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Sample records for clinical chemistry haematology

  1. Understanding the impact of pre-analytic variation in haematological and clinical chemistry analytes on the power of association studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Amadou; Peakman, Tim; Tobin, Martin D; Burton, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Errors, introduced through poor assessment of physical measurement or because of inconsistent or inappropriate standard operating procedures for collecting, processing, storing or analysing haematological and biochemistry analytes, have a negative impact on the power of association studies using the collected data. A dataset from UK Biobank was used to evaluate the impact of pre-analytical variability on the power of association studies. Methods: First, we estimated the proportion of the variance in analyte concentration that may be attributed to delay in processing using variance component analysis. Then, we captured the proportion of heterogeneity between subjects that is due to variability in the rate of degradation of analytes, by fitting a mixed model. Finally, we evaluated the impact of delay in processing on the power of a nested case-control study using a power calculator that we developed and which takes into account uncertainty in outcome and explanatory variables measurements. Results: The results showed that (i) the majority of the analytes investigated in our analysis, were stable over a period of 36?h and (ii) some analytes were unstable and the resulting pre-analytical variation substantially decreased the power of the study, under the settings we investigated. Conclusions: It is important to specify a limited delay in processing for analytes that are very sensitive to delayed assay. If the rate of degradation of an analyte varies between individuals, any delay introduces a bias which increases with increasing delay. If pre-analytical variation occurring due to delays in sample processing is ignored, it affects adversely the power of the studies that use the data. PMID:25085103

  2. Experimental copper and chromium deficiency and additional molybdenum supplementation in goats. II. Concentrations of trace and minor elements in liver, kidneys and ribs: haematology and clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Frank, A; Danielsson, R; Jones, B

    2000-04-17

    Since the mid-1980s a previously undescribed disease has affected moose in south-western Sweden. Investigations made to reveal evidence of a viral aetiology have proved unsuccessful. Trace element studies in apparently healthy moose shot during regular hunting suggested a trace element imbalance, with excessive molybdenum uptake causing secondary copper deficiency. The results also indicated a possible chromium deficiency. To verify this hypothesis, an experimental study was performed in male goats fed a semi-synthetic diet for 1.5 years. The animals were kept and treated in four groups: Controls, Cu-deficient group (group 1), Cr-deficient group (group 2), and combined Cu- and Cr-deficient group with additional supplementation of tetrathiomolybdate for 10 weeks at the end of the study (group 3). The present paper presents tissue contents of trace and minor elements, haematology and clinical chemical parameters. Feed consumption and weight development, as well as pathological and histopathological investigations, were also performed in this study, but these results are presented elsewhere. Changes in trace element concentrations were determined by comparing groups 1, 2 and 3 with the control group. Increased concentrations were observed for Al, Ca, Co, Fe, Mo, Pb, Se in the liver; for Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo in the kidneys; and for Mn and Mo in the ribs. Considerable accumulation of Mn in ribs seems to be a useful way to determine oxidative stress. Decreases in Mg and P in all organs and blood serum is characteristic of Cu deficiency and molybdenosis. Also the ratio of Ca/Mg was increased as the result of tissue lesions causing an intracellular increase in Ca and decrease in Mg. The trace element changes observed in group 1 were enhanced by the Mo supplementation in group 3, resulting in characteristic patterns, 'spectra' of changes. The alterations were not as remarkable in group 2 as in the two other groups. However, Cr deficiency considerably influenced Al, Co, V and to a smaller extent also Mn in ribs. In groups 1 and 2, only a few minor changes were detected in the haematological parameters, probably caused by increased adrenal activity after transportation of the animals. In group 3, severe anaemia was present but also a leukopenia. For the different clinical chemical parameters measured, all three groups showed changes, explained mainly by the altered activity of enzymes induced by trace element deficiencies and imbalance. Impaired carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was seen in groups 1 and 3, with increased concentrations of glucose, lactate and triglycerides in serum. Increased concentrations of total bilirubin were measured in all three groups (bile stasis was also seen post mortem). A considerably increased concentration of serum urea was found in group 3, although there were no indications of renal insufficiency or dehydration. Regarding hormones, a substantial decrease was seen in thyroxine (T4) in group 3 as a result of the molybdenosis, but a minor decrease was also seen in group 1. Insulin on the other hand showed increased levels in group 3--and especially in group 2 due to the Cr deficiency but also affected by the molybdenosis. As could be expected, Cu deficiency (groups 1 and 3) caused low levels of caeruloplasmin, secondarily affecting the Fe metabolism in these animals. Protein abnormalities, detected as altered electrophoretic patterns of serum proteins, were also seen mainly in group 3. The findings were also confirmed by multivariate data analysis, where PCA revealed the overall impact of the deficiencies, and PLS regression coefficients indicated the influence on the various analytes. PMID:10813454

  3. Clinical and Haematological Effects of Hydroxyurea in ?-Thalassemia Intermedia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Homayon; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that hydroxyurea (HU) impacts on clinical and haematologic indices in thalassemia. We aimed to evaluate the effect of hydroxyurea on clinical and haematological improvement in children with thalassemia intermedia. Materials and Methods After the patients enrollment in the study their data such as transfusion, hospitalization, spleen size, visit, total Hb, HbF levels, MCV and MCH were compared before and after treatment with HU 10 mg/kg/day/for one year. Results In patients with thalassemia intermedia, HU significantly diminished the rate of transfusion, hospitalization, spleen size and significantly increased Hb MCH, HbF and MCV. Moreover HU was well tolerated in our patients and we got no remarkable adverse effect. Conclusion We divulged hydroxyurea 10 mg/kg/day during one year. This significantly increased HbF, total haemoglobin, MCV, MCH, without any remarkable adverse events. PMID:26557561

  4. [Blood isolates epidemiology in a clinical haematology department].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Elghazouani, M; Eric, N Akwa; Doghmi, K; Mikdame, M; Elhamzaoui, S; Elouennass, M

    2009-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is responsible for infections by decreasing the phagocytosis and chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis during the period from 18/10/2006 to 21/05/2008, on all bacteria isolated from blood cultures performed in the department of clinical hematology at the hospital military instruction Mohamed V. One hundred and sixty two blood isolates were selected; Gram positive cocci (CGP) accounted for 60.34% and Gram negative bacilli (GNB) for 24.14%. Coagulase negative staphylococci (SNA) and S. aureus presented a resistance to methicilline respectively 54.55% and 22.22%. Prevalence of Gram positive cocci is consistent with the results of the EORTC (International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group). Analysis of resistance patterns of all species, except for staphylococci, showed phenotypes essentially community, sometimes wild. In conclusion probabilistic antibiotic treatement of bacteraemia in the haematology department should focus among other staphylococci resistant to methicilline. PMID:19411231

  5. A nightmare for haematology clinics: extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannnii.

    PubMed

    Metan, Gkhan; Pala, i?dem; Kaynar, Leylagl; Cevahir, Fatma; Alp, Emine

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to share experience on demographic characteristics and clinical outcome of the patients infected with extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) in haematology clinics, focusing on the period with a sudden increase in the number of XDRAB cases. A regular patient-based infection control programme was set up in haematology clinics and haematopoietic stem cell transplant centre starting from 2008. An infection control nurse visited all patients daily. A form including demographic data and laboratory results were recorded for all patients. The source of infections was identified according to the criteria proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While haematology ward-acquired XRDAB was rare before 2012, between January 2012 and July 2013, 29 A. baumannii infection episodes were detected in 28 patients. All but one isolate were MDR and 72.4% (21 out of 29) were XDR. Blood cultures revealed A. baumannii in 26 out of 29 episodes. While the haematological malignancy was relapsing or not under remission in 15 patients, four patients were under remission, and 10 patients were newly diagnosed. The mortality rate was 81.2%. All patients with a poor outcome died in the first week after the index blood culture was performed. In 16 out of 29 episodes, the patients died before the culture results became available. Colistin was initiated for the treatment in 11 out of 29 episodes. Three patients received colistin combined with sulbactam or sulbactam containing beta-lactams; the remaining eight patients who received colistin monotherapy were already under carbapenems. In conclusion, XDRAB infections can easily become nightmares for haematology clinics without any reliable treatment option. PMID:25551842

  6. Clinical, ultrasonography and haematology of aglepristone-induced mid-gestation pregnancy terminations in rabbits.

    PubMed

    zalp, Gzde R; Temizel, Ethem M; zocak-Batmaz, Elin

    2013-01-01

    Aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in cats, dogs and rabbits. Although no serious side effects have been reported, there is no information available about the effects of the medicine on haematological parameters. For the first time clinical and ultrasonographic features and haematological profiles were evaluated in rabbits treated with aglepristone 15 and 16 days after mating. Ten healthy 10-14 month-old New Zealand White female rabbits were mated with fertile bucks and pregnancies were con?rmed by ultrasound 15 days later. Of these, 5 does were treated with aglepristone (test group, n = 5) whilst the remaining five (control group, n = 5) were treated with a saline solution (0.9% NaCl). The treatment dose was 10 mg/kg body weight, administered subcutaneously once daily on two consecutive days (day 15 and 16 post mating). Ultrasonographic, clinical and haematological assessments were performed daily. Aglepristone treatment induced embryonic fluid resorptions without foetal death in mid-gestation terminations. Following ultrasonographic and haematological examinations, it was established that aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in rabbits. PMID:23718772

  7. The clinical management of tumour lysis syndrome in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Will, Andrew; Tholouli, Eleni

    2011-07-01

    Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is caused by the disintegration of malignant cells, usually following the instigation of chemotherapy, although it may already be established at the time of initial presentation in a minority of cases. As a direct consequence of malignant cell breakdown, intracellular ions, proteins, nucleic acids and their metabolites are released into the plasma causing the characteristic metabolic abnormalities of TLS; hyperuricaemia, hyperkalaemia, hyperphosphataemia and hypocalcaemia. In many cases the release of large amounts intracellular contents is so abrupt that the normal homeostatic mechanisms are rapidly overwhelmed and without prompt, effective management, the clinical effects of TLS soon become apparent. PMID:21554259

  8. Alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity in horses: clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M

    2013-07-27

    The objective of this observational study is to describe clinical, haematological and serum biochemical findings of horses affected with alfalfa dodder (Cuscuta campestris) toxicity. Twenty horses naturally exposed to alfalfa dodder toxicity were examined and information was collected on history and clinical signs. Physical examination was done on horses in the premises (n=20), and venous blood samples of 12 horses were submitted for haematology and serum biochemical examination for each horse. Abnormal clinical signs started around 36 hours after horses were fed the contaminated alfalfa. Abnormal signs were seen in 11 horses and those included diarrhoea (n=8), decreased appetite (n=7), neurological signs (n=4) and abdominal pain (n=1). Some horses had multiple clinical signs of the above. The results of complete blood cell count revealed leukocytopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Serum biochemical analysis revealed decreased ALP, AST and CPK levels and increased direct bilirubin level. The used alfalfa was stopped immediately and a different alfalfa from a new container that did not contain any weeds was fed. Horses on the premises were observed closely, and the abnormal clinical signs resolved within three days. No treatment was implemented. Knowledge about toxicity of horses by Cuscuta species is scarce in the English veterinary literature and very limited. PMID:23800626

  9. Canine parvovirus enteritis 1: Clinical, haematological and pathological features of experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Macartney, L; McCandlish, I A; Thompson, H; Cornwell, H J

    1984-09-01

    The effect of oral infection of puppies, eight and 10 weeks old, with canine parvovirus of faecal origin was studied. Clinical signs of enteric disease were first apparent at five days after inoculation and persisted during days 6 and 7 after inoculation. The severity of clinical signs varied from transient dullness and anorexia to emesis, dysentery and death. Changes in haematological parameters were first found at day 3 after inoculation when a relative lymphopenia was observed. A profound neutropenia developed in severely affected dogs after the appearance of clinical enteric disease. Post mortem examination revealed thymic atrophy in all dogs killed on day 4 after inoculation. Macroscopic changes in the small intestine were apparent only in animals examined during the phase of severe enteric disease and consisted of thickening, rigidity and congestion of the small intestines. Microscopically there was lymphocytolysis in the thymic cortex and the germinal centres of the lymph nodes from days 2 and 3 after inoculation respectively and this rapidly resulted in depletion of these tissues. There was repopulation of lymph nodes from day 7 after inoculation but significant thymic regeneration was not apparent during the course of this study. In the small intestine, necrosis of crypt epithelium, atrophy of villi and, in some areas, complete collapse of mucosal architecture were found but the extent of these changes varied along the length of the small intestine and between individuals. Regenerative intestinal changes were observed in those animals surviving the acute phase of enteric dysfunction. The variable severity of clinical and enteric lesions, together with the factors which may affect the expression of clinical disease, are discussed. PMID:6091317

  10. Lead poisoning: clinical, biochemical, and haematological aspects of a recent outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Pagliuca, A; Mufti, G J; Baldwin, D; Lestas, A N; Wallis, R M; Bellingham, A J

    1990-01-01

    The clinical, biochemical, and haematological aspects of a recent outbreak of lead poisoning, in which exposure was related to the oxyacetylene cutting of red lead painted ironwork, were investigated. Initial suspicion was raised when a blood film showed punctate basophilia which remains a simple and useful method of picking up lead toxicity. Estimations of blood lead concentration and conventional laboratory data confirmed the diagnosis. Although there was prominent punctate basophilia, spectrophotometric analysis showed only negligible accumulation of pyrimidine-5'-nucleotides despite severe suppression of pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase activity. The pattern of the red cell glycolytic intermediates, investigated for the first time, suggested that lead may also affect glycolysis at the hexokinase step. Once the diagnosis was made intravenous chelation treatment was begun with a rapid improvement in symptoms. Long term follow up is required to assess any sequelae of intoxication. These cases emphasise the classic features of lead poisoning, and despite the currently available diagnostic tests, lead intoxication may still go unrecognised unless a thorough occupational history is taken. Images PMID:2341563

  11. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and

  12. Effects of doxycycline on haematology, blood chemistry and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of healthy dogs and dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Villaescusa, A; Garca-Sancho, M; Rodrguez-Franco, F; Tesouro, M ; Sainz,

    2015-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by Ehrlichia canis, is a vector-borne disease with a worldwide distribution. It has been proposed that the pathogenesis, clinical severity and outcome of disease caused by Ehrlichia spp. can be attributed to the immune response rather than to any direct rickettsial effect. Moreover, doxycycline, the antimicrobial of choice for the treatment of CME, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties associated with blood leukocyte proliferation function, cytokine synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In order to assess the potential effects of doxycycline, dependent and independent of its antimicrobial activity, the present study compared changes in haematology, blood chemistry and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in 12 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CME after doxycycline therapy. Some changes were recorded only in the CME affected dogs, probably due to the antimicrobial effect of doxycycline. However, increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelet count and ?2-globulins, and decreased plasma creatinine were observed in both healthy and CME affected dogs. The absolute count of B lymphocytes (CD21(+)) increased initially, but then decreased until the end of the study period in both groups. A potential effect of doxycycline unrelated to its antimicrobial activity against E.?canis is suggested, taking into account the results observed both in healthy dogs and in dogs with CME. PMID:25957920

  13. Clinical and haematological responses of feline blood donors anaesthetised with a tiletamine and zolazepam combination.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Perego, Roberta; Valena, Emanuela; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Baggiani, Luciana

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study investigated the effect on clinical and haematological variables of the anaesthetic combination of tiletamine and zolazepam in feline blood donors. Blood (10 ml/kg bodyweight to a maximum volume of 60 ml) was collected from the jugular vein of 31 owned healthy cats anaesthetised with 2.5 mg/kg of tiletamine and 2.5 mg/kg of zolazepam intramuscularly. Rectal temperature (RT), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), heart rate (HR) and complete blood count (including red blood cells [RBC], haemoglobin [HB], haematocrit [HT], platelet [PLT] count, white blood cells [WBC], lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils) were evaluated pre- and postdonation. RT decreased significantly (P <0.01) after blood donation (mean change in RT -0.7C). Significant increases in SAP (P = 0.03), MAP (P <0.01) and DAP (P <0.01) occurred after blood donation (mean increase 13 mmHg, 12 mmHg and 11 mmHg, respectively). Although RBC, HT, HB, WBC, PLT, neutrophil and monocyte counts decreased, and HR, and lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts increased after blood donation this change was not statistically significant. Mean time from pre- to postdonation evaluation was 39 11 mins (range 24-76 mins). None of the cats had evidence of pallor or collapse after recovery from anaesthesia. The collection of blood at 10 ml/kg bodyweight to a maximum volume of 60 ml in healthy cats using a low dose tiletamine and zolazepam anaesthetic appears to be well tolerated by feline blood donors. PMID:25015738

  14. Evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in young dogs naturally infected by vector-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    de Caprariis, Donato; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Capelli, Gioia; Mencke, Norbert; Stanneck, Dorothee; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-04-21

    Longitudinal studies evaluating the evolution of clinical, haematological, biochemical findings in young dogs exposed for the first time to multiple vector-borne pathogens have not been reported. With the objective of assessing the evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings, these parameters were serially monitored in naturally infected dogs throughout a 1-year follow-up period. Young dogs, infected by vector-borne pathogens based on cytology or polymerase chain reaction, were examined clinically and blood samples were obtained at seven different follow-up time points. Dogs were randomized to group A (17 dogs treated with a spot-on formulation of imidacloprid 10% and permethrin 50%) or to group B (17 dogs untreated). In addition, 10 4-month-old beagles were enrolled in each group and used as sentinel dogs. At baseline, Anaplasma platys was the most frequently detected pathogen, followed by Babesia vogeli, Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis. Co-infections with A. platys and B. vogeli, followed by E. canis and B. vogeli, A. platys and H. canis and A. platys and Bartonella spp. were also diagnosed. In dogs from group B, abnormal clinical signs were recorded at different time points throughout the study. No abnormal clinical signs were recorded in group A dogs. Thrombocytopenia was the most frequent haematological alteration recorded in A. platys-infected dogs, B. vogeli-infected dogs and in dogs co-infected with A. platys and B. vogeli or A. platys and Bartonella spp. Lymphocytosis was frequently detected among dogs infected with B. vogeli or co-infected with A. platys and B. vogeli. Beagles were often infected with a single pathogen rather than with multiple canine vector-borne pathogens. There was a significant association (p<0.01) between tick infestation and A. platys or B. vogeli, as single infections, and A. platys and B. vogeli or A. platys and Bartonella spp. co-infections. This study emphasizes the clinical difficulties associated with assigning a specific clinical sign or haematological abnormality to a particular canine vector-borne disease. PMID:21106311

  15. [New common reference intervals for clinical chemistry in the Nordic countries. A better basis for clinical assessment and cooperation].

    PubMed

    Simonsson, Per; Mrtensson, Arne; Rustad, Pl

    2004-03-01

    A project engaging the five Nordic countries has presented common reference intervals for the most frequently used biochemical and haematological analytes. The results are based on samples from up to 3000 healthy adult reference persons and are statistically calculated to include 95% of the reference population's values. Reference samples were analyzed together with commutable control materials traceable to reference methods (IMEP-17). Enzymes were analyzed using methods traceable to IFCC reference methods. The Swedish Society of Clinical Chemistry now recommends its member laboratories to introduce the new reference intervals and new enzyme methods during 2004. PMID:15055053

  16. Genetic and clinical studies of serum beta 2-microglobulin levels in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Y; Matsumoto, H; Miyazaki, T; Watanabe, S; Masaoka, T; Takatsuki, K; Kishihara, M; Kobayashi, N; Hattori, M; Fujita, T

    1981-01-01

    Sera from 244 patients with haematological malignancies were examined for beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) levels. There were 142 leukaemias, 32 malignant lymphomas, three immunoblastic lymphomas, two pseudolymphomas and 65 multiple myelomas. Culture supernatants from various established cell lines were also tested. The phenotype facilitating beta 2m shedding from the cell surface appeared to be independent of the specific IgG heavy chain allotypes; however, a myeloma group with normal serum beta 2m levels showed a significant association with the specific Gm allotypes. The determination of serum beta 2m levels can provide valuable information on the proliferative stage of the disorders, the effectiveness of chemotherapy, and be a diagnostic aid for blastic crisis in chronic myelocytic leukaemias, and for subtyping lymphoid malignancies. PMID:6175458

  17. Problems of standardization in clinical chemistry*

    PubMed Central

    Cali, J. Paul

    1973-01-01

    If analytical results in clinical chemistry are to be made meaningful, i.e., accurate, precise, and specific, a systematic approach to their attainment is necessary. Furthermore, because this system is so complex in scope and the need for it is so widespread, it will require international coordination. Agreement on the units of measurement, the production and certification of standard reference materials, and the development of reference methods of demonstrated accuracy will require the support of all segments of clinical chemistry. PMID:4544783

  18. Using Clinical Cases to Teach General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience

  19. [Investigations on the influence of selected compulsory measures on clinically relevant haematological and blood-chemical parameters of racing pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.)].

    PubMed

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M E; Bartels, T; Richter, A; Pees, M

    2006-10-01

    In the presented study the influence of stress and environmental factors on selected haematological and blood-chemical parameters in racing pigeons was examined. Blood was taken at three defined days and haematological as well as blood-chemical parameters of clinical relevance were determined. In comparison to reference values published for pigeons, the majority of the values obtained in this study were within physiological borders. The daily handling of the pigeons did not have any significant effect on the examined parameters. Also the heterophile/lymphocyte ratio did not show any changes characteristic of a stress reaction. In contrast, after change of the housing dies with pigeons originating normally from a flock, the first blood sampling should be performed after a 4 or 5-day lasting period of acclimatisation to the the individual housing conditions. PMID:17078530

  20. Ethical aspects of clinical chemistry.

    PubMed Central

    BenGershm, E

    1983-01-01

    The work performed by the clinical chemist may deeply affect the decisions of the doctor and the well-being of the patient. Yet in contrast to the doctor and to the nurse the clinical chemist usually has no personal relationship with the patient. Being encumbered by much technology and anonymity is itself a reason for scrutinising his involvement in issues of health care ethics. This is an attempt at clarifying some major aspects: the relationship of his professional ethics to medical ethics as a whole, his ethical obligations to the patient and to society, and other aspects. PMID:6199500

  1. Teaching clinical chemistry in central European countries--past and present.

    PubMed

    Naskalski, J W; Palicka, V

    1994-12-31

    Central Europe is traditionally referred to as the area occupied by the former Eastern Germany, Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Hungary. In all of these countries great emphasis is placed on teaching clinical chemistry and biochemical pathology, both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In Czech Republic and in Poland analysis of blood, urine, body fluids, exudates and secretions as well as the fundamentals of interpretation of morbid states in biochemical terms are taught as an independent subject taking from 60 to 90 h of lectures, seminars and practical training. In Hungary, the fundamentals of clinical chemistry and biochemical pathology are included in courses of biochemistry, pathology and in clinical subjects, such as internal medicine and pediatrics. The postgraduate study of clinical biochemistry, which yields in all mid-European countries a certificate of specialisation in laboratory diagnostics (Poland), or clinical pathology (Czech Republic, Hungary), is based on at least 5 years experience in laboratory medicine and then extended studies including clinical biochemistry, haematology, cytology, microbiology, as well as the fundamentals of toxicology and immunology. A basic background in clinical practice is also required. In all countries in the area there also exists a well developed postgraduate education for laboratory workers without a medical background. These people can apply for a certificate in medical analytics (Poland), but they cannot work as clinical pathologists or laboratory diagnostic consultants. PMID:7720270

  2. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  3. Growth, clinical chemistry and immune function in domestic piglets fed varying ratios of arachidonic acid and DHA.

    PubMed

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Kothapalli, Kumar S D; Park, Woo Jung; Blank, Bryant S; Liu, Ying-Chun; Nauroth, Julie M; Zimmer, J Paul; Salem, Norman; Brenna, J Thomas

    2012-03-01

    In the USA, infant formulas contain long-chain PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA in a ratio of 2:1 and comprise roughly 066 g/100 g and 033 g/100 g total fatty acids (FA). Higher levels of dietary DHA appear to provide some advantages in visual or cognitive performance. The present study evaluated the effect of physiologically high dietary ARA on growth, clinical chemistry, haematology and immune function when DHA is 10 g/100 g total FA. On day 3 of age, formula-reared (FR) piglets were matched for weight and assigned to one of six milk replacer formulas. Diets varied in the ratio of ARA:DHA as follows (g/100 g FA/FA): A1, 01/10; A2, 053/10; A3-D3, 069/10; A4, 11/10; D2, 067/062; D1, 066/033. A seventh group was maternal-reared (MR) and remained with the dam during the study. Blood collection and body weight measurements were performed weekly, and piglets were killed on day 28 of age. No significant differences were found among any of the FR groups for formula intake, growth, clinical chemistry, haematology or immune status measurements. A few differences in clinical chemistry, haematology and immune function parameters between the MR pigs and the FR groups probably reflected a difference in growth rate. We conclude that the dietary ARA level up to 10 g/100 g total FA is safe and has no adverse effect on any of the safety outcomes measured, and confirm that DHA has no adverse effect when ARA is at 066 g/100 g FA. PMID:22040360

  4. Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BET) as a potential therapeutic approach in haematological malignancies: emerging preclinical and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chaidos, Aristeidis; Caputo, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of the nucleosomal histone proteins orchestrate chromatin organization and gene expression in normal and cancer cells. Among them, the acetylation of N-terminal histone tails represents the fundamental epigenetic mark of open structure chromatin and active gene transcription. The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic readers which utilize tandem bromodomains (BRD) modules to recognize and dock themselves on the acetylated lysine tails. The BET proteins act as scaffolds for the recruitment of transcription factors and chromatin organizers required in transcription initiation and elongation. The recent discovery of small molecules capable of blocking their lysine-binding pocket is the first paradigm of successful pharmacological inhibition of epigenetic readers. JQ1 is a prototype benzodiazepine molecule and a specific BET inhibitor with antineoplastic activity both in solid tumours and haematological malignancies. The quinolone I-BET151 and the suitable for clinical development I-BET762 benzodiazepine were introduced in parallel with JQ1 and have also shown potent antitumour activity in preclinical studies. I-BET762 is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials, along with a rapidly growing list of other BET inhibitors. Unlike older epigenetic therapies, the study of BET inhibitors has offered substantial, context-specific, mechanistic insights of their antitumour activity, which will facilitate optimal therapeutic targeting in future. Here, we review the development of this novel class of epigenetic drugs, the biology of BET protein inhibition, the emerging evidence from preclinical work and early phase clinical studies and we discuss their potential role in the treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:26137204

  5. Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BET) as a potential therapeutic approach in haematological malignancies: emerging preclinical and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Chaidos, Aristeidis; Caputo, Valentina; Karadimitris, Anastasios

    2015-06-01

    Post-translational modifications of the nucleosomal histone proteins orchestrate chromatin organization and gene expression in normal and cancer cells. Among them, the acetylation of N-terminal histone tails represents the fundamental epigenetic mark of open structure chromatin and active gene transcription. The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic readers which utilize tandem bromodomains (BRD) modules to recognize and dock themselves on the acetylated lysine tails. The BET proteins act as scaffolds for the recruitment of transcription factors and chromatin organizers required in transcription initiation and elongation. The recent discovery of small molecules capable of blocking their lysine-binding pocket is the first paradigm of successful pharmacological inhibition of epigenetic readers. JQ1 is a prototype benzodiazepine molecule and a specific BET inhibitor with antineoplastic activity both in solid tumours and haematological malignancies. The quinolone I-BET151 and the suitable for clinical development I-BET762 benzodiazepine were introduced in parallel with JQ1 and have also shown potent antitumour activity in preclinical studies. I-BET762 is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials, along with a rapidly growing list of other BET inhibitors. Unlike older epigenetic therapies, the study of BET inhibitors has offered substantial, context-specific, mechanistic insights of their antitumour activity, which will facilitate optimal therapeutic targeting in future. Here, we review the development of this novel class of epigenetic drugs, the biology of BET protein inhibition, the emerging evidence from preclinical work and early phase clinical studies and we discuss their potential role in the treatment of haematological malignancies. PMID:26137204

  6. The Socio-Demographic and Clinical Factors Associated with Quality of Life among Patients with Haematological Cancer in a Large Government Hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Priscilla, Das; Hamidin, Awang; Azhar, Md Zain; Noorjan, Kon; Salmiah, Md Said; Bahariah, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Background: The paper examined the quality of life of haematological cancer patients according to their socio-demographic profiles and clinical diagnoses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary referral centre of Ampang Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, involving 105 patients. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Results: The study involved patients diagnosed with all types of haematological cancer, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and multiple myeloma (MM), with a response rate of 83.3%. The patients with ALL, HL, without NHL, and without MM were younger than other patients. There were significant differences in quality of life scores in different socio-demographic groups and types of cancer diagnosis. The global quality of life of the female patients was much better than that of the male patients. Patients who were 40 years old or younger had a better global quality of life and physical functioning, as well as fewer symptoms of constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Employed patients were in less pain but showed greater impairments of cognitive function than did unemployed patients. Patients who earned a monthly wage of RM1000 or less had reduced physical function, more symptoms of pain, and more financial difficulties compared with patients who earned more. Patients with AML tended to have better physical functioning than did patients with MM, whose physical functioning was impaired. Comparatively, more symptoms of dyspnoea were found in ALL and HL patients than in other types of lymphoma. Compared with other patients, those with ALL had a greater loss of appetite, and other lymphoma patients had fewer symptoms of pain. Patients with NHL had impaired role functioning and more constipation compared with other patients. The results were all statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The quality of life of haematological cancer patients is affected by socio-demographic factors and clinical diagnoses. Efforts should be made to improve the overall quality of life of these patients. PMID:22135601

  7. The management of clinical laboratories in Europe: a FESCC survey. Forum of the European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    PubMed

    de Kieviet, Wim; Blaton, Victor; Kovacs, Gabor L; Palicka, Vladimir; Pulkki, Kari

    2002-03-01

    The professional duties of the specialists in clinical chemistry differ from country to country in Europe. One of the main goals of the Strategic Plan of the Forum of the European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC; IFCC-Europe) is to promote a high scientific and professional standard in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Europe. This can be stimulated by the knowledge of the local conditions in each country and by striving towards a strong and harmonised position in all the European countries. In order to enhance the knowledge of the managerial situation of the specialists in clinical chemistry in Europe, FESCC launched a survey in September 2000. This survey provides information about the position of the specialists in clinical chemistry in the various disciplines in the medical laboratories and in hospitals, and about the advisory tasks and the managerial education during the post-graduate training in clinical chemistry. Of the 35 FESCC member countries 33 have participated in the survey (94%). The results show a rather heterogeneous situation in Europe caused by the local historical developments, the differences in academic background and the relative numbers of private and physicians' office laboratories. Large differences exist between the European countries in the disciplines of laboratory medicine that are headed by a specialist in clinical chemistry. In the different countries the clinical chemistry laboratories are headed by specialists in clinical chemistry in between 20% and 100% of the laboratories. The haematology, immunology, microbiology, therapeutic drug monitoring, molecular biology and haemostasis laboratories and departments of blood banking are headed by specialists in clinical chemistry in between 0% and 100% of the laboratories. The responsibilities for the various managerial tasks of the specialists in clinical chemistry show no uniformity in Europe. In the majority of the countries the general management, the purchase of equipment and reagents and the education of technicians are in >90% the responsibility of the specialists in clinical chemistry. In most countries the majority of the specialists in clinical chemistry are members of the medical staff of the hospitals and have a position equivalent to the position of specialists in other medical disciplines. In some countries, however, it only holds true for the specialists with a medical background. In 79% of the countries the law regulates the profession of the specialists in clinical chemistry and in 60% of the countries the law regulates their position in the medical staff of the hospital. The advisory tasks to physicians, general practitioners and other users of laboratory tests are practised by >90% of the laboratories in 64% of the countries. Information is given directly to the patients by >90% of the laboratories in 30% of the countries. Only in a few countries laboratories give information to the public. The post-graduate training in clinical chemistry includes a managerial training in 58% of the countries, the study of information technology in 61% of the countries and an economy and/or a business administration study in 15% of the countries. In 27% of the countries no managerial education forms part of the post-graduate study in clinical chemistry. Harmonisation of the managerial aspects of the profession is one of the challenges for the European specialists in clinical chemistry. A European syllabus for post-graduate training could be helpful. PMID:12005224

  8. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of infection in patients with an absent or dysfunctional spleen. Working Party of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology Clinical Haematology Task Force.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection should be preventable if simple precautions are taken. An ad hoc working party of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology has reviewed recommendations for patients without a spleen and drawn up a consensus. Members of the working party were selected for their personal expertise and to represent relevant professional bodies. The guidelines, which are set out below, include and extend the chief medical officer's 1994 update. PMID:8601117

  9. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation).

    PubMed

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-08-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory, limited only by the imagination and ingenuity of laboratory scientists. PMID:25336760

  10. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation)

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory, limited only by the imagination and ingenuity of laboratory scientists. PMID:25336760

  11. Haematology and neurology

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Steven; Cohen, Hannah; Losseff, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to update the reader on advances in the understanding of haematological conditions that may arise in neurological practice. Thrombophilia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, sickle cell and clonal disorders associated with neuropathy are discussed. PMID:17369588

  12. 78 FR 13347 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of... and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General...

  13. The practice of clinical chemistry in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Gerard T; Beastall, Graham H; Kohse, Klaus P; Zérah, Simone; Jansen, Rob; Köller, Ursula; Blaton, Vic; Lund, Erik; Parviainen, Markku; Charret, Jo; Gurr, Eberhard; Nicholou, Hara; Kenny, Desmond; Pazzagli, Mario; Opp, Matthias; Willems, Hans; Martins, Maria do Carmo; Queraltó, José M; Landin, Britta; Yu, Anna; McMurray, Janet

    2002-02-01

    The European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry has been actively engaged in raising the level of clinical chemistry in the European Union. Closer contacts between the national societies for clinical chemistry have resulted in more comparable programs for postgraduate training of clinical chemists, closer similarity of contents and practice of the profession in the different countries, and the official registration of professionals. This article reviews some of the characteristics of professional organisation, practice, and regulation in the fifteen European Union countries. Many similarities appear. In half of the countries microbiology, blood-banking and transfusion medicine fall within the domain of clinical chemistry. The minimum number of years for training (university and postgraduate) is eight, but in practice this will extend to 10 or more years. Official regulation of the profession by law exists in a minority of countries. Continuing education and re-registration have not been officially instituted yet in any country, but these issues will be the next steps forward. In those countries that prepare themselves for entering the European Union, training and practice of clinical chemistry are moving towards the common standards of the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry. PMID:11939495

  14. Contributions of Analytical Chemistry to the Clinical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogerboe, Kristen J.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical

  15. Chemistry and clinical biology of the bryostatins.

    PubMed

    Mutter, R; Wills, M

    2000-08-01

    Bryostatins are a class of antineoplastic compounds isolated from the bryozoans Bugula neritina. A wide range of scientific research is currently underway, studying different aspects of the bryostatins. In this review we try to summarize the latest findings, including all the topics involved, from marine biology to medicinal chemistry. PMID:11003129

  16. Contributions of Analytical Chemistry to the Clinical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogerboe, Kristen J.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical…

  17. Effects of organohalogen pollutants on haematological and urine clinical-chemical parameters in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Letcher, Robert J; Shahmiri, Soheila; Andersen, Steen; Møller, Per; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Jensen, Asger L

    2008-03-01

    Seven West Greenland sledge dog bitches (Canis familiaris) and their three pups were fed 50-200 g of contaminated West Greenland minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber, and in a control cohort eight sister bitches and their five pups were fed a similar amount pork fat. Blood plasma and urine clinical-chemical parameters were measured and compared between the bitches and pups form the control and exposed cohorts. Based on existing reference intervals, Arctic mammals may have blood clinical-chemical endpoint levels that differ from comparable species at lower latitudes. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, protein:creatinine ratio, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and inorganic phosphate were significantly highest (ANCOVA: all p<0.05) in the pup generation. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase were significantly higher (ANCOVA: all p<0.05) in the control group, while glucose was significantly highest (ANCOVA: p<0.05) in the exposed group. Furthermore, the blood cholesterol levels indicate that exposure via the diet to marine mammal blubber has a preventive effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases. We therefore suggest that the consumption of contaminated Arctic marine blubber impacted liver and kidney function in adult and pup sledge dogs. PMID:17434585

  18. Clinical and haematological risk factors for cerebral macrovasculopathy in a sickle cell disease newborn cohort: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sommet, Julie; Alberti, Corinne; Couque, Nathalie; Verlhac, Suzanne; Haouari, Zinedine; Mohamed, Damir; François, Martine; Missud, Florence; Holvoet, Laurent; Elmaleh, Monique; Ithier, Ghislaine; Denjean, André; Elion, Jacques; Baruchel, André; Benkerrou, Malika

    2016-03-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a significant vascular morbidity, especially cerebral macrovasculopathy (CV), detectable by transcranial Doppler. This study aimed to identify risk factors for CV using longitudinal biological and clinical data in a SCD newborn cohort followed at the Robert Debre Reference centre (n = 375 SS/Sβ(0) ). Median follow-up was 6·8 years (2677 patient-years). Among the 59 children presenting with CV, seven had a stroke. Overall, the incidence of CV was 2·20/100 patient-years [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1·64-2·76] and the incidence of stroke was 0·26/100 patient-years (95% CI: 0·07-0·46). The cumulative risk of CV by age 14 years was 26·0% (95% CI: 20·0-33·3%). Risk factors for CV were assessed by a Cox model encompassing linear multivariate modelling of longitudinal quantitative variables. Years per upper-airway obstruction [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1·47; 95% CI: 1·05-2·06] or bronchial obstruction (HR = 1·76; 95% CI: 1·49-2·08) and reticulocyte count (HR = 1·82 per 50 × 10(9) /l increase; 95% CI: 1·10-3·01) were independent risk factors whereas fetal haemoglobin level (HR = 0·68 per 5% increase; 95% CI: 0·48-0·96) was protective. Alpha-thalassaemia was not protective in multivariate analysis (ancillary analysis n = 209). Specific treatment for upper or lower-airway obstruction and indirect targeting of fetal haemoglobin and reticulocyte count by hydroxycarbamide could potentially reduce the risk of CV. PMID:26728571

  19. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  3. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  5. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  6. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  7. 21 CFR 862.2170 - Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. 862... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2170 Micro chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A micro...

  8. 21 CFR 862.2140 - Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2140 Centrifugal chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A...

  9. Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gochman, Nathan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

  10. Serum biochemical and haematological reference intervals for water buffalo Bubalus bubalis heifers.

    PubMed

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Hamed, Maha I; Ibrahim, Derar R; Rateb, Hassan Z

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature, reference intervals for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) serum biochemistry and haematology have not previously been published. The current study was done to establish reference intervals for water buffalo heifers. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry stated that at least 120 values are necessary to obtain reliable estimates for reference intervals. A total number of 127 clinically healthy buffalo heifers (1-2 years old) were included in the study. Animals were examined at buffalo farms that belong to Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Three types of samples were collected: serum samples for biochemical analysis, whole blood samples for haematological analysis and faecal samples for parasitological examination. Animals that fitted the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Biochemical analysis included serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, alpha, beta and gamma globulin levels, and aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition to the above, serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, iron, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose levels and 20 haematological variables were measured. The 95.0% reference intervals were calculated by removing the upper and lower 2.5% of the interval for each serum biochemical constituent to give the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Confidence intervals were calculated for each reference limit. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with established values for cows. The current study is as far as could be determined the first that establishes reference intervals for the serum biochemical and haematological parameters in water buffalo heifers. PMID:24831856

  11. Imaging features of haematological malignancies of kidneys.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, K; Menias, C O; Verma, S; Abdelbaki, A; Shaaban, A; Elsayes, K M

    2016-03-01

    Haematological malignancies are relatively uncommon neoplasms of kidneys. Nevertheless, the incidence of these neoplasms is increasing, partly due to more widespread use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses the clinical and imaging features of renal lymphoma, leukaemia, extra-osseous multiple myeloma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Although there is overlap of imaging features with other more common malignancies, such as transitional and renal cell cancers, the combination of imaging findings and the appropriate clinical picture should allow the radiologist to raise a provisional diagnosis of a haematological neoplasm. This has management implications including the preference for image-guided core biopsies and a shift towards medical rather than surgical therapy. PMID:26688550

  12. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  13. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  14. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  15. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  16. Automated haematology analysis to diagnose malaria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, flow cytometry-based automated haematology analysers have been studied for malaria diagnosis. Although current haematology analysers are not specifically designed to detect malaria-related abnormalities, most studies have found sensitivities that comply with WHO malaria-diagnostic guidelines, i.e. ≥ 95% in samples with > 100 parasites/μl. Establishing a correct and early malaria diagnosis is a prerequisite for an adequate treatment and to minimizing adverse outcomes. Expert light microscopy remains the 'gold standard' for malaria diagnosis in most clinical settings. However, it requires an explicit request from clinicians and has variable accuracy. Malaria diagnosis with flow cytometry-based haematology analysers could become an important adjuvant diagnostic tool in the routine laboratory work-up of febrile patients in or returning from malaria-endemic regions. Haematology analysers so far studied for malaria diagnosis are the Cell-Dyn®, Coulter® GEN·S and LH 750, and the Sysmex XE-2100® analysers. For Cell-Dyn analysers, abnormal depolarization events mainly in the lobularity/granularity and other scatter-plots, and various reticulocyte abnormalities have shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 49% to 97% and 61% to 100%, respectively. For the Coulter analysers, a 'malaria factor' using the monocyte and lymphocyte size standard deviations obtained by impedance detection has shown overall sensitivities and specificities of 82% to 98% and 72% to 94%, respectively. For the XE-2100, abnormal patterns in the DIFF, WBC/BASO, and RET-EXT scatter-plots, and pseudoeosinophilia and other abnormal haematological variables have been described, and multivariate diagnostic models have been designed with overall sensitivities and specificities of 86% to 97% and 81% to 98%, respectively. The accuracy for malaria diagnosis may vary according to species, parasite load, immunity and clinical context where the method is applied. Future developments in new haematology analysers such as considerably simplified, robust and inexpensive devices for malaria detection fitted with an automatically generated alert could improve the detection capacity of these instruments and potentially expand their clinical utility in malaria diagnosis. PMID:21118557

  17. Topical iodophor preparations: chemistry, microbiology, and clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Kara; Capriotti, Joseph A

    2012-11-01

    Iodophor preparations are commonly used in all medical specialties for antisepsis of the skin prior to injections, invasive procedures, and surgery. Povidone-iodine has some very intriguing properties that make it extremely effective as a broad spectrum bacteriocidal agent with no known bacterial resistance, potentially lending itself to broader applications than its current uses. In this article the background, formulations, chemistry, and microbiology of iodine will be reviewed and recent clinical investigations of utility beyond skin antisepsis will be discussed. PMID:23217942

  18. 78 FR 19717 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... notice that appeared in the Federal Register of Wednesday, February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13347). The meeting... for up-to-date information on this meeting. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR doc. 2013-04543... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel...

  19. Leon Marchlewski: one of the precursors of clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Muszytowski, Marek; Rutkowski, Boles?aw

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic progress in the basic sciences such as clinical chemistry exerted a great influence on the development of clinical science in medicine in the 19th century. We should rate Prof. Leon Marchlewski among the group of prominent foreign and Polish scientists working in that period. Marchlewski was born in 1869 in Wloclawek, Poland. He began his chemical studies in Warsaw and then continued at the Zurich Technical University. After having graduated, he began working in the famous Edward Schunk's laboratory in Kersal near Manchester in England. At that time he achieved recognition for his research on the chemical affinity of dyes of the animal and plant world. Later he cooperated in this field with another great scholar Marceli Nencki. In 1900 he returned to Poland, and in 1906 he took charge of the Department of Medical Chemistry at Jagiellonian University. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize twice in 1913 and 1914 for his numerous achievements in the field of clinical chemistry. He took many positions at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, including dean and rector. In 1930-1935 he was a senator of the Republic of Poland. He died in 1946 in Krakow. PMID:21614780

  20. Changes in clinical values of cattle infected with Clostridium chauvoei CH3 strain and a local Kad1 strain. Haematological values.

    PubMed

    el Sawi Mohamed, O; Tag el Din, M H; el Sanousi, S M

    1989-01-01

    Clostridium chauvoei CH3 and Kad1 strains were found to cause marked changes in the blood parameters during the course of blackleg disease. These changes displayed by CH3 were found to be more marked than the local Kad1 strain. Results of changes in the haematological values in calves infected with blackleg organisms, showed an increase in RBC, PCV, Hb and the total leukocyte count. MCHC and MCH remained within normal range values, however, a terminal significant increase of MCV was obtained. Thrombocytes showed a steady drop after infection to the time of death of the animals. PMID:2626568

  1. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... clinical use. 862.2160 Section 862.2160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use....

  2. [Toward pertinent analytical objectives for haematological parameters].

    PubMed

    Iobagiu, Cristina; Nehar, Diane; Denis, Isabelle; de Saint-Trivier, Aurlie; Boyer, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Usually, the blood cell counting activity in haematology laboratory uses the comparison of IQC values to the target values proposed by the manufacturer. We intended to improve the monitoring of the proper functioning of our analytical measure system for 17 main haematologic parameters. To set the allowable critical limits of IQC, we propose our reflection based on several elements: benchmark and expert recommendation, clinical requirements, statistical indicators of the laboratory calculated using IQC values (3 levels, 2 different lots, 2 haematology analysers and 2 passage modes) and the EEQ values, during four months. We exploited the reports obtained from the middleware (our own IQC values), and the interlaboratory comparison reports (obtained from SNCS and EuroCell websites) and we compared our performances to the Ricos objectives, to set clearly argued allowable limits for IQC values. Finally, the allowable limits correspond to the imprecision limits stated by Ricos for 14 parameters (desirable for 11 parametres and minimal for 3 parameters) and personalized limits (more exigent than desirable Ricos limits) for 3 parameters of blood cell counting. PMID:25486666

  3. Clinical chemistry equipment: a computerized system for cost evaluation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J I; Tydeman, J; Cassidy, P A; Hardwick, D F

    1983-01-01

    A computerized decision-support system has been developed and implemented to assist in the economic evaluation of alternative clinical chemistry equipment configurations. The capabilities, structure, and relative merits of the system are discussed. This decision-support system is now being used extensively by hospitals in British Columbia. An alternative equipment configuration, identified with the aid of the system, resulted in one hospital alone saving an annual $200,000 in consumables and reagents costs. Further development of computerized economic evaluation systems is encouraged. PMID:10310356

  4. Multicentre evaluation of the Monarch (IL) clinical chemistry analyser

    PubMed Central

    Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Guagnellini, Emma; Zoppi, Francesco; Montalbetti, Norberto; Okely, Carlo; Bonini, Pierangelo

    1989-01-01

    A multicentre evaluation of the Monarch centrifugal analyser is reported. Precision, linearity and accuracy were assessed by comparison with routine methods. Calibration stability, photometric and dispensing accuracy, and carry-over related to samples and reagents were also evaluated. The overall performance of the instrument was good, showing an excellent photometric and dispensing accuracy, absence of sample-dependent carry-over, and almost negligible reagent carry-over. Good precision, linearity and correlation with routine methods were found for the parameters tested. The instrument is reliable and is now used as the routine clinical chemistry analyser in two of the three laboratories taking part in the evaluation. PMID:18924678

  5. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry... TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer...

  6. Workload, space, and personnel of clinical chemistry laboratories in teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Elin, R J; Robertson, E A; Sever, G

    1982-12-01

    The resources needed to operate a clinical chemistry laboratory are known only as rough approximations. In order to gather more information about these resources, a 13-page questionnaire was completed by 50 pathology departments of which 38 departments provided adequate information about their clinical chemistry section to permit adequate data analysis. This study provides the results for resource and workload factors, and significant regression analyses among these factors for the whole clinical chemistry section and the subsections of general chemistry, urinalysis, endocrinology, enzymology, lipid analysis, and toxicology. These data provide a basis for evaluating the current needs of clinical chemistry and for making projections for the future. PMID:7148750

  7. Haematological manifestations of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz, Anum; Igoe, Ann; Kurien, Biji T; Danda, Debashish; James, Judith A; Stafford, Haraldine A; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to compile information on the haematological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), namely leucopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and myelofibrosis. During our search of the English-language MEDLINE sources, we did not place a date-of-publication constraint. Hence, we have reviewed previous as well as most recent studies with the subject heading SLE in combination with each manifestation. Neutropenia can lead to morbidity and mortality from increased susceptibility to infection. Severe neutropenia can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. While related to disease activity, there is no specific therapy for lymphopenia. Severe lymphopenia may require the use of prophylactic therapy to prevent select opportunistic infections. Isolated idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura maybe the first manifestation of SLE by months or even years. Some manifestations of lupus occur more frequently in association with low platelet count in these patients, for example, neuropsychiatric manifestation, haemolytic anaemia, the antiphospholipid syndrome and renal disease. Thrombocytopenia can be regarded as an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with SLE. Medical, surgical and biological treatment modalities are reviewed for this manifestation. First-line therapy remains glucocorticoids. Through our review, we conclude glucocorticoids do produce a response in majority of patients initially, but sustained response to therapy is unlikely. Glucocorticoids are used as first-line therapy in patients with SLE with AIHA, but there is no conclusive evidence to guide second-line therapy. Rituximab is promising in refractory and non-responding AIHA. TTP is not recognised as a criteria for classification of SLE, but there is a considerable overlap between the presenting features of TTP and SLE, and a few patients with SLE have concurrent TTP. Myelofibrosis is an uncommon yet well-documented manifestation of SLE. We have compiled the cases that were reported in MEDLINE sources. PMID:25861458

  8. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  9. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  10. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  11. Autoimmune haematological disorders in two Italian children with Kabuki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Paola; Lassandro, Giuseppe; Sangerardi, Maria; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Valente, Federica; Martire, Baldassarre

    2014-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome (also called Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disease described for the first time in Japan, characterised by anomalies in multiple organ systems and often associated with autoimmune disorders and impaired immune response. We herein report the clinical history, the therapeutic approach and the outcome of two children with Kabuki syndrome who developed autoimmune haematological disorders (haemolytic anaemia and immune thrombocytopenia). Factors regarding differential diagnosis and interventions in better management of this syndrome and its complications are discussed. This is the first report of Italian children with autoimmune haematological disorders complicating Kabuki syndrome. PMID:24460868

  12. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Raffick A R; Remaley, Alan T

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays. PMID:24627713

  13. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Raffick A.R.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays. PMID:24627713

  14. Internal quality control in clinical chemistry: a teaching review.

    PubMed

    Nix, A B; Rowlands, R J; Kemp, K W; Wilson, D W; Griffiths, K

    1987-06-01

    This survey introduces the subject of internal quality assessment from a historical point of view, presents a unified approach to notation, concepts and definitions, and describes briefly those quality control procedures that are used most commonly in clinical chemistry. It is not the aim of this report to comment on all the individual contributions made in this field, but rather to concentrate on the principles. Particular emphasis is centered around assessment criteria to compare the efficiencies of selected control procedures for monitoring analyte concentrations in biological fluids. The question of whether to compare control schemes by means of average run lengths, run length distribution functions or average cost functions is considered. A rationalized approach based on the comparison of optimal procedures, using average run length, is adopted. PMID:3629045

  15. Haematology in the Republic of Macedonia: present situation and brief history.

    PubMed

    Panovska-Stavridis, I; Cevreska, L

    2013-01-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The development of clinical haematology in Macedonia has taken place over the past nine decades. The greatest expansion of its development took place in the second half of the 20th century. The oficial start of clinical haematology dates from 1956, when the Department of Haematology was founded within the fra-mework of the Internal Medicine Clinic in Skopje. In the beginning, haematology represented a form of virtual sub-specialty, but its expansion was so progressive and rapid that it reached the highest peaks of Yugoslav haematology in those times. The period from 1968 to 1979 was a period of integral development of haema-tology and blood-transfusion science in Macedonia. Nowadays, the autonomous Public Health Institution, the University Hematology Clinic, is a unique healthcare, educational and scientific establishment in the Republic of Macedonia in its field of work. The diagnostics algorithm comprises cyto-morphologic and cyto-chemical analysis, through immunologic characterization with the assistance of a flow cytometer, to sophisticated molecular analysis for detecting genetic abnormalities. The therapeutic approach is based upon modern poly-haemotherapeutic protocols, application of monoclonal antibodies, immuno-modulatory agents, molecular target therapy and the use of alogeneic and autologous transplantation of fresh bone-marrow and frozen haemopoietic stem-cells. The current motto of the Haematology Clinic is: always help those who seek help, provide precise and early diagnostics, and apply all up-to-date therapeutic strategies, scientific research, continual education and day-to-day implementation of the latest achievements in the field of haematology in daily practice. Key words: haematology, history, chemotherapy, flow-cytometry, molecular analysis, stem cell transplant, target therapy, immuno-modulatory agents. PMID:23921481

  16. Gaucher disease: haematological presentations and complications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alison S; Mehta, Atul; Hughes, Derralynn A

    2014-05-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, required for the degradation of glycosphingolipids. Clinical manifestations include hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, bone disease and a bleeding diathesis, frequently resulting in presentation to haematologists. Historically managed by splenectomy, transfusions and orthopaedic surgery, the development of specific therapy in the form of intravenous enzyme replacement therapy in the 1990s has resulted in dramatic improvements in haematological and visceral disease. Recognition of complications, including multiple myeloma and Parkinson disease, has challenged the traditional macrophage-centric view of the pathophysiology of this disorder. The pathways by which enzyme deficiency results in the clinical manifestations of this disorder are poorly understood; altered inflammatory cytokine profiles, bioactive sphingolipid derivatives and alterations in the bone marrow microenvironment have been implicated. Further elucidating these pathways will serve to advance our understanding not only of GD, but of associated disorders. PMID:24588457

  17. Effects of different stressors in haematological variables in cultured Oreochromis aureus S.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Coffigny, R; Prieto-Trujillo, A; Ascencio-Valle, F

    2004-12-01

    Since haematological variables can be used to assess the health state in cultured fish, a haematological characterization of clinically healthy Oreochromis aureus was done to establish the reference indices of this species. Fish were subjected to different stressed conditions (bacterial infection, nitrite intoxication, malachite green overdose) to study the changes in the haematological indices and its relation with the health condition. This species showed microcytic anaemia under experimental bacterial infection by Corynebacterium sp.; anaemia, neutrophilia and erythrocytes deformation following nitrite intoxication and medication overdose with malachite green. PMID:15683834

  18. 21 CFR 862.2150 - Continuous flow sequential multiple chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... analyzer for clinical use. 862.2150 Section 862.2150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2150 Continuous flow sequential multiple...

  19. Bone biopsy in haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, R; Frisch, B; Bartl, R

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow biopsies are now widely used in the investigation and follow-up of many diseases. Semi-thin sections of 8216 undecalcified biopsies of patients with haematological disorders were studied. Observations were made on the cytopenias and the myelodysplastic syndromes, the acute leukaemias the myeloproliferative disorders, Hodgkin's disease and the malignant lymphomas including multiple myeloma, hairy cell leukaemia and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsies are essential for the differential diagnosis of most cytopenias and for the early recognition of fibrosis which most frequently occurred as a consequence of megakaryocytic proliferation in the myeloproliferative disorders. Different patterns of bone marrow involvement were found in the lymphoproliferative disorders and both their type and extent constituted factors of prognostic significance. A survey of the literature is given and the conclusion is drawn that bone marrow biopsies provide indispensible information for the diagnostic evaluation and the follow-up of patients with haematological disorders. Images PMID:7040489

  20. Primary immunoglobulin deficiency and haematological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    French, M. A.; Dawkins, R. L.; Jackson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine patients with immunoglobulin deficiency and various haematological disorders are presented. In all patients, recurrent infections had antedated the onset of the haematological disorder but, in most, the possibility of primary immunodeficiency had not been considered until after the haematological diagnosis had been established. The recognition of immunodeficiency is important since such patients may require steroids, immunosuppressive therapy or splenectomy. Gammaglobulin would appear to be the appropriate therapy in this situation. Infections were reduced in all 6 patients so treated. PMID:6878102

  1. Severe malaria in immigrant haematological patient

    PubMed Central

    Vzquez-Snchez, R.; Martnez-Nez, M.E.; Molina-Garca, T.

    2015-01-01

    Severe malaria is a life-threatening condition caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Rupture of red blood cells when merozoites release to the bloodstream is responsible for the clinical manifestations, febrile fever reaching 39C, and other unspecific symptoms. P. falciparum is considered as the worst form of malaria. Moreover, this species has cytoadherence to red blood cells. This can lead to an organic dysfunction. People coming from hyper endemic areas have developed a partial immunity, but immunodepressed people are a group with a greater risk. Due to the high mortality rate associated to this disease, early diagnosis and a prompt treatment implementation are essential. However, the missed or delayed diagnosis is one of the major reasons of reaching a severe malaria disease. This case reflects the complexity of the diagnosis in an immigrant and immunodepressed patient with a haematological neoplasm with a severe infection by P. falciparum due to the unspecified symptoms and the overlapping of the same. PMID:26793463

  2. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was

  3. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

  4. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference

  5. Lipid peroxidation in Nigerians affected with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akinlolu, A; Akingbola, T; Salau, B

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated Lipid peroxidation status in twenty Nigerians; five (5) healthy subjects and 15 (fifteen) Haematological cancer patients; 5 affected with Chronic Myeloid leukaemia (CML), 5 (five) with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and 5 (five) with Multiple Myeloma. Consents were sought and received from all participants used in the study. 10 mls of blood samples were collected in lithium heparin bottles from all subjects used in the study. Free plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA) quantification was used to assess lipid peroxidation in all subjects. MDA levels were increased in CML and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients compared with that of control subjects at P < 0.001. However, a decreased non-significant free plasma MDA level was observed in multiple myeloma patients compared with control subjects. Increase in lipid peroxidation status in Nigerians affected with Haematological malignancies may be associated with a dysregulation of antioxidant system. Lipid peroxidation status could be used as clinical clue for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients affected with haematological malignancies. PMID:23678650

  6. Drug repurposing: translational pharmacology, chemistry, computers and the clinic.

    PubMed

    Issa, Naiem T; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2013-01-01

    The process of discovering a pharmacological compound that elicits a desired clinical effect with minimal side effects is a challenge. Prior to the advent of high-performance computing and large-scale screening technologies, drug discovery was largely a serendipitous endeavor, as in the case of thalidomide for erythema nodosum leprosum or cancer drugs in general derived from flora located in far-reaching geographic locations. More recently, de novo drug discovery has become a more rationalized process where drug-target-effect hypotheses are formulated on the basis of already known compounds/protein targets and their structures. Although this approach is hypothesis-driven, the actual success has been very low, contributing to the soaring costs of research and development as well as the diminished pharmaceutical pipeline in the United States. In this review, we discuss the evolution in computational pharmacology as the next generation of successful drug discovery and implementation in the clinic where high-performance computing (HPC) is used to generate and validate drug-target-effect hypotheses completely in silico. The use of HPC would decrease development time and errors while increasing productivity prior to in vitro, animal and human testing. We highlight approaches in chemoinformatics, bioinformatics as well as network biopharmacology to illustrate potential avenues from which to design clinically efficacious drugs. We further discuss the implications of combining these approaches into an integrative methodology for high-accuracy computational predictions within the context of drug repositioning for the efficient streamlining of currently approved drugs back into clinical trials for possible new indications. PMID:24059462

  7. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing

  8. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  9. Tuberculosis in Patients with Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Anibarro, Luis; Pena, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that causes more than 1 million deaths worldwide every year. In addition, it is estimated that one third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis in a latent state, which involves an eventual risk of progressing to active TB disease. Patients with immunodeficiencies, such as those suffering from haematological malignancies, have a greater risk of progressing to TB disease once infected. It is estimated that the Relative Risk of TB disease in patients with hematologic malignancies is 2–40 times that of the general population. The diagnosis of TB in these patients is often challenging as they often present clinical characteristics that are distinct to those of patients without any other underlying disease. Mortality due to TB is higher. Therefore, it is recommended to diagnose latent TB infection and consider preventive therapy that could avoid the progression from a latent state to active TB disease. There are currently two methods for diagnosing latent TB infection: the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRA). Due to the lack of sensitivity in patients with immunodeficient conditions, a combined TST-IGRA testing is probably the best way for latent TB diagnosis in order to gain sensitivity. Treatment of latent TB infection and TB disease should follow the general principles to that in the general population. PMID:24803999

  10. Guidelines (1988) for training in clinical laboratory management. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Education Division and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Clinical Chemistry Division Commission on Teaching of Clinical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    de Cediel, N; Fraser, C G; Deom, A; Josefsson, L; Worth, H G; Zinder, O

    1989-10-31

    Trainees in laboratory medicine must develop skills in laboratory management. Guidelines are detailed for laboratory staff in training, directors responsible for staff development and professional bodies wishing to generate material appropriate to their needs. The syllabus delineates the knowledge base required and includes laboratory planning and organisation, control of operations, methodology and instrumentation, data management and statistics, financial management, clinical use of tests, communication, personnel management and training, and research and development. Methods for achievement of the skills required are suggested. A bibliography of IFCC publications and other material is provided to assist in training in laboratory management. PMID:2695271

  11. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Education Division and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Division Commission on Teaching of Clinical Chemistry. Guidelines (1988) for training in clinical laboratory management.

    PubMed

    de Cediel, N; Fraser, C G; Deom, A; Josefsson, L; Worth, H G; Zinder, O

    1989-01-01

    Trainees in laboratory medicine must develop skills in laboratory management. Guidelines are detailed for laboratory staff in training, directors responsible for staff development and professional bodies wishing to generate material appropriate to their needs. The syllabus delineates the knowledge base required and includes laboratory planning and organisation, control of operations, methodology and instrumentation, data management and statistics, financial management, clinical use of tests, communication, personnel management and training, and research and development. Methods for achievement of the skills required are suggested. A bibliography of IFCC publications and other material is provided to assist in training in laboratory management. PMID:2742222

  12. An enzymatic clinical chemistry laboratory experiment incorporating an introduction to mathematical method comparison techniques.

    PubMed

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-07-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference plots. The experiment may also be undertaken using simple glucose solutions by general biochemistry students. PMID:21706732

  13. Whole body MRI and PET/CT in haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chieh; Luciani, Alain; Itti, Emmanuel; Haioun, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The usefulness of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in haematological malignancies is reviewed. PET/CT combining functional and anatomical information is currently a valuable tool in the management of patients with lymphoma, especially in the assessment of early treatment response. MRI is advantageous in evaluating bone marrow involvement and therefore plays an important role in clinical decision making for patients with myeloma. The development of whole body functional MR studies is underway and can potentially complement the PET/CT for better patient care. PMID:17921084

  14. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry: the case of newborn screening.

    PubMed

    la Marca, Giancarlo

    2014-12-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) program is a complex and organized system consisting of family and personnel education, biochemical tests, confirmatory biochemical and genetic tests, diagnosis, therapy, and patient follow up. The program identifies treatable metabolic disorders possibly when asymptomatic by using dried blood spot (DBS). During the last 20 years tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) has become the leading technology in NBS programs demonstrating to be versatile, sensitive and specific. There is consistent evidence of benefits from NBS for many disorders detected by TMS as well as for congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia by immune-enzymatic methods. Real time PCR tests have more recently been proposed for the detection of some severe combined immunodeficiences (SCID) along with the use of TMS for ADA and PNP SCID; a first evaluation of their cost-benefit ratio is still ongoing. Avoiding false negative results by using specific biomarkers and reducing the false positive rate by using second tier tests, is fundamental for a successful NBS program. The fully integration of NBS and diagnostic laboratories with clinical service is crucial to have the best effectiveness in a comprehensive NBS system. PMID:24844843

  15. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: Code of Conduct, Version 2--2008.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Janet; Zerah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael; Koeller, Ursula; Blaton, Victor; Tzatchev, Kamen; Charilaou, Charis; Racek, Jaroslav; Johnsen, Anders; Tomberg, Karel; Harmoinen, Aimo; Baum, Hannsjrg; Rizos, Demetrios; Kappelmayer, Janos; O'Mullane, John; Nubile, Giuseppe; Pupure, Silvija; Kucinskiene, Zita; Opp, Matthias; Huisman, Wim; Solnica, Bogdan; Reguengo, Henrique; Grigore, Camelia; Spanr, Jlius; Strakl, Greta; Queralto, Josep; Wallinder, Hans; Schuff-Werner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 10 years, more than 2000 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). A Code of Conduct was adopted in 2003 and a revised and updated version, taking account particularly of the guidelines of the Conseil Europen des Professions Librales (CEPLIS) of which EFCC is a member, is presented in this article. The revised version was approved by the EC4 Register Commission and by the EFCC Executive Board in Paris on 6 November, 2008. PMID:19676151

  16. Biochemical and haematological effects of phenylbutazone in horses.

    PubMed

    Lees, P; Creed, R F; Gerring, E E; Gould, P W; Humphreys, D J; Maitho, T E; Michell, A R; Taylor, J B

    1983-04-01

    Five matched pairs of horses were used to investigate the effects of phenylbutazone on a range of physiological, biochemical and haematological variables. The drug was given by mouth daily for 15 consecutive days at the manufacturer's recommended dose rates to one group of horses (Group A); the second group (Group B) received equivalent doses of a placebo. For some of the measured parameters, significant changes were recorded in both groups, indicating background instability. Significant decreases in serum total protein, albumin, plasma pH, viscosity and magnesium, and an increase in albumin: globulin ratio occurred in Group A, but not in Group B. These changes were, therefore, attributed to phenylbutazone or its metabolites. Toxicologically, the change in pH is probably unimportant but the decrease in protein concentration may have resulted from a protein losing enteropathy and/or from decreased synthesis in the liver. In one animal which received phenylbutazone, clinical signs of toxicity (lethargy, inappetence, oedema) were observed and evidence of hepatotoxicity and haematological changes were also noted in this horse. It is concluded that recommended dose rates of phenylbutazone should never be exceeded and that the period for which the highest dose (4.4 mg/kg body weight twice daily for four days) is administered should be reduced. In clinical cases, where phenylbutazone toxicity is suspected, measurement of serum or plasma protein concentration might provide an indication of the need to reduce dose levels or stop therapy. PMID:6873049

  17. A retrospective series of gut aspergillosis in haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Kazan, E; Maertens, J; Herbrecht, R; Weisser, M; Gachot, B; Vekhoff, A; Caillot, D; Raffoux, E; Fagot, T; Reman, O; Isnard, F; Thiebaut, A; Bretagne, S; Cordonnier, C

    2011-04-01

    Gut invasive aspergillosis is an extremely rare infection in immunocompromised patients. The goal of this retrospective multicentre study is to report on cases of gut aspergillosis in haematology patients, including clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcome. Twenty-one patients from nine centres were identified. Eight had isolated gut aspergillosis, with no evidence of other infected sites, and 13 had disseminated aspergillosis. Thirteen patients had acute leukaemia. Nine were allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Clinical symptoms and imaging were poorly specific. The galactomannan antigenaemia test result was positive in 16/25 (64%) patients, including in four of the eight cases of isolated gut aspergillosis. Five of 21 patients had a dietary regimen rich in spices, suggesting that, in these cases, food could have been the source of gut colonization, and then of a primary gut Aspergillus lesion. The diagnosis was made post-mortem in six patients. The mortality rate in the remaining patients at 12 weeks was 7/15 (47%). Gut aspergillosis is probably misdiagnosed and underestimated in haematology patients, owing to the poor specificity of symptoms and imaging. Patients with a persistently positive galactomannan antigenaemia finding that is unexplained by respiratory lesions should be suspected of having gut aspergillosis in the presence of abdominal symptoms, and be quickly investigated. In the absence of severe abdominal complications leading to surgery and resection of the lesions, the optimal treatment is not yet defined. PMID:20636423

  18. Haematological and biochemical changes in experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C; Sudhakara Reddy, B

    2015-06-01

    New Zealand white rabbits (N = 4) were challenged with the local strain of Trypanosoma evansi. Each rabbit was infected with 5 × 10(5) trypanosomes subcutaneously. The infection was characterized by intermittent pyrexia, undulating parasitaemia, anorexia and emaciation. The infected rabbits were examined daily for development of clinical signs and infection status by wet blood-films made from the ear veins. Thick and thin blood smears were also examined daily until the end of the experiment for description of blood cells. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) was also done. The parasite was observed in the blood during the acute phase only. Leukocytosis in the acute phase followed by leukopenia during the chronic phase was recognized. Haematological studies revealed reduced TEC, Hb and PCV. The main changes in the erythrocytes were macrocytes, hypochromic cells, Howell-Jolly bodies, target cells, stomatocytes and burr cells. Serum chemistry revealed hypoproteinemia, hypocholesterolaemia, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, BUN, increased AST and ALT. PMID:26064003

  19. Increasing Efficiency and Quality by Consolidation of Clinical Chemistry and Immunochemistry Systems with MODULAR ANALYTICS SWA

    PubMed Central

    Mocarelli, Paolo; Horowitz, Gary L.; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Cecere, Rossana; Imdahl, Roland; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke; Luthe, Hilmar; Calatayud, Silvia Pesudo; Salve, Marie Luisa; Kunst, Albert; McGovern, Margaret; Ng, Katherine; Stockmann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area (in USA Integrated MODULAR ANALYTICS, MODULAR ANALYTICS is a trademark of a member of the Roche Group) represents a further approach to automation in the laboratory medicine. This instrument combines previously introduced modular systems for the clinical chemistry and immunochemistry laboratory and allows customised combinations for various laboratory workloads. Functionality, practicability, and workflow behaviour of MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area were evaluated in an international multicenter study at six laboratories. Across all experiments, 236000 results from 32400 samples were generated using 93 methods. Simulated routine testing which included provocation incidents and anomalous situations demonstrated good performance and full functionality. Heterogeneous immunoassays, performed on the E-module with the electrochemiluminescence technology, showed reproducibility at the same level of the general chemistry tests, which was well within the clinical demands. Sample carryover cannot occur due to intelligent sample processing. Workflow experiments for the various module combinations, with menus of about 50 assays, yielded mean sample processing times of <38 minutes for combined clinical chemistry and immunochemistry requests; <50 minutes including automatically repeated samples. MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area offered simplified workflow by combining various laboratory segments. It increased efficiency while maintaining or even improving quality of laboratory processes. PMID:18401449

  20. Differential interferences with clinical chemistry assays by gold nanorods, and gold and silica nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, Georgia K; Carpinone, Paul L; Munson, John W; Powers, Kevin W; Roberts, Stephen M

    2015-02-01

    Nanomaterials are known to cause interference with several standard toxicological assays. As part of an in vivo study of PEG-coated gold nanorods in mice, nanorods were added to reference serum, and results for standard clinical chemistry parameters were compared with serum analyzed without nanorods. PEG-coated gold nanorods produced several concentration-dependent interferences. Comparisons were then made with PEG-coated gold and silica nanospheres. Interferences were observed for both materials that differed from gold nanorods. Removal of the particles from serum by centrifugation prior to analysis resolved most, but not all of the interferences. Additional clinical chemistry analyzers were used to further investigate trends in assay interference. We conclude that PEG-coated gold and silica nanoparticles can interfere with standard clinical chemistry tests in ways that vary depending upon material, shape, and specific assay methodology employed. Assay interferences by nanomaterials cannot always be predicted, underscoring the need to verify that nanomaterials under study do not interfere with methods used to evaluate potential biological effects. PMID:24620736

  1. Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of GOB Chemistry Knowledge Relevant to Clinical Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the

  2. Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of GOB Chemistry Knowledge Relevant to Clinical Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the…

  3. 10 years of MS instrumental developments--impact on LC-MS/MS in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Himmelsbach, Markus

    2012-02-01

    The combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a powerful and indispensable analytical tool that is widely applied in many areas of chemistry, medicine, pharmaceutics and biochemistry. In this review recent MS instrumental developments are presented as part of a special issue covering various aspects of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in clinical chemistry. Improvements, new inventions as well as new combinations in ion source technology are described focusing on dual or multimode sources and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Increasing demands regarding sensitivity, accuracy, resolution and both quantitation and identification guarantee on-going improvements in mass analyzer technology. This paper discusses new hybrid MS instruments that can perform novel scan modes as well as high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS) that finally seem to be able to overcome, or at least significantly reduce, their weaknesses in quantitative applications. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) itself is not an invention of the last 10 years, but a lot of progress was made within the last decade that reveals the potential benefits of this combination. This is clearly reflected by the increased number of commercially available instruments and the various designs of IMMS are covered in detail in this review. Selected applications for all these instrumental developments are given focusing on the perspective of clinical chemistry. PMID:22177236

  4. Preliminary evaluation of an experimental clinical chemistry analyzer developed for space medicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, A H; Gornet, T G; Schenkel, O; Smith-Cronin, L; Graham, G A; Tonnesen, A S; McKinley, B A

    1993-01-01

    An experimental clinical chemistry analyzer system was designed and built to demonstrate the feasibility of clinical chemistry as part of a medical-care system at NASA's planned space station Freedom. We report the performance of the experimental analyzer, called a medical development unit (MDU), for selected analytes in a laboratory setting in preparation for a preliminary clinical trial at patients' bedsides in an intensive-care unit. Within-run CVs ranged from 0.7% for sodium to 7.1% for phosphorus; day-to-day CVs ranged from 1.0% for chloride to 23.4% for calcium. Correlation of patients' blood sample analyses compared well with those by Ektachem E700 and other high-volume central laboratory analyzers (r ranged from 0.933 for creatine kinase MB isoenzyme to 0.997 for potassium), except for hemoglobin (r = 0.901) and calcium (r = 0.823). Although several CVs obtained in this study exceeded theoretical desired precision limits based on biological variations, performance was adequate for clinical laboratory diagnosis. We examined the effect of potentially interfering concentrations of hemoglobin, bilirubin, and lipids: the only effect was negative interference with calcium analyses by high concentrations of bilirubin. We also examined the effects of preanalytical variables and the performance of experimental sample-transfer cups designed to retain sample and reference liquid in microgravity. Continued development of the MDU system is recommended, especially automation of sample processing. PMID:8419056

  5. Intestinal helminths induce haematological changes in dogs from Jabalpur, India.

    PubMed

    Qadir, S; Dixit, A K; Dixit, P; Sharma, R L

    2011-12-01

    The effect of canine intestinal helminths on the haematological profile of 200 dogs, of both sexes and variable age, visiting university veterinary clinics for routine examination was investigated. The dogs were assigned to parasitized (n = 39) and non-parasitized (n = 161) groups of animals. Coprological examination revealed a 19.5% prevalence of different species of the helminths. Of these animals, 10.25% had mixed infections with Ancylostoma caninum, Toxascaris spp. and Dipylidium caninum. The intensity of A. caninum infection was the highest, with mean egg counts of 951.43 (standard error 88.66), followed by Toxascaris 283.33 (standard error 116.81) and D. caninum. The parasitized animals had significantly lower levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume and total erythrocyte counts than non-parasitized animals (P < 0.01). Values of other parameters, except for lymphocytes and eosinophils, were not different between the two groups. Analyses of the haematological profile revealed normocytic hypochromic anaemia in the parasitized group of animals. PMID:21110909

  6. Evaluation of the QBC Star centrifugal three-part differential haematology system.

    PubMed

    Erhabor, O; Richardson, G; Mohammed, I; Thornton, C; Bark, J; Hurst, M; Hamer, D; Kinsella, P

    2013-01-01

    The QBC Star haematology system includes the QBC Star centrifugal analytical analyser and the QBC Star tube system. Together, they are capable of producing a haematology profile on venous or capillary whole blood. The aim of this study is to compare full blood count (FBC) including differential white cell count performance between the QBC Star analyser and a gold standard Sysmex XE-2100 haematology analyser. The FBC performance was evaluated according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) document H20-A. Imprecision, correlation and linearity studies all showed excellent results. Overall, the haemoglobin, haematocrit, white cell count (WCC) and platelet count parameters showed excellent correlation. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) results showed poor comparability. The white cell differential parameters showed good correlation within certain clinically significant limits. Imprecision for haemoglobin, haematocrit, WCC, MCHC and platelet count was considered acceptable. The re-read function was found to be stable over the five-hour testing period under the authors' laboratory environmental conditions. The subjective assessment by biomedical scientist staff demonstrated that the system was user friendly, required little maintenance, and no user calibration was required. Staff considered the user manual to be excellent. Overall, the QBC Star appears to be an excellent point-of-care (POC) dry haematology analyser that delivers clinically significant nine-parameter complete blood count and will make a good POC analyser for use in field hospitals, research, screening programmes, GP surgeries as well as in emergency and intensive care units. It is a health and safety-friendly analyser considering the fact that it uses dry haematology reagents instead of the bulky wet reagents that are often associated with liquid biohazard waste. PMID:23888608

  7. Cancer stem cells in haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Golab, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    At least several types of human haematological malignancies can now be seen as stem-cell diseases. The best-studied in this context is acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). It has been shown that these diseases are driven by a pool of leukaemia stem cells (LSC), which remain in the quiescent state, have the capacity to survive and self-renew, and are responsible for the recurrence of cancer after classical chemotherapy. It has been understood that LSC must be eliminated in order to cure patients suffering from haematological cancers. Recent advances in LSC research have allowed for description of LSC phenotype and identification of potential targets for anti-LSC therapies. This concise review summarises the current view on LSC biology and targeted approaches against LSC. PMID:25691816

  8. Clinical chemistry laboratory productivity: a comparison between a Canadian and a British teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, A R; Gardner, M D

    1981-01-01

    the productivity of a clinical chemistry laboratory was measured in both a Canadian and a British tertiary care teaching hospital using 1977 data and the 1976 edition of the Canadian Schedule of Unit Values. Although productivity, measured as units produced per person or per paid hour, was lower in the British than in the Canadian teaching hospital-due to the British day-release system of staff-education-the output per actual worker hour was similar. We conclude, from this small study, that productivity in the laboratory services of the British National Health Service is not likely to be different from laboratory productivity elsewhere. PMID:7462437

  9. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  10. Biosimilar Epoetin Zeta in Oncology and Haematology: Development and Experience following 6 Years of Use.

    PubMed

    Michallet, Mauricette; Losem, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced anaemia is frequent in cancer patients, with severity depending on the extent of the disease and intensity of treatment. Clinical guidelines recommend erythropoietin therapy to treat or prevent anaemia in some oncology/haematology patients being treated with chemotherapy. The patent expiry of the first-generation erythropoietins has led to the development of biosimilar products, i.e. therapeutic proteins exhibiting comparable quality, safety and efficacy to an existing reference biological medicine, the patent of which has expired. This review summarises the available data set supporting the use of one such biosimilar product, epoetin zeta (Retacrit™) in oncology/haematology. The body of evidence supporting the use of epoetin zeta continues to grow, with post-marketing clinical studies underway to evaluate its longer-term clinical efficacy and safety. Biosimilar medicines have the potential to offer cost savings to health care providers, with the assurance of ongoing risk management programmes to ensure patient safety. PMID:26426164

  11. Guidelines for genomic array analysis in acquired haematological neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Schoumans, Jacqueline; Suela, Javier; Hastings, Ros; Muehlematter, Dominique; Rack, Katrina; van den Berg, Eva; Berna Beverloo, H; Stevens-Kroef, Marian

    2016-05-01

    Genetic profiling is important for disease evaluation and prediction of prognosis or responsiveness to therapy in neoplasia. Microarray technologies, including array comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-detecting arrays, have in recent years been introduced into the diagnostic setting for specific types of haematological malignancies and solid tumours. It can be used as a complementary test or depending on the neoplasia investigated, also as a standalone test. However, comprehensive and readable presentation of frequently identified complex genomic profiles remains challenging. To assist diagnostic laboratories, standardization and minimum criteria for clinical interpretation and reporting of acquired genomic abnormalities detected through arrays in neoplastic disorders are presented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26774012

  12. A prospective, cohort, multicentre study of candidaemia in hospitalized adult patients with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, M N; Walsh, T J; Zaoutis, T; Pagoni, M; Kotsopoulou, M; Voulgarelis, M; Panayiotidis, P; Vassilakopoulos, T; Angelopoulou, M K; Marangos, M; Spyridonidis, A; Kofteridis, D; Pouli, A; Sotiropoulos, D; Matsouka, P; Argyropoulou, A; Perloretzou, S; Leckerman, K; Manaka, A; Oikonomopoulos, P; Daikos, G; Petrikkos, G; Sipsas, N V

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a life-threatening infection in patients with haematological malignancies. The objective of our study was to determine the incidence, microbiological characteristics and clinical outcome of candidaemia among hospitalized adult patients with haematological malignancies. This is a population-based, prospective, multicentre study of patients ? 18 years admitted to haematology and/or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation units of nine tertiary care Greek hospitals from January 2009 through to February 2012. Within this cohort, we conducted a nested case-control study to determine the risk factors for candidaemia. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of 28-day mortality. Candidaemia was detected in 40 of 27,864 patients with haematological malignancies vs. 967 of 1,158,018 non-haematology patients for an incidence of 1.4 cases/1000 admissions vs. 0.83/1000 respectively (p <0.001). Candidaemia was caused predominantly (35/40, 87.5%) by non-Candida albicans species, particularly Candida parapsilosis (20/40, 50%). In vitro resistance to at least one antifungal agent was observed in 27% of Candida isolates. Twenty-one patients (53%) developed breakthrough candidaemia while receiving antifungal agents. Central venous catheters, hypogammaglobulinaemia and a high APACHE II score were independent risk factors for the development of candidaemia. Crude mortality at day 28 was greater in those with candidaemia than in control cases (18/40 (45%) vs. 9/80 (11%); p <0.0001). In conclusion, despite antifungal prophylaxis, candidaemia is a relatively frequent infection associated with high mortality caused by non-C. albicans spp., especially C. parapsilosis. Central venous catheters and hypogammaglobulinaemia are independent risk factors for candidaemia that provide potential targets for improving the outcome. PMID:23889746

  13. [Optimising therapy in patients with haematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Dumontet, Charles

    2008-10-01

    Haematological malignancies, although relatively infrequent diseases, have benefited from major advances both in terms of diagnosis, identification of prognostic factors and therapeutic breakthroughs. The combination of morphological, cytogenetic, immunological and molecular approaches has greatly contributed to the identification of homogeneous entities, as well as prognostic subgroups of patients. Targeted therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors, have demonstrated their efficacy in this group of diseases and since then has been generalized to patients with solid tumours. Current efforts include the evaluation of individual characteristics of patients, including their genetic make-up, to reduce treatment toxicity while increasing the quality and the duration of response. PMID:19004726

  14. Aluminum chelation: chemistry, clinical, and experimental studies and the search for alternatives to desferrioxamine.

    PubMed

    Yokel, R A

    1994-02-01

    This review focuses on aluminum (Al) chelation, its chemistry and biology. The toxicology and biology of Al in mammalian organisms are briefly reviewed to introduce the problems associated with excessive Al exposure and accumulation and the challenges facing an effective Al chelator. The basics of Al chelation chemistry are considered to help the reader understand the Al chelation chemical literature. The chemical properties of Al enable prediction of effective functional groups for Al chelation. A compilation of distribution coefficients between octanol and aqueous phases (Do/a) for chelators and their complexes with Al shows the effect of complexation on lipophilicity. A compilation of stability constants for Al.chelator complexes illustrates the role of oxygen in ligands that form stable complexes. The history of clinical Al chelation therapy is reviewed, with emphasis on desferrioxamine (DFO), which has been extensively used since 1980. The beneficial and adverse effects and limitations of DFO use in end-stage renal-diseased patients, in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, and in animal models of Al intoxication are presented. The methods to evaluate potential Al chelators in vitro, in vivo, and using computer modeling are discussed. The Al chelation literature is reviewed by the chemical class of chelators, including fluoride, carboxylic acids, amino acids, catechols, polyamino carboxylic acids, phenyl carboxylic acids, the hydroxypyridinones, and hydroxamic acids. PMID:8301696

  15. Protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis: Medicinal chemistry/clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Malemud, Charles J; Blumenthal, David E

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry strategies have contributed to the development, experimental study of and clinical trials assessment of the first type of protein kinase small molecule inhibitor to target the Janus kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. The orally administered small molecule inhibitor, tofacitinib, is the first drug to target the JAK/STAT pathway for entry into the armamentarium of the medical therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of tofacitinib into general rheumatologic practice coupled with increasing understanding that additional cellular signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways as well as spleen tyrosine kinase also contribute to immune-mediated inflammatory in rheumatoid arthritis makes it likely that further development of orally administered protein kinase small molecule inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis will occur in the near future. PMID:25232525

  16. Gene therapy for treatment of inherited haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Roland W; Cao, Ou; Hagstrom, J Nathan; Wang, Lixin

    2006-05-01

    Gene therapy, a molecular medicine based on vector-mediated transfer of therapeutic genes, holds promise for a cure of monogenetic inherited diseases. In recent years, tremendous progress has been reported in the treatment of haematological disorders: clinical trials in severe combined immune deficiencies have been successful by using retroviral vectors to express target genes in haematopoietic stem cells, which after transplantation efficiently reconstituted the immune system concomitant with substantial improvement in the clinical status of patients. Conversely, unexpected adverse events were also encountered. In other work, progress towards clinical studies on ex vivo gene transfer for Fanconi anaemia and haemoglobinopathies has been made. Each approach features a unique treatment strategy and also faces various impediments to success. In the case of the X-linked bleeding disorder haemophilia, several Phase I/II clinical trials were conducted, including in vivo administration of viral vectors to skeletal muscle and liver. Adeno-associated viral gene transfer of coagulation Factor IX has been documented in human subjects, reaching therapeutic levels after infusion into a hepatic blood vessel. However, sustained expression of therapeutic levels (as shown in large animal models of haemophilia) has not yet been achieved in humans. In general, long-term follow-up will be important for assessment of the safety of all existing gene therapy strategies. PMID:16610980

  17. Molecular Characterization and Resistant Spectrum of Enterococci Isolated from a Haematology Unit in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiajia; Shi, Jinfang; Zhao, Ruike; Han, Qingzhen; Qian, Xuefeng; Gu, Guohao; Zhang, Xianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study screened clinical isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium to determine resistant spectrum and the potential virulence genes characterization among them of haematology patients. Methods Clinical Enterococci isolates were obtained from a haematology unit in a tertiary care hospital in China. Results Among 125 isolates available for the investigation, 46 were identified as E. faecium, and 79 were E. faecalis. Urine was the most common source (82, 65.6%). E. faecium isolates were more resistant than E. faecalis. Among E. faecium, maximum resistance was seen against PEN 93.5% and AMP 93.5% followed by CIP 87%. Eight vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) isolates were obtained, positive for vanA genotype. Of 125 Enterococci isolates, 67(53.6%) were acm, and 42.4%, 25.6%, 25.6%, 24.8%, 23.2%, 20.8%, 10.4% and 7.2% of isolates were positive for esp, cylL-A, asa 1, cylL-S, cpd, cylL-L, gel-E and ace, respectively. E. faecalis isolates have more virulence genes (VGs) than E. faecium. MLST analysis of VREfm identified three different STs (ST17, ST78 and ST203). Conclusion The study provides the molecular characterization and resistant spectrum of Enterococci isolated from a haematology unit in China. Molecular analysis showed that all VREfm isolates belonged to pandemic clonal complex-17(CC17), associated with hospital-related isolates. Therefore, determining resistant spectrum and virulence characterization is crucial for the prevention and control of the spread of nosocomial infections caused by Enterococci in the haematology unit. PMID:26266119

  18. Comparison of automated haematology analysers for detection of apoptotic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Taga, K; Sawaya, M; Yoshida, M; Kaneko, M; Okada, M; Taniho, M

    2002-06-01

    Automated haematology analysers can rapidly provide accurate blood cell counts and white blood cell differentials. In this study, we evaluated four different haematology analysers for the detection of apoptotic lymphocytes in peripheral blood: MAXM A/L Retic, H*2, Cell-Dyn 3500 and NE-8000. With the MAXM A/L Retic haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared below the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF1, and to the right under the original lymphocyte cluster on the volume/DF2 scattergrams. With the H*2 haematology analyser, the apoptotic polymorphonuclear lymphocytes produced a higher lobularity index on the BASO channel. With the Cell-Dyn 3500 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster appeared to the right side of the original lymphocyte cluster on the 0D/10D scattergram and to the left side of the polymorphonuclear cluster on the 90D/10D scattergram. With the NE-8000 haematology analyser, the apoptotic lymphocyte cluster was not distinguishable. Thus, apoptotic lymphocytes are readily detected on scattergrams generated by selected haematology analysers. PMID:12067276

  19. Clinical chemistry profiles in injection heroin users from Coastal Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug users. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the clinical chemistry profiles and identifying the key laboratory markers of HIV infection during ART in injection heroin users (IHUs). Methods Clinical chemistry measurements were performed on serum samples collected from HIV-1 infected ART-experienced (n?=?22), naive (n?=?16) and HIV-1 negative (n?=?23) IHUs, and healthy controls (n?=?15) from Mombasa, coastal Kenya. Results HIV uninfected IHUs had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P?=?0.023) as ART-exposed IHUs exhibited lower albumin (P?=?0.014) and higher AST to platelet index (APRI) (P?

  20. Current status of chimeric antigen receptor therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Maude, Shannon; Barrett, David M

    2016-01-01

    The field of adoptive cell transfer includes chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineered T cells, constructs that emerged from basic research into principles of immunology and have transformed into clinically effective therapies for haematological malignancies. T cells engineered to express these artificial receptors hold great promise, but also carry significant risk. While permanent genetic modification of mature T cells appears safe, modulating their invivo function is difficult, partly because the robust response can trigger other arms of the immune system. Suicide systems and toxicity management with cytokine blockade or signal transduction modulators have emerged as a new frontier in this field, a far cry from early problems getting CAR T cells to work at all. Currently, clinical trials in patients with relapsed or refractory B cell malignancies treated with CD19-specific CAR T cells have induced durable remissions in adults and children. Results from these trials indicate that more work needs to be done to understand biomarkers of efficacy, the role of T cell persistence and how to integrate this care into standard practice. Cell therapy will not be a 'one size fits all' class of medicine, and here we will discuss the development of this therapy and important questions for its future. PMID:26560054

  1. Establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Nola J; Schaefer, Adam M; van der Spuy, Stephen D; Gous, Tertius A

    2015-01-01

    There are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. Baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult African penguins. Samples were collected from the breeding range of the African penguin in South Africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. The haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit, haemoglobin, red cell count and white cell count. The biochemical parameters that were measured were: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, cholesterol, serum glucose, uric acid, bile acid, total serum protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase and creatine kinase. All samples were serologically negative for selected avian diseases and no blood parasites were detected. No haemolysis was present in any of the analysed samples. Male African penguins were larger and heavier than females, with higher haematocrit, haemoglobin and red cell count values, but lower calcium and phosphate values. African penguins in the Eastern Cape were heavier than those in the Western Cape, with lower white cell count and globulin values and a higher albumin/globulin ratio, possibly indicating that birds are in a poorer condition in the Western Cape. Results were also compared between multiple penguin species and with African penguins in captivity. These values for healthy, wild, adult penguins can be used for future health and disease assessments. PMID:26016391

  2. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  3. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrab?kov, Petra; Vosl?ov, Eva; Bed?ov, Iveta; Pit?kov, Vladimra; Chloupek, Jan; Ve?erek, Vladimr

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  4. Effect of repeated freezing and thawing on 18 clinical chemistry analytes in rat serum.

    PubMed

    Kale, Vijay P; Patel, Sweta G; Gunjal, Prashant S; Wakchaure, Santosh U; Sundar, Rajesh S; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Jain, Mukul R

    2012-07-01

    In a preclinical research laboratory, using serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly is sometimes unavoidable when needing to confirm previous results or perform additional analysis. Here we determined the effects of multiple cycles of refrigeration or freezing and thawing of rat serum at 3 temperature conditions for different storage times on clinical chemistry analytes. Serum samples obtained from adult Wistar rats were stored at 2 to 8 C and -10 to -20 C for as long as 72 h and at -70 C for as long as 30 d. At different time points (24, 48, and 72 h for samples stored at 2 to 8 C or -10 to -20 C and 1, 7, and 30 d for samples stored at -70 C), the samples were brought to room temperature, analyzed, and then stored again at the designated temperature. The results obtained after each storage cycle were compared with those obtained from the initial analysis of fresh samples. Of the 18 serum analytes evaluated, 14 were stable without significant changes, even after 3 freeze-thaw cycles at the tested temperature ranges. Results from this study will help researchers working with rat serum to interpret the biochemical data obtained from serum samples that have been frozen and thawed repeatedly. PMID:23043814

  5. Chemokine Receptor CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc: Medicinal Chemistry and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immumodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the worst global pandemic. The virus infects human CD4 T cells and macrophages, and causes CD4 depletion. HIV enters target cells through the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein to CD4 and the chemokine coreceptor, CXCR4 or CCR5. In particular, the CCR5-utilizing viruses predominate in the blood during the disease course. CCR5 is expressed on the surface of various immune cells including macrophages, monocytes, microglia, dendric cells, and active memory CD4 T cells. In the human population, the CCR5 genomic mutation, CCR5Δ32, is associated with relative resistance to HIV. These findings paved the way for the discovery and development of CCR5 inhibitors to block HIV transmission and replication. Maraviroc, discovered as a CCR5 antagonist, is the only CCR5 inhibitor that has been approved by both US FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for treating HIV/AIDS patients. In this review, we summarize the medicinal chemistry and clinical studies of Maraviroc. PMID:25159165

  6. Characterization of Rheumatoid Arthritis Subtypes Using Symptom Profiles, Clinical Chemistry and Metabolomics Measurements

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, Anita J.; Reijmers, Theo H.; Schron, Yan; Wang, Mei; Xu, Zhiliang; Wang, Xinchang; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang; Hankemeier, Thomas; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; van der Greef, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. Methods In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. Results The questionnaire items Red joints, Swollen joints, Warm joints suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RHF) levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Conclusion Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient. PMID:22984493

  7. Trial of Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation for Haematological Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Acute Myeloid Leukaemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia; Acquired Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes; Other Haematological Malignancies; Unrelated HSCT Indicated

  8. Haematological cancer and quality of life: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Allart-Vorelli, P; Porro, B; Baguet, F; Michel, A; Cousson-Glie, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of haematological cancers on quality of life (QoL). A review of the international literature was conducted from the databases PsycInfo' and 'Medline' using the keywords: 'haematological cancer', 'quality of life', 'physical', 'psychological', 'social', 'vocational', 'professional', 'economic', 'cognitive', and 'sexual'. Twenty-one reliable studies were analysed. Among these studies, 12 showed that haematological cancer altered overall QoL, 8 papers found a deterioration of physical dimension, 8 papers reported on functional and role dimensions, 11 papers reported on the psychological component and 9 on the social component. Moreover, one study and two manuscripts, respectively, reported deteriorated sexual and cognitive dimensions. Our review demonstrates that the different dimensions of QoL are deteriorated by haematological malignancies and, probably, by the side effects of treatment. PMID:25909835

  9. The role of CCN family genes in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wells, J E; Howlett, M; Cheung, L C; Kees, Ursula R

    2015-09-01

    Haematological malignancies, although a broad range of specific disease types, continue to show considerable overlap in classification, and patients are treated using similar chemotherapy regimes. In this review we look at the role of the CCN family of matricellular proteins and indicate their role in nine haematological malignancies including both myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms. The potential for further haematological neoplasms with CCN family associations is argued by summarising the demonstrated role of CCN family genes in the differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells. The expanding field of knowledge encompassing CCN family genes and cancers of the HSC-lineage highlights the importance of extracellular matrix-interactions in both normal physiology and tumorigenesis of the blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. PMID:26026820

  10. Learning Nuclear Chemistry through Practice: A High School Student Project Using PET in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT…

  11. Learning Nuclear Chemistry through Practice: A High School Student Project Using PET in a Clinical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT

  12. Histopathology and serum clinical chemistry evaluation of broilers with femoral head separation disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...

  13. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic... submission of INDs for early clinical trials with live biotherapeutic products (LBPs). The guidance...

  14. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live... availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials with Live... submission of INDs for early clinical trials with live biotherapeutic products (LBPs). DATES: Although...

  15. Development and analysis of an instrument to assess student understanding of GOB chemistry knowledge relevant to clinical nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Corina E; Hyslop, Richard M; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the final version of the items and instrument. In developing items for the GOB-CKA, essential topics were identified through a series of expert interviews (with practicing nurses, nurse educators, and GOB chemistry instructors) and confirmed through a national survey. Individual items were tested in qualitative studies with students from the target population for clarity and wording. Data from pilot and beta studies were used to evaluate each item and narrow the total item count to 45. A psychometric analysis performed on data from the 45-item final version was used to provide evidence of validity and reliability. The final version of the instrument has a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.76. Feedback from an expert panel provided evidence of face and content validity. Convergent validity was estimated by comparing the results from the GOB-CKA with the General-Organic-Biochemistry Exam (Form 2007) of the American Chemical Society. Instructors who wish to use the GOB-CKA for teaching and research may contact the corresponding author for a copy of the instrument. PMID:25418988

  16. Establishment of haematological and immunological reference values for healthy Tanzanian children in Kilimanjaro Region

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Ann M.; Muro, Florida J.; Gratz, Jean; Crump, John A.; Musyoka, Augustine M.; Sichangi, Moses W.; Morrissey, Anne B.; M'rimberia, Jane K.; Njau, Boniface N.; Msuya, Levina J.; Bartlett, John A.; Cunningham, Coleen K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine the normal haematological and immunological reference intervals for healthy Tanzanian children. Methods We analysed data from 655 HIV-seronegative, healthy children from 1 month to 18 years of age from the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania for this cross-sectional study. Median and 95% reference ranges were determined for haematological and immunological parameters and analysed by age cohorts, and by gender for adolescents. Results Median haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) for all age groups were higher than established East African reference intervals. Compared to U.S. intervals, reference ranges encompassed lower values for Hb, Hct, mean corpuscular volume, and platelets. Applying the U.S. National Institute of Health Division of AIDS (DAIDS) adverse event grading criteria commonly used in clinical trials to the reference range participants, 128 (21%) of 619 children would be classified as having an adverse event related to Hb level. CD4-positive T-lymphocyte absolute counts declined significantly with increasing age (P < 0.0001). For those aged under five years, CD4-positive T-lymphocyte percentages are lower than established developed country medians. Conclusions Country-specific reference ranges are needed for defining normal laboratory parameters among children in Africa. Knowledge of appropriate reference intervals is critical not only for providing optimal clinical care, but also for enrolling children in medical research. Knowledge of normal CD4-positive T-lymphocyte parameters in this population is especially important for guiding the practice of HIV medicine in Tanzania. PMID:20636301

  17. ATM germline mutations in women with familial breast cancer and a relative with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Laura La; Laug, Anthony; Weber, Jrmie; Champ, Jrme; Cavaciuti, Eve; Russo, Antonio; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Biallelic inactivation of the ATM gene causes ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a complex neurological disease associated with a high risk of leukaemias and lymphomas. Mothers of A-T children, obligate ATM heterozygote mutation carriers, have a breast cancer (BC) relative risk of about 3. The frequency of ATM carriers in BC women with a BC family history has been estimated to be 2.70%. To further our clinical understanding of familial BC and examine whether haematological malignancies are predictive of ATM germline mutation, we estimated the frequency of heterozygote mutation carriers in a series of 122 BC women with a family history of both BC and haematological malignancy and without BRCA1/2 mutation. The gene screening was performed with a new high throughput method, EMMA (enhanced mismatch mutation analysis). Amongst 28 different ATM variants, eight mutations have been identified in eight patients: two mutations leading to a putative truncated protein and six being likely deleterious mutations. One of the truncating mutations was initially interpreted as a missense mutation, p.Asp2597Tyr, but is actually a splice mutation (c.7789G>T/p.Asp2597_Lys2643>LysfsX3). The estimated frequency of ATM heterozygote mutation carriers in our series is 6.56% (95% CI: 2.16-10.95), a significantly higher figure than that observed in the general population, estimated to be between 0.3 and 0.6%. Although a trend towards an increased frequency of ATM carriers was observed, it was not different from that observed in a population of familial BC women not selected for haematological malignancy as the frequency of ATM carriers was 2.70%, a value situated in the confidence interval of our study. PMID:19404735

  18. Design and implementation of a web-enabled haematological system.

    PubMed

    Gortzis, Lefteris; Koubias, Stavros; Nikiforidis, George

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the design and the implementation of a web-enabled integrated haematological system, named e-HS. The proposed system runs on a set of distributed network nodes providing useful haematological services. These services include patient-oriented data management, digitized histopathological slides (DHS) acquisition, teleconsulting facilities, etc. The objective of e-HS is to supply web-enabled services according to haematological requirements, implement a distributed storage scheme for DHS, and provide a common database containing all haematological laboratory results by using eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and web technologies. Our implementation can be accessible to every authorized physician at the distributed nodes without any additional software. The only software required for the user is the widely used browser (e.g. MS Internet Explorer v 3.02 or higher). Besides, by using a self-explaining user interfaces and HTML-techniques, such as hyperlinks, the necessary amount of training at the physicians-side is reduced to a minimum. A first implementation of the e-HS, has been established at the Medical Physics Department of the University of Patras (master node of the system), and has been tested with success by the medical staff of the Hospital Departments of the University of Patras and Thessalonica that served as distributed nodes of the system. PMID:15265621

  19. [The treatment of leukaemia in paediatric haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Héritier, Sébastien; Morand, Karine; Courcoux, Mary-France; Leverger, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haematology day hospital administers almost all types of chemotherapy used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Blood transfusions, myelograms and lumbar punctures are also performed there. The prevention of pain and anxiety generated by the care is a priority. PMID:26183094

  20. [Management of treatment-induced pain in paediatric haematology].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamadi, Donia; Calvet, Clmence

    2015-01-01

    Invasive procedures are frequent and painful in children treated in paediatric haematology. It is therefore essential to take into consideration and anticipate the pain induced by these procedures. The caregiver has various effective methods of providing a high quality care management. PMID:26183097

  1. Tales from the Jazz ASH: highlights from the 2013 American Society of Haematology meeting

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The 55th annual ASH meeting was held in pleasant New Orleans and was the largest in its history, with 22,495 participants coming from 113 nations. A ‘bench-to-bedside and back’ attitude characterises haematology probably more than any other discipline in medicine and, as usual, this was reflected in the extremely wide breadth of the topics covered, including the last results from clinical trials and cutting-edge advancements in basic science. This year, the balance was arguably skewed: few truly clinical practice-changing results were presented. On the other hand, a great number of basic and translational studies significantly increased our understanding of the biology of numerous malignancies and heralded the coming of age of disruptive technologies. Namely, above all, next generation sequencing and T cell engineering-based cell therapy. PMID:24678345

  2. Iron requirements based upon iron absorption tests are poorly predicted by haematological indices in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Lomer, Miranda CE; Cook, William B; Jan-Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Hutchinson, Carol; Liu, Ding Yong; Hider, Robert C; Powell, Jonathan J

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Traditional clinical markers of iron status can be skewed in the presence of inflammation meaning that a patient’s iron status can be misinterpreted. Additionally, iron absorption is known to be down-regulated in patients with active IBD. However, whether this is the case for quiescent or mildly active disease has not been formally assessed. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between iron absorption, iron requirements and standard haematological indices in IBD patients without active disease. Twenty nine patients with quiescent or mildly active IBD and 28 control subjects undertook an iron absorption test which measured sequential rises in serum iron over four hours following ingestion of 200 mg ferrous sulphate. At baseline, serum iron, transferrin saturation, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor were all measured. Thereafter (30-240 minutes) only serum iron and NTBI were measured. Iron absorption did not differ between the two groups (P=0.9; RM-ANOVA). In control subjects baseline haematological parameters predicted iron absorption (i.e. iron requirements) but this was not the case for patients with IBD. Iron absorption is normal in quiescent or mildly active IBD patients but standard haematological parameters do not accurately predict iron requirements. PMID:22152498

  3. Health assessment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect of haematophagous parasites on haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of the health status of free-ranging populations is important for understanding the impact of disease on individuals and on population demography and viability. In this study, haematological reference intervals were developed for free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups within the context of endemic hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection and the effects of pathogen, host, and environment factors on the variability of haematological parameters were investigated. Uncinaria sanguinis was identified as an important agent of disease, with infection causing regenerative anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, and a predominantly lymphocytic-eosinophilic systemic inflammatory response. Conversely, the effects of sucking lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) were less apparent and infestation in pups appears unlikely to cause clinical impact. Overall, the effects of U. sanguinis, A. microchir, host factors (standard length, body condition, pup sex, moult status, and presence of lesions), and environment factors (capture-type and year of sampling) accounted for 26-65% of the total variance observed in haematological parameters. Importantly, this study demonstrated that anaemia in neonatal Australian sea lion pups is not solely a benign physiological response to host-environment changes, but largely reflects a significant pathological process. This impact of hookworm infection on pup health has potential implications for the development of foraging and diving behaviour, which would subsequently influence the independent survival of juveniles following weaning. The haematological reference intervals developed in this study can facilitate long-term health surveillance, which is critical for the early recognition of changes in disease impact and to inform conservation management. PMID:25724096

  4. A brief history of lipid and lipoprotein measurements and their contribution to clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Judith R; Warnick, G Russell; Cooper, Gerald R

    2006-07-23

    The study of modern lipid chemistry began in the 17th and 18th centuries with early observations by Robert Boyle, Poulletier de la Salle, Antoine Franois de Fourcroy and others. The 19th century chemist, Chevreul, identified several fatty acids, suggested the name 'cholesterine' for the fatty substance in gallstones, coined the word 'glycerine', and showed that fats were comprised of glycerol and fatty acids. The 20th century brought many advances in the understanding of lipoprotein structure and function, and explored relationships between lipoproteins and disease states. The development of the ultracentrifuge and other lipoprotein separation techniques, and reagents for accurate, standardized quantitative measurement have steadily increased our understanding of the important role of lipoprotein metabolism in both healthy and disease states. PMID:16740255

  5. Comparison of plastic vs. glass evacuated serum-separator (SST) blood-drawing tubes for common clinical chemistry determinations.

    PubMed

    Hill, B M; Laessig, R H; Koch, D D; Hassemer, D J

    1992-08-01

    We evaluated a plastic evacuated blood-drawing tube containing an integral serum-separating barrier gel, by direct comparison with a glass counterpart. The plastic tube demonstrated no differences when compared for common clinical chemistry analytes with multiple types of instruments and systems. A total of 260 such different combinations were studied with emphasis on tests sensitive to drawing and handling indexes such as lactate dehydrogenase and potassium. A total of six separate blood drawings were tested with no significant differences noted in these tests. The total study included subjective evaluations of the plastic tube's use as a blood-drawing device and objective studies based on quantitative test results from normal and hospitalized patients and use of the primary sampling tubes (both plastic and glass) for 48-h storage. PMID:1643717

  6. Design and Development of Microcontroller-Based Clinical Chemistry Analyser for Measurement of Various Blood Biochemistry Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, S. R.; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K. K.; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments. PMID:18924737

  7. Design and development of microcontroller-based clinical chemistry analyser for measurement of various blood biochemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Taneja, S R; Gupta, R C; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K K; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments. PMID:18924737

  8. Haematological malignancies: at the forefront of immunotherapeutic innovation.

    PubMed

    Bachireddy, Pavan; Burkhardt, Ute E; Rajasagi, Mohini; Wu, Catherine J

    2015-04-01

    The recent successes of cancer immunotherapies have stimulated interest in the potential widespread application of these approaches; haematological malignancies have provided both initial proofs of concept and an informative testing ground for various immune-based therapeutics. The immune-cell origin of many of the blood malignancies provides a unique opportunity both to understand the mechanisms of cancer immune responsiveness and immune evasion, and to exploit these mechanisms for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25786696

  9. [Invasive fungal infections in oncology and haematology unit care: review of literature and costs analysis].

    PubMed

    Lecointre, R; Bleyzac, N

    2011-07-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of mortality in oncology and haematology unit care. Immunosuppression allows the occurrence of Candida or Aspergillus infectious disease. Treatment is based on antifungal agents (liposomal amphotericin B, azoles and caspofungin) administrated alone. The lack of study does not yet validate the combination of two drugs which are not recommended in medical practice. The aim of this pharmacoeconomics study is to assess different therapeutic strategies compared to standard treatment. Health care system point of view is used. Results show that liposomal amphotericin B is the reference standard drug during no documented infection in term of cost. But, voriconazole does not have significative cost variation for Aspergillus disease. Same conclusion can be showed, in case of candidosis for caspofungin. The sensitivity analysis shows that daily cost treatment and body weight are variables with important impact on results. This preliminary analysis must be continued by a clinical study in order to assess different antifungal treatments. PMID:21840441

  10. Effects of Aflatoxin on Some Haematological Parameters and Protective Effectiveness of Esterified Glucomannan in Merino Rams

    PubMed Central

    Dnmez, Nurcan; Dnmez, H. H.; Keskin, E.; K?sadere, ?.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin on some hematological parameters and to determine the preventive effectiveness of added glucomannan. In the study, 32 Merino rams were used, and the rams were separated equally to four groups as control (C), glucomannan (G), glucomannan?+?aflatoxin (AG), and aflatoxin (A). Erythrocyte, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were decreased in A group compared with the other groups, and there was a reduction in similar parameters in AG group compared to control values. On the other hand, these parameters were tended to increase in AG group compared to A group values. Aflatoxicosis caused the lymphocytopenia and monocytopenia but increased percentage of neutrophil counts. In conclusion, the results determined in the study might be important to demonstrate the effects of aflatoxicosis and glucomannan on some haematological parameters before the clinical symptoms appear. PMID:22629132

  11. The clinical chemistry and immunology of long-duration space missions.

    PubMed

    Wu, A H; Taylor, G R; Graham, G A; McKinley, B A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical laboratory diagnostic capabilities are needed to guide health and medical care of astronauts during long-duration space missions. Clinical laboratory diagnostics, as defined for medical care on Earth, offers a model for space capabilities. Interpretation of laboratory results for health and medical care of humans in space requires knowledge of specific physiological adaptations that occur, primarily because of the absence of gravity, and how these adaptations affect reference values. Limited data from American and Russian missions have indicated shifts of intra- and extracellular fluids and electrolytes, changes in hormone concentrations related to fluid shifts and stresses of the missions, reductions in bone and muscle mass, and a blunting of the cellular immune response. These changes could increase susceptibility to space-related illness or injury during a mission and after return to Earth. We review physiological adaptations and the risk of medical problems that occur during space missions. We describe the need for laboratory diagnostics as a part of health and medical care in space, and how this capability might be delivered. PMID:8419055

  12. Progress in the Discovery of Treatments for C. difficile Infection: A Clinical and Medicinal Chemistry Review

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Lissa S.; Owusu, Yaw B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Sun, Dianqing

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes C. difficile infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in developed countries has become increasingly high due to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, a growing elderly population, extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and limited therapies for this diarrheal disease. Because treatment options currently available for C. difficile infection have some drawbacks, including cost, promotion of resistance, and selectivity problems, new agents are urgently needed to address these challenges. This review article focuses on two parts: the first part summarizes current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection; the second part reviews newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years and are in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Antibiotics are divided into natural product inspired and synthetic small molecule compounds that may have the potential to be more efficacious than currently approved treatments. This includes potency, selectivity, reduced cytotoxicity, and novel modes of action to prevent resistance. PMID:24236721

  13. A Competency-Based Clinical Chemistry Course for the Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technician Graduate in a Medical Technology Baccalaureate Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buccelli, Pamela

    Presented is a project that developed a competency-based clinical chemistry course for associate degree medical laboratory technicians (MLT) in a medical technology (MT) baccalaureate program. Content of the course was based upon competencies expected of medical technologists at career-entry as defined in the statements adopted in 1976 by the

  14. A Competency-Based Clinical Chemistry Course for the Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technician Graduate in a Medical Technology Baccalaureate Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buccelli, Pamela

    Presented is a project that developed a competency-based clinical chemistry course for associate degree medical laboratory technicians (MLT) in a medical technology (MT) baccalaureate program. Content of the course was based upon competencies expected of medical technologists at career-entry as defined in the statements adopted in 1976 by the…

  15. Exploring haematology nurses' perceptions of specialist education's contribution to care delivery and the development of expertise.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Joanne; Tawse, Stephen

    2007-08-01

    The role that educational preparation may play in the delivery of care and the development of expertise is a point of some debate [Manley, K., Garbett, R., 2000. Paying Peter and Paul reconciling concepts of expertise with competency for a clinical career structure. Journal of Clinical Nursing 9 (3), 347; King, L., Macleod Clark, J., 2002. Intuition and the development of expertise in surgical ward and intensive care nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 37(4), 322-329; Bonner, A., 2003. Recognition of expertise: an important concept in the acquisition of nephrology nursing expertise. Nursing & Health Sciences Journal 5, 123-131; Dunphy, B.C., Williamson, S.L., 2004. In pursuit of expertise. Advances in Health Sciences Education 9, 107-127]. Though education is a concept that may be universally valued, it may be more difficult to clearly discern the significance it has for practitioners who are developing their expertise. This research project employed an interpretive phenomenological design to explore the perceptions of specialist haematology nursing staff on the extent to which specialist education contributes to care delivery and the development of expert practice. A non-representative purposive sample of qualified nurses who had undertaken specialist education in haemopoiesis and work in specialist haematology participated in a focus group and semi-structured interviews. The report concludes that, for these specialist practitioners, specialist educational input had a beneficial impact on their levels of knowledge and confidence. Further to this, involvement in higher education had enabled them to become more active in the learning process. Perhaps the key finding of the study was the assertion by respondents that specialist educational input had enabled them to develop their specialist practice to a level that experience alone could not achieve. PMID:17126955

  16. The chemistry and biology of the bryostatins: potential PKC inhibitors in clinical development.

    PubMed

    Ruan, B-F; Zhu, H-L

    2012-01-01

    The bryostatins, powerful protein kinase C (PKC) agonists, are a family of complex macrolactone natural products. They are originally isolated from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. So far tweenty bryostatins have been obtained naturally and exhibit a remarkable range of biological activities, including antineoplastic activity, synergistic chemotheoreputic activity, cognition and memory enhancement, etc. Of the 20 known members, the most extensively studied is bryostatin 1. The effects of bryostatin 1 are mainly linked to its ability of selectively modulating the function of various individual protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes. Moreover, bryostatin 1, or in combination with other agents, has been proposed for phase I and phase II clinical trials. The bryostatins have excellent biological properties, but are scarce in nature. Therefore, it has attracted considerable interests in structural modification over the past two decades. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the main developments that have occurred in the structure-activity relationship and biology of bryostatins over the period 1982-2011. PMID:22506770

  17. Evaluation of Analytical Errors in a Clinical Chemistry Laboratory: A 3 Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sakyi, AS; Laing, EF; Ephraim, RK; Asibey, OF; Sadique, OK

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proficient laboratory service is the cornerstone of modern healthcare systems and has an impact on over 70% of medical decisions on admission, discharge, and medications. In recent years, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of errors in laboratory practice and their possible negative impact on patient outcomes. Aim: We retrospectively analyzed data spanning a period of 3 years on analytical errors observed in our laboratory. The data covered errors over the whole testing cycle including pre-, intra-, and post-analytical phases and discussed strategies pertinent to our settings to minimize their occurrence. Materials and Methods: We described the occurrence of pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors observed at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital clinical biochemistry laboratory during a 3-year period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. Data were analyzed with Graph Pad Prism 5(GraphPad Software Inc. CA USA). Results: A total of 589,510 tests was performed on 188,503 outpatients and hospitalized patients. The overall error rate for the 3 years was 4.7% (27,520/58,950). Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors contributed 3.7% (2210/58,950), 0.1% (108/58,950), and 0.9% (512/58,950), respectively. The number of tests reduced significantly over the 3-year period, but this did not correspond with a reduction in the overall error rate (P = 0.90) along with the years. Conclusion: Analytical errors are embedded within our total process setup especially pre-analytical and post-analytical phases. Strategic measures including quality assessment programs for staff involved in pre-analytical processes should be intensified. PMID:25745569

  18. Teicoplanin use in adult patients with haematological malignancy: Exploring relationships between dose, trough concentrations, efficacy and nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Catherine J; Egan, Sean; Fennell, Jrme P; O'Byrne, Philomena; Enright, Helen; Deasy, Evelyn; Ryder, Sheila A; D'Arcy, Deirdre M; McHugh, Johnny

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, our hospital introduced a higher target teicoplanin trough concentration of ?20mg/L by Day 3 for haematological malignancy patients. This study aimed to explore whether target trough concentrations were achieved, to identify factors associated with trough concentrations attained, and to assess clinical efficacy with teicoplanin treatments and nephrotoxicity. This was a retrospective, single-centre, cohort study of 172 teicoplanin treatments in 104 adults with haematological malignancy. Mixed-effects regression was used to evaluate factors affecting trough concentrations, and logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between trough concentrations and treatment outcomes. Nephrotoxicity was assessed using the RIFLE criteria. Considerable variability in trough concentrations was observed, with trough concentrations ?20mg/L rarely achieved early in therapy. A mixed-effects regression model explaining 52% of the variation in trough concentrations was developed. Dose and day of therapy were positively associated with trough concentration, whilst estimated renal function and, interestingly, acute myeloid leukaemia diagnosis were negatively associated (P<0.05). Results suggested a positive relationship between trough concentration and the likelihood of a favourable outcome for coagulase-negative staphylococcal central line-associated bloodstream infections. Elucidation of a specific target concentration requires further investigation. Teicoplanin was well tolerated renally. Findings suggest a risk of underexposure if conventional teicoplanin doses are used in haematological malignancy patients. Given the variability in trough concentrations observed, the identified factors affecting trough concentrations attained and the suggested link with clinical outcome, individualised initial dosing followed by therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended to ensure early adequate exposure in this vulnerable patient group. PMID:26228465

  19. Haematological abnormalities in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D.; Imrie, C. W.; Davidson, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively in the first week of their admission using haematological and coagulation tests. Platelet counts initially fell and later returned to admission levels. Rising levels of plasma fibrinogen were recorded. The kaolin cephalin clotting time was shorter than its control in twenty-one patients. Eighteen patients had elevated fibrinogen degradation products and fourteen had a positive ethanol gelation test. It is suggested that by taking into account the results in series of individual patients a degree of intravascular coagulation may be a common feature of acute pancreatitis. In one patient (presented in detail) strong evidence for disseminated intravascular coagulation was found PMID:887529

  20. Transition of care from paediatric to adult services in haematology

    PubMed Central

    Bolton?Maggs, Paula H B

    2007-01-01

    The need for adequate preparation for transition for young people with health care needs who require long term follow?up in the adult sector has long been recognised and is a required part of the national service framework for children. The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and the Royal College of Nursing have endorsed this need for improvement in services for adolescents. In 2006 the Department of Health launched guidelines with a wealth of recommendations. Despite these initiatives only slow progress has been made (usually by enthusiasts) and much work is needed to develop good programmes in many specialties, including non?malignant haematology. PMID:17715443

  1. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  2. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  3. The Role of miRNA in Haematological Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris-Shannon, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are over 1,800 annotated human miRNAs, many of which have tissue-specific expression. Numerous studies have highlighted their role in haematopoietic differentiation and proliferation, acting as master regulators of haematopoietic stem cell function. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been observed in haematological cancers, exhibiting unique expression signatures in comparison to normal counterparts. Functional and target analyses as well as animal models have attempted to annotate how different miRNA may contribute to the pathophysiology of these malignancies from modulating cancer associated genes, functioning directly as oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes or acting as bystanders or regulators of the epigenetic mechanisms in cancer. miRNAs have also been shown to play a role in modulating drug resistance and determining prognosis between the various subtypes of blood cancers. This review discusses the important role that miRNAs play in haematological malignancies by exploring associations that exist between the two and trying to examine evidence of causality to support the tantalising possibility that miRNAs might serve as therapeutic targets in blood cancers. PMID:24416592

  4. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garitano-Trojaola, Andoni; Agirre, Xabier; Prsper, Felipe; Fortes, Puri

    2013-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies. PMID:23887658

  5. Performance and haematological indices in rats exposed to monocrotophos contamination.

    PubMed

    Sunmonu, T O; Oloyede, O B

    2010-10-01

    Monocrotophos is an organophosphate pesticide used in agriculture to control insect pests. Changes in performance and haematological parameters (such as packed cell volume, white blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes) were used to assess the effect of the pesticide on rats chronically exposed to 12.5 parts per million (ppm), 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm for 10 days, while the control rats were placed on borehole water. Administration of the pesticide to the animals resulted in several physical deteriorations including appearance and agility. A significant reduction (p < .05) was observed in the weight gained by rats while the liver-to-body weight ratio increased significantly (p < .05) as the level of exposure to monocrotophos increased. Whereas packed cell volume, white blood cells and lymphocytes increased significantly (p < .05), neutrophils and eosinophils counts reduced significantly (p < .05) as the concentration of monocrotophos in the drinking water increased. Overall, the data indicated that exposure to monocrotophos portends serious consequences on the performance and haematological parameters of rats. PMID:20194576

  6. [A new automated haematology analyser: the Excell 2280].

    PubMed

    Bouvier, S; Machon, C; Destenay, S; Brun, S; Arnaud, A; Cochery-Nouvellon, E; Lissalde-Lavigne, G; Gris, J-C

    2008-01-01

    Excell 2280 analyser is a new automated haematology analyser manufactured by Drew Scientific Inc, Texas, USA, and distributed in France by MAXMAT S.A., Montpellier. It can achieve 80 complete blood cell counts per hour, with leukocyte differential counts. Three sampling possibilities are included: a direct one (open tubes, 180 microL), a blood saver one (80 microL) and an automatic, through-the-cap one (180 microL). The analytic principles are: electrical impedance for cell counting (WBC, RBC, platelets, MCV) and RBC/platelet sizing; and a new multidimensional optical system using a laser light scattering flow cytometer for WBC counting and classification. We evaluated the Excell 2280 in our laboratory: we quantified intra-run and within-run variations, correlations between the automatic and the direct sampling method, stability of the results over time, linearity of the detections and finally correlation between results obtained with this analyzer and the Gen'S one from Beckman-Coulter Inc. The obtained results were within the theoretical ranges given by the manufacturer. The presence of any abnormal result, or of any flag, must systematically lead to check the blood smear. This new automated haematology analyser appears to be convenient for emergency room-related laboratories, and for routine small-to-medium laboratories. PMID:18725343

  7. Haematological and biochemical markers as predictors of dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Rashmi, M V; Hamsaveena

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a viral infection which has become a serious problem in recent years. It is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. The present study is a prospective, hospital-based, observational study done from August 2014 to October 2014. The objective of our study was to consider whether dengue infection can be suspected based on haematological and biochemical findings. The study included 100 patients positive for dengue infection. Complete hemogram, transaminases for liver injury, blood urea and serum creatinine levels for renal assessment were performed for these patients. The most common haematological findings were thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, an increase in the mixed cell fraction of the leucocytes and the presence of reactive lymphocytes. Biochemical parameters like the aminotranferases, blood urea and serum creatinine levels were significantly raised. Hence, a platelet count of <100,000 cells/µl, leucopenia of <4000 cells/µl and aspartate aminotransferase levels of >82.2 U/L can be considered as predictors of dengue infection. PMID:26712670

  8. Haemodynamic and haematologic effects of Acanthaster planci venom in dogs.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, N; Noguchi, K; Matsuzaki, T; Ojiri, Y; Hirayama, K; Sakanashi, M

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to examine haemodynamic and haematologic effects of the crown-of-thorns starfish venom (Acanthaster planci venom: APV) in dogs. Severe systemic hypotension, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were induced by APV (1.0 mg protein/kg i.v.), followed by gradual return to the baseline level within 60 min. Hypotension was presumably caused by two factors: an early decrease in systemic vascular resistance and the large reduction in cardiac output due to reduced ventricular filling. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, remarkably suppressed systemic hypotension induced by APV. The peak reduction in systemic pressure was associated with concomitant rise of plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a major stable metabolite of prostacyclin. Thus, the hypotensive effect of APV may be caused primarily by prostacyclin and/or some vasodilating prostaglandins. In contrast, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were not affected by cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor or platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist. When APV was administered repeatedly, tachyphylaxis was developed in haemodynamic effects, but not in haematologic effects. These findings suggest that APV-induced hypotensive effects may occur mainly through endogenous production of vasodilating prostaglandins including prostacyclin, although APV-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia may be caused by other mechanism(s) unrelated to arachidonate metabolites and/or PAF. PMID:7846692

  9. Incidence of thrombotic complications in patients with haematological malignancies with central venous catheters: a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Cortelezzi, Agostino; Moia, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Pogliani, Enrico M; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Gussoni, Gualberto; Barbui, Tiziano; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2005-06-01

    This prospective, observational and multicentre study assessed the incidence of, and risk factors for, symptomatic venous thrombotic complications after central venous catheter (CVC) positioning in patients with haematological malignancies. A total of 458 consecutive CVC insertions were registered in 416 patients (81.2% of whom had severe thrombocytopenia). Over the observation period (3 months or up to catheter removal), the incidence of events was: CVC-related deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 1.5%; lower limb DVT, 0.4%; pulmonary embolism (PE), 1.3%; fatal PE, 0.6%; CVC-related superficial thrombophlebitis, 3.9%; CVC-occlusion/malfunction of thrombotic origin, 6.1%; major arterial events, 1.1%. Severe bleeding and CVC-related infections were observed in 3.5% and 4.6% of cases respectively. A composite end point (any venous thromboembolism or superficial thrombophlebitis or CVC occlusion/malfunction) was defined in order to consider venous thrombotic events with a significant impact on clinical practice. With this criterion, the overall incidence was 12.0% (2.54 cases/1000 catheter days). No factor helped to predict venous thrombotic complications: only thrombocytopenia was associated with a weak trend for a reduced risk (odds ratio 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.26-1.07). No severe bleeding was observed in those patients who received antithrombotic prophylaxis. This study shows that the impact on clinical practice of symptomatic CVC-related thrombotic complications is not negligible in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:15953009

  10. Perceived need for information among patients with a haematological malignancy: associations with information satisfaction and treatment decision-making preferences.

    PubMed

    Rood, Janneke A J; van Zuuren, Florence J; Stam, Frank; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Eeltink, Corien; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Huijgens, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    For patients with haematological malignancies, information on disease, prognosis, treatment and impact on quality of life is of the utmost importance. To gain insight into the perceived need for information in relation to sociodemographic and clinical parameters, comorbidity, quality of life (QoL) and information satisfaction, we compiled a questionnaire based on existing validated questionnaires. A total of 458 patients diagnosed with a haematological malignancy participated. The perceived need for information was moderate to high (40-70%). Multivariate regression analyses showed that a higher need for information was related to younger age, worse QoL, being member of a patient society and moderate comorbidity. The need for disease and treatment-related information was higher than the need for psychosocial information. A higher need for disease and treatment-related information was associated to being diagnosed with multiple myeloma. A higher need for psychosocial information was related to a lower educational level. The information provision could be improved according to 41% of the patients. Higher satisfaction with provided information was associated with better QoL. Most patients (62%) reported that they wanted to be fully informed about their illness and actively involved in treatment decision-making. The results contribute to improving patient-tailored information provision and shared decision-making in clinical practice. PMID:24811073

  11. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer RST blood collection tube for routine chemistry analytes: clinical significance of differences and stability study

    PubMed Central

    Kocijancic, Marija; Cargonja, Jelena; Delic-Knezevic, Alma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preanalytical variables account for most of laboratory errors. There is a wide range of factors that affect the reliability of laboratory report. Most convenient sample type for routine laboratory analysis is serum. BD Vacutainer Rapid Serum Tube (RST) (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) blood collection tube provides rapid clotting time allowing fast serum separation. Our aim was to evaluate the comparability of routine chemistry parameters in BD Vacutainer RST blood collection tube in reference with the BD Vacutainer Serum Separating Tubes II Advance Tube (SST) (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). Materials and methods: Blood specimens were collected from 90 participants for evaluation on its results, clotting time and stability study of six routine biochemistry parameters: glucose (Glu), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), calcium (Ca), lactate dehidrogenase (LD) and potassium (K) measured with Olympus AU2700 analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Tokyo, Japan). The significance of the differences between samples was assessed by paired t-test or Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Rank test after checking for normality. Results: Clotting process was significantly shorter in the RSTs compared to SSTs (2.49 min vs. 19.47 min, respectively; P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between the RST and SST II tubes for glucose, calcium and LD (P < 0.001). Differences for glucose and LD were also clinically significant. Analyte stability studies showed that all analytes were stable for 24 h at 4 C. Conclusions: Most results (except LD and glucose) from RST are comparable with those from SST. In addition, RST tube provides shorter clotting time. PMID:25351355

  12. Newer antifungal agents for invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Thomas R; Frost, Susanna

    2009-03-01

    Since 2001 five new systemically administered antifungal agents have been approved for clinical use. This represents a major advance for antifungal therapy in haematological malignancy patients undergoing chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The echinocandins are a new class of antifungals with a novel mode of action. Capsofungin has already established itself as a valuable therapy for candidaemia and salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis. Although both anidulafungin and micafungin are approved for treatment of candidiasis, their role in invasive aspergillosis requires more clinical trial evaluation. Of the two newer triazoles, voriconazole has been recommended in international guidelines as primary therapy for acute invasive aspergillosis. Posaconazole has a broad spectrum of activity in vitro and a potentially key role in antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk HSCT recipients and during prolonged neutropenia. Although some of these drugs have important interactions with other medications, and potential toxicities, they are safer to use and more efficacious than amphotericin B deoxycholate. Their arrival gives more choices to treat rarer mycoses and will facilitate clinical trial assessment of combination therapy of aspergillosis where single agent therapy gives less than 50% success rates. PMID:19120371

  13. [Inclusion Body Disease (IBD of Boids)--a haematological, histological and electron microscopical study].

    PubMed

    Keilwerth, Melanie; Bühler, Ilina; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate diagnostic tools for the detection of Inclusion Body Disease (IBD) in bold snakes. The aetiology of IBD is unknown, and the disease has non-specific clinical signs, hence there is a need for a clinically-applicable, specific diagnostic method. We examined blood smears and liver biopsies from 26 bold snakes (17 boas and nine pythons; some of which were suspected of having IBD) for the presence of characteristic inclusion bodies. We used haematology, histology and electron microscopy to characterise samples as IBD-positive or -negative. Our results indicate that examination of a simple blood smear is sufficient to diagnose IBD in boas. Inclusion bodies in lymphocytes, erythrocytes and thrombocytes were observed. In both, boas and pythons, we detected inclusion bodies within hepatocytes. We demonstrated also that IBD was more common in boas than in pythons: only samples from two Ball Pythons (Python regius) tested positive, whereas no other Pythonidae were positive. We consider that blood smears represents a rapid, non-invasive technique for detection of IBD. PMID:23045804

  14. Biochemistry and haematology values for the baboon (Papio hamadryas): the effects of sex, growth, development and age.

    PubMed

    Harewood, W J; Gillin, A; Hennessy, A; Armistead, J; Horvath, J S; Tiller, D J

    1999-02-01

    A retrospective study evaluated the influence of sex and age on plasma biochemistry and haematology parameters in a captive-bred colony of baboons. Over 1,140 ETDA and heparin blood samples were obtained from 160 clinically normal baboons between the ages of 11 months and 11 years. Data for these blood tests were analysed for the effects of sex, age and sex age interactions. Sex, age and sex age interactions were detected for many plasma biochemistry and haematological parameters. The reference range values for platelets, white-blood cells and mean corpuscular volume and plasma chloride, glucose, total protein and iron were higher (P < 0.01) and red blood cell, plasma sodium, potassium, total CO2, creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphate, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and phosphate were lower (P < 0.01) in the female compared to the male population. Sex age interactions (P < 0.05) were seen with haemoglobin, white blood cells, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, sodium, creatinine, urea, calcium, phosphate, total bilirubin, total protein alkaline phosphatase, the liver enzymes and triglycerides. Plasma alkaline phosphatase was highest ( > 800 micro/l) in young juveniles of both sexes; creatinine was higher in older ( > 4 years) compared to younger baboons of the same sex (P < 0.05). Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were greater (P < 0.01) in young baboons compared to older animals. PMID:10372537

  15. Volume Conductivity and Scatter Parameters as an Indicator of Acute Bacterial Infections by the Automated Haematology Analyser

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Pooja K; Rao, Purnima S; Ballal, Kirthinath; Sridevi, Hanaganahalli B; Padyana, Mahesha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complete blood picture is the first and foremost investigation ordered for evaluation of acute infectious processes which require early and prompt intervention. With the advent of automated Coulter Haematology analysers, the Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters of the leucocytes could be analysed for the early detection of the infections. Aim To evaluate the clinical usefulness of Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters of neutrophils & monocytes in predicting the onset of acute bacterial infections. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood samples from 94 patients with infections (systemic infections n=36 & localised infections n=58) and 46 control subjects were studied using the Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters by the Coulter Haematology analyser. Results We observed a significant increase in the mean channel of neutrophil volume & mean channel of monocyte volume from patients with infections (both systemic & localised) as compared with control subjects (Mean Neutrophil Volume: 158.3 13.7 vs 137.2 4.3; p<0.001) & (Mean Monocyte Volume: 177.8 16 vs 161.7 6.04; p <0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the Mean Neutrophil Volume of patients with systemic infection & localised infections (160.517.5 vs 156.810.5, p>0.05). Conclusion The Volume, Conductivity & Scatter parameters like Mean Neutrophil Volume & Mean Monocyte Volume are more sensitive parameters and could prove to be a quick diagnostic indicator of acute bacterial infections. PMID:26894069

  16. CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the health status of animals through measurement of cellular, biochemical, and macromolecular constituents in blood, secretions, and excretions has been variously referred to as clinical chemistry, clinical biochemistry, or clinical pathology. he genesis of this dis...

  17. Analysis of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children on haematological responses, morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Geerligs, Paul D. Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard J.; Eggelte, Teunis A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for beneficial effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis on haematological responses, morbidity, mortality, health service utilization and rebound immunity in children. As anaemia may play an important role in childhood mortality, it is important to assess evidence from controlled trials of the potential of chemoprophylaxis to reduce childhood anaemia. An analysis of trials found good evidence that malaria chemoprophylaxis improves mean haemoglobin levels and reduces severe anaemia, clinical malaria attacks, parasite and spleen rates. Significant reductions in outpatient attendance and hospital admissions have been achieved, and substantial evidence from Gambian studies shows reductions in mortality. Chemoprophylaxis in children does not seem to produce any sustained impairment of immunity to malaria, although rebound effects may be greater in children who receive prophylaxis during infancy. Short periods of targeted prophylaxis are likely to be preferable to continuous drug administration. Evidence of the protective efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children shows that this strategy could be considered within integrated health programmes for specific time periods. Intermittent routine combination therapy early in childhood may be appropriate for those living under holoendemic conditions. Large-scale studies over a number of years are needed to address this issue and the impact of this approach on health service utilization, mortality, and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. PMID:12764517

  18. ?F-FDG-PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia and Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Camus, Vincent; Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Bubenheim, Michael; Hitzel, Anne; Becker, Stphanie; David, Marion; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Lenain, Pascal; Jardin, Fabrice; Contentin, Nathalie; Fontoura, Marie Laure; Cardinael, Nathalie; Vaudaux, Sandrine; Dubois, Sydney; Tilly, Herv; Vera, Pierre; Leprtre, Stphane

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of hyper-metabolic infection sites revealed by fluorine-18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). Forty-eight consecutive patients with haematological malignancies and persistent FN (temperature ? 38C and neutrophil count <500 cells/?l for more than two days) as a consequence of intensive chemotherapy were prospectively included. Pathological FDG uptakes identified 31 foci of infections located in the lungs (n=15, 48.4 %), colon (n=4, 12.9%), pancreas (n=2, 6.5%), skin (n=3, 9.7%), ear-nose-throat area (n=5, 16.1%), central venous catheter tract (n=1, 3.2%) and gallbladder (n=1, 3.2%). These pathological FDG uptakes were observed in half of the 48 patients (n=24). Among the 38 patients with a clinical diagnosis of infection, 23 showed a pathological FDG uptake, resulting in a FDG-PET/CT sensitivity of 61% (95% CI, 43-76%). Our study confirmed the ability of FDG-PET/CT to diagnose infections in patients with persistent FN. PMID:25964587

  19. The influence of sample source and cell concentration on the in vitro chemosensitivity of haematological tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, M. C.; Forskitt, S.; Gilby, E. D.; Bosanquet, A. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Differential Staining Cytotoxicity (DiSC) assay has been used to study the effects of sample source and cell concentration on the in vitro chemosensitivity of haematological malignancies. The chemosensitivity of blood and bone marrow samples was significantly associated (P less than 0.001) in 12 cases where both were tested simultaneously. In 8 of the cases, where the in vitro result could be compared with clinical response, the in vitro and in vivo chemosensitivity was in agreement in 7, for both blood and bone marrow samples. The in vitro chemosensitivity of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia blood lymphocytes was dependent on the cell concentration for 4 out of 5 drugs tested. A five fold reduction in cell number resulted in a significantly greater cell kill with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, a greater cell kill (not significant) with chlorambucil and adriamycin, and a significantly lower cell kill with prednisolone. The cell concentration did not affect vincristine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that sample source is not an important consideration for the in vitro chemosensitivity of leukaemias, but that the cell concentration tested should not be varied from assay to assay if the results are to be used for comparative purposes. PMID:3707845

  20. The effects of levamisole poisoning on the haematological and biochemical parameters in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gokce, H I; Gunes, V; Erdogan, H M; Citil, M; Akca, A; Yuksek, N

    2004-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate possible organ and system disorders associated with experimentally induced levamisole poisoning in dogs. For this purpose, twelve clinically healthy dogs of different ages, sexes and breeds were used. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B) and given levamisole orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight daily for three days. The dogs in Group B were also injected with atropin sulphate (0.04 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously (sc) 1 hour after each administration of levamisole. Routine clinical examinations were made and some haematological, biochemical and blood gas parameters were established at various times after administration of levamisole. The dogs in Group A developed severe neurological signs, gastric haemorrhage, bloody vomiting, colic, anaemia and four dogs died. In Group B these signs were mild and only one dog died. Levamisole poisoning was characterised by a significant reduction in the total number of red blood cells (RBCs), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV), and by anaemia. Peripheral blood pH, actual bicarbonate of plasma (HCO3), actual base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and saturated oxygen (O2SAT) increased in both groups of animals and these dogs developed metabolic alkalosis 48 hours after the first administration of levamisole. The results of the study also show that levamisole poisoning in dogs causes a significant increase in the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and in the concentration of urea in both Group A and Group B. In the study, atropin sulphate reduced the severity of the clinical signs and the number of deaths, but it was not alone sufficient to remedy levamisole poisoning in dogs. PMID:15032267

  1. The evolving role of biosimilars in haematology-oncology: a practical perspective.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Pere

    2015-12-01

    The loss of patents covering many biopharmaceutical/biological agents in the mid 1990s led to the introduction of a new generation of drugs: biosimilars. These new agents, produced by living cells just as the originator drugs, are chemically highly similar to endogenous human proteins; characterized by three-dimensionally complex, high molecular weight compounds. Among the first biosimilars used in haematology-oncology were erythropoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. After five years of use in clinical practice, the efficacy and safety profile of biosimilars approved by the European Medicines Agency is excellent. Over the next year or two, biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) will become available; the first will be rituximab and trastuzumab. Not only are MoAbs more complex in terms of molecular weight and number of amino acids than the first biosimilars, but they are also anticancer drugs, not merely supportive treatments like their predecessors. This opens up important questions. How are regulatory agencies to assess their clinical efficacy, immunogenicity and safety? Is the neoadjuvant clinical setting the best to evaluate them? What will regulatory agencies decide in terms of switching an originator molecule for a biosimilar or extrapolating efficacy results from one pathology to another? Once biosimilars of rituximab and trastuzumab are approved, several challenging issues will need to be addressed such as how to maintain appropriate pharmacovigilance, how to extrapolate across indications, and issues concerning automatic substitution. There is currently no consensus in any of these areas. This review addresses all these issues: new challenges that the oncology community will face in the near future. PMID:26622996

  2. Curriculum Design of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Haematology Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcaro, Pauline A.; Jackson, Denise E.; McLaughlin, Patricia M.; O'Malley, Cindy J.

    2016-01-01

    A common trend in higher education is the "flipped" classroom, which facilitates active learning during class. The flipped approach to teaching was instituted in a haematology `major' class and the students' attitudes and preferences for the teaching materials were surveyed. The curriculum design was explicit and involved four major components (1) the preparation of the students; (2) the weekly pre-class work; (3) the in-class active learning strategies and (4) closing the learning loop using formative quizzes. Each of these components is discussed in detail and was informed by sound pedagogical strategies. Several different sources of information and several freely available software tools to engage the students are discussed. Two iterations are reported here, with improved pass rate for the final examination from 47 to 48 % in the traditional class to 56-65 % in the flipped classroom approach. The majority of students (93 and 89 %) came to the class prepared, after viewing the screencasts and engaged fully with the activities within the face-to-face time. The students perceived that solving case studies (93 %) was the most beneficial activity for their learning and this was closely followed by the production of essay plans (71 %). The majority of students recommended that this approach be repeated the following year (69 and 75 %).

  3. Complications associated with central venous catheters in a haematology unit.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, P. C.; Morris, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters in patients suffering from haematological disorders has brought enormous benefits, but has been associated with an increase in septicaemia. We have reviewed septic and other complications in 43 patients who received one of three different forms of central venous catheters (type A-Hickman, type B-Portacath, type C-Pasport) during 1991. All complications were reviewed up to 18 months following insertion. The total complication rate was 31% (0.97 per 100 catheter days), and the total sepsis complication rate was 18.8% (0.49 per 100 catheter days). Type A catheters had the greatest sepsis complication rate of 29.5% (0.84 per 100 catheter days), with type B 15% (0.39 per 100 catheter days) and type C 9.9% (0.32 per 100 catheter days). Prophylactic antibiotics on the day of catheter insertion did not reduce the sepsis rate or prolong catheter survival. PMID:8650826

  4. Complications associated with central venous catheters in a haematology unit.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, P C; Morris, T C

    1994-10-01

    The use of central venous catheters in patients suffering from haematological disorders has brought enormous benefits, but has been associated with an increase in septicaemia. We have reviewed septic and other complications in 43 patients who received one of three different forms of central venous catheters (type A-Hickman, type B-Portacath, type C-Pasport) during 1991. All complications were reviewed up to 18 months following insertion. The total complication rate was 31% (0.97 per 100 catheter days), and the total sepsis complication rate was 18.8% (0.49 per 100 catheter days). Type A catheters had the greatest sepsis complication rate of 29.5% (0.84 per 100 catheter days), with type B 15% (0.39 per 100 catheter days) and type C 9.9% (0.32 per 100 catheter days). Prophylactic antibiotics on the day of catheter insertion did not reduce the sepsis rate or prolong catheter survival. PMID:8650826

  5. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens. PMID:24724469

  6. The prevention and management of infections due to multidrug resistant organisms in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Trubiano, Jason A; Worth, Leon J; Thursky, Karin A; Slavin, Monica A

    2015-01-01

    Infections due to resistant and multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms in haematology patients and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are an increasingly complex problem of global concern. We outline the burden of illness and epidemiology of resistant organisms such as gram-negative pathogens, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and Clostridium difficile in haematology cohorts. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing the impact of these organisms are reviewed: infection prevention programmes, screening and fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. The role of newer therapies (e.g. linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline) for treatment of resistant and MDR organisms in haematology populations is evaluated, in addition to the mobilization of older agents (e.g. colistin, pristinamycin and fosfomycin) and the potential benefit of combination regimens. PMID:24341410

  7. Breakthrough candidaemia caused by phenotypically susceptible Candida spp. in patients with haematological malignancies does not correlate with established interpretive breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Gamaletsou, Maria N; Daikos, George L; Walsh, Thomas J; Perlin, David S; Ortigosa, Cristina Jimenez; Psaroulaki, Anna; Pagoni, Maria; Argyropoulou, Athina; Nepka, Martha; Perivolioti, Efstathia; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Perloretzou, Stavroula; Marangos, Markos; Kofteridis, Diamantis; Grammatikou, Maria; Goukos, Dimitrios; Petrikkos, George; Sipsas, Nikolaos V

    2014-09-01

    In a study of 27,864 patients with haematological malignancies, 40 patients with candidaemia were identified, among whom 21 developed candidaemia while receiving systemic antifungal therapy [breakthrough candidaemia (BTC)]. Demographic, clinical, microbiological and molecular features of these episodes were analysed. Compared with 19 patients with de novo candidaemia, patients with BTC were more likely to have neutropenia (81% vs. 63%), longer median duration of neutropenia (27 days vs. 15 days), hypogammaglobulinaemia (62% vs. 37%) and central venous catheters (CVCs) (86% vs. 68%). The median duration of prior antifungal exposure was 46 days (range 3-108 days). Among the 18 available Candida spp. isolates, 15 (83%) were phenotypically susceptible to the antifungal agent that the patient was receiving. Emergence of resistance was the mechanism leading to BTC in three cases of patients receiving echinocandins. Other possible mechanisms of BTC were (i) elevated (≥2) minimum lethal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration (MLC/MIC) ratio (reduced ability for a fungicidal agent to kill a fungal pathogen) in all patients receiving amphotericin B and (ii) elevated MLC/MIC ratios in all Candida parapsilosis isolates with MICs≤1 μg/mL to echinocandins. DNA sequencing of the hotspot 1 region of the fks1 and fks2 genes in seven different isolates of C. parapsilosis group demonstrated P660A in Fks1 but no polymorphisms in fks2. In conclusion, mechanisms for BTC in the setting of prolonged neutropenia may be host-based (hypogammaglobulinaemia and CVC) and pathogen-based. CLSI interpretive breakpoints do not reliably predict BTC in patients with haematological malignancies and warrant further investigation. PMID:25108876

  8. RefVal: a program implementing the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values.

    PubMed

    Solberg, H E

    1995-12-01

    RefVal is a computer program that implements the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. The program performs the following main tasks: graphical display of the distribution of reference values, identification or elimination of outliers, testing of the fit of the distribution to Gaussian shape (coefficients of skewness and kurtosis, Anderson-Darling's test, Cramr-von Mises' test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test), non-parametric and parametric estimation of reference limits (fractiles, percentiles). The parametric estimation method is based on a two-stage mathematical transformation of data: (1) Manly's exponential transformation (to remove skewness) and (2) John and Draper's modulus transformation (to adjust for remaining kurtosis). The program exists in different versions. The paper describes two of these: (1) a library of FORTRAN functions and subroutines and (2) a Pascal PC program that runs under MS-DOS. PMID:8925652

  9. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alan F.; Hagey, Lee R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last 80 years there have been extraordinary advances in our knowledge of the chemistry and biology of bile acids. We present here a brief history of the major achievements as we perceive them. Bernal, a physicist, determined the X-ray structure of cholesterol crystals, and his data together with the vast chemical studies of Wieland and Windaus enabled the correct structure of the steroid nucleus to be deduced. Today, C24 and C27 bile acids together with C27 bile alcohols constitute most of the bile acid “family”. Patterns of bile acid hydroxylation and conjugation are summarized. Bile acid measurement encompasses the techniques of GC, HPLC, and MS, as well as enzymatic, bioluminescent, and competitive binding methods. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids results from vectorial transport of bile acids by the ileal enterocyte and hepatocyte; the key transporters have been cloned. Bile acids are amphipathic, self-associate in solution, and form mixed micelles with polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine in bile, and fatty acids in intestinal content during triglyceride digestion. The rise and decline of dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by the ingestion of 3,7-dihydroxy bile acids is chronicled. Scientists from throughout the world have contributed to these achievements. PMID:24838141

  10. Facilitating Surveillance of Pulmonary Invasive Mold Diseases in Patients with Haematological Malignancies by Screening Computed Tomography Reports Using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n?=?366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675

  11. Variation in haematological parameters in children less than five years of age with asymptomatic Plasmodium infection: implication for malaria field studies.

    PubMed

    Gansane, Adama; Ouedraogo, Issa Nebie; Henry, Noelie Bere; Soulama, Issiaka; Ouedraogo, Esperance; Yaro, Jean-Baptiste; Diarra, Amidou; Benjamin, Sombie; Konate, Amadou Tidiani; Tiono, Alfred; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu

    2013-08-01

    During the season of high malaria transmission, most children are infected by Plasmodium, which targets red blood cells (RBCs), affecting haematological parameters. To describe these variations, we examined the haematological profiles of two groups of children living in a malaria-endemic area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the peak of the malaria transmission season in a rural area of Burkina Faso. After informed consent and clinical examination, blood samples were obtained from the participants for malaria diagnosis and a full blood count. Of the 414 children included in the analysis, 192 were not infected with Plasmodium, whereas 222 were asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium infection. The mean age of the infected children was 41.8 months (range of 26.4-57.2) compared to 38.8 months (range of 22.4-55.2) for the control group (p = 0.06). The asymptomatic infected children tended to have a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level (10.8 g/dL vs. 10.4 g/dL; p < 0.001), mean lymphocyte count (4592/L vs. 5141/L; p = 0.004), mean platelet count (266 x 10/L vs. 385 x 10/L; p < 0.001) and mean RBC count (4.388 x 10(6)/L vs. 4.158 x 10(6)/L; p < 0.001) and a higher mean monocyte count (1403/L vs. 1192/L; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Special attention should be applied when interpreting haematological parameters and evaluating immune responses in asymptomatic infected children living in malaria-endemic areas and enrolled in vaccine trials. PMID:23903982

  12. Variation in haematological parameters in children less than five years of age with asymptomatic Plasmodium infection: implication for malaria field studies

    PubMed Central

    Gansane, Adama; Ouedraogo, Issa Nebie; Henry, Noelie Bere; Soulama, Issiaka; Ouedraogo, Esperance; Yaro, Jean-Baptiste; Diarra, Amidou; Benjamin, Sombie; Konate, Amadou Tidiani; Tiono, Alfred; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu

    2013-01-01

    During the season of high malaria transmission, most children are infected by Plasmodium, which targets red blood cells (RBCs), affecting haematological parameters. To describe these variations, we examined the haematological profiles of two groups of children living in a malaria-endemic area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the peak of the malaria transmission season in a rural area of Burkina Faso. After informed consent and clinical examination, blood samples were obtained from the participants for malaria diagnosis and a full blood count. Of the 414 children included in the analysis, 192 were not infected with Plasmodium, whereas 222 were asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium infection. The mean age of the infected children was 41.8 months (range of 26.4-57.2) compared to 38.8 months (range of 22.4-55.2) for the control group (p = 0.06). The asymptomatic infected children tended to have a significantly lower mean haemoglobin level (10.8 g/dL vs. 10.4 g/dL; p < 0.001), mean lymphocyte count (4592/L vs. 5141/L; p = 0.004), mean platelet count (266 x 103/L vs. 385 x 103/L; p < 0.001) and mean RBC count (4.388 x 106/L vs. 4.158 x 106/L; p < 0.001) and a higher mean monocyte count (1403/L vs. 1192/L; p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Special attention should be applied when interpreting haematological parameters and evaluating immune responses in asymptomatic infected children living in malaria-endemic areas and enrolled in vaccine trials. PMID:23903982

  13. Object-oriented business process analysis of the cooperative soft tissue sarcoma trial of the german society for paediatric oncology and haematology (GPOH).

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Knaup, P; Knietitg, R; Haux, R; Merzweiler, A; Mludek, V; Schilling, F H; Wiedemann, T

    2001-01-01

    The German Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (GPOH) runs nation-wide multicentre clinical trials to improve the treatment of children suffering from malignant diseases. We want to provide methods and tools to support the centres of these trials in developing trial specific modules for the computer-based DOcumentation System for Paediatric Oncology (DOSPO). For this we carried out an object-oriented business process analysis for the Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Trial at the Olgahospital Stuttgart for Child and Adolescent Medicine. The result is a comprehensive business process model consisting of UML-diagrams and use case specifications. We recommend the object-oriented business process analysis as a method for the definition of requirements in information processing projects in the field of clinical trials in general. For this our model can serve as basis because it slightly can be adjusted to each type of clinical trial. PMID:11604706

  14. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 2. Properties and Units in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences. VI. Properties and Units in IOC Prohibited Drugs (IFCC-IUPAC Recommendations 1997).

    PubMed

    Olesen, H; Cowan, D; Bruunshuus, I; Klempel, K; Hill, G

    1997-12-10

    The term designating a substance being an active ingredient of a drug may be a generic name, a nonproprietary name, a registered trade name, a fantasy name or other. This causes difficulties in the transmission of request and report on such substances to and from the clinical laboratories, and in the collating of this information from different sources. The document comprises a list of properties of drugs of abuse in biological fluids as defined by the International Olympic Committee Medical Code for use in electronic transmission systems. Standard systematic names are presented with a code value for each. The coding schemes thus prepared are accessible on Internet from C-NPU Home page address: http://inet.uni-c.dk/ qukb7642. PMID:9495577

  15. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of haematological and biochemical reference intervals is important to assess health of animals on individual and population level. Reference intervals for 13 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were established based on 88 apparently healthy free-ranging brown bears (39 males and 49 females) in Sweden. The animals were chemically immobilised by darting from a helicopter with a combination of medetomidine, tiletamine and zolazepam in April and May 2006–2012 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden. Venous blood samples were collected during anaesthesia for radio collaring and marking for ecological studies. For each of the variables, the reference interval was described based on the 95% confidence interval, and differences due to host characteristics sex and age were included if detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference intervals for free-ranging brown bears in Sweden. Results The following variables were not affected by host characteristics: red blood cell, white blood cell, monocyte and platelet count, alanine transaminase, amylase, bilirubin, free fatty acids, glucose, calcium, chloride, potassium, and cortisol. Age differences were seen for the majority of the haematological variables, whereas sex influenced only mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, lipase, lactate dehydrogenase, β-globulin, bile acids, triglycerides and sodium. Conclusions The biochemical and haematological reference intervals provided and the differences due to host factors age and gender can be useful for evaluation of health status in free-ranging European brown bears. PMID:25139149

  16. Haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai.

    PubMed

    Belo, M A A; Souza, D G F; Faria, V P; Prado, E J R; Moraes, F R; Onaka, E M

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the haematological response of curimbas Prochilodus lineatus, naturally infected with Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae). Thirty-seven fish were captured in October 2010 from the Mogi Guau River, Porto Ferreira, SP, Brazil. Infected fish presented increased mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and lower thrombocyte and higher monocyte counts than uninfected fish. PMID:23557315

  17. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 C or 37 C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  18. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Scientific Committee, Analytical Section. IFCC/WHO principles and recommendations on evaluation of diagnostic reagent sets used in health laboratories with limited resources. Part 3. Selection and evaluation using reference materials. General considerations.

    PubMed

    Logan, J E; Bayse, D D; Koedam, J C; Mather, A; Wilding, P

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide general considerations for the selection and evaluation of clinical chemistry kits in laboratories with limited resources. Separate documents have been developed to provide guidance on experimental procedure, the statistical treatment and interpretation of the data and criteria for acceptable performance of diagnostic kits designed to measure specific analytes. PMID:6491619

  19. A chronic oral exposure of pigs with deoxynivalenol partially prevents the acute effects of lipopolysaccharides on hepatic histopathology and blood clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Cassandra; Reinhardt, Nicole; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Nossol, Constanze; Kahlert, Stefan; Panther, Patricia; Kluess, Jeannette; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Kuester, Doerthe; Brosig, Bianca; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-12-17

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, and deoxynivalenol (DON), a prevalent Fusarium-derived contaminant of cereal grains, are each reported to have detrimental effects on the liver. A potentiating toxic effect of the combined exposure was reported previously in a mouse model and hepatocytes in vitro, but not in swine as the most DON-susceptible species. Thus, pigs were fed either a control diet (CON) or a Fusarium contaminated diet (DON, 3.1mg DON/kg diet) for 37 days. At day 37 control pigs were infused for 1h either with physiological saline (CON_CON), 100μg/kg BW DON (CON_DON), 7.5μg/kg BW LPS (CON_LPS), or both toxins (CON_DON/LPS) and Fusarium-pigs with saline (DON_CON) or 7.5μg/kg BW LPS (DON_LPS). Blood samples were taken before and after infusion (-30, +30, +60, +120, and +180min) for clinical blood chemistry. Pigs were sacrificed at +195min and liver histopathology was performed. LPS resulted in higher relative liver weight (p<0.05), portal, periportal and acinar inflammation (p<0.05), haemorrhage (p<0.01) and pathological bilirubin levels (CON_CON 1.0μmol/L vs. CON_LPS 5.4μmol/L, CON_DON/LPS 8.3μmol/L; p<0.001). DON feeding alleviated effects of LPS infusion on histopathology and blood chemistry to control levels, whereas DON infusion alone had no impact. PMID:23123154

  20. Simple bioconjugate chemistry serves great clinical advances: albumin as a versatile platform for diagnosis and precision therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-02-29

    Albumin is the most abundant circulating protein in plasma and has recently emerged as a versatile protein carrier for drug targeting and for improving the pharmacokinetic profile of peptide or protein based drugs. Three drug delivery technologies related to albumin have been developed, which include the coupling of low-molecular weight drugs to exogenous or endogenous albumin, conjugating bioactive proteins by albumin fusion technology (AFT), and encapsulation of drugs into albumin nanoparticles. This review article starts with a brief introduction of human serum albumin (HSA), and then summarizes the mainstream chemical strategies of developing HSA binding molecules for coupling with drug molecules. Moreover, we also concisely condense the recent progress of the most important clinical applications of HSA-binding platforms, and specify the current challenges that need to be met for a bright future of HSA-binding. PMID:26771036

  1. Enumeration of bacteria in clinically significant blood cultures in neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients using a pour plate method.

    PubMed

    Rice, P; Spencer, R C

    1991-03-01

    A 3-year review of clinically significant positive blood cultures was undertaken to assess any differences in the blood bacterial count between haematological neutropenic and other non-neutropenic patients. The pour-plate method was used. In Gram-positive infections the pour plate contained colonies in 61% of haematological patients and in 41% of others. In Gram-negative infection the figures were 54% and 25% respectively. The mean numbers of bacteria per ml of blood were increased in haematological patients compared with the others for both groups of organisms. PMID:1675652

  2. A Phase 3, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Filgrastim in Patients with Haematological Malignancies Undergoing Matched-related Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Peter; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Ringdn, Olle; Ruutu, Tapani; Kolb, Hans J; Lawrinson, Susan; Skacel, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may aid engraftment post high-dose chemo-/radiotherapy in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT); however, the effects of G-CSF on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), relapse, and survival are not well defined. Methods In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 study, the effects of the G-CSF Filgrastim on neutrophil and platelet recovery, and on clinical outcomes were evaluated. Patients (1255 years) receiving an allogeneic BMT for a haematological malignancy were randomized to receive Filgrastim 5 g/kg or placebo. Study treatment was continued until patients achieved an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ?0.5 109/L, or until day 42. Results Fifty-one patients (Filgrastim, N = 25; placebo, N = 26) were evaluable. Patients treated with Filgrastim had significantly faster engraftment with ANC ?0.5 109/L being achieved after a median (range) of 15.0 (1.022.0) days vs. 19.0 (15.028.0) days for placebo (P< 0.0001). The incidence of GvHD was comparable for both groups. During the limited follow-up (2 years), Filgrastim had no adverse effect on mortality and possibly reduced the rate of relapse. PMID:19639030

  3. A Phase 3, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Filgrastim in Patients with Haematological Malignancies Undergoing Matched-related Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Peter; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Ringdn, Olle; Ruutu, Tapani; Kolb, Hans J; Lawrinson, Susan; Skacel, Tomas

    2008-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may aid engraftment post high-dose chemo-/radiotherapy in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT); however, the effects of G-CSF on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), relapse, and survival are not well defined. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 3 study, the effects of the G-CSF Filgrastim on neutrophil and platelet recovery, and on clinical outcomes were evaluated. Patients (12-55 years) receiving an allogeneic BMT for a haematological malignancy were randomized to receive Filgrastim 5 microg/kg or placebo. Study treatment was continued until patients achieved an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >/=0.5 x 10(9)/L, or until day 42. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (Filgrastim, N = 25; placebo, N = 26) were evaluable. Patients treated with Filgrastim had significantly faster engraftment with ANC >/=0.5 x 10(9)/L being achieved after a median (range) of 15.0 (1.0-22.0) days vs. 19.0 (15.0-28.0) days for placebo (P< 0.0001). The incidence of GvHD was comparable for both groups. During the limited follow-up (2 years), Filgrastim had no adverse effect on mortality and possibly reduced the rate of relapse. PMID:19639030

  4. Colour Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)

  5. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel

  6. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  7. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  8. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...

  10. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and

  11. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  12. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  13. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  14. Occupational exposures and haematological abnormalities among ordnance factory workers: a case control study.

    PubMed

    West, R R; Stafford, D A

    1997-07-01

    The lifetime exposures to an extensive list of chemical and other potentially toxic hazards were estimated for all available employees at an ordnance factory by questionnaire-based interview. Exposure histories of 32 (of 33) previously diagnosed as haematologically abnormal (cases) were compared with 322 (of 345) normals (controls). Among 'ordnance factory chemicals', modestly increased odds ratios were observed for men for acetic anhydride (2.8), stearic acid (2.8), and possibly for resorcinol (2.9), TNT (2.4) and hydroxy terminated polybutadene (HTPB) (2.4). Increased odds ratios were also observed in exposures not directly related to ordnance manufacture, including mineral acids, welding fumes, exhaust gases and insecticides. While, small numbers in the case group limit the statistical significance of reported odds ratios, one should be cautious about committing a type II error. These findings may partly explain the previously reported unusual prevalence of haematological abnormalities within the factory. PMID:9301689

  15. Invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with haematological malignancies before routine use of conjugate vaccines in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Vesa; Aittoniemi, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Klemets, Peter; Ollgren, Jukka; Silvennoinen, Raija; Nuorti, J Pekka; Sinisalo, Marjatta

    2016-05-01

    The baseline national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence rate, serotype distribution and serotype coverage of pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and leukaemia within 1 year after haematological diagnosis during 1995-2002, before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pneumococcal serotype distribution among these patients was different from serotypes causing IPD in the general population. The serotype coverages of PCV13 and PPSV23 were 57% and 64%, respectively, lower than in the general population. This reflects a higher predisposition to IPD in vaccinated patients with haematological malignancies and possibly less benefit of herd immunity gained with the wide use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the general population. This data will be useful as a baseline for determining the future role of adult PCV vaccination in these patient groups. PMID:26635103

  16. Biochemical and haematological effects of a revised dosage schedule of phenylbutazone in horses.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J B; Walland, A; Lees, P; Gerring, E L; Maitho, T E; Millar, J D

    1983-06-25

    Five pairs of matched horses were used to study the biochemical and haematological effects of a revised dosage schedule of phenylbutazone. One group of five horses received a phenylbutazone paste formulation daily for 12 days and a second group of five animals received a placebo preparation for a similar time. Some statistically significant differences were recorded from pretreatment levels in both groups of horses. These changes represented instability in baseline levels and could not be ascribed to phenylbutazone administration. PMID:6879987

  17. Haematological and genotoxic responses in an urban adapter, the banana bat, foraging at wastewater treatment works.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-04-01

    Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTWs) are a ubiquitous feature of the urban landscape. The Banana Bat, Neoromicia nana specifically exploits the high abundance of chironomid midge prey available at WWTWs but these populations also have higher levels of non-essential metals (Cd, Cr and Ni) in their tissues than bats foraging at unpolluted sites. Pollutant exposure may elicit primary physiological responses such as DNA damage and haematological changes. We investigated whether pollutant exposure from foraging at WWTWs impacts haematological and genotoxic parameters in N. nana. We compared four measures of haematological/genotoxic damage between N. nana foraging at three WWTWs and two unpolluted sites located in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: DNA damage measured by the Comet assay, total antioxidant capacity as indicated by the FRAP assay, chromosomal aberration indicated by micronuclei formation and blood oxygen capacity based on haematocrits. There was significantly higher DNA damage in N. nana at WWTWs than in bats from unpolluted sites, suggesting inadequate repair to double stranded DNA breaks. In addition, WWTW bats had a significantly lower antioxidant capacity than bats from unpolluted sites. This suggests that bats at WWTWs may have a diminished capacity to cope with the excess reactive oxidative species (ROS) produced from pollutants such as metals. There was no increase in micronucleus frequency in WWTW bats, indicating that cellular functioning has not yet been disrupted by chemical exposure. Haematocrits, however, were significantly higher in WWTW bats, possibly due to erythrocyte production in response to certain pollutants. Thus, effects of pollutant exposure in bats foraging at WWTWs elicit sub-lethal haematological and genotoxic responses which may pose serious long-term risks. This provides evidence that WWTWs, that are aimed to remove pollutants from the environment, can themselves act as a source of contamination and pose a threat to animals exploiting these habitats. PMID:24953517

  18. The Prognostic Significance of HbF in Childhood Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Debjani; Karmakar, Rupam; Barui, Gopinath; Gon, Sonia; Chakrabarti, Sudipta

    2015-03-01

    The degree of increase infoetal haemoglobin(HbF) synthesis in haematological malignancies may be associated with the degree of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to quantify HbF levels in various childhood haematological malignancies and also, to ascertain its prognostic significance by comparing the results with the already established standard prognostic factors. Newly diagnosed cases of haematological malignancies in the paediatric age group were included in the study. HbF levels were estimated in each case of the study group along with HbF levels of control group comprising healthy children of same age group. The estimation was done by HPLC and Modified Betke's method. 50 cases of newly diagnosed haematological malignancies were studied out of which most of the cases were of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) [n=30(60%)] followed by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) [n=8(16%)], Hodgkin's lymphoma [n=7(14%)], non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [n=5(10%)]. Raised HbF levels were found in 43.3% cases of ALL (13/30) and 37.5% cases of AML (3/8). No significant rise in HbF level was found in cases of lymphomas. There was correlation between raised HbF level and poor prognostic factors in cases of ALL but no such correlation was found in cases of AML. HbF levels are often elevated in childhood leukaemias as compared to childhood lymphomas. Thus, the concentration of HbF in acute childhood leukaemia may be considered as a prognostic factor. PMID:25548456

  19. Changes in period and cohort effects on haematological cancer mortality in Spain, 1952-2006

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast to other haematological cancers, mortality from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma increased dramatically during the second half of the 20th century in most developed countries. This widespread upward trend remains controversial, as it may be attributable either to progressive improvements in diagnosis and certification or to increasing exposures to little-known but relevant risk factors. Methods To assess the relative contribution of these factors, we analysed the independent effects of age, death period, and birth cohort on haematological cancer mortality rates in Spain across the period 1952-2006. Weighted joinpoint regression analyses were performed to detect and estimate changes in period and cohort curvatures. Results Although mortality rates were consistently higher among men, trends across periods and cohorts were virtually identical in both sexes. There was an early period trend reversal in the 1960s for Hodgkin’s disease and leukaemia, which was delayed to the 1980s for multiple myeloma and the 1990s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Birth cohort patterns showed a first downturn for generations born in the 1900s and 1910s for all haematological cancers, and a second trend reversal for more recent cohorts born in the 1950s and 1960s for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and leukaemia. Conclusions The sustained decline in Hodgkin’s disease mortality and the levelling off in leukaemia seem to be driven by an early period effect linked to improvements in disease treatment, whereas the steep upward trends in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma mortality in Spain are more likely explained by a cohort effect linked to better diagnosis and death certification in the elderly. The consistent male excess mortality across all calendar periods and age groups points to the importance of possible sex-related genetic markers of susceptibility in haematological cancers. PMID:24716829

  20. Effects of lichen extracts on haematological parameters of rats with experimental insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colak, Suat; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Aslan, Ali; Deniz, Gülşah Yıldız

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the world is steadily increasing. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic haematological changes. Lichens are used as food supplements and are also used as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. We hypothesized that antioxidant activity of lichens may decrease hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and prevent the development of diabetic complications, including abnormality in haematological condition. Therefore, the effects of Cetraria islandica water extract (CIWE) and Pseudevernia furfuracea water extract (PFWE) on the haematological parameters of rats with type 1 DM were investigated for the first time in the present study. Control Sprague-Dawley or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with water lichen extracts (5-500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) for 2 weeks, starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized and haematological and metabolic parameters were determined between control and experimental groups. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS), a specific indicator of oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by biochemical studies. In diabetic rats, CIWE of 250-500 mg/kg bw dose showed more prominent results when compared with doses of PFWE for TAC. The results obtained in the present study suggested that the antioxidant activities of lichens might be the possible reason behind the observed antihaematological status. However, the protective effect of lichen extracts were inadequate on diabetes-induced microcytic hypochromic anaemia. In addition, the extracts have no effect on metabolic complications. Our experimental data showed that high doses of CIWE and PFWE alone have no detrimental effect on blood cells and TOS status of plasma. Hence, they are safe and suitable for different administration routes. PMID:23114377

  1. KIR Genes and Patterns Given by the A Priori Algorithm: Immunity for Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Escobedo, J. Gilberto; García-Sepúlveda, Christian A.; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are membrane proteins expressed by cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The KIR system consists of 17 genes and 614 alleles arranged into different haplotypes. KIR genes modulate susceptibility to haematological malignancies, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases. Molecular epidemiology studies rely on traditional statistical methods to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. We have previously described our results by applying support vector machines to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. However, rules specifying which haplotypes are associated with greater susceptibility to malignancies are lacking. Here we present the results of our investigation into the rules governing haematological malignancy susceptibility. We have studied the different haplotypic combinations of 17 KIR genes in 300 healthy individuals and 43 patients with haematological malignancies (25 with leukaemia and 18 with lymphomas). We compare two machine learning algorithms against traditional statistical analysis and show that the “a priori” algorithm is capable of discovering patterns unrevealed by previous algorithms and statistical approaches. PMID:26495028

  2. Fertility preservation in patients with haematological disorders: a retrospective cohort study?

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Suneeta; Morse, Christopher B; Sammel, Mary D; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E; Efymow, Brenda; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with utilization of fertility preservation and the differences in treatments and outcomes by prior chemotherapy exposure in patients with haematological diseases. This study included all 67 women with haematological diseases seen for fertility preservation consultation at two university hospitals between 2006 and 2011. Of the total, 49% had lymphoma, 33% had leukaemia, 7% had myelodysplastic syndrome and 4% had aplastic anaemia; 46% had prior chemotherapy; and 33% were planning for bone marrow transplantation, 33% pursued ovarian stimulation and 7% used ovarian tissue banking; and 48% of patients did not pursue fertility preservation treatment. All five cycle cancellations were in the post-chemotherapy group: three patients with leukaemia and two with lymphoma. Patients with prior chemotherapy had lower baseline antral follicle count (10 versus 22) and received more gonadotrophins to achieve similar peak oestradiol concentrations, with no difference in oocyte yield (10.5 versus 10) after adjustment for age. Embryo yield was similar between those who had prior chemotherapy and those who had not. Half of the patients with haematological diseases who present for fertility preservation have been exposed to chemotherapy. While ovarian reserve is likely impaired in this group, oocyte yield may be acceptable. PMID:24140311

  3. KIR Genes and Patterns Given by the A Priori Algorithm: Immunity for Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Escobedo, J Gilberto; Garca-Seplveda, Christian A; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are membrane proteins expressed by cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The KIR system consists of 17 genes and 614 alleles arranged into different haplotypes. KIR genes modulate susceptibility to haematological malignancies, viral infections, and autoimmune diseases. Molecular epidemiology studies rely on traditional statistical methods to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. We have previously described our results by applying support vector machines to identify associations between KIR genes and disease. However, rules specifying which haplotypes are associated with greater susceptibility to malignancies are lacking. Here we present the results of our investigation into the rules governing haematological malignancy susceptibility. We have studied the different haplotypic combinations of 17 KIR genes in 300 healthy individuals and 43 patients with haematological malignancies (25 with leukaemia and 18 with lymphomas). We compare two machine learning algorithms against traditional statistical analysis and show that the "a priori" algorithm is capable of discovering patterns unrevealed by previous algorithms and statistical approaches. PMID:26495028

  4. The Efficacy of Nardostachys Jatamansi Against The Radiation Induced Haematological Damage In Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Damodara K M; Shetty, Lathika; A P, Krishna; Kumari, Suchetha N; Sanjeev, Ganesh; P, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation is increasingly being used for medical purposes and it is an established weapon in the diagnosis and the therapy of cancer. An exposure to 1-2 Gys causes the NVD (Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea) syndrome, whereas an exposure to 2-6 Gys causes the haematopoietic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the Nardostachys jatamansi root extract (NJE) on the radiation induced haematological damage in rats. Materials and Methods: EBR was performed at the Microtron Centre, Mangalore University, India. Rats were treated with NJE once daily for 15 days before and after the irradiation. After the irradiation, blood was collected for determining the peripheral blood counts (RBC and WBC), haemoglobin, the platelet count and the packed cell volume (PCV) at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 5, 10 and 15 days post irradiation. The data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by the Tukeys test for multiple comparisons. Result: NJE provided protection against the radiation induced haematological disorders. The rats treated with NJE exhibited a time dependent significant elevation in all the haematological parameters which were studied and its modulation upto the near normal level was recorded. Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that, NJE provides protection by modulating the radiation induced damage on the haematopoietic system. PMID:23905085

  5. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine; Sander, Mikael; Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2015-08-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n?=?10) for three to four weeks at 2130?m or higher whereas a control group (n?=?10) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP. PMID:25545030

  6. Trichlorfon-induced haematological and biochemical changes in Cyprinus carpio: ameliorative effect of propolis.

    PubMed

    Yonar, M Enis; Yonar, Serpil Mi?e; Pala, Ay?egl; Silici, Sibel; Sa?lam, Naim

    2015-06-01

    Trichlorfon is among the most commonly used products to treat fish parasites in aquaculture. We investigated the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of trichlorfon on haematological and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in carp Cyprinus carpio. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations (11 and 22 mg l-1) of trichlorfon, and propolis (10 mg kg-1 of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. At the end of 14 d administration, blood and tissue (liver, kidney, gill) samples were collected. Haematological changes (red and white blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit level and erythrocyte indices: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration) were determined in the blood samples, while antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities) were evaluated in the liver, kidney and gill samples. Trichlorfon led to negative alterations in the haematological and antioxidant parameters investigated. The administration of propolis alleviated this effect and suggests that fish treated with trichlorfon improve their physiological status when fed a propolis-supplemented diet. PMID:26036828

  7. Utility of next-generation sequencing technologies for the efficient genetic resolution of haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Barbaro, P; Guo, Y; Alodaib, A; Li, J; Gold, W; Ads, L; Keating, B J; Xu, X; Teo, J; Hakonarson, H; Christodoulou, J

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has now evolved to be a relatively affordable and efficient means of detecting genetic mutations. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) or whole exome sequencing (WES) offers the opportunity for rapid diagnosis in many paediatric haematological conditions, where phenotypes are variable and either a large number of genes are involved, or the genes are large making sanger sequencing expensive and labour-intensive. NGS offers the potential for gene discovery in patients who do not have mutations in currently known genes. This report shows how WES was used in the diagnosis of six paediatric haematology cases. In four cases (Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, congenital neutropenia (n?=?2), and Fanconi anaemia), the diagnosis was suspected based on classical phenotype, and NGS confirmed those suspicions. Mutations in RPS19, ELANE and FANCD2 were found. The final two cases (MYH9 associated macrothrombocytopenia associated with multiple congenital anomalies; atypical juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia associated with a KRAS mutation) highlight the utility of NGS where the diagnosis is less certain, or where there is an unusual phenotype. We discuss the advantages and limitations of NGS in the setting of these cases, and in haematological conditions more broadly, and discuss where NGS is most efficiently used. PMID:25703294

  8. The influence of administering "effective microorganisms" to pullets on chosen haematological and biochemical blood indexes.

    PubMed

    Sok?, R; Michalczyk, M; Spodniewska, A; Barski, D

    2009-01-01

    "Effective Microorganisms" (EM)--a mixture of lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, yeasts and fungi are used mainly in agriculture and organic waste treatment. Recently, they have also been added to water and feed for animals, as well as to processing their excrements into compost and to eliminate the stench. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of a 14-day administration of an EM solution in drinking water to layer hens on chosen haematological and biochemical indexes. The research was carried out on 120 hens divided into two equal groups. The birds in the experimental group were given drinking water with dissolved EM (5% solution), and those in the control group--water without the preparation. On the 64th day of the aviculture, the hens were weighted and their blood was taken from the wing vein for haematological and biochemical examinations. Administering EM with water to hens did not influence significantly their body weight nor chosen haematological and biochemical indexes. A significant increase was found only in the number of platelets, the level of albumins, the content of total cholesterol and the LDH activity, however, a decrease in the ALT activity was observed. PMID:20169927

  9. Candiduria in haematologic malignancy patients without a urinary catheter: nothing more than a frailty marker?

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Sarah P; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-05-01

    There is scarcity of data regarding significance of candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies and its association with invasive candidiasis. To that end, we retrospectively evaluated all hospitalised, non-intensive care unit patients with haematologic malignancies and candiduria during a 10-year period (2001-2011). To decrease the possibility of bladder colonisation and sample contamination, we excluded all patients with candiduria who had urinary catheters and those with concomitant bacteriuria. Twenty-four such patients (21 females) were identified, with median age at diagnosis 62?years (range, 20-82?years). Acute leukaemia was the most common underlying disease (54%); 62% of these cases were not in remission. Twenty-nine percent of the patients had diabetes mellitus and 25% were neutropenic. The most common isolated Candida species was Candida glabrata (37%), followed by C. albicans (29%). Only 8% of them had urinary tract infection symptoms. However, 88% received systemic antifungals. Candidemia and crude mortality rates at 4?weeks were low (4% and 12% respectively). Isolated candiduria in patients with haematologic malignancies has risk factors similar to those in other hospitalised patients, and it does not seem to be a strong predictor of subsequent invasive candidiasis. PMID:23170870

  10. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    PubMed

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. PMID:26806135

  11. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Directory Login Store Cart (0) Areas of Interest Behavioral Disorders BioRepository Cancer and Tumors Chronic Diseases Delivery Methods Genetics and Genomics Disorders Global Health Issues Government and ...

  12. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  13. Technetium chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-04-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  14. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological parameters among third trimester pregnant women in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, A J; Adelaiye, A B; Igbokwe, V U

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy state in a woman's life is a unique state in terms of the desirable physiological changes and the exciting reversal of the changes soon after the termination of the pregnancy. It is considered essential that to guarantee a good feto-maternal outcome the attainment of optimum anthropometric and haematological parameters are key. Our study assessed the anthropometric and haematological changes and also looked at the relationship that exists between these parameters among pregnant women.We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study which considered 160 apparently healthy, singleton, third trimester pregnant women attending ANC at the State Specialist Hospital and 58 apparently healthy non-pregnant controls sourced from the Sokoto metropolis population. Each subject or control enrolled was contacted 3 times at 2 weekly intervals. And at each occasion they are assessed for changes in the anthropometric and haematological parameters. The response rate was 93.6% (3 pregnants and 11 controls were loss to follow up). The pregnant and control subgroups mean ages were 28.02 6.81 years and 26.89 5.84 years respectively (p = 0.265). Weekly weight gains of 0.48kg among the pregnant sub-group against 0.13kg obtained in the control group were recorded. BMI increase of about 0.19kg/m2 per week among the pregnant sub-group and only 0.05kg per week in the controls. 95% of the distribution of pregnant sub-group has haemoglobin and haematocrit of ?8.9g/dL and ?26% respectively. Among the pregnant sub-group, mean weekly haemoglobin and haematocrit drop of 0.24g/dL and 0.74% were respectively recorded. A steady rise in WBC was recorded but platelets counts dropped at an average of 5.04 x 103 /?L per week. A positive correlation between BMI and haemoglobin levels was observed (r > 0 and p < 0.05). No particular regularity in the relationship between BMI and WBC was noticed. We conclude that there was optimum weight gain and good haematological indices for those with good BMI during the third trimester of pregnancy. There was a positive correlation between BMI and plasma haemoglobin level but WBC showed no particular relationship with the anthropometric changes. We therefore, recommend that good education to improve the socio- economic wellbeing of the girl-child be encouraged to boost self sufficiency for better weight gains and to facilitate access to good healthcare so that the ideal anthropometric and haematological parameters can be achieved during pregnancy to guarantee good feto-maternal outcome. PMID:24937399

  15. Orlando Magic: report from the 57th meeting of the American Society of Haematology, 5–7 December 2015, Orlando, USA

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The 57th American Society of Haematology (ASH) meeting held in Orlando, FL was certainly the year when myeloma management changed for good, with a plethora of newly Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs showing impressive outcome improvements and the introduction of new techniques for disease monitoring. Also, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells continued their triumphal march, consolidating their success in lymphoma and chronic lymhocytic leukaemia (CLL) and venturing into new fields such as again multiple myeloma. Some experimental drugs showed long-awaited results (midostaurin in FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)) and some brand new drugs showed promising results in the clinic after extensive preclinical studies, such as those targeting new epigenetic factors (histone methyltransferases) and apoptosis. PMID:26823681

  16. Rise of the mutants: report from the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association, Milan, 12–15 June 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    At the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association in Milan, we saw the true and dramatic changes brought about by the integration of extensive genomic information in clinical practice, and the dilemmas that accompany such a rapid increase in knowledge. Each disease is sliced more and more into smaller pieces, each with its own better-determined outcome and treatment. We also observed the rise of mutant-specific epigenetic agents, which benefit from knowing the underlying genetic abnormality to specifically assign an epigenetic drug where it is needed. In contrast to the ‘one mutation, one drug’ approach, others are pursuing the search for drugs targeting pathways fundamental for the survival of all or most cancer cells, sometimes looking at more ‘exotic’ pathways like neddylation or nuclear export. PMID:25183998

  17. Clinical applications of molecular haematology: flow cytometry in leukaemias and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Bakul I

    2007-08-01

    Flow cytometry is semi-automated study of antigen profile of cells using the Scatchard principle of antigen-antibody binding and fluorochrome-based detection systems. Flow cytometric evaluation of cellular proteomics has become an integral part of the laboratory diagnosis and classification of haematopoietic neoplasms. Recent technical advances in lasers, monoclonal antibodies, fluorochromes, and computer-based color compensation algorithms have expanded the usefulness of flow cytometry. Detection of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry in leukaemias and lymphomas is incorporated in many treatment protocols. Finding of aberrant maturation pattern of granulocytes offers a sensitive screening tool for early diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Detailed proteomic analysis of leukemias is helping more precise prognostic and biological stratification. PMID:18019799

  18. The challenge of antibiotic resistance in haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Blennow, Ola; Ljungman, Per

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial infections were once a major obstacle to the treatment of acute leukaemia. Improvement in management strategies, including the use of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs targeting Gram-negative bacteria, has reduced the mortality in neutropenic patients developing blood stream infections and other severe infections. In many countries these achievements are threatened by development of multi-resistant bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This review addresses the epidemiology, clinical importance and possible management of these multi-resistant organisms. PMID:26492511

  19. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and

  1. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes as immune-therapy in haematological practice.

    PubMed

    Leen, Ann M; Heslop, Helen E

    2008-10-01

    Viral infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Effective therapies are limited and often associated with significant side effects. Adoptive transfer of virus-reactive T cells offers a means of reconstituting antiviral immunity and this approach has been successfully used to prevent and treat cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and adenovirus infections in vivo. This review outlines the clinical trials that have been performed to date, and will describe future initiatives to (a) develop strategies that can increase the breadth of the viruses that can be targeted, and (b) simplify the process to extend this technology to more centers so that cellular therapy to reconstitute immunity can be more widely applied. PMID:18691164

  2. Effects of iron supplementation twice a week on attention score and haematologic measures in female high school students

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeian, Akram; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Mazloum, Seyed Reza; Yavari, Mehri; Jafari, Seyed-Ali

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Iron deficiency, associated with a decline in cognitive function, is the most common nutritional deficiency globally. The present study aimed to identify the impact of weekly iron supplements on the attention function of female students from a high school in North Khorasan Province, Iran. METHODS This was a blind, controlled, clinical trial study, involving 200 female students who were chosen using the stratified randomised sampling method. First, laboratory studies were performed to detect iron consumption limitations. Next, the 200 students were divided randomly and equally into case and control groups. The case group was treated with 50 mg of ferrous sulfate twice a week for 16 weeks. We compared both groups data on attention, iron status and erythrocyte indices. Questionnaires were used to collect demographic data, while clinical data was collected using complete blood count and Toulouse-Piron tests. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, as well as paired and independent t-tests. RESULTS The mean attention scores of the case and control groups were 104.8 7.0 and 52.7 9.6, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean haemoglobin levels of the two groups were 12.5 0.9 and 11.2 1.0, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared to the control group, the attention scores and haemoglobin concentrations of the case group were found to be improved by approximately 90% and 10%, respectively. CONCLUSION Oral iron supplements (50 mg twice a week for 16 weeks) were able to improve the attention span and haematologic indices of female high school students. PMID:25631970

  3. Haematological profile of 21 patients with hairy cell leukaemia in a tertiary care centre of north India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Das, Reena; Naseem, Shano; Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Narender; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a B cell neoplasm which constitutes around 2 per cent of all the lymphoid leukaemias. It has a characteristic morphology and immunophenotypic profile. It is important to distinguish HCL from other B cell lymphoproliferative disorders due to availability of different chemotherapeutic agents. This study presents clinical, haematological and immunophenotypic profile of patients with HCL seen over a period of four years in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: Twenty one cases of hairy cell leukaemia were analyzed for their clinical details, haemogram, bone marrow examination and immunophenotypic findings. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 28-76 yr with male predominance. Weakness and fever were commonest presentations. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy were seen in decreasing order of frequency. Anaemia was noted in all 21 patients, leukopenia in 15 and thrombocytopenia in 19 cases. Fourteen patients were pancytopenic. Bone marrow examination showed typical hairy cells in all cases. Immunophenotyping showed expression of CD19, CD20, CD103, CD25 and CD11c in all cases, while positivity was seen for CD79b in 93.7 per cent, kappa light chain restriction in 60 per cent and lambda in 40 per cent cases. Notably, 20 per cent showed CD10 and 12 per cent showed CD23 expression. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reveals some unusual findings in otherwise classical disease entity, like absence of palpable spleen, presence of lymphadenopathy, normal or elevated leukocyte counts, expression of CD10, which at times could be diagnostically challenging. PMID:26609034

  4. Increased risk of zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter gastroenteritis in patients with haematological malignancies: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Kim O; Nrgaard, Mette; Dethlefsen, Claus; Schnheyder, Henrik C; Kristensen, Brian; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-08-01

    We hypothesised that haematological malignancies increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis. The population-based study comprised all first-time Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis cases in two Danish counties (1991-2003), with age- and gender-matched controls from the background population. We linked the study cohort to registries to obtain data on malignancies, chemotherapy (yes/no), and main comorbidities diagnosed before Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Based on this design, we determined incidence rate ratios (IRR) in conditional logistic regression analyses, and we used weighted mean regression curves to evaluate fluctuations in risk 0-5 years after the malignancy diagnosis. Sixty-eight of 13,324 cases (0.5%) and 29 of 26,648 controls (0.1%) had haematological malignancy before their Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Comorbidity-adjusted IRR for Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis in patients with haematological malignancy as compared to patients without malignancy were 4.46 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 2.88-6.90] for all individuals, 8.33 (95% CI, 4.31-16.1) for Salmonella, and 2.17 (95% CI, 1.15-4.08) for Campylobacter. Stratification on chemotherapy treatment did not change these estimates. In time-related analyses, IRR were 7-8 in the first 2 years after the haematological malignancy diagnosis and 4-5 in the following 3 years. Patients with haematological malignancy had increased long-term risk of enquiring Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis. PMID:19083236

  5. Nutritional value, performance, carcass quality, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed 30% tannin-free fava bean diets.

    PubMed

    Usayran, N N; Sha'ar, H; Barbour, G W; Yau, S K; Maalouf, F; Farran, M T

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the chemical and nutritional values of 5 tannin-free fava bean (FB) cultivars (FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, and FB24) on growth, visceral organ size, and blood clinical chemistry of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal 48 (SBM48) diet containing 30% tannin-free FB. In the first experiment, 49 Hy-line roosters, 55 wk of age, were individually precision-fed 30 g of each FB cultivar and soybean meal 44 (SBM44). Protein, methionine, and lysine contents of the FB seeds (0.005% tannin) were 27.7, 0.23, and 1.98% of DM, respectively. The AMEn of all FB cultivars was 2,839 kcal/kg and higher (P < 0.05) than SBM44. The true lysine digestibility of FB10 (94.1) was higher (P < 0.05) than FB9 (89.0%) and FB24 (89.2%), but comparable with the other fava beans. The FB cultivar's true methionine digestibilities were similar among each other and to SBM44. In a battery feeding trial, 6 corn-SBM48 diets containing 0 (control) or 30% of FB9, FB10, FB13, FB17, or FB24 seeds were each fed to Ross 308 1-wk-old male broiler chicks for 14 d. The determined FB nutrient values were used in formulating FB-containing diets. Birds fed FB-containing diets had better (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed conversion than those of the control. When compared with the control birds, relative weights of abdominal fat pad and liver were reduced (P < 0.05) by 30% inclusion of all dietary FB varieties, except for FB17 and FB13, respectively. Broiler chicks fed the FB13 diet had plasma thrombocyte and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the FB10 diet and WBC count higher (P < 0.05) than the birds fed the FB17 diet. In conclusion, tannin-free FB was lower in protein, methionine, and lysine, but higher in AMEn, compared with SBM44. Moreover, FB seeds, especially FB10, can be included in a broiler chick diet with no adverse effects on performance, but FB13 increased WBC count. PMID:24894523

  6. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  7. Biosimilar agents in oncology/haematology: from approval to practice

    PubMed Central

    Niederwieser, Dietger; Schmitz, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of biosimilars is a process that is still developing. In Europe, guidance regarding the approval and use of biosimilars has evolved with the products under consideration. It is now more than 3 years since the first biosimilar agents in oncology support, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, were approved in the EU. More recently, biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factors have received marketing approval in Europe. This review considers general issues surrounding the introduction of biosimilars and highlights current specific issues pertinent to their use in clinical practice in oncology. Information on marketing approval, extrapolation, labelling, substitution, immunogenicity and traceability of each biosimilar product is important, especially in oncology where patients are treated in repeated therapy courses, often with complicated protocols, and where biosimilars are not used as a unique therapy for replacement of e.g. growth hormone or insulin. While future developments in the regulation of biosimilars will need to address multiple issues, in the interim physicians should remain aware of the inherent differences between biosimilar and innovator products. PMID:21175852

  8. Modulation of platelet aggregation, haematological and histological parameters by structured lipids on hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua

    2010-05-01

    The effect of the consumption of medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)-rich and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich mustard oil on platelet aggregation, haematological parameters and the liver was studied in male albino rats. The rats were fed on standard stock diet with control (mustard oil) and experimental oils for 28 days. Haematological examinations in the normal condition showed that there was no significant variation in the platelet count, total white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts, haematocrit value and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) percentage in the rats fed with control and experimental oils. Haematological examinations in the hypercholesterolaemic condition revealed that there was a significant increase in the platelet count by 39.38% in hypercholesterolaemia, which was decreased by 27.29 and 42.71% by the administration of the experimental oils, respectively. The haemoglobin level was decreased by 5.3%, whereas the haematocrit value was increased by 12.52% in hypercholesterolaemia, which were normalised by treatment with the experimental oils. The platelet aggregation study indicated that the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation increased by 71.67% in hypercholesterolaemia, but the experimental oils beneficially reduced platelet aggregation by 26.33 and 68.33%, respectively. There was increased total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels in liver in hypercholesterolaemia, which was also recovered by the administration of experimental oils. Organopathological examination showed that there was deposition of cholesterol in the liver in the hypercholesterolaemic condition, which was also reduced by treatment with the two experimental oils. PMID:20401638

  9. Infection by Brazilian and Dutch swine hepatitis E virus strains induces haematological changes in Macaca fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described as an emerging pathogen in Brazil and seems to be widely disseminated among swine herds. An autochthonous human case of acute hepatitis E was recently reported. To obtain a better understanding of the phenotypic profiles of both human and swine HEV strains, a experimental study was conducted using the animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Methods Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were inoculated intravenously with swine HEV genotype 3 that was isolated from naturally and experimentally infected pigs in Brazil and the Netherlands. Two other monkeys were inoculated with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from Brazilian and Argentinean patients with locally acquired acute and fulminant hepatitis E. The haematological, biochemical, and virological parameters of all animals were monitored for 67 days. Results Subclinical hepatitis was observed in all monkeys after inoculation with HEV genotype 3 that was recovered from the infected swine and human patients. HEV RNA was detected in the serum and/or faeces of 6 out of the 8 cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 53 days after inoculation. The mild inflammation of liver tissues and elevations of discrete liver enzymes were observed. Seroconversions to anti-HEV IgM and/or IgG were detected in 7 animals. Reactivities to anti-HEV IgA were also detected in the salivary samples of 3 animals. Interestingly, all of the infected monkeys showed severe lymphopenia and a trend toward monocytosis, which coincided with elevations in alanine aminotransferase and antibody titres. Conclusions The ability of HEV to cross the species barrier was confirmed for both the swine (Brazilian and Dutch) and human (Argentinean) strains, thus reinforcing the zoonotic risk of hepatitis E in South America. Cynomolgus monkeys that were infected with HEV genotype 3 developed subclinical hepatitis that was associated with haematological changes. Haematological approaches should be considered in future studies of HEV infection. PMID:24148233

  10. Long driving time is associated with haematological markers of increased cardiovascular risk in taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Chen, Y; Chang, W; Christiani, D

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association between driving time and changes in haematological markers of increased risks for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: The authors conducted a cross sectional analysis of baseline data from the Taxi Drivers' Health Study cohort in Taipei, Taiwan. They retrieved information on comorbidity, laboratory tests, age, and anthropometric measures from medical records of 1157 subjects (mean age 44.6 (SD 8.6) years). Whole blood cell (WBC) count was used as the primary haematological marker for increased CVD risk, and platelet count and haematocrit as the secondary markers. Standardised questionnaires were implemented to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, work related physical and psychosocial factors, and driving time profiles. Multiple regression was used to estimate the adjusted effects of driving time on three haematological markers. Results: The mean measured hematological marker was 6656 (SD 1656) cells x106/l for WBC, 47.2 (SD 3.5) % for hematocrit, and 243 (SD 52) cells x109/l for platelets. The driving time was 264 (SD 76) hours/month. Compared with drivers who drove ?208 hours/month (1st quartile cut off), drivers who drove >208 hours/month had a higher WBC count (by 317 x106/l; 95% CI 99 to 535), haematocrit (by 0.8%; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.2), and platelets (7.9 x109/l; 95% CI 1.0 to 14.8). After adjusting for conventional CVD risk factors (age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolaemia), obesity, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, and sociodemographics (education, marital status, income, and so on), long driving time was still associated with significant increases in WBC and platelets, whereas the effect on haematocrit was diminished and became statistically non-significant. Additional controls for physical workload, self-perceived job stress, and job dissatisfaction did not alter the associations with increased WBC and platelets. Conclusions: Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the observed cross sectional association and to further examine the specific occupational exposures accountable for the association between driving time and haematological markers of systemic inflammation and haemostatic alteration. PMID:16299099

  11. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  12. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  13. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  14. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  15. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  16. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  17. Characterisation of Escherichia coli isolates from the blood of haematological adult patients with bacteraemia: translocation from gut to blood requires the cooperation of multiple virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, B; Śledzińska, A; Szemiako, K; Samet, A; Nowicki, B; Kur, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether there are unique pathotypes of Escherichia coli capable of transmission from the gastrointestinal tract to the vascular bed. The study included E. coli strains isolated from clinical materials collected from 115 patients suffering from haematologic malignancies diagnosed with bacteraemia. The genotyping techniques established that 89 E. coli isolates from the blood had the same genotype as the E. coli from the patient's bowel. The presence of 21 genes encoding virulence factors typical of various E. coli pathotypes and their relationship with the phylogenetic group was established. One-dimensional analysis showed that the focG gene occurred more frequently in the control bowel group, while the ampicillin-resistant afa/dr E. coli were associated with bacteraemia. Blood isolates with the highest occurrence of virulence factors belonged to pathogenic group B2 and non-pathogenic group A. The co-occurrence of multiple genes encoding papC, sfa, usp and cnf1 virulence factors probably predisposes E. coli to translocation from the gastrointestinal tract to the vascular bed in the group of patients with haematologic malignancies. Based on clustering analysis, dominance of the most virulent strains assigned to the cluster with seven virulence factors encoded by the following genes, papC, sfaD/E, cnf1, usp, agn43, hlyA and iutA, was found. The obtained results enforce the previously proposed concept of bowel-blood translocation and further expand our hypothesis by defining the unique virulence characteristics of E. coli isolates, which predispose them to bowel colonisation or translocation and bacteraemia in this group of patients. PMID:25655758

  18. R306465 is a novel potent inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases with broad-spectrum antitumoral activity against solid and haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Arts, J; Angibaud, P; Marin, A; Floren, W; Janssens, B; King, P; van Dun, J; Janssen, L; Geerts, T; Tuman, R W; Johnson, D L; Andries, L; Jung, M; Janicot, M; van Emelen, K

    2007-01-01

    R306465 is a novel hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with broad-spectrum antitumour activity against solid and haematological malignancies in preclinical models. R306465 was found to be a potent inhibitor of HDAC1 and -8 (class I) in vitro. It rapidly induced histone 3 (H3) acetylation and strongly upregulated expression of p21waf1,cip1, a downstream component of HDAC1 signalling, in A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells. R306465 showed class I HDAC isotype selectivity as evidenced by poor inhibition of HDAC6 (class IIb) confirmed by the absence of downregulation of Hsp90 chaperone c-raf protein expression and tubulin acetylation. This distinguished it from other HDAC inhibitors currently in clinical development that were either more potent towards HDAC6 (e.g. vorinostat) or had a broader HDAC inhibition spectrum (e.g. panobinostat). R306465 potently inhibited cell proliferation of all main solid tumour indications, including ovarian, lung, colon, breast and prostate cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 30 to 300?nM. Haematological cell lines, including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma, were potently inhibited at a similar concentration range. R306465 induced apoptosis and inhibited angiogenesis in cell-based assays and had potent oral in vivo antitumoral activity in xenograft models. Once-daily oral administration of R306465 at well-tolerated doses inhibited the growth of A2780 ovarian, H460 lung and HCT116 colon carcinomas in immunodeficient mice. The high activity of R306465 in cell-based assays and in vivo after oral administration makes R306465 a promising novel antitumoral agent with potential applicability in a broad spectrum of human malignancies. PMID:18000499

  19. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  20. Haematological traits, religion and rural/urban residence among the Lepchas of Kalimpong subdivision, Darjeeling district, West Bengal (India).

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, B; Gupta, R; Bhattacharya, S K

    1996-03-01

    As a part of an ongoing multidisciplinary biomedical research programme, initiated by the Indian Statistical Institute in early 1976, entitled "Human Adaptability Programme", the present study was undertaken among the Lepchas of Kalimpong subdivision, Darjeeling district, West Bengal (India) to enquire at a micro-level into the possible relationship between the major sociocultural factors, viz. religious practices and rural/urban residence, on the one hand, and haematological traits such as haemoglobin level, haematocrit and anaemia, on the other. The results show that while effects of religious practices do not seem to exist on the haematological traits considered, significant effects of rural/urban residence do. PMID:8660003

  1. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting haematological traits in swine via genome scanning

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Haematological traits, which consist of mainly three components: leukocyte traits, erythrocyte traits and platelet traits, play extremely important role in animal immune function and disease resistance. But knowledge of the genetic background controlling variability of these traits is very limited, especially in swine. Results In the present study, 18 haematological traits (7 leukocyte traits, 7 erythrocyte traits and 4 platelet traits) were measured in a pig resource population consisting of 368 purebred piglets of three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Songliao Black Pig), after inoculation with the swine fever vaccine when the pigs were 21 days old. A whole-genome scan of QTL for these traits was performed using 206 microsatellite markers covering all 18 autosomes and the X chromosome. Using variance component analysis based on a linear mixed model and the false discovery rate (FDR) test, 35 QTL with FDR < 0.10 were identified: 3 for the leukocyte traits, 28 for the erythrocyte traits, and 4 for the platelet traits. Of the 35 QTL, 25 were significant at FDR < 0.05 level, including 9 significant at FDR < 0.01 level. Conclusions Very few QTL were previously identified for hematological traits of pigs and never in purebred populations. Most of the QTL detected here, in particular the QTL for the platelet traits, have not been reported before. Our results lay important foundation for identifying the causal genes underlying the hematological trait variations in pigs. PMID:20584270

  2. Inside the Redbox: applications of haematology in wildlife monitoring and ecosystem health assessment.

    PubMed

    Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Figuerola, Jordi; Martnez-Silvestre, Albert; Viscor, Gins; Ferrari, Nicola; Pacheco, Mrio

    2015-05-01

    Blood analyses have great potential in studies of ecology, ecotoxicology and veterinary science in wild vertebrates based on advances in human and domestic animal medicine. The major caveat for field researchers, however, is that the 'rules' for human or domestic animal haematology do not always apply to wildlife. The present overview shows the strengths and limitations of blood analyses in wild vertebrates, and proposes a standardisation of pre-analytical procedures plus some suggestions for a more systematic examination of blood smears to increase the diagnostic value of blood data. By discussing the common problems that field researchers face with blood variables, we also aim to highlight common ground enabling new researchers in the field to accurately collect blood samples and interpret and place their haematological findings into the overall picture of an ecological or eco-toxicological study. Besides showing the practicality and ecological relevance of simple blood variables, this study illustrates the suitability of blood samples for the application of cutting-edge analytical procedures for expanding the current repertoire of diagnostic tools in wildlife monitoring and ecosystem health assessment. PMID:25668285

  3. Effect of ingested heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) on haematology and serum biochemistry in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bersnyi, A; Fekete, S Gy; Szcs, Z; Berta, Erzsbet

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of exposure to possible environmental pollutants such as Cd, Pb and Hg on haematological and serum biochemistry values, New Zealand White female rabbits were treated orally with distilled water solutions of CdSO4 x H2O, Pb(NO3)2 and HgCl2 (n = 4/treatment) in concentrations of 2.3, 4.1, and 30 mg/kg dry matter, respectively, for 28 days. The initial concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg in serum were significantly increased by the treatment. Exposure to Pb significantly decreased the red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hgb) concentration and the haematocrit (Hct) value. The Zn-protoporphyrin concentration did not change as a result of Pb exposure. Pb and Hg loading significantly increased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was also increased by both Hg and Cd exposure. Comparing the treated and the control rabbits, all the trace elements studied significantly reduced the activity of enzymes in the pancreatic tissues. The haematological results indicate that hyperchromic macrocytic anaemia developed in rabbits treated with Pb. The increased activities of both AST and ALT indicate pathophysiological changes of the liver parenchyma, which was verified by focal fatty infiltration seen histopathologically. Cd exposure could exert a toxic effect on the kidneys, although the slight tubulonephrosis developed would not possibly affect the renal function. The reduced activities of amylase, trypsin, protease and lipase induced by Cd, Pb and Hg suggest toxicity to the pancreas. PMID:14516158

  4. Pre-clinical toxicity & immunobiological evaluation of DNA rabies vaccine & combination rabies vaccine in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Dinesh; Kumar, P. Uday; Krishna, T. Prasanna; Kalyanasundaram, S.; Suresh, P.; Jagadeesan, V.; Hariharan, S.; Naidu, A. Nadamuni; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Rangarajan, P.N.; Srinivasan, V.A.; Reddy, G.S.; Sesikeran, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Pre-clinical toxicology evaluation of biotechnology products is a challenge to the toxicologist. The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate the safety profile of the first indigenously developed recombinant DNA anti-rabies vaccine [DRV (100 μg)] and combination rabies vaccine [CRV (100 μg DRV and 1.25 IU of cell culture-derived inactivated rabies virus vaccine)], which are intended for clinical use by intramuscular route in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: As per the regulatory requirements, the study was designed for acute (single dose - 14 days), sub-chronic (repeat dose - 28 days) and chronic (intended clinical dose - 120 days) toxicity tests using three dose levels, viz. therapeutic, average (2x therapeutic dose) and highest dose (10 x therapeutic dose) exposure in monkeys. The selection of the model i.e. monkey was based on affinity and rapid higher antibody response during the efficacy studies. An attempt was made to evaluate all parameters which included physical, physiological, clinical, haematological and histopathological profiles of all target organs, as well as Tiers I, II, III immunotoxicity parameters. Results: In acute toxicity there was no mortality in spite of exposing the monkeys to 10XDRV. In sub chronic and chronic toxicity studies there were no abnormalities in physical, physiological, neurological, clinical parameters, after administration of test compound in intended and 10 times of clinical dosage schedule of DRV and CRV under the experimental conditions. Clinical chemistry, haematology, organ weights and histopathology studies were essentially unremarkable except the presence of residual DNA in femtogram level at site of injection in animal which received 10X DRV in chronic toxicity study. No Observational Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of DRV is 1000 ug/dose (10 times of therapeutic dose) if administered on 0, 4, 7, 14, 28th day. Interpretation & conclusions: The information generated by this study not only draws attention to the need for national and international regulatory agencies in formulating guidelines for pre-clinical safety evaluation of biotech products but also facilitates the development of biopharmaceuticals as safe potential therapeutic agents. PMID:23852288

  5. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. II. Selection of direct Kjeldahl analysis and its preliminary performance parameters.

    PubMed

    Vinklrkov, Bra; Chrom, Vratislav; prongl, Lud?k; Bittov, Miroslava; Rikanov, Milena; Ohntkov, Ivana; aludov, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    To select a Kjeldahl procedure suitable for the determination of total protein in reference materials used in laboratory medicine, we reviewed in our previous article Kjeldahl methods adopted by clinical chemistry and found an indirect two-step analysis by total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. In this article, we compare both procedures on various reference materials. An indirect Kjeldahl method gave falsely lower results than a direct analysis. Preliminary performance parameters qualify the direct Kjeldahl analysis as a suitable primary reference procedure for the certification of total protein in reference laboratories. PMID:25558773

  6. Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  7. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory... clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

  8. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory... clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

  9. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory... clinical use is a device intended to identify inorganic or organic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury,...

  10. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  11. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  12. Confectionary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular

  13. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  14. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  15. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  16. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and

  17. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  18. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;

  19. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  1. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on

  2. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical

  3. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and

  4. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  5. Increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease in haematological and solid-organ malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wong, A; Marrie, T J; Garg, S; Kellner, J D; Tyrrell, G J

    2010-12-01

    Large-scale population-based studies have reported a significant increase in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in those with underlying haematological or solid-organ malignancy, but limited condition-specific data are available on rates of IPD in the adult population. A retrospective chart review of all patients with IPD (identified prospectively) in the province of Alberta, Canada (population ~33 million) was conducted from 2000 to 2004 to study the epidemiology of IPD. Rates of IPD in patients with various haematological and solid-organ malignancies were determined by obtaining the number of these patients at risk from the provincial cancer registry. Compared to the attack rate of IPD in the adult population aged ?18 years (110 cases/100,000 per year, 95% CI 1044-1165), there were significantly increased rates of IPD in those with lung cancer (1436 cases/100,000 per year, OR 134, 95% CI 93-194, P<0001) and multiple myeloma (6739 cases/100,000 per year, OR 628, 95% CI 396-998, P<0001). More modestly increased rates of IPD were found in those with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was an increased prevalence of serotype 6A in those with these underlying malignancies, but no other serotypes predominated. Fifty-three percent (48/83) of cases were caused by serotypes in the investigational 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), and 57/83 (69%) of the cases were caused by serotypes in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). The incidence of IPD in adults with certain haematological and solid-organ malignancies is significantly greater than the overall adult population. Such patients should be routinely given pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; this population could also be targeted for an expanded valency conjugate vaccine. PMID:20429967

  6. Justus Liebig and animal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2003-10-01

    Justus Liebig was one of the individuals making chemistry almost a German monopoly in the 19th century. At Giessen he established the first organic chemistry laboratory and offered a systematic course for training new chemists. His comprehensive survey of plant nutrition changed the nature of scientific agriculture. In a study of animal chemistry, Liebig treated physiologic processes as chemical reactions and inferred the transformations from the chemical properties of the elements and compounds in laboratory reactions. He constructed hypothetical chemical equations derived from the formulae of the participating compounds. Liebig generalized that all organic nitrogenous constituents of the body are derived from plant protein and demonstrated how the application of quantitative methods of organic chemistry can be applied to the investigation of the animal organism. Liebig's theories were attractive, but his method of converting one substance to another by moving atoms around on paper was speculative because of the lack of knowledge as to how the elements were arranged. His dynamic personality helped win widespread acceptance by many, but others were antagonized by his wishful thinking and speculative excesses. Liebig's views on catalysis and fermentation brought him into a controversy with Louis Pasteur. Liebig's Animal Chemistry stimulated an interest in clinical chemistry because it introduced a quantitative method into physiological chemistry. However, the isolated pieces of test results on blood and urine were unconnected and did not fit anywhere. Physicians found that chemistry was not helpful at the bedside and they lost interest in its application. PMID:14500604

  7. Haematological and physiological responses of Piemontese beef cattle to different housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, L; Riondato, F; Macchi, E; Bellino, C; Franco, G; Biolatti, B; Cannizzo, F T

    2014-10-01

    Public concern for animal welfare has progressively grown over the recent years. In this context, stress has a great economical impact on growth of animals and quality of animal products. The development and validation of methods to assess animal stress, particularly at the farm level, are desirable to evaluate animal production systems. Piemontese breed is traditionally tie-stall housed in the fattening period. Hence, the objective of this study was to characterise a profile of physiological and haematological changes of Piemontese beef cattle under different management conditions (tie-stall and loose housing). Our results suggest that the housing system is an important factor in animal welfare. Indeed, the values of the total protein, lysozyme, cortisol, serum and faecal corticosterone concentration and GR-? gene expression indicate that the tie-stall housing is more stressful than the loose system. All the alterations highlighted in this study considered together may be effective biomarkers of stress and disease susceptibility. PMID:25168461

  8. The contribution of randomized trials to the cure of haematological disorders from Bradford Hill onwards.

    PubMed

    Hills, Robert K

    2012-09-01

    It is now 75 years since the publication of Sir Austin Bradford Hill's classic textbook on Medical Statistics, and half a century since the formation of the Medical Research Council Working Party on Leukaemia. In the intervening period, trials in haematological malignancies have been at the forefront of cancer research, both in the proportion of patients recruited, and in the adoption of novel trial designs. In this paper, the principles propounded by Hill for reliable evaluation of new treatments are considered and placed in the context of the development and evaluation of novel treatments in the 21st century. Many of the original principles espoused are still highly relevant today, while the emerging heterogeneity of the conditions, both in aetiology and outcome provide their own newer challenges, which are discussed here. PMID:22765202

  9. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber)

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Simon J.; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A.; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months – 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (≥3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  10. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Variations in the Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber).

    PubMed

    Girling, Simon J; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin; Pizzi, Romain; Fraser, Mary A; Cracknell, Jonathan; Arnemo, Jon; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Haematology parameters (N = 24) and serum biochemistry parameters (N = 35) were determined for wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber), between 6 months - 12 years old. Of the population tested in this study, N = 18 Eurasian beavers were from Norway and N = 17 originating from Bavaria but now living extensively in a reserve in England. All blood samples were collected from beavers via the ventral tail vein. All beavers were chemically restrained using inhalant isoflurane in 100% oxygen prior to blood sampling. Results were determined for haematological and serum biochemical parameters for the species and were compared between the two different populations with differences in means estimated and significant differences being noted. Standard blood parameters for the Eurasian beaver were determined and their ranges characterised using percentiles. Whilst the majority of blood parameters between the two populations showed no significant variation, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin and white blood cell counts showed significantly greater values (p<0.01) in the Bavarian origin population than the Norwegian; neutrophil counts, alpha 2 globulins, cholesterol, sodium: potassium ratios and phosphorus levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Bavarian versus Norwegian; and potassium, bile acids, gamma globulins, urea, creatinine and total calcium values levels showed significantly (p<0.05) greater values in Norwegian versus Bavarian relict populations. No significant differences were noted between male and female beavers or between sexually immature (<3 years old) and sexually mature (?3 years old) beavers in the animals sampled. With Eurasian beaver reintroduction encouraged by legislation throughout Europe, knowledge of baseline blood values for the species and any variations therein is essential when assessing their health and welfare and the success or failure of any reintroduction program. This is the first study to produce base-line blood values and their variations for the Eurasian beaver. PMID:26066344

  11. Effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Han, Cen; Lei, Ji-Lin; Liu, Bao-Liang; Huang, Bin; Huo, Huan-Huan; Yin, Shu-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Nitrite (NO2(-)) is commonly present as contaminant in aquatic environment and toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nitrite exposure on haematological parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish were exposed to various concentrations of nitrite (0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4 and 0.8mM) for 96 h. Fish blood and gills were collected to assay haematological parameters, oxidative stress and expression of genes after 0, 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure. In blood, the data showed that the levels of methemoglobin (MetHb), triglyceride (TG), potassium (K(+)), cortisol, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose significantly increased in treatments with higher concentrations of nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) after 48 and 96 h, while the levels of haemoglobin (Hb) and sodium (Na(+)) significantly decreased in these treatments. In gills, nitrite (0.4 and/or 0.8mM) apparently reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), increased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), up-regulated the mRNA levels of c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JUK1), p53, caspase-3, caspase-7 and caspase-9 after 48 and 96 h of exposure. The results suggested caspase-dependent and JUK signaling pathways played important roles in nitrite-induced apoptosis in fish. Further, this study provides new insights into how nitrite affects the physiological responses and apoptosis in a marine fish. PMID:26476021

  12. Effect of petroleum products inhalation on some haematological indices of fuel attendants in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoro, A M; Ani, E J; Ibu, J O; Akpogomeh, B A

    2006-01-01

    The Haematotoxic implications of exposure to petroleum fumes through inhalation in human subjects were investigated. A total of 400 subjects (200 males and 200 females) aged between 18-30 years participated. Each gender was further categorized into two groups of 100 each for control and test, respectively. The test group was again subdivided into test 1 (T1) and test 2 (T2) in both sexes. T1 subjects were exposed to petroleum fumes for two years and below while T2 subjects were exposed for more than two years. Samples of blood were collected daily and subjected to haematological analysis. The results obtained showed that in males and females, red blood cell counts (10(6) /mm3) was significantly [P < 0.001] decreased in T1 (4.4 +/- 0.13) and T2 (3.85 +/- 0.07) compared to control (4.76 +/- 0.01). White blood cell counts, haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and mean corpusclular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly [P < 0.01] decreased in both sexes of test groups when compared with control. There was also a significant [P < 0.001] decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in test 2 males compared with control. Most subjects exposed for longer than two years (T2) had significantly [P < 0.001] lower values of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit than those exposed for less than two years. The odds/odds ratio that a subject would become anaemic progressively rose from less than 1 in the control to greater than 1 or infinity on exposure to petroleum fumes. These results indicate that the petroleum fumes cause a reduction in haematological indices which worsens with prolonged exposure. PMID:17242722

  13. Haematological, inflammatory, and immunological responses in elite judo athletes maintaining high training loads during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Wong, Del P; Roky, Rachida; Mbazaa, Abderraouf; Amri, Mohamed; Chamari, Karim

    2009-10-01

    During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and fluid intake from dawn to sunset for 1 month. These behavioural changes that accompany Ramadan may impact upon Muslim athletes who continue to train intensely. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the haematological, inflammatory, and immunological measures in elite judo athletes maintaining their usual high training loads. Haematological markers of inflammation, hormones, and immune status were studied in 15 elite male judo athletes before, during, and after Ramadan. The RIF produced small but significant changes in inflammatory, hormonal, and immunological profiles in judo athletes. Serum C-reactive protein increased from 2.93 +/- 0.26 mg.L-1 pre-Ramadan to 4.60 +/- 0.51 mg.L-1 at the end of Ramadan. Haptoglobin and antitrypsin also significantly increased at different phases during Ramadan, whereas homocysteine and prealbumin remained relatively unchanged. Albumin decreased slightly by mid-Ramadan, then recovered. Immunoglobulin Aincreased from 1.87 +/- 0.56 g.L-1 before Ramadan to 2.49 +/- 0.75 g.L-1 at the end, and remained high 3 weeks after. There were no changes in the leucocyte cell counts throughout the study. The mean blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine increased significantly during RIF. Most of these changes were within the normal ranges. These results suggest that athletes who continue to train intensely during Ramadan are liable to experience a myriad of small fluctuations in hormones, immunoglobulins, antioxidants, and inflammatory responses. PMID:19935853

  14. Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for three species of hydrophiine sea snakes (Hydrophis curtus, H. elegans and H. peronii) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Amber K; Flint, Mark; Hulse, Lyndal; Hanger, Jon; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    This study presents the first set of comprehensive reference intervals (RIs) for plasma biochemistry and haematology for three species of sea snakes common to the Indo-Pacific waters of Australia. In total 98 snakes, composed of Hydrophis curtus (n= 60), H. elegans (n = 27) and H. peronii (n = 11), were captured, clinically examined and had venous blood samples collected. All snakes were deemed healthy and in good to excellent body condition with snout to vent lengths of 40.7-73.9 cm (H. curtus), 68.9-131.4 cm (H. elegans) and 55.0-83.0 cm (H. peronii), respectively. Lymphocyte numbers, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were species-dependent. All other parameters are presented as a single range for the three species. Gender ratio was evenly distributed for H. curtus and H. elegans, but 8/11 (73%) of H. peronii were males. No significant differences were detected between males and females for any of the measured blood parameters. Lymph contamination was considered and accounted for. Although only three species of sea snakes are represented in this study, the RIs generated may be useful in the clinical assessment of other sea snake species. PMID:25933825

  15. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  16. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: proteinprotein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  17. Medicinal chemistry for 2020.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-10-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  18. Interstellar chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature. PMID:16894148

  19. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  20. Functional and Biological Role of Endothelial Precursor Cells in Tumour Progression: A New Potential Therapeutic Target in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was believed that vasculogenesis occurred only during embryo life and that postnatal formation of vessels arose from angiogenesis. Recent findings demonstrate the existence of Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs), which take partin postnatal vasculogenesis. EPCs are recruited from the bone marrow under the stimulation of growth factors and cytokines and reach the sites of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological conditions such as malignancies where they contribute to the “angiogenic switch” and tumor progression. An implementation of circulating EPCs in the bloodstream of patients with haematological malignancies has been demonstrated. This increase is strictly related to the bone marrow microvessel density and correlated with a poor prognosis. The EPCs characterization is a very complex process and still under investigation. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the functional and biological role of EPCs in haematological malignancies and to investigate their potential as a new cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26788072

  1. The Effect of Cement Dust Exposure on Haematological Parameters of Cement Factory workers in Nalagonda, Andhra Pradesh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guguloth, Mohan Rao.; Sambanaik, A.; srinivasnaik, L.; Mude, Jagadishnaik.

    2012-10-01

    This study was measured on haematological parameters in workers exposed to cement dust in order to test the the hypothesis and to identify a simple, readily available, cost effective screening test that could help in identifying the presence of disease, its severity, that Cement dust exposure may perturb these functions related to their workplace.Assesment of haematological parameters were performed in 100exposed workers occupationally exposed to cement dust and 50 matched unexposed controls with ages ranging from 20-35, 35-50, 50-65 years. The blood samples were taken from them and percentage of hemoglobin, Lymphocytes / monocytes count were analysed.The hemoglobin percentage of exposed workers were significantly lower(P<0.05).Lymphocytes/Monocytes counts of exposed workers was insignificant (P<0.05).These results suggest that long term occupational exposure to cement dust may perturb haemopoietic function.

  2. EMQN Best Practice Guidelines for molecular and haematology methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of the haemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Old, John M; Petrou, Mary; Galanello, Renzo; Giordano, Piero; Angastioniotis, Michael; De la Salle, Barbara; Henderson, Shirley; May, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies constitute the commonest recessive monogenic disorders worldwide, and the treatment of affected individuals presents a substantial global disease burden. Carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis represent valuable procedures that identify couples at risk for having affected children, so that they can be offered options to have healthy offspring. Molecular diagnosis facilitates prenatal diagnosis and definitive diagnosis of carriers and patients (especially ‘atypical' cases who often have complex genotype interactions). However, the haemoglobin disorders are unique among all genetic diseases in that identification of carriers is preferable by haematological (biochemical) tests rather than DNA analysis. These Best Practice guidelines offer an overview of recommended strategies and methods for carrier identification and prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies, and emphasize the importance of appropriately applying and interpreting haematological tests in supporting the optimum application and evaluation of globin gene DNA analysis. PMID:25052315

  3. Toxic effects of copper and zinc mixtures on some haematological and biochemical parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linn).

    PubMed

    Dhanapakiam, P; Ramasamy, V K

    2001-04-01

    The effect of heavy metals and mixture were studied on some haematological and biochemical parameters in fish, Cyprinus carpio at sublethal level over the period of 30 days. Heavy metal significantly decreased total RBC count, haemogoblin, heamatocrit (Hct) (except copper after 10 days exposure). The WBC count was increased significantly in all the treated fish. The MCH, MCHC, MVC were increased depending upon the exposure period; declined PVC was noticed at 1% level of significance after 30 days on all the treated fish. Serum level of chloride and calcium content were increased where as serum glucose, cholesterol and total serum protein were decreased significantly. The alteration in haematological and biochemical parameters shows more toxic in mixture after 30 days, showed more than 'addition action' of the individual toxicant. PMID:11500014

  4. Functional and Biological Role of Endothelial Precursor Cells in Tumour Progression: A New Potential Therapeutic Target in Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was believed that vasculogenesis occurred only during embryo life and that postnatal formation of vessels arose from angiogenesis. Recent findings demonstrate the existence of Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs), which take partin postnatal vasculogenesis. EPCs are recruited from the bone marrow under the stimulation of growth factors and cytokines and reach the sites of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological conditions such as malignancies where they contribute to the "angiogenic switch" and tumor progression. An implementation of circulating EPCs in the bloodstream of patients with haematological malignancies has been demonstrated. This increase is strictly related to the bone marrow microvessel density and correlated with a poor prognosis. The EPCs characterization is a very complex process and still under investigation. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the functional and biological role of EPCs in haematological malignancies and to investigate their potential as a new cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26788072

  5. Impact of HPAI H5N1 infection on select blood chemistry and gas ranges in layers, broilers and turkeys using the i-STAT Clinical Analyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of poultry with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 typically results in mortality within six days of inoculation. However, the exact mechanisms that induce death are unknown, even as birds may die in the absence of overt clinical signs of disease. In human and many veterinary ...

  6. The effect of the combination of acids and tannin in diet on the performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The abolition of in-feed antibiotics or chemotherapeutics as growth promoters have stimulated the swine industry to look for alternatives such as organic acids, botanicals, probiotics and tannin. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of a combination of acids and tannin with diet with organic acids and diet without growth promoters on the growth performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs. Tannin is more natural and cheaper but possibly with the same effectiveness as organic acids with regard to growth performance. Methods Thirty-six 7 week old grower pigs, divided into three equal groups, were used in a three week feeding trial. Group I was fed basal diet, group II basal diet with added organic acids and group III basal diet with added organic and inorganic acids and tannin. Pigs were weighed before and after feeding and observed daily. Blood was collected before and after the feeding trial for the determination of selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters. One-way ANOVA was used to assess any diet related changes of all the parameters. Paired t-test was used to evaluate changes of blood parameters individually in each group of growers before and after feeding. Results No clinical health problems related to diet were noted during the three week feeding trial. The average daily gain (ADG) and selected blood parameters were not affected by the addition to basal diet of either acids and tannin or of organic acids alone. Selected blood parameters remained within the reference range before and after the feeding trial, with the exception of total serum proteins that were below the lower value of reference range at both times. The significant changes (paired t-test) observed in individual groups before and after the feeding trial are related to the growth of pigs. Conclusion Diet with acids and tannin did not improve the growth performance of grower pigs but had no deleterious effects on selected blood parameters. The possibility of beneficial effects of adding acids and tannin in diets on growth performance over a longer period, however, could not be excluded. PMID:20205921

  7. Prediction of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with haematologic malignancies using a modified Infection Probability Score (mIPS).

    PubMed

    Schalk, Enrico; Hanus, Lynn; Frber, Jacqueline; Fischer, Thomas; Heidel, Florian H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the probability of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with haematologic malignancies using a modified version of the Infection Probability Score (mIPS). In order to perform a prospective, mono-centric surveillance of complications in clinical routine due to short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in consecutive patients receiving chemotherapy from March 2013 to September 2014, IPS was calculated at CVC insertion and removal (mIPSin and mIPSex, respectively). We used the 2012 Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Haematology and Medical Oncology (AGIHO/DGHO) criteria to define CRBSI. In total, 143 patients (mean 59.5 years, 61.4 % male) with 267 triple-lumen CVCs (4044 CVC days; mean 15.1 days, range 1-60 days) were analysed. CVCs were inserted for therapy of acute leukaemia (53.2 %), multiple myeloma (24.3 %) or lymphoma (11.2 %), and 93.6 % were inserted in the jugular vein. A total of 66 CRBSI cases (24.7 %) were documented (12 definite/13 probable/41 possible). The incidence was 16.3/1000 CVC days (2.9/3.1/10.1 per 1000 CVC days for definite/probable/possible CRBSI, respectively). In CRBSI cases, the mIPSex was higher as compared to cases without CRBSI (13.1 vs. 7.1; p?

  8. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitaemia and Its Correlation with Haematological Parameters among HIV-Positive Individuals in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Oyeniran, Oluwatoyin Adeola; Alli, Oyebode Armstrong Terry; Taiwo, Sunday Samuel; Ojurongbe, Taiwo Adetola; Olowe, Adekunle Olugbenga; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and HIV are the two most important health challenges of our time. Haematologic abnormalities are features in Plasmodium falciparum infection, and anaemia is a well-known outcome. The prevalence and haematological impact of P. falciparum parasitaemia were determined among HIV-infected individuals in Nigeria. Parasite detection was carried out using microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated machine while CD4+ T-cells count was analyzed using flow cytometer. Thirty-seven (18.5%) out of the 200 HIV individuals enrolled had malaria parasites detected in their blood. All the positive cases were detected by PCR while only 20 (10%) were detected by thick blood microscopy. The mean haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) of HIV individuals with malaria parasitaemia were lower compared to those without malaria parasitaemia but the difference was not statistically significant. Also no significant difference was observed in malaria positivity in respect to sex and mean CD4+ cell count. The study highlights the effects of P. falciparum parasitaemia on the haematologic and immune components of HIV individuals. PMID:24729787

  9. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitaemia and Its Correlation with Haematological Parameters among HIV-Positive Individuals in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Oyeniran, Oluwatoyin Adeola; Alli, Oyebode Armstrong Terry; Taiwo, Sunday Samuel; Ojurongbe, Taiwo Adetola; Olowe, Adekunle Olugbenga; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and HIV are the two most important health challenges of our time. Haematologic abnormalities are features in Plasmodium falciparum infection, and anaemia is a well-known outcome. The prevalence and haematological impact of P. falciparum parasitaemia were determined among HIV-infected individuals in Nigeria. Parasite detection was carried out using microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated machine while CD4+ T-cells count was analyzed using flow cytometer. Thirty-seven (18.5%) out of the 200 HIV individuals enrolled had malaria parasites detected in their blood. All the positive cases were detected by PCR while only 20 (10%) were detected by thick blood microscopy. The mean haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) of HIV individuals with malaria parasitaemia were lower compared to those without malaria parasitaemia but the difference was not statistically significant. Also no significant difference was observed in malaria positivity in respect to sex and mean CD4+ cell count. The study highlights the effects of P. falciparum parasitaemia on the haematologic and immune components of HIV individuals. PMID:24729787

  10. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    PubMed Central

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in weight gain, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratios of the birds among the treatments. Birds fed 80 ml FPLE/litre of water had significantly the highest weight gain and the best feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. There was no significant (P > 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  11. Efficacy of environmental measures to decrease the risk of hospital-acquired aspergillosis in patients hospitalised in haematology wards.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, P; Loulergue, P; Raberin, H; Turco, M; Mounier, C; Tran Manh Sung, R; Lucht, F; Pozzetto, B; Guyotat, D

    2006-08-01

    This study evaluated a multidisciplinary strategy to decrease the rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) among adult patients hospitalised in two haematology wards in a single 560-bed building at the University Hospital of Saint-Etienne. Upgrading of the air filtration system and construction of an air-lock chamber at the entrance to the unit were completed during 1994. In 1995, specific hygienic measures were introduced during hospital building work, including the use of plastic barriers, watering during demolition work, reduction of pedestrian traffic in construction areas, and the wearing of high-efficiency filtration masks by immunosuppressed patients when outside the protected unit. This strategy was evaluated by a prospective survey of IPA cases between 1993 and 2001, coupled with environmental surveillance. The number and risk-level of hospital renovation projects increased between 1995 and 2001 (p < 0.01). In parallel, the rate of IPA decreased globally in the haematology unit from 0.85% (1.19/1,000 patients) in 1993 to 0.28% (0.21/1,000 patients) in 2001. The incidence of IPA decreased significantly between 1993-1996 and 1997-2001 (p 0.02, Mann-Whitney test). These results show that a multidisciplinary approach involving engineers, infection control practitioners, mycologists and clinicians enables IPA rates among patients hospitalised in haematology wards to be significantly decreased. PMID:16842568

  12. Role of Haematological Parameters as an Indicator of Acute Malarial Infection in Uttarakhand State of India

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Smita; Chandra, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria may be associated with complications which may be avoided by early diagnosis and treatment. Microscopic diagnosis showing presence of malarial parasites is needed for confirmation which at times may be unreliable and requires technical expertise. The present study was conducted to statistically analyze the haematological parameters including platelet indices which can give initial hint for malarial infection and therefore prompt the laboratory physician for active search of the parasite microscopically. Methods A retrospective study was conducted which included 334 cases of acute malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, falciparum and dual infection along with 100 cases of control. Routine haematological parameters along with platelet indices (MPV and PDW) which are easily available on automated cell counter were statistically analyzed to assess their role as indicators for malaria. Results Leukocyte count and platelet count were significantly lower in cases of acute malaria in comparison to controls (p value <0.001). Platelet count<150×109/l showed 87.2% sensitivity, 65% specificity, 89.3% positive predictive value and 2.49 likelihood ratio for the infection. PDW of 6–10 and MPV>8 fl had 71.9% and 61.5% sensitivity and 78.2% and 77.7% positive predictive value respectively for infection. Platelet count <150×109/l and MPV>8 fl was comparatively more sensitive indicator for vivax (88% and 70.8% respectively) than falciparum (84.8% and 50.4% respectively) and PDW 6–10 was more sensitive indicator for falciparum (82.6%) than vivax (69.5%) infection. Conclusion Thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and low leukocyte count (<4×109/l) may be used as probable indicator for malaria in endemic countries. Higher MPV (>8 fl) and PDW of 6–10 also show considerable sensitivity for malarial infection. In addition, thrombocytopenia (<150×109/l) and higher MPV (>8 fl) was more sensitive for vivax infection while PDW 6–10 was more sensitive for falciparum infection. PMID:23350022

  13. Multivitamin supplementation improves haematologic status in children born to HIV-positive women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Enju; Duggan, Christopher; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Bosch, Ronald J; Kisenge, Rodrick R; Okuma, James; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and provided a daily oral supplement of multivitamins (vitamin B complex, C and E) or placebo at age 6 weeks for 24 months. Among them, 2008 infants provided blood samples and had haemoglobin concentrations measured at baseline and during a follow-up period. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentrations<11 g/dL and severe anaemia<8.5 g/dL. Results Haemoglobin concentrations among children in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group at 12 (9.77 vs. 9.64 g/dL, p=0.03), 18 (9.76 vs. 9.57 g/dL, p=0.004), and 24 months (9.93 vs. 9.75 g/dL, p=0.02) of follow-up. Compared to those in the placebo group, children in the treatment group had a 12% lower risk of anaemia (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.790.99; p=0.03). The treatment was associated with a 28% reduced risk of severe anaemia among children born to women without anaemia (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.560.92; p=0.008), but not among those born to women with anaemia (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.791.54; p=0.57; p for interaction=0.007). One thousand seven hundred fifty three infants who tested HIV-negative at baseline and had HIV testing during follow-up were included in the analysis for MTCT of HIV. No association was found between multivitamin supplements and MTCT of HIV. Conclusions Multivitamin supplements improve haematologic status among children born to HIV-positive women. Further trials focusing on anaemia among HIV-exposed children are warranted in the context of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23948440

  14. Astronomical Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  15. Stratospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, R. A.; Demore, W. B.; Ferguson, E. E.; Lesclaux, R.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Sander, S. P.; Sze, N. D.; Zellner, R.

    1985-01-01

    Recent improvements in the data base for the currently identified reactions describing the chemistry of the major families of trace gas species, HO(x), NO(x), ClO(x), and hydrocarbons are assessed. The important coupling reactions between the families are introduced progressively. Chemical aspects such as heterogeneous reactions and reactions of sodium species, the importance of which are not yet completely established, are discussed. Recent attempts to reconcile some of the more unexpected kinetic behavior which has emerged from the extensive experimental studies of key reactions with current reaction rate theory are also examined. The uncertainties in the current kinetic and photochemical data base is given. The prospects for improvement of data for known reactions of atmospheric importance as well as for the identification of gaps in the chemical description of the atmosphere.

  16. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  17. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, Gemma L; Estcourt, Lise J; Wood, Erica M; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004 and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. We have now split this review into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review is the first part of the original review. Objectives To determine whether a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given when patient bleeds) is as effective and safe as a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding, usually when the platelet count falls below a given trigger level) in patients with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950) and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent or treat bleeding in patients with malignant haematological disorders receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We identified seven RCTs that compared therapeutic platelet transfusions to prophylactic platelet transfusions in haematology patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. One trial is still ongoing, leaving six trials eligible with a total of 1195 participants. These trials were conducted between 1978 and 2013 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. We were able to critically appraise five of these studies, which contained separate data for each arm, and were unable to perform quantitative analysis on one study that did not report the numbers of participants in each treatment arm. Overall the quality of evidence per outcome was low to moderate according to the GRADE approach. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the studies identified had some threats to validity. We deemed only one study to be at low risk of bias in all domains other than blinding. Two RCTs (801 participants) reported at least one bleeding episode within 30 days of the start of the study. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis due to considerable statistical heterogeneity between studies. The statistical heterogeneity seen may relate to the different methods used in studies for the assessment and grading of bleeding. The underlying patient diagnostic and treatment categories also appeared to have some effect on bleeding risk. Individually these studies showed a similar effect, that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion strategy was associated with an increased risk of clinically significant bleeding compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. Number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant was higher in the therapeutic-only group than in the prophylactic group (one RCT; 600 participants; mean difference 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 0.90; moderate-quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a therapeutic-only transfusion policy and a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 801 participants; risk ratio (RR) 4.91, 95% CI 0.86 to 28.12; low-quality evidence). Two RCTs (801 participants) reported time to first bleeding episode. As there was considerable heterogeneity between the studies, we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Both studies individually found that time to first bleeding episode was shorter in the therapeutic-only group compared with the prophylactic platelet transfusion group. There was insufficient evidence to determine any difference in all-cause mortality within 30 days of the start of the study using a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 629 participants). Mortality was a rare event, and therefore larger studies would be needed to establish the effect of these alternative strategies. There was a clear reduction in the number of platelet transfusions per participant in the therapeutic-only arm (two RCTs, 991 participants; standardised mean reduction of 0.50 platelet transfusions per participant, 95% CI −0.63 to −0.37; moderate-quality evidence). None of the studies reported quality of life. There was no evidence of any difference in the frequency of adverse events, such as transfusion reactions, between a therapeutic-only and prophylactic platelet transfusion policy (two RCTs; 991 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.68), although the confidence intervals were wide. Authors’ conclusions We found low- to moderate-grade evidence that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy is associated with increased risk of bleeding when compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy in haematology patients who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. There is insufficient evidence to determine any difference in mortality rates and no evidence of any difference in adverse events between a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy and a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. A therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy is associated with a clear reduction in the number of platelet components administered. PMID:26422767

  18. Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-08-01

    Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p < 0.05) high in negative control group when compared with positive control group. It could be concluded that Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p < 0.05) reduction in haematological and serum biochemical parameters of all the treatment groups were recorded in comparison with negative control group. In addition, T4 and T5 groups showed significantly (p < 0.05) high superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin (Hb). However, higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), blood glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in T5 group revealed that higher concentration of azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis. PMID:23090629

  19. Chronic diclofenac (DCF) exposure alters both enzymatic and haematological profile of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Ajima, Malachy N O; Ogo, Ogo A; Audu, Bala S; Ugwoegbu, Kyrian C

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals are used extensively in human and veterinary medicine to eradicate or prevent diseases. The residues of these drugs have been detected in aquatic ecosystem; nevertheless, their toxicological effects on Clarias gariepinus have not been critically investigated. In this study, the toxic effects of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, were studied in C. gariepinus by acute and chronic static renewable bioassay. The 96?h LC50 of DCF to C. gariepinus was 25.12?mg/L. Exposure to acute toxicity resulted in abnormal behavior and mortality of some fish. Compared with the control, chronic exposure of the fish to concentration (1.57, 3.14 and 6.28?mg/L) showed significantly higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cell (WBC), with significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) with increase in the concentration of the drug. Furthermore, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose values significantly increased while protein levels were reduced (p?haematological changes in the fish and recommends that these parameters be used as potential biomarkers for assessing residual pharmaceuticals available in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:25367777

  20. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Haematological and Lipid Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Anandhi; P, Ganesh Kumar; A, Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature death and major tobacco related diseases like cancer costs India more than Rs.308.33 billion per year. Cigarette smoking increases the total peripheral blood leukocyte count but its effect on other haematological parameters is largely unexplored.. Objective: To study the effect of smoking and its intensity on hematological and lipid parameters. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study included 40 cigarette smokers and 40 non-smokers in the age range of 25 and 40 years at SRM Medical College, Kattangulathur, Tamilnadu, India. In this study the volunteers were otherwise healthy and the smokers were enquired about their intensity of smoking using smoking index. Common hematological and lipid parameters were measured in all subjects. Comparison of smoking status and its intensity among the study subjects were analysed using t-test and ANOVA.. Results: There is a significant increase in levels of haemoglobin, hematocrit, total leukocyte count, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and reduced levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) among the smokers. Heavy smokers showed significant dyslipidemia,increase in red blood cell count, total leukocyte count and neutrophil count. Conclusion: Increase in hemoglobin, hematocrit, total leucocyte count and dyslipidemia were found significant among smokers and in heavy smokers there is dyslipidemia with increased RBC count, total leukocyte count with specific increase in neutrophils. As per the existing literature, these changes may lead to future fatal cardiac diseases among the smokers. PMID:25177557

  1. Minimal residual disease monitoring: the new standard for treatment evaluation of haematological malignancies?

    PubMed

    Hauwel, Mathieu; Matthes, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) refers to the small number of malignant cells that remain after therapy when the patient is in remission and shows no symptoms or overt signs of disease. Current treatment protocols for haematological malignancies allow most patients to obtain some form of MRD state, but cure seldom follows and in most cases fatal relapses occur sooner or later, leaving a bitter impression of having won a battle yet lost the war. MRD detection and quantification are used for evaluation of treatment efficiency, patient risk stratification and long-term outcome prediction. Whereas multicolour flow cytometry (MCFC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods constitute the two most commonly used techniques for MRD detection, next generation sequencing will certainly be widely employed in the future. As MRD reflects the nature of the malignant disease itself, including its sensitivity to the drug regimens applied, it constitutes the ideal method for surveillance and patient follow-up. The morphological examination of peripheral blood or bone marrow smears, although still an indispensable part of routine laboratory testing, is clearly insufficient for patient management, and clinicians should not ask themselves whether to look for MRD or not, but how and when. PMID:24452390

  2. Haematological Changes Associated with Aspergillus fumigatus Infection in Experimental Mycotic Abortion of Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Day, C. A.; Corbel, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The haematological changes specifically associated with Aspergillus fumigatus infection were studied in experimentally inoculated pregnant sheep. No significant changes in relation to infection were observed in the haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration or erythrocyte morphology of inoculated sheep. There was little evidence of changes in total leucocyte count in most sheep in the first few weeks following inoculation, although those animals receiving larger inocula showed signs of an increasing leucocytosis at the terminal phase of gestation. This increase was even more pronounced at the time of lambing or abortion. Compared with uninoculated pregnant controls, the mean relative neutrophil counts of the inoculated sheep tended to increase during the later stages of gestation and showed highly significant increases at the time of lambing or abortion. Both total leucocyte and relative neutrophil counts were significantly higher in those sheep showing signs of placental infection than in those inoculated animals with no evidence of placentitis. There was some evidence of a relationship between the dose of A. fumigatus conidia inoculated and the severity of infection as indicated by the number of animals aborting, extent of placental involvement and reduction in mean gestation period. Irrespective of inoculum size, only a proportion of inoculated animals developed detectable placentitis. PMID:4611461

  3. Modeling early haematologic adverse events in conformal and intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy in anal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Maxwell; Sabbagh, Ahmed; Muirhead, Rebecca; Durrant, Lisa; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Hawkins, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose To determine if there are differences between dose to pelvic bone marrow (PBM) using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) under UK guidance versus conformal radiotherapy (CRT) per ACT II protocol and if differences translate to rates of early haematological adverse events grade 3 or greater (HT3+). Methods and materials Two groups of 20+ patients, treated under IMRT and CRT regimes respectively, were identified. All patients underwent weekly blood cell count: haemoglobin (HgB), white cell count (WCC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and platelets (plats). Percent volume of PBM and sub structures receiving 525Gy were tested for statistical significance. Regression models were used to test for correlation to blood counts. NTCP modeling was also performed. Results PMB dose metrics showed a significant increase in the IMRT group. Regression analysis showed iliac and lumbosacral PBM dose metrics to associate with reduced nadir ANC and WCC. NTCP at HT3+ was 0.13 using IMRT relative to 0.07 using CRT (p<0.05). Conclusion Whilst this is a relatively small retrospective study and lacks information on the distribution of active PBM, IMRT treatment has been shown to significantly increase PMB irradiation. PBM dose metrics have been shown to be predictive of WCC and ANC suppression. NTCP modeling predicts much high risk of HT3+. Paradoxically, actual rates of HT3+ were comparable suggesting that differences in the distributions of dose metrics maybe a significant factor and/or that there are insufficiency in the NTCP modeling. PMID:26409831

  4. Reductions in immunosuppression after haematological or solid organ cancer diagnosis in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hope, Christopher M; Krige, Alice J; Barratt, Alex; Carroll, Robert P

    2015-11-01

    Few data exist on how immunosuppression is altered in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) following a diagnosis of cancer. This study investigated how immunosuppression was altered in KTR after cancer diagnosis and its effect on patient and graft survival. All KTR diagnosed with cancer at our centre from 1990 to 2012 were assessed. Drug regime and serum creatinine levels were recorded 1year before, at time of, and 1year after cancer diagnosis. Of 87 KTR who developed cancer (7.3% of transplanted population, n=1189), 30 developed haematological malignancies and 57 developed solid organ cancers (SOC). In total, 38% of KTR presented with nodal or metastatic disease and 23 of 87 (26%) KTR died within 6months of cancer diagnosis. Fifty-five KTR had records of pre- and postcancer diagnosis drug regimes. Thirty-six KTR had a (>50%) dose reduction or cessation of 1 or more immunosuppressive agents, and 19 no reduction in immunosuppression. In total, 2 of 36 (6%) of KTR who underwent a dose reduction suffered acute rejection that was reversed with methylprednisolone. Dose reduction/cessation of immunosuppression did not impair graft function, but also did not affect cancer free survival. Further larger prospective studies are needed to determine whether dose reduction alters relapse free cancer survival in KTR. PMID:26174703

  5. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia: Census of Patients Treated in Italian Haematology Units

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Gianfranco; Innocenti, Idanna; Autore, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by contacting the population of the Italian haematology units and collecting from 68% of them data concerning the number of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia visited over the previous 12 months, with the aim of obtaining an overview of the treatment of this disease and comparing the results with the prevalence estimates found in literature. The projection obtained (about 17,000 patients visited in the previous 12 months) is probably overestimated because of double-counting of patients who may have been treated at two different facilities during the year, although it is also underestimated since the internal medicine units were not involved. The balance of these two opposite factors is not known. It is important to bear in mind the approximation with which the count was performed in facilities for which no official data were available. Albeit with these limits, the results obtained are in line with some existing prevalence data and make it possible to determine the portion of patients at different Binet stages and in the various age ranges, identifying the corresponding therapeutic treatments. Use of the CIRS scale to classify patients as FIT and UNFIT was seen to be still somewhat limited. PMID:26543525

  6. Haematological toxicity: a marker of adjuvant chemotherapy efficacy in stage II and III breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Saarto, T.; Blomqvist, C.; Rissanen, P.; Auvinen, A.; Elomaa, I.

    1997-01-01

    Two hundred and eleven patients with node-positive stage II and III breast cancer were treated with eight cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy comprising cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and oral ftorafur (CAFt), with and without tamoxifen. All patients had undergone radical surgery, and 148 patients were treated with post-operative radiotherapy in two randomized studies. The impact of haematological toxicity of CAFt on distant disease-free (DDFS) and overall survival (OS) was recorded. Dose intensity of all given cycles (DI), dose intensity of the two initial cycles (DI2) and total dose (TD) were calculated separately for all chemotherapy drugs and were correlated with DDFS and OS. Patients with a lower leucocyte nadir during the chemotherapy had significantly better DDFS and OS (P = 0.01 and 0.04 respectively). Dose intensity of the two first cycles also correlated significantly with DDFS (P = 0.05) in univariate but not in multivariate analysis, while the leucocyte nadir retained its prognostic value. These results indicate that the leucocyte nadir during the adjuvant chemotherapy is a biological marker of chemotherapy efficacy; this presents the possibility of establishing an optimal dose intensity for each patient. The initial dose intensity of adjuvant chemotherapy also seems to be important in assuring the optimal effect of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:9010042

  7. To what extent will contaminated water affect physical, haematological and lipid properties of Clariasgariepinus?

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Olalekan; Oginni, Olatunde; Igbakin, Ayanfe P; Adeyemi, Oyeyemi; Osubor, Chris C

    2011-01-01

    Some haematological and physical properties of Clarias gariepinus cultivated in water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane over a period of 56 days were examined. The haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) concentrations of test animals were found to be significantly lower than those of control (p<0.05). The gain in body weight of male C. gariepinus cultivated in uncontaminated water (control), water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane was found to be 11.88 0.55, 13.5 0.62, 21.60 1.03 and 27.54 1.22 g, respectively. Serum cholesterol concentrations of fish cultivated in contaminated water were found to be significantly higher than those of control (p<0.05). The experimental results suggested that the pollutants may cause anaemia in the fish as evident in the Hb and PCV results. It could also be inferred that the gain in body weight may be due to impaired fat metabolism which might have led to elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the fish. It is our view that consumption of such fish may cause hypercholesterolemia. PMID:19801186

  8. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  9. A Label-Free Porous Silicon Immunosensor for Broad Detection of Opiates in a Blind Clinical Study and Result Comparison to Commercial Analytical Chemistry Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Lisa M.; Kwong, Tai C.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n=50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was < 9% both within-run and between-day at and above the cutoff limit of 300 ng ml?1. This study validates the analytical screening capability of label-free PSi opiate immunosensors in authentic patient samples and is the first semi-quantitative demonstration of the technologys successful clinical use. These results motivate future development of PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting. PMID:21062030

  10. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  11. Putative clinical piroplasmosis in a Burchell's zebra (Equus quagga burchelli).

    PubMed

    Lampen, F; Bhoora, R; Collins, N E; Penzhorn, B L

    2009-12-01

    A 10-year-old tame zebra gelding was presented after suffering from lethargy, nervousness, reported anaemia and icterus as well as a decreased appetite. These symptoms were seen over some months, with changing severity. The animal was immobilised, treated, and blood specimens were submitted for haematology and biochemistry. This report describes molecular characterisation of Theileria equi recovered from this animal, as well as the clinical findings, treatment and historical relevance of piroplasmosis in zebra in southern Africa. PMID:20458869

  12. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and, in addition, of the pressure, temperature, and velocity. A near term goal of the experimental program should be to confirm the nonlinear effects of sulfur speciation, and if present, to provide an explanation for them. It is also desirable to examine if the particulate matter retains any sulfur. The recommendation is to examine the effects on SOx production of variations in fuel-bound sulfur and aromatic content (which may affect the amount of particulates formed). These experiments should help us to understand if there is a coupling between particulate formation and SO, concentration. Similarly, any coupling with NOx can be examined either by introducing NOx into the combustion air or by using fuel-bound nitrogen. Also of immediate urgency is the need to establish and validate a detailed mechanism for sulfur oxidation/aerosol formation, whose chemistry is concluded to be homogeneous, because there is not enough surface area for heterogeneous effects. It is envisaged that this work will involve both experimental and theoretical programs. The experimental work will require, in addition to the measurements described above, fundamental studies in devices such as flow reactors and shock tubes. Complementing this effort should be modeling and theoretical activities. One impediment to the successful modeling of sulfur oxidation is the lack of reliable data for thermodynamic and transport properties for several species, such as aqueous nitric acid, sulfur oxides, and sulfuric acid. Quantum mechanical calculations are recommended as a convenient means of deriving values for these properties. Such calculations would also help establish rate constants for several important reactions for which experimental measurements are inherently fraught with uncertainty. Efforts to implement sufficiently detailed chemistry into computational fluid dynamic codes should be continued. Zero- and one-dimensional flow models are also useful vehicles for elucidating the minimal set of species and reactions that must be included in two- and three-dimensional modeling studies.

  13. The course of toxicity in the pregnant mouse after exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin: clinical effects, serum chemistries, hematology, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, N; Rogers, E H; Zehr, R D; Gage, M I; Travlos, G S; Malarkey, D E; Brix, A; Schmid, J E; Hill, D

    2014-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin produced by a variety of fresh-water cyanobacterial species worldwide and induces significant adverse effects in both livestock and humans. This study investigated the course of CYN-induced toxicity in pregnant mice exposed daily during either the period of major organogenesis (gestation days [GD] 8-12) or fetal growth (GD13-17). Endpoints include clinical signs of toxicity, serum analyses to evaluate hepatic and renal function, histopathology of liver and kidney, and hematology. Study animals were administered 50 μg/kg CYN once daily by ip route and euthanized 24 h after 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 consecutive doses, or 6 or 13 d after the dosing period. The course of the CYN-induced effects was determined at all euthanasia times for the endpoints just outlined. Results indicated that CYN is a toxin, producing lethality in dams during the early part of gestation, significant weight loss, and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, tail tip, and peri-orbital tissues. Effects also included alterations in serum markers for liver function, histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues, electrolyte abnormalities, leukocytosis, and posttreatment thrombocytopenia and reticulocytosis. The onset of symptoms was rapid, producing reductions in weight gain in GD8-12 animals, bleeding in the vaginal area in GD13-17 animals, and significant increases in sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) in both groups after a single dose. Although the GD8-12 dams displayed a 50% lethality, in GD13-17 animals only a single death occurred. Alterations seen in hepatic and renal function or histopathology do not appear to be of sufficient severity to produce death. Evidence indicates that bleeding may play a critical role in the onset of symptoms and eventually, in the observed lethality. PMID:25072824

  14. A case/control study of adult haematological malignancies in relation to overhead powerlines.

    PubMed Central

    Youngson, J. H.; Clayden, A. D.; Myers, A.; Cartwright, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    A population based case control study of adult haematological malignancy and distance from, and magnetic fields associated with, overhead (OH) power lines has been carried out in the North West and Yorkshire regions of England. Three-thousand, one hundred and forty-four cases with histologically proven disease were entered into the study. One control per case, matched for age, sex, year of diagnosis and health district of residence, was selected from hospital discharges. Seven per cent of cases and controls lived near to OH power lines as defined by the study protocol. The measure of exposure used was the calculated magnetic field strength at each of these addresses due to maximum load currents carried by OH power lines in the 5 years preceding diagnosis. The odds ratio (OR) for living within 50 m of an OH line was 1.29 with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 0.99-1.68 but a chi 2 test for trend with distance was not statistically significant. The analysis of calculated magnetic fields, did not produce any statistically odds ratios. The OR for magnetic fields greater than or equal to 0.1 mG was 1.03 (95% CI 0.81 1.32). Analysis of magnetic fields greater than or equal to 3.0 mG gave an OR of 1.87 (95% CI 0.79 4.42), but this result is based on small numbers. No evidence was found for confounding by the type of dwelling which was used as a partial surrogate for socio-economic status. PMID:2069855

  15. Impact of age on haematological markers pre- and post-marathon running.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas G; Pata, Rachel W; D'Addario, Johanna; Yuknis, Lauren; Kingston, Rebecca; Feinn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether haematological markers differ between young and masters marathon participants, running at similar performance levels. Nine young (31.89 ± 4.96 years) and eight masters (63.13 ± 4.61 years) runners participated. At five time points (pre-race through 54 h post-race), a complete blood cell count, basic metabolic panel and creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme panel were assessed. Race performance was standardised using the World Masters Association Age Grading Performance Tables. Total CK levels were elevated for all participants at all time points post-race (P < 0.001). The CK-isoenzyme MB% was elevated across groups at 6, 30 and 54 h post-race (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), with masters runners having a higher CK-MB% at 30 and 54 h (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Total white blood cell and neutrophil counts were elevated through 6 h post-race (P < 0.001), with higher levels found in younger runners (P < 0.001). When considering all blood work, masters runners had a higher number of abnormal values at 6, 30 and 54 h post-race (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). In conclusion, masters runners demonstrated sustained CK-MB elevation, which may suggest greater cardiac stress. However, future studies using additional cardiac markers should be completed to confirm these findings. In addition, masters runners showed an increased number of laboratory values outside normal range, indicating the body's reduced capacity to respond to marathon running. PMID:25789424

  16. A Genome-wide screen identifies frequently methylated genes in haematological and epithelial cancers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic as well as epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of both epithelial and haematological malignancies. High throughput screens are required to identify epigenetic markers that can be useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes across malignancies. Results Here we report for the first time the use of the MIRA assay (methylated CpG island recovery assay) in combination with genome-wide CpG island arrays to identify epigenetic molecular markers in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on a genome-wide scale. We identified 30 genes demonstrating methylation frequencies of ≥25% in childhood ALL, nine genes showed significantly different methylation frequencies in B vs T-ALL. For majority of the genes expression could be restored in methylated leukemia lines after treatment with 5-azaDC. Forty-four percent of the genes represent targets of the polycomb complex. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) two of the genes, (TFAP2A and EBF2), demonstrated increased methylation in blast crisis compared to chronic phase (P < 0.05). Furthermore hypermethylation of an autophagy related gene ATG16L2 was associated with poorer prognosis in terms of molecular response to Imatinib treatment. Lastly we demonstrated that ten of these genes were also frequently methylated in common epithelial cancers. Conclusion In summary we have identified a large number of genes showing frequent methylation in childhood ALL, methylation status of two of these genes is associated with advanced disease in CML and methylation status of another gene is associated with prognosis. In addition a subset of these genes may act as epigenetic markers across hematological malignancies as well as common epithelial cancers. PMID:20184741

  17. Distribution of haematological indices among subjects with Blastocystis hominis infection compared to controls

    PubMed Central

    Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Soltani, Shahrzad; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Yousefi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some studies suggest Blastocystis hominis is a potentially pathogenic protozoa. Blastocystis hominis contributed to anaemia in children aged 8–10 years old in one study. Aim To compare haematological indices in cases with blastocystis hominis infection with healthy controls. Material and methods From 2001 to 2012, 97600 stool examinations were done in 4 university hospitals. Parasites were observed in 46,200 specimens. Of these cases, subjects with complete laboratory investigation (complete blood count – CBC, ferritin, total iron binding capacity – TIBC, and serum) and blastocystis hominis infection were included in this study as the case group. Of these cases, 6851 cases had only B. hominis infection. In the control group, 3615 subjects without parasite infestation were included. Age, haemoglobin (Hb), serum iron, TIBC, white blood cell (WBC), platelet (PLT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), haematocrit (HCT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were recorded for cases and controls. SPSS software version 13.0 was used for analysis. Independent sample t-test and χ2 tests were used for comparison. Results Erythrocyte sedimentation rate level was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein level was positive in 1.46% of cases and 0.5% of controls, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Frequency of serum iron < 120 was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection compared to controls. Occult blood was positive in 0.93% of cases and in none of the controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions The ESR, CRP and occult blood was significantly higher in cases with B. hominis infection. PMID:24868297

  18. Intracranial haemorrhage in thrombocytopenic haematology patientsa nested casecontrol study: the InCiTe study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Collett, Dave; Murphy, Mike F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most serious side-effects of severe thrombocytopenia in haematology patients. ICH is rare, but can have devastating consequences (death or major morbidity). It is unknown why some patients with severe thrombocytopenia bleed and others do not. Study aims Primary aim was to identify risk factors for ICH in patients with haematological malignancies. Secondary aims were to identify short-term outcomes for these patients at 30?days (major morbidity and mortality) and produce a more accurate estimate of ICH incidence in this population. This information is key to identifying means to improve treatment and quality of care. Methods/analysis This is a UK-wide casecontrol study of ICH nested within a 4-year prospective surveillance study set up specifically for the casecontrol study. Each case will be matched to one control. Cases will be adult haematology patients (?16?years) who have had any type or severity of ICH who are receiving, about to receive or have just received myeloablative chemotherapy (defined as chemotherapy expected to cause a significant thrombocytopenia <50109/L for >5?days) or a haemopoietic stem cell transplant. Only patients being treated with curative intent will be included. Controls will be patients who fulfil the same inclusion criteria as cases (apart from ICH) and were treated at the same hospital immediately before the index case. Cases and controls will be matched to type of treatment (myeloablative chemotherapy or haemopoietic stem cell transplant). Hospitals across the UK will participate in a monthly email reporting strategy (started June 2011), as to whether a case of ICH occurred during the preceding calendar month. Case and control forms will be sent to any hospital reporting an eligible case. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate ORs. Denominator data for incidence estimates will use national registry data. Study Registration ISRCTN05026912 (prospective registration). NIHR Portfolio (UKCRN ID 10712). PMID:24508852

  19. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making Chemistry Studies More Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the…

  20. The Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (SUNS) for haematological cancer survivors: a cross-sectional study assessing the relevance and psychometric properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Relevant and psychometrically sound needs assessment tools are necessary for accurate assessment of haematological cancer survivors unmet needs. No previous study has developed nor psychometrically evaluated a comprehensive needs assessment tool for use with population-based samples of haematological cancer survivors. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Survivor Unmet Needs Survey (SUNS) with haematological cancer survivors. Methods The relevance, content and face validity of the SUNS to haematological cancer survivors was assessed using qualitative interviews. Psychometric evaluation was conducted using data collected from haematological cancer survivors, aged 1880 years at recruitment and recruited from four Australian cancer registries. Construct, convergent and discriminant validity; internal reliability and floor and ceiling effects were assessed. A second survey was completed by a sub-sample of survivors recruited from two of the four registries to assess test-retest reliability. Results Results from 17 qualitative interviews confirmed the relevance, face and content validity of the original items of the SUNS for use with haematological cancer survivors. Overall, 1,957 eligible haematological cancer survivors were contacted by the cancer registries. Of these 1,280 were sent a survey, and 715 returned a survey (37% of eligible survivors contacted and 56% of survivors sent a survey). A total of 529 survivors completed all 89 items of the SUNS and were included in the exploratory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis supported the original five-factor structure of the SUNS. Evidence for convergent validity was established, with all five domains of the SUNS illustrating a moderate positive correlation with all three subscales of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). All Cronbachs alpha values were above 0.9 and all corrected item-total correlations were acceptable (>0.2). Criteria for discriminant validity was not met, with only 10 of the 15 (67%) a-priori hypotheses supported. Test-retest reliability was acceptable for 40 of the 89 items (45%) and for three of the five domains. Significant floor effects were evident for all five domains. Conclusions The SUNS demonstrates evidence for multiple features of validity and reliability as a measure of unmet needs for haematological cancer survivors. However, evidence supporting some psychometric properties was limited. PMID:24886475

  1. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  2. A blood chemistry profile for lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1999-01-01

    A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.

  3. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  4. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Blanco, Patricia; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews; this review compares different platelet transfusion doses. Objectives To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy with or without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with malignant haematological disorders or undergoing HSCT that compared different platelet component doses (low dose 1.1 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, standard dose 2.2 × 1011/m2 ± 25%, high dose 4.4 × 1011/m2 ± 25%). Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included seven trials (1814 participants) in this review; six were conducted during one course of treatment (chemotherapy or HSCT). Overall the methodological quality of studies was low to moderate across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity. Five studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the low-dose and standard-dose groups (four studies; 1170 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.13; moderate-quality evidence); low-dose and high-dose groups (one study; 849 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence); or high-dose and standard-dose groups (two studies; 951 participants; RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11; moderate-quality evidence). Three studies reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant. There was no difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the low-dose and standard-dose groups (two studies; 230 participants; mean difference −0.17, 95% CI −0.51 to 0.17; low quality evidence). One study (855 participants) showed no difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between high-dose and standard-dose groups, or between low-dose and high-dose groups (849 participants). Three studies reported the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding. There was no difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a low-dose and a standard-dose platelet transfusion policy (three studies; 1059 participants; RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.92; low-quality evidence); low-dose and high-dose groups (one study; 849 participants; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.77; low-quality evidence); or high-dose and standard-dose groups (one study; 855 participants; RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.68; low-quality evidence). Two studies reported the time to first bleeding episodes; we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Both studies (959 participants) individually found that the time to first bleeding episode was either the same, or longer, in the low-dose group compared to the standard-dose group. One study (855 participants) found that the time to the first bleeding episode was the same in the high-dose group compared to the standard-dose group. Three studies reported all-cause mortality within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no difference in all-cause mortality between treatment arms (low-dose versus standard-dose: three studies; 1070 participants; RR 2.04, 95% CI 0.70 to 5.93; low-quality evidence; low-dose versus high-dose: one study; 849 participants; RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.50 to 3.54; low-quality evidence; and high-dose versus standard-dose: one study; 855 participants; RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.51 to 5.81; low-quality evidence). Six studies reported the number of platelet transfusions; we were unable to perform a meta-analysis. Two studies (959 participants) out of three (1070 participants) found that a low-dose transfusion strategy led to more transfusion episodes than a standard-dose. One study (849 participants) found that a low-dose transfusion strategy led to more transfusion episodes than a high-dose strategy. One study (855 participants) out of three (1007 participants) found no difference in the number of platelet transfusions between the high-dose and standard-dose groups. One study reported on transfusion reactions. This study’s authors suggested that a high-dose platelet transfusion strategy may lead to a higher rate of transfusion-related adverse events. None of the studies reported quality-of-life. Authors’ conclusions In haematology patients who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT, we found no evidence to suggest that a low-dose platelet transfusion policy is associated with an increased bleeding risk compared to a standard-dose or high-dose policy, or that a high-dose platelet transfusion policy is associated with a decreased risk of bleeding when compared to a standard-dose policy. A low-dose platelet transfusion strategy leads to an increased number of transfusion episodes compared to a standard-dose strategy. A high-dose platelet transfusion strategy does not decrease the number of transfusion episodes per participant compared to a standard-dose regimen, and it may increase the number of transfusion-related adverse events. Findings from this review would suggest a change from current practice, with low-dose platelet transfusions used for people receiving in-patient treatment for their haematological disorder and high-dose platelet transfusion strategies not being used routinely. PMID:26505729

  5. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and previously updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review compares prophylactic platelet transfusion thresholds. Objectives To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6, 23 July 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with haematological disorders (receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT) that compared different thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (low trigger (5 × 109/L); standard trigger (10 × 109/L); higher trigger (20 × 109/L, 30 × 109/L, 50 × 109/L); or alternative platelet trigger (for example platelet mass)). Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results Three trials met our predefined inclusion criteria and were included for analysis in the review (499 participants). All three trials compared a standard trigger (10 × 109/L) versus a higher trigger (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). None of the trials compared a low trigger versus a standard trigger or an alternative platelet trigger. The trials were conducted between 1991 and 2001 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. The original review contained four trials (658 participants); in the previous update of this review we excluded one trial (159 participants) because fewer than 80% of participants had a haematological disorder. We identified no new trials in this update of the review. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the included studies had some threats to validity. Three studies reported the number of participants with at least one clinically significant bleeding episode within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no evidence of a difference in the number of participants with a clinically significant bleeding episode between the standard and higher trigger groups (three studies; 499 participants; risk ratio (RR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.90; low-quality evidence). One study reported the number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event (adjusted for repeated measures). There was no evidence of a difference in the number of days of bleeding per participant between the standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 255 participants; relative proportion of days with World Health Organization Grade 2 or worse bleeding (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.84 to 3.48, P = 0.162; authors’ own results; low-quality evidence). Two studies reported the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding. There was no evidence of any difference in the number of participants with severe or life-threatening bleeding between a standard trigger level and a higher trigger level (two studies; 421 participants; RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.88; low-quality evidence). Only one study reported the time to first bleeding episode. There was no evidence of any difference in the time to the first bleeding episode between a standard trigger level and a higher trigger level (one study; 255 participants; hazard ratio 1.11, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.91; low-quality evidence). Only one study reported on all-cause mortality within 30 days from the start of the study. There was no evidence of any difference in all-cause mortality between standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 255 participants; RR 1.78, 95% CI 0.83 to 3.81; low-quality evidence). Three studies reported on the number of platelet transfusions per participant. Two studies reported on the mean number of platelet transfusions per participant. There was a significant reduction in the number of platelet transfusions per participant in the standard trigger group (two studies, mean difference −2.09, 95% CI −3.20 to −0.99; low-quality evidence). One study reported on the number of transfusion reactions. There was no evidence to demonstrate any difference in transfusion reactions between the standard and higher trigger groups (one study; 79 participants; RR 0.07, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.09). None of the studies reported on quality of life. Authors’ conclusions In people with haematological disorders who are thrombocytopenic due to myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT, we found low-quality evidence that a standard trigger level (10 × 109/L) is associated with no increase in the risk of bleeding when compared to a higher trigger level (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). There was low-quality evidence that a standard trigger level is associated with a decreased number of transfusion episodes when compared to a higher trigger level (20 × 109/L or 30 × 109/L). Findings from this review were based on three studies and 499 participants. Without further evidence, it is reasonable to continue with the current practice of administering prophylactic platelet transfusions using the standard trigger level (10 × 109/L) in the absence of other risk factors for bleeding. PMID:26576687

  6. Primary prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. Recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Cornely, Oliver A.; Bhme, Angelika; Buchheidt, Dieter; Einsele, Hermann; Heinz, Werner J.; Karthaus, Meinolf; Krause, Stefan W.; Krger, William; Maschmeyer, Georg; Penack, Olaf; Ritter, Jrg; Ruhnke, Markus; Sandherr, Michael; Sieniawski, Michal; Vehreschild, Jrg-Janne; Wolf, Hans-Heinrich; Ullmann, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    There is no widely accepted standard for antifungal prophylaxis in patients with hematologic malignancies. The Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Oncology assigned a committee of hematologists and infectious disease specialists to develop recommendations. Literature data bases were systematically searched for clinical trials on antifungal prophylaxis. The studies identified were shared within the committee. Data were extracted by two of the authors (OAC and MSi). The consensus process was conducted by email communication. Finally, a review committee discussed the proposed recommendations. After consensus was established the recommendations were finalized. A total of 86 trials were identified including 16,922 patients. Only a few trials yielded significant differences in efficacy. Fluconazole 400 mg/d improved the incidence rates of invasive fungal infections and attributable mortality in allogeneic stem cell recipients. Posaconazole 600 mg/d reduced the incidence of IFI and attributable mortality in allogeneic stem cell recipients with severe graft versus host disease, and in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome additionally reduced overall mortality. Aerosolized liposomal amphotericin B reduced the incidence rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Posaconazole 600 mg/d is recommended in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome or undergoing allogeneic stem cell recipients with graft versus host disease for the prevention of invasive fungal infections and attributable mortality (Level A I). Fluconazole 400 mg/d is recommended in allogeneic stem cell recipients until development of graft versus host disease only (Level A I). Aerosolized liposomal amphotericin B is recommended during prolonged neutropenia (Level B II). PMID:19066334

  7. Contribution of new diagnostic approaches to antifungal treatment plans in high-risk haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Einsele, H; Loeffler, J

    2008-05-01

    In high-risk patient cohorts, such as patients after solid-organ or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, or patients with acute leukaemia, early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is essential, as delayed or missing diagnosis of IFI results in increasing rates of mortality. However, diagnosis of most IFIs, especially of invasive aspergillosis, is difficult because classic tests have low sensitivity and specificity, and radiology often provides non-specific and transient results. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional assays for the detection of IFI and the growing number of immunocompromised patients who are at risk for opportunistic fungal infections have led to the development of new assays. These methods include antigen detection systems, such as ELISAs, and different molecular methods (PCR assays). Serological tests, such as the detection of the carbohydrate galactomannan, are standardised and commercially available. However, they still need to be evaluated in large patient cohorts, especially children. The benefit of antibody detection remains unclear if patients are under immune suppression or are heavily colonised but not infected. A range of different PCR assays (conventional, nested, real-time) have been developed, targeting different gene regions (cytochrome P450, heat-shock proteins, 18S, 5.8S, 28S, internal transcribed spacer), including a variety of amplicon detection methods, such as gel electrophoresis, hybridisation with specific probes, ELISA and restriction fragment length polymorphism. These molecular assays provide high potential in terms of sensitivity and specificity, but vary widely in their feasibility and up to now have not been standardised. Taken together, new non-culture-based diagnostic assays are appropriate as simple and rapid screening tests with high sensitivities and quick turnaround times. Thus, they might help to reduce empirical antifungal therapy and might be valuable tools to allow early initiation and monitoring of pre-emptive antifungal therapy. In this review, we assess the performance of a variety of non-culture-based tests for the detection of IFI in high-risk haematological patients, with emphasis on the impact of the assays on different management strategies. PMID:18430128

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of the Aspergillus-specific bronchoalveolar lavage lateral-flow assay in haematological malignancy patients.

    PubMed

    Prattes, Juergen; Lackner, Michaela; Eigl, Susanne; Reischies, Frederike; Raggam, Reinhard B; Koidl, Christoph; Flick, Holger; Wurm, Robert; Palfner, Michael; Wlfler, Albert; Neumeister, Peter; Thornton, Christopher R; Krause, Robert; Lass-Flrl, Cornelia; Hoenigl, Martin

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus-specific lateral-flow device (LFD) test for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with underlying haematological malignancies. Participating centres were the two Austrian University Hospitals of Graz and Innsbruck. LFD performance was evaluated with 95 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 72 patients collected prospectively in Graz, and with 24 BALF bio bank samples from 23 patients (21 samples with probable IPA) in Innsbruck. Invasive fungal infections were classified according to the revised European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. Overall, 27 patients (30 samples) had probable IPA, 32 (43 samples) possible and 36 (46 samples) did not fulfil IPA criteria. The vast majority of patients - in particular those with probable IPA - received mould-active treatment before bronchoscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative-predictive-value for probable IPA diagnosis using the BALF-LFD test were 71%, 76%, 35% and 94% for the Graz cohort. Sensitivity of the BALF-LFD test for probable IPA was 57% in Innsbruck bio bank samples. Our results indicate that the BALF-LFD-test provides fast results with moderate sensitivities in patients with underlying haematological malignancies. Similar to other diagnostic tests and biomarkers sensitivity of the test may be influenced by ongoing systemic mould-active treatment. PMID:26103209

  9. Consensus guidelines for the treatment of yeast infections in the haematology, oncology and intensive care setting, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Sorrell, T C; Chang, C C; Paige, E K; Bryant, P A; Slavin, M A

    2014-12-01

    Pathogenic yeast forms are commonly associated with invasive fungal disease in the immunocompromised host, including patients with haematological malignancies and patients of haemopoietic stem cell transplants. Yeasts include the Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Pneumocystis jirovecii and some lesser-known pathogens. Candida species remain the most common cause of invasive yeast infections (and the most common human pathogenic fungi). These guidelines present evidence-based recommendations for the antifungal management of established, invasive yeast infections in adult and paediatric patients in the haematology/oncology setting. Consideration is also given to the critically ill patient in intensive care units, including the neonatal intensive care unit. Evidence for 'pre-emptive' or 'diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy' is also discussed. For the purposes of this paper, invasive yeast diseases are categorised under the headings of invasive candidiasis, cryptococcosis and uncommon yeast infections. Specific recommendations for the management of Pneumocystis jirovecii are presented in an accompanying article (see consensus guidelines by Cooley et al. appearing elsewhere in this supplement). PMID:25482743

  10. Indications for allo- and auto-SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders: current practice in Europe, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sureda, A; Bader, P; Cesaro, S; Dreger, P; Duarte, R F; Dufour, C; Falkenburg, J H F; Farge-Bancel, D; Gennery, A; Krger, N; Lanza, F; Marsh, J C; Nagler, A; Peters, C; Velardi, A; Mohty, M; Madrigal, A

    2015-08-01

    This is the sixth special report that the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation regularly publishes on the current practice and indications for haematopoietic SCT for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders in Europe. Major changes have occurred in the field of haematopoietic SCT over the last years. Cord blood units as well as haploidentical donors have been increasingly used as stem cell sources for allo-SCT, thus, augmenting the possibility of finding a suitable donor for a patient. Continuous refinement of conditioning strategies has also expanded not only the number of potential indications but also has permitted consideration of older patients or those with co-morbidity for a transplant. There is accumulating evidence of the role of haematopoietic SCT in non-haematological disorders such as autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, the advent of new drugs and very effective targeted therapy has challenged the role of SCT in some instances or at least, modified its position in the treatment armamentarium of a given patient. An updated report with revised tables and operating definitions is presented. PMID:25798672

  11. Risk Factors and Scoring System for Predicting Bacterial Resistance to Cefepime as Used Empirically in Haematology Wards

    PubMed Central

    El Maaroufi, Hicham; Goubard, Agathe; Redjoul, Rabah; Legrand, Patrick; Pautas, Ccile; Mikdame, Mohamed; Doghmi, Kamal; Toma, Andra; Maury, Sbastien; Schwarzinger, Michael; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Bacterial resistance is of growing concern in haematology wards. As the inappropriate administration of empirical antibacterial may alter survival, we studied risk factors for resistance to our usual empirical first-line antibacterial therapy, cefepime. Methods. We retrospectively studied 103 first episodes of bacteraemia recorded in our haematology department over 2.5 years. Risk factors for cefepime-resistance were identified by multivariate logistic regression with backward selection (P < 0.05). A scoring system for predicting cefepime-resistance was built on independent factor, with an internal validation by the bootstrap resampling technique. Results. 38 (37%) episodes were due to Gram-negative bacteria. Fifty (49%) were due to bacteria resistant to cefepime. Cefepime resistance was significantly associated with a decreased survival at day 30 (P < 0.05). Three risk factors were independently associated with cefepime-resistance: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; ?18 days since hospital admission; and receipt of any ?-lactam in the last month. Patients with ?2 of these risk factors had a probability of 86% (CI 95%, 25 to 100%) to carry a cefepime-resistant strain. Conclusion. Using our scoring system should reduce the indication of very broad antibacterial regimens in the empirical, first-line treatment of febrile hematology patients in more than 80% of the cases. PMID:26075276

  12. Preliminary study of the fungal ecology at the haematology and medical-oncology ward in Bamako, Mali.

    PubMed

    Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Normand, Anne Cécile; Diallo, Yacouba Lazarre; Dembelé, Abdoul Karim; Thera, Mahamadou A; Diallo, Dapa; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ranque, Stéphane

    2014-08-01

    Data on fungal epidemiology in sub-Saharan African countries are scarce. This exploratory study aimed to characterize the fungal flora at the Onco-Haematology ward of the National Teaching Hospital of Point G in Bamako, Mali. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dry and in the rainy seasons. Nasal swab and sputum samples were collected from the hospitalized patients while airborne fungal spores were collected using electrostatic dust-fall collectors. Fungi were identified by their morphological characteristics and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Candida albicans was the most frequent yeast species colonizing patients; Aspergillus species were isolated in 86 % of the patients and were the main airborne environmental contaminants. Overall, airborne fungal contamination rates increased from 33.8 % in the dry to 66.2 % in the rainy season (p < 0.001). The most frequent Aspergillus species were Aspergillus niger (36.6 %) and Aspergillus flavus (32.92 %). In contrast, Aspergillus fumigatus (5.43 %) was relatively rare. This high level of fungal exposure raises concern regarding the management of at-risk patients in this Onco-Haematology ward and stresses the need for strengthening the mycological diagnostic capacities to accompany the implementation of adapted fungal infection prevention and management policies. PMID:24889723

  13. Crevice chemistry estimation from bulk water chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Shoda, Y.; Arioka, K.; Hattori, T.; Ohta, H.; Okamoto, S.; Takamatsu, H.; Kadokami, E.; Takami, K.; Kamio, R.

    1996-12-31

    Since the first PWR plant in Japan started commercial operation in 1970, 22 plants are running in Japan as of the end of 1994. The main purpose of secondary water chemistry control is to minimize the corrosion possibility of the secondary system equipment, especially steam generators (SG). To achieve this objective, much effort has been concentrated on improving secondary water chemistry control. As a result of this effort, the recent secondary water chemistry in Japanese plants is well maintained in every stage of operation. However, to ensure and improve the reliability of SG, it is necessary to control crevice environments, which are located at tube/tube support plate intersections and under the sludge pile on the tube sheet. According to recent crevice monitoring examination results, the concentration behavior impurities in SG bulk water at the crevice is different for each species, and SG bulk water and crevice chemical compositions are not always equal. From these results, to control the crevice chemistry, improving bulk water chemistry control methods and a new type of molar ratio control index is needed. This paper introduces a brief summary of a recent crevice chemistry evaluation technique and bulk water chemistry control method, which is employed for crevice chemistry control, based on crevice monitoring examination results.

  14. Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu; Ramasamy, Ramesh; Gopal, Niranjan; Kuzhandaivelu, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria. PMID:24627875

  15. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  16. Chemistry for Potters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  17. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  18. Special Report: Brain Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krassner, Michael B.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical actions in the brain result in cognitive, emotional, neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and/or neurocirculatory effects. Developments in understanding brain chemistry are discussed, considering among others, neurotransmitter chemistry, neuropeptides, drugs and the brain, antidepressants, and actions of minor tranquilizers. (JN)

  19. History of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, John W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the development of chemistry in the United States by considering: (1) chemistry as an evolving body of ideas/techniques, and as a set of conceptual resources affecting and affected by the development of other sciences; and (2) chemistry related to the history of American social and economic institutions and practices. (JN)

  20. Chemistry of atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The subjects covered in this textbook include stratospheric ozone and anthropogenic threats to its concentration, chemistry of the troposphere including air pollution, acid rain, and increasing concentrations of several trace gases, ionospheric chemistry and the chemistry of excited metastable chemical species, air glow radiation, planetary atmospheres, climatic change, and the climatic impact of trace gases.

  1. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),

  2. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  3. Mechanisms in Photographic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahyun, M. R. V.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews current research interests in photographic chemistry, involving two proposed models for spectral sensitization of crystal defects and impurities in the photolysis reactivity and the mechanisms of development and complexation. Establishment of photographic chemistry in a chemistry curriculum is recommended. (CC)

  4. A chronicler of chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-04-01

    Thomas Hager, author of popular science books that revisit some of the most significant developments in chemistry over the past century, talks to Nature Chemistry about the challenges of writing for a general audience, and how his dislike of chemistry was turned around by a fellow Oregonian of considerable repute.

  5. Chemistry on Stamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, James O.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests how postage stamps can be incorporated into chemistry teaching. Categories considered include emergence of chemistry as a science, metric system, atoms (and molecules and ions), stoichiometry, energy relationships in chemical systems, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, matter (gases, liquids, and solids),…

  6. Teaching School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, D. J., Ed.

    This eight-chapter book is intended for use by chemistry teachers, curriculum developers, teacher educators, and other key personnel working in the field of chemical education. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Face of Chemistry" (J. A. Campbell); (2) "Curriculum Innovation in School Chemistry" (R. B. Ingel and A. M. Ranaweera); (3) "Some

  7. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... hardware components, as well as raw data storage mechanisms, data acquisition software, and software...

  8. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... hardware components, as well as raw data storage mechanisms, data acquisition software, and software...

  9. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... hardware components, as well as raw data storage mechanisms, data acquisition software, and software...

  10. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical... hardware components, as well as raw data storage mechanisms, data acquisition software, and software...

  11. Laser applications in chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kompa, K.L.; Wanner, J.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents information on laser and related light sources, laser applications to analytical chemistry, spectroscopic and dynamical studies, and approaches to laser synthesis. Topics on these subjects include: laser sources for chemical experiments, high power optically pumped mid-infrared molecular gas lasers, analytical chemistry methods based on absorption of laser light, laser excited fluorescence methods in analytical chemistry, nonlinear spectroscopic techniques and their applications to analytical chemistry, and VUV laser spectroscopy of atomic and molecular hydrogen. Laser spectroscopy of molecular ions is discussed along with photodissociation dynamics experiments with NO/sub 2/, multiphoton selective ionization and fragmentation of polyatomic molecules, and laser initiated free radical chemistry.

  12. Haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Shpigel, N Y; Avidar, Y; Yakobson, B; King, R; Shamir, M

    2005-09-10

    Blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. Haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. The measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but the jackals had higher white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts than dogs. The male jackals had a higher haematocrit, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and a lower red blood cell distribution width than the female jackals. High activities of muscle enzymes were detected in many of the jackals, in several of which the activity of creatine kinase exceeded 5000 U/l; these were considered abnormal. PMID:16155240

  13. Non-transferrin-bound iron in haematological patients during chemotherapy and conditioning for autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sahlstedt, Leila; von Bonsdorff, Leni; Ebeling, Freja; Parkkinen, Jaakko; Juvonen, Eeva; Ruutu, Tapani

    2009-11-01

    Free iron induced hydroxyl radical formation is one possible mechanism for tissue injury during cytotoxic therapy. We studied the appearance of free, non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) at baseline and during the 20-d period after the onset of cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing intensive chemotherapy or conditioning for autologous stem cell transplantation (aSCT). NTBI was detected on average for 15.6 d in patients treated with chemotherapy only, and for 6.1 d in patients undergoing aSCT. The recovery of the bone marrow function coincided with the disappearance of NTBI. The type of the conditioning regimen was also associated with the appearance of NTBI. The timing of the presence of NTBI accords with the presence of the most important non-infectious complication of intensive chemotherapy and autologous transplantation, mucosal injury, and free iron is likely to contribute to this and probably other complications of the intensive treatments. PMID:19572995

  14. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Aghwan, Z. A.; Sazili, A. Q.; Alimon, A. R.; Goh, Y. M.; Hilmi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se), iodine (I), and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px) activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 221.17 kg live weight) Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group). Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON) received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS), or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI), or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI). The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), white blood cells (WBC), band neutrophils (B Neut), segmented neutrophils (S Neut), lymphocytes (Lymph), monocytes (Mono), eosinophils (Eosin) and basophils (Baso) were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05) in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI) significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats. PMID:25049744

  15. Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p<0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029

  16. Growth and haematological response of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 to 13 weeks to varying dietary lysine to energy ratios.

    PubMed

    Alabi, O J; Ng'ambi, J W; Mbajiorgu, E F; Norris, D; Mabelebele, M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of feeding varying dietary lysine to energy levels on growth and haematological values of indigenous Venda chickens aged 8 - 13 weeks was evaluated. Four hundred and twenty Venda chickens (BW 362 10 g) were allocated to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated seven times, and each replicate had fifteen chickens. Four maize-soya beans-based diets were formulated. Each diet had similar CP (150 g/kg DM) and lysine (8 g lysine/kg DM) but varying energy levels (11, 12, 13 and 14 MJ ME/kg DM). The birds were reared in a deep litter house; feed and water were provided ad libitum. Data on growth and haematological values were collected and analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Duncan's test for multiple comparisons was used to test the significant difference between treatment means (p < 0.05). A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary lysine to energy ratios for optimum parameters which were significant difference. Results showed that dietary energy level influenced (p < 0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, haemoglobin and pack cell volume values of chickens. Dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. Also, white blood cell, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration in female Venda chickens aged 91 days were not influenced by dietary lysine to energy ratio. It is concluded that dietary lysine to energy ratios of 0.672, 0.646, 0.639 and 0.649 optimized feed intake, growth rate, FCR and live weight in indigenous female Venda chickens fed diets containing 8 g of lysine/kg DM, 150 g of CP/kg DM and 11 MJ of ME/kg DM. This has implications in diet formulation for indigenous female Venda chickens. PMID:25495676

  17. Haematological, serum electrolyte and blood gas effects of small volume hypertonic saline in experimentally induced haemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Schmall, L M; Muir, W W; Robertson, J T

    1990-07-01

    The effects of treatment with small volume hypertonic (2400 mOsm/litre) and isotonic (300 mOsm/litre) saline on serum electrolyte and biochemical concentrations, haemograms and blood gases were evaluated in 12 horses using a haemorrhagic shock model. Intravascular catheters were placed surgically for sample collection prior to anaesthesia. Controlled haemorrhage was initiated and continued until mean systemic pressure reached 50 to 60 mmHg. Hypertonic or isotonic saline (2 litres) was administered by intravenous infusion and data collected for 2 h. Following haemorrhage, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, blood glucose concentrations and erythrocyte numbers increased whereas plasma total protein and albumin concentrations decreased. Infusion of hypertonic saline resulted in a further decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations. Glucose concentrations and other haematological variables were unaffected. Isotonic saline administration did not affect electrolyte, total protein or albumin concentrations. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were unaffected by hypotension but increased significantly following hypertonic saline treatment, exceeding normal values during the immediate post treatment period. Serum osmolality increased concurrently. No significant changes in arterial and venous blood gas values were observed with haemorrhage or isotonic saline treatment. A transient decrease in arterial and venous blood pH and a sustained decrease in venous bicarbonate and base excess concentrations occurred following hypertonic saline administration. No significant increases in any serum biochemical concentrations occurred during hypotension or following infusion of either isotonic or hypertonic saline. These results demonstrate that small volume hypertonic saline can be administered safely to horses without producing extreme changes in electrolyte concentrations, blood gases or haematological parameters. PMID:2120034

  18. Micro-organisms Associated with Febrile Neutropenia in Patients with Haematological Malignancies in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Prakas Kumar; Maji, Suman Kumar; Dolai, Tuphan Kanti; De, Rajib; Dutta, Shyamali; Saha, Sandeep; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee

    2015-03-01

    There is paucity of information from eastern India with regard to observed dominant micro-organisms causing febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients with haematological malignancies. To identify the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms associated with FN. A total number of 268 episodes of FN were analysed from September'2010 to October'2013. The blood samples were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth, glucose broth, Hicombi dual performance media (Himedia, LQ-12) at 37C for 168h and Bactec method was also performed for these samples. Blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey's agar and cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar were used for isolation of the microorganisms. A total number of 78 (29.10%) episodes revealed positive growths. Gram negative bacilli and Gram positive cocci were isolated in 61.53 and 34.61% cases respectively. The eight commonest isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.10%), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-12.82%), Acinetobacter sps (11.53%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus (10.25%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.97%), Escherichia coli (8.97%), ESBL E. coli (6.41%), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA-6.41%). Amongst other less common isolates were Citrobacter kosseri (3.84%), Citrobacter freundii (2.56%), Ralstonia paucula (2.56%), Cedecia neteri (1.28%), methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (2.56%). Candida spp. including two cases of Candida non-albicans was isolated in 3.84% of cases. P. aeruginosa was the commonest pathogenic isolates in FN patients associated with haematological malignancies in this study. Gram negative bacteria were the commonest isolates in FN including significant numbers of rare opportunistic micro-organisms. PMID:25548444

  19. The number of consultant clinical chemists in the 15-nation European Union.

    PubMed

    Smit, Erik; Beastall, Graham; Bjorses, Ulla-Maj; Candito, Mirande; Fiorentini, Piero

    2005-01-01

    The number of consultant clinical chemists (NCCC) in the 15-nation European Union (EU) (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom) has been ascertained. These data were analysed in relation to several established national parameters, including demographics, gross domestic product (GDP), cost of healthcare, cost of in vitro diagnostic (IVD) testing and the number of physicians and pharmacists. Large differences in the population-corrected costs of IVD testing (range approximately 2.4-fold) and NCCC (range approximately 30-fold) were observed between the countries, which could not be satisfactorily explained by any of the parameters assessed. The differences in IVD testing and NCCC might reflect different practices in laboratory medicine across the EU, but could not be estimated independently. In recognition of the different scope of laboratory medicine practised under the title of clinical chemistry, a simple staffing model was derived in an attempt to give a better estimate of the appropriate number of consultant laboratory medicine specialists. This model allocated a fixed number of laboratory specialists per million inhabitants for the five disciplines: clinical chemistry, 10; haematology, 10; serology, 7.5; microbiology, 12.5; and blood banking, 2. The staffing model also allowed for the contribution of the primary care sector by including one full-time consultant laboratory medicine specialist for each small private laboratory and two extra consultant laboratory specialists per million inhabitants where there are not large numbers of private laboratories. Application of the model to the available data helped to reduce the variation observed in the primary analysis of NCCC (range approximately 9-fold) but still revealed important differences between countries. These differences could arise from the poor quality of published data as much as from true differences in laboratory medicine practice. We conclude that a more sophisticated analysis of laboratory practice and of all professionals working in laboratory medicine disciplines would be required before any conclusions could be drawn about relative staffing, efficiency or cost effectiveness. The staffing model derived is a first step towards objective estimation of the number of consultant laboratory specialists in the EU. PMID:15843242

  20. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of

  1. WATER CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...

  2. Chemistry and Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, D. W.

    1970-01-01

    In the second article of a series, the author discusses some of the interactions between chemistry and philosophy. Evaluates chemistry's role within the scientific enterprise. Traces the rise and fall of the logical atom and argues for a new way of looking at science as an educational instrument. (RR)

  3. Movies in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were

  4. Chemistry Basic Learning Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, John P.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a list of objectives drawn from results of a questionnaire sent to secondary and college chemistry teachers to indicate which ideas or concepts should be required of every student completing a secondary level chemistry course. Reviews rationale for the study and lists statements used in the questionnaire. (SK)

  5. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  6. Infrared Lasers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Phillip

    1982-01-01

    Selected infrared laser chemistry topics are discussed including carbon dioxide lasers, infrared quanta and molecules, laser-induced chemistry, structural isomerization (laser purification, sensitized reactions, and dielectric breakdown), and fundamental principles of laser isotope separation, focusing on uranium isotope separation. (JN)

  7. Movies in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  8. Chemistry Concepts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna

    1983-01-01

    Describes an eight-module, high school chemistry curriculum (including outline of course content) which encourages students to envision chemistry as a science based on general, related concepts rather than on a discipline composed of segmented, isolated topics. Module 1 objectives, assignments, laboratory experiences, and test are available from…

  9. Opportunities in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Because of the changes occurring in the chemical sciences, a new survey of chemistry and its intellectual and economic impact was clearly needed. This report presents a current assessment of the status of chemistry and of the future opportunities in the field. This analysis contains: (1) an introductory chapter (establishing the need for the

  10. Cooking with Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosser, Arthur E.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests chemistry of cooking and analysis of culinary recipes as subject matter for introducing chemistry to an audience, especially to individuals with neutral or negative attitudes toward science. Includes sample recipes and experiments and a table listing scientific topics with related cooking examples. (JN)

  11. Stratospheric chemistry and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, Michael; Garcia, Maria M.

    1990-01-01

    A Chemical Tracer Model (CTM) that can use wind field data generated by the General Circulation Model (GCM) is developed to implement chemistry in the three dimensional GCM of the middle atmosphere. Initially, chemical tracers with simple first order losses such as N2O are used. Successive models are to incorporate more complex ozone chemistry.

  12. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview

  13. Brushing Up on Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trantow, Ashley

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity designed for use during National Chemistry Week 2002 with the theme "Chemistry Keeps Us Clean". Allows students to discover more about a cleaning product they use everyday. Students make their own toothpaste and compare its properties with those of commercial toothpaste. (MM)

  14. Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  15. High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Preparation for college or life, working conditions and continuing education for high school chemistry teachers, and form/function of high school chemistry textbooks were addressed in presentations at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Workshops, lectures, and demonstrations were also presented to…

  16. Chemistry from Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jan; Donaldson, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Describes the "Chemistry from Issues" project at Chelsea College. Provides the background information, rationale, and overall structure of a proposed course about the importance of chemistry to common culture. Outlines one module about the British steel industry that has been taught at King's College. (TW)

  17. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  18. Process Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, James B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses process analytical chemistry as a discipline designed to supply quantitative and qualitative information about a chemical process. Encourages academic institutions to examine this field for employment opportunities for students. Describes the five areas of process analytical chemistry, including off-line, at-line, on-line, in-line, and

  19. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  20. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on parameters of the haematological and steroidal modules of the athletes biological passport - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alsaadi, K; Voss, S C; Kraiem, S; Alwahaibi, A; Alyazedi, S; Dbes, N; Goebel, R; Mohamed-Ali, V; Alsowaidi, S; Seyam, A M; Bashraheel, A S; Alsayrafi, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ramadan on the haematological and steroid module of the Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Nine healthy physically active subjects were tested in the morning and afternoon for two days before and three days during Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents. Although there were significant changes in the haemoglobin concentration during Ramadan, especially during the first fasting week, none of the subjects in this study exceeded the individually calculated thresholds of the ABP. No significant effects on testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio were observed but only the afternoon specific gravity (SG) of the urine was elevated. Thus, when urinary steroid concentrations are required, SG corrections need to be performed. The haematological and the steroid module of the ABP can be reliably applied during Ramadan as the observed changes are only marginal. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26695489

  1. A non-randomised trial of an art therapy intervention for patients with haematological malignancies to support post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Götze, Heide; Buttstädt, Marianne; Ziegler, Corinna; Richter, Robert; Brown, Anna; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dorst, Jana; Jäkel, Nadja; Geue, Kristina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies in a non-randomised trial (n = 36, intervention group; n = 129, control group). Art therapy was administered over a period of 22 weeks in small groups. Post-traumatic growth was measured with the Stress-Related Growth Scale. After controlling for the effect of potential confounders, no difference in post-traumatic growth was observed between the intervention and control groups after 22 weeks. There was no evidence for an effect of weekly group sessions with art therapy on post-traumatic growth in patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:23027781

  2. Modern analytical chemistry in the contemporary world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among sciences and in the contemporary world is discussed. Its interdisciplinary character and the necessity of the collaboration between analytical chemists and other experts in order to effectively solve the actual problems of the human society and the environment are emphasized. The importance of the analytical method validation in order to obtain the accurate and precise results is highlighted. The invalid results are not only useless; they can often be even fatal (e.g., in clinical laboratories). The curriculum of analytical chemistry at schools and universities is discussed. It is referred to be much broader than traditional equilibrium chemistry coupled with a simple description of individual analytical methods. Actually, the schooling of analytical chemistry should closely connect theory and practice.

  3. Tick-borne Diseases (Borreliosis, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis) in German and Austrian Dogs: Status quo and Review of Distribution, Transmission, Clinical Findings, Diagnostics and Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Nikola; Pluta, Silvia; Huisinga, Elke; Nather, Stephanie; Scheufelen, Miriam; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Schweinitz, Andrea; Hampel, Herwig; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2015-08-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBD) in dogs have gained in significance in German and Austrian veterinary practices. The widespread European tick species Ixodes ricinus represents an important vector for spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The meadow or ornate dog tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) is an important vector for Babesia canis, as is the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) for Babesia vogeli in the Mediterranean region. The present work covers pathogen transmission by tick vectors, including the mechanisms and the minimum intervals required, in conjunction with possible non-vector-borne transmission routes. It also addresses the incubation periods, pathogenicity and clinical findings associated with each pathogen and genospecies and presents case examples. Current data on prevalence, annual fluctuations and distribution in various pre-selected dog populations (symptomatic versus asymptomatic) in both countries are depicted in maps. Reasons for changes in prevalence (especially of Borrelia) are discussed. Criteria and algorithms for clinical diagnosis and monitoring in dogs, including case history, direct detection (blood smears, molecular detection by species-specific PCR and sequencing) and indirect methods (whole-cell and peptide-based antibody tests), are presented, together with laboratory abnormalities (haematology, clinical chemistry, urine). The role of anti-C6 antibody concentration (ACAC) and its correlation with proteinuria and Lyme nephritis are assessed on the basis of new data. Consideration is also given to the importance of blood smears, PCR and serology in the case of anaplasmosis and babesiosis, and the diagnostic value of combining these methods. The relevance of molecular differentiation of Anaplasma species (A. phagocytophilum versus A. platys) and Babesia spp. (large versus small forms) in cases of serological cross-reaction is emphasized. A summary is given of methods for prophylaxis using acaricide products (collars, spot-on solutions and oral treatments in both countries), vaccination (Borrelia and Babesia vaccines) and imidocarb-based chemoprophylaxis for large Babesia. PMID:26152408

  4. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,

  5. EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

  6. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  7. Art in Chemistry; Chemistry in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne

    High school teachers are often challenged to motivate students who have little or no interest in a subject and are bored with traditional instruction. This unique book is designed to help educators make chemistry classes more interesting and links art curriculum to practical applications, integrating the two subjects through scores of hands-on

  8. Chemistry for Kids: Elementary School Chemistry Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Spencer L.; Swenson, Karen T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a program in which six experiments in chemistry were used in an elementary school science program. Discusses the problems encountered in initiating the program, and some of the ways the problems were solved. Lists the six experiments, along with the reaction or process being studied, and the application of each. (TW)

  9. Effect of a Probiotic Containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis and Ferroin Solution on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Haematological Parameters in Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) Fry.

    PubMed

    Azarin, Hajar; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Imanpour, Mohammad Reza; Rajabpour, Mina

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of BioPlus 2B, a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis and Ferroin solution on growth performance, body composition and haematological parameters in kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum, fry. The fish were fed dry pellets containing various ratios of probiotics and Ferroin for 60 days after absorption of the yolk sac. At the end of the trial, growth indices (final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, daily growth rate, food conversion ratio and condition factor), body composition (crude protein, crude lipid, ash and moisture) and haematological parameters [haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NEUTR), lymphocytes (LYM), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)] were assessed. Regarding body composition, total protein levels were higher, and ash, moisture and lipid levels were lower in fish receiving the probiotic and Ferroin treatments compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Fish receiving diets supplemented with probiotics and Ferroin solution showed significantly better growth than those fed the basal diet (control). RBC, Hct, Hb, MCV, MCH and LYM were all highest in fish fed probiotic (1.6 10(9) CFU/g dry pellet) + Ferroin solution (7 mg/kg dry pellet) + dry pellets. These results indicate that the combination of probiotic and Ferroin solution represents an effective dietary supplement for improving carcass quality, growth performance and haematological parameters in kutum fry. PMID:25431124

  10. The role of vitamin C as antioxidant in protection of biochemical and haematological stress induced by chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Clarias batrachus.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy; Rajender, Kodimyala; Rudra Reddy, R; Rao, J Venkateswara; Begum, Ghousia

    2015-08-01

    The study was conducted to explore the modulatory effects of chlorpyrifos and protective role of vitamin C in tissues of Clarias batrachus. Treatments include E1 group (basal diet plus 1.65mgL(-1) CPF) and E2 group (basal diet+200mgkg body weight vitamin C and 1.65mgL(-1) CPF) along with a control group of fishes (fed on basal diet only). After 1, 7, 15, and 30d of treatment, fish tissues (brain, blood and liver) were used for the estimation of growth, biochemical and haematological parameters. The results of E1 group indicated significantly lower weight gain and survival rate. Brain AChE activity was inhibited. The RBC, Hb, respiratory burst activity, total protein and HSI were also reduced whereas WBC count, plasma glucose and haematocrit were elevated. In contrast, liver glycogen content, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatase activities were inhibited and malate dehydrogenase, aspartate, alanine amino transferase were enhanced. The E2 group of fish exhibited significant improvement in growth, survival, haematological indices, brain AChE, liver glycogen and oxidative enzyme activity. The findings support that dietary vitamin C supplementation might be helpful in abrogation of chlorpyrifos toxicity and improves growth, survival, biochemical and haematological conditions in fishes. PMID:25855010

  11. Adoptive T-cell therapy for fungal infections in haematology patients

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Shivashni S; Gottlieb, David J

    2015-01-01

    The prolonged immune deficiency resulting from haematopoietic stem cell transplant and chemotherapy predisposes to a high risk of invasive fungal infections. Despite the recent advances in molecular diagnostic testing, early initiation of pre-emptive antifungal therapy and the use of combination pharmacotherapy, mortality from invasive mould infections remain high among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplant. The increasing incidences of previously rare and drug-resistant strains of fungi present a further clinical challenge. Therefore, there is a need for novel strategies to combat fungal infections in the immunocompromised. Adoptive therapy using in vitro-expanded fungus-specific CD4 cells of the Th-1 type has shown clinical efficacy in murine studies and in a small human clinical study. Several techniques for the isolation and expansion of fungus-specific T cells have been successfully applied. Here we discuss the incidence and changing patterns of invasive fungal diseases, clinical evidence supporting the role of T cells in fungal immunity, methods to expand fungus-specific T cells in the laboratory and considerations surrounding the use of T cells for fungal immunotherapy. PMID:26366286

  12. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 0.49 C), RH (73.63 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 0.71) were higher (P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 0.44 C, 36.80 0.92 % and 64.80 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher (P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  13. Loci associated with N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulin G show pleiotropy with autoimmune diseases and haematological cancers.

    PubMed

    Lauc, Gordan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Pučić, Maja; Zgaga, Lina; Adamczyk, Barbara; Mužinić, Ana; Novokmet, Mislav; Polašek, Ozren; Gornik, Olga; Krištić, Jasminka; Keser, Toma; Vitart, Veronique; Scheijen, Blanca; Uh, Hae-Won; Molokhia, Mariam; Patrick, Alan Leslie; McKeigue, Paul; Kolčić, Ivana; Lukić, Ivan Krešimir; Swann, Olivia; van Leeuwen, Frank N; Ruhaak, L Renee; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Slagboom, P Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelder, André M; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Hastie, Nicholas D; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F; Wuhrer, Manfred; Wright, Alan F; Rudd, Pauline M; Hayward, Caroline; Aulchenko, Yurii; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.27 × 10(-9)) in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3) in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3), while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3). However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis) and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma). Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve = 0.842). Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein using GWAS. The results may also provide an explanation for the reported pleiotropy and antagonistic effects of loci involved in autoimmune diseases and haematological cancer. PMID:23382691

  14. Loci Associated with N-Glycosylation of Human Immunoglobulin G Show Pleiotropy with Autoimmune Diseases and Haematological Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Muini?, Ana; Novokmet, Mislav; Polaek, Ozren; Gornik, Olga; Kriti?, Jasminka; Keser, Toma; Vitart, Veronique; Scheijen, Blanca; Uh, Hae-Won; Molokhia, Mariam; Patrick, Alan Leslie; McKeigue, Paul; Kol?i?, Ivana; Luki?, Ivan Kreimir; Swann, Olivia; van Leeuwen, Frank N.; Ruhaak, L. Renee; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Deelder, Andr M.; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Wuhrer, Manfred; Wright, Alan F.; Rudan, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) influences IgG effector function by modulating binding to Fc receptors. To identify genetic loci associated with IgG glycosylation, we quantitated N-linked IgG glycans using two approaches. After isolating IgG from human plasma, we performed 77 quantitative measurements of N-glycosylation using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in 2,247 individuals from four European discovery populations. In parallel, we measured IgG N-glycans using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) in a replication cohort of 1,848 Europeans. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results identified 9 genome-wide significant loci (P<2.2710?9) in the discovery analysis and two of the same loci (B4GALT1 and MGAT3) in the replication cohort. Four loci contained genes encoding glycosyltransferases (ST6GAL1, B4GALT1, FUT8, and MGAT3), while the remaining 5 contained genes that have not been previously implicated in protein glycosylation (IKZF1, IL6ST-ANKRD55, ABCF2-SMARCD3, SUV420H1, and SMARCB1-DERL3). However, most of them have been strongly associated with autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diabetes type 1, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, celiac disease, nodular sclerosis) and/or haematological cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma). Follow-up functional experiments in haplodeficient Ikzf1 knock-out mice showed the same general pattern of changes in IgG glycosylation as identified in the meta-analysis. As IKZF1 was associated with multiple IgG N-glycan traits, we explored biomarker potential of affected N-glycans in 101 cases with SLE and 183 matched controls and demonstrated substantial discriminative power in a ROC-curve analysis (area under the curve?=?0.842). Our study shows that it is possible to identify new loci that control glycosylation of a single plasma protein using GWAS. The results may also provide an explanation for the reported pleiotropy and antagonistic effects of loci involved in autoimmune diseases and haematological cancer. PMID:23382691

  15. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons.

    PubMed

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher (P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher (P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher (P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals. PMID:25860334

  16. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher ( P < 0.0001) than the corresponding values of 24.00 ± 0.44 °C, 36.80 ± 0.92 % and 64.80 ± 0.62, during the cold-dry season. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count [red blood cell (RBC)], haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), platelet count (PLT), leucocyte count [white blood cell (WBC)], lymphocyte count (LYM) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L) were higher ( P < 0.05) in adults than foals during the rainy season. The MCV, MCH, WBC, NEU, LYM and PLT of adult and yearling donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) during the rainy than the cold-dry season. The PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH, and NEU of foals were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season. The N/L of adult and foal donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  17. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  18. Moderator Chemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  19. [Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and ascites. Clinical case].

    PubMed

    Ottobrelli, A; Lagget, M; Arrigoni, A; Gindro, T; Bosio, C; Balbo, G; Rizzetto, M

    1991-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with recurrent subocclusive episodes and diarrhea (no malabsorption) associated with ascites, in the absence or liver, kidney or heart disease. The demonstration of hypereosinophilia in the peripheral blood and in the ascites fluid and the failure to identify parasitic or haematological disorders have led to a through examination of the stomach (Endoscopy, Echoendoscopy), small bowel (X-rays and Computerized Axial Tomography) and colon (colonoscopy) in a search for parietal lesions. The absence of segmental lesions and the observation of CAT images of diffuse, regular thickening of the ileum and of the mesentery, coupled with the monotonous clinical history spanning over three decades, have led to a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis with involvement of the serosal layer. Serosal involvement is rare in eosinophilic disease of the gut; in analogy with other cases reported in the literature, steroids have improved clinical symptoms and normalized the hematological picture. PMID:1742398

  20. Frontiers in analytical chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, I.

    1988-12-15

    Doing more with less was the modus operandi of R. Buckminster Fuller, the late science genius, and inventor of such things as the geodesic dome. In late September, chemists described their own version of this maxim--learning more chemistry from less material and in less time--in a symposium titled Frontiers in Analytical Chemistry at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Los Angeles. Symposium organizer Allen J. Bard of the University of Texas at Austin assembled six speakers, himself among them, to survey pretty widely different areas of analytical chemistry.

  1. Computational quantum chemistry website

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-22

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.

  2. Seawater Chemistry Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-23

    SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.

  3. Interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks.

    PubMed

    Oso, A O; Erinle, O Y; William, G A; Ogunade, A C

    2015-10-01

    The interaction effect of whole wheat feeding and mannanoligosaccharides supplementation on growth performance, haematological indices and caecal microbiota of cockerel chicks were investigated using 250-day-old cockerel chicks previously reared for 7 days pre-experimental period. Birds were fed with commercial chick mash during the pre-experimental period. At the expiration of this period, 192 chicks were selected on weight equalization basis and assigned into 24 pens. Each treatment consisted of six pens, while each pen housed eight birds. Four wheat-soya bean-based experimental diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of diets having two wheat forms (ground and whole wheat grain) each supplemented or not with 1 g/kg MOS/kg feed. Whole wheat feeding (irrespective of MOS supplementation) showed reduced (p < 0.05) feed intake. Birds fed whole wheat diet supplemented with MOS recorded the highest (p < 0.01) final live weight, weight gain and the best (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio. Haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and red blood cell count of the chicks were not affected (p > 0.05) by dietary treatment. However, dietary supplementation with MOS resulted in increased (p < 0.05) WBC counts. The caecum content of chicks fed with MOS-supplemented whole wheat diets recorded the least (p < 0.01) salmonella counts. In conclusion, combination of whole wheat feeding and MOS supplementation showed improved growth performance, gut microbiota and indications of improved health status of cockerel chicks. PMID:25817244

  4. Using haematological parameters to infer the health and nutritional status of an endangered black-necked swan population.

    PubMed

    Artacho, Paulina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Verdugo, Claudio; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2007-08-01

    Living organisms are continuously faced with several forms of environmental perturbation, one of the most important being human activity. In this scenario, the role of physiological studies on wildlife has proved to be important given that in vivo physiological variables reflect a great deal how sensitive animals are to acute environmental changes. We studied the haematological parameters in black-necked swans (Cygnus melanocoryphus) at the Ramsar site at the Carlos Anwandter Sanctuary, which were experiencing a drastic population decrease. Through seven months, body mass (body mass corrected by total length) was reduced 30%, which was followed by significant reductions of haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and red blood cell count. Mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin concentration did not change with time, whereas there was a significant increase of the white blood cells and heterophile / lymphocyte ratio. Our results, together with the published evidence, suggests that the proximal factors associated with the mass mortality and emigration of the black - necked swan population at the "Carlos Anwandter Sanctuary" was a drastic nutritional deficiency, and the potentially toxic effects of iron pollution in the waters of the Ramsar site. PMID:17448718

  5. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on haematological and biochemical indicators and histopathological changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Matejova, Iveta; Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2 mg/kg feed. The fish (n=40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225  μg/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964  μg/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P<0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P<0.05), and ammonia (P<0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  6. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

    PubMed

    Onu, A; Saidu, Y; Ladan, M J; Bilbis, L S; Aliero, A A; Sahabi, S M

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  7. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onu, A.; Saidu, Y.; Ladan, M. J.; Bilbis, L. S.; Aliero, A. A.; Sahabi, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na+, K+), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body. PMID:24348549

  8. Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on fungal blood cultures: an autopsy-based study involving 720 patients with haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kami, Masahiro; Machida, Utako; Okuzumi, Katsuko; Matsumura, Tomoko; Mori Si, Shin-ichiro; Hori, Akiko; Kashima, Takeshi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Takaue, Yoichi; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Hirai, Hisamaru; Yoneyama, Akiko; Mutou, Yoshitomo

    2002-04-01

    To investigate the utility of blood culture of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies, an autopsy survey was conducted in 720 patients who were treated between 1980 and 1999. We identified 252 patients with invasive mycosis. These included Candida (n = 94), Aspergillus (n = 91), Zygomycetes (n = 34), Cryptococcus (n = 7), Trichosporon (n = 11), Fusarium (n = 1), and unknown fungi (n = 20). Of the 94 patients with invasive candidiasis, 20 had positive blood cultures. Of the 11 patients with invasive trichosporonosis, seven had positive blood cultures. The sensitivities of blood cultures were 1.1%, 0% and 14% for detecting invasive aspergillosis, zygomycosis and cryptococcosis respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant correlation between results of Candida blood cultures and some variables, including prophylactic use of absorbable antifungals (P = 0.0181) and infection by Candida albicans (P = 0.0086). The sensitivity of blood cultures decreased when patients received antifungal chemoprophylaxis. Unless these agents are inactivated in culture bottles, conventional blood cultures might produce false-negative results. PMID:11918531

  9. Impact of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle surface charge on protein, cellular and haematological interactions.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Gopikrishna J; Greeshma, M M; Menon, Deepthy

    2015-12-01

    The initial interactions of nanoparticles with biomolecules have a great influence on its toxicity, efficacy, biodistribution and clearance. The present work is an attempt to understand the impact of surface charge of polymeric nanoparticles on its plasma protein and cellular interactions. Negative, near-neutral and positively charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] nanoparticles were prepared using casein, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(ethylene imine) respectively, as surface stabilizers. A significant temporal variation in the hydrodynamic diameter of PLGA nanoparticles was observed in the presence of plasma proteins, which correlated with the amount of proteins adsorbed to each surface. Positively charged particles displayed the maximum size variation and protein adsorption. Cellular uptake of differentially charged nanoparticles was also concurrent with the quantity of adsorbed proteins, though there was no significant difference in their cytotoxicity. Haematological interactions (haemolysis and plasma coagulation times) of positively charged nanoparticles were considerably different from near-neutral and negative nanoparticles. Collectively, the results point to the interplay between plasma protein adsorption and cellular interactions of PLGA nanoparticles, which is governed by its surface charge, thereby necessitating a rational design of nanoparticles. PMID:26590899

  10. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15?days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. PMID:25753342

  11. Blood antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX), biochemical and haematological parameters in pigs naturally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Stukelj, M; Toplak, I; Svete, A Nemec

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become one of the most economically important diseases for the swine industry worldwide. The objective of the study was to determine selected blood antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD)), biochemical and haematological parameters in PRRS positive and negative pigs of three different categories, mainly to test oxidative stress hypothesis in pigs naturally infected with PRRS virus. Ninety PRRS positive and 90 PRRS negative pigs were included in the study. The presence of PRRS was confirmed by serological detection of antibodies against PRRS virus (PRRSV) and detection of PRRS viral RNA by RT-PCR. Pigs were further divided into three groups of 30: piglets just before weaning (weaners), fatteners and finishers. Blood samples for determining selected blood parameters were collected from the vena cava cranialis. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher activities of SOD in weaners and fatteners and of GPX in weaners were determined in PRRS positive pigs than in corresponding groups of PRRS negative pigs. In contrast, significantly (P < 0.05) lower GPX activity was observed in finishers of PRRS positive pigs than in the corresponding group of PRRS negative pigs. Concentrations of serum total protein in PRRS positive weaners and fatteners were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those found in PRRS negative pigs. Leukopenia was observed in all three groups of PRRS positive pigs. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that oxidative stress might be increased in PRRSV naturally infected pigs, especially in weaners. PMID:23971206

  12. Haematological parameters and HbA2 levels in beta-thalassaemia trait with coincident iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Madan, N; Sikka, M; Sharma, S; Rusia, U

    1998-07-01

    Iron status was estimated in 463 heterozygous beta-thalassaemics to delineate the effect of iron deficiency (ID) on the haematological parameters and expression of HbA2 in these patients. One hundred and twenty six (27.2%) traits had coincident ID. These iron deficient traits had a significantly (p < 0.0002), higher prevalence of anaemia (90.5%) as compared to iron replete traits (71.5%). Mean haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in beta-thalassaemics with ID (10.7 +/- 1.5) g/al as compared to those without ID (11.6 +/- 1.6 g/dl). Mean MCV and MCH were significantly lowered (p < 0.0001) in patients of beta-thalassaemia trait (BTT) with ID than in these without ID. Mean HbA2 was not significantly different in the two groups of traits and was elevated (> or = 3.5%) in all except one patient. However, mean HbA2/cell was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in traits with ID. The effect of ID in BTT was apparent with significant lowering of haemoglobin concentration and increased prevalence of anaemia. Iron therapy is warranted in iron deficient traits and would help in significantly raising their haemoglobin concentration. Elevation in HbA2 values was striking and could be used with reliability for diagnosis of BTT even in the presence of ID. PMID:9805853

  13. Outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a haematology unit: risk factor assessment and successful control of the epidemic.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Gert Jan; van der Zwet, Wil C; Simoons-Smit, Ina M; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Meester, Helena H M; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Huijgens, Peter C

    2002-03-01

    We describe an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) on the haematology ward of a Dutch university hospital. After the occurrence of three consecutive cases of bacteraemia with VRE, strains were genotyped and found to be identical. During the next 4 months an intensive surveillance programme identified 21 additional patients to be colonized with VRE, while two more patients developed bacteraemia. A case-control study was carried out to identify risk factors for VRE acquisition. In comparison with VRE-negative control patients (n=49), cases (n=24) had a longer stay on the ward during the year preceding the outbreak (25.8 versus 10.1 d, P=0.02), more cases with acute myeloid leukaemia [11 versus 4, odds ratio (OR) 9.5, 95% confidence interval (CI95) 2.4-32.2] and higher grades of mucositis (P=0.03). Logistic regression analysis identified antibiotic use within 1 month before admission (OR 13.0, CI95 2.1-80.5, P=0.006) and low albumin levels at baseline (OR 1.2, CI95 1.1-1.3, P=0.02) to be independent risk factors. Four patients with VRE-bacteraemia were successfully treated with quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid). Control of the outbreak was achieved by step-wise implementation of intensive infection control measures, which included the cohorting of patients, allocation of nurses and reinforcement of hand hygiene. PMID:11886387

  14. The Effect of Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol on Haematological and Biochemical Indicators and Histopathological Changes in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Modra, Helena; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Fictum, Petr; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the Fusarium genus, is a major contaminant of cereal grains used in the production of fish feed. The effect of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied using a commercial feed with the addition of DON in a dose of 2?mg/kg feed. The fish (n = 40) were exposed to the mycotoxin for 23 days. The trout were divided into two groups, control and experimental groups. Control groups were fed a commercial feed naturally contaminated with a low concentration of DON (225??g/kg feed); experimental groups were fed a commercial feed with the addition of DON (1964??g/kg feed). Plasma biochemical and haematological indices, biometric parameters, and histopathological changes were assessed at the end of the experiment. The experimental groups showed significantly lower values in MCH (P < 0.05). In biochemical indices, after 23-day exposure, a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol (P < 0.05), and ammonia (P < 0.01) was recorded in the experimental group compared to the control group. Our assessment showed no significant changes in biometric parameters. The histopathological examination revealed disorders in the caudal kidney of the exposed fish. The obtained data show the sensitivity of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) to deoxynivalenol. PMID:24729967

  15. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O

    2013-01-01

    The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409

  16. Magnetism in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)

  17. Chemistry and Detective Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program consisting of two courses. The first course deals with the chemistry of drugs and poisons; the second course focuses on fictional works in which these drugs and poisons are central to the plots. (SK)

  18. Chemistry with a Peel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

  19. Environmental Bioinorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including interactions of organisms with metallic and nonmetallic elements and compounds. Indicates that many environmental problems are created by human exploitation of nature and technologies if studied from a bioinorganic chemical viewpoint. (CC)

  20. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  1. Chemistry for Nonscientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Thomas A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the case of DDT which can be introduced to nonscience students in a chemistry course, including the development of DDT, problems associated with its adverse effects, and curtailment of its use in our environments. (CC)

  2. Chemistry for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela

    1988-01-01

    Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)

  3. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  4. Impact of surface chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

  5. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  6. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  7. Green Chemistry and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-12-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. With growing public concern over global warming and greenhouse gases, students want to understand how human actions affect the health of our planet. Students are deeply concerned about pollution. They practice recycling. Moreover, they want to secure a healthy Earth for future generations. As students of chemistry, they have a unique opportunity to start at the ground floor of the exciting and expanding field of green chemistry.

  8. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. British Committee for Standards in Haematology.

    PubMed

    Levi, M; Toh, C H; Thachil, J; Watson, H G

    2009-04-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) should encompass both clinical and laboratory information. The International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) DIC scoring system provides objective measurement of DIC. Where DIC is present the scoring system correlates with key clinical observations and outcomes. It is important to repeat the tests to monitor the dynamically changing scenario based on laboratory results and clinical observations. The cornerstone of the treatment of DIC is treatment of the underlying condition. Transfusion of platelets or plasma (components) in patients with DIC should not primarily be based on laboratory results and should in general be reserved for patients who present with bleeding. In patients with DIC and bleeding or at high risk of bleeding (e.g. postoperative patients or patients due to undergo an invasive procedure) and a platelet count of <50 x 10(9)/l transfusion of platelets should be considered. In non-bleeding patients with DIC, prophylactic platelet transfusion is not given unless it is perceived that there is a high risk of bleeding. In bleeding patients with DIC and prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) may be useful. It should not be instituted based on laboratory tests alone but should be considered in those with active bleeding and in those requiring an invasive procedure. There is no evidence that infusion of plasma stimulates the ongoing activation of coagulation. If transfusion of FFP is not possible in patients with bleeding because of fluid overload, consider using factor concentrates such as prothrombin complex concentrate, recognising that these will only partially correct the defect because they contain only selected factors, whereas in DIC there is a global deficiency of coagulation factors. Severe hypofibrinogenaemia (<1 g/l) that persists despite FFP replacement may be treated with fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate. In cases of DIC where thrombosis predominates, such as arterial or venous thromboembolism, severe purpura fulminans associated with acral ischemia or vascular skin infarction, therapeutic doses of heparin should be considered. In these patients where there is perceived to be a co-existing high risk of bleeding there may be benefits in using continuous infusion unfractionated heparin (UFH) due to its short half-life and reversibility. Weight adjusted doses (e.g. 10 mu/kg/h) may be used without the intention of prolonging the APTT ratio to 1.5-2.5 times the control. Monitoring the APTT in these cases may be complicated and clinical observation for signs of bleeding is important. In critically ill, non-bleeding patients with DIC, prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism with prophylactic doses of heparin or low molecular weight heparin is recommended. Consider treating patients with severe sepsis and DIC with recombinant human activated protein C (continuous infusion, 24 microg/kg/h for 4 d). Patients at high risk of bleeding should not be given recombinant human activated protein C. Current manufacturers guidance advises against using this product in patients with platelet counts of <30 x 10(9)/l. In the event of invasive procedures, administration of recombinant human activated protein C should be discontinued shortly before the intervention (elimination half-life approximately 20 min) and may be resumed a few hours later, dependent on the clinical situation. In the absence of further prospective evidence from randomised controlled trials confirming a beneficial effect of antithrombin concentrate on clinically relevant endpoints in patients with DIC and not receiving heparin, administration of antithrombin cannot be recommended. In general, patients with DIC should not be treated with antifibrinolytic agents. Patients with DIC that is characterised by a primary hyperfibrinolytic state and who present with severe bleeding could be treated with lysine analogues, such as tranexamic acid (e.g. 1 g every 8 h). PMID:19222477

  9. Arsenic Exposure and Haematological Derangement in Cervical Cancer Cases in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Trivedi, Vinita; Murti, Krishna; Dey, Akalanka; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Nath, A; Das, P

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecological malignancy worldwide. According to HPV Information Centre, Spain (Aug'2014), in India approximately 1,22,844 women are diagnosed with the disease every year and of them 67,477 die due to the disease. CaCx is said to be mediated by HPV but recent data published reveal the role of Oxidative Stress in different Cancers. Arsenic is also one of the agents for causing Oxidative Stress. Arsenic has been linked with different types of cancer. Arsenic is considered responsible for generation of free radicals and eventually for apoptosis. Early diagnosis of CaCx is presently a matter of concern and clinical presentation in advanced stages become difficult for complete clinical response. For determination of oxidative stress, Malondialdehyde (MDA) was taken as an identifier and arsenic estimation was performed with the help of Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). RBC count and Haemoglobin levels were performed according to standard protocol. MDA was in direct proportion with arsenic concentration and inversely proportional to RBC and Haemoglobin in CaCx patients. Arsenic is one of the major causative agents for oxidative stress and hence may be a risk factor leading to cancer including CaCx. PMID:26434849

  10. Cryopreservation of Human Stem Cells for Clinical Application: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Stem cells have been used in a clinical setting for many years. Haematopoietic stem cells have been used for the treatment of both haematological and non-haematological disease; while more recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow have been the subject of both laboratory and early clinical studies. Whilst these cells show both multipotency and expansion potential, they nonetheless do not form stable cell lines in culture which is likely to limit the breadth of their application in the field of regenerative medicine. Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells, capable of forming stable cell lines which retain the capacity to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. This makes them of special significance in both regenerative medicine and toxicology. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may also provide a similar breadth of utility without some of the confounding ethical issues surrounding embryonic stem cells. An essential pre-requisite to the commercial and clinical application of stem cells are suitable cryopreservation protocols for long-term storage. Whilst effective methods for cryopreservation and storage have been developed for haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic cells and iPS cells have proved more refractory. This paper reviews the current state of cryopreservation as it pertains to stem cells and in particular the embryonic and iPS cell. PMID:21566712

  11. Epigenetic treatment of solid tumours: a review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Nervi, Clara; De Marinis, Elisabetta; Codacci-Pisanelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic treatment has been approved by regulatory agencies for haematological malignancies. The success observed in cutaneous lymphomas represents a proof of principle that similar results may be obtained in solid tumours. Several agents that interfere with DNA methylation-demethylation and histones acetylation/deacetylation have been studied, and some (such as azacytidine, decitabine, valproic acid and vorinostat) are already in clinical use. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of the molecular events underlying the antitumour effects of epigenetic treatments and to summarise data available on clinical trials that tested the use of epigenetic agents against solid tumours. We not only list results but also try to indicate how the proper evaluation of this treatment might result in a better selection of effective agents and in a more rapid development. We divided compounds in demethylating agents and HDAC inhibitors. For each class, we report the antitumour activity and the toxic side effects. When available, we describe plasma pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic evaluation in tumours and in surrogate tissues (generally white blood cells). Epigenetic treatment is a reality in haematological malignancies and deserves adequate attention in solid tumours. A careful consideration of available clinical data however is required for faster drug development and possibly to re-evaluate some molecules that were perhaps discarded too early. PMID:26692909

  12. Haematological values and parasitic infections in school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M M

    1991-12-01

    A total of 1426 apparently healthy Saudi children, were subjected to clinical and laboratory investigations of blood, urine and stools. Lower means were observed for Hb concentration, Hot ratio, RBC and WBC counts. The MCV was in the range of Western levels. Of 1343 stool specimens 156 (11.6%) were positive for intestinal parasites (5.4% pathogenic and 6.3% commensals). The higher infection rate of commensals strongly suggests the presence of potentially infectious environmental sources and a public health problem. Giardia lamblia was the most common pathogenic parasite 3.6% and its high infection rate seemed to be associated with lower Hb level. So screening for parasitic infections especially among anaemic children is necessary as a part of the general health care programme. PMID:1765697

  13. Technetium Chemistry in HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Xia Yuanxian

    2005-06-06

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  14. Effects of growth hormone on growth performance, haematology, metabolites and hormones in iron-deficient veal calves.

    PubMed

    Ceppi, A; Blum, J W

    1994-08-01

    Effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 50 micrograms/kg body weight of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) or saline were studied for 11 weeks in 40 intact male veal calves supplied 50 mg or 10 mg of iron (Fe)/kg of milk replacer (MR). Feed intake, average daily gain and growth: feed ratio were reduced in Fe-deficient calves, but not significantly influenced by rbGH. Plasma Fe and haemoglobin concentration, red-cell number and packed cell volume were decreased in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05) and rbGH further reduced red-cell number in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05). The age-dependent increase of total Fe binding capacity was greater in Fe-deficient calves and enhanced by rbGH (P < 0.05). Plasma urea concentrations increased, whereas glucose (G) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels decreased in Fe-deficient calves. rbGH significantly increased G in calves fed MR containing 50 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and influenced urea concentrations (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin (I) and IGF-I concentrations were lower in Fe-deficient calves (P < 0.05). Plasma GH in the first hours after rbGH injections increased (P < 0.05) to higher levels in calves fed 10 than in those fed 50 mg Fe/kg MR, but incremental changes were comparable. In conclusion, low Fe intake caused haematologic, metabolic and endocrine changes. Plasma IGF-I, I and T3 concentrations after rbGH administration and effects of rbGH on IGF-I in Fe-deficient calves were reduced, even though plasma GH levels were increased. PMID:7863735

  15. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of rabbit does to crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract at gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Ewuola, Emmanuel Olubisi; Sokunbi, Olujide Adedamola; Sanni, Kafayat Modupeola; Oyedemi, Oluwaseyi Margaret; Lawal, Temitope Tawakalit

    2015-04-01

    As the plant Moringa oleifera is used in herbal medicines for animals, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of crude M. oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on the blood profile of rabbit does during gestation and lactation. Twenty-four mature does (mean weight 2200 g) housed individually were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomised design. The animals in treatments 2, 3 and 4 were orally given 100, 200 and 300 mL/L CMOLE, respectively, at 2.5 mL/kg body weight at 48 h intervals for 9 weeks. The control animals (treatment 1) were given with water only. All the does were mated with untreated bucks 2 weeks into the experiment. Blood samples were collected at 3rd trimester (day 25 of gestation) and 2nd week of lactation. During gestation, levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the treatments. However, animals on treatment 2 had the highest platelets (148.8 × 10(9)/L), not significantly different from those on treatments 3 (141.5 × 10(9)/L) and 4 (135.0 × 10(9)/L), but higher (p < 0.05) than the control (126.6 × 10(9)/L). Haematological parameters during lactation were not significantly different among the treatments. Of the serum biochemical variables examined during gestation, only urea was higher (p < 0.05) in control rabbits than those administered with 300 mL/L CMOLE. In lactation, only cholesterol was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced with an increase in CMOLE concentration. This suggests that Moringa has a hypocholesterolemic effect and is safe for use up to 300 mL/L for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. PMID:25686552

  16. Significance of the CC chemokine RANTES in patients with haematological malignancy: results from a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael; al-Ramadi, Basel; Hedstrm, Ulla; Frampton, Chris; Alizadeh, Hussain; Kristensen, Jorgen

    2005-02-01

    Regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) serum concentrations were explored in a prospective observational study of haematological-malignancy patients undergoing chemotherapy. During systemic inflammatory response syndrome/sepsis or severe sepsis/septic shock mean concentrations were 3394 or 2939 pg/ml, respectively, significantly lower than those prior to fever (6031 pg/ml) (P < 0.01) or at bone-marrow recovery (6433 pg/ml, P < 0.001). Levels during febrile-bacteraemia were lower compared with febrile-non-bacteraemia (3022 pg/ml vs. 5111 pg/ml, respectively, P < 0.01). Sixty-three of 67 infection episodes resolved despite low RANTES concentrations, suggesting RANTES is not a prerequisite for recovering from most infection events. However, in four patients dying from septic shock associated with aspergillosis, candidosis, pneumonia or infectious colitis, RANTES concentrations were persistently and extremely low (1629 pg/ml), compared with four matched patients who recovered (6780 pg/ml). RANTES concentrations were highly correlated to platelet counts [median correlation coefficient 0.82 (inter-quartile range, 0.72-0.89)]. RANTES concentrations rose 4.5 d before platelet counts (P < 0.001), suggesting an additional extra-platelet source for RANTES. A nested mixed model regression analysis demonstrated that platelet level was the only independent variable associated with RANTES concentration (P < 0.001) among steroids, haematopoietic-colony-stimulating-factor, recombinant-human-interleukin-11, sepsis status, and neutropenia. A significant 'hypo-RANTES' serum environment occurs following chemotherapy, is driven by thrombocytopenia, but does not affect the ability of most patients to recover from infection. PMID:15686455

  17. CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ghorashian, Sara; Pule, Martin; Amrolia, Persis

    2015-05-01

    T cells can be redirected to recognize tumour antigens by genetic modification to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). These consist of antibody-derived antigen-binding regions linked to T cell signalling elements. CD19 is an ideal target because it is expressed on most B cell malignancies as well as normal B cells but not on other cell types, restricting any 'on target, off tumour' toxicity to B cell depletion. Recent clinical studies involving CD19 CAR-directed T cells have shown unprecedented responses in a range of B cell malignancies, even in patients with chemorefractory relapse. Durable responses have been achieved, although the persistence of modified T cells may be limited. This therapy is not without toxicity, however. Cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity appear to be frequent but are treatable and reversible. CAR T cell therapy holds the promise of a tailored cellular therapy, which can form memory and be adapted to the tumour microenvironment. This review will provide a perspective on the currently available data, as well as on future developments in the field. PMID:25753571

  18. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  19. Masked polycythaemia vera: presenting features, response to treatment and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Larrn, Alberto; Angona, Anna; Ancochea, Agueda; Garca-Pallarols, Francesc; Fernndez, Concepcin; Longarn, Raquel; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Masked polycythaemia vera (PV) has been proposed as a new entity with poorer outcome than overt PV. In this study, the initial clinical and laboratory characteristics, response to treatment and outcome of masked and overt PV were compared using red cell mass and haemoglobin or haematocrit levels for the distinction between both entities. Sixty-eight of 151 PV patients (45%) were classified as masked PV according to World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria, whereas 16 (11%) were classified as masked PV using the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). In comparison with overt PV, a higher platelet count and a lower JAK2V617F allele burden at diagnosis were observed in masked PV. Patients with masked PV needed lower phlebotomies and responded faster to hydroxcarbamide than those with overt PV. Complete haematological response was more frequently achieved in masked than in overt PV (79% vs. 58%, P=0.001). There were no significant differences in the duration of haematological response, the rate of resistance or intolerance to hydroxycarbamide and the probability of molecular response according to type of PV (masked vs. overt). Overall survival, rate of thrombosis and major bleeding, and probability of transformation was superimposable among patients with masked and overt PV. PMID:25810304

  20. Computational Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry: From Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hillisch, Alexander; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Wild, Hanno

    2015-12-01

    Computational chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry has grown into a field that proactively contributes to many aspects of drug design, including target selection and lead identification and optimization. While methodological advancements have been key to this development, organizational developments have been crucial to our success as well. In particular, the interaction between computational and medicinal chemistry and the integration of computational chemistry into the entire drug discovery process have been invaluable. Over the past ten years we have shaped and developed a highly efficient computational chemistry group for small-molecule drug discovery at Bayer HealthCare that has significantly impacted the clinical development pipeline. In this article we describe the setup and tasks of the computational group and discuss external collaborations. We explain what we have found to be the most valuable and productive methods and discuss future directions for computational chemistry method development. We share this information with the hope of igniting interesting discussions around this topic. PMID:26358802

  1. Air Composition and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  2. Radioanalytical Chemistry Laboratory Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Moses Attrep; Bernd Kahn

    2006-12-31

    The 19 experiments in this laboratory manual are for a 1-semester couse entitled Radioanalytical Chemistry Laboratory for senior and graduate students. It accompanies the textbook Radioanalytical Chemistry. The textbook and laboratory manual are designed to instruct users in the practical aspects of operating, working in, or interacting with a radioanalytical chemistry laboratory dedicated to process sampling, environmental monitoring, health physics, or radiochemistry research. The individual experiments range from an introduction to simply laboratory practices like pipetting to examples of specific radionuclide analysis methods for commonly encountered radionuclides such as H-3, Sr-90, I-131, U-238, Pu-239, and mixed fission products. More experiments are included than can be assigned in any one semester to give the instructor a choice. This manual will be printed by a publisher by a publisher in a slightly revised form in summer of 2007.

  3. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  4. 21 CFR 862.2560 - Fluorometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fluorometer for clinical use. 862.2560 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2560 Fluorometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A fluorometer for clinical use is a...

  5. 21 CFR 862.2800 - Refractometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refractometer for clinical use. 862.2800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2800 Refractometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A refractometer for clinical use...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  7. 21 CFR 862.2700 - Nephelometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nephelometer for clinical use. 862.2700 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2700 Nephelometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A nephelometer for clinical use is...

  8. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  9. 21 CFR 862.2730 - Osmometer for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Osmometer for clinical use. 862.2730 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2730 Osmometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. An osmometer for clinical use is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 862.2680 - Microtitrator for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microtitrator for clinical use. 862.2680 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2680 Microtitrator for clinical use. (a) Identification. A microtitrator for clinical use...

  11. 21 CFR 862.2310 - Clinical sample concentrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical sample concentrator. 862.2310 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2310 Clinical sample concentrator. (a) Identification. A clinical sample concentrator is a...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  19. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  20. Mortality, morbidity, and haematological results from a cohort of long-term workers involved in 1,3-butadiene monomer production.

    PubMed Central

    Cowles, S R; Tsai, S P; Snyder, P J; Ross, C E

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective mortality analysis and prospective morbidity and haematological analyses were performed for Shell Deer Park Manufacturing Complex (DPMC) male employees who worked in jobs with potential exposure to 1,3-butadiene from 1948 to 1989. 614 employees qualified for the mortality study (1948-89), 438 of those were still employed during the period of the morbidity study (1982-9), and 429 of those had haematological data available for analysis. Industrial hygiene data from 1979 to 1992 showed that most butadiene exposures did not exceed 10 ppm (eight-hour time weighted average (8 hour TWA)), and most were below 1 ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 3.5 ppm. 24 deaths occurred during the mortality study period. For all causes of death, the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 48 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 31-72), and the all cancer SMR was 34 (95% CI = 9-87). There were only two deaths due to lung cancer (SMR 42, 95% CI = 5-151) and none due to lymphohaematopoietic cancer (expected = 1.2). Morbidity (illness absence) events of six days or more for the 438 butadiene employees were compared with the rest of the complex. No cause of morbidity was in excess for this group; the all cause standardised morbidity ratio (SMbR) was 85 (95% CI = 77-93) and the all neoplasms SMbR was 51 (95% CI = 22-100). Haematological results for the 429 with laboratory data were compared with results for the rest of the complex. No significant differences occurred between the two groups and the distributions of results between butadiene and non-butadiene groups were virtually identical. These results suggest that butadiene exposures at concentrations common at DPMC in the past 10-20 years do not pose a health hazard to employees. PMID:8199682

  1. Biochemical and haematological assessment of toxic effects of the leaf ethanol extract of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nyman ex A.W. Hill (Parsley) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Petroselinum crispum, a bright green biennial shrub is widely used traditionally as a food additive and herbal remedies for many ailments. This study therefore aimed to assess the toxic effects of its leaf extract using some biochemical, haematological parameters. Methods The toxic effects were assessed by quantifying liver enzymes such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein and liver weight. Effects on haematological parameters were assessed by analysis of parked cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. Histopathological studies were done on the liver and kidneys. Results The extract caused significant increase in serum activity of alanine amino transferase and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the dose of 1000mg/kg. Other biochemical and haematological parameters were not affected at lower doses. Conversely, the liver weight was not affected after eight weeks of treatment at the dose levels studied. The organs obtained for pathological study, were structurally unchanged under histopathological evaluation at lower doses but inflammatory and necrotic features were observed at doses???1000mg/kg. Conclusion The results indicate that the leaf ethanol extract of Petroselinum crispum was hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic at continued oral doses equal to or more than 1000mg/kg, but no obvious toxicity when used at lower doses. Therefore, there should be caution in its administration to avoid overdosing and known interaction with some medications. In addition, the plant should be kept away from pets and domestic animals and should not be cultivated on soil irrigated with waste water due to their ability to bio-accumulate toxic metals. PMID:23557241

  2. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on Tuesday or Thursday. There were 119 students in the test group, 522 students in the Shelton control group and 556 students in the McBride control group. Both qualitative data and quantitative data were collected. A t-test was used to test significance.

  3. Chemistry of Transactinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, J. V.

    In this chapter, the chemical properties of the man-made transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf (element 104), dubnium, Db (element 105), seaborgium, Sg (element 106), bohrium, Bh (element 107), hassium, Hs (element 108), and copernicium, Cn (element 112) are reviewed, and prospects for chemical characterizations of even heavier elements are discussed. The experimental methods to perform rapid chemical separations on the time scale of seconds are presented and comments are given on the special situation with the transactinides where chemistry has to be studied with single atoms. It follows a description of theoretical predictions and selected experimental results on the chemistry of elements 104 through 108, and element 112.

  4. Explanation in organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, William

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, a model of a subclass of the explanations given in organic chemistry is developed. This model is supported by three concrete examples. The model suggests that in this discipline, laws, theories, and causal reasoning are interrelated in interesting and heretofore unexplored ways. The model also reserves a prominent place for idealizations and capacities ascribed on the basis of the structural features of molecules. The author hopes to have established that philosophical reflection on the methodology of organic chemistry can yield interesting and valuable new insights into classical issues in the philosophy of science. PMID:12796097

  5. Chemistry in cometary comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Dickens, J. E.; Lovell, A. J.; Schloerb, F. P.; Senay, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Jewitt, D.; Matthews, H. E.

    1998-01-01

    Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model.

  6. Nanophotonics and supramolecular chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hill, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has become a key area in emerging bottom-up nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, supramolecular systems that can produce a photonic output are increasingly important research targets and present various possibilities for practical applications. Accordingly, photonic properties of various supramolecular systems at the nanoscale are important in current nanotechnology. In this short review, nanophotonics in supramolecular chemistry will be briefly summarized by introducing recent examples of control of photonic responses of supramolecular systems. Topics are categorized according to the fundamental actions of their supramolecular systems: (i) self-assembly; (ii) recognition; (iii) manipulation.

  7. Chemistry in cometary comae.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W M; Dickens, J E; Lovell, A J; Schloerb, F P; Senay, M; Bergin, E A; Jewitt, D; Matthews, H E

    1998-01-01

    Significant gas-phase chemistry occurs in the comae of bright comets, as is demonstrated here for the case of Comet Hale-Bopp. The abundance ratio of the two isomers, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen isocyanide, is shown to vary with heliocentric distance in a way that is consistent with production of HNC by ion-molecule chemistry initiated by the photoionization of water. Likewise, the first maps of emission from HCO+ show an abundance and an extended distribution that are consistent with the same chemical model. PMID:9809016

  8. Chemistry WebBook

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  9. Serum cortisol and haematological, biochemical and antioxidant enzyme variables in horse blood sampled in a slaughterhouse lairage, immediately before stunning and during exsanguination.

    PubMed

    Nemec Svete, A; ?ebulj-Kadunc, N; Frange, R; Kruljc, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine changes of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme variables in the blood of horses sampled during the pre-slaughter period (in the lairage and in the stunning box) and during exsanguination. A total of 24 Slovenian warm-blooded horses were observed. Blood samples for determination of serum cortisol and biochemical, haematological (red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemaglobin concentration) and antioxidant enzyme (whole blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) variables were collected by venipuncture of the left jugular vein in the lairage pen, 60 min before stunning (lairage) and immediately before stunning (stunning box). At exsanguination, blood samples were collected from the wound at the time of jugular vein sticking. During blood collection in the lairage pen and in the stunning box, horses were gently restrained with a halter. They were stunned using a penetrating captive bolt pistol impelled by air and were bled by jugular vein sticking. Horses were physically active in the lairage pen and in the race before entering the stunning box. After stunning, the horses showed paddling movements with their legs. In horses, the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, the serum potassium concentration, the activities of the serum muscle enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, and values of most of the other biochemical (Table 1) and haematological variables (Table 2), were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at exsanguination, than in blood sampled while they were in the lairage and in the stunning box. The serum concentrations of cortisol and chloride and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and antioxidant enzymes were not significantly different between the pre-slaughter period and exsanguination. All selected blood variables were not significantly different between the lairge and the stunning box sampling time, indicating no physiological stress responses of the investigated horses to stressors, such as novelty of the pre-slaughter environment and handling, present in the slaughterhouse between the lairage and the stunning box. However, the significantly higher values, at exsanguination, for the plasma lactate and glucose concentrations, serum muscle enzyme activities and haematological variables, than during the pre-slaughter period, might partially be attributed to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, caused by stunning and bleeding. PMID:23217233

  10. Chemistry in the Comics: Part 2. Classic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Henry A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes topics in chemistry as related in the Classics Illustrated publications. Provides a list from "The Pioneers of Science" series with issue date, number, and biograhical topic. Lists references to topics in chemistry. Presents many pages from these comics. (MVL)

  11. Chemistry Curricula. Course Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Listings of suggested topics aimed at helping university and college faculties plan courses in the main areas of the chemistry curricula are provided. The suggestions were originally offered as appendices to the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Committee on Professional Training's 1983 guidelines for ACS-approved schools. The course data included…

  12. Get Cooking with Chemistry!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book presents science activities investigating the chemical changes and reactions with powders that are used in baking. Activities include: (1) Mystery Powders; (2) Find the Fizz: Discover the Secret of Baking Powder; and (3) A Feast for Yeast and Cheese: Behold the Power of Chemistry. (YDS)

  13. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar

  14. Chemistry in the Troposphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chameides, William L.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1982-01-01

    Topics addressed in this review of chemistry in the troposphere (layer of atmosphere extending from earth's surface to altitude of 10-16km) include: solar radiation/winds; earth/atmosphere interface; kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions; tropospheric free-radical photochemistry; instruments for nitric oxide detection; sampling…

  15. Online Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online

  16. The Language of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Meinwald, Jerrold

    2002-01-01

    Describes a new curriculum called The Language of Chemistry designed to illustrate how problems of biological and/or medical importance can be understood on a molecular basis and to show that the logic, knowledge, and language needed are easily accessible. Among the case studies in the curriculum are the giant peacock moth, bacterial chemotaxis,…

  17. Greener and Sustainable Chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The special issue on Greener and Sustainable Chemistry highlights various strategies that can be adopted to address the pollution preventive measures promoting the use of energy efficient reactions that utilize benign and bio-renewable raw materials in a relatively safer reaction...

  18. Chemistry in a Nutshell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupnow, John; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity that involves making peanut butter in the laboratory as a way to teach students the chemistry concepts of emulsification, solubility, and formulation. Enables students to realize that they can actually create or modify the physical and sensory characteristics of peanut butter and taste the differences in their work. (JRH)

  19. Learning Chemistry Through Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, John T.; Treagust, David F.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizes a pretest-posttest design to determine if participants (N=26) exhibit significant gains in organic, inorganic, and biological chemistry concepts as the result of a six-week summer program. Significant gains in these areas and in an understanding of the methods and procedures used in scientific explanation are found. (CP)

  20. Protein Chemistry Core

    Cancer.gov

    The Protein Chemistry Core has expertise in the analysis of protein modifications via radioactive and non-radioactive methods.  The core provides the following services to the NCI community:  Protein and peptide sequencing Protein phosphorylation site map