcases the up-and-coming field of "green chemistry," that is, the development of chemical products and processes that eliminate or reduce the use and generation of hazardous substances. A list of principles behind green chemistry, a searchable bibliography of green chemistry references, green chemistry links (including conferences), and an online preview of the ACS-published book Real-World Cases in Green Chemistry are all found at the site. Five video clips on green chemistry from the standpoint of academia, industry, and small business are also featured (Windows Media Player). This page comes from ACS's Green Chemistry Project, a three-year educational project to develop and disseminate green chemistry educational materials for graduate and undergraduate chemistry students. Check back often for updates.
Ebola Zaire virus from the 1976 outbreak (EBO-Z) was recently adapted to the stage of lethal virulence in BALB/c mice through serial passage. In the present study, various parameters were examined in groups of mice and guinea-pigs and in three rhesus monkeys after infection with mouse-adapted EBO-Z. The virus caused fatal disease not only in mice but also in guinea-pigs, in which the course of illness resembled that produced by guinea-pig-adapted EBO-Z. Mice, guinea-pigs and monkeys showed similar haematological and biochemical disturbances, but coagulopathy was less striking in mice than in the other two species. The virus caused severe illness in all three monkeys, one of which died. In the lethally infected monkey the degree of viraemia and the haematological, serum biochemical and coagulation changes were greater than in the other two animals, an observation that may prove to be of value in predicting fatal outcome. All three monkeys developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. The two survivors were completely resistant to challenge one year later with non-adapted EBO-Z. In general, the clinical and pathological changes produced in the three species resembled those previously described in guinea-pigs and non-human primates infected with non-mouse-adapted EBO-Z. It was noteworthy, however, that mouse-adaptation appeared to have resulted in a degree of attenuation for monkeys. PMID:11798241
Bray, M; Hatfill, S; Hensley, L; Huggins, J W
Introduction Immunotherapy with the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab has been shown to improve overall survival in previously treated and treatment-naïve patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma. Consistent with its proposed immunomodulating mechanism of action, the most common toxicities associated with ipilimumab therapy are immune-related in nature and include those related to the skin and gastrointestinal tract, with endocrine and hepatic events also frequent. Other rare adverse events, including haematological aberrations, may also occur and can have serious consequences if unrecognised. Here we describe three patients who developed serious haematological adverse events during or after treatment with ipilimumab. Case presentation Three Caucasian patients (two women aged 68 and 49 years and one man aged 70 years) with metastatic melanoma experienced anaemia and/or leukopenia (neutropenia) with toxicity of various grades during or after treatment with ipilimumab, without significant changes to other haematological values. Two of the patients stopped treatment after the third ipilimumab dose, one because of severe anaemia that required blood transfusion and the other due to febrile neutropenia that was treated with antibiotics and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulation. The third patient developed anaemia and leukopenia after treatment during the follow-up period. The results of autoimmunity tests performed were positive and corticosteroids were used to treat these events as per side-effects treatment algorithms specifically developed for the management of immune-related adverse events associated with ipilimumab, an approach that was safe and effective. Conclusions Haematological toxicity is a rare but potentially serious immune-related side effect of ipilimumab therapy. However, if promptly recognised and treated, haematological toxicity is manageable and can be reversed with standard corticosteroid treatment as recommended for other ipilimumab immune-related side effects. PMID:24986059
Background Hematological and biochemical abnormalities are among the most common clinicopathological manifestations of HIV patients on ART. Consequently, the development and assessment of indigenous antiretroviral drugs with minimal abnormalities becomes a necessity. The objective of this investigation was to assess potential haematological and biochemical abnormalities that may be associated with the administration of Winniecure ART in HIV patients undergoing treatment in Nigeria. Fifty (50) confirmed HIV positive ART naïve patients aged 36?±?10 were observed for haematological and biochemical responses for 12 weeks. Haematological responses were assessed thrice at 6 weeks interval using coulter Ac-T differential analyser and biochemical indicators (bilirubin, creatine, urea, amylase, ALT, ALP, AST, albumin) assayed spectrophotometrically. Results The biochemical parameters ALP (P?0.05), ALT (P?0.0001), AST (P?0.001) and amylase (P?0.05) slightly increased at the 12th week, no significant change was observed in plasma creatinine and urea concentrations while albumin levels decreased non-significantly (P?>?0.002). Haematological results showed consistent reduction of ESR, eosinophil, absolute and differential lymphocytes, granulocytes and total WBC in the test subjects throughout the assessment period. Conversely, haemoglobin, platelet and PCV increased significantly (P?0.05). At the 12th week thrombocytopenia (10.30%) and anaemia (76%) were reduced to 2% and 31% respectively while neutropenia (4.2 to 8%), leucopenia (26.8 to 30%) and lymphopenia (1 to 10%) increased. No cases of neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia and leukocytosis was observed. Conclusion The drug has a reduced haematological abnormalities and normal kidney function was unaffected though there were signs of possible abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes beyond 12 weeks of treatment. PMID:24099597
-- Professional Year 1 CLS 3020 Hematology Lecture/Lab: 4 cr. CLS 3280 Clinical Chemistry Lecture/Lab: 4 cr. CLS Program Total Credits: 63 CLS 4000 Clinical Hematology: 5 cr. CLS 4010 Clinical Chemistry: 3 cr. CLS 4020
A study of haematological and bone marrow changes in symptomatic patients with human immune deficiency virus infection with special mention of functional iron deficiency, anaemia of critically ill and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
Background Haematological abnormalities are among the most common complications of HIV. These involve all lineages of blood cells. Bone marrow studies form integral part of complete workup of the HIV positive patients specially when they present as case of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO), refractory anaemia and pancytopenia. Method 55 HIV infected symptomatic patient requiring bone marrow examination were included in the study. Relevant clinical history, baseline haematological investigations including full blood count, CD4 cell counts using flow cytometry were recorded. Results Median ANC values in males were found to be significantly lower than females (p = 0.046). CD4 cell count statistically significantly correlated with age, TLC, ANC & platelet count. Anaemia was present in 45 patients and out of which 66.66% patients had normocytic normochromic anaemia. Iron deficiency anaemia was present in (37.77%) patients and anaemia of chronic disease in (62.22%) patients. 2 patients had anaemia of the critically ill. Two patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and showed lymphoma deposit in the bone marrow. Gelatinous degeneration was seen in 3 patients. Ill formed epithelioid cell granulomas were seen in 7 cases, and 2 cases were positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB). Haemophagocytosis was seen in 8 cases; two cases later diagnosed as a case of infection induced HLH. Leishmania donovani (LD) bodies seen in 2 cases. Conclusions Bone marrow study is an important investigation in HIV infected symptomatic patients with peripheral haematological abnormalities. PMID:24600136
Kotwal, Jyoti; Singh, Vikram; Kotwal, Anupam; Dutta, Vibha; Nair, Velu
Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)
School Science Review, 1976
Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…
School Science Review, 1983
Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)
School Science Review, 1972
Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...
Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…
School Science Review, 1982
This compiled site contains titles and links to over 40 sites, journal articles, course and tutorial materials, simulations, batteries, and other resources. Definitions of chemistry, theoretical chemistry, organic, physical and nuclear chemistry are integrated with the links to outside materials. A number of useful keywords are included to help users navigate the materials.
Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.
Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.
Muetterties, Earl L.
Goals of work Corticosteroid treatments have been well documented to cause severe emotional and even psychiatric disturbances. Despite that\\u000a corticosteroid use is at the core of most treatment protocols for haematological malignancies, there is a dearth of published\\u000a research (and controversy in the existing research) on the emotional and psychiatric sequelae of corticosteroid use for haematology\\u000a patients and its connection with
Pam McGrath; Mary Anne Patton; Sarah James
This is a 15-session course on the technologies, techniques, and tools of computational chemistry. By using the same computational tools as research computational chemists, educators will have the opportunity to study chemistry in a manner very different than traditional teaching and education in chemistry.
Institute, Shodor C.
Background Prior to diagnosis, patients with haematological cancers often have multiple primary care consultations, resulting in diagnostic delay. They are less likely to be referred urgently to hospital and often present as emergencies. We examined patient perspectives of time to help-seeking and diagnosis, as well as associated symptoms and experiences. Methods The UK’s Haematological Malignancy Research Network (http://www.hmrn.org) routinely collects data on all patients newly diagnosed with myeloma, lymphoma and leukaemia (>2000 annually; population 3.6 million). With clinical agreement, patients are also invited to participate in an on-going survey about the circumstances leading to their diagnosis (presence/absence of symptoms; type of symptom(s) and date(s) of onset; date medical advice first sought (help-seeking); summary of important experiences in the time before diagnosis). From 2004–2011, 8858 patients were approached and 5038 agreed they could be contacted for research purposes; 3329 requested and returned a completed questionnaire. The duration of the total interval (symptom onset to diagnosis), patient interval (symptom onset to help-seeking) and diagnostic interval (help-seeking to diagnosis) was examined by patient characteristics and diagnosis. Type and frequency of symptoms were examined collectively, by diagnosis and compared to UK Referral Guidelines. Results Around one-third of patients were asymptomatic at diagnosis. In those with symptoms, the median patient interval tended to be shorter than the diagnostic interval across most diseases. Intervals varied markedly by diagnosis: acute myeloid leukaemia being 41 days (Interquartile range (IQR) 17–85), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma 98 days (IQR 53–192) and myeloma 163 days (IQR 84–306). Many symptoms corresponded to those cited in UK Referral Guidelines, but some were rarely reported (e.g. pain on drinking alcohol). By contrast others, absent from the guidance, were more frequent (e.g. stomach and bowel problems). Symptoms such as tiredness and pain were common across all diseases, although some specificity was evident by sub-type, such as lymphadenopathy in lymphoma and bleeding and bruising in acute leukaemia. Conclusions Pathways to diagnosis are varied and can be unacceptably prolonged, particularly for myeloma and some lymphomas. More evidence is needed, along with interventions to reduce time-to-diagnosis, such as public education campaigns and GP decision-making aids, as well as refinement of existing Referral Guidelines. PMID:24238148
Diagnostic Serology 1 LABM 201 Clinical Chemistry I 2 LABM 202 Clinical Chemistry II 2 LABM 210 Cytology Clinical Chemistry and Endocrinology 4 LABM 230 Clinical Hematology and Special Procedures 4 LABM 240
Autopsy studies remain an essential tool for understanding the patterns of fungal disease not detected ante mortem with current diagnostic approaches. We collected data concerning the microbiological trends, patient clinical characteristics and sites of involvement for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) identified at autopsy in a single large cancer treatment centre over a 20-year period (1989-2008). The autopsy rate and IFI prevalence both declined significantly during the study period. The prevalence of Aspergillus spp. decreased significantly from the first 15 years of the study (from 0.12 to 0.14 cases per 100 autopsies to 0.07 in 2004-2008; P = 0.04), with only Mucorales accounting for a greater proportion of IFIs over the duration of the study period (0.06 to 0.2 cases per 100 autopsies, P = 0.04). After 2003, moulds accounted for the majority of infections identified at autopsy in the spleen, kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Despite a trend of decreasing prevalence from 1989 to 2004, invasive candidiasis increased in prevalence during later periods 2004-2008 (0.02-0.05 per 100 autopsies) with decreasing kidney, heart and spleen involvement. Despite a declining autopsy rate, these data suggest a decreasing prevalence overall of IFIs with changing patterns of dissemination in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23551865
Lewis, Russell E; Cahyame-Zuniga, Lizebeth; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Chamilos, Georgios; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Tamboli, Pheroze; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Bodey, Gerald P; Luna, Mario; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P
Metanil yellow was administered daily in the food at the rate of 0.0, 0.1, 0.5 and 3.0 g/kg body weight for 180 days to male and female albino mice. No change was observed by the first two doses but feeding of this colour at the rate of 3.0 g/kg body weight led to certain changes in the haematological values. Total erythrocyte count (TEC) and Hb had decreased whereas ESR, MCV, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) had increased. These facts suggested the occurrence of normochromic macrocytic anaemia. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) showed marked increase in the number of lymphocytes and monocytes and decrease in the number of neutrophils and eosinophils. Heinz bodies were observed in 80-90% erythrocytes. Other haematological values like total leukocyte count (TLC), platelet count (PC), PCV, MCHC, bleeding time (BT) and coagulation time (CT) were normal. PMID:6836606
Prasad, O M; Rastogi, P B
Technology, Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Consumer Products, Food and Flavor Chemistry, Forensic ChemistryHANDBOOK for Undergraduate CHEMISTRY MAJORS DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY Fall 2010 #12;#12;TABLE OF CONTENTS A Career in Chemistry - What It Means ___________________________________________ 4 What do
Stuart, Steven J.
Voriconazole can prolong the QT interval contributing to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Torsades de pointes is an uncommon but serious complication of voriconazole use which may be under-recognised. We present torsades de pointes in two patients with underlying haematological malignancy being treated for invasive fungal infection with voriconazole. Patients receiving voriconazole should be screened and monitored for evidence of QT prolongation, and if prolongation detected, consideration given to alternative treatments or more intensive cardiac monitoring. PMID:24855597
Brown, Jeremy D.; Lim, Lyn-li; Koning, Sonia
It has been suggested that obstruction of coronary veins can induce myocardial infarction similar to coronary artery obstruction.\\u000a In this study, the coronary veins of the sheep heart were blocked experimentally and haematological and inflammatory indices\\u000a (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-?) alterations were studied. Twenty sheep were used\\u000a for this study. Anaesthesia was induced by ketamine
Fatemeh Dehghani Nazhvani; M. B. Sharifkazemi; S. N. Dehghani; S. Nazifi; M. Shafa
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world is steadily increasing. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic haematological changes. Lichens are used as food supplements and are also used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. We hypothesized that antioxidant activity of lichens may decrease hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and prevent the development of diabetic complications, including abnormality in haematological condition. Therefore, the effects of Cetraria islandica water extract (CIWE) and Pseudevernia furfuracea water extract (PFWE) on the haematological parameters of rats with type 1 DM were investigated for the first time in the present study. Control Sprague-Dawley or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with water lichen extracts (5-500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 2 weeks, starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized and haematological and metabolic parameters were determined between control and experimental groups. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS), a specific indicator of oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by biochemical studies. In diabetic rats, CIWE of 250-500 mg/kg bw dose showed more prominent results when compared with doses of PFWE for TAC. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the antioxidant activities of lichens might be the possible reason behind the observed antihaematological status. However, the protective effect of lichen extracts were inadequate on diabetes-induced microcytic hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the extracts have no effect on metabolic complications. Our experimental data showed that high doses of CIWE and PFWE alone have no detrimental effect on blood cells and TOS status of plasma. Hence, they are safe and suitable for different administration routes. PMID:23114377
Colak, Suat; Geyiko?lu, Fatime; Aslan, Ali; Deniz, Gül?ah Y?ld?z
Examinations for heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) were performed on 175 impounded dogs from a hyperendemic area of the Po Valley (Italy). Each blood sample was used wiht five haematological diagnostic methods (filtration, direct smear, modified Knott, clotted blood and capillary tube) and three commercial ELISA kits (PetChek, Diasystems, Uni-Tec). The results were compared with the true infection status obtained from post-mortem
M. Martini; G. Capelli; G. Poglayen; F. Bertotti; C. Turilli
Background In contrast to other haematological cancers, mortality from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma increased dramatically during the second half of the 20th century in most developed countries. This widespread upward trend remains controversial, as it may be attributable either to progressive improvements in diagnosis and certification or to increasing exposures to little-known but relevant risk factors. Methods To assess the relative contribution of these factors, we analysed the independent effects of age, death period, and birth cohort on haematological cancer mortality rates in Spain across the period 1952-2006. Weighted joinpoint regression analyses were performed to detect and estimate changes in period and cohort curvatures. Results Although mortality rates were consistently higher among men, trends across periods and cohorts were virtually identical in both sexes. There was an early period trend reversal in the 1960s for Hodgkin’s disease and leukaemia, which was delayed to the 1980s for multiple myeloma and the 1990s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Birth cohort patterns showed a first downturn for generations born in the 1900s and 1910s for all haematological cancers, and a second trend reversal for more recent cohorts born in the 1950s and 1960s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and leukaemia. Conclusions The sustained decline in Hodgkin’s disease mortality and the levelling off in leukaemia seem to be driven by an early period effect linked to improvements in disease treatment, whereas the steep upward trends in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma mortality in Spain are more likely explained by a cohort effect linked to better diagnosis and death certification in the elderly. The consistent male excess mortality across all calendar periods and age groups points to the importance of possible sex-related genetic markers of susceptibility in haematological cancers. PMID:24716829
\\u000a Although classical mutations in genes such as PIK3CA and PTEN occur at a relatively low frequency in haematological malignancies,\\u000a activation of PI3K signalling is often detected in these tumours. In some conditions, for example acute myeloid leukaemia\\u000a (AML), this is due to activating mutations of upstream regulators such as the FLT3 tyrosine kinase or RAS. Primary tumour\\u000a cells taken from
The Sysmex NE 8000 (TOA-Japan) is a haematology analyser that performs blood cells count and leukocyte differential count. For facilitating the work of technical validation, we developed a software adapted to any IBM® or compatible PC running under MS-DOS®, to manage the analyser. Data are automatically collected via the RS-232 interface from the analyser or keyed in for the other
J. P. Cambus; F. Nguyen; F. Cambus
As part of a study of the pathology and pathogenesis of bovine ephemeral fever virus infection 44 cattle were infected by the intravenous injection of virulent virus. Thirty-eight animals responded clinically and detailed haematological and serological data were obtained from 10 of them. Inappetence was the only clinical sign observed before the onset of fever. The temperature response was characteristically
PL Young; PB Spradbrow
Background & objectives: Pre-clinical toxicology evaluation of biotechnology products is a challenge to the toxicologist. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the safety profile of the first indigenously developed recombinant DNA anti-rabies vaccine [DRV (100 ?g)] and combination rabies vaccine [CRV (100 ?g DRV and 1.25 IU of cell culture-derived inactivated rabies virus vaccine)], which are intended for clinical use by intramuscular route in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: As per the regulatory requirements, the study was designed for acute (single dose - 14 days), sub-chronic (repeat dose - 28 days) and chronic (intended clinical dose - 120 days) toxicity tests using three dose levels, viz. therapeutic, average (2x therapeutic dose) and highest dose (10 x therapeutic dose) exposure in monkeys. The selection of the model i.e. monkey was based on affinity and rapid higher antibody response during the efficacy studies. An attempt was made to evaluate all parameters which included physical, physiological, clinical, haematological and histopathological profiles of all target organs, as well as Tiers I, II, III immunotoxicity parameters. Results: In acute toxicity there was no mortality in spite of exposing the monkeys to 10XDRV. In sub chronic and chronic toxicity studies there were no abnormalities in physical, physiological, neurological, clinical parameters, after administration of test compound in intended and 10 times of clinical dosage schedule of DRV and CRV under the experimental conditions. Clinical chemistry, haematology, organ weights and histopathology studies were essentially unremarkable except the presence of residual DNA in femtogram level at site of injection in animal which received 10X DRV in chronic toxicity study. No Observational Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of DRV is 1000 ug/dose (10 times of therapeutic dose) if administered on 0, 4, 7, 14, 28th day. Interpretation & conclusions: The information generated by this study not only draws attention to the need for national and international regulatory agencies in formulating guidelines for pre-clinical safety evaluation of biotech products but also facilitates the development of biopharmaceuticals as safe potential therapeutic agents. PMID:23852288
Kumar, B. Dinesh; Kumar, P. Uday; Krishna, T. Prasanna; Kalyanasundaram, S.; Suresh, P.; Jagadeesan, V.; Hariharan, S.; Naidu, A. Nadamuni; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Rangarajan, P.N.; Srinivasan, V.A.; Reddy, G.S.; Sesikeran, B.
This document contains a list of detailed lecture notes covering a wide range of topics including equilibrium, titrations, sample preparation, acids and bases, buffers, spectrophotometry, potentiometry and chromatography. This site is part of a collection of notes from a general chemistry course taught at the State University of West Georgia. This document gives supplementary material that could be useful to intermediate chemistry majors in an analytical chemistry course or new faculty developing a course.
Henderson, David E.
The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment. PMID:12897214
Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I
Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)
School Science Review, 1972
This website includes over 150 chemistry experiments in the following areas: Atomic Structure, Bonding, Chemical Reactions, Colligative Properties, Condensed States, Electrochemistry, Equilibrium Gases, Instrumentation, Limiting Reactant and more.
Brooks, David W.
The stability of haematological parameters is crucial to guarantee accurate and reliable data for implementing and interpreting the athlete's biological passport (ABP). In this model, the values of haemoglobin, reticulocytes and out-of-doping period (OFF)-score (Hb-60?Ret) are used to monitor the possible variations of those parameters, and also to compare the thresholds developed by the statistical model for the single athlete on the basis of its personal values and the variance of parameters in the modal group. Nevertheless, a critical review of the current scientific literature dealing with the stability of the haematological parameters included in the ABP programme, and which are used for evaluating the probability of anomalies in the athlete's profile, is currently lacking. In addition, we collected information from published studies, in order to supply a useful, practical and updated review to sports physicians and haematologists. There are some parameters that are highly stable, such as haemoglobin and erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]), whereas others, (e.g. reticulocytes, mean RBC volume and haematocrit) appear less stable. Regardless of the methodology, the stability of haematological parameters is improved by sample refrigeration. The stability of all parameters is highly affected from high storage temperatures, whereas the stability of RBCs and haematocrit is affected by initial freezing followed by refrigeration. Transport and rotation of tubes do not substantially influence any haematological parameter except for reticulocytes. In all the studies we reviewed that used Sysmex instrumentation, which is recommended for ABP measurements, stability was shown for 72 hours at 4 ° C for haemoglobin, RBCs and mean curpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); up to 48 hours for reticulocytes; and up to 24 hours for haematocrit. In one study, Sysmex instrumentation shows stability extended up to 72 hours at 4 ° C for all the parameters. There are significant differences among methods and instruments: Siemens Advia shows lower stability than Sysmex as regards to reticulocytes. However, the limit of 36 hours from blood collection to analysis as recommended by ABP scientists is reasonable to guarantee analytical quality, when samples are transported at 4 ° C and are accompanied by a certified steadiness of this temperature. There are some parameters that are highly stable, such as haemoglobin and RBCs; whereas others, such as reticulocytes, mean cell volume and haematocrit are more unstable. The stability of haematological parameters might be improved independently from the analytical methodology, by refrigeration of the specimens. PMID:22060177
Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Colombini, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe; Banfi, Giuseppe
Acinetobacter infections are fast emerging as a major nosocomial threat across the globe. With a predilection for blood stream infections in critically ill, immunocompromised patients, their presence is now being felt in febrile neutropenics with underlying malignancies and marrow failure. We aimed through this study to ascertain the current circulating pathogens and levels of antimicrobial resistance in blood stream infections in febrile neutropenia patients, with specific emphasis on elucidating acinetobacter and pseudomonas infections. Clinical and laboratory records of all consecutive neutropenic patients with underlying haematological malignancies and marrow failure, admitted to our AIIMS, New Delhi from April 2009 to March 2010 were analysed for blood stream infections, pathogen profiles and antimicrobial resistance. All clinical and microbiological variables were statistically analysed to elucidate potential risk factors, infection patterns and drug resistance trends. Of the 1,165 blood cultures investigated, 105 episodes of blood stream infections were microbiologically confirmed in febrile neutropenia patients. Gram-negative infections (n = 78, 72.9%) dominated with acinetobacter spp (n = 20, 18.7%) emerging as the most common pathogen. Acinetobacter and pseudomonas together were responsible for 42.9% of all blood stream infections. Both acinetobacter and pseudomonas displayed very high resistance to all five major classes of antibiotics, including multidrug resistance (90.0% and 76.9%) and ESBL production (90.0% and 84.6%), respectively. Comparison of infection patterns and resistance levels with reports over the past decade from this centre and other centres across the globe, revealed a striking increase in multidrug resistant acinetobacter blood stream infections in these patients. Multidrug resistant acinetobacter Infections are a fast emerging threat in febrile neutropenia patients and at this centre in general. Similar early trends from some Indian centres and neighbouring developing countries suggest grave concern. These emerging circulating pathogens and drug resistance patterns demand to systematically evaluate antibiotic and hospital infection policies and to sensitise all clinicians to curb this pathogen capable of rapid nosocomial spread. PMID:23520666
Sood, Prashant; Seth, Tulika; Kapil, Arti; Sharma, Vandana; Dayama, Aniruddha; Sharma, Sanjeev; Kumar, Suman; Singh, Avinash K; Mishra, Pravas; Mahapatra, Manoranjan
Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…
School Science Review, 1981
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY UCLA Organic Chemistry Faculty perform research in molecular machines, exotic CHEMISTRY FACULTY RESEARCH INTERESTS Anne M. Andrews, Professor-in-Residence: Understanding how areas of interest include cross- coupling reactions, green chemistry, heterocycle synthesis, and natural
Levine, Alex J.
In veterinary medicine a complete blood cell count (CBC) cannot always be performed within 24 h as usually recommended, particularly for specimens shipped to a reference laboratory. This raises the question of the stability of the variables, especially in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) feline blood specimens, known to be prone to in vitro platelet aggregation. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) has been reported to limit platelet aggregation in feline blood specimens. The aim of this study was to measure the stability of the haematological variables and the platelet aggregation score in EDTA and EDTA plus CTAD (EDCT) feline blood specimens during 48 h of storage at room temperature. Forty-six feline EDTA and EDCT blood specimens were analysed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser, and the platelet count and score of platelet aggregation were estimated immediately and after 24 and 48 h of storage. A significant increase in mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit, reticulocyte and eosinophil counts, and a significant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and monocyte count were observed. Haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and red blood cell, white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts remained stable. Changes in reticulocyte indexes with time (low fluorescence ratio, medium fluorescence ratio, high fluorescence ratio and immature reticulocyte fraction) were not significant. Changes were generally more pronounced in EDTA than in EDCT. Platelet aggregation decreased markedly in initially highly aggregated EDTA specimens, and increased slightly in initially non- or mildly-aggregated EDTA or EDCT specimens. Platelet counts increased and decreased, or remained stable, respectively. CTAD can reduce storage-induced changes of the haematological variables in feline samples, thus improving the reliability of a CBC and limiting clinical misinterpretations. PMID:23264612
Granat, Fanny; Geffré, Anne; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine
The regulation of biosimilars is a process that is still developing. In Europe, guidance regarding the approval and use of biosimilars has evolved with the products under consideration. It is now more than 3 years since the first biosimilar agents in oncology support, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, were approved in the EU. More recently, biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factors have received marketing approval in Europe. This review considers general issues surrounding the introduction of biosimilars and highlights current specific issues pertinent to their use in clinical practice in oncology. Information on marketing approval, extrapolation, labelling, substitution, immunogenicity and traceability of each biosimilar product is important, especially in oncology where patients are treated in repeated therapy courses, often with complicated protocols, and where biosimilars are not used as a unique therapy for replacement of e.g. growth hormone or insulin. While future developments in the regulation of biosimilars will need to address multiple issues, in the interim physicians should remain aware of the inherent differences between biosimilar and innovator products. PMID:21175852
Niederwieser, Dietger; Schmitz, Stephan
The effect of the consumption of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)-rich and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich mustard oil on platelet aggregation, haematological parameters and the liver was studied in male albino rats. The rats were fed on standard stock diet with control (mustard oil) and experimental oils for 28 days. Haematological examinations in the normal condition showed that there was no significant variation in the platelet count, total white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts, haematocrit value and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) percentage in the rats fed with control and experimental oils. Haematological examinations in the hypercholesterolaemic condition revealed that there was a significant increase in the platelet count by 39.38% in hypercholesterolaemia, which was decreased by 27.29 and 42.71% by the administration of the experimental oils, respectively. The haemoglobin level was decreased by 5.3%, whereas the haematocrit value was increased by 12.52% in hypercholesterolaemia, which were normalised by treatment with the experimental oils. The platelet aggregation study indicated that the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation increased by 71.67% in hypercholesterolaemia, but the experimental oils beneficially reduced platelet aggregation by 26.33 and 68.33%, respectively. There was increased total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels in liver in hypercholesterolaemia, which was also recovered by the administration of experimental oils. Organopathological examination showed that there was deposition of cholesterol in the liver in the hypercholesterolaemic condition, which was also reduced by treatment with the two experimental oils. PMID:20401638
Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua
Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in future studies of HEV infection. PMID:24148233
Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)
Borer, Londa; And Others
Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)
School Science Review, 1980
This website provides a course on the use of radionuclides in analytical chemistry. Types of radioactive decay are discussed as well as the techniques of scintillation counting, neutron activation analysis, and gamma spectroscopy.
Hardy, James K.
Concept mapping in the organic chemistry laboratory can supplant cookbook activities with higher cognitive exercises. The common thread of most organic lab experiments is the synthesis, isolation, purification, and characterization of a carbon compound. T
Gahr, Allan A.
Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)
School Science Review, 1981
Summarizes papers presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference on Chemical Education in the area of "Doing Chemistry," i.e., demonstrations and student experiments. A bibliography of 21 presented papers in this area is attached. (CS)
Journal of Chemical Education, 1981
Reference levels of some biochemical and haematological variables were determined for mute swans (Cygnus olor Gmelin). Immaturity was identified as a factor which broadened the references ranges. Blood variables of six acutely lead-poisoned swans were determined and compared with the reference distribution. Protoporphyrin IX, cholesterol and two serum enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate amino-transferase, were increased; concentrations of haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin concentration indicated hypochromic anaemia in birds with acute lead poisoning. The interpretation and diagnostic value of reference values is discussed. PMID:18766723
O'halloran, J; Duggan, P F; Myers, A A
The California State University Stanislaus developed these interactive chemistry Web tutorials to assist college students in mass spectrometry, proton NMR chemical shifts, and more. With the many animations and figures, visitors will find assistance with the subtraction and absorption of light and with infrared absorption frequencies for numerous compounds. The titration tutorials simulate laboratory experiments without the hazards of dealing with chemicals. Students will also find a very informative lesson describing how to use Excel to record and analyze their chemistry data.
Abstract Background. The benefits of proton beam craniospinal irradiation (PrBCSI) in children have been extensively reported in dosimetric studies. However, there is limited clinical evidence supporting the use of PrBCSI. We compared the acute toxicity of PrBCSI relative to that of conventional photon beam CSI (PhBCSI) in children with brain tumours. Material and methods. We prospectively evaluated the haematological and gastrointestinal toxicities in 30 patients who underwent PrBCSI between April 2008 and December 2012. As a reference group, we retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 13 patients who underwent PhBCSI between April 2003 and April 2012. The median follow-up time from starting CSI was 22 months (range 2-118 months). The mean irradiation dose was 32.1 Gy (range 23.4-39.6 Gy) and 29.4 CGE (cobalt grey equivalents; range 19.8-39.6), in the PrBCSI and PhBCSI groups, respectively (p = 0.236). Results. There was no craniospinal fluid space relapse after curative therapy in either group of patients. Thrombocytopenia was less severe in the PrBCSI group than in the PhBCSI group (p = 0.012). The recovery rates of leukocyte and platelet counts measured one month after treatment were significantly greater in the PrBCSI group than in the PhBCSI group (p = 0.003 and p = 0.010, respectively). Diarrhoea was reported by 23% of patients in the PhBCSI group versus none in the PrBCSI group (p = 0.023). Conclusions. The incidence rates of thrombocytopenia and diarrhoea were lower in the PrBCSI group than in the PhBCSI group. One month after completing treatment, the recovery from leukopenia and thrombocytopenia was better in patients treated with PrBCSI than in those treated with PhBCSI. PMID:24913151
Song, Sanghyuk; Park, Hyeon Jin; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Kim, Dae Woong; Park, Jeonghoon; Shin, Dongho; Shin, Sang Hoon; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Seung-Ki; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, Joo-Young
Background The physiological challenges posed by hypobaric hypoxia warrant exploration of pharmacological entities to improve acclimatization to hypoxia. The present study investigates the preclinical efficacy of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) to improve acclimatization to simulated hypobaric hypoxia. Experimental Approach Efficacy of intravenously administered S1P in improving haematological and metabolic acclimatization was evaluated in rats exposed to simulated acute hypobaric hypoxia (7620m for 6 hours) following S1P pre-treatment for three days. Major Findings Altitude exposure of the control rats caused systemic hypoxia, hypocapnia (plausible sign of hyperventilation) and respiratory alkalosis due to suboptimal renal compensation indicated by an overt alkaline pH of the mixed venous blood. This was associated with pronounced energy deficit in the hepatic tissue along with systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. S1P pre-treatment improved blood oxygen-carrying-capacity by increasing haemoglobin, haematocrit, and RBC count, probably as an outcome of hypoxia inducible factor-1? mediated erythropoiesis and renal S1P receptor 1 mediated haemoconcentation. The improved partial pressure of oxygen in the blood could further restore aerobic respiration and increase ATP content in the hepatic tissue of S1P treated animals. S1P could also protect the animals from hypoxia mediated oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusion The study findings highlight S1P’s merits as a preconditioning agent for improving acclimatization to acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure. The results may have long term clinical application for improving physiological acclimatization of subjects venturing into high altitude for occupational or recreational purposes. PMID:24887065
Chawla, Sonam; Rahar, Babita; Singh, Mrinalini; Bansal, Anju; Saraswat, Deepika; Saxena, Shweta
Objective To evaluate the relationships between depression and ageing, nutrition, and selected haematologic variables.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements \\u000a A cross-sectional study was performed in elderly institutionalized patients (n=100) of all nursing homes in the Brazilian city\\u000a of Uberlândia, with determination of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores,\\u000a and selected haematologic variables.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results GDS had a significant negative dependence with the
C. H. Alves De Rezende; L. M. Coelho; L. M. Oliveira; N. Penha-Silva
), physical transformations (including phase transitions), solutions, electrochemistry, and chemical kinetics of the physical principles of chemistry. Goals/ Objectives: CHEM 320 presents chemical principles from, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy), chemical thermodynamics (Gibbs free energy and chemical potentials
Findley, Gary L.
In this paper we describe an ongoing project where the goal is to develop competence and confidence among chemistry faculty so they are able to utilize computational chemistry as an effective teaching tool. Advances in hardware and software have made research-grade tools readily available to the academic community. Training is required so that faculty can take full advantage of this technology, begin to transform the educational landscape, and attract more students to the study of science.
Sendlinger, Shawn C.; Metz, Clyde R.
A dog's nutrient requirements can theoretically be met from a properly balanced meat-free diet; however, proof for this is lacking. Exercise places additional demands on the body, and dogs fed a meat-free diet may be at increased risk of developing sports anaemia. We hypothesised that exercising dogs would remain in good health and not develop anaemia when fed a nutritionally balanced meat-free diet. To this end, twelve sprint-racing Siberian huskies were fed either a commercial diet recommended for active dogs (n 6), or a meat-free diet formulated to the same nutrient specifications (n 6). The commercial diet contained 43 % poultry meal, whereas soyabean meal and maize gluten made up 43 % of the meat-free diet, as the main protein ingredients. Dogs were fed these diets as their sole nutrient intake for 16 weeks, including 10 weeks of competitive racing. Blood samples were collected at weeks 0, 3, 8 and 16, and veterinary health checks were conducted at weeks 0, 8 and 16. Haematology results for all dogs, irrespective of diet, were within normal range throughout the study and the consulting veterinarian assessed all dogs to be in excellent physical condition. No dogs in the present study developed anaemia. On the contrary, erythrocyte counts and Hb values increased significantly over time (P < 0.01) in both groups of dogs. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a carefully balanced meat-free diet can maintain normal haematological values in exercising dogs. PMID:19480731
Brown, Wendy Y; Vanselow, Barbara A; Redman, Andrew J; Pluske, John R
We examined population-based information on relapsed childhood haematological cancers, investigating factors that might influence both overall survival and survival following relapse among the 1177 children (0–14 years) diagnosed with a haematological malignancy in Yorkshire from 1974 to 2003, of whom 342 (29%) relapsed at least once. Leukaemia patients from more deprived areas were significantly less likely to relapse (odds ratio=0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.32–0.93 for most deprived quintile vs least deprived quintile; Ptrend=0.06), especially those with acute myeloid leukaemia (P=0.04). Neither ethnic group nor distance to the main treatment centre was associated with risk of relapse. Overall, patients who relapsed at least once had 5-year survival rates of 46% (41–51%) compared with 79% (76–81%) of those who did not. Five-year survival rates from the time of first relapse increased from 20% in 1974–1983 to 45% in 1984–2003. Length of first remission was a strong predictor of survival for leukaemia with a 46% reduced risk of death for every additional year of event-free survival. Of children who experienced a relapse, 46% survived at least 5 years, whereas just under half of patients survived 5 years beyond disease recurrence. This provides a baseline for future comparisons and demonstrates that relapsed childhood cancer need not imply a poor outcome. PMID:17342086
Feltbower, R G; Kinsey, S E; Richards, M; Shenton, G; Michelagnoli, M P; McKinney, P A
The incidence of a malignant disease reflects the genetic and cumulative exposure to the environment of a population. Therefore, evaluation of the incidence and trends of a disease in different populations may provide insights into its aetiology and pathogenesis. To evaluate the incidence of haematological malignancies according to specific subtypes, we used population-based registry data in Japan (N = 125 148) and the United States (US; N = 172 925) from 1993 to 2008. The age-adjusted incidence of haematological malignancies in Japan was approximately one-half that in the US but has been increasing significantly, whereas no significant change was seen in the US [annual percent change (95% C confidence interval): Japan, +2·4% (1·7, 3·1); US, +0·1% (-0·1, 0·2)]. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) showed the largest differences in incidence, with the most remarkable differences observed for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, HL-nodular sclerosis, mycosis fungoides and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. HL and NHL are increasing substantially in Japan but not in the US, suggesting that environmental exposures, such as Westernization of the life style may be causing this increase. Differences in the incidence and trends for specific subtypes also showed a marked contrast across subtypes, which, in turn, may provide significant new insights into disease aetiology in the future. PMID:24245986
Chihara, Dai; Ito, Hidemi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katsumi, Akira; Nakamura, Shigeo; Tomotaka, Sobue; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Matsuo, Keitaro
The incidence of a malignant disease reflects the genetic and cumulative exposure to the environment of a population. Therefore, evaluation of the incidence and trends of a disease in different populations may provide insights into its aetiology and pathogenesis. To evaluate the incidence of haematological malignancies according to specific subtypes, we used population-based registry data in Japan (N = 125 148) and the United States (US; N = 172 925) from 1993 to 2008. The age-adjusted incidence of haematological malignancies in Japan was approximately one-half that in the US but has been increasing significantly, whereas no significant change was seen in the US [annual percent change (95% C confidence interval): Japan, +2·4% (1·7, 3·1); US, +0·1% (?0·1, 0·2)]. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) showed the largest differences in incidence, with the most remarkable differences observed for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, HL-nodular sclerosis, mycosis fungoides and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. HL and NHL are increasing substantially in Japan but not in the US, suggesting that environmental exposures, such as Westernization of the life style may be causing this increase. Differences in the incidence and trends for specific subtypes also showed a marked contrast across subtypes, which, in turn, may provide significant new insights into disease aetiology in the future. PMID:24245986
Chihara, Dai; Ito, Hidemi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katsumi, Akira; Nakamura, Shigeo; Tomotaka, Sobue; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Matsuo, Keitaro
The guideline group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and NCBI Pubmed were searched systematically for publications in English from 1980 to 2012 using the MeSH subheading 'lymphoma, CNS', 'lymphoma, central nervous system', 'lymphoma, high grade', 'lymphoma, Burkitt's', 'lymphoma, lymphoblastic' and 'lymphoma, diffuse large B cell' as keywords, as well as all subheadings. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemato-oncology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of ~50 UK haematologists, the BCSH and the British Society for Haematology (BSH) Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found in Appendix I. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the optimal prevention of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The guidance may not be appropriate to patients of all lymphoma sub-types and in all cases individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. Acronyms are defined at time of first use. PMID:24033102
McMillan, Andrew; Ardeshna, Kirit M; Cwynarski, Kate; Lyttelton, Matthew; McKay, Pam; Montoto, Silvia
Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.
John Grey Position: Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 505.277.1658; Fax: 505.277.2609 Office: Clark Hall B70 Homepage: http://chemistry.unm.edu/faculty_web/jgrey Education B.S. in Chemistry, 1999, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Ph.D. in Chemistry
There is a great deal of chemistry going on in every kitchen, even though most cooks may not be cognizant of the various interactions going on in the pot, wok, or oven. MIT's popular OpenCourseWare Initiative has recently made the contents of Dr. Patricia Christie's course on kitchen chemistry available on this site. Visitors to the site can download the syllabus, take in some assigned readings (and recipes), and look over the assignments. The assignments include investigations that involve emulsifiers, ice cream, peer teaching, and pancakes, among other things. The site also includes links to helpful readings, such as those on chocolate, the health benefits of capsicum, and the world of gluten. For people who wish to bring back the frayed connective tissue between chemistry and the culinary arts, this site is absolutely essential.
Chemistry and Industry Magazine, a bimonthly product of the Society of Chemical Industry, provides selected full-text articles from the print magazine in the areas of news, commentary, features, latest results from chemical literature, and highlights from the latest European patents. In addition, there is a searchable and browsable archive of past issues, a daily news section, and searchable jobs and meetings databases. The Society of Chemical Industry is "an international association of about 6000 members aimed at furthering applied chemistry." One of the highlights of its web site is its publication section, where, under "electronic publications," readers can find updated daily news, jobs and meetings listings on chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and the environment.
The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation regularly publishes special reports on the current practice of haematopoietic SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders in Europe. Major changes have occurred since the first report was published. HSCT today includes grafting with allogeneic and autologous stem cells derived from BM, peripheral blood and cord blood. With reduced-intensity conditioning
P. Ljungman; M. Bregni; M. Brune; J. Cornelissen; T. J. M. de Witte; G. Dini; H. Einsele; H. B. Gaspar; A. Gratwohl; J. Passweg; C. Peters; V. Rocha; R. Saccardi; H. Schouten; A. Sureda; A. Tichelli; A. Velardi; D. Niederwieser
Whether children with malarial anaemia should receive supplementation with iron or folic acid is uncertain. Therefore, the effects of supplementary treatment with iron or folic acid, given together with chloroquine or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (Fansidar®), has been assessed in 600 Gambian children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. After one month, haematological recovery was significantly better in the group treated with Fansidar® than in
Michaël Boele van Hensbroek; Stephen Morris-Jones; Sarah Meisner; Shabbar Jaffar; Lang Bayo; Raduwan Dackour; Christine Phillips; Brian M. Greenwood
Effects of acrylamide on thyroid hormone levels and haematological parameters in Swiss albino mice were investigated by exposing them with 3 dose levels set below LD50. Mortality in animals was nil with a significant decrease in the mean body weight gain. The various toxic morphological effects noted were sluggish appearance, bizarre behaviour, stunted growth, reduced limb movements, diminished food and
Asha Sharma; Jyotsna Jain
BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia requiring emergency blood transfusion is a common complication of malaria in children. To ensure access for urgent blood transfusion, the World Health Organization has developed clear guidelines with haemoglobin thresholds prevent unwarranted transfusion,. Few studies have reported outcome and haematological recovery of children with severe malaria where transfusion practice complies with WHO recommendations. METHODS: A prospective observational
Samuel O Akech; Oliver Hassall; Allan Pamba; Richard Idro; Thomas N Williams; Charles RJC Newton; Kathryn Maitland
/6582 Biophysical Chemistry Fall 1 CHEM /6582 Biophysical Chemistry Course meeting place concepts in biophysical chemistry. You will develop an understanding of how thermodynamics, kinetics literature concerning the application of biophysical techniques to characterize biological molecules
/ENVIRONMENTAL, Bachelor of Science in Chemistry with Option in Environmental Chemistry 27 BS CHEM/NANOTECHNOLOGY, Bachelor in Biochemistry 85 Minor in Environmental Chemistry 86 1st, 2nd and 3rd Floor Maps of the Chemistry Rooms
Hardy, Christopher R.
This audio segment from PRI's The World Science Podcast explores the science of Green Chemistry. Hear about companies that are developing greener chemicals, and learn why they are fast becoming an attractive alternative for the multi-billion dollar chemical industry.
Foundation, Wgbh E.
1 Â· Definition Â· Chemistry Â· Factors Â· Mitigation MinE 422 Acid Rock Drainage Online `Gard Guide is a great source of information Terminology Â· acid rock drainage (ARD) Â· saline drainage (SD) Â· acid mine or acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD) Â· mining influenced water (MIW) Â· neutral mine drainage (NMD
This site from the Princeton Section of the American Chemical Society consists of articles about common chemical misconceptions along with examinations of the scientific explanation. The purpose of this page is to reveal common misconceptions in the field of Chemistry. The intended audience is secondary school students and their teachers. The page is at present just beginning, and additions are welcome.
Lehmann, Kevin; University, Princeton
This page, from the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill Chemistry Fundamentals program and the Shodor Education Foundation, discusses five different types of radioactive decay: alpha, beta negative, gamma, positron emission, and electron capture. After examining the numerous equations, students can test their dating skills by solving three practice problems. Solutions are included.
This set of links provides access to resources on atmospheric chemistry, especially acid deposition, air pollution, and air quality. The sites include personal and government pages, universities and research groups, non-governmental organizations and meetings, and products and services. There are also links to related search topics.
Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…
Levine, Elise Hilf
This site features lecture notes for first and second level courses in analytical chemistry. Topics include titrations, gravimetry, kinetics and electrochemistry (redox). Potentiometry, coulometry, voltammetry, spectroscopic and separation methods are presented as well, and are illustrated with QuickTime animations.
Hardy, James K.
Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)
School Science Review, 1978
UCLA CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY ORIENTATION HANDBOOK 2012-2013 #12;Table of Contents Introduction .............................................................................................................................................2 Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Office ................................................................................................................................................4 Biochemistry
Levine, Alex J.
Summary The differential diagnoses of tarsal joint infection, fractur e and peritarsal focal infection are of particularimportance in practice. The objective of the present report is to provide additional clinical data to assist in the understanding of one of these conditions. The haematological parameters, clinical signs, treatment and outcome of 10 cases of severe lameness associated with peritarsal infection are
R. C. PILSWORTH; M. J. HEAD
Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084
Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A
Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084
Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section 862.3200...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical...
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...
Haematological and serum biochemical values were estimated in blood samples collected from 21 apparently adult golden eagles\\u000a (Aquila chrysaetos) of both sexes. The mean values of red blood cells, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cells, heterophils, lymphocytes,\\u000a monocytes and eosinophils were 1.63?±?0.11?×?1012\\/l, 0.47?±?0.009 l\\/l, 91.73?±?1.52 g\\/l, 24.31?±?1.97?×?109\\/l, 4.40?±?0.22?×?109\\/l, 16.81?±?0.65?×?109\\/l, 0.99?±?0.19?×?109\\/l and 2.10?±?0.30?×?109\\/l, respectively. The leucocytes had 69.14%, 4.09%, 18.12% and 8.65%
S. Nazifi; A. Nabinejad; M. Sepehrimanesh; S. L. Poorbaghi; F. Farshneshani; M. Rahsepar
Blood samples were collected from 46 domestic ruminants comprising of 23 trypanosomiasis infected and 23 uninfected control groups to study some biochemical and haematological effects of trypanosomiasis under natural condition. The effect of trypanosome infection in ruminant animals showed that infected animals had significantly lower (P<0.05) packed cell volume, erythrocyte count and higher (P<0.01) mean cell volumes than uninfected animals. Leucocytosis, reticulocytosis and thrombocytopenia were also observed. The infection also produced a decrease in albumin (P<0.001), significant increase in total protein and bilirubin levels. These changes were not seen in the animals that were not infected. The outcome of the work shows that herds are severely affected by the disease, and therefore supports the prospect of routine check as an epidemiologic tool in trypanosomiasis based on its abnormal effects in blood. PMID:21382664
Ohaeri, C C; Eluwa, M C
Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change Monday, December 16 at 4:00 p.m. (Climate Change and comprehensive) Exams I and II are planned as two for undergraduate students than graduate students. Grading Scale 85 -100% at least an A- 75 - 84% at least a B- 65
Scientific awareness and public concern about the state of our environment have led to unprecedented demands on analytical laboratories. There is now much interest in strategies that will help to lower costs and improve efficiency. Immunoassay (IA) techniques, which are widely used in clinical chemistry, could play a key role in the laboratory of the future. IA screening techniques for
J. P. Sherry; Raymond E. Clement
In this activity with several mini experiments, learners explore the chemistry that helps scientists learn about the environment and how they can help save it. Learners will determine if pollutants that have entered the ground water can also enter plants. Then, learners examine fossils to see if any changes have occurred over time in a particular species of sea mollusks. Finally, learners act as chemists to recycle paper by making paper from toilet paper.
Shaw, Maisie; Gomez, Maria
Recent theoretical studies of circumstellar chemistry are discussed for both red-giant and protostellar winds. The generalized photochemical model is able to account for the recently discovered silicon-bearing molecules in the prototypical, C-rich, AGB star IRC + 10216. The surprising occurrence of CO in protostellar winds that are largely atomic is interpreted to be the result of the high density and the rapid decrease of the temperature with distance that is expected for such winds.
Glassgold, A. E.; Mamon, G. A.
1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye Chemistry", 5th Edition, Freeman Press. Available at SU bookstore. The solution manual is optional. (Suggested for CHE611 Students pursuing Inorganic) Huheey, "Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure
Mather, Patrick T.
Haematological and biochemical parameters and the serum concentrations of phosphorus, lead, cadmium and chromium in flamingo ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) and black-headed gull ( Larus ridibundus ) in Iran
Blood samples of nine flamingos and 12 black-headed gulls from Fars province of Iran were used to determine the haematological\\u000a and biochemical factors and the concentrations of phosphorus, lead, chromium and cadmium in serum. Haematological parameters\\u000a in flamingo—packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, red blood cell (RBC) number, white blood cell (WBC)\\u000a count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular
K. Mostaghni; K. Badiei; H. Nili; A. Fazeli
School of Chemistry CHEM3100: Chemistry at a Molecular Level Tutorial Groups 2013/14 Name Programme Tutor Ahmed, Zacher Medicinal Chemistry Arif, Saboor Chemistry Bagnall, Samuel Chemistry Barbara, David Chemistry Beaumont, Nicholas Chemistry Quinn, Michael J Chemistry Bennett, Matthew Chemistry Booth, Natalie
Rzepa, Henry S.
This study was measured on haematological parameters in workers exposed to cement dust in order to test the the hypothesis and to identify a simple, readily available, cost effective screening test that could help in identifying the presence of disease, its severity, that Cement dust exposure may perturb these functions related to their workplace.Assesment of haematological parameters were performed in 100exposed workers occupationally exposed to cement dust and 50 matched unexposed controls with ages ranging from 20-35, 35-50, 50-65 years. The blood samples were taken from them and percentage of hemoglobin, Lymphocytes / monocytes count were analysed.The hemoglobin percentage of exposed workers were significantly lower(P<0.05).Lymphocytes/Monocytes counts of exposed workers was insignificant (P<0.05).These results suggest that long term occupational exposure to cement dust may perturb haemopoietic function.
Guguloth, Mohan Rao.; Sambanaik, A.; srinivasnaik, L.; Mude, Jagadishnaik.
This Web site addresses Professor Dr. J. Gmehling's research group activities in "the synthesis and design of chemical processes with an emphasis on thermal separation processes." Ranging from the development of thermodynamic models to the construction of software tools and data banks, their research at the University of Oldenburg, covers a broad range in the field of Industrial Chemistry. Students and educators can view informative figures and images such as the Isothermal Flow Calorimeter and the Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Users can download the free software, Dortmund Data Bank (DDB), which searches the literature for experimental information.
This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.
This site highlights chemistry resources that we consider essentiala fabulous periodic table, a database of chemical compounds, a set of demonstrations of chemical reactions that are just plain spectacular, and, dont forget, laboratory safety. Articles from the web sites Whats That Stuff? and Science News for Kids can be used as supplemental reading all through the year. This site explains the history and characteristics of over 20 substances, such as sunscreen, Cheese Whiz, baseballs, fluoride, new car smell, ink, lipstick, bug spray, and licorice. The individual articles are nontechnical for the most part and are presented in a fun way that readers will enjoy. Also, if a ...
CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM SEMESTER Â I Chemistry-I: Physical principles (2:1) Atomic structure-state approximation, Arrhenius equation and collision theory and catalysis. SEMESTER Â II Chemistry-II: Structure orbital theory: polyatomic molecules - Walsh diagram; Main group chemistry: periodic properties, chemistry
We present the results of a prospective, randomised study comparing PBPC and BM focusing on engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD and survival. Forty patients with haematological malignancies received HLA-identical sibling BM (group A) or PBPC (group B). Evaluable patients were 19 (A) and 18 (B). Median age was 35 (17–56) in A and 29.5 (9–51) in B. Conditioning was mainly
AC Vigorito; WM Azevedo; JFC Marques; AM Azevedo; KAB Eid; FJP Aranha; I Lorand-Metze; GB Oliveira; MEP Correa; ARC Reis; ECM Miranda; CA de Souza
This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160?mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80?ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80?mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128
P. N., Onu
This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160?mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80?ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80?mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128
P N, Onu
The aim of this study was to assess haematological changes in hand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) transported from intensive housing facilities to a pheasantry. Selected haematological parameters were monitored in a group of 100 pheasants (50 males and 50 females) aged of 9 weeks that were transported for 4 hours by a covered lorry in crates, with a total body weight of 12 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C12 - floor space: 290 cm2/kg) and with a total body weight of 18 +/- 0.5 kg per crate (Group C18 - floor space: 195 cm2/kg). Blood samples were taken from 10 randomly selected males and 10 females before transport (CON group) and 20 hours after transport (C12 and C18 groups). Examinations consisted in determining the total erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin levels and differential leukocyte counts, whereby the proportions of heterophil, basophil and eosinophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of the total leukocytes were computed. The changes in the parameters of red blood cell count were manifested by an increase (P < 0.01) in the haemoglobin level, MCH (mean cell haemoglobin) and MCHC (mean cell haemoglobin concentration) values and a decrease (P < 0.01) in the total erythrocyte count and haematocrit level in both C12 and C18 pheasants, when compared with the control group of non-transported pheasants. C18 pheasants exhibited also a significant increase (P < 0.05) in MCV (mean cell value) value. When analyzing differential leukocyte counts, C18 pheasants showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in heterophil counts and H/L ratio, whereas values in C12 pheasants did not differ from the non-transported control group. Individual counts of lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.05) in C12 pheasants, whereas basophil counts were increased (P < 0.01) in both C12 and C18 pheasants. Total leukocyte count was decreased (P < 0.01) in C12 and C18 pheasants. In conclusion, the specific requirements of pheasants, as primarily wild animals, for the density in crates should be respected during transportation and they should be transported at lower densities than other poultry species, at least 290 cm2/kg live weight should be provided. PMID:17078531
Voslarova, E; Bedanova, I; Vecerek, V; Pistekova, V; Chloupek, P; Suchy, P
Background Malaria may be associated with complications which may be avoided by early diagnosis and treatment. Microscopic diagnosis showing presence of malarial parasites is needed for confirmation which at times may be unreliable and requires technical expertise. The present study was conducted to statistically analyze the haematological parameters including platelet indices which can give initial hint for malarial infection and therefore prompt the laboratory physician for active search of the parasite microscopically. Methods A retrospective study was conducted which included 334 cases of acute malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, falciparum and dual infection along with 100 cases of control. Routine haematological parameters along with platelet indices (MPV and PDW) which are easily available on automated cell counter were statistically analyzed to assess their role as indicators for malaria. Results Leukocyte count and platelet count were significantly lower in cases of acute malaria in comparison to controls (p value <0.001). Platelet count<150×109/l showed 87.2% sensitivity, 65% specificity, 89.3% positive predictive value and 2.49 likelihood ratio for the infection. PDW of 6–10 and MPV>8 fl had 71.9% and 61.5% sensitivity and 78.2% and 77.7% positive predictive value respectively for infection. Platelet count <150×109/l and MPV>8 fl was comparatively more sensitive indicator for vivax (88% and 70.8% respectively) than falciparum (84.8% and 50.4% respectively) and PDW 6–10 was more sensitive indicator for falciparum (82.6%) than vivax (69.5%) infection. Conclusion Thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and low leukocyte count (<4×109/l) may be used as probable indicator for malaria in endemic countries. Higher MPV (>8 fl) and PDW of 6–10 also show considerable sensitivity for malarial infection. In addition, thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and higher MPV (>8 fl) was more sensitive for vivax infection while PDW 6–10 was more sensitive for falciparum infection. PMID:23350022
Chandra, Smita; Chandra, Harish
Introduction Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and provided a daily oral supplement of multivitamins (vitamin B complex, C and E) or placebo at age 6 weeks for 24 months. Among them, 2008 infants provided blood samples and had haemoglobin concentrations measured at baseline and during a follow-up period. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentrations<11 g/dL and severe anaemia<8.5 g/dL. Results Haemoglobin concentrations among children in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group at 12 (9.77 vs. 9.64 g/dL, p=0.03), 18 (9.76 vs. 9.57 g/dL, p=0.004), and 24 months (9.93 vs. 9.75 g/dL, p=0.02) of follow-up. Compared to those in the placebo group, children in the treatment group had a 12% lower risk of anaemia (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.99; p=0.03). The treatment was associated with a 28% reduced risk of severe anaemia among children born to women without anaemia (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56–0.92; p=0.008), but not among those born to women with anaemia (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.79–1.54; p=0.57; p for interaction=0.007). One thousand seven hundred fifty three infants who tested HIV-negative at baseline and had HIV testing during follow-up were included in the analysis for MTCT of HIV. No association was found between multivitamin supplements and MTCT of HIV. Conclusions Multivitamin supplements improve haematologic status among children born to HIV-positive women. Further trials focusing on anaemia among HIV-exposed children are warranted in the context of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23948440
Liu, Enju; Duggan, Christopher; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Bosch, Ronald J; Kisenge, Rodrick R; Okuma, James; Fawzi, Wafaie W
1 Sawyer Environmental Chemistry Research Laboratory Sawyer Environmental Research Center University of Maine #12;2 Mission Statement The Sawyer Environmental Chemistry Research Laboratory is a multi industry. The Sawyer Environmental Chemistry Research Laboratory employs advanced analytical techniques
Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)
Gardner, Marjorie H.
APPROXIMATE CHEMISTRY 113 Spring 2014 Forensic Science Professors James T. Spencer (jtspence SKILLS: Chemistry 113, Forensic Science, is focused upon the application of scientific methods specifically relevant to crime detection and analysis will be presented. No prior chemistry instruction
This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.
Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)
Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p < 0.05) high in negative control group when compared with positive control group. It could be concluded that Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p < 0.05) reduction in haematological and serum biochemical parameters of all the treatment groups were recorded in comparison with negative control group. In addition, T4 and T5 groups showed significantly (p < 0.05) high superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin (Hb). However, higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), blood glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in T5 group revealed that higher concentration of azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis. PMID:23090629
Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay
Objectives Although haematological abnormalities are common manifestations of HIV infection, few studies on haematological parameters in HIV-infected persons have been undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors assessed factors associated with haematological parameters in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve and HIV-uninfected Rwandan women. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal cohort. Setting Community-based women's associations. Participants 710 HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral-naïve and 226 HIV-uninfected (HIV?) women from the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study Assessment. Haematological parameters categorised as (abnormal vs normal) were compared by HIV status and among HIV+ women by CD4 count category using proportions. Multivariate logistic regression models using forward selection were fit. Results Prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb) <12.0?g/dl) was higher in the HIV+ group (20.5% vs 6.3%; p<0.001), and increased with lower CD4 counts: ?350 (7.6%), 200–349 (16%) and <200 cells/mm3 (32.2%). Marked anaemia (Hb <10.0?g/dl) was found in 4.2% of HIV+ and none of the HIV? women (p<0.001), and was highest in HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (8.4%). The HIV+ were more likely than HIV? women (4.2 vs 0.5%, respectively, p=0.002) to have moderate neutropenia with white blood cells <2.0×103 cells/mm3 and 8.4% of HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 had moderate neutropenia. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (OR 0.87/kg/m2, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.93; p<0.001), CD4 200–350 vs HIV? (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.89 to 6.83; p<0.001) and CD4 <200 cells/mm3 vs HIV? (OR 8.09, 95% CI 4.37 to 14.97; <0.001) had large independent associations with anaemia. There were large independent associations of CD4 <200 cells/mm3 vs HIV? (OR 7.18, 95% CI 0.78 to 65.82; p=0.081) and co-trimoxazole and/or dapsone use (OR 5.69, 95% CI 0.63 to 51.45; p=0.122) with moderate neutropenia. Conclusions Anaemia was more common than neutropenia or thrombocytopenia in the HIV-infected Rwandan women. Future comparisons of haematological parameters in HIV-infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy initiation are warranted. PMID:23169875
Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Emile, Ivan; Mutimura, Eugene; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; McGinn, Aileen P; Musiime, Stephenson; Muhairwe, Fred; Rutagengwa, Alfred; Dusingize, Jean Claude; Anastos, Kathryn
Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)
This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).
Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)
Biology 3515/Chemistry 3515 Biological Chemistry Laboratory Spring 2013 (Draft Syllabus, 23 August 2012) Course Description and Objectives: This course is intended for students who have taken Biology and function, particularly for enzymes. Prerequisites: Biology 3510 or Chemistry 3510 Instructor: David P
The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700
Basic haematological values in 49 animals of five species of the subfamily Hippotraginae, namely the roan antelope Hippotragus equinus, sable antelope Hippotragus niger, adax antelope Addax nasomaculatus, gemsbok oryx Oryx gazella gazella and scimitar horned oryx Oryx damah and in 51 individuals of five species in the subfamily Tragelaphinae, including the bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptus, nyala Tragelaphus angasi, greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, cape eland Tautotragus oryx and bongo Bocercus euryceros are reported. The erythrocyte counts were in the range of 12.62 X 10(12)/l in the gemsbok oryx to 6.44 X 10(12)/l in the bongo, the haematocrit values varied from 0.488 in the nyala to 0.380 in the roan antelope and for the haemoglobin highest levels (164.0 g/l) were noted in the adax antelope, and the lowest (105.5 g/l) in the bongo. Leukocyte counts were found mostly in the normal human range and varied from 7.17 X 10(9)/l in the adax antelope to 4.05 X 10(9)/l in the nyala, only in the greater kudu decreased values of 3.02 X 10(9) were estimated. These results are compared with findings taken from the literature, and with the normal human range. PMID:6149054
Pospísil, J; Kase, F; Vahala, J; Mouchová, I
Prenatal Ultrasound (US) is commonly used as a routine procedure on pregnant women. It is generally perceived as a safe procedure due to the use of non-ionizing radiation. However, the neurotoxicity of diagnostic prenatal US was detected to have a correlation with high susceptibility to early developing fetus. This research involved in vivo experimental model by using 3rd trimester pregnant Oryctolagus cuniculus and exposing them to US exposures for 30, 60, and 90 minutes at their gestational day (GD) 28-29. The output power and intensities, spatial peak temporal average intensity (ISPTA) of US were varied from 0.4 to 0.7 W and 0.13 to 0.19 W/cm2 respectively were tested initially in free-field, water. Haematological analysis was carried out to detect any changes in blood constituents. Statistically significant differences were detected in red blood cell (RBC) count (P<0.001), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (P<0.001) and also platelet (PLT) count (P<0.001) in newborn of Oryctolagus cuniculus. These findings indicate the possibility of US heating in causing defects on studied animal. PMID:24273744
Md. Dom, Sulaiman; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri
Background: Smoking is the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature death and major tobacco related diseases like cancer costs India more than Rs.308.33 billion per year. Cigarette smoking increases the total peripheral blood leukocyte count but its effect on other haematological parameters is largely unexplored.. Objective: To study the effect of smoking and its intensity on hematological and lipid parameters. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study included 40 cigarette smokers and 40 non-smokers in the age range of 25 and 40 years at SRM Medical College, Kattangulathur, Tamilnadu, India. In this study the volunteers were otherwise healthy and the smokers were enquired about their intensity of smoking using smoking index. Common hematological and lipid parameters were measured in all subjects. Comparison of smoking status and its intensity among the study subjects were analysed using t-test and ANOVA.. Results: There is a significant increase in levels of haemoglobin, hematocrit, total leukocyte count, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and reduced levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) among the smokers. Heavy smokers showed significant dyslipidemia,increase in red blood cell count, total leukocyte count and neutrophil count. Conclusion: Increase in hemoglobin, hematocrit, total leucocyte count and dyslipidemia were found significant among smokers and in heavy smokers there is dyslipidemia with increased RBC count, total leukocyte count with specific increase in neutrophils. As per the existing literature, these changes may lead to future fatal cardiac diseases among the smokers.
Lakshmanan, Anandhi; P, Ganesh Kumar; A, Saravanan
Electroejaculation (EE) is a technique widely used to collect semen in ruminants, which produces a stress response with negative effects on animal welfare. The aim of this paper was to characterize the stress response during conventional EE in rams that have been frequently electroejaculated. Blood samples were collected since 20 min before and until 120 min after electroejaculating 10 rams. Electroejaculation affected hormone concentration, as cortisol increased, and testosterone decreased after EE. Heart and respiratory rate increased 10 min after EE. Several blood parameters, such as glycaemia, an increase in total protein and creatine kinase concentrations and a decrease in haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell and alkaline phosphatase concentrations. The rams vocalized 13.8 ± 2.4 times, and the largest length of vocalizations during EE was associated with the numbers of pulses in which the rams ejaculated. In this paper, we provide a complete characterization of the stress response to EE in rams. We showed that although rams have been frequently electroejaculated, an important stress response including changes in respiratory rate, testosterone concentrations, haematological and biochemical parameters were observed, besides the changes in cortisol concentrations and heart rate, suggesting that rams were not habituated to EE. In addition, we described the main parameters of vocalizations and its relation with the moment of EE. The information displayed on the frequent use of EE in the rams should be considered in relation to the welfare implications. PMID:21092067
Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R
The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and, in addition, of the pressure, temperature, and velocity. A near term goal of the experimental program should be to confirm the nonlinear effects of sulfur speciation, and if present, to provide an explanation for them. It is also desirable to examine if the particulate matter retains any sulfur. The recommendation is to examine the effects on SOx production of variations in fuel-bound sulfur and aromatic content (which may affect the amount of particulates formed). These experiments should help us to understand if there is a coupling between particulate formation and SO, concentration. Similarly, any coupling with NOx can be examined either by introducing NOx into the combustion air or by using fuel-bound nitrogen. Also of immediate urgency is the need to establish and validate a detailed mechanism for sulfur oxidation/aerosol formation, whose chemistry is concluded to be homogeneous, because there is not enough surface area for heterogeneous effects. It is envisaged that this work will involve both experimental and theoretical programs. The experimental work will require, in addition to the measurements described above, fundamental studies in devices such as flow reactors and shock tubes. Complementing this effort should be modeling and theoretical activities. One impediment to the successful modeling of sulfur oxidation is the lack of reliable data for thermodynamic and transport properties for several species, such as aqueous nitric acid, sulfur oxides, and sulfuric acid. Quantum mechanical calculations are recommended as a convenient means of deriving values for these properties. Such calculations would also help establish rate constants for several important reactions for which experimental measurements are inherently fraught with uncertainty. Efforts to implement sufficiently detailed chemistry into computational fluid dynamic codes should be continued. Zero- and one-dimensional flow models are also useful vehicles for elucidating the minimal set of species and reactions that must be included in two- and three-dimensional modeling studies.
Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip
Chemistry Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science that underlies many technology. A chemistry degree gives you the understanding to contribute to our future in very topical areas) in Chemistry BSc (Hons) in Chemistry MChem (Hons) in Chemistry (with an industrial placement year) MChem (Hons
Sussex, University of
PROTEIN PRECIPITATION AS A POSSIBLE IMPORTANT PITFALL IN THE CLINICAL CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS OF BLOOD SAMPLES CONTAINING MONOCLONAL IMMUNOGLOBULINS: 2 CASE REPORTS AND A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. PROTEIN PRECIPITATION AS A POSSIBLE IMPORTANT PITFALL IN THE CLINICAL CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS OF BLOOD SAMPLES CONTAINING MONOCLONAL IMMUNOGLOBULINS: 2 CASE REPORTS AND A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Two case reports are presented, both illustrating an analytical interference caused by monoclonal im- munoglobulins. Falsely low results were obtained in the routine analysis of glucose, CRP and HDL-cho- lesterol. When analysing samples containing paraproteins, various problems can be encountered in the clinical laboratory: next to the antibody effect, pseudohy- ponatraemia, hyperviscosity, cryoglobulinaemia and gel formation have to be taken
M. Berth; J. Delanghe
Background Genetic as well as epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of both epithelial and haematological malignancies. High throughput screens are required to identify epigenetic markers that can be useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes across malignancies. Results Here we report for the first time the use of the MIRA assay (methylated CpG island recovery assay) in combination with genome-wide CpG island arrays to identify epigenetic molecular markers in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on a genome-wide scale. We identified 30 genes demonstrating methylation frequencies of ?25% in childhood ALL, nine genes showed significantly different methylation frequencies in B vs T-ALL. For majority of the genes expression could be restored in methylated leukemia lines after treatment with 5-azaDC. Forty-four percent of the genes represent targets of the polycomb complex. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) two of the genes, (TFAP2A and EBF2), demonstrated increased methylation in blast crisis compared to chronic phase (P < 0.05). Furthermore hypermethylation of an autophagy related gene ATG16L2 was associated with poorer prognosis in terms of molecular response to Imatinib treatment. Lastly we demonstrated that ten of these genes were also frequently methylated in common epithelial cancers. Conclusion In summary we have identified a large number of genes showing frequent methylation in childhood ALL, methylation status of two of these genes is associated with advanced disease in CML and methylation status of another gene is associated with prognosis. In addition a subset of these genes may act as epigenetic markers across hematological malignancies as well as common epithelial cancers. PMID:20184741
The tolerance and effects of nitrite on ion balance and haematology were investigated in the striped snakehead, Channa striata Bloch 1793, which is an air-breathing fish with reduced gills of importance for aquaculture in South East Asia. C. striata was nitrite tolerant with a 96 h LC50 of 4.7 mM. Effects of sub-lethal exposures to nitrite (0mM, 1.4mM, and 3.0mM) were determined during a 7-day exposure period. Plasma nitrite increased, but the internal concentration remained well below ambient levels. Extracellular nitrate rose by several mM, indicating that a large proportion of the nitrite taken up was converted to nitrate. Nitrite reacted with erythrocyte haemoglobin (Hb) causing methaemoglobin (metHb) to increase to 30% and nitrosylhaemoglobin (HbNO) to increase to 10% of total Hb. Both metHb and HbNO stabilised after 4 days, and functional Hb levels accordingly never fell below 60% of total Hb. Haematocrit and total Hb were unaffected by nitrite. Although the effects of nitrite exposure seemed minor in terms of plasma nitrite and metHb increases, ion balance was strongly affected. In the high exposure group, total osmolality decreased from 320 mOsm to 260 mOsm, and plasma sodium from 150 mM to 120 mM, while plasma chloride fell from 105 mM to 60mM and plasma bicarbonate rose from 12 mM in controls to 20mM in exposed fish. The extreme changes in ion balance in C. striata are different from the response reported in other fish, and further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism behind the observed changes in regulation. PMID:22516674
Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark
The Sysmex NE 8000 (TOA-Japan) is a haematology analyser that performs blood cells count and leukocyte differential count. For facilitating the work of technical validation, we developed a software adapted to any IBM or compatible PC running under MS-DOS, to manage the analyser. Data are automatically collected via the RS-232 interface from the analyser or keyed in for the other techniques. The software deals with 64 different analyses entirely "user defined". Six technical alarms of the analyser are taken in account for red or white cells and platelets. An "electronic worksheet" presents the results or alarms with 10 patients to a page. This enables the lab technician to assess the coherence of the various data and to perform verifications or complementary tests if necessary. As an option, a blinking asterisk can signal any results out of predetermined range. By moving the cursor through the table, a test result can be deleted, modified or added. A function displays the patient previous files in a window because the data are recorded in long term archives at the end of the day. This long term recording allows a search of previous files to decide additional tests if the patient is unknown. If the patient is known, with additional tests previously performed, this procedure is time saving. A daily archive function classifies and prints the whole day's work in alphabetical order. A protocol of communication allows a connection to a mainframe computer Bayer-Technicon. This program and the user's manual are free of charge, available on request from J. P. Cambus. PMID:8814394
Cambus, J P; Nguyen, F; Cambus, F
The experiment was conducted to study the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on growth, haematological and immunological characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 100 male piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with a body weight of 8.0 ± 0.2 kg weaned at the age of 28 days were randomly assigned to two treatments with five replicates and 10 pigs per replicate. Piglets received a basal diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1000 mg/kg SB. The feeding trial lasted for 21 days. The results showed that dietary SB significantly decreased (p < 0.05) diarrhoea incidence of weaned piglets, but did not affect (p > 0.05) the average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed to gain (F/G). Furthermore, piglets fed dietary SB had higher (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of glucose and triglycerides and lower (p < 0.05) serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, cortisol, D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase when compared with the control group. However, dietary SB did not affect concentrations of serum albumin, total protein, insulin and glucagon (p > 0.05). There were no significant (p > 0.05) treatment effects on serum IgA and IgM, whereas serum IgG concentration and IgA+ cell count in jejunum from pigs fed SB were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in those given the basal diet. In conclusion, the present study indicated that dietary SB significantly decreased diarrhoea incidence of weaned piglets and increased the efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Also, dietary SB could regulate and enhance the immune function of piglets by increasing the serum IgG concentration and IgA+ cell count in jejunum. Our results suggest that SB may reduce some of the adverse effects of weaning stress and play an important role in maintaining the integrity of intestinal mucosa. PMID:24024579
Fang, C L; Sun, H; Wu, J; Niu, H H; Feng, J
Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)
Burns, Mary Sue
Background Reference procedures are required for evaluating the accuracy of routine analytical systems for uric acid (UA). External quality assessment (EQA) for UA has only been conducted with quality controls in China, and the results have not been published. This study was designed to investigate both the trueness and inter-laboratory precision of UA measurements among routine analytical systems using a candidate reference method. Methods We performed the HPLC method recommended by the Japan Society of Clinical Chemistry (JSCC). Next, we evaluated its analytical performance and validated its trueness. The performance of 4 routine analytical systems (5 instruments per system, n=20) for UA was assessed by using 4 frozen pooled serum samples measured by the HPLC method according to biologically relevant quality goals. Results Within-run, between-run, inter-day, and total CV of the method were less than 0.3%, 0.4%, 1.8%, and 2.6%, respectively. The UA measurements were consistent with the target values of standard reference material (SRM) 909b, the sixth ring trial for Reference Laboratories (RELA-2008) specimen, and national primary reference materials. The 4 frozen pooled serum samples were homogeneous, stable, and commutable. All routine systems achieved the desirable performance goal (total error <11.9%). Conclusions We successfully reproduced the JSCC's HPLC method, which was simple, specific, precise, and accurate. We recommend this method as a reference method for UA measurement in human serum. Four routine analytical systems for UA measurement had acceptable traceability, and their UA results showed good concordance. PMID:24624345
Jiang, Yaping; Liu, Ou
International Federation of Clinical Chemistry standardization project for measurements of apolipoproteins A-I and B. III. Comparability of apolipoprotein A-I values by use of international reference material.
In the third phase of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) study for the standardization of apolipoprotein (apo) measurements, the preparation SP1-01, selected as the candidate international reference material for apo A-I, was investigated for its ability to transfer an accuracy-based value to the immunoassay calibrators and to produce comparability of the values for patients' samples. An apo A-I value of 1.50 g/L (SD 0.08 g/L) was assigned to SP1-01 by a highly standardized RIA calibrated with purified apo A-I for which the mass value had been determined by amino acid analysis. According to a common detailed protocol, the participants transferred the mass value from SP1-01 to the calibrator of each method. To confirm that uniformity of calibration ensures comparability of the values over a wide range of apo A-I values, each laboratory analyzed 50 fresh-frozen samples from individual donors, using an approach similar to that adopted by the Cholesterol Reference Laboratory Network. The consensus mean value for each sample was in excellent agreement with the value assigned by the Northwest Lipid Research Laboratories, with the average absolute bias between assigned and consensus value being 0.01 g/L. The among-laboratory CV on each of the 50 samples ranged from 2.1% to 5.6% (mean 3.6%), demonstrating that comparable apo A-I results can be obtained by a variety of immunochemical methods through the use of certified reference material. Based on the results obtained in these studies, SP1-01 has been approved as Apolipoprotein A-I International Reference Material by the World Health Organization. PMID:8485867
Marcovina, S M; Albers, J J; Henderson, L O; Hannon, W H
Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)
Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.
Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria. PMID:24627875
Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu; Ramasamy, Ramesh; Gopal, Niranjan; Kuzhandaivelu, V.
Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria. PMID:24627875
Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu; Ramasamy, Ramesh; Gopal, Niranjan; Kuzhandaivelu, V
Georgia Tech Chemistry & Biochemistrywww.chemistry.gatech.edu/rig -- Research New Faculty Workshop.aip.org ! #12;Georgia Tech Chemistry & Biochemistrywww.chemistry.gatech.edu/rig -- Research New Faculty Workshop
The aim of the study was to assess changes in some haematological parameters of periparturient mares from the last three months of pregnancy until the third week after foaling. The study was carried out on 15 healthy pregnant mares (Group A) and 7 healthy non-pregnant non-lactating mares (Group B). Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture into EDTA tubes and tested for Haematocrit (Hct), Red Blood Cell (RBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), Platelets (Plt) and White Blood Cell (WBC). Peripheral blood smears were also performed to assess changes in the leucocyte differential count. Group A showed a progressive reduction in Hct and Hb levels over the experimental period, whereas Plt and WBC (P<0.05) peaked at parturition. Among WBC, neutrophils increased until parturition when lymphocytes reached the lowest values. The statistical analysis also revealed significant interactions time×pregnancy on Hb (P<0.001), WBC (P<0.001), neutrophils (P<0.001) and lymphocytes (P<0.001). Analysing the last trimester of pregnancy and the first post partum period the present study provides suitable information about the influence of peripartum on mares' haematological parameters. PMID:25064559
Bazzano, Marilena; Giannetto, Claudia; Fazio, Francesco; Rizzo, Maria; Giudice, Elisabetta; Piccione, Giuseppe
We exposed female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) during a 6month period to environmentally relevant concentrations of a pentabromodiphenyl ether (Penta-BDE) mixture (about 1740?g/kg body weight) through subcutaneous implants, and examined endocrine disruptive, haematological and biochemical effects. To investigate endocrine disrupting effects of PBDEs, testosterone, estradiol and thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) were measured in the plasma. We found no significant differences between the control and exposed groups for any of the hormones. However, 14days after implantation, T(3) concentrations tended to be lower in the exposed group compared to the control group. For albumin, our results suggest that short term exposure of PBDEs may result in a negative effect on albumin, while the opposite was observed on a longer term (6months after implantation). However, from the statistical analysis, effects on albumin disappeared when excluding females that laid eggs. These results demonstrate that observed effects during the breeding season should be interpreted carefully when the breeding status of females is unknown. There were no significant differences found between the control and exposed groups for the other biochemical parameters (total protein, uric acid, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, total antioxidative capacity, high-density lipoproteins and creatine kinase) and haematological parameters (amount of red blood cells, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin). All together, our results suggest that European starlings, similar to other passerine species, may be less sensitive to the effects of organohalogenated pollutants, such as PBDEs, than other bird species. PMID:20888617
Van den Steen, Evi; Eens, Marcel; Geens, Ann; Covaci, Adrian; Darras, Veerle M; Pinxten, Rianne
Two mid-range haematology analysers (Abbott CELL-DYN Ruby and Sysmex XT-2000i) were evaluated to determine their analytical performance and workflow efficiency in the haematology laboratory. In total 418 samples were processed for determining equivalence of complete blood count (CBC) measurements, and 100 for reticulocyte comparison. Blood smears served for assessing the agreement of the differential counts. Inter-instrument agreement for most parameters was good although small numbers of discrepancies were observed. Systematic biases were found for mean cell volume, reticulocytes, platelets and mean platelet volume. CELL-DYN Ruby WBC differentials were obtained with all samples while the XT-2000i suppressed differentials partially or completely in 13 samples (3.1%). WBC subpopulation counts were otherwise in good agreement with no major outliers. Following first-pass CBC/differential analysis, 88 (21%) of XT-2000i samples required further analyser processing compared to 18 (4.3%) for the CELL-DYN Ruby. Smear referrals for suspected WBC/nucleated red blood cells and platelet abnormalities were indicated for 106 (25.4%) and 95 (22.7%) of the XT-2000i and CELL-DYN Ruby samples respectively. Flagging efficiencies for both analysers were found to be similar. The Sysmex XT-2000i and Abbott CELL-DYN Ruby analysers have broadly comparable analytical performance, but the CELL-DYN Ruby showed superior first-pass efficiency. PMID:20402823
Leers, M P G; Goertz, H; Feller, A; Hoffmann, J J M L
Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. It is known for its wide toxic manifestations. The present experiment pertains to the protective role of vitamin C against haematological and biochemical toxicity induced by deltamethrin during 4 weeks. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight each: Group I served as control rats; Group II received deltamethrin (1.28 mg/kg BW) in drinking water. Group III received both deltamethrin and vitamin C (200mg/kg BW; by i.p. injection); Group IV received vitamin C (200mg/kg BW). Exposure of rats to deltamethrin caused significant changes of some haematological parameters (red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet (Plt) and white blood cells (WBC)) in treated rats compared to controls. Significant increases in the levels of hepatic markers enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ?-Glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT)). Furthermore, renal markers such as urea and creatinine were increased in deltamethrin treated rats. Additionally, serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation were significantly enhanced. Co-administration of vitamin C to the group III restored all the parameters cited above to near-normal values. Therefore, our investigation revealed that vitamin C appeared to be a promising agent for protection against deltamethrin-induced toxicity. PMID:21514672
Mongi, Saoudi; Mahfoud, Messarah; Amel, Boumendjel; Kamel, Jamoussi; Abdelfattah, El Feki
Background The current healthcare climate demands pharmacoeconomic evaluations for different treatment strategies incorporating drug acquisition costs, costs incurred for hospitalisation, drug administration and preparation, diagnostic and laboratory testing and drug-related adverse events (AEs). Here we evaluate the pharmacoeconomics of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B as first-line therapies for invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with haematological malignancy and prolonged neutropenia or who were undergoing haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in Germany or Spain. Methods A decision analytic model based on a decision tree was constructed to estimate the potential treatment costs of voriconazole versus liposomal amphotericin B. Each model pathway was defined by the probability of an event occurring and the costs of clinical outcomes. Outcome probabilities and cost inputs were derived from the published literature, clinical trials, expert panels and local database costs. In the base case, patients who failed to respond to first-line therapy were assumed to experience a single switch between comparator drugs or the other drug was added as second-line treatment. Base-case evaluation included only drug-management costs and additional hospitalisation costs due to severe AEs associated with first- and second-line therapies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results. Cost estimates were inflated to 2011 euros (€). Results Based on clinical trial success rates of 52.8% (voriconazole) and 50.0% (liposomal amphotericin B), voriconazole had lower total treatment costs compared with liposomal amphotericin B in both Germany (€12,256 versus €18,133; length of therapy [LOT]?=?10-day intravenous [IV]?+?5-day oral voriconazole and 15-day IV liposomal amphotericin B) and Spain (€8,032 versus €10,516; LOT?=?7-day IV?+?8-day oral voriconazole and 15-day IV liposomal amphotericin B). Assuming the same efficacy (50.0%) in first-line therapy, voriconazole maintained a lower total treatment cost compared with liposomal amphotericin B. Cost savings were primarily due to the lower drug acquisition costs and shorter IV LOT associated with voriconazole. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were sensitive to drug price, particularly the cost of liposomal amphotericin B. Conclusions Voriconazole is likely to be cost-saving compared with liposomal amphotericin B when used as a first-line treatment for IA in Germany and Spain. PMID:25253630
The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the development of clinical signs and accompanying haematological, coproscopic\\u000a and pathological findings as a basis for the monitoring of health condition of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs. Six beagles were orally inoculated with 50 (n?=?3) or 500 (n?=?3) A. vasorum third stage larvae (L3) obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Two
Manuela Schnyder; Anna Fahrion; Barbara Riond; Pete Ossent; Pia Webster; Asja Kranjc; Tony Glaus; Peter Deplazes
Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)
Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.
Students learn about the concepts of spectral chemistry, combustion, and the nature of fire through the use of visually rich fireworks resources. Optional resources address chemical reactions for those who want a more advanced chemistry lesson.
Foundation, Wgbh E.
Computational Chemistry Robots ACS Sep 2005 Computational Chemistry Robots J. A. Townsend, P. Murray-Rust, S. M. Tyrrell, Y. Zhang email@example.com Can high-throughput computation provide a reliable “experimental” resource for molecular...
Townsend, Joseph A; Murray-Rust, Peter; Tyrrell, Simon M; Zhang, Yong
This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.
Background Accurate platelet counts (PC) are necessary in order to follow recommendations for prophylactic platelet transfusion. We carried out a study comparing the standard way of counting platelets using a routine analyser and compared it with PC determined by flow cytometry (FC) and haemostatic data obtained with thromboelastography (TEG). Materials and methods The study was carried out on 24 patients with haematological malignancies, all given one adult dose of platelets. The PC was determined before and after transfusion using an automated blood cell counter and FC. Citrated, “native” whole blood TEG was carried out before and after platelet transfusion to assess global haemostasis. Results No bleeding was observed in any of the subjects. Thirty-one assessments were performed in the 24 patients. The mean pre-transfusion PC were 9.8 and 13×109/L with the automated counter and FC, respectively with a difference of 3.7 (p=0.0011). Excellent correlation was observed between the two counts (r=0.89; p<0.0001). Mean post-transfusion increments were 23 and 29×109/L for the routine counter and FC, respectively. Using the immunological PC, patients would not have qualified for transfusion in 18.2% of cases since their PC was >20×109/L. TEG showed a shortened reaction time in 69.6% of cases and a normal mean K time of 6.7 min. Only 9% had a low ? angle signifying hypocoagulability. The maximum amplitude was reduced in the majority of cases but normal in 25% despite PC<20×109/L. Mean activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and fibrinogen were normal prior to transfusion. Discussion Although higher PC as assessed by FC could potentially have an impact on platelet transfusion practices, TEG was sensitive enough to detect PC<10×109/L and some between 10–20×109/L. Whether patients with the latter PC are more prone to bleeding remains to be verified in larger studies. PMID:24960660
Gatt, Alex; Bonello, Fabian; Buttigieg, Raphael; Debono, Samuel; Brincat, Patricia; Grima, Charlie; Gatt, Peter; Lofaro, Thomas; Laspina, Stefan
This cost-free resource is a chapter from a textbook on introductory chemistry, developed for learners with little background in physics or chemistry. This chapter deals with the atomic nucleus and radiation, nuclear energy, and uses of radioactive substances. It is appropriate for teachers seeking additional content knowledge, high school physics and chemistry courses, and college-level preparatory chemistry. It builds a foundation to understand the physical forces in the nucleus (electrostatic force and strong force), and explains how chemical reactions differ from nuclear reactions. Graphs and diagrams depict what happens in radioactive decay. The section on chemical nuclear equations is straightforward and comprehensible for non-scientists. This collection is part of An Introduction to Chemistry, a set of resources developed by Mark Bishop which includes two textbooks, 15 animated tutorials, downloadable Power Point presentations for teachers, concept maps, and 3D molecular models.
Chemistry Why chemistry? Chemistry is fundamental: it is the enabling science that underlies many technology. A chemistry degree allows you to understand and to contribute to our future. Chemistry is challenging: understanding the very fabric of matter is both stimulating and rewarding. Studying chemistry
Sussex, University of
1 Chemistry Division Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Illinois Institute-13 Chemistry Division invites nominations for Kilpatrick Fellowship for the academic year 2012's Chemistry Department from 1947Â1960. Mary Kilpatrick was a chemistry faculty member from 1947
................................................................................................. 10 #12;3 Course staff Dr John Daniels (Materials) Course Coordinator & Lecturer Room 217, School: by appointment A/Prof Stephen Colbran (Chemistry) Lecturer Room 225 Dalton Building (F12) Phone: 9385 4737 s: by appointment Ms Anne Ayres (Chemistry) Chemistry Tutorial and Laboratory Administrator Room 105 Dalton Building
New South Wales, University of
Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)
Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.
Thomas Hager, author of popular science books that revisit some of the most significant developments in chemistry over the past century, talks to Nature Chemistry about the challenges of writing for a general audience, and how his dislike of chemistry was turned around by a fellow Oregonian of considerable repute.
Describes a Chemistry and Art project developed for secondary students and teachers sponsored by the National Gallery and The Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom. Discusses aspects of the techniques used in creating five paintings as well as the chemistry involved in their making, deterioration, conservation, and restoration.…
The authors of this curriculum supplement believe in a laboratory approach to chemistry and express the feeling that environmental chemistry provides the students an opportunity to apply theoretical chemistry to important practical problems. There are eighteen activities presented, each accompanied with behavioral objectives, one or more suggested…
Jackland, Thomas; And Others
#12;Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation of Acridine Country: United States #12;Amit Gangar Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Design and Development Wagner Home Country: India #12;Dan Wang Medicinal Chemistry M.S. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation
Thomas, David D.
Four standardbred horses with subcutaneously relocated carotid arteries were given a seven week training programme of treadmill exercise at a gradient of 19 per cent in order to assess if there were any effects of exercise and training on haematology, arterial blood gas and acid base measurements, plasma biochemistry and heart rate. The exercise consisted of one minute walking at
RJ Rose; JR Allen; JH Stewart; W Chan
Competitive Muslim athletes often have to train and compete during the holy month of Ramadan when they abstain from food and drink from sunrise to sunset. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on some biochemical and haematological parameters in 78 Tunisian junior male soccer players aged 16–19 years who continued their usual schedule of daily training
Ronald J. Maughan; John B. Leiper; Zakia Bartagi; Rym Zrifi; Yacine Zerguini; Jiri Dvorak
Developed by Kennesaw State University, ChemCases.com is a series of curriculum units that link responsible decision making in product development with chemical principles taught in college General Chemistry. Alcohol, Chemistry and You, by Dr. Bill Boggan, is the latest offering by the Web site, which "looks at the chemistry of beverage alcohol (ethyl alcohol) through the eyes of a General Chemistry student." The fourteen chapter lessons cover everything from what ethyl alcohol is to alcohol addiction, relating it to various principles learned in a general chemistry course.
Background The reasons patients with haematological malignancies die in hospital more often than those with other cancers is the subject of much speculation. We examined variations in place of death by disease sub-type and time from diagnosis to death, to identify groups of ‘at-risk’ patients. Methods The study is based in the United Kingdom within the infrastructure of the Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN), a large on-going population-based cohort including all patients newly diagnosed with haematological malignancies in the north of England. Diagnostic, demographic, prognostic, treatment and outcome data are collected for each patient and individuals are ‘flagged’ for death. This study includes all adults (?18 years) diagnosed 1st September 2004 to 31st August 2010 (n?=?10,325), focussing on those who died on/before 31st August 2012 (n?=?4829). Results Most deaths occurred in hospital (65.9%), followed by home (15.6%), nursing home (11%) and hospice (7.5%) and there was little variation by diagnostic sub-type overall. Differences in place of death were, however, observed by time from diagnosis to death, and this was closely related to sub-type; 87.7% of deaths within a month of diagnosis happened in hospital and these largely occurred in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and myeloma. Patients surviving longer, and particularly beyond 1 year, were less likely to die in hospital and this corresponded with an increase in the proportion of home deaths. Conclusions Time from diagnosis to death was clearly a major determinant of place of death and many patients that died within three months of diagnosis did so in hospital. This was closely related to disease sub-type, with early deaths occurring most notable in the more aggressive diseases. This is likely to be due to a combination of factors including acute presentation, rapid disease progression without transition to a palliative approach to care and complications of treatment. Nonetheless, hospital deaths also occurred frequently in indolent diseases, suggesting that other factors were likely to contribute to the large proportion of hospital deaths overall. More evidence is needed to fully understand these complex cancers. PMID:24245578
The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744
Aghwan, Z. A.; Sazili, A. Q.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Hilmi, M.
The aim of this study was to follow up whether the modification of pro-antioxidant status by 8-day oral application of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in healthy men affects the haematological response, whether there is a direct relationship between antioxidant defences and erythropoietin (EPO) secretion and whether NAC intake enhances exercise performance. Fifteen healthy men were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control or NAC (1,200 mg d(-1) for 8 days prior to and 600 mg on the day of exercise trial). To measure the ergogenic effectiveness of NAC, subjects performed incremental cycle exercise until exhaustion. NAC administration significantly influenced the resting and post-exercise level of glutathione (+31%) as well as the resting activity of glutathione enzymes (glutathione reductase, -22%; glutathione peroxidase, -18%). The oxidative damage markers, i.e., protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) were reduced by NAC by more than 30%. NAC noticeably affected the plasma level of EPO (+26%), haemoglobin (+9%), haematocrit (+9%) and erythrocytes (-6%) at rest and after exercise. The mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin increased by more than 12%. Plasma total thiols increased by 17% and directly correlated with EPO level (r = 0.528, P < 0.05). NAC treatment, contrary to expectations, did not significantly affect exercise performance. Our study has shown that 8-day NAC intake at a daily dose of 1,200 mg favours a pro-antioxidant status and affects haematological indices but does not enhance exercise performance. PMID:20354834
Zembron-Lacny, A; Slowinska-Lisowska, M; Szygula, Z; Witkowski, Z; Szyszka, K
Low posaconazole plasma concentrations (PPCs) are associated with breakthrough invasive mould infections among patients with haematological malignancies. This study evaluated the influence of structured personal on-site patient education on low PPCs. The study was conducted from July 2012 to May 2013 at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Hospital of Graz (Graz, Austria). PPCs were measured in all patients with haematological malignancies receiving the drug prophylactically. Concentrations above the target of 0.5 mg/L were defined as satisfactory and those below this concentration as low. In patients with low PPCs, structured personal on-site education regarding the intake of posaconazole (e.g. intake with fatty/acid food, prevention of nausea and vomiting) was performed. In total, 258 steady-state PPCs were measured in 65 patients [median PPC 0.59 mg/L, interquartile range 0.25-0.92 mg/L; 141/258 (54.7%) satisfactory]. Diarrhoea was the strongest predictor of low PPCs in the multivariate analysis. Initial steady-state PPCs were sufficient in 29 patients and low in 36 patients. Of the 36 patients with low initial steady-state PPCs, 8 were either discharged or antifungal therapy was modified before a follow-up PPC was obtained; in the remaining 28 patients, personal on-site education was performed. In 12/28 patients (43%) the personal on-site education led to sufficient levels, whilst in 16 (57%) PPCs stayed below the target, although increasing from <0.2 mg/L to >0.3 mg/L in 6 of these patients. In conclusion, personal education appears to be a promising tool to increase low PPCs. PMID:25059446
Hoenigl, Martin; Duettmann, Wiebke; Raggam, Reinhard B; Huber-Krassnitzer, Bianca; Theiler, Georg; Seeber, Katharina; Prueller, Florian; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Prattes, Jürgen; Wagner, Jasmin; Wölfler, Albert; Krause, Robert
The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91 days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200 mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35 mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p < 0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029
Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I
The effects of treatment with small volume hypertonic (2400 mOsm/litre) and isotonic (300 mOsm/litre) saline on serum electrolyte and biochemical concentrations, haemograms and blood gases were evaluated in 12 horses using a haemorrhagic shock model. Intravascular catheters were placed surgically for sample collection prior to anaesthesia. Controlled haemorrhage was initiated and continued until mean systemic pressure reached 50 to 60 mmHg. Hypertonic or isotonic saline (2 litres) was administered by intravenous infusion and data collected for 2 h. Following haemorrhage, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, blood glucose concentrations and erythrocyte numbers increased whereas plasma total protein and albumin concentrations decreased. Infusion of hypertonic saline resulted in a further decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations. Glucose concentrations and other haematological variables were unaffected. Isotonic saline administration did not affect electrolyte, total protein or albumin concentrations. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were unaffected by hypotension but increased significantly following hypertonic saline treatment, exceeding normal values during the immediate post treatment period. Serum osmolality increased concurrently. No significant changes in arterial and venous blood gas values were observed with haemorrhage or isotonic saline treatment. A transient decrease in arterial and venous blood pH and a sustained decrease in venous bicarbonate and base excess concentrations occurred following hypertonic saline administration. No significant increases in any serum biochemical concentrations occurred during hypotension or following infusion of either isotonic or hypertonic saline. These results demonstrate that small volume hypertonic saline can be administered safely to horses without producing extreme changes in electrolyte concentrations, blood gases or haematological parameters. PMID:2120034
Schmall, L M; Muir, W W; Robertson, J T
The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either Mycoplasma haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' (Group HM: 3 cats) or 'Candidatus M. turicensis' (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated measures experiment with significance set as P<0.05. Cats in Group TU had significantly lower blood copy numbers than cats in Group HF (P<0.001) and HM (P<0.001). All Group HF cats developed anaemia (often severe), macrocytosis and evidence of erythrocyte-bound antibodies whereas Groups HM and TU cats did not. Group HF had significantly lower PCVs, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts, and significantly higher mean cell volumes, than Groups HM and TU. In Group HF, erythrocyte-bound antibodies reactive at 4 degrees C (both IgM and IgG) appeared between 8 and 22 DPI and persisted for two to four weeks, whereas those reactive at 37 degrees C (primarily IgG) appeared between 22 and 29 DPI and persisted for one to five weeks. In most cats antibodies appeared after the fall in haemoglobin started. Although Group TU had significantly lower glucose concentrations than Groups HF (P=0.006) and HM (P=0.027), mean blood glucose concentrations remained within the reference range in all groups. This study demonstrates that M. haemofelis infection, in contrast to 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis' infection, can result in a severe macrocytic anaemia and the development of cold and warm reactive erythrocyte-bound antibodies. PMID:19615832
Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Knowles, Toby G; Day, Michael J; Helps, Chris R
Future of Chemistry Assumptions: Taking Chemistry in New Directions** George M. Whitesides* Keywords: Bioorganic chemistry Â· genomics Â· medicinal chemistry Â· philosophy of chemistry "When in scientists. We all do it. We also take it as an article of faith that serious predic- tions are almost always
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Green & Environmental Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Physical Chemistry W ith strengths in polymer science, green and environmental chemistry, bioorganic, bioinorganic
This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume B include equilibria processes, chemical processes, biochemical processes, and physicochemical processes.
Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)
Chemistry @ Imperial College 2007 #12;2 Introduction Imperial College is a world leading University. As the central science Chemistry has been a major contributor to this success. The Chemistry Department is at the forefront of modern Chemistry research, both in our core discipline and at the interfaces of Chemistry
Background The approval of epoetin biosimilars in the European Union requires extensive scientific evaluation and stringent regulatory procedures, including post-marketing studies. The ORHEO (place of biOsimilaRs in the therapeutic management of anaemia secondary to chemotherapy in HaEmatology and Oncology) study was an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study performed in France to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biosimilar epoetins for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia (CIA) in the clinical setting. Methods Patients >18 years with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for treatment with an epoetin biosimilar were included in this study. Patient characteristics were recorded at baseline along with anaemia-related information, such as observed and target Hb (as chosen by the treating clinician), brand and dose of epoetin biosimilar prescribed, and details of any other treatments. Patients were then followed-up at 3 and 6 months. The primary endpoint was Hb response (defined as Hb reaching ?10 g/dL, an increase of Hb ?1 g/dL since inclusion visit or reaching physician-defined target Hb, with no blood transfusions in the 3 weeks prior to measurement). Other endpoints included adverse events, achievement of target Hb and associated treatments. Results Overall, 2333 patients >18 years (mean age 66.5 years) with CIA (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) in association with solid tumours, lymphoma or myeloma and eligible for biosimilar epoetin treatment were included. 99.9% of patients received epoetin zeta (median dose 30,000 IU/week). Mean baseline Hb was 9.61 g/dL, with 35.6% of patients having moderate anaemia (Hb 8–9.5 g/dL). Hb response was achieved in 81.6% and 86.5% of patients at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall mean change in Hb level was 1.52?±?1.61 and 1.72?±?1.61 g/dL at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Transfusion and thromboembolic event rates were 9.4% and 2.4% at 3 months, and 5.8% and 1.5% at 6 months, respectively. Conclusions Epoetin zeta was effective and well tolerated in the management of CIA in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT02140736 (date of registration: 14 May 2014). PMID:25011615
Summary Stem cells have been used in a clinical setting for many years. Haematopoietic stem cells have been used for the treatment of both haematological and non-haematological disease; while more recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow have been the subject of both laboratory and early clinical studies. Whilst these cells show both multipotency and expansion potential, they nonetheless do not form stable cell lines in culture which is likely to limit the breadth of their application in the field of regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells, capable of forming stable cell lines which retain the capacity to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. This makes them of special significance in both regenerative medicine and toxicology. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may also provide a similar breadth of utility without some of the confounding ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. An essential pre-requisite to the commercial and clinical application of stem cells are suitable cryopreservation protocols for long-term storage. Whilst effective methods for cryopreservation and storage have been developed for haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic cells and iPS cells have proved more refractory. This paper reviews the current state of cryopreservation as it pertains to stem cells and in particular the embryonic and iPS cell. PMID:21566712
Hunt, Charles J.
This presentation provides a basic introduction to the chemistry involved with fuel cell technology. The material covers chemical bonds, some basic atomic properties, the Noble Gas Theory and how the chemistry of fuel cells works.This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.
Presents an activity designed for use during National Chemistry Week 2002 with the theme "Chemistry Keeps Us Clean". Allows students to discover more about a cleaning product they use everyday. Students make their own toothpaste and compare its properties with those of commercial toothpaste. (MM)
Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)
This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…
Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois
This is an "everything" site for the teaching of environmental chemistry. The site contains some unique case studies, a list of textbooks, lab and modeling activities and other educational content. The content is still in development, but the material provided would be helpful in developing a unit or course on environmental chemistry.
This site is provided by the American Chemistry Council's Chlorine Chemistry Division. The page contains several links that give an introduction to chlorine, its uses, and issues surrounding the chemical compound. There is also a link to the Chlorine Science Center which provides classroom activities and a chlorine compound of the month.
Preparation for college or life, working conditions and continuing education for high school chemistry teachers, and form/function of high school chemistry textbooks were addressed in presentations at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Workshops, lectures, and demonstrations were also presented to…
Journal of Chemical Education, 1983
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has put online a draft of recommendations for the correct use of the terms "selectivity" and "specificity" in analytical chemistry. The provisional report, available for download in .pdf format, was drafted by the IUPAC's Analytical Division Task Force, and reader comments are welcomed until September 30, 2001.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has put online a draft of recommendations for the correct use of the terms "selectivity" and "specificity" in analytical chemistry. The provisional report, available for download in .pdf format, was drafted by the IUPAC's Analytical Division Task Force, and reader comments are welcomed until September 30, 2001.
Describes the "Chemistry from Issues" project at Chelsea College. Provides the background information, rationale, and overall structure of a proposed course about the importance of chemistry to common culture. Outlines one module about the British steel industry that has been taught at King's College. (TW)
Harding, Jan; Donaldson, Jim
Organic Chemistry Worldwide is an excellent organic chemistry metasite that is not to be missed. Geared toward synthetic organic chemists involved in academic or industrial research, Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide has a mission to collect and independently annotate "all useful organic chemistry sites and to present them in an intuitive way." This extensive metasite is divided into sections on literature, laboratory resources, spectroscopy and spectrometry, nomenclature and teaching, and conferences and organizations. The Literature section contains links to over 75 journals (some restricted access), 14 free databases (and many more commercial), dissertation collections, reviews, guides, patents, and current awareness sources. Examples of resources for laboratory work include links to chemical product databases, laboratory safety bulletins (.pdf), products and services, etc. Highlights of the site are an in-depth section on mass spectrometry, with links to publications and databases, and a plethora of links to organic chemistry labs worldwide, from Armenia to Uruguay.
Van Aken, Koen
Influence of esterified-glucomannan on performance and organ morphology, serum biochemistry and haematology in broilers exposed to individual and combined mycotoxicosis (aflatoxin, ochratoxin and T-2 toxin)
1. A study was conducted to evaluate the individual and combined effects of aflatoxin B 1 (AF), ochratoxin A (OA) and T-2 toxin (T-2) on performance, organ morphology, serum biochemistry and haematology of broiler chickens and the efficacy of esterified-glucomannan (E-GM), a cell wall derivative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1026 in their counteraction. 2. Two dietary inclusion rates of AF (0
M. V. L. N. Raju; G. Devegowda
The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of selected vanadium and magnesium doses on certain haematological\\u000a and biochemical blood parameters in rats. Outbred 2-month-old, albino male Wistar rats received for a period of 6 weeks, as\\u000a a sole drinking liquid, the following water solutions: group II, sodium metavanadate (SMV) at a concentration of 0.125 mg\\u000a V\\/mL; group
Agnieszka ?cibior; Halina Zaporowska; Jaros?aw Ostrowski
This study determines the effect of diet enriched with the herb Baical skullcap Scutellaria baicalensis, and\\/or probiotics Lactobacillus sakei BK19 in rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus (32 ± 3 g) against Edwardsiella tarda. The changes in haematological parameters, innate immune response, and disease resistance were investigated after 1, 3, and 6 weeks. The white blood cell count (WBC: 104 mm?3), red blood cell count (RBC:
Ramasamy Harikrishnan; Man-Chul Kim; Ju-Sang Kim; Chellam Balasundaram; Moon-Soo Heo
, with required reading assignments given on the syllabus. Learning outcomes Upon completion of this course, a student should have mastered the following areas / skills: Understand the structure of organic molecules of interest Gain an appreciation of the current state of mechanistic investigation in chemistry and related
Mather, Patrick T.
Two hundred and forty-four previously untreated patients seen since 1964 in the department of haematology at Saint-Louis hospital were analysed. Clinical data included results of initial work-up and prognosis evaluated by survival rate matched with principal variables: age, sex, histopathology, staging, incidence of clinical and biological systemic symptoms. Immunological data included results of systematic studies made in each category of non-Hodgkin's lymphomata. Hyperbasophilic lymphoma, a special group recently characterized, is discussed. Images Fig. 9 PMID:1101917
Dumont, J.; Duffillot, C.; Flandrin, G.; Chelloul, N.; Tristant, H.; Bernard
Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.
Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.
Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.
Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.
Advisor: Advisee: I. Required core Chemistry Courses (1905 & 1925) Chemistry CH 111 PY 211 _____ PY 212 _____ (or PY 242 _____ or PY 252 ______) II. Chemistry Options (one required) 1905 (Concentration in Chemistry) Option A (2 advanced CH courses, 401 or higher, only one may
National Chemistry Week Theme: "Candy: The Sweet Side of Chemistry" Super Science Saturday Saturday-on chemistry and science demonstrations! All students & families are welcome! Fun & educational for all ages! Sponsored by: American Chemical Society LSU Department of Chemistry LSU Athletic Department Free admission
INSTRUMENTAL METHODS IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Chemistry 434 Syllabus ---- Fall 10 Instructor Dr-11:15A Text: Handouts in Class Supplements (all optional): Experimental Physical Chemistry, 2nd ed, Arthur Halpern Experiments in Physical Chemistry, 6th ed, Shoemaker, Garland, and Nibler Building
The American Chemical Society (ACS) has created these excellent resources via the Green Chemistry Institute and the ACS Education Division. The goal of these materials is "to increase awareness and understanding of Green Chemistry principles, alternatives, practices, and benefits within traditional educational institutions and among practicing scientists." In the Online Resources section, visitors will find downloadable pocket guides to basic green chemistry principles, "Greener Education Materials for Chemists" from the University of Oregon, and more. Perhaps the best section of the site is Activities and Experiments, where visitors can look over activities like "Gassing Up Without Air Pollution" and "Cleaning Up With Atom Economy."
ral ssBioMed CentBMC Bioinformatics Open AcceChemistry in Bioinformatics Peter Murray-Rust†1, John BO Mitchell†1 and Henry S Rzepa*†2 Address: 1Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge... , Lensfield Road, Cambridge. CB2 1EW, UK. and 2Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, SW7 2AY, UK. Email: Peter Murray-Rust - firstname.lastname@example.org; John BO Mitchell - email@example.com; Henry S Rzepa* - firstname.lastname@example.org * Corresponding author †Equal...
Murray-Rust, Peter; Mitchell, John B O; Rzepa, Henry S
The Environmental Chemistry group at Harvard University created this website to promote its research in the understanding and quantification of chemistry of surfaces in environmental chemical systems. Users can learn about the group's many projects that deal with the shared topic: "What controls the formation and reactivity of a surface?" Researchers can find out about the group's seminars held at Harvard and can download many of the related publications. The website publicizes the efforts and backgrounds of the eleven people involved with environmental chemistry. Students and educators can view short, fascinating movies dealing with its results.
The Materials Science group at Simon Fraser University (SFU) developed this website to address the group's primary research interests in material synthesis, molecular, electronics, and photonics. Visitors will find explanations covering sixteen research topics including chemical sensors, lithography, non-linear optics, and supramolecular chemistry. Under each topic heading, users will find links discussing the faculties' current goals, recent publications, and patents. The site also features links to the Pacific Centre for Advanced Materials and Microstructures; a collaborative effort between the Materials Science group at SFU and the physics and chemistry departments at the University of British Columbia. Anyone searching for the latest investigations in materials chemistry will find this website very informative.
Students learn how common pop culture references (Harry Potter books) can relate to chemistry. While making and demonstrating their own low-intensity sparklers (muggle-versions of magic wands), students learn and come to appreciate the chemistry involved (reaction rates, Gibb's free energy, process chemistry and metallurgy). The fun part is that all wands are personalized and depend on how well students conduct the lab. Students end the activity with a class duelâa face-off between wands of two different chemical compositions. This lab serves as a fun, engaging review for stoichiometry, thermodynamics, redox and kinetics, as well as advanced placement course review.
National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,
This case study looks at cocaine, including its addictive properties and the chemistry involved in the synthesis of the drug in its different forms. The lesson can be used to teach nucleophilic addition reactions, nucleophilic acyl substitution, and cocaine metabolism. The material was designed for use in an undergraduate organic chemistry course but could also be used in medicinal chemistry coursework. The case study and teaching notes may be downloaded in PDF format. The site also includes a section for instructor feedback where general comments may be read and contributed.
Created by Professor Bruce M. Mattson, PhD, of Creighton University's Department of Chemistry, the Microscale Gas Chemistry Website "provides instructions for the generation of gases on a microscale level along with instructions for chemical demonstrations and student laboratory experiments with the gases." The no-frills site, designed for high school and university chemistry teachers, contains clear and careful instructions for experiments with carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, ethene, chlorine, carbon monoxide, and more. An introduction offers two low-tech methods for gas generation. Data pages for relevant gases are linked to each experiment.
F R O N T M A T T E R Chemistry in Bioinformatics Peter Murray?Rust,1 John B. O. Mitchell,1 and Henry S. Rzepa2 1 Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge. CB2... 1EW, UK. 2 Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, SW7 2AY, UK. Abstract Chemical information is now seen as critical for most areas of life sciences. But unlike Bioinformatics, where data is Openly available and freely re...
Murray-Rust, Peter; Mitchell, John B O; Rzepa, Henry S
The aim of this paper is to describe a novel modeling and simulation package, connected chemistry, and assess its impact on students' understanding of chemistry. Connected chemistry was implemented inside the NetLogo modeling environment. Its design goal is to present a variety of chemistry concepts from the perspective of “emergent phenomena”—that is, how macro-level patterns in chemistry result from the
Mike Stieff; Uri Wilensky
Mastocytosis is a clonal disease of the hematopoietic stem cell. The condition consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a pathological accumulation of mast cells in tissues including the skin, bone marrow, liver, spleen and the lymph nodes. Mastocytosis is a rare disease which occurs both in children and adults. Childhood onset mastocytosis is usually cutaneous and transient while in adults the condition commonly progresses to a systemic form. The heterogeneity of clinical presentation of mastocytosis is typically related to the tissue mast cell burden, symptoms due to the release of mast cell mediators, the type of skin lesions, the patient's age at the onset and associated haematological disorders. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. The present article provides an overview of clinical symptoms, diagnostic criteria and treatment of mastocytosis to facilitate the diagnosis and management of mastocytosis patients in clinical practice. PMID:22852012
Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Gorska, Aleksandra; Zawrocki, Anton; Sobjanek, Michal; Kozlowski, Dariusz
The first hundred years of Nobel Prizes for Chemistry give a beautiful picture of the development of modern chemistry. The prizes cover the whole spectrum of the basic chemical sciences, from theoretical chemistry to biochemistry, and also a number of contributions to applied chemistry.
1 Fall 2010 CHEMISTRY 324W ORGANIC LABORATORY Course Information Title: Chemistry 324W, Organic for multiple chemistry classes) $5 key deposit fee (refunded at end of semester with return of key) Course a scientific paper consistent with the format of the Journal of Organic Chemistry, American Chemical Society. 7
Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)
Kybett, B. D.
Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)
Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela
Discusses the conduct of a general inorganic chemistry course in a community junior college with emphases upon students' participation and interests. Included are a list of proposed topics and two samples of evaluation sheet. (CC)
Suter, Patricia H.
Class activities and independent projects for high school students using household plastic wraps can help students understand more about the chemistry of everyday objects. The activities described in this article reinforce one of the fundamental principle
Pristera, Jeffrey M.; Lloyd, Jeremy M.; Wheeler, Steven E.
Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)
Fishman, Myer M.
Describes an interdisciplinary program consisting of two courses. The first course deals with the chemistry of drugs and poisons; the second course focuses on fictional works in which these drugs and poisons are central to the plots. (SK)
Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.
Discusses the case of DDT which can be introduced to nonscience students in a chemistry course, including the development of DDT, problems associated with its adverse effects, and curtailment of its use in our environments. (CC)
Weil, Thomas A.; And Others
The material in the authors' general chemistry curriculum has been rearranged into a sequence thought to be more logical to students than the traditional sequence. This fresh approach does not radically change course content but rather produces a systemat
Yoblinski, B. J.
General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.
Discusses some important aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including interactions of organisms with metallic and nonmetallic elements and compounds. Indicates that many environmental problems are created by human exploitation of nature and technologies if studied from a bioinorganic chemical viewpoint. (CC)
Users gain access to the heart of CSN's site through the site gateway which leads them to CSN's information arcade, education arcade, societies, chembytes, and conferences and events. The information arcade provides links to experts and specialists, and chemistry societies. The education arcade contains a wealth of information for educators in the chemistry arena. Societies lists chemical and chemistry-related societies, divided alphabetically by country. Chembytes provides access to a variety of news, including recent findings and discoveries, business updates, and news from around the globe. Chembytes also features a continuing series which looks in-depth at a topic recently in the news. Currently featured is NASA's attempt to return to the moon. Conferences and Events is searchable and browseable and contains a submission form so visitors can list an event. CSN's site also includes Useful Links, a listing of sites categorized and reviewed by Chemsoc and Science Park, which links to four companies offering chemistry related resources on the web.
Summarizes papers presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference on Chemical Education in the area of high school chemistry, particularly dealing with the high school/college interface. A bibliography of 16 presented papers on this topic is attached. (CS)
Journal of Chemical Education, 1981
Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)
Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.
This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.
Lundeberg, Mary A.
The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000?mg/kg?bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549
Onu, A.; Saidu, Y.; Ladan, M. J.; Bilbis, L. S.; Aliero, A. A.; Sahabi, S. M.
The validity of various haematological parameters as indicators of blood lead concentration and lead poisoning in the black duck (Anas rubripes) is discussed. Elevated (> 40 microg dl(-1)) blood lead (PbB) levels were recorded in 41% of the 229 wild birds examined. No correlation was found between PbB concentration and haematocrit. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) was positively correlated with PbB. Haemoglobin, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-d) activity and non-activated/activated ALA-d ratios were negatively correlated with PbB. The minimum PbB levels at which these parameters were affected varied greatly. ZPP and haemoglobin were relatively insensitive to PbB concentrations; whilst ALA-d activity and ALA-d ratio were influenced by PbB concentrations of < 5 microg dl(-1). Log(10) ALA-d ratio was more strongly correlated with PbB (r = -0.953) than log(10) ALA-d activity (r = -0.914) and the predictive validity (% false -ve and +ve predictions) of the ratio method was higher. The high individual variability in ALA-d activities at low PbB levels was greatly reduced by the use of the ALA-d ratio method. The ALA-d ratio method proved the most efficient for screening black duck for lead poisoning in the field. PMID:15092391
Pain, D J
The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409
Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O
The Royal Society of Chemistry has created this most useful website to help teachers and students of chemistry learn about the field via interactive experiments, diagrams, animations, and so on. The site includes over 3,300 resources. Visitors can get started by using the Resource Type tab. Here they can browse through ten different headings, including Worksheet, Quiz, Tutorial, and Podcast. The Experiments area is quite wonderful, as it includes over 340 different experiments that can be conducted in the classroom. A few highlights in this area include "Challenging Medicines: Making Medicines," "The Salt Cellar Mystery," and "Which solution is which?" Overall, it's a tremendous site and one that visitors will want to share with friends.
Aura is the EOS chemistry mission which aims to answer three important questions: is the ozone layer recovering, is air quality getting worse, and is the Earth's climate changing? Aura will continue the long term series of atmospheric chemistry measurements made by earlier missions. The Aura spacecraft operates in a 705 km sun-synchronous polar orbit, with an ascending equator crossing at 1:45 PM. On the site, visitors will find an overview of the mission, documentation, tools, links, and FAQs.
The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).
Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.
We review the current status of quantum chemistry as a predictive tool of chemistry and molecular physics, capable of providing highly accurate, quantitative data about molecular systems. We begin by reviewing wave-function based electronic-structure theory, emphasizing the N-electron hierarchy of coupled-cluster theory and the one-electron hierarchy of correlation-consistent basis sets. Following a discussion of the slow basis-set convergence of dynamical
Trygve Helgaker; Wim Klopper; David P. Tew
The featured molecules this month come from the paper Using "Basic Principles" To Understand Complex Science: Nicotine Smoke Chemistry and Literature Analogies by Jeffrey Seeman detailing some of the complexities involved in the volatilization of two alkaloids, nicotine and cocaine. Students could be asked to identify how chemistry is involved in the various steps described in the paper, and most beginning students will be surprised to learn just how complex a process the volatilization of a molecule such as nicotine is.
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.
A brief introduction to the reactivity principles governing the covalent chemistry of fullerenes is provided. The combination of synthetic fullerene and acetylene chemistry gives access to a family of novel molecular carbon allotropes with interesting physical properties. A versatile strategy for the regioselective preparation of specific bis- through hexakis-adducts of C6o based on the tether-directed remote functionalization was developed. Large
The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833
Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin
The organization of a haematological out-patient clinic was evaluated. 52 patients completed a problem-oriented questionnaire with structured response alternatives. Patient satisfaction was generally high. The patients defined lack of continuity in the doctor-patient relationship as the main problem. Waiting time, information and poor premises were other areas where the chosen quality standard was not achieved. Possible causes of these deficiencies, and actions to improve the quality of care are discussed. PMID:8337653
Blood samples were obtained from clinically normal captive adult kori bustards (Ardeotis kori) in order to establish normal reference blood chemistry values for the species. Twenty-four different tests were conducted using a Kodak Ektachem DT II dry-chemistry system. A comparison of the values obtained was made with those of two sub-species of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii and Chlamydotis undulata undulata) and the great bustard (Otis tarda), and showed some similarities between the different species. The results obtained from this study provide the first set of published data for normal blood chemistry of the kori bustard. PMID:18645847
D'aloia, M A; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A; Naldo, J; Howlett, J C
Chemistry Student Handbook College of Science React. Science #12;Contents 2 Welcome to the Department of Chemistry 2 Course Advice 3 What is Chemistry? 4 Career Profiles in Chemistry 5 An Undergraduate Degree in Chemistry 6 Chemistry Streams 13 Chemistry Honours Programme 14 Research
Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.
Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian
Several medicinal plants have been documented for their haematological effects either at low or high concentration but very little is known about Aspilia africana. The aim of the study was to investigate the acute effects of aqueous leaf extract of Aspilia africana at different concentrations on some haematological parameters in rats. Following 14 days of oral administration of aqueous extract of A. africana, Haematocrit (HCT), Haemoglobin concentration (HB), Mean Cell Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Red Blood Cell Count (RBC Count), Total White Blood Cell Count (Total WBC Count), Absolute Neutrophils count (NEUT#), Absolute Lymphocytes count (LYM#), Absolute Eosinophils Count (EOSIN#) and Absolute Monocytes (MONO#) were evaluated in twenty (20) male Wistar albino rats. The rats weighed 174 ± 20 g, and were randomly assigned into 4 groups viz: Group 1, Control; Group 2, 250 mg/Kg/d aqueous extract; Group 3, 500 mg/Kg/d aqueous extract; and Group 4, 750 mg/Kg/d aqueous extract. HCT, HB, MCHC, RBC Count, Total WBC Count, NEUT#, LYM#, EOSIN# and MONO# were significantly increased (P<0.001) in 500 mg/Kg/d of A. africana extract (61.13 ± 1.65%, 13.5 ± 1.29 g/dl, 23.33 ± 0.0.02 g/dl, 3.68 ± 0.02 X 10(12)Cells/l, 2.33 ± 0.02 X 10(9)Cells/l, 1.32 ± 0.04 X 10(9)Cells/l, 1.43 ± 0.05 X 10(9)Cells/l, 0.47 ± 0.02 X 10(9)Cells/l and 0.47 ± 0.04 X 10(9)Cells/l, respectively) when compared to the Control (51.13 ± 0.85%, 9.56 ± 0.43 g/dl, 19.22 ± 0.19 g/dl, 2.69 ± 0.01 X 10(12)Cells/l, 1.79 ± 0.01 X 10(9)Cells/l, 0.80 ± 0.00 X 10(9)Cells/l, 0.83 ± 0.00 X 10(9)Cells/l, 0.18 ± 0.00 X 10(9)Cells/l and 0.24 ± 0.00 X 10(9)Cells/l, respectively) which received no extract at all. The 500 mg/Kg of A. africana extract proved to be the most effective, while the 750 mg/Kg proved to be the least effective in comparison with the control. The results of this study further strengthened the earlier works on the medicinal benefits of Aspilia africana and its virtue as a good pharmacological source of haematopoiesis. PMID:24311831
Ajeigbe, Kazeem Olasunkanmi; Enitan, Seyi Samson; Omotoso, Dayo Rotimi; Oladokun, Olayemi Olutobi
Effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 50 micrograms/kg body weight of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) or saline were studied for 11 weeks in 40 intact male veal calves supplied 50 mg or 10 mg of iron (Fe)/kg of milk replacer (MR). Feed intake, average daily gain and growth: feed ratio were reduced in Fe-deficient calves, but not significantly influenced by rbGH. Plasma Fe and haemoglobin concentration, red-cell number and packed cell volume were decreased in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05) and rbGH further reduced red-cell number in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05). The age-dependent increase of total Fe binding capacity was greater in Fe-deficient calves and enhanced by rbGH (P < 0.05). Plasma urea concentrations increased, whereas glucose (G) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels decreased in Fe-deficient calves. rbGH significantly increased G in calves fed MR containing 50 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and influenced urea concentrations (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin (I) and IGF-I concentrations were lower in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05). Plasma GH in the first hours after rbGH injections increased (P < 0.05) to higher levels in calves fed 10 than in those fed 50 mg Fe/kg MR, but incremental changes were comparable. In conclusion, low Fe intake caused haematologic, metabolic and endocrine changes. Plasma IGF-I, I and T3 concentrations after rbGH administration and effects of rbGH on IGF-I in Fe-deficient calves were reduced, even though plasma GH levels were increased. PMID:7863735
Ceppi, A; Blum, J W
Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at higher risk of haematological malignancies (HMs) than the general population. Most reports have focused on HM diagnosed after SLE, and have excluded concurrent and preceding diagnoses. Information on response to therapy is also limited. Methods We identified 13?296 cases of HM and 10?539 potential patients with SLE at our centre; 45 patients were confirmed to have HM and SLE. Our retrospective case series was based on these 45 patients. Results Of the 45 patients, 64% were diagnosed with HM ?1?year after diagnosis with SLE, and 36% with HM before or concurrent with SLE. Of the 29 patients with HM after SLE, 13 had diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 6 indolent lymphoma, 4 leukaemia, 3 Hodgkin's disease, and 1 each Burkitt's lymphoma, T cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Eleven patients with DLBCL were treated with cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab-CHOP; hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisone; only four achieved durable remission. Of the 16 patients diagnosed with HM before or concurrent with SLE, 9 were diagnosed with HM more than 2?years before SLE and tended to be in remission prior to SLE diagnosis. Seven patients were diagnosed with HM and SLE concurrently; in terms of their HM, six achieved remission or stable disease. Conclusions In summary, DLBCL was the most common type of lymphoma in patients diagnosed with HM after SLE; these patients presented with advanced-stage disease and had poor outcomes. In contrast, patients diagnosed with HM before or concurrent with SLE had early stage disease and typically achieved remission.
Knight, Jason S; Blayney, Douglas W; Somers, Emily C
It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.
Using computers to do science is a great way to get young people hooked on the enterprise, and mobile apps and other devices make this easier than ever. The Macs in Chemistry site features dozens of applications that will help users learn about chemistry (and more) through interactive activities, quizzes, and so on. In the At a Glance area, visitors can learn about the tutorials archived here, data analysis tools, and mobile science apps. This last section is a real gem, as it contains dozens of applications including everything from 29 interactive maps of the brain to chemistry formula exercises to a working seismograph. The rest of the applications are divided into alphabetical sections. Visitors should click on the Software Reviews area for timely and detailed reviews of each application's strengths and weaknesses. The site is rounded out by a contact form and a set of useful links.
Have you ever wondered about the chemistry of a cheeseburger? Well you are in luck because that is one of the subjects covered on the topical and delightful "Chemistry" section of the popular Science360 website. As it states on the site, "everything you hear, see, taste, smell and touch involves chemistry and chemicals", and here visitors can watch videos and learn about the molecular structure of water, the science behind glass blowing, and how a curious mud-like mixture is being used to soak up oil spills and insulate homes. Currently, there are about fifteen videos on the site, and visitors can sign up via a host of social media (Twitter, Facebook, and so on), to stay abreast of new additions to the site. Teachers will find that this material can be integrated into the classroom quite easily, and everyone else will just enjoy wandering through these offerings.
The international conference Chemistry in Water Reactors was arranged in Nice 24-27/04/1994 by the French Nuclear Energy Society. Examples of technical program areas were primary chemistry, operational experience, fundamental studies and new technology. F...
H. P. Hermansson, K. Norring
This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and cellular analysis. Microfluidics will impact digital biology and chemistry and will also benefit from them if it becomes massively distributed. PMID:24889331
Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F
A retrospective mortality analysis and prospective morbidity and haematological analyses were performed for Shell Deer Park Manufacturing Complex (DPMC) male employees who worked in jobs with potential exposure to 1,3-butadiene from 1948 to 1989. 614 employees qualified for the mortality study (1948-89), 438 of those were still employed during the period of the morbidity study (1982-9), and 429 of those had haematological data available for analysis. Industrial hygiene data from 1979 to 1992 showed that most butadiene exposures did not exceed 10 ppm (eight-hour time weighted average (8 hour TWA)), and most were below 1 ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 3.5 ppm. 24 deaths occurred during the mortality study period. For all causes of death, the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 48 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 31-72), and the all cancer SMR was 34 (95% CI = 9-87). There were only two deaths due to lung cancer (SMR 42, 95% CI = 5-151) and none due to lymphohaematopoietic cancer (expected = 1.2). Morbidity (illness absence) events of six days or more for the 438 butadiene employees were compared with the rest of the complex. No cause of morbidity was in excess for this group; the all cause standardised morbidity ratio (SMbR) was 85 (95% CI = 77-93) and the all neoplasms SMbR was 51 (95% CI = 22-100). Haematological results for the 429 with laboratory data were compared with results for the rest of the complex. No significant differences occurred between the two groups and the distributions of results between butadiene and non-butadiene groups were virtually identical. These results suggest that butadiene exposures at concentrations common at DPMC in the past 10-20 years do not pose a health hazard to employees. PMID:8199682
Cowles, S R; Tsai, S P; Snyder, P J; Ross, C E
Produced by Kenneth Barbalace with help from Roberta and Julia Barbalace, the EnvironmentalChemistry.com website supplies innumerable environmental, chemistry, and hazardous materials information and resources. Under the Environmental Issues header, students can learn about the chemical and physical properties of asbestos, the Chernobyl disaster, and the proper way to handle household chemicals. One of the newest additions to the website is the Emergency Response Guidebook, which is used during a Dangerous goods / Hazardous Materials incident. The numerous, in-depth chemical resources include a directory of common chemicals used in industry and household products, an article explaining the structure of atoms, and a periodic table with data on elements' properties.
Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model.
Irvine, W. M.; Dickens, J. E.; Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Senay, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Jewitt, D.; Matthews, H. E.
Our work in chemistry and materials science exemplifies disciplinary research and programmatic support. The disciplinary research is intended to sharpen the skills of our scientists, advance the frontiers of scientific knowledge, and provide the seeds for programs of the future. The programmatic support provides the very best scientific and engineering talent for Laboratory programs and offers the potential for new program areas. We are convinced that chemistry and materials science will be key to the future success of the Laboratory whatever its mission, and we are firmly committed to supporting this mission with the very best in scientific talent.
SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access) The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.
The aim of the study was to determine changes of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme variables in the blood of horses sampled during the pre-slaughter period (in the lairage and in the stunning box) and during exsanguination. A total of 24 Slovenian warm-blooded horses were observed. Blood samples for determination of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological (red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemaglobin concentration) and antioxidant enzyme (whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) variables were collected by venipuncture of the left jugular vein in the lairage pen, 60 min before stunning (lairage) and immediately before stunning (stunning box). At exsanguination, blood samples were collected from the wound at the time of jugular vein sticking. During blood collection in the lairage pen and in the stunning box, horses were gently restrained with a halter. They were stunned using a penetrating captive bolt pistol impelled by air and were bled by jugular vein sticking. Horses were physically active in the lairage pen and in the race before entering the stunning box. After stunning, the horses showed paddling movements with their legs. In horses, the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, the serum potassium concentration, the activities of the serum muscle enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, and values of most of the other biochemical (Table 1) and haematological variables (Table 2), were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at exsanguination, than in blood sampled while they were in the lairage and in the stunning box. The serum concentrations of cortisol and chloride and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and antioxidant enzymes were not significantly different between the pre-slaughter period and exsanguination. All selected blood variables were not significantly different between the lairge and the stunning box sampling time, indicating no physiological stress responses of the investigated horses to stressors, such as novelty of the pre-slaughter environment and handling, present in the slaughterhouse between the lairage and the stunning box. However, the significantly higher values, at exsanguination, for the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, serum muscle enzyme activities and haematological variables, than during the pre-slaughter period, might partially be attributed to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, caused by stunning and bleeding. PMID:23217233
Nemec Svete, A; ?ebulj-Kadunc, N; Frangež, R; Kruljc, P
The present study investigates the potential protective effects of tomato paste (9 mg\\/kg-lycopene) in comparison with vitamin\\u000a E (50 mg\\/kg) against the impacts of cadmium (Cd) toxicity (4.64 mg\\/l: ¼ of 96 h LC50) on fishes Cd exposed for 15 and 30 days.\\u000a Cd impacts were evaluated in terms of biological, haematological and biochemical characteristics. Cd significantly induced\\u000a free radicals in serum and liver. The
Imam A. A. MekkawyUsama; Usama M. Mahmoud; Ekbal T. Wassif; Mervat Naguib
The aim of this paper is to describe a novel modeling and simulation package, connected chemistry, and assess its impact on students' understanding of chemistry. Connected chem- istry was implemented inside the NetLogo modeling environment. Its design goal is to present a variety of chemistry concepts from the perspective of \\
Mike Stieff; Uri Wilensky
Describes a novel modeling and simulation package and assesses its impact on students' understanding of chemistry. Connected Chemistry was implemented inside the NetLogo modeling environment. Using Connected Chemistry, students employed problem -solving techniques characterized by stronger attempts at conceptual understanding and logical…
Stieff, Mike; Wilensky, Uri
These European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and European Confederation of Medical Mycology Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis. Only a few of the numerous recommendations can be summarized here. To diagnose mucormycosis, direct microscopy preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended. Pathogen identification to species level by molecular methods and susceptibility testing are strongly recommended to establish epidemiological knowledge. The recommendation for guiding treatment based on MICs is supported only marginally. Imaging is strongly recommended to determine the extent of disease. To differentiate mucormycosis from aspergillosis in haematological malignancy and stem cell transplantation recipients, identification of the reverse halo sign on computed tomography is advised with moderate strength. For adults and children we strongly recommend surgical debridement in addition to immediate first-line antifungal treatment with liposomal or lipid-complex amphotericin B with a minimum dose of 5 mg/kg/day. Amphotericin B deoxycholate is better avoided because of severe adverse effects. For salvage treatment we strongly recommend posaconazole 4×200 mg/day. Reversal of predisposing conditions is strongly recommended, i.e. using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in haematological patients with ongoing neutropenia, controlling hyperglycaemia and ketoacidosis in diabetic patients, and limiting glucocorticosteroids to the minimum dose required. We recommend against using deferasirox in haematological patients outside clinical trials, and marginally support a recommendation for deferasirox in diabetic patients. Hyperbaric oxygen is supported with marginal strength only. Finally, we strongly recommend continuing treatment until complete response demonstrated on imaging and permanent reversal of predisposing factors. PMID:24479848
Cornely, O A; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Dannaoui, E; Groll, A H; Lagrou, K; Chakrabarti, A; Lanternier, F; Pagano, L; Skiada, A; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Boekhout, T; Chowdhary, A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Freiberger, T; Guinea, J; Guarro, J; de Hoog, S; Hope, W; Johnson, E; Kathuria, S; Lackner, M; Lass-Flörl, C; Lortholary, O; Meis, J F; Meletiadis, J; Muñoz, P; Richardson, M; Roilides, E; Tortorano, A M; Ullmann, A J; van Diepeningen, A; Verweij, P; Petrikkos, G
Reviews the recently established curriculum for teaching chemistry in the Soviet Union. Examines guidelines for teaching methodology. Also looks at basic pupil knowledge and skills in several different areas of chemistry. (RKM)
Ivanova, R. G.
Describes how the synthesis of urea, 150 years ago, was a major factor in breaking the artificial barrier that existed between organic and inorganic chemistry, and this contributed to the rapid growth of organic chemistry. (GA)
Benfey, Otto Theodor; Kaufman, George B.
Characteristics of platelet indices, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and erythrocyte sedimentation rate compared with C reactive protein in patients with cerebral infarction: a retrospective analysis of comparing haematological parameters and C reactive protein
Objective Elevation of C reactive protein (CRP) is one of the major acute-phase responses following ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. This study aims to investigate the associations between platelet indices, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) compared with CRP in patients with cerebral infarction. Setting The clinical data of patients with cerebral infarction were analysed retrospectively. Participants We analysed, unduplicated, 516 patients with cerebral infarction (mean age 66.2±12.7, male/female=291/225). Outcome measures Mean platelet volume (MPV), MPV to platelet count, NLR and ESR were compared with CRP in patients with cerebral infarction in a single institute through Spearman correlation test. Results There were significant correlations between CRP and MPV (?=0.088, p=0.045), NLR (?=0.4, p<0.001) and ESR (?=0.468, p<0.001) in patients with cerebral infarction. In the male group, NLR (?=0.398, p<0.001) and ESR (?=0.502, p<0.001) showed significant correlations with CRP. In the female group, CRP showed significant correlations with MPV (?=0.17, p=0.011), NLR (?=0.392, p<0.001) and ESR (?=0.475, p<0.001). Conclusions MPV, NLR and ESR showed significant correlation with CRP in patients with cerebral infarction. MPV and NLR are cost-effective and simple parameters that can be attainable by using an automatic haematology analyser. Further well-designed and large-scale prospective studies are warranted to evaluate platelet indices or NLR for monitoring patients with cerebral infarction. PMID:25412865
Lee, Jong-Han; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Yoon, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyon-Suk; Lim, Chae Seung
1 Justine P. Roth Associate Professor of Chemistry The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Ph. D. Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 19901994 B.S. Chemistry, University of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University 2007present Interdepartmental Program for Molecular Biophysics
Roth, Justine P.
Concept Development Studies in Chemistry is an on-line textbook for a general chemistry course. Each module develops a central concept in chemistry from experimental observations and inductive reasoning. This approach complements an interactive or active learning teaching approach. The 17 chapters are associated with the general chemistry course taught by the author at Rice University. The author holds a creative commons copyright. Users should see the text home page for details.
The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.
This site from the University of Michigan provides links to in-depth discussions and informational images of the research projects of its four surface chemistry research groups. Visitors to the site can find slide show presentations of the group's work, lists of its publications, and information on the individual researchers' education and work.
and respect our differences while affirming our common humanity. We reject all forms of prejudice and discrimination, including those based on age, color, disability, gender, national origin, political affiliation 2012) Chemistry Graduate Program. http://www.chem.vt.edu/grad/index.html Grad School Policies. http
Crawford, T. Daniel
In their travels to the indigo dye pits of northern Nigeria, the authors were struck by the beauty, history, and chemistry of indigo dyeing. They returned from Nigeria eager to develop a laboratory exercise that would expose students to the science of ind
Cessna, Gretchen; Cessna, Stephen
Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...
Solutions to many of the great problems facing society will be found through interdisciplinary research, and environmental problems are a prime target for such an approach. In tackling these problems, it would be a great mistake, however, to weaken the classical disciplinary departments. More than 60 new chemistry departments were created since…
Cairns, T. L.
Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…
This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable chemistry reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.
Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.
Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria
Describes a new curriculum called The Language of Chemistry designed to illustrate how problems of biological and/or medical importance can be understood on a molecular basis and to show that the logic, knowledge, and language needed are easily accessible. Among the case studies in the curriculum are the giant peacock moth, bacterial chemotaxis,…
Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Meinwald, Jerrold
phone. You should call 9-1-1: In the event of a medical emergency To report all fire incidents, even1 Chemistry Department Emergency Action & Evacuation Plan In compliance with: California Code;2 Introduction An Emergency Action & Evacuation Plan (herein referred to as an EAP) covers designated actions
This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective, and discussion sessions can be placed online as well. A model was created that explains 36.1% of student performance based on GPA, ACT Math score, grade in previous chemistry course, and attendance at various forms of discussion. Online exams have been created which test problem-solving skills and is instantly gradable. In these exams, students can submit answers until time runs out for different numbers of points. These facets were combined effectively to create an entirely online organic chemistry course which students prefer over the in-person alternative. Lastly, there is a vision for where online organic chemistry is going and what can be done to improve education for all.
Janowicz, Philip A.
Topics addressed in this review of chemistry in the troposphere (layer of atmosphere extending from earth's surface to altitude of 10-16km) include: solar radiation/winds; earth/atmosphere interface; kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions; tropospheric free-radical photochemistry; instruments for nitric oxide detection; sampling…
Chameides, William L.; Davis, Douglas D.
January): Philosophers of Science; Group Presentations Journals: A-C WEEK 3 (21 January): Sociology of Science Journals: D-G WEEK 4 (28 January): Green Chemistry Journals: H-N WEEK 5 (4 February): Green to change. #12;CH 450 Spring, 2009 -2- Course Outline (Tentative) Journal due dates are designated each week
Stuart, Steven J.
The main goal of the study was to describe and understand the development of beliefs related to the thinking and decision-making made by five teachers in teaching chemistry during a two-year intervention study. The participating teachers implemented and, in the second year of the study, developed teaching modules which were geared to the promotion…
Describes the features of various computer chemistry programs. Utilization of computer graphics, color, digital imaging, and other innovations are discussed in programs including those which aid in the identification of unknowns, predict whether chemical reactions are feasible, and predict the biological activity of xenobiotic compounds. (CS)
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY plant-type chitinase reveals that the compound binds the catalytic machinery in the same manner Compounds isolated from natural sources, natural products, provide a wealth of bioactives that in some cases
van Aalten, Daan
This article describes the structure and content of a one-semester course dealing with chemistry, science, and technology designed for nonscience majors. The course uses a hybrid of two active learning methodologies--problem-based team learning and the cas
Dinan, Frank J.
A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…
Hites, Ronald A.
Myrrh and opopanax has been used throughout history in incense and as a perfume. Since Bible times it has been used for the treatment of wounds. The first attempts to identify content compounds were almost 100 years ago. In this review we discuss the present state of knowledge in the chemistry of substances of Commiphora spp. PMID:16170385
Hanus, Lumír O; Rezanka, Tomás; Dembitsky, Valery M; Moussaieff, Arieh
Initially envisaged as rather unreactive, aromatic-like molecules, the fullerenes instead undergo a wide variety of reactions characteristic of alkenes. The many derivatives of C60, and the few of C70, that have now been reported offer new directions for organic chemistry.
Roger Taylor; David R. M. Walton
This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, describes how basic chemistry and biochemistry research can spur a better understanding of human health. It reveals how networks of chemical reactions keep our bodies running smoothly. Some of the tools and technologies used to explore these reactions are…
National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
Describes a chemistry "trail" (similar to a nature trail) which focuses on chemical phenomena in the environment. The trail includes 20 stops in and around a local school. Types of phenomena examined include building materials, air pollution, corrosion of metals, swimming pools, and others. Additional activities are also suggested. (DH)
The development of syringes having free movement while remaining gas-tight enabled methods in chemistry to be changed. Successfully containing and measuring volumes of gas without the need to trap them using liquids made it possible to work with smaller quantities. The invention of the LuerLok syringe cap also allowed the gas to be stored for a…
Mattson, Bruce; Anderson, Michael P.
This booklet is part of an American Astronomical Society curriculum project designed to provide teaching materials to teachers of secondary school chemistry, physics, and earth science. The following topics are covered: the physical conditions in interstellar space in comparison with those of the earth, particularly in regard to gas density,…
Gammon, Richard H.
Three atmospheric-chemistry sensors form part of the ENVISAT payload that has been placed into orbit in March 2002. This paper presents reviews the end-to- end performance of the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY observation systems and will discuss the product quality control assessment of these instruments. An important part of the quality assessment is the Geophysical Validation. At the ACVT Validation
Paul Snoeij; Thorsten Fehr; Rob Koopman; Pascal Lecomte
This book presents science activities investigating the chemical changes and reactions with powders that are used in baking. Activities include: (1) Mystery Powders; (2) Find the Fizz: Discover the Secret of Baking Powder; and (3) A Feast for Yeast and Cheese: Behold the Power of Chemistry. (YDS)
American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.
The special issue on Greener and Sustainable Chemistry highlights various strategies that can be adopted to address the pollution preventive measures promoting the use of energy efficient reactions that utilize benign and bio-renewable raw materials in a relatively safer reaction...
A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu...
Predefined multitest chemistry panels (PMCPs) have constituted a large proportion of laboratory tests and patient charges,\\u000a even in pediatric settings, despite the absence of documented clinical utility for PMCPs and the general availability of random\\u000a access analyzers that do not require predefined test combinations. We eliminated PMCPs in our tertiary children's hospital\\u000a but placed no other restrictions on ordering, and
Theodore J. Pysher; Phillip R. Bach; Amy Lowichik; Mark D. Petersen; Linda H. Shields
This paper discusses the chemistry of failure analysis in sufficient detail to serve as a practical guide for the failure analyst. It includes a discussion of the chemistry of plastic composition formulation. This discussion is preparatory to the main body of the paper which covers the chemistry and mechanics of decapsulation and, also, an explanation of the principles of chemical
This guide, developed for the chemistry 200, 300 program in Manitoba, is designed to articulate with previous science courses, provide concepts, processes, and skills which will enable students to continue in chemistry-related areas, and relate chemistry to practical applications in everyday life. It includes a program overview (with program goals…
Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.
Guide for Teaching Assistants Department of Chemistry The University of Chicago #12;Â© 2012 to familiarize you with your teaching responsibilities for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry and to provide will also be valuable to experienced Teaching Assistants, as it provides a summary of the important policies
-up" discipline, in which we posit that what happens at the molecular level dictates macroscopic properties://gate.acs.utah.edu) Textbook: Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach (McQuarrie & Simon) $75-85 Note: This text includes) Principles of Quantum Mechanics (Shankar) Physical Chemistry (Atkins) Objectives: Chemistry is a "bottom
Chemistry Department Colloquium: Spring, 2012 Friday, March 16; 3:30 Seminar Hall (room 1315 Chemistry) Lost in Translation: How Regulators Use Science and How Scientists Can Help Bridge Gaps Stephanie to combine her Chemistry background with a legal education to improve the use of science in environmental
This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…
The present study investigated the potential ameliorative effects of propolis against malathion toxicity in the blood and various tissues of carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1 mg/L) for 10 days, and propolis (10 mg/kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed to determine the haematological profile (red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit level, and erythrocyte indices: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration), immune response (white blood cell count, oxidative radical production, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity, total plasma protein and total immunoglobulin levels, and the phagocytic activity), and oxidant/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities) of the fish. The findings of this study demonstrate that malathion has a negative effect on the haematological parameters, immune response, and antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. However, the administration of propolis ameliorated the malathion-induced toxic effects. PMID:24480596
Yonar, Serpil Mi?e; Ural, Mevlüt ?ener; Silici, Sibel; Yonar, M Enis
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been misused in sports for many years due to its performance-enhancing effect. In the last decade, detection of abuse has been possible with isoelectric focusing (IEF) based on the different isoform profiles of endogenous and recombinant EPO. The release of new EPOs on the market, such as the recombinant erythropoietin epoetin delta (Dynepo™) and the chemically modified EPO, CERA (Mircera™) potentially represents analytical challenges to the fight against doping. This study set out to investigate the possibility of and the time window for detecting the administration of a single dose of Dynepo™ and CERA. Our results are in agreement with earlier findings that detection of Dynepo™ is best achieved by combining IEF with SDS-PAGE. Haematological parameters were monitored for possible effects due to the long half-life (130 hours) of CERA in blood. Interestingly, although several haematological parameters were significantly changed after the injection of CERA, the endogenous EPO signal was still present in all collected samples. Due to the long half-life and the large size of the CERA molecule (about 60 kDa), it was uncertain whether CERA would be excreted into urine in detectable amounts unless urine collection was preceded by strenuous physical exercise. We find that CERA can be detected in urine without prior exercise in several, but not all, subjects. CERA is nevertheless best detected in serum with regard to both probability and length of detection, in addition to stability in matrix over time. PMID:21387570
Dehnes, Yvette; Hemmersbach, Peter
The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2?×?2?+?1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P?0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P?0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P?0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P?0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P?0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P?0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P?0.05), weight gain (P?0.01) and feed intake (P?0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P?0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P?0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P?0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P?0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P?0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum thiocyanate concentration. Although inclusion of 100 g/kg PCRM showed some economic sense, dietary inclusion of either peeled or unpeeled cassava root poses a threat on growth and health status of broiler chicks. PMID:24913764
Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A
The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205
Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza
The effect of oyster mushroom ?-1.3/1.6-D-glucan and oxytetracycline antibiotic on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of micronized ?-1.3/1.6-D-glucan (BG) derived from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus Hiratake and tetracycline antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in tissues of one- to two-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish tested were divided into five experimental groups and one control. Carp in the control group were fed commercial carp feed pellets. Fish in the five experimental groups were fed the same pellets supplemented with either OTC, a combination of OTC and BG, or BG as follows: 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw (OTC group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 0.5% ?-glucan (OTC + 0.5% BG group), 75 mg oxytetracycline kg(-1) bw and 2.0% ?-glucan (OTC + 2.0% BG group), 0.5% ?-glucan (0.5% BG group), and 2.0% ?-glucan (2.0% BG group). OTC- and BG-supplemented diets and the control diet were administered to experimental and control carp for 50 days (i.e. samplings 1-3, the exposure period); for the following 14 days, fish were fed only control feed pellets with no OTC or BG supplementation (i.e. sampling 4, the recovery period). Blood and tissue samples were collected both during, and at the end of the study. No significant changes in biometrical indices (i.e. total length, standard length, total weight, hepatosomatic and spleen somatic index, and Fulton's condition factor) were found in experimental carp compared to control in any sampling. In haematological indices, significant changes were found only in sampling 2, in which shifts in PCV (P < 0.01), Hb (P < 0.01), and WBC (P < 0.01), and in the counts of lymphocytes (P < 0.01), monocytes (P < 0.01), and neutrophil granulocytes-segments (P < 0.05) were revealed. As for biochemical profiling, plasma concentrations of glucose, albumins, cholesterol, natrium, and chlorides (all P < 0.01), and total proteins, lactate, phosphorus, and potassium (all P < 0.05) as well as the catalytic activity of ALP (P < 0.05) were altered in common carp. A significant change in induced (opsonizedzymosan particles, OZP) chemiluminescence (P < 0.05) in sampling 3 and no shifts in serum immunoglobulins concentration were found in the immunological analysis. Histopathological examination of skin, gills, liver, spleen, and cranial and caudal kidneys revealed no obvious specific changes in any tissue analysed. The use of ?-glucans in clinically healthy aquaculture remains an issue. Nevertheless, their use in breeding endangered by stress stimuli, infectious disease, or adverse environmental factors is defensible. PMID:24041844
Dobšíková, Radka; Blahová, Jana; Mikulíková, Ivana; Modrá, Helena; Prášková, Eva; Svobodová, Zde?ka; Skori?, Mišo; Jarkovský, Ji?í; Siwicki, Andrzej-Krzysztof
Positron emission tomography permits examination of the chemistry of the brain in living beings. Until recently, positron emission tomography had been considered a research tool, but it is rapidly moving into clinical practice. This report describes the uses and applications of positron emission tomography in examinations of patients with strokes, epilepsy, malignancies, dementias, and schizophrenia and in basic studies of synaptic neurotransmission.
Established in 1960, the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry is committed to publishing notable research papers arising from various international scientific events and projects that are sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). First-time visitors can view the "News" area to learn about the most recent work published in the journal, and then they may wish to move on to the embedded search engine displayed prominently on the homepage. Other sections on the site include "Editorial Board", "Notes For Authors", and "Publication Policy". Visitors with a deep and abiding interest in the journal may also wish to consult their RSS feeds, which include those related to the publication of new articles and reports from the IUPAC. Finally, the site also contains a drop down menu titled "PAC Archives" where visitors can browse the contents of each volume.
The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.
Schryer, D. R.
One doesn't have to be a Glenn Seaborg or a Lord Ernest Rutherford to learn about chemistry, though it probably couldn't help to have some of their curiosity about the world of chemistry. Young chemists and their teachers will definitely benefit from this nice resource offered by the Annenberg Media project. This original video series was produced by the University of Maryland and the Educational Film Center, and it consists of 26 half-hour programs. With industrial and research chemists demonstrating a number of high-intensity experiments and processes, the series is quite a find. The installments include such titles as "Modeling the Unseen", "The Atom", and "The Busy Electron".
If you're away from the laboratory and you'd like to study a bit of chemistry, this fine site is a nice option. Created to complement a recent chemistry textbook authored by Nivaldo Tro of Westmont College, the site includes interactive media activities, self-quizzes, and a collection of external links. The materials are linked to the 24 chapters in the textbook, and they include "Gases", "Solutions", and "Electrochemistry". Each of these virtual chapters includes a listing of key concepts, along with slides, a set of useful tools (such as the periodic table), and a short video demonstrating different principles and concepts. Additionally, visitors can use the embedded search engine to look for specific items of interest and so on.
Tro, Nivaldo J.
Intercalation chemistry will soon be a hundred years old. The period of greatest activity in this field of solid state chemistry and physics was from about 1970 to 1990. The intercalation reactions are defined as topotactic solid state reactions and the products--the intercalation compounds--are clearly distinguished from inclusion and interstitial compounds. After a short historical introduction emphasizing the pioneering work of Ulrich Hofmann, the central topics and concepts will be reviewed and commented on. The most important ones, in my view, are: dichalcogenide intercalation compounds, the electrochemical intercalation and the search for new battery electrodes, the physics of graphite intercalation compounds, and the staging and interstratification phenomena. The relation to other fields of actual research and the demands for forthcoming research will also be addressed. PMID:24915040
This site provides annotated Web links to instructional materials and other resources of interest to Chemistry teachers and course designers. The links are carefully selected to represent what the author considers to be the most useful and exemplary resources. Special emphasis is placed on CAI lessons, digital text, Web-based tutorials and similar materials that can serve as alternatives to traditional methods of instruction.
Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.
Moiseev, I. I.
The traveler worked with scientists from Great Britain, France, Canada, and the Federal Republic of Germany to produce a program and structure for the Second CSNI Specialists' Workshop on the Chemistry of Iodine in Reactor Safety. This workshop will be held on June 2--3, 1988, in Toronto, Canada. In addition to planning the workshop, there were informal discussions about the status of iodine research in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Canada.
The paper Our Everyday Cup of Coffee: The Chemistry behind Its Magic by Marino Petracco provides a hearty blend of molecules for this month. The author deals with coffee at a number of different levels ranging from the economic and social to the still perplexing questions of flavor and aroma. The associated molecules demonstrate a range of structural features that students will benefit from examining in three dimensions.
The chemical communication system used to attract mates involves not only the overt chemical signals but also indirectly a great deal of chemistry in the emitter and receiver. As an example, in emitting female moths, this includes enzymes (and cofactors, mRNA, genes) of the pheromone biosynthetic pathways, hormones (and genes) involved in controlling pheromone production, receptors and second messengers for the hormones, and host plant cues that control release of the hormone. In receiving male moths, this includes the chemistry of pheromone transportation in antennal olfactory hairs (binding proteins and sensillar esterases) and the chemistry of signal transduction, which includes specific dendritic pheromone receptors and a rapid inositol triphosphate second messenger signal. A fluctuating plume structure is an integral part of the signal since the antennal receptors need intermittent stimulation to sustain upwind flight. Input from the hundreds of thousands of sensory cells is processed and integrated with other modalities in the central nervous system, but many unknown factors modulate the information before it is fed to motor neurons for behavioral responses. An unknown brain control center for pheromone perception is discussed relative to data from behavioral-threshold studies showing modulation by biogenic amines, such as octopamine and serotonin, from genetic studies on pheromone discrimination, and from behavioral and electrophysiological studies with behavioral antagonists. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7816846
Roelofs, W L