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1

Good clinical practice in developing countries: applying recommendations.  

PubMed

The recommendations for clinical research in developing countries were published in 2007 and the present article deals with issues which were not initially raised or discussed in depth. In particular, we discuss specific questions linked to trials conducted in developing countries with regard to informed consent, research project review by two ethics committees, standards of care, management of biological samples, study follow-up committees, notification of Serious Adverse Events, paediatric trials, and Contract Research Organizations. PMID:18561879

Bompart, François; Hirsch, François; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Vray, Muriel

2008-01-01

2

Opioid Detoxification and Naltrexone Induction Strategies: Recommendations for Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Opioid dependence is a significant public health problem associated with high risk for relapse if treatment is not ongoing. While maintenance on opioid agonists (i.e., methadone, buprenorphine) often produces favorable outcomes, detoxification followed by treatment with the ?-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone may offer a potentially useful alternative to agonist maintenance for some patients. Method Treatment approaches for making this transition are described here based on a literature review and solicitation of opinions from several expert clinicians and scientists regarding patient selection, level of care, and detoxification strategies. Conclusion Among the current detoxification regimens, the available clinical and scientific data suggest that the best approach may be using an initial 2–4 mg dose of buprenorphine combined with clonidine, other ancillary medications, and progressively increasing doses of oral naltrexone over 3–5 days up to the target dose of naltrexone. However, more research is needed to empirically validate the best approach for making this transition. PMID:22404717

Sigmon, Stacey C.; Bisaga, Adam; Nunes, Edward V.; O'Connor, Patrick G.; Kosten, Thomas; Woody, George

2015-01-01

3

Recommended practices for computerized clinical decision support and knowledge management in community settings: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to identify recommended practices for computerized clinical decision support (CDS) development and implementation and for knowledge management (KM) processes in ambulatory clinics and community hospitals using commercial or locally developed systems in the U.S. Methods Guided by the Multiple Perspectives Framework, the authors conducted ethnographic field studies at two community hospitals and five ambulatory clinic organizations across the U.S. Using a Rapid Assessment Process, a multidisciplinary research team: gathered preliminary assessment data; conducted on-site interviews, observations, and field surveys; analyzed data using both template and grounded methods; and developed universal themes. A panel of experts produced recommended practices. Results The team identified ten themes related to CDS and KM. These include: 1) workflow; 2) knowledge management; 3) data as a foundation for CDS; 4) user computer interaction; 5) measurement and metrics; 6) governance; 7) translation for collaboration; 8) the meaning of CDS; 9) roles of special, essential people; and 10) communication, training, and support. Experts developed recommendations about each theme. The original Multiple Perspectives framework was modified to make explicit a new theoretical construct, that of Translational Interaction. Conclusions These ten themes represent areas that need attention if a clinic or community hospital plans to implement and successfully utilize CDS. In addition, they have implications for workforce education, research, and national-level policy development. The Translational Interaction construct could guide future applied informatics research endeavors. PMID:22333210

2012-01-01

4

Clinical review: Practical recommendations on the management of perioperative heart failure in cardiac surgery  

PubMed Central

Acute cardiovascular dysfunction occurs perioperatively in more than 20% of cardiosurgical patients, yet current acute heart failure (HF) classification is not applicable to this period. Indicators of major perioperative risk include unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated HF, significant arrhythmias and valvular disease. Clinical risk factors include history of heart disease, compensated HF, cerebrovascular disease, presence of diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency and high-risk surgery. EuroSCORE reliably predicts perioperative cardiovascular alteration in patients aged less than 80 years. Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptide level is an additional risk stratification factor. Aggressively preserving heart function during cardiosurgery is a major goal. Volatile anaesthetics and levosimendan seem to be promising cardioprotective agents, but large trials are still needed to assess the best cardioprotective agent(s) and optimal protocol(s). The aim of monitoring is early detection and assessment of mechanisms of perioperative cardiovascular dysfunction. Ideally, volume status should be assessed by 'dynamic' measurement of haemodynamic parameters. Assess heart function first by echocardiography, then using a pulmonary artery catheter (especially in right heart dysfunction). If volaemia and heart function are in the normal range, cardiovascular dysfunction is very likely related to vascular dysfunction. In treating myocardial dysfunction, consider the following options, either alone or in combination: low-to-moderate doses of dobutamine and epinephrine, milrinone or levosimendan. In vasoplegia-induced hypotension, use norepinephrine to maintain adequate perfusion pressure. Exclude hypovolaemia in patients under vasopressors, through repeated volume assessments. Optimal perioperative use of inotropes/vasopressors in cardiosurgery remains controversial, and further large multinational studies are needed. Cardiosurgical perioperative classification of cardiac impairment should be based on time of occurrence (precardiotomy, failure to wean, postcardiotomy) and haemodynamic severity of the patient's condition (crash and burn, deteriorating fast, stable but inotrope dependent). In heart dysfunction with suspected coronary hypoperfusion, an intra-aortic balloon pump is highly recommended. A ventricular assist device should be considered before end organ dysfunction becomes evident. Extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation is an elegant solution as a bridge to recovery and/or decision making. This paper offers practical recommendations for management of perioperative HF in cardiosurgery based on European experts' opinion. It also emphasizes the need for large surveys and studies to assess the optimal way to manage perioperative HF in cardiac surgery. PMID:20497611

2010-01-01

5

Grades of recommendation for antithrombotic agents: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition).  

PubMed

This chapter describes the system used by the American College of Chest Physicians to grade recommendations for antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy as part of the Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Clinicians need to know if a recommendation is strong or weak, and the methodologic quality of the evidence underlying that recommendation. We determine the strength of a recommendation by considering the balance between the desirable effects of an intervention and the undesirable effects (incremental harms, burdens, and for select recommendations, costs). If the desirable effects outweigh the undesirable effects, we recommend that clinicians offer an intervention to typical patients. The uncertainty associated with the balance between the desirable and undesirable effects will determine the strength of recommendations. If we are confident that benefits do or do not outweigh harms, burden, and costs, we make a strong recommendation in our formulation, Grade 1. If we are less certain of the magnitude of the benefits and risks, burden, and costs, and thus their relative impact, we make a weaker Grade 2 recommendation. For grading methodologic quality, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) begin as high-quality evidence (designated by "A"), but quality can decrease to moderate ("B"), or low ("C") as a result of poor design and conduct of RCTs, imprecision, inconsistency of results, indirectness, or a high likelihood for reporting bias. Observational studies begin as low quality of evidence (C) but can increase in quality on the basis of very large treatment effects. Strong (Grade 1) recommendations can be applied uniformly to most patients. Weak (Grade 2) suggestions require more judicious application, particularly considering patient values and preferences and, when resource limitations play an important role, issues of cost. PMID:18574262

Guyatt, Gordon H; Cook, Deborah J; Jaeschke, Roman; Pauker, Stephen G; Schünemann, Holger J

2008-06-01

6

[Recommendations on the use of belimumab in systemic lupus erythematosus. GEAS-SEMI Clinical Practice Guide].  

PubMed

Biological therapies are based on the administration of various types of synthetic molecules related to the immune response. Their use has spread in recent years to the field of systemic autoimmune diseases, particularly to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Until 2011, these diseases were not included in the therapeutic indications approved by international regulatory agencies. Therefore, the use of biological therapies was restricted to clinical trials and to compassionate use for cases refractory to standard treatments (off-label use), which require the approval of the Health Ministry. In 2011, belimumab, a human monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to the soluble form of the protein human B lymphocyte stimulator BlyS, was approved for use in patients with SLE. Because the clinical information on the use of this new drug in patients with SLE has only been obtained from the results of randomized trials, the Study Group of Autoimmune Diseases (GEAS) of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) has developed therapeutic guidelines. These guidelines are based on the current scientific evidence on the use of belimumab in SLE patients in the clinical practice. PMID:23266125

Ramos-Casals, M; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Jiménez-Alonso, J; Khamashta, M A

2013-01-01

7

Systematic and transparent inclusion of ethical issues and recommendations in clinical practice guidelines: a six-step approach.  

PubMed

BackgroundClinical practice guidelines (CPGs), a core tool to foster medical professionalism, differ widely in whether and how they address disease-specific ethical issues (DSEIs), and current manuals for CPG development are silent on this issue. The implementation of an explicit method faces two core challenges: first, it adds further complexity to CPG development and requires human and financial resources. Second, in contrast to the in-depth treatment of ethical issues that is standard in bioethics, the inclusion of DSEIs in CPGs need to be more pragmatic, reductive, and simplistic, but without rendering the resulting recommendations useless or insufficiently justified. This paper outlines a six-step approach, EthicsGuide, for the systematic and transparent inclusion of ethical issues and recommendations in CPGs.MethodsThe development of EthicsGuide is based on (a) methodological standards in evidence-based CPG development, (b) principles of bioethics, (c) research findings on how DSEIs are currently addressed in CPGs, and (d) findings from two proof-of-concept analyses of the EthicsGuide approach.ResultsThe six steps are 1) determine the DSEI spectrum and the need for ethical recommendations; 2) develop statements on which to base ethical recommendations; 3) categorize, classify, condense, and paraphrase the statements; 4) write recommendations in a standard form; 5) validate and justify recommendations, making any necessary modifications; and 6) address consent. All six steps necessarily come into play when including DSEIs in CPGs.ConclusionsIf DSEIs are not explicitly addressed, they are unavoidably dealt with implicitly. We believe that as ethicists gain greater involvement in decision-making about health, personal rights, or economic issues, they should make their methods transparent and replicable by other researchers; and as ethical issues become more widely reflected in CPGs, CPG developers have to learn how to address them in a methodologically adequate way. The approach proposed should serve as a basis for further discussion on how to reach these goals. It breaks open the black box of what ethicists implicitly do when they develop recommendations. Further, interdisciplinary discussion and pilot tests are needed to explore the minimal requirements that guarantee a simplified procedure which is still acceptable and does not become mere window dressing. PMID:25472446

Mertz, Marcel; Strech, Daniel

2014-12-01

8

Toward Standard Classification Schemes for Nursing Language: Recommendations of the American Nurses Association Steering Committee on Databases to Support Clinical Nursing Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Nurses Association (ANA) Cabinet on Nursing Practice mandated the formation of the Steering Committee on Databases to Support Clinical Nursing Practice. The Committee has established the process and the criteria by which to review and recommend nursing classification schemes based on the ANA Nursing Process Standards and elements contained in the Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) for inclusion

Kathleen A McCormick; Norma Lang; Rita Zielstorff; D Kathy Milholland; Virginia Saba; Ada Jacox

1994-01-01

9

Impact of Crop Management Diagnostic Clinics on Advisors' Recommendations and Producer Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adoption resulting from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Crop Management Diagnostic Clinic (CMDC) field days was evaluated using an on-line survey. Respondents reported significant gains in skills because of CMDC, but the gains were similar across skill areas. Adoption was affected by compatibility with the cropping system, relative advantage,…

Wortmann, Charles S.; Glewen, Keith L.; Williams, Susan N.

2011-01-01

10

Intracorporeal electromechanical tissue morcellation: a critical review and recommendations for clinical practice.  

PubMed

Electromechanical morcellators have come under scrutiny with concerns about complications involving iatrogenic dissemination of both benign and malignant tissues. Although the rapidly rotating blade has resulted in morcellator-related vascular and visceral injuries, equally concerning are the multiple reports in the literature demonstrating seeding of the abdominal cavity with tissue fragmented such as leiomyomas, endometriosis, adenomyosis, splenic and ovarian tissues, and occult cancers of the ovaries and uterus. Alternatives to intracorporeal electric morcellation for tissue extirpation through the vagina and through minilaparotomy are feasible, safe, and have been shown to have comparable, if not superior, outcomes without an increased need for laparotomy. Intracorporeal morcellation within a containment bag is another option to minimize the risk of iatrogenic tissue seeding. Patient safety is a priority with balanced goals of maximizing benefits and minimizing harm. When intracorporeal electromechanical morcellation is planned, physicians should discuss the risks and consequences with their patients. Although data are being collected to quantify and understand these risks more clearly, a minimally invasive alternative to unenclosed intracorporeal morcellation is favored when available. It is incumbent on surgeons to communicate the risks of practices and devices and to advocate for continued improvement in surgical instrumentation and techniques. PMID:25198260

Kho, Kimberly A; Anderson, Ted L; Nezhat, Ceana H

2014-10-01

11

Family Participation: DEC Recommended Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper lists practices recommended by the Council for Exceptional Children's Division for Early Childhood in the area of family participation in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) programs for infants and young children with special needs and their families. An introduction to the quality indicators points out…

Vincent, Lisbeth J.; Beckett, Julie Ann

12

Toward standard classification schemes for nursing language: recommendations of the American Nurses Association Steering Committee on Databases to Support Clinical Nursing Practice.  

PubMed Central

The American Nurses Association (ANA) Cabinet on Nursing Practice mandated the formation of the Steering Committee on Databases to Support Clinical Nursing Practice. The Committee has established the process and the criteria by which to review and recommend nursing classification schemes based on the ANA Nursing Process Standards and elements contained in the Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) for inclusion of nursing data elements in national databases. Four classification schemes have been recognized by the Committee for use in national databases. These classification schemes have been forwarded to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for inclusion in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and to the International Council of Nurses for the development of a proposed International Classification of Nursing Practice. PMID:7850567

McCormick, K A; Lang, N; Zielstorff, R; Milholland, D K; Saba, V; Jacox, A

1994-01-01

13

Recommendations for Meeting the Pediatric Patient's Need for a Clinical Pharmacist: A Joint Opinion of the Pediatrics Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy and the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group  

PubMed Central

Children warrant access to care from clinical pharmacists trained in pediatrics. The American College of Clinical Pharmacy Pediatrics Practice and Research Network (ACCP Pediatrics PRN) released an opinion paper in 2005 with recommendations for improving the quality and quantity of pediatric pharmacy education in colleges of pharmacy, residency programs, and fellowships. While progress has been made in increasing the availability of pediatric residencies, there is still much to be done to meet the direct care needs of pediatric patients. The purpose of this Joint Opinion paper is to outline strategies and recommendations for expanding the quality and capacity of pediatric clinical pharmacy practitioners by 1) elevating the minimum expectations for pharmacists entering practice to provide pediatric care; 2) standardizing pediatric pharmacy education; 3) expanding the current number of pediatric clinical pharmacists; and 4) creating an infrastructure for development of pediatric clinical pharmacists and clinical scientists. These recommendations may be used to provide both a conceptual framework and action items for schools of pharmacy, health care systems, and policymakers to work together to increase the quality and quantity of pediatric training, practice, or research initiatives. PMID:23258972

Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha; Buck, Marcia L.; Chung, Allison M.; Farrington, Elizabeth Anne; Hagemann, Tracy M.; Hoff, David S.; LaRochelle, Joseph M.; Pettit, Rebecca S.; Phan, Hanna; Potts, Amy L.; Smith, Katherine P.; Parrish, Richard H.

2012-01-01

14

Clinical recommendation: pediatric lichen sclerosus.  

PubMed

Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the anogenital region that may present in the prepubertal or adolescent patient. Clinical presentations include significant pruritus, labial adhesions, and loss of pigmentation. Treatment includes topical anti-inflammatory agents and long-term follow-up as there is a high risk of recurrence and an increased risk of vulvar cancer in adult women with history of lichen sclerosus. These recommendations are intended for pediatricians, gynecologists, nurse practitioners and others who care for pediatric/adolescent girls in order to facilitate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24602304

Bercaw-Pratt, Jennifer L; Boardman, Lori A; Simms-Cendan, Judith S

2014-04-01

15

Recommended Practice for Accepting New Concrete Pavement  

E-print Network

Recommended Practice for Accepting New Concrete Pavement Surfaces for Tire/Pavement Noise Designation: CPSCP PP 1-11 (rev 3/1/2011) National Concrete Pavement Technology Center 2711 South Loop Drive, Suite 4700 Ames, IA 50010 #12;PP 1-1 CPSCP Recommended Practice for Accepting New Concrete Pavement

16

Recommended lighting maintenance practices for Army installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-maintained lighting system contributes to workforce efficiency and safety. This report recommends routine lighting maintenance practices (primarily relamping and fixture cleaning) for Army installations. The recommendations are derived from consideration of a comparative economic analysis, current maintenance practices in the military and nonmilitary sectors, and information obtained from industry trade and professional associations. Most common sources of interior and

Kedl

1987-01-01

17

Professional practices and recommendations Establishing recommendations for physical medicine and rehabilitation: the SOFMER methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. - The development of a rigorous methodology based on published results of clinical trials, evaluation of daily practice in France and multidisciplinary expert opinion to elaborate recommendations for rehabilitation interventions. Methods and results. - The following describes the methodology of SOFMER (Société Française de Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation (French Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation)) for developing recommendations

F. Rannoua; E. Coudeyre; Y. Macé; S. Poiraudeau; M. Revel

18

Training Research: Practical Recommendations for Maximum Impact  

PubMed Central

This review offers practical recommendations regarding research on training in evidence-based practices for mental health and substance abuse treatment. When designing training research, we recommend: (a) aligning with the larger dissemination and implementation literature to consider contextual variables and clearly defining terminology, (b) critically examining the implicit assumptions underlying the stage model of psychotherapy development, (c) incorporating research methods from other disciplines that embrace the principles of formative evaluation and iterative review, and (d) thinking about how technology can be used to take training to scale throughout all stages of a training research project. An example demonstrates the implementation of these recommendations. PMID:21380792

Beidas, Rinad S.; Koerner, Kelly; Weingardt, Kenneth R.; Kendall, Philip C.

2011-01-01

19

Management of the waiting list for cadaveric kidney transplants: report of a survey and recommendations by the Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Society of Transplantation.  

PubMed

The Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee of the American Society of Transplantation developed a survey to review the policies of kidney transplant programs in the United States with respect to the management of the steadily expanding waiting list for cadaveric kidneys. The survey was sent to 287 centers, and 192 (67%) responded. The survey indicated that regular follow-up monitoring, most frequently on an annual basis, is required by the majority (71%) of programs. Patients considered to be at high risk and candidates for combined kidney-pancreas transplantation may be monitored more frequently. Annual screening for coronary artery disease is typically required for asymptomatic patients considered to be at high risk for covert disease. Noninvasive techniques are typically used, and a designated cardiologist is usually available to the transplant program. The dialysis nephrologist or the potential transplant recipient is expected to inform the transplant program of intercurrent events that may affect transplant candidacy. Standard health maintenance screening is required, together with the routine updating of serologic and other blood tests that may be relevant to the posttransplant course. Smaller transplant programs (<100 patients on the waiting list) are more likely to maintain closer contact with the wait-listed patients and to attempt to influence their treatment during dialysis and are less likely to cancel transplants because of unanticipated pretransplant medical problems. The work load necessitated by the follow-up monitoring of wait-listed patients was assessed and, in the absence of specific evidence-based information, a series of recommendations were developed to reflect current standards of practice and to suggest future research initiatives. PMID:11805184

Danovitch, Gabriel M; Hariharan, Sundaram; Pirsch, John D; Rush, David; Roth, David; Ramos, Emilio; Starling, Randall C; Cangro, Chuck; Weir, Mattthew R

2002-02-01

20

Nutrition for Tennis: Practical Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min-1 have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1·d-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr-1 and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key Points Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg-1 to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg-1·d-1. Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg-1·d-1. Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg-1 can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr-1 of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow. PMID:24149799

Ranchordas, Mayur K.; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C.; Winter, Edward M.

2013-01-01

21

Nutrition for tennis: practical recommendations.  

PubMed

Tennis is a pan-global sport that is played year-round in both hemispheres. This places notable demands on the physical and psychological preparation of players and included in these demands are nutritional and fluid requirements both of training and match- play. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review nutritional recommendations for tennis. Notably, tennis players do not excel in any particular physiological or anthropometric characteristic but are well adapted in all areas which is probably a result of the varied nature of the training demands of tennis match play. Energy expenditures of 30.9 ± 5.5 and 45.3 ± 7.3 kJ·min(-1) have been reported in women and men players respectively regardless of court surface. Tennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) and dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg(-1)·d(-1). Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg(-1) provides ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play. Depending on environmental conditions, sweat rates of 0.5 to and over 5 L·hr(-1) and sodium losses of 0.5 - 1.8 g have been recorded in men and women players. 200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL. 30-60 g·hr(-1) of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours. Key PointsTennis players should follow a habitually high carbohydrate diet of between 6-10 g·kg(-1) to ensure adequate glycogen stores, with women generally requiring slightly less than men. Protein intake guidelines for tennis players training at a high intensity and duration on a daily basis should be ~1.6 g·kg(-1)·d(-1). Dietary fat intake should not exceed 2 g·kg(-1)·d(-1).Caffeine in doses of 3 mg·kg(-1) can provide ergogenic benefit when taken before and/or during tennis match play.200 mL of fluid containing electrolytes should be consumed every change-over in mild to moderate temperatures of < 27°C but in temperatures greater than 27°C players should aim for ? 400 mL.30-60 g·hr(-1) of carbohydrate should be ingested when match play exceeds 2 hours.During periods of travel, specific dietary requirements can be communicated with agencies and hotels prior to arrival and in the event that suitably nutritious foods are not available in the host country, players can bring or send non-perishable foods and goods where customs and quarantine laws allow. PMID:24149799

Ranchordas, Mayur K; Rogersion, David; Ruddock, Alan; Killer, Sophie C; Winter, Edward M

2013-01-01

22

Implementing AORN Recommended Practices for Laser Safety.  

PubMed

Lasers used in the OR pose many risks to both patients and personnel. AORN's "Recommended practices for laser safety in perioperative practice settings" identifies the potential hazards associated with laser use, such as eye damage and fire- and smoke-related injuries. The practice recommendations are intended to be used as a guide for establishing best practices in the workplace and to give perioperative nurses strategies for implementing the recommended safety measures. A laser safety program should include measures to control access to laser use areas; protect staff members and patients from exposure to the laser beam; provide staff members and patients with the appropriate safety eyewear for use in the laser use area; and protect staff members and patients from surgical smoke, electrical, and fire hazards. Measures such as using a safety checklist or creating a laser cart can help perioperative nurses successfully incorporate the practice recommendations. Patient scenarios are included as examples of how to use the document in real-life situations. PMID:22541772

Castelluccio, Donna

2012-05-01

23

Practical recommendations for exercise training in patients with COPD.  

PubMed

The aim of this article was to provide practical recommendations to healthcare professionals interested in offering a pulmonary rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The latest research findings were brought together and translated into clinical practice. These recommendations focus on the description of useful assessment tests and of the most common exercise modalities for patients with COPD. We provide specific details on the rationale of why and especially how to implement exercise training in patients with COPD, including the prescription of training mode, intensity and duration, as well as suggestions of guidelines for training progression. PMID:23728873

Gloeckl, Rainer; Marinov, Blagoi; Pitta, Fabio

2013-06-01

24

[Nutrition recommendations for children who practice sports].  

PubMed

Several health benefits have been attributed to sports practice, and an adequate nutrition status helps to maintain an optimal performance. Children most frequently practice non-competitive and non-endurance activities in a school setting. The dietary intake of children who practice sports should be similar to the general population, properly meeting their energy and nutrient requirements. During the activity performance, correct hydration should be aimed for, with water appearing to be an adequate source in most cases. General calorie and micronutrient supplementation should not be commonly recommended in children. Paediatricians must control nutritional status and dietary habits of children who practice sports, especially in those cases when weight-loss is aimed for, as well as take into account the psychological implications of competitive sports practice. PMID:24139559

Sánchez-Valverde Visus, F; Moráis López, A; Ibáñez, J; Dalmau Serra, J

2014-08-01

25

When Choosing Wisely meets clinical practice guidelines.  

PubMed

The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation launched the Choosing Wisely campaign in 2012 and until today convinced more than 50 US specialist societies to develop lists of interventions that may not improve people's health but are potentially harmful. We suggest combining these new efforts with the already existing efforts in clinical practice guideline development. Existing clinical practice guidelines facilitate a more participatory and evidence-based approach to the development of top 5 lists. In return, adding top 5 lists (for overuse and underuse) to existing clinical practice guidelines nicely addresses a neglected dimension to clinical practice guideline development, namely explicit information on which Do or Don't do recommendations are frequently disregarded in practice. PMID:25499114

Strech, Daniel; Follmann, Markus; Klemperer, David; Lelgemann, Monika; Ollenschläger, Günter; Raspe, Heiner; Nothacker, Monika

2014-01-01

26

Clinical practice guideline: allergic rhinitis executive summary.  

PubMed

The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Allergic Rhinitis. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 14 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with allergic rhinitis, including performing and interpretation of diagnostic testing and assessment and documentation of chronic conditions and comorbidities. It will then focus on the recommendations to guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:25645524

Seidman, Michael D; Gurgel, Richard K; Lin, Sandra Y; Schwartz, Seth R; Baroody, Fuad M; Bonner, James R; Dawson, Douglas E; Dykewicz, Mark S; Hackell, Jesse M; Han, Joseph K; Ishman, Stacey L; Krouse, Helene J; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Mims, James Whit W; Omole, Folashade S; Reddy, William D; Wallace, Dana V; Walsh, Sandra A; Warren, Barbara E; Wilson, Meghan N; Nnacheta, Lorraine C

2015-02-01

27

Toward standard HER2 testing of endometrial serous carcinoma: 4-year experience at a large academic center and recommendations for clinical practice.  

PubMed

HER2 overexpression and/or amplification have been reported in endometrial serous carcinoma, suggesting that HER2 may be a promising therapeutic target. However, there is considerable variation in the reported rates of HER2 overexpression and amplification, likely--at least in part--resulting from variability in the testing methods, interpretation, and scoring criteria used. Unlike in breast and gastric cancer, currently there are no established guidelines for HER2 testing in endometrial carcinoma. A total of 108 endometrial carcinoma cases--85 pure serous carcinomas and 23 mixed endometrial carcinomas with serous component--were identified over a 4-year period. All H&E and HER2 immunohistochemical slides were reviewed and HER2 FISH results (available on 52 cases) were retrieved from pathology reports. HER2 immunohistochemical scores were assigned according to the FDA criteria and the current breast ASCO/CAP scoring criteria. Clinical information was retrieved from the patients' medical records. Thirty-eight cases (35%) showed HER2 overexpression and/or gene amplification, 20 of which (53%) had significant heterogeneity of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Lack of apical membrane staining resulting in a lateral/basolateral staining pattern was observed in the majority of HER2-positive tumors. Five of the HER2-positive cases (13%) demonstrated discrepant immunohistochemical scores when using the FDA versus ASCO/CAP scoring system. The overall concordance rate between HER2 immunohistochemistry and FISH was 75% (39/52) when using the FDA criteria, compared with 81% (42/52) by the ASCO/CAP scoring system. In conclusion, in this largest comprehensive study, 35% of endometrial serous carcinoma harbors HER2 protein overexpression and/or gene amplification, over half of which demonstrate significant heterogeneity of protein expression. The current breast ASCO/CAP scoring criteria provide the highest concordance between immunohistochemistry and FISH. Assessment of HER2 immunohistochemistry on multiple tumor sections or sections with large tumor areas is recommended, due to the significant heterogeneity of HER2 protein expression. PMID:23765245

Buza, Natalia; English, Diana P; Santin, Alessandro D; Hui, Pei

2013-12-01

28

Tiagabine in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Among the newly introduced antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), tiagabine (TGB) stands out as a compound with a well-understood and documented mechanism of action. It is a lipophilic derivative of nipecotic acid that blocks gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake by inhibition of the GAT-1 transportation system, and that has no other significant pharmacodynamic effect. The relationship between intake and blood levels is linear. Usual daily maintenance doses range from 20 to 50 mg. It is completely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, and its half-life is approximately 7-9 h. TGB is sensitive to enzyme induction: when coprescribed with enzyme-inducing AEDs, its half-life is shortened to 2-3 h, whereas the daily dosage has to be increased into the upper range. It should be given 3 times per day. Placebo-controlled, double-blind, add-on studies conducted in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies have demonstrated its efficacy and overall safety. The clinical benefits appear to persist over time. Data on its use in monotherapy are scanty. The efficacy and tolerability of TGB in the pediatric age still remain to be investigated adequately. In daily practice, TGB appears to be a safe drug, but mild to moderate side effects are frequently seen, especially during titration: these include dizziness and fatigue, and are clearly abated when the drug is absorbed during meals. Titration should be especially slow, no faster than 5 mg weekly. Clinicians also should beware of the possible occurrence of confusion, which may be misdiagnosed as absence status, a short-lasting, quickly reversible central nervous system-related side effect that appears to be correlated with the peak plasma concentrations of TGB. Particularly beneficial indications for TGB and/or AED associations including TGB have not been pointed out, but there is a hint that it works best in temporal lobe epilepsies. PMID:11520322

Genton, P; Guerrini, R; Perucca, E

2001-01-01

29

DEC Recommended Practices: Who Uses Them? Reactions from the Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This response to an article on recommended practices in early intervention/early childhood special education identified by the Council for Exceptional Children's Division for Early Childhood raises concerns about the characteristics of the validation sample, the discrepancy between acceptance and use of recommended practices, and implications for…

Garland, Corinne W.

1995-01-01

30

Mindfulness Meditation in Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practice of mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into contemporary clinical psychology. Based in Buddhist philosophy and subsequently integrated into Western health care in the contexts of psychotherapy and stress management, mindfulness meditation is evolving as a systematic clinical intervention. This article describes…

Salmon, Paul; Sephton, Sandra; Weissbecker, Inka; Hoover, Katherine; Ulmer, Christi; Studts, Jamie L.

2004-01-01

31

Aphasia in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Aphasia is a central language impairment with word finding and comprehension deficit and paraphasias. The highlights of the essential language tests and the classification based on a scorable assessment are presented. The clinical syndromes of Broca's, global, Wernicke, conduction, anomic and transcortical aphasias are detailed with definition, localization, and prognosis. Modality specific disorders associated with aphasic syndromes are discussed. The management of the aphasic patient, consisting of informed support and coordination of available services, is often the responsibility of the family physician. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21286589

Kertesz, Andrew

1983-01-01

32

Clinical practice guideline: tinnitus executive summary.  

PubMed

The American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Tinnitus. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 13 recommendations developed address the evaluation of patients with tinnitus, including selection and timing of diagnostic testing and specialty referral to identify potential underlying treatable pathology. It will then focus on the evaluation and treatment of patients with persistent primary tinnitus, with recommendations to guide the evaluation and measurement of the impact of tinnitus and to determine the most appropriate interventions to improve symptoms and quality of life for tinnitus sufferers. PMID:25274374

Tunkel, David E; Bauer, Carol A; Sun, Gordon H; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Cunningham, Eugene R; Archer, Sanford M; Blakley, Brian W; Carter, John M; Granieri, Evelyn C; Henry, James A; Hollingsworth, Deena; Khan, Fawad A; Mitchell, Scott; Monfared, Ashkan; Newman, Craig W; Omole, Folashade S; Phillips, C Douglas; Robinson, Shannon K; Taw, Malcolm B; Tyler, Richard S; Waguespack, Richard; Whamond, Elizabeth J

2014-10-01

33

Summary of: Is further intervention required to translate caries prevention and management recommendations into practice?  

PubMed

Aims In April 2010, the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP) published guidance on the Prevention and Management of Dental Caries in Children. The aims of this study were to determine if further intervention is required to translate the SDCEP guidance recommendations into practice and to identify salient beliefs associated with recommended practice.Methods Two postal surveys circulated to two independent random samples of dentists working in general dental practices in Scotland, before and after the publication of the guidance. The questionnaire items assessed current practice and beliefs relating to the prevention and management of dental caries in children.Results Response rates of 40% (n = 87) and 45% (n = 131) were achieved. The results highlight a gap between current practice and recommended practice. The majority of dentists do not 'always' perform recommended behaviours and many are following treatment strategies specifically not recommended in the guidance. More positive attitude, greater capability and motivation were significantly associated with performing more guidance recommended risk assessment and prevention behaviours.Conclusions These findings highlight the need for further intervention to translate the SDCEP guidance recommendations into practice and give initial insight into the salient beliefs that may serve as targets for future interventions. PMID:25571819

Watt, Richard G

2015-01-01

34

Is further intervention required to translate caries prevention and management recommendations into practice?  

PubMed

Aims In April 2010, the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP) published guidance on the Prevention and management of dental caries in children. The aims of this study were to determine if further intervention is required to translate the SDCEP guidance recommendations into practice and to identify salient beliefs associated with recommended practice.Methods Two postal surveys circulated to two independent random samples of dentists working in general dental practices in Scotland, before and after the publication of the guidance. The questionnaire items assessed current practice and beliefs relating to the prevention and management of dental caries in children.Results Response rates of 40% (n = 87) and 45% (n = 131) were achieved. The results highlight a gap between current practice and recommended practice. The majority of dentists do not 'always' perform recommended behaviours and many are following treatment strategies specifically not recommended in the guidance. More positive attitude, greater capability and motivation were significantly associated with performing more guidance recommended risk assessment and prevention behaviours.Conclusions These findings highlight the need for further intervention to translate the SDCEP guidance recommendations into practice and give initial insight into the salient beliefs that may serve as targets for future interventions. PMID:25571839

Elouafkaoui, P; Bonetti, D; Clarkson, J; Stirling, D; Young, L; Cassie, H

2015-01-01

35

Recommendations for Responsible Monitoring and Regulation of Clinical Software Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position

Randolph A Miller; Reed M Gardner

1997-01-01

36

Practical recommendations for population PK studies with sampling time errors  

PubMed Central

Purpose Population pharmacokinetic (PK) data collected from routine clinical practice offers a rich source of valuable information. However, in observational population PK data, accurate time information for blood samples is often missing, resulting in measurement errors (ME) in the sampling time variable. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects on model parameters when a scheduled time is used instead of the actual blood sampling time, and to propose ME correction methods. Methods Simulation studies were conducted based on two major factors: the curvature in PK profiles and the size of ME. As ME correction methods, transform both sides (TBS) models were developed with application of Box-Cox power transformation and Taylor expansion. The TBS models were compared to a conventional population PK model using simulations. Results The most important determinant of bias due to time ME was the degree of curvature (nonlinearity) in PK profiles; the smaller the curvature around sampling times, the smaller the associated bias. The second important determinant was the magnitude of ME; the larger the ME, the larger the bias. The proposed TBS models performed better than a conventional population PK modeling when curvature and ME were substantial. Conclusions Time ME in sampling time can lead to bias on the parameter estimators. The following practical recommendations are provided: 1) when the curvature of PK profiles is small, conventional population PK modeling is robust to even large ME; and 2) when the curvature is moderate or large, the proposed methodology reduces bias in parameter estimates. PMID:23975237

Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Caffo, Brian S.

2013-01-01

37

General recommendations on immunization --- recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).  

PubMed

This report is a revision of the General Recommendations on Immunization and updates the 2006 statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (CDC. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-15]). The report also includes revised content from previous ACIP recommendations on the following topics: adult vaccination (CDC. Update on adult immunization recommendations of the immunization practices Advisory Committee [ACIP]. MMWR 1991;40[No. RR-12]); the assessment and feedback strategy to increase vaccination rates (CDC. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices: programmatic strategies to increase vaccination rates-assessment and feedback of provider-based vaccination coverage information. MMWR 1996;45:219-20); linkage of vaccination services and those of the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) (CDC. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices: programmatic strategies to increase vaccination coverage by age 2 years-linkage of vaccination and WIC services. MMWR 1996;45:217-8); adolescent immunization (CDC. Immunization of adolescents: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Medical Association. MMWR 1996;45[No. RR-13]); and combination vaccines (CDC. Combination vaccines for childhood immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], the American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], and the American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP]. MMWR 1999;48[No. RR-5]). Notable revisions to the 2006 recommendations include 1) revisions to the tables of contraindications and precautions to vaccination, as well as a separate table of conditions that are commonly misperceived as contraindications and precautions; 2) reordering of the report content, with vaccine risk-benefit screening, managing adverse reactions, reporting of adverse events, and the vaccine injury compensation program presented immediately after the discussion of contraindications and precautions; 3) stricter criteria for selecting an appropriate storage unit for vaccines; 4) additional guidance for maintaining the cold chain in the event of unavoidable temperature deviations; and 5) updated revisions for vaccination of patients who have received a hematopoietic cell transplant. The most recent ACIP recommendations for each specific vaccine should be consulted for comprehensive details. This report, ACIP recommendations for each vaccine, and additional information about vaccinations are available from CDC at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. PMID:21293327

2011-01-28

38

The validity of recommendations from clinical guidelines: a survival analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinical guidelines should be updated to maintain their validity. Our aim was to estimate the length of time before recommendations become outdated. Methods: We used a retrospective cohort design and included recommendations from clinical guidelines developed in the Spanish National Health System clinical guideline program since 2008. We performed a descriptive analysis of references, recommendations and resources used, and a survival analysis of recommendations using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: We included 113 recommendations from 4 clinical guidelines with a median of 4 years since the most recent search (range 3.9–4.4 yr). We retrieved 39 136 references (range 3343–14 787) using an exhaustive literature search, 668 of which were related to the recommendations in our sample. We identified 69 (10.3%) key references, corresponding to 25 (22.1%) recommendations that required updating. Ninety-two percent (95% confidence interval 86.9–97.0) of the recommendations were valid 1 year after their development. This probability decreased at 2 (85.7%), 3 (81.3%) and 4 years (77.8%). Interpretation: Recommendations quickly become outdated, with 1 out of 5 recommendations being out of date after 3 years. Waiting more than 3 years to review a guideline is potentially too long. PMID:25200758

García, Laura Martínez; Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Álvarez, Elvira García; Trujillo-Martín, Maria Mar; Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Itziar; Kotzeva, Anna; Rigau, David; Louro-González, Arturo; Barajas-Nava, Leticia; del Campo, Petra Díaz; Estrada, Maria-Dolors; Solà, Ivan; Gracia, Javier; Salcedo-Fernandez, Flavia; Lawson, Jennifer; Haynes, R. Brian; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

2014-01-01

39

Recombinant erythropoietin in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) has revolutionised the treatment of patients with anaemia of chronic renal disease. Clinical studies have demonstrated that RHuEPO is also useful in various non-uraemic conditions including haematological and oncological disorders, prematurity, HIV infection, and perioperative therapies. Besides highlighting both the historical and functional aspects of RHuEPO, this review discusses the applications of RHuEPO in clinical practice and the potential problems of RHuEPO treatment. PMID:12897214

Ng, T; Marx, G; Littlewood, T; Macdougall, I

2003-01-01

40

Handbook of clinical nursing practice  

SciTech Connect

Written in outline format, this reference will help nurses further their understanding of advanced nursing procedures. Information is provided on the physiological, psychological, environmental, and safety considerations of nursing activities associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Special consideration is given to the areas of pediatric nursing, nursing assessment, and selected radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures for each system. Contents: Clinical Introduction. Clinical Nursing Practice: Focus on Basics. Focus on Cardiovascular Function. Focus on Respiratory Function. Focus on Gastrointestinal Function. Focus on Renal and Genito-Urological Function. Focus on Neuro-Skeletal and Muscular Function. Appendices.

Asheervath, J.; Blevins, D.R.

1986-01-01

41

Practical guide to understanding clinical research compliance.  

PubMed

Noncompliance with federal regulations, as monitored through institutional review boards for the ethical conduct of clinical research, can occur, even to seasoned investigators. The cause of this noncompliance can be that an investigator is overloaded, does not know the regulations, or does not take the time to pay attention to the details. Sometimes it happens just because of inevitable human error that can befall us all at any time. The authors begin by citing the inherent differences between clinical practice and clinical research. This is followed by an illustration of common noncompliance errors, with examples, followed by general and specific concepts and methods to minimize noncompliance events. The objective of this article is to condense the myriad details involved in conducting clinical research into a set of manageable recommendations that can be recalled easily before and during the research. The material supporting these recommendations comes from years of institutional review board work at several institutions and consultation with experienced principal investigators and their research coordinators. PMID:24598406

Neely, J Gail; Paniello, Randal C; Graboyes, Evan M; Sharon, Jeffrey D; Grindler, David J; Nussenbaum, Brian

2014-05-01

42

Pediatric dyslipidemia: recommendations for clinical management.  

PubMed

During the last 50 years, it has become evident that atherosclerosis originates in childhood. Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are rare in children, autopsy data and imaging studies have documented subclinical disease in association with measurable risk factors during childhood. When present at a young age, risk factors track into adulthood and have been associated with a moderate to high risk of future CVD. As such, the ability to identify this vulnerable population creates the opportunity to prevent the development of risk factors and future CVD events with effective management of genetic and acquired risk factors. In 2011, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Expert Panel published comprehensive guidelines summarizing the current evidence and providing developmentally appropriate recommendations for screening, treatment, and follow-up of children and adults younger than 21 years at risk for premature CVDs such as myocardial infarction and stroke. In addition to screening individuals with a family history of hypercholesterolemia and/or premature CVD, the Expert Panel recommended universal screening of all children between 9 and 11 years of age and then again between 17 and 21 years of age. Although the recommendation for universal screening, regardless of general health or the presence/absence of risk factors of CVD, is not without controversy, this review serves to create awareness among healthcare providers, elected officials, and the lay public about the burden of CVD, the opportunity for prevention, and the benefits of early and effective therapeutic intervention with lifestyle changes and lipid-lowering medications. PMID:25580750

Wilson, Don P; McNeal, Catherine; Blackett, Piers

2015-01-01

43

[TNF-blocking drugs and infection; recommendations for daily practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is associated with an increased risk of infection. There are sparse data and no evidence-based guidelines on how to deal with this problem in daily practice. However, recommendations can be made based on theoretical considerations and by extrapolating from recommendations for other types ofimmunodeficiency. Before starting anti-TNF therapy, screening for tuberculosis and other possible infections

J. W. Jacobs; M. C. W. Creemers; M. A. van Agtmael; M. A. F. J. van de Laar; T. van der Poll; P. P. Tak; J. W. J. Bijlsma

2007-01-01

44

[Recommendations for physical exercise practice during pregnancy: a critical review].  

PubMed

Physical exercise is recommended for all healthy pregnant women. Regular practice of exercises during pregnancy can provide many physical and psychological benefits, with no evidence of adverse outcomes for the fetus or the newborn when exercise is performed at mild to moderate intensity. However, few pregnant women engage in this practice and many still have fears and doubts about the safety of exercise. The objective of the present study was to inform the professionals who provide care for Brazilian pregnant women about the current recommendations regarding physical exercise during pregnancy based on the best scientific evidence available. In view of the perception that few systematic models are available about this topic and after performing several studies in this specific area, we assembled practical information of interest to both the professionals and the pregnant women. We also provide recommendations about the indications, contraindications, modalities (aerobics, resistance training, stretching and pelvic floor training), frequency, intensity and duration indicated for each gestational trimester. The review addresses physical exercise recommendation both for low risk pregnant women and for special populations, such as athletes and obese, hypertensive and diabetic subjects. The advantages of an active and healthy lifestyle should be always reinforced during and after gestation since pregnancy is an appropriate period to introduce new habits because pregnant women are usually more motivated to adhere to recommendations. Thus, routine exams, frequent returns and supervision are recommended in order to provide new guidelines that will have long-term beneficial effects for both mother and child. PMID:25230282

do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, João Luiz

2014-09-01

45

Expanding the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (Ex-GRADE) for Evidence-Based Clinical Recommendations: Validation Study.  

PubMed

Clinicians use general practice guidelines as a source of support for their intervention, but how much confidence should they place on these recommendations? How much confidence should patients place on these recommendations? Various instruments are available to assess the quality of evidence of research, such as the revised Wong scale (R-Wong) which examines the quality of research design, methodology and data analysis, and the revision of the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (R-AMSTAR), which examines the quality of systematic reviews.The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group developed an instrument called the GRADE system in order to grade the quality of the evidence in studies and to evaluate the strength of recommendation of the intervention that is proposed in the published article. The GRADE looks at four factors to determine the quality of the evidence: study design, study quality, consistency, and directness. After combining the four components and assessing the grade of the evidence, the strength of recommendation of the intervention is established. The GRADE, however, only makes a qualitative assessment of the evidence and does not generate quantifiable data.In this study, we have quantified both the grading of the quality of evidence and also the strength of recommendation of the original GRADE, hence expanding the GRADE. This expansion of the GRADE (Ex-GRADE) permits the creation of a new instrument that can produce tangible data and possibly bridge the gap between evidence-based research and evidence-based clinical practice. PMID:22303416

Phi, Linda; Ajaj, Reem; Ramchandani, Manisha H; Brant, Xenia Mc; Oluwadara, Oluwadayo; Polinovsky, Olga; Moradi, David; Barkhordarian, Andre; Sriphanlop, Pathu; Ong, Margaret; Giroux, Amy; Lee, Justin; Siddiqui, Muniza; Ghodousi, Nora; Chiappelli, Francesco

2012-01-01

46

Updated recommendations: an assessment of NICE clinical guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Updating is important to ensure clinical guideline (CG) recommendations remain valid. However, little research has been undertaken in this field. We assessed CGs produced by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to identify and describe updated recommendations and to investigate potential factors associated with updating. Also, we evaluated the reporting and presentation of recommendation changes. Methods We performed a descriptive analysis of original and updated CGs and recommendations, and an assessment of presentation formats and methods for recording information. We conducted a case-control study, defining cases as original recommendations that were updated (‘new-replaced’ recommendations), and controls as original recommendations that were considered to remain valid (‘not changed’ recommendations). We performed a comparison of main characteristics between cases and controls, and we planned a multiple regression analysis to identify potential predictive factors for updating. Results We included nine updated CGs (1,306 recommendations) and their corresponding original versions (1,106 recommendations). Updated CGs included 812 (62%) recommendations ‘not reviewed’, 368 (28.1%) ‘new’ recommendations, 104 (7.9%) ‘amended’ recommendations, and 25 (1.9%) recommendations reviewed but unchanged. The presentation formats used to indicate the changes in recommendations varied widely across CGs. Changes in ‘amended’, ‘deleted’, and ‘new-replaced’ recommendations (n?=?296) were reported infrequently, mostly in appendices. These changes were recorded in 167 (56.4%) recommendations; and were explained in 81 (27.4%) recommendations. We retrieved a total of 7.1% (n?=?78) case recommendations (‘new-replaced’) and 2.4% (n?=?27) control recommendations (‘not changed’) in original CGs. The updates were mainly from ‘Fertility CG’, about ‘gynaecology, pregnancy and birth’ topic, and ‘treatment’ or ‘prevention’ purposes. We did not perform the multiple regression analysis as originally planned due to the small sample of recommendations retrieved. Conclusion Our study is the first to describe and assess updated CGs and recommendations from a national guideline program. Our results highlight the pressing need to standardise the reporting and presentation of updated recommendations and the research gap about the optimal way to present updates to guideline users. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate updating predictive factors. PMID:24919856

2014-01-01

47

Clinically Isolated Neurosarcoidosis: A Recommended Diagnostic Path.  

PubMed

The involvement of the central nervous system in sarcoidosis can manifest with a variety of neurological symptoms, most of them nonspecific. We identified 13 patients with neurosarcoidosis diagnosed at our clinic. Six of 13 patients presented with clinically isolated neurosarcoidosis (CINS) without signs or symptoms of systemic disease. CINS patients were not different with respect to age, as well as imaging and spinal fluid findings, or disease course. However, we found spinal cord involvement in neurosarcoidosis patients much more common than previously described (in 8 out of 13 patients). Spinal cord affection was associated with older age at diagnosis and a less favorable response to therapy. Based on our findings, we propose a diagnostic path for neurosarcoidosis, including spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a mandatory and early step during diagnostic workup. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25401278

Wegener, Susanne; Linnebank, Michael; Martin, Roland; Valavanis, Anton; Weller, Michael

2014-11-12

48

Proton therapy in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.

2011-01-01

49

Vision Screening for Children 36 to <72 Months: Recommended Practices  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose This article provides recommendations for screening children aged 36 to younger than 72 months for eye and visual system disorders. The recommendations were developed by the National Expert Panel to the National Center for Children’s Vision and Eye Health, sponsored by Prevent Blindness, and funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration, United States Department of Health and Human Services. The recommendations describe both best and acceptable practice standards. Targeted vision disorders for screening are primarily amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive error, and associated risk factors. The recommended screening tests are intended for use by lay screeners, nurses, and other personnel who screen children in educational, community, public health, or primary health care settings. Characteristics of children who should be examined by an optometrist or ophthalmologist rather than undergo vision screening are also described. Results There are two current best practice vision screening methods for children aged 36 to younger than 72 months: (1) monocular visual acuity testing using single HOTV letters or LEA Symbols surrounded by crowding bars at a 5-ft (1.5 m) test distance, with the child responding by either matching or naming, or (2) instrument-based testing using the Retinomax autorefractor or the SureSight Vision Screener with the Vision in Preschoolers Study data software installed (version 2.24 or 2.25 set to minus cylinder form). Using the Plusoptix Photoscreener is acceptable practice, as is adding stereoacuity testing using the PASS (Preschool Assessment of Stereopsis with a Smile) stereotest as a supplemental procedure to visual acuity testing or autorefraction. Conclusions The National Expert Panel recommends that children aged 36 to younger than 72 months be screened annually (best practice) or at least once (accepted minimum standard) using one of the best practice approaches. Technological updates will be maintained at http://nationalcenter.preventblindness.org. PMID:25562476

Cotter, Susan A.; Cyert, Lynn A.; Miller, Joseph M.; Quinn, Graham E.

2015-01-01

50

Elevated blood glucose recommendation guidelines that produce positive maternal and perinatal outcomes at the University of Kansas Obstetrics Clinic  

E-print Network

and management practices at the University of Kansas Obstetrics (KUMC OB) clinic in regard to perinatal outcomes, and adherence to recommendations from the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). Design: In this retrospective...

Plumberg, Erin M.

2013-05-31

51

Recommendations for Enhancing Clinical Trials Education: a Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to apply the evidence-based practice (EBP) process to determine the factors that influence patients’ understanding\\u000a of, participation in, and satisfaction with clinical trials, the informed consent process, and treatment decisions and to\\u000a make recommendations for improving clinical trials education. Beginning with evidence retrieval, the authors identified key\\u000a search terms and searched MEDLINE—Ovid, MEDLINE—PubMed, and the Cumulative Index

Karen A. Stepan; Amy P. Gonzalez; Vivian S. Dorsey; Debra K. Frye; Nita D. Pyle; Regina F. Smith; Terry A. Throckmorton; Louise A. Villejo; Scott B. Cantor

2011-01-01

52

Summary of best practice recommendations for management of enterocutaneous fistulae from the Canadian Association for Enterostomal Therapy ECF Best Practice Recommendations Panel.  

PubMed

These recommendations are a comprehensive resource summarizing the current literature that supports the care of the person with an enterocutaneous fistula (ECF). They are the result of the decision of the Canadian Association for Enterostomal Therapy to provide an open-source guide to clinicians in the care of the person with ECF. It is intended as a tool for nurses to assist in decision making and priority setting when developing individualized care plans. It is not intended to be a clinical practice guideline but, like its progenitor the Canadian Association for Wound Care: Best Practice Recommendations for Wound Care, it is a distillation of existing research, expert opinion, and case studies intended to enable clinicians to determine their clinical practice based on the best available evidence. It is a living document and as such it is expected that having identified the gaps in knowledge and practice, clinicians will begin the research and publications necessary to fill in these gaps. Contributions to this body of knowledge are essential to an evolving improvement in care for patients living with ECF. PMID:20228660

McNaughton, Virginia; Brown, Jean; Hoeflok, Jo; Martins, Lina; McNaughton, Virginia; Nielsen, Elise M; Thompson, Gail; Westendorp, Claire

2010-01-01

53

A Synthesis of Clinical Recommendations and Primary Research for Survivors of Prostate or Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Studies have documented the efficacy of cancer treatments available, specifically for patients with prostate or breast cancer, but few articles have compared prostate or breast cancer recommendations from the patient’s perspective. In this article, the authors compare and contrast published clinical recommendations for advanced practice RNs who treat patients with prostate or breast cancer to qualitative studies that explore the experiences of cancer survivors. Treatment options, along with recommendations and resources, are included. The nurse clinician’s role in caring for patients with prostate or breast cancer is diverse and complex, and evidence supports the role of the nurse clinician in improving patient care. Implementing findings from qualitative studies that focus on patients’ perspectives in conjunction with clinical recommendations is essential when developing care plans for patients with cancer. PMID:25427700

Sandoval, Melanie; Wenzel, Jennifer; Jones, Randy

2015-01-01

54

Randomized Play-the-Winner Clinical Trials: Review and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The randomized play-the-winner rule is an adaptive randomized design, based on an urn model, that is used occasionally in clinical trials. This paper discusses practical and theoretical issues arising from its use, including stratification, delayed response, operating characteristics, selection of urn parameters, and inference. The paper also discusses recent experience with adaptive clinical trials within the pharmaceutical indus- try. The

William F. Rosenberger

1999-01-01

55

Core outcome domains for chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To provide recommendations for the core outcome domains that should be considered by investigators conducting clinical trials of the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments for chronic pain. Development of a core set of outcome domains would facilitate comparison and pooling of data, encourage more complete reporting of outcomes, simplify the preparation and review of research proposals and manuscripts, and

Dennis C. Turk; Robert H. Dworkin; Robert R. Allen; Nicholas Bellamy; Nancy Brandenburg; Daniel B. Carr; Charles Cleeland; Raymond Dionne; John T. Farrar; Bradley S. Galer; David J. Hewitt; Alejandro R. Jadad; Nathaniel P. Katz; Lynn D. Kramer; Donald C. Manning; Cynthia G. Mccormick; Michael P. Mcdermott; Patrick McGrath; Steve Quessy; Bob A. Rappaport; James P. Robinson; Mike A. Royal; Lee Simon; Joseph W Stauffer; Wendy Stein; Jane Tollett; James Witter

2003-01-01

56

Opioid detoxification: from controlled clinical trial to clinical practice.  

PubMed

Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results show that rapid detoxification in everyday practice differs with regard to patient characteristics, enrolment, and completion rates (86.8% vs. 100%). However, abstinence rates after rapid detoxification in the controlled clinical trial (61.8%) were generalizable to everyday clinical practice (59.0%). Implementation factors that may have influenced the results, such as referral problems and treatment delivery, are discussed. PMID:20525037

Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Wensing, Michel; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F

2010-01-01

57

[ECG mapping in clinical practice].  

PubMed

First the authors present a review of important cornerstones in the history of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and ECG mapping. The first to describe the electric cardiac field based on twenty ECGs was A.D. Waller in 1889. The decisive cornerstone for practical use was the introduction of a string galvanometer in 1901 by W. Einthoven and his triaxial lead system. Another very important cornerstone in the development of ECG were the findings of F.N. Wilson. Merits as regards the development and application of ECG mapping are due to B. Taccardi. Workers of the Second Medical Clinic in Prague enhanced after 15 years of studies and comparison of ECG maps with coronarographic findings in subjects with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and microvascular coronary dysfunction (syndrome X--SyX) substantially the specificity of this method in impaired myocardial vascularization. Better diagnosis was achieved by introduction of diagnostic tests which influence coronary vascularization such as e.g. hyperventilation, as well as other tests. After their application progression of chronic myocardial ischaemia occurs, e.g. by the mechanism of the "steal phenomenon" or restriction of the microcirculation after hyperventilation in patients with SyX. Furthermore the authors present examples of ECG maps after PTCA, after application of diagnostic tests in IHD and SyX and also regression of myocardial ischaemia after marked reduction of total cholesterol. PMID:12744039

Boudík, F; Aschermann, M; Anger, Z

2002-12-01

58

Guidelines and good clinical practice recommendations for contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the liver--update 2012: a WFUMB-EFSUMB initiative in cooperation with representatives of AFSUMB, AIUM, ASUM, FLAUS and ICUS.  

PubMed

Initially, a set of guidelines for the use of ultrasound contrast agents was published in 2004 dealing only with liver applications. A second edition of the guidelines in 2008 reflected changes in the available contrast agents and updated the guidelines for the liver, as well as implementing some non-liver applications. Time has moved on, and the need for international guidelines on the use of CEUS in the liver has become apparent. The present document describes the third iteration of recommendations for the hepatic use of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using contrast specific imaging techniques. This joint WFUMB-EFSUMB initiative has implicated experts from major leading ultrasound societies worldwide. These liver CEUS guidelines are simultaneously published in the official journals of both organizing federations (i.e., Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology for WFUMB and Ultraschall in der Medizin/European Journal of Ultrasound for EFSUMB). These guidelines and recommendations provide general advice on the use of all currently clinically available ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). They are intended to create standard protocols for the use and administration of UCA in liver applications on an international basis and improve the management of patients worldwide. PMID:23129518

Claudon, M; Dietrich, C F; Choi, B I; Cosgrove, D O; Kudo, M; Nolsøe, C P; Piscaglia, F; Wilson, S R; Barr, R G; Chammas, M C; Chaubal, N G; Chen, M-H; Clevert, D A; Correas, J M; Ding, H; Forsberg, F; Fowlkes, J B; Gibson, R N; Goldberg, B B; Lassau, N; Leen, E L S; Mattrey, R F; Moriyasu, F; Solbiati, L; Weskott, H-P; Xu, H-X

2013-02-01

59

Developing a Clinical Faculty Practice Plan in a University Clinic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolving concepts and procedures for developing clinical faculty practice plans in a university setting are explored. The objectives of a clinical faculty practice plan are reviewed in the context of the initial planning process, and aspects of organizational schemes, including revenue participation, are discussed. (Author/MLW)

Thrower, Randolph W.; Hasson, James K., Jr.

1983-01-01

60

Well-woman Clinic in General Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a four-year period 1,169 women attended a well-woman clinic in a group practice. Eight positive smears were detected, together with one case of breast carcinoma, 94 cases of anaemia, and a number of other abnormalities. The clinic is part of a practice cervical-screening programme aimed at regular tests for women in the practice aged between 25 and 64. Patients

B. E. P. Wookey

1971-01-01

61

Recommendations for conducting controlled clinical studies of dental restorative materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 35 years ago, Ryge provided a practical approach to evaluation of clinical performance of restorative materials. This\\u000a systematic approach was soon universally accepted. While that methodology has served us well, a large number of scientific\\u000a methodologies and more detailed questions have arisen that require more rigor. Current restorative materials have vastly improved\\u000a clinical performance and any changes over time are

R. Hickel; J.-F. Roulet; S. Bayne; S. D. Heintze; I. A. Mjör; M. Peters; V. Rousson; R. Randall; G. Schmalz; M. Tyas; G. Vanherle

2007-01-01

62

A manual of recommended practices for hydrogen energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Technologies for the production, distribution, and use of hydrogen are rapidly maturing and the number and size of demonstration programs designed to showcase emerging hydrogen energy systems is expanding. The success of these programs is key to hydrogen commercialization. Currently there is no comprehensive set of widely-accepted codes or standards covering the installation and operation of hydrogen energy systems. This lack of codes or standards is a major obstacle to future hydrogen demonstrations in obtaining the requisite licenses, permits, insurance, and public acceptance. In a project begun in late 1996 to address this problem, W. Hoagland and Associates has been developing a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Systems intended to serve as an interim document for the design and operation of hydrogen demonstration projects. It will also serve as a starting point for some of the needed standard-setting processes. The Manual will include design guidelines for hydrogen procedures, case studies of experience at existing hydrogen demonstration projects, a bibliography of information sources, and a compilation of suppliers of hydrogen equipment and hardware. Following extensive professional review, final publication will occur later in 1997. The primary goal is to develop a draft document in the shortest possible time frame. To accomplish this, the input and guidance of technology developers, industrial organizations, government R and D and regulatory organizations and others will be sought to define the organization and content of the draft Manual, gather and evaluate available information, develop a draft document, coordinate reviews and revisions, and develop recommendations for publication, distribution, and update of the final document. The workshop, Development of a Manual of Recommended Practices for Hydrogen Energy Systems, conducted on March 11, 1997 in Alexandria, Virginia, was a first step.

Hoagland, W.; Leach, S. [W. Hoagland and Associates, Boulder, CO (United States)

1997-12-31

63

Clinical practice guideline: Hoarseness (Dysphonia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis guideline provides evidence-based recommendations on managing hoarseness (dysphonia), defined as a disorder characterized by altered vocal quality, pitch, loudness, or vocal effort that impairs communication or reduces voice-related quality of life (QOL). Hoarseness affects nearly one-third of the population at some point in their lives. This guideline applies to all age groups evaluated in a setting where hoarseness would

Seth R. Schwartz; Seth M. Cohen; Seth H. Dailey; Richard M. Rosenfeld; Ellen S. Deutsch; M. Boyd Gillespie; Evelyn Granieri; Edie R. Hapner; C. Eve Kimball; Helene J. Krouse; J. Scott McMurray; Safdar Medina; Karen O'Brien; Daniel R. Ouellette; Barbara J. Messinger-Rapport; Robert J. Stachler; Steven Strode; Dana M. Thompson; Joseph C. Stemple; J. Paul Willging; Terrie Cowley; Scott McCoy; Peter G. Bernad; Milesh M. Patel

2009-01-01

64

Solar Magnetic Tracking. I. Software Comparison and Recommended Practices  

E-print Network

Feature tracking and recognition are increasingly common tools for data analysis, but are typically implemented on an ad-hoc basis by individual research groups, limiting the usefulness of derived results when selection effects and algorithmic differences are not controlled. Specific results that are affected include the solar magnetic turnover time, the distributions of sizes, strengths, and lifetimes of magnetic features, and the physics of both small scale flux emergence and the small-scale dynamo. In this paper, we present the results of a detailed comparison between four tracking codes applied to a single set of data from SOHO/MDI, describe the interplay between desired tracking behavior and parameterization of tracking algorithms, and make recommendations for feature selection and tracking practice in future work.

C. E. DeForest; H. J. Hagenaar; D. A. Lamb; C. E. Parnell; B. T. Welsch

2007-04-23

65

Implementing AORN recommended practices for MIS: Part II.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the equipment and workplace safety aspects of the revised AORN "Recommended practices for minimally invasive surgery." A multidisciplinary team that includes the perioperative nurse should be established to discuss aspects of the development and design of new construction or renovation (eg, room access, ergonomics, low-lighting, OR integration, hybrid OR considerations, design development). Equipment safety considerations during minimally invasive surgical procedures include using active electrode monitoring; verifying the properties of distention media; using smoke evacuation systems; reducing equipment, electrical, thermal, and fire hazards; performing routine safety checks on insufflation accessories; and minimizing the risk of ergonomic injuries to staff members. Additional considerations include using video recording devices, nonmagnetic equipment during magnetic resonance imaging, and fluid containment methods for fluid management. PMID:23017476

Morton, Paula J

2012-10-01

66

Clinical challenges in patients with cancer-associated thrombosis: Canadian expert consensus recommendations  

PubMed Central

Venous thromboembolism is a common complication in cancer patients, and thromboembolism is the second most common cause of death after cancer progression. A number of clinical practice guidelines provide recommendations for the management of cancer-associated thrombosis. However, the guidelines lack recommendations covering commonly encountered clinical challenges (for example, thrombocytopenia, recurrent venous thromboembolism, etc.) for which little or no evidence exists. Accordingly, recommendations were developed to provide expert guidance to medical oncologists and other health care professionals caring for patients with cancer-associated thrombosis. The current expert consensus was developed by a team of 21 clinical experts. For each identified clinical challenge, the literature in medline, embase, and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews was systematically reviewed. The quality of the evidence was assessed, summarized, and graded. Consensus statements were generated, and the experts voted anonymously using a modified Delphi process on their level of agreement with the various statements. Statements were progressively revised through separate voting iterations and were then finalized. Clinicians using these recommendations and suggestions should tailor patient management according to the risks and benefits of the treatment options, patient values and preferences, and local cost and resource allocations.

Carrier, M.; Lazo–Langner, A.; Shivakumar, S.; Tagalakis, V.; Gross, P.L.; Blais, N.; Butts, C.A.; Crowther, M.

2015-01-01

67

Clinical and administrative review in general practice  

PubMed Central

Clinical and administrative review in primary medical care can be an enjoyable and creative part of group-practice life. A series of such reviews are described which improve internal or external communication for the primary care team. PMID:1223278

Stott, N. C. H.; Davis, R. H.

1975-01-01

68

Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2007.  

PubMed

This report updates the 2006 recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (CDC. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-10]). The groups of persons for whom vaccination is recommended and the antiviral medications recommended for chemoprophylaxis or treatment (oseltamivir or zanamivir) have not changed. Estimated vaccination coverage remains <50% among certain groups for whom routine annual vaccination is recommended, including young children and adults with risk factors for influenza complications, health-care personnel (HCP), and pregnant women. Strategies to improve vaccination coverage, including use of reminder/recall systems and standing orders programs, should be implemented or expanded. The 2007 recommendations include new and updated information. Principal updates and changes include 1) reemphasizing the importance of administering 2 doses of vaccine to all children aged 6 months--8 years if they have not been vaccinated previously at any time with either live, attenuated influenza vaccine (doses separated by > or =6 weeks) or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (doses separated by > or =4 weeks), with single annual doses in subsequent years; 2) recommending that children aged 6 months--8 years who received only 1 dose in their first year of vaccination receive 2 doses the following year, with single annual doses in subsequent years; 3) highlighting a previous recommendation that all persons, including school-aged children, who want to reduce the risk of becoming ill with influenza or of transmitting influenza to others should be vaccinated; 4) emphasizing that immunization providers should offer influenza vaccine and schedule immunization clinics throughout the influenza season; 5) recommending that health-care facilities consider the level of vaccination coverage among HCP to be one measure of a patient safety quality program and implement policies to encourage HCP vaccination (e.g., obtaining signed statements from HCP who decline influenza vaccination); and 6) using the 2007--2008 trivalent vaccine virus strains A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)-like (new for this season), A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like, and B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like antigens. This report and other information are available at CDC's influenza website (http://www.cdc.gov/flu). Updates or supplements to these recommendations (e.g., expanded age or risk group indications for currently licensed vaccines) might be required. Immunization providers should be alert to announcements of recommendation updates and should check the CDC influenza website periodically for additional information. PMID:17625497

Fiore, Anthony E; Shay, David K; Haber, Penina; Iskander, John K; Uyeki, Timothy M; Mootrey, Gina; Bresee, Joseph S; Cox, Nancy J

2007-07-13

69

Thymomas: Review of Current Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Thymomas are the most common tumors of the mediastinum. The introduction of multimodality treatment strategies, as well as novel approaches to the diagnosis of these tumors, has led to changes in the clinical management of thymomas. Here we review the literature for current clinical practice in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of thymomas. PMID:19463649

Tomaszek, Sandra; Wigle, Dennis A.; Keshavjee, Shaf; Fischer, Stefan

2010-01-01

70

Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from “Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum”, Iran  

PubMed Central

Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in our setting. On the other hand, patients’ clinical status and local epidemiology data may justify the empiric antifungal approach using the proper antifungal option. The clinical approach to the management of IC in febrile, non-neutropenic critically ill patients has been defined in available international guidelines; nevertheless such recommendations need to be customized when applied to our local practice. Over the past three years, Iranian experts from intensive care and infectious diseases disciplines have tried to draw a consensus on the management of IFI with a particular focus on IC in the ICU. The established IFI-clinical forum (IFI-CF), comprising the scientific leaders in the field, has recently come up with and updated recommendation on the same (June 2014). The purpose of this review is to put together literature insights and Iranian experts’ opinion at the IFI-CF, to propose an updated practical overview on recommended approaches for the management of IC in the ICU. PMID:25374806

Elhoufi, Ashraf; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira; Zand, Farid

2014-01-01

71

Communities of clinical practice: the social organization of clinical learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social organization of clinical learning is under-theorized in the sociological literature on the social organization of health care. Professional scopes of practice and jurisdictions are formally defined by professional principles and standards and reflected in legislation; however, these are mediated through the day-to-day clinical activities of social groupings of clinical teams. The activities of health service providers typically occur

Tony Egan; Chrystal Jaye

2009-01-01

72

Placebo interventions, placebo effects and clinical practice  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the role of placebo interventions and placebo effects in clinical practice. We first describe the relevance of different perspectives among scientists, physicians and patients on what is considered a placebo intervention in clinical practice. We then summarize how placebo effects have been investigated in randomized controlled trials under the questionable premise that such effects are produced by placebo interventions. We further discuss why a shift of focus from the placebo intervention to the overall therapeutic context is necessary and what research methods can be used for the clinical investigation of the relevance of context effects. In the last part of the manuscript, we discuss why placebo or context effects are seen as positive in clinical practice when they are associated with active treatments, while placebo interventions pose major ethical and professional problems and have to be avoided. PMID:21576148

Linde, Klaus; Fässler, Margrit; Meissner, Karin

2011-01-01

73

Growth Factors in Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth factors enhance protein synthesis\\u000a and thus reduce the catabolic response to injury. As a result of\\u000a bioengineering and new manufacturing techniques several anabolic agents\\u000a have become available for clinical use and have been evaluated in\\u000a surgical patients with catabolic illness. Data support the anabolic\\u000a effects of growth home in such patients, but its expense and possible\\u000a deleterious effects during

2000-01-01

74

[Safe use of magnetic resonance imaging: practical recommendations for personnel].  

PubMed

MRI is a powerful diagnostic imaging tool and its use has increased significantly in hospitals all over the world. Due to the technical particularities of MRI, all staff members dealing with the scanner need to have adequate knowledge of how it works and of aspects related to safety. The European parliament and council's directive on minimum health and safety requirements for workers dealing with electromagnetic fields (EMF) 2004/40/CE represents a threat to the clinical development and healthcare use of MRI. The efforts of the Alliance for MRI led to a postponement of the European parliament's decision, first until April 2012 and finally until October 2013. The purpose of this article is to define and propose a set of practical rules to ensure the protection of workers involved with MRI scanners. It also aims to define our position with respect to UE directive (2004/40/CE). PMID:23332580

Alberich Bayarri, A; Martí Bonmatí, L; Lafuente, J; Guibelalde del Castillo, E

2013-01-01

75

Clozapine: a review of clinical practice guidelines and prescribing trends  

PubMed Central

Background Clozapine effectiveness in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia has been sustained by published evidence in the last two decades, despite the introduction of safer options. Discussion Current clinical practice guidelines have strongly recommended the use of clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but prescribing trends do not appear to have followed such recommendations. Clozapine is still underutilized especially in patients at risk of suicide. It seems that physicians are hesitant in prescribing clozapine due to concerns about serious adverse effects. Recent reports have highlighted the need to inform health professionals about the benefits of treating patients with clozapine and have voiced concerns about the underutilization of clozapine especially in patients at risk of suicide. Summary Guidelines and prescribing patterns reported in various countries worldwide are discussed. Suggestions on how to optimize clozapine utilization have been published but more efforts are needed to properly inform and support prescribers’ practices. PMID:24708834

2014-01-01

76

Melatonergic drugs in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Melatonin (CAS 73-31-4) has both hypnotic and sleep/wake rhythm regulating properties. These sleep promoting actions, which are already demonstrable in healthy humans, have been found useful in subjects suffering from circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) like delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), jet lag and shift-work sleep disorder. Low nocturnal melatonin production and secretion have been documented in elderly insomniacs, and exogenous melatonin has been shown to be beneficial in treating sleep disturbances of these patients. In comparison to a number of sleep-promoting compounds that are usually prescribed, such as benzodiazepines and z-drugs (zolpidem and zopiclon belonging to the latter ones), melatonin has several advantages of clinical value: it does not cause hangover nor withdrawal effects and is devoid of any addictive potential. However, recent meta-analyses revealed that melatonin is not sufficiently effective in treating most primary sleep disorders. Some of the reasons for a limited efficacy of this natural hormone are related to its extremely short half-life in the circulation, and to the fact that sleep maintenance is also regulated by mechanisms downstream of primary melatonergic actions. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of melatonin receptor agonists with a longer half-life, which could be suitable for a successful treatment of insomnia. Such requirements are fulfilled by ramelteon (CAS 196597-26-9), which possesses a high affinity for the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 present in the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Ramelteon also has a substantially longer half-life than melatonin. This new drug has been successfully used in treating elderly insomniacs without any adverse effects reported, and is promising for treating patients with primary insomnia and also those suffering from CRSD. Since sleep disturbances constitute the most prevalent symptoms of various forms of depression, the need for the development of an ideal antidepressant was felt, which would both improve sleep and mitigate depressive symptoms. Since most of the currently used antidepressants, including the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors worsen the sleep disturbances of depressive patients, another novel melatonergic drug, agomelatine (CAS 138112-76-2), holds some promise because of its particular combination of actions: it has a high affinity for MT1 and MT2 receptors in the SCN, but it acts additionally as a 5-HT(2C) antagonist [5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C antagonist]. The latter property, which is decisive for the antidepressive action, would not favor but potentially antagonize sleep, but this is overcome during night by the melatonergic, sleep-promoting effect. This drug has been found beneficial in treating patients with major depressive and seasonal affective disorders. Unlike the other antidepressants, agomelatine improves both sleep and clinical symptoms of depressive illness and does not have any of the side effects on sleep seen with other compounds in use. This property seems to be of particular value because of the aggravating effects of disturbed sleep in the development of depressive symptoms. Based on these facts, agomelatine seems to be a drug of superior efficacy with a promising future in the treatment of depressive disorders. However, long-term safety studies are required for both ramelteon and agomelatine, with a consideration of the pharmacology of their metabolites, their effects on redox metabolism, and of eventual undesired melatonergic effects, e. g., on reproductive functions. According to current data, both compounds seem to be safe during short-term treatment PMID:18368944

Hardeland, Rüdiger; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Srinivasan, Venkataramanujan; Trakht, Ilya; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Cardinali, Daniel P

2008-01-01

77

Transforming Clinical Practice to Eliminate Racial–Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare  

PubMed Central

Racial–ethnic minorities receive lower quality and intensity of health care compared with whites across a wide range of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic services and disease entities. These disparities in health care contribute to continuing racial–ethnic disparities in the burden of illness and death. Several national medical organizations and the Institute of Medicine have issued position papers and recommendations for the elimination of health care disparities. However, physicians in practice are often at a loss for how to translate these principles and recommendations into specific interventions in their own clinical practices. This paper serves as a blueprint for translating principles for the elimination of racial–ethnic disparities in health care into specific actions that are relevant for individual clinical practices. We describe what is known about reducing racial–ethnic disparities in clinical practice and make recommendations for how clinician leaders can apply this evidence to transform their own practices. PMID:18196352

Bowles, Jacqueline; Saha, Somnath; Horowitz, Carol R.; Moody-Ayers, Sandra; Brown, Arleen F.; Stone, Valerie E.; Cooper, Lisa A.

2008-01-01

78

Can simulated practice learning improve clinical competence?  

PubMed

The area of simulation within education is fast developing, with many educational providers striving to keep up with current advances in technology. Evaluation of simulation learning appears overwhelmingly positive (Moule et al, 2008; McCaughey and Traynor, 2010; Hope et al, 2011). However, when looking to generate financial support to develop simulation practices within education,little evidence exists regarding its impact within clinical practice.This paper details the findings of a scoping exercise undertaken to ascertain current simulation practice within nursing curricula,in order to identity good practices and a clear evidence-base for embedding and using simulation to enhance education and practice.The project found overwhelming support for simulated learning from students and facilitators. However, it was highlighted that no clear guidance or strategies were universally used to effectively incorporate simulation within curricula, nor to evaluate or audit its effect upon student competency within clinical practice. Further evidence to support the implementation of simulation within nurse education is therefore required to ensure effective implementation and transferability of learning into clinical care settings. PMID:23819196

Handley, Ruth; Dodge, Natalie

79

LLNL Site Specific ASCI Software Quality Engineering Recommended Practices Overview Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect

''The LLNL Site-Specific Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) Software Quality Engineering Recommended Practices VI.I'' document describes a set of recommended software quality engineering (SQE) practices for ASCI code projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In this context, SQE is defined as the process of building quality into software products by applying the appropriate guiding principles and management practices. Continual code improvement and ongoing process improvement are expected benefits. Certain practices are recommended, although projects may select the specific activities they wish to improve, and the appropriate time lines for such actions. Additionally, projects can rely on the guidance of this document when generating ASCI Verification and Validation (VSrV) deliverables. ASCI program managers will gather information about their software engineering practices and improvement. This information can be shared to leverage the best SQE practices among development organizations. It will further be used to ensure the currency and vitality of the recommended practices. This Overview is intended to provide basic information to the LLNL ASCI software management and development staff from the ''LLNL Site-Specific ASCI Software Quality Engineering Recommended Practices VI.I'' document. Additionally the Overview provides steps to using the ''LLNL Site-Specific ASCI Software Quality Engineering Recommended Practices VI.I'' document. For definitions of terminology and acronyms, refer to the Glossary and Acronyms sections in the ''LLNL Site-Specific ASCI Software Quality Engineering Recommended Practices VI.I''.

Peck, T; Sparkman, D; Storch, N

2002-02-01

80

Current social work perspectives on clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several forms of progress in the development of clinical practice theory and method are identified. There is a renewed positive valuation of psychodynamic approaches, a general acceptance of a systems framework, and a greater operationalization of procedures. The current controversy between the social work scientists and artists concerning research strategies is discussed. Three promising new perspectives—of morality, spirituality, and hermeneutics-are

Max Siporin

1985-01-01

81

Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this article, I question how practitioners can balance the certainty and confidence that they can help their patients with the uncertainty that makes them continually question their beliefs and assumptions. Method: I compare the mechanisms of science and models of clinical practice that may help practitioners achieve the right balance…

Kamhi, Alan G.

2011-01-01

82

Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this epilogue, I respond to each of the five commentaries, discussing in some depth a central issue raised in each commentary. In the final section, I discuss how my thinking about certainty and uncertainty in clinical practice has evolved since I wrote the initial article. Method: Topics addressed include the similarities/differences…

Kamhi, Alan G.

2011-01-01

83

Physicians Reentering Clinical Practice: Characteristics and Clinical Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Limited information exists to describe physicians who return to practice after absences from patient care. The Center for Personalized Education for Physicians (CPEP) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides clinical competency assessment and educational programs for physicians, including those reentering…

Grace, Elizabeth S.; Korinek, Elizabeth J.; Weitzel, Lindsay B.; Wentz, Dennis K.

2011-01-01

84

Physicians Reentering Clinical Practice: Characteristics and Clinical Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Limited information exists to describe physicians who return to practice after absences from patient care. The Center for Personalized Education for Physicians (CPEP) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides clinical competency assessment and educational programs for physicians, including those reentering…

Grace, Elizabeth S.; Korinek, Elizabeth J.; Weitzel, Lindsay B.; Wentz, Dennis K.

2010-01-01

85

Lexical Concept Distribution Reflects Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

It is not known whether narrative medical text directly reflects clinical reality. We have tested the hypothesis that the pattern of distribution of lexical concept of medication intensification in narrative provider notes correlates with clinical practice as reflected in electronic medication records. Over 29,000 medication intensifications identified in narrative provider notes and 444,000 electronic medication records for 82 anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic medications were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficient between the fraction of dose increases among all medication intensifications and therapeutic range calculated from EMR medication records was 0.39 (p = 0.0003). Correlations with therapeutic ranges obtained from two medication dictionaries, used as a negative control, were not significant. These findings provide evidence that narrative medical documents directly reflect clinical practice and constitute a valid source of medical data. PMID:23304273

Breydo, Eugene; Shubina, Maria; Shalaby, James W.; Einbinder, Jonathan S.; Turchin, Alexander

2012-01-01

86

New graduates' perceptions of clinical practice.  

PubMed

This study describes the stresses and challenges experienced by graduate nurses in clinical practice during their initial orientation period and examines the relationship of social support to these stresses. Thirty-five graduate nurses completed a modified Pagana Clinical Stress Questionnaire and social support measure during their orientation period. The graduates experienced a moderate degree of stress in their orientation. Stresses identified most frequently were: lack of experience as a nurse, interactions with physicians, lack of organizational skills and new situations and procedures. Although orientation was stressful, when describing emotions experienced during this period, graduates reported positive emotions most frequently. Pearson correlation revealed no significant relationship between social support and stress. Significant correlations were found, however, between social support and stimulation in clinical practice (r = 57, p = .001) and development of self-confidence (r = 39, p = .029). Findings highlighted the important role of the preceptor during orientation. PMID:9204814

Oermann, M H; Moffitt-Wolf, A

1997-01-01

87

DEC Personnel Preparation in Early Childhood Special Education: Implementing the DEC Recommended Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) has developed recommended practices for the ECSE field in the area of personnel preparation. This book provides guidance to higher education faculty and professional development specialists on how these recommended practices can be implemented in preservice and…

Stayton, Vicki D., Ed.; Miller, Patricia S., Ed.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A., Ed.

88

Experience with fingolimod in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Aim: To report experience with fingolimod in clinical practice. Design/Methods: Patients in an academic medical center who were prescribed fingolimod from October 2010 to August 2011 were identified through the electronic medical record and followed for 12 months after fingolimod initiation. Adverse effects (AEs), clinical measures, MRI data, and quality of life measures were assessed. Results: Three hundred seventeen patients started fingolimod. Eleven patients were treatment naïve (3.5%) and 76 (24.0%) had remote disease modifying therapy (DMT) use prior to fingolimod. One hundred fifty-one (47.6%) switched because of patient preference and 79 (24.9%) switched because of breakthrough disease. About 11.6% transitioned from natalizumab. Follow-up data were available for 306 patients (96.5%) with mean follow-up time 332 days. Fingolimod was discontinued in 76 of 306 patients (24.8%) at mean 248 days after fingolimod start. Discontinuation most often was due to AEs (n = 40) or breakthrough disease (n = 22). Among patients who started fingolimod with available 12 month follow-up data, 267 (87.3%) remained relapse free and 256 (83.7%) had no relapses or gadolinium enhancement. Time to first relapse occurred at mean 282 days after fingolimod initiation. Quality of life measures remained stable at follow-up. Conclusions Fingolimod was discontinued at a higher rate in clinical practice than in clinical trials. Discontinuation was primarily due to AEs or breakthrough disease. Disease activity was adequately controlled in most patients who started fingolimod. This clinical practice cohort is consistent with efficacy data from phase 3 trials and describes the most common tolerability issues in clinical practice. PMID:25271798

Hersh, Carrie M; Hara-Cleaver, Claire; Rudick, Richard A; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Bermel, Robert A; Ontaneda, Daniel

2014-10-29

89

Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Cyber forensics has been in the popular mainstream for some time, and has matured into an information-technology capability that is very common among modern information security programs. The goal of cyber forensics is to support the elements of troubleshooting, monitoring, recovery, and the protection of sensitive data. Moreover, in the event of a crime being committed, cyber forensics is also the approach to collecting, analyzing, and archiving data as evidence in a court of law. Although scalable to many information technology domains, especially modern corporate architectures, cyber forensics can be challenging when being applied to non-traditional environments, which are not comprised of current information technologies or are designed with technologies that do not provide adequate data storage or audit capabilities. In addition, further complexity is introduced if the environments are designed using proprietary solutions and protocols, thus limiting the ease of which modern forensic methods can be utilized. The legacy nature and somewhat diverse or disparate component aspects of control systems environments can often prohibit the smooth translation of modern forensics analysis into the control systems domain. Compounded by a wide variety of proprietary technologies and protocols, as well as critical system technologies with no capability to store significant amounts of event information, the task of creating a ubiquitous and unified strategy for technical cyber forensics on a control systems device or computing resource is far from trivial. To date, no direction regarding cyber forensics as it relates to control systems has been produced other than what might be privately available from commercial vendors. Current materials have been designed to support event recreation (event-based), and although important, these requirements do not always satisfy the needs associated with incident response or forensics that are driven by cyber incidents. To address these issues and to accommodate for the diversity in both system and architecture types, a framework based in recommended practices to address forensics in the control systems domain is required. This framework must be fully flexible to allow for deployment into any control systems environment regardless of technologies used. Moreover, the framework and practices must provide for direction on the integration of modern network security technologies with traditionally closed systems, the result being a true defense-in-depth strategy for control systems architectures. This document takes the traditional concepts of cyber forensics and forensics engineering and provides direction regarding augmentation for control systems operational environments. The goal is to provide guidance to the reader with specifics relating to the complexity of cyber forensics for control systems, guidance to allow organizations to create a self-sustaining cyber forensics program, and guidance to support the maintenance and evolution of such programs. As the current control systems cyber security community of interest is without any specific direction on how to proceed with forensics in control systems environments, this information product is intended to be a first step.

Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro

2008-08-01

90

The Psychiatric Cultural Formulation: Applying Medical Anthropology in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

This paper considers revisions to the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation from the perspective of clinical practice. First, the paper explores the theoretical development of the Cultural Formulation. Next, a case presentation demonstrates challenges in its actual implementation. Finally, the paper recommends a set of questions for the clinician on barriers to care and countertransference. The development of a standardized, user-friendly format can increase the Cultural Formulation’s utilization among all psychiatrists beyond those specializing in cultural psychiatry. PMID:22418398

Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

2014-01-01

91

77 FR 13513 - Modernizing the Regulation of Clinical Trials and Approaches to Good Clinical Practice; Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2012-N-0170] Modernizing the Regulation of Clinical Trials and Approaches to Good Clinical Practice...practices that apply to the conduct of clinical trials of FDA-regulated products. Clinical trials are a critical source of evidence to...

2012-03-07

92

Trade-offs in producing patient-specific recommendations from a computer-based clinical guideline: a case study.  

PubMed Central

This case study explored 1) how much online clinical data is required to obtain patient-specific recommendations from a computer-based clinical practice guideline, 2) whether the availability of increasing amounts of online clinical data might allow a higher specificity of those recommendations, and 3) whether that increased specificity is necessarily desirable. The "quick reference guide" version of the guideline for acute postoperative pain management in adults, developed by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, was analyzed. Patient-specific data items that might be used to tailor the computer's output for a particular case were grouped into rough categories depending on how likely they were to be available online and how readily they might be determined from online clinical data. The patient-specific recommendations were analyzed to determine to what degree the amount of text produced depended on the online availability of different categories of data. An examination of example recommendations, however, illustrated that high specificity may not always be desirable. The study provides a concrete illustration of how the richness of online clinical data can affect patient-specific recommendations, and describes a number of related design trade-offs in converting a clinical guideline into an interactive, computer-based form. PMID:7583647

Miller, P L; Frawley, S J

1995-01-01

93

Oncologists' recommendations of clinical trial participation to patients. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This study contributes empirical data to the discussions about whether clinicians should make explicit recommendations to patients about whether to participate in a clinical trial. Some suggest that clinician recommendations may unduly influence patients and inhibit autonomous decision making. This study documents the frequency, context and type of oncologist recommendations and found that a personalized recommendation by the clinician influenced the patient’s decision to accept clinical trial participation.

94

Binge eating disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice.  

PubMed

This case report describes the clinical course of a young woman suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) associated with obesity. It illustrates the efficacy of different medications in the treatment of BED and related conditions and is followed by the comments and clinical observations of 2 practicing psychiatrists. The issues described in this paper have important clinical implications and are topical, given that BED is now recognized as a specific disorder in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition classification system, but neither the US Food and Drug Administration nor any other regulatory agency has yet approved a drug for treatment of this disease, despite its very prevalent and disabling nature. Growing evidence from the fields of psychopathology and neurobiology, including preclinical and clinical studies, converges to support the idea that "overeating" has much in common with other behavioral addictions, and substance abuse treatment agents may show promise for the treatment of BED. PMID:25629882

Goracci, Arianna; Casamassima, Francesco; Iovieno, Nadia; di Volo, Silvia; Benbow, Jim; Bolognesi, Simone; Fagiolini, Andrea

2015-01-01

95

Comparative effectiveness research in clinical practice.  

PubMed

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has funded systematic reviews of comparative effectiveness research in 17 areas over the last 10 years as part of a federal mandate. These reviews provide a reliable and unbiased source of comprehensive information about the effectiveness and risks of treatment alternatives for patients and clinicians. This article describes comparative effectiveness research, provides an overview of how physicians can use it in clinical practice, and references important contributions made by the Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Center. PMID:25226655

Lawrence, William F; Chang, Stephanie; Kane, Robert L; Wilt, Timothy J

2014-08-01

96

Ethnoracial Gap in Clinical Practice with Latinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

People of color drop out of mental health treatment after the first session significantly more often than others. Social workers\\u000a unfamiliar with the importance of race and ethnicity in the lives of Latinos can contribute to an ethnoracial gap in clinical\\u000a practice. Implicit racial bias is presented as a key element contributing to the gap. The origin of phenotypes in

Frank F. Montalvo

2009-01-01

97

[Implementation of clinical practice guidelines : How can we close the evidence-practice gap?].  

PubMed

Guidelines are intended as instruments of knowledge transfer to support decision-making by physicians, other health professionals and patients in clinical practice and thereby contribute to quality improvements in healthcare. To date they are an indispensable tool for healthcare. Their benefit for patients can only be seen in application, i.e. the implementation of guideline recommendations. For successful implementation, implementability and practicability play a crucial role and these characteristics can be influenced and should be promoted by the guideline development group. In addition, a force field analysis to identify barriers against and facilitators for the implementation of specific guideline recommendations from the perspective of physicians and patients is recommended to guide the development of an individual implementation strategy and the selection of appropriate interventions. However, implementation cannot be achieved by the guideline development group alone and a universal implementation strategy does not exist. Therefore, a process using theory, analysis, experience and shared responsibility of stakeholders in healthcare is recommended, with the aim to achieve sustainable behavioral change and improve the quality of care by guideline-oriented behavior. PMID:25412582

Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Nothacker, M; Kopp, I

2015-01-01

98

Measurement of somatic neuropathy for clinical practice and clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distal sensory polyneuropathy is a common and unpleasant complication of diabetes mellitus. It is the main initiating factor\\u000a for foot ulceration. The increasing prevalence of diabetes has important associated health implications, both in terms of\\u000a morbidity and mortality, and results in the consumption of scarce medical resources. Identification of somatic neuropathy\\u000a in clinical practice is therefore important for targeted educational

Vern A. La Scott; Solomon Tesfaye

2001-01-01

99

Ethical Dilemmas in Sport Psychology: Discussion and Recommendations for Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice demands required of sport psychologists often complicate the direct and specific fulfillment of several ethical regulations. Many practitioners face specific issues of confidentiality and the appropriate use of informed consent, challenges to practicing within areas of competence, issues regarding termination, and challenges that arise from multiorganizational demands and the formation of multiple relationships. Although ethical guidelines established by

Zella E. Moore

2003-01-01

100

Does implementation of a paediatric asthma clinical practice guideline worksheet change clinical practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Despite the development of evidence-based practice guidelines in many countries for asthma treatment in children, there is\\u000a limited evidence that using such guidelines improves patient care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  Our aim was to evaluate whether the implementation of an evidence-based asthma clinical practice guideline (CPG) worksheet\\u000a changes clinical practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study was a before and after study of the implementation of a paediatric

Johann Gildenhuys; Mark Lee; Geoffrey K. Isbister

2009-01-01

101

Incorporating prognostic imaging biomarkers into clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Abstract A prognostic imaging biomarker can be defined as an imaging characteristic that is objectively measurable and provides information on the likely outcome of the cancer disease in an untreated individual and should be distinguished from predictive imaging biomarkers and imaging markers of response. A range of tumour characteristics of potential prognostic value can be measured using a variety imaging modalities. However, none has currently been adopted into routine clinical practice. This article considers key examples of emerging prognostic imaging biomarkers and proposes an evaluation framework that aims to demonstrate clinical efficacy and so support their introduction into the clinical arena. With appropriate validation within an established evaluation framework, prognostic imaging biomarkers have the potential to contribute to individualized cancer care, in some cases reducing the financial burden of expensive cancer treatments by facilitating their more rational use. PMID:24060808

Miles, Kenneth A.

2013-01-01

102

Collaborative practice improvement for childhood obesity in rural clinics: the Healthy Eating Active Living Telehealth Community of Practice (HEALTH COP).  

PubMed

This study assessed the impact of participation in a virtual quality improvement (QI) learning network on adherence to clinical guidelines for childhood obesity prevention in rural clinics. A total of 7 primary care clinics in rural California included in the Healthy Eating Active Living TeleHealth Community of Practice and 288 children seen in these clinics for well-child care participated in this prospective observational pre-post study. Clinics participated in a virtual QI learning network over 9 months to implement best practices and to exchange strategies for improvement. Following the intervention, documentation of weight assessment and counseling increased significantly. Children who received care from clinicians who led the implementation of the intervention at their clinic showed significant improvements in nutrition and physical activity. Virtual QI learning networks in geographically dispersed clinics can significantly increase clinicians' adherence to guidelines for childhood obesity and improve access to recommended care for rural and underserved children. PMID:24170936

Shaikh, Ulfat; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Joseph, Jill G; Tancredi, Daniel; Romano, Patrick S

2014-01-01

103

Algorithms, clinical practice guidelines, and standardized clinical assessment and management plans: evidence-based patient management standards in evolution.  

PubMed

In this issue, Farias and colleagues describe how to develop a clinical care pathway by using a structured, continuous learning process embedded within the day-to-day delivery of care. Their method is called Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plans (SCAMPs). A care pathway, such as a SCAMP, includes multiple decision points and related recommendations. The SCAMP process can test the validity of each decision point if clinicians document patient data and record their reasoning when they deviate from the recommended action at a decision point. The unique feature of SCAMPs is that they encourage dissent, unlike clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), algorithms, and bundled electronic health record protocols, which are designed to be followed. If a clinician deviates from the recommended action at a decision point, an explanation is required. This feedback, which should explain why a patient does not precisely "fit" the logic of the care pathway, may lead the SCAMP developers to modify the decision point.The authors of this Commentary argue that SCAMPs and CPGs, two approaches to developing clinical standards of care, are fundamentally equivalent. The key link between them is the recently described process of deconstructing a CPG into the many steps that are necessary to consistently apply it to clinical practice. The SCAMP process puts these steps to the test of daily practice.The Commentary ends with a list of foundational principles for developing standards of clinical care. These principles should apply to care pathways, algorithms, practice guidelines, or SCAMPs. PMID:25295966

Sox, Harold C; Stewart, Walter F

2015-02-01

104

COPD management: role of symptom assessment in routine clinical practice.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present with a variety of symptoms that significantly impair health-related quality of life. Despite this, COPD treatment and its management are mainly based on lung function assessments. There is increasing evidence that conventional lung function measures alone do not correlate well with COPD symptoms and their associated impact on patients' everyday lives. Instead, symptoms should be assessed routinely, preferably by using patient-centered questionnaires that provide a more accurate guide to the actual burden of COPD. Numerous questionnaires have been developed in an attempt to find a simple and reliable tool to use in everyday clinical practice. In this paper, we review three such patient-reported questionnaires recommended by the latest Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, ie, the modified Medical Research Council questionnaire, the clinical COPD questionnaire, and the COPD Assessment Test, as well as other symptom-specific questionnaires that are currently being developed. PMID:24143085

van der Molen, Thys; Miravitlles, Marc; Kocks, Janwillem W H

2013-01-01

105

Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting  

PubMed Central

Objective In global health considerable attention is focused on the search for innovations; however, reports tracking their adoption in routine hospital settings from low-income countries are absent. Design and setting We used data collected on a consistent panel of indicators during four separate cross-sectional, hospital surveys in Kenya to track changes over a period of 11?years (2002–2012). Main outcome measures Basic resource availability, use of diagnostics and uptake of recommended practices. Results There appeared little change in availability of a panel of 28 basic resources (median 71% in 2002 to 82% in 2012) although availability of specific feeds for severe malnutrition and vitamin K improved. Use of blood glucose and HIV testing increased but remained inappropriately low throughout. Commonly (malaria) and uncommonly (lumbar puncture) performed diagnostic tests frequently failed to inform practice while pulse oximetry, a simple and cheap technology, was rarely available even in 2012. However, increasing adherence to prescribing guidance occurred during a period from 2006 to 2012 in which efforts were made to disseminate guidelines. Conclusions Findings suggest changes in clinical practices possibly linked to dissemination of guidelines at reasonable scale. However, full availability of basic resources was not attained and major gaps likely exist between the potential and actual impacts of simple diagnostics and technologies representing problems with availability, adoption and successful utilisation. These findings are relevant to debates on scaling up in low-income settings and to those developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic interventions. PMID:24482351

English, Mike; Gathara, David; Mwinga, Stephen; Ayieko, Philip; Opondo, Charles; Aluvaala, Jalemba; Kihuba, Elesban; Mwaniki, Paul; Were, Fred; Irimu, Grace; Wasunna, Aggrey; Mogoa, Wycliffe; Nyamai, Rachel

2014-01-01

106

Defining ‘elderly’ in clinical practice guidelines for pharmacotherapy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify how ‘elderly’ patients are defined and considered within Australian clinical guidelines for the use of pharmacotherapy. Method: Guidelines pertaining to the use of pharmacotherapy, focusing on conditions described in National Health Priority Areas, were identified using databases (Medline, Google Scholar) and organisation websites (Department of Health and Ageing, National Heart Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council). Guidelines were reviewed and qualitatively analysed to identify any references or definitions of ‘elderly’ persons. Results: Among the 20 guidelines reviewed, 3 defined ‘elderly’ by chronological age (i.e., years since birth) while the remaining 17 guidelines did not define ‘elderly’ in any way. All 20 guidelines used the term ‘elderly’, whilst some guidelines provided age (chronological)-based dosage recommendations suggesting an ageist or generalist approach in their representation of ‘elderly’, for which rationale was seldom provided. Thematic analysis of the statements revealed five key themes regarding how ‘elderly’ was considered within the guidelines, broadly describing ‘elderly’ persons as being frail and with altered pharmacology. Some guidelines also highlighted the limited evidence base to direct clinical decision-making. A continuum of perceptions of ageing also emerged out of the identified themes. Conclusion: Clinical practice guidelines currently do not adequately define ‘elderly’ persons and provide limited guidance on how to apply treatment recommendations to older persons. The representation of ‘elderly’ in guidelines needs to be less based on chronological age or generic definitions focusing more on establishing a direct link between an individual patient’s characteristics and the pharmacology of their prescribed medication. Clinical guidelines that do not offer any practical descriptions of the features of ageing that are specifically related to the use of pharmacotherapy, or how to assess these in individual patients, render decision-making challenging.

Singh, Shamsher; Bajorek., Beata

2014-01-01

107

News Note: Not all doctors comply with practice guidelines for recommending colorectal cancer screenings  

Cancer.gov

A study of nearly 1,300 primary care physicians in the United States found that only about 20 percent of those doctors recommend colorectal cancer (CRC) screenings tests to their patients in accordance with current practice guidelines.

108

Recommended Best Practices for Mold Investigations in Minnesota Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Department of Health developed this guidance at the request of the Minnesota Department of Children, Families and Learning. The goal of the document is to assist school district staff of Minnesota public schools in responding to problems related to indoor mold. Its focus is on practical, cost-effective methods to identify indoor mold…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

109

The Sherlock Holmes method in clinical practice.  

PubMed

This article lists the integral elements of the Sherlock Holmes method, which is based on the intelligent collection of information through detailed observation, careful listening and thorough examination. The information thus obtained is analyzed to develop the main and alternative hypotheses, which are shaped during the deductive process until the key leading to the solution is revealed. The Holmes investigative method applied to clinical practice highlights the advisability of having physicians reason through and seek out the causes of the disease with the data obtained from acute observation, a detailed review of the medical history and careful physical examination. PMID:24457141

Sopeña, B

2014-04-01

110

Biosensors in Clinical Practice: Focus on Oncohematology  

PubMed Central

Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as a means of measuring glucose. Since then, much progress has been made and the applications of biosensors are today potentially boundless. This review is limited to their clinical applications, particularly in the field of oncohematology. Biosensors have recently been developed in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by hematological malignancies, such as the biosensor for assessing the in vitro pre-treatment efficacy of cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor for assessing the efficacy of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. The review also considers the challenges and future perspectives of biosensors in clinical practice. PMID:23673681

Fracchiolla, Nicola S.; Artuso, Silvia; Cortelezzi, Agostino

2013-01-01

111

Parkinson's Disease: From Genetics to Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Breakthroughs in genetics over the last decade have radically advanced our understanding of the etiological basis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although much research remains to be done, the main genetic causes of this neurodegenerative disorder are now partially unraveled, allowing us to feel more confident that our knowledge about the genetic architecture of PD will continue to increase exponentially. How and when these discoveries will be introduced into general clinical practice, however, remains uncertain. In this review, we provide a general summary of the progress in the genetics of PD and discuss how this knowledge will contribute to the diagnosis and clinical management of patients with, or at risk of this disorder. PMID:24532987

Clarimón, Jordi; Kulisevsky, Jaime

2013-01-01

112

Best Practice Recommendations for Surgical Care in Weight Loss Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish evidence-based guidelines for best practices for surgical care in weight loss surgery (WLS).Research Methods and Procedures: We carried out a systematic search of English-language literature on WLS in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Key words were used to narrow the field for a selective review of abstracts. Data extraction was performed, and evidence categories were assigned according

John Kelly; Michael Tarnoff; Scott Shikora; Bruce Thayer; Daniel B. Jones; R. Amour Forse; Matthew M. Hutter; Robert Fanelli; David Lautz; Frederick Buckley; Imtiaz Munshi; Nicolas Coe

2005-01-01

113

Taking PDT into mainstream clinical practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many individuals in the field are frustrated by the slow progress getting PDT established in mainstream clinical practice. The five key reasons are: 1. Lack of adequate evidence of safety and efficacy and optimization of dosimetry. These are fundamental. The number of randomized controlled studies is still small. For some cancer applications, it is difficult to get patients to agree to be randomised, so different approaches must be taken. Anecdotal results are not acceptable to sceptics and regulators. 2. The regulatory processes. The rules get more complex every day, but there is no choice, they must be met. The full bureaucratic strength of the pharmaceutical industry is needed to address these issues. 3. Conservatism of the medical profession. Established physicians are reluctant to change practice, especially if it means referring patients to different specialists. 4. Lack of education. It is amazing how few physicians have even heard of PDT and many that have, are sceptical. The profile of PDT to both the medical profession and the general public needs to be raised dramatically. Patient demand works wonders! 5. Money. Major investment is required to run clinical trials. Pharmaceutical companies may see PDT as a threat (eg reduced market for chemotherapy agents). Licensed photosensitisers are expensive. Why not reduce the price initially, to get the technique established and stimulate demand? PDT has the potential for enormous cost savings for health service providers. With appropriate motivation and resources these problems can be addressed. Possible routes forward will be suggested.

Bown, Stephen G.

2009-06-01

114

Clinical review: Consensus recommendations on measurement of blood glucose and reporting glycemic control in critically ill adults.  

PubMed

The management reporting and assessment of glycemic control lacks standardization. The use of different methods to measure the blood glucose concentration and to report the performance of insulin treatment yields major disparities and complicates the interpretation and comparison of clinical trials. We convened a meeting of 16 experts plus invited observers from industry to discuss and where possible reach consensus on the most appropriate methods to measure and monitor blood glucose in critically ill patients and on how glycemic control should be assessed and reported. Where consensus could not be reached, recommendations on further research and data needed to reach consensus in the future were suggested. Recognizing their clear conflict of interest, industry observers played no role in developing the consensus or recommendations from the meeting. Consensus recommendations were agreed for the measurement and reporting of glycemic control in clinical trials and for the measurement of blood glucose in clinical practice. Recommendations covered the following areas: How should we measure and report glucose control when intermittent blood glucose measurements are used? What are the appropriate performance standards for intermittent blood glucose monitors in the ICU? Continuous or automated intermittent glucose monitoring - methods and technology: can we use the same measures for assessment of glucose control with continuous and intermittent monitoring? What is acceptable performance for continuous glucose monitoring systems? If implemented, these recommendations have the potential to minimize the discrepancies in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials and to improve glucose control in clinical practice. Furthermore, to be fit for use, glucose meters and continuous monitoring systems must match their performance to fit the needs of patients and clinicians in the intensive care setting. PMID:23767816

Finfer, Simon; Wernerman, Jan; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Cass, Tony; Desaive, Thomas; Hovorka, Roman; Joseph, Jeffrey I; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Krinsley, James; Mackenzie, Iain; Mesotten, Dieter; Schultz, Marcus J; Scott, Mitchell G; Slingerland, Robbert; Van den Berghe, Greet; Van Herpe, Tom

2013-01-01

115

Clinical review: Consensus recommendations on measurement of blood glucose and reporting glycemic control in critically ill adults  

PubMed Central

The management reporting and assessment of glycemic control lacks standardization. The use of different methods to measure the blood glucose concentration and to report the performance of insulin treatment yields major disparities and complicates the interpretation and comparison of clinical trials. We convened a meeting of 16 experts plus invited observers from industry to discuss and where possible reach consensus on the most appropriate methods to measure and monitor blood glucose in critically ill patients and on how glycemic control should be assessed and reported. Where consensus could not be reached, recommendations on further research and data needed to reach consensus in the future were suggested. Recognizing their clear conflict of interest, industry observers played no role in developing the consensus or recommendations from the meeting. Consensus recommendations were agreed for the measurement and reporting of glycemic control in clinical trials and for the measurement of blood glucose in clinical practice. Recommendations covered the following areas: How should we measure and report glucose control when intermittent blood glucose measurements are used? What are the appropriate performance standards for intermittent blood glucose monitors in the ICU? Continuous or automated intermittent glucose monitoring - methods and technology: can we use the same measures for assessment of glucose control with continuous and intermittent monitoring? What is acceptable performance for continuous glucose monitoring systems? If implemented, these recommendations have the potential to minimize the discrepancies in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials and to improve glucose control in clinical practice. Furthermore, to be fit for use, glucose meters and continuous monitoring systems must match their performance to fit the needs of patients and clinicians in the intensive care setting. See related commentary by Soto-Rivera and Agus, http://ccforum.com/content/17/3/155 PMID:23767816

2013-01-01

116

Guidelines for the nonpharmacologic management of migraine in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To provide physicians and allied health care professionals with guidelines for the nonpharmacologic management of migraine in clinical practice. OPTIONS: The full range and quality of nonpharmacologic therapies available for the management of migraine. OUTCOMES: Improvement in the nonpharmacologic management of migraine. EVIDENCE AND VALUES: The creation of the guidelines followed a needs assessment by members of the Canadian Headache Society and included a statement of objectives; development of guidelines by multidisciplinary working groups using information from literature reviews and other resources; comparison of alternative clinical pathways and description of how published data were analysed; definition of the level of evidence for data in each case; evaluation and revision of the guidelines at a consensus conference held in Ottawa on Oct. 27-29, 1995; redrafting and insertion of tables showing key variables and data from various studies and tables of data with recommendations; and reassessment by all conference participants. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Augmentation of the use of nonpharmacologic therapies for the acute and prophylactic management of migraine is likely to lead to substantial benefits in both human and economic terms. RECOMMENDATIONS: Both the avoidance of migraine trigger factors and the use of nonpharmacologic therapies have a part to play in overall migraine management. VALIDATION: The guidelines are based on consensus of Canadian experts in neurology, emergency medicine, psychiatry, psychology and family medicine, and consumers. Previous guidelines did not exist. Field testing of the guidelines is in progress. PMID:9679487

Pryse-Phillips, W E; Dodick, D W; Edmeads, J G; Gawel, M J; Nelson, R F; Purdy, R A; Robinson, G; Stirling, D; Worthington, I

1998-01-01

117

Telehealth practice recommendations for diabetic retinopathy, second edition.  

PubMed

Ocular telemedicine and telehealth have the potential to decrease vision loss from DR. Planning, execution, and follow-up are key factors for success. Telemedicine is complex, requiring the services of expert teams working collaboratively to provide care matching the quality of conventional clinical settings. Improving access and outcomes, however, makes telemedicine a valuable tool for our diabetic patients. Programs that focus on patient needs, consider available resources, define clear goals, promote informed expectations, appropriately train personnel, and adhere to regulatory and statutory requirements have the highest chance of achieving success. PMID:21970573

Li, Helen K; Horton, Mark; Bursell, Sven-Erik; Cavallerano, Jerry; Zimmer-Galler, Ingrid; Tennant, Mathew; Abramoff, Michael; Chaum, Edward; Debuc, Debra Cabrera; Leonard-Martin, Tom; Winchester, Marc; Lawrence, Mary G; Bauman, Wendell; Gardner, W Kelly; Hildebran, Lloyd; Federman, Jay

2011-12-01

118

Evidence-Based Practices in Addiction Treatment: Review and Recommendations for Public Policy  

PubMed Central

The movement in recent years towards evidence-based practice (EBP) in health care systems and policy has permeated the substance abuse treatment system, leading to a growing number of federal and statewide initiatives to mandate EBP implementation. Nevertheless, due to a lack of consensus in the addiction field regarding procedures or criteria to identify EBPs, the optimal processes for disseminating empirically based interventions into real-world clinical settings have not been identified. Although working lists of interventions considered to be evidence-based have been developed by a number of constituencies advocating for EBP dissemination in addiction treatment settings, the use of EBP lists to form policy-driven mandates has been controversial. This article examines the concept of EBP, critically reviews criteria used to evaluate the evidence basis of interventions, and highlights the manner in which such criteria have been applied in the addictions field. Controversies regarding EBP implementation policies and practices in addiction treatment are described, and suggestions are made to shift the focus of dissemination efforts from manualized psychosocial interventions to specific skill sets that are broadly applicable and easily learned by clinicians. Organizational and workforce barriers to EBP implementation are delineated, with corresponding recommendations to facilitate successful dissemination of evidence-based skills. PMID:20557970

Glasner-Edwards, Suzette; Rawson, Richard

2010-01-01

119

[Travel and psychotic disorders: clinical aspects and practical recommendations].  

PubMed

Psychotic disorders are frequent among travelers (10 to 20 % of medical evacuations). The travel is a concentrate of stressors. Psychotic disorders are not a contraindication to travel. Special precautions should be taken for patients with psychotic disorders wishing to travel. These precautions could apply to patients at risk of transition to a psychotic disorder. PMID:25220438

Vermersch, Charles; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Fovet, Thomas; Thomas, Pierre; Amad, Ali

2014-12-01

120

Impact of anthropometric measurements in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Anthropometry helps to assess nutritional status which is an important determinant of clinical outcome in many patients, including the number of those suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Weight gain after successful kidney transplantation is a well-known phenomenon, therefore we hypothesized that intensive counseling, based of menu analysis by a dietitian of CKD patients with a kidney transplant, can prevent the significant body weight (BW) gain after the transplant operation. The aim of the investigation was to study long-term anthropometrical, biochemical and dual-energy densitometry changes in the kidney transplant patients, to study correlations between the studied parameters and to compare those with the follow-up data. The prospective long-term study was carried out in 28 clinically stable renal transplant patients. Control groups consisted both transplant patients (47 patients), receiving ordinary nutritional counseling, and of healthy population subjects (342). Anthropometry and biochemistry were studied in patients twice: the first follow-up (FU1) data were collected 1.3 +/- 0.2 years, and the second follow-up (FU2) data were collected 2.7 +/- 0.3 years after the transplant. Significant BW gain was found only in renal transplant male patients (FU1 vs. FU2, p < 0.001) but not in females. The mean weight gain in control group patients was significant both in the male and female groups. In males, the mean C-reactive protein was significantly correlated with different body circumferences. But, in females, no clear associations were found. In females, significant correlation was found between mean body weight, body mass index and triglycerides. We conclude that the use of anthropometry in clinical practice, together with intensive and individual counseling by a dietitian, should be regular in the kidney transplant patients' population to prevent overweight. Monitoring of the dynamics of anthropometrical and biochemical parameters are clinically relevant in the post-transplant period together with densitometry. PMID:23390829

Kiisk, Liidia; Kaarma, Helje; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai

2012-12-01

121

Teaching reflective practice in practice settings: students' perceptions of their clinical educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflective practice in practice settings can enhance practice knowledge, self-assessment and lifelong learning, develop future practice capability and professional identity, and critically appraise practice traditions rather than reproduce them. The inherent power imbalance between student and educator runs the risk for the reflective practice potential not being realised. This study explored final year physiotherapy students' perceptions of clinical educators as

Franziska Trede; Megan Smith

2012-01-01

122

[Clinical practice guidelines and knowledge management in healthcare].  

PubMed

Clinical practice guidelines are key tools for the translation of scientific evidence into everyday patient care. Therefore guidelines can act as cornerstones of evidence based knowledge management in healthcare, if they are trustworthy, and its recommendations are not biased by authors' conflict of interests. Good medical guidelines should be disseminated by means of virtual (digital/electronic) health libraries - together with implementation tools in context, such as guideline based algorithms, check lists, patient information, a.s.f. The article presents evidence based medical knowledge management using the German experiences as an example. It discusses future steps establishing evidence based health care by means of combining patient data, evidence from medical science and patient care routine, together with feedback systems for healthcare providers. PMID:24326702

Ollenschläger, Günter

2013-10-01

123

Glucose Biosensors: An Overview of Use in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Blood glucose monitoring has been established as a valuable tool in the management of diabetes. Since maintaining normal blood glucose levels is recommended, a series of suitable glucose biosensors have been developed. During the last 50 years, glucose biosensor technology including point-of-care devices, continuous glucose monitoring systems and noninvasive glucose monitoring systems has been significantly improved. However, there continues to be several challenges related to the achievement of accurate and reliable glucose monitoring. Further technical improvements in glucose biosensors, standardization of the analytical goals for their performance, and continuously assessing and training lay users are required. This article reviews the brief history, basic principles, analytical performance, and the present status of glucose biosensors in the clinical practice. PMID:22399892

Yoo, Eun-Hyung; Lee, Soo-Youn

2010-01-01

124

UVA SOM Recommended Steps for Successful Institutional Recovery from Industry Sponsored Clinical Trials  

E-print Network

Trials 1) Contract/Budget Negotiations a. Whether you are new to the clinical trials process or a seasoned veteran, please check with the budget coordinator in the SOM Clinical Trials Office for guidanceUVA SOM Recommended Steps for Successful Institutional Recovery from Industry Sponsored Clinical

Acton, Scott

125

Modified barium swallow: clinical and radiographic correlation and relation to feeding recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing were correlated to determine their agreement and relationship to feeding recommendations. We reviewed a total of 148 patients with swallowing difficulties, of which 93 (45 women, 48 men; mean age 62 years) were evaluated by both clinical and radiographic examinations. A variety of materials were used for clinical bedside evaluation of oral and pharyngeal

David J. Ott; Richard G. Hodge; Leigh Ann Pikna; Michael Y. M. Chen; David W. Gelfand

1996-01-01

126

Pharmacogenomics in clinical practice and drug development  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of responses to drugs, including clopidogrel, pegylated-interferon and carbamazepine, have led to the identification of specific patient subgroups that benefit from therapy. However, the identification and replication of common sequence variants that are associated with either efficacy or safety for most prescription medications at odds ratios (ORs) >3.0 (equivalent to >300% increased efficacy or safety) has yet to be translated to clinical practice. Although some of the studies have been completed, the results have not been incorporated into therapy, and a large number of commonly used medications have not been subject to proper pharmacogenomic analysis. Adoption of GWAS, exome or whole genome sequencing by drug development and treatment programs is the most striking near-term opportunity for improving the drug candidate pipeline and boosting the efficacy of medications already in use. PMID:23138311

Harper, Andrew R; Topol, Eric J

2013-01-01

127

Self-compassion in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Self-compassion is conceptualized as containing 3 core components: self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation, and mindfulness versus overidentification, when relating to painful experiences. Research evidence demonstrates that self-compassion is related to psychological flourishing and reduced psychopathology. Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) is an 8-week training program, meeting 2.5 hours each week, designed to help participants cultivate self-compassion. MSC contains a variety of meditations (e.g., loving-kindness, affectionate breathing) as well as informal practices for use in daily life (e.g., soothing touch, self-compassionate letter writing). A detailed clinical case illustrates the journey of a client through the 8 weeks of MSC training, describing the key features of each session and the client's response. PMID:23775511

Germer, Christopher K; Neff, Kristin D

2013-08-01

128

The Emergence of Clinical Practice Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Clinical practice guidelines are now ubiquitous. This article describes the emergence of such guidelines in a way that differs from the two dominant explanations, one focusing on administrative cost-cutting and the other on the need to protect collective professional autonomy. Instead, this article argues that the spread of guidelines represents a new regulation of medical care resulting from a confluence of circumstances that mobilized many different groups. Although the regulation of quality has traditionally been based on the standardization of professional credentials, since the 1960s it has intensified and been supplemented by efforts to standardize the use of medical procedures. This shift is related to the spread of standardization within medicine and especially in research, public health, and large bureaucratic health care organizations. PMID:18070334

Weisz, George; Cambrosio, Alberto; Keating, Peter; Knaapen, Loes; Schlich, Thomas; Tournay, Virginie J

2007-01-01

129

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 2 Clinical Manual Nursing Practice Manual  

E-print Network

. Initiate transfusion. APPROVAL: Nursing Standards Committee Transfusion Committee Director of Transfusion Medicine #12;Clinical Procedure Page 2 of 2 Clinical Manual ­ Nursing Practice Manual John Dempsey Hospital

Oliver, Douglas L.

130

Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research. PMID:25035125

Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D

2015-01-01

131

Respiratory microbiota: addressing clinical questions, informing clinical practice.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, technological advances have revolutionised efforts to understand the role played by microbes in airways disease. With the application of ever more sophisticated techniques, the literature has become increasingly inaccessible to the non-specialist reader, potentially hampering the translation of these gains into improvements in patient care. In this article, we set out the key principles underpinning microbiota research in respiratory contexts and provide practical guidance on how best such studies can be designed, executed and interpreted. We examine how an understanding of the respiratory microbiota both challenges fundamental assumptions and provides novel clinical insights into lung disease, and we set out a number of important targets for ongoing research. PMID:25035125

Rogers, Geraint B; Shaw, Dominick; Marsh, Robyn L; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Bruce, Kenneth D

2015-01-01

132

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with Chinese Americans: Research, Theory, and Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss how to conduct cognitive-behavioral therapy with Chinese Americans. We present an integration of theory, research, and clinical practice to help mental health practitioners understand how Chinese culture may potentially influence the CBT treatment process for Chinese immigrants. Several recommendations are provided as…

Hwang, Wei-Chin; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Lin, Keh-Ming; Cheung, Freda

2006-01-01

133

Evaluation of clinical pharmacist recommendations in the geriatric ward of a Belgian university hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the type, acceptance rate, and clinical relevance of clinical pharmacist recommendations at the geriatric ward of the Ghent university hospital. Methods The clinical pharmacist evaluated drug use during a weekly 2-hour visit for a period of 4 months and, if needed, made recommendations to the prescribing physician. The recommendations were classified according to type, acceptance by the physician, prescribed medication, and underlying drug-related problem. Appropriateness of prescribing was assessed using the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) before and after the recommendations were made. Two clinical pharmacologists and two clinical pharmacists independently and retrospectively evaluated the clinical relevance of the recommendations and rated their own acceptance of them. Results The clinical pharmacist recommended 304 drug therapy changes for 100 patients taking a total of 1137 drugs. The most common underlying drug-related problems concerned incorrect dose, drug–drug interaction, and adverse drug reaction, which appeared most frequently for cardiovascular drugs, drugs for the central nervous system, and drugs for the gastrointestinal tract. The most common type of recommendation concerned adapting the dose, and stopping or changing a drug. In total, 59.7% of the recommendations were accepted by the treating physician. The acceptance rate by the evaluators ranged between 92.4% and 97.0%. The mean clinical relevance of the recommendations was assessed as possibly important (53.4%), possibly low relevance (38.1%), and possibly very important (4.2%). A low interrater agreement concerning clinical relevance between the evaluators was found: kappa values ranged between 0.15 and 0.25. Summated MAI scores significantly improved after the pharmacist recommendations, with mean values decreasing from 9.3 to 6.2 (P < 0.001). Conclusion In this study, the clinical pharmacist identified a high number of potential drug-related problems in older patients; however, the acceptance of the pharmacotherapy recommendations by the treating physician was lower than by a panel of evaluators. This panel, however, rated most recommendations as possibly important and as possibly having low relevance, with low interrater reliability. As the appropriateness of prescribing seemed to improve with decreased MAI scores, clinical pharmacy services may contribute to the optimization of drug therapy in older inpatients. PMID:23807844

Somers, Annemie; Robays, Hugo; De Paepe, Peter; Van Maele, Georges; Perehudoff, Katrina; Petrovic, Mirko

2013-01-01

134

SMARTWheel: From Concept to Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Wheelchair prescription is complex with thousands of choices and options. Theoretically, a higher quality or innovative wheelchair that is appropriately matched to the user and their unique needs will increase participation. It is well accepted that there is an alarmingly high incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome, and rotator cuff injuries among manual wheelchair users. Development Since the initial conceptualization, the SMARTWheel was intended to better understand the physiological and physical effects of wheelchair propulsion on the body. Initially, little was known about wheelchair propulsion and the SMARTWheel transformed the nascent field of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics. Impact Although still an important area of clinical research, the SMARTWheel has been critical to the study of the relationship between the type of wheelchair, set-up, activity, technique, anatomy, and physiology and repetitive strain injury. There has been growing evidence that the wheelchair-user interaction explains a substantial portion of the risk of developing a degenerative injury and on community participation. A noteworthy contribution of this work was the release of the clinical practice guideline, entitled, Preservation of Upper Limb Function Following Spinal Cord Injury in 2005. Discussion The SMARTWheel has been used by other scientists in areas that were not originally envisioned to be applications. It has been used to support the design of tools for developing a trail mapping rating and description system. It has also supported the design of accessible pedestrian walkways standards, accessible playground surfaces, and to evaluate carpets for wheelchair accessibility. It is likely that there are more new areas of exploration to emerge. This article describes the evolution of the SMARTWheel as new technologies became available and its applications in the field of wheelchair biomechanics and clinical service delivery. PMID:19658010

Cooper, Rory A.

2009-01-01

135

Clinical Decision Support Systems for the Practice of Evidence-based Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe use of clinical decision support systems to facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine promises to substantially improve health care quality.ObjectiveTo describe, on the basis of the proceedings of the Evidence and Decision Support track at the 2000 AMIA Spring Symposium, the research and policy challenges for capturing research and practice-based evidence in machine-interpretable repositories, and to present recommendations for

Ida Sim; Paul Gorman; Robert A Greenes; R Brian Haynes; Bonnie Kaplan; Harold Lehmann; Paul C Tang

2001-01-01

136

The National Cancer Institute–American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Trial Accrual Symposium: Summary and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Many challenges to clinical trial accrual exist, resulting in studies with inadequate enrollment and potentially delaying answers to important scientific and clinical questions. Methods: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) cosponsored the Cancer Trial Accrual Symposium: Science and Solutions on April 29-30, 2010 to examine the state of accrual science related to patient/community, physician/provider, and site/organizational influences, and identify new interventions to facilitate clinical trial enrollment. The symposium featured breakout sessions, plenary sessions, and a poster session including 100 abstracts. Among the 358 attendees were clinical investigators, researchers of accrual strategies, research administrators, nurses, research coordinators, patient advocates, and educators. A bibliography of the accrual literature in these three major areas was provided to participants in advance of the meeting. After the symposium, the literature in these areas was revisited to determine if the symposium recommendations remained relevant within the context of the current literature. Results: Few rigorously conducted studies have tested interventions to address challenges to clinical trials accrual. Attendees developed recommendations for improving accrual and identified priority areas for future accrual research at the patient/community, physician/provider, and site/organizational levels. Current literature continues to support the symposium recommendations. Conclusions: A combination of approaches addressing both the multifactorial nature of accrual challenges and the characteristics of the target population may be needed to improve accrual to cancer clinical trials. Recommendations for best practices and for future research developed from the symposium are provided. PMID:24130252

Denicoff, Andrea M.; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Grubbs, Stephen S.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Comis, Robert L.; Devine, Peggy; Dilts, David M.; Duff, Michelle E.; Ford, Jean G.; Joffe, Steven; Schapira, Lidia; Weinfurt, Kevin P.; Michaels, Margo; Raghavan, Derek; Richmond, Ellen S.; Zon, Robin; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Bookman, Michael A.; Dowlati, Afshin; Enos, Rebecca A.; Fouad, Mona N.; Good, Marjorie; Hicks, William J.; Loehrer, Patrick J.; Lyss, Alan P.; Wolff, Steven N.; Wujcik, Debra M.; Meropol, Neal J.

2013-01-01

137

An Electronic Protocol for Translation of Research Results to Clinical Practice: A Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We evaluated the feasibility of using an electronic protocol developed for research use (Research-eProtocol-insulin) for blood glucose management in usual intensive care unit clinical practice. Methods We implemented the rules of Research-eProtocol-insulin in the electronic medical record of the Intermountain Healthcare hospital system (Clinical-eProtocol-insulin) for use in usual clinical practice. We evaluated the performance of Clinical-eProtocol-insulin rules in the intensive care units of seven Intermountain Healthcare hospitals and compared this performance with the performance of Research-eProtocol-insulin at the LDS Hospital Shock/Trauma/Respiratory Intensive Care Unit. Results Clinician (nurse or physician) compliance with computerized protocol recommendations was 95% (of 21,325 recommendations) with Research-eProtocol-insulin and 92% (of 109,458 recommendations) with Clinical-eProtocol-insulin. The blood glucose distribution in clinical practice (Clinical-eProtocol-insulin) was similar to the research use distribution (Research-eProtocol-insulin); however, the mean values (119 mg/dl vs 113 mg/dl) were statistically different (P = 0.0001). Hypoglycemia rates in the research and practice settings did not differ: the percentage of measurements ?40 mg/dl (0.11% vs 0.1%, P = 0.65) and the percentage of patients with at least one blood glucose ?40 mg/dl (4.2% vs 3%, P = 0.23) were not statistically significantly different. Conclusion Our electronic blood glucose protocol enabled translation of a research decision-support tool (Research-eProtocol-insulin) to usual clinical practice (Clinical-eProtocol-insulin). PMID:19885263

Morris, Alan H.; Orme, James; Rocha, Beatriz H.; Holmen, John; Clemmer, Terry; Nelson, Nancy; Allen, Jode; Jephson, Al; Sorenson, Dean; Sward, Kathy; Warner, Homer

2008-01-01

138

EURRECA/WHO workshop report: 'Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations: Updating Best Practices'.  

PubMed

This paper describes the outcome of the workshop 'Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations: Updating Best Practices' which took place in Brussels in April 2012. The workshop was organised jointly by the European Micronutrient Recommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe. The delegates included, among others, representatives from nutrient recommendation setting bodies (NRSBs) across Europe. The current paper focuses on the gaps and needs of NRSBs as identified by the workshop participants: (i) practical tools and best practices to adapt dietary reference values, (ii) comparable nationally representative food consumption data (including updated and complete food composition databases), (iii) adequate financial resources and technical capacity, (iv) independence and transparency in expert selection, research conduct and communication of research results and (v) clear correspondence of terminology used at national levels. PMID:23234881

van't Veer, Pieter; Heseker, Helmut; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Gregori?, Matej; Margaritis, Irene; Raats, Monique M; Wijnhoven, Trudy

2013-01-01

139

Best Practice Recommendations for the Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Online Knowledge Translation Resources in Rehabilitation.  

PubMed

The knowledge-to-practice gap in rehabilitation has spurred knowledge translation (KT) initiatives aimed at promoting clinician behavior change and improving patient care. Online KT resources for physical therapists and other rehabilitation clinicians are appealing because of their potential to reach large numbers of individuals through self-paced, self-directed learning. This paper proposes best practice recommendations for developing online KT resources that are designed to translate evidence into practice. We propose 4 recommendations with specific steps in the development, implementation and evaluation process: Develop evidence-based, user-centered content; Tailor content to online format; Evaluate impact; and Share results and disseminate knowledge. Based on KT evidence and instructional design principles, we provide concrete examples and insights gained from our experiences in creating and evaluating online KT resources for physical therapists. In proposing these recommendations, we suggest next steps for research and invite others to contribute to the discussion. PMID:25301966

Levac, Danielle; Glegg, Stephanie; Camden, Chantal; Rivard, Lisa M; Missiuna, Cheryl

2014-10-01

140

Mindful Communication Bringing Intention, Attention and Reflection to Clinical Practice  

E-print Network

Mindful Communication Bringing Intention, Attention and Reflection to Clinical Practice May 6, decreased ability to express empathy and decreased team function. Poorly communicating teams, increase wish to deepen their mindfulness practice and apply their mindfulness skills in the workplace. Basic

Haykin, Simon

141

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations for Nutrition-Related Management of Children and Adults with Cystic Fibrosis and Pancreatic Insufficiency: Results of a Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation established a process of systematic review of evidence to inform the development of clinical care guidelines and encourage evidence-based practice. The Subcommittee on Growth and Nutrition reviewed the evidence in two areas: energy intake and dosing for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Evidence-based recommendations are presented here. Also, an ad hoc working group conducted a review of

Virginia A. Stallings; Lori J. Stark; Karen A. Robinson; Andrew P. Feranchak; Hebe Quinton

2008-01-01

142

Including Clinical Trials in Your Practice | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This resource is a Web-based course for healthcare providers who are interested in becoming clinical trials investigators and incorporating cancer clinical trials into their practices. A certificate of completion is offered at the end of the course.

143

Using Evidence-Based Principles in Clinical Practice  

E-print Network

To help students better understand how to use evidence-based principles in clinical practice, Prof. Storkel is revising her SPLH 880 course so that students can access evidence from clinical research and apply it to specific patients....

Storkel, Holly Lynn

2004-01-01

144

The DEC Recommended Practices in Early Intervention\\/Early Childhood Special Education: Social Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported from the field survey of the DEC Recommended Practices as one part of a national effort by the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) to develop evidence-based practices for Early Intervention\\/Early Childhood Special Education (EIlECSE). Surveys were received from 388 respondents consisting of practitioners, parents, and administration or higher education personnel.

Mary E. McLean; Patricia Snyder; Barbara J. Smith; Susan R. Sandall

2002-01-01

145

Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.  

PubMed

Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences. PMID:21509810

Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

2011-05-01

146

Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for functional dyspepsia.  

PubMed

General interest in functional gastrointestinal disorders is increasing among Japanese doctors as well as patients. This increase can be attributed to a number of factors, including recent increased interest in quality of life and advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disease. Japan recently became the world's first country to list "functional dyspepsia" as a disease name for national insurance billing purposes. However, recognition and understanding of functional dyspepsia (FD) remain poor, and no standard treatment strategy has yet been established. Accordingly, the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) developed an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for FD, consisting of five sections: concept, definition, and epidemiology; pathophysiology; diagnosis; treatment; and prognosis and complications. This article summarizes the Japanese guideline, with particular focus on the treatment section. Once a patient is diagnosed with FD, the doctor should carefully explain the pathophysiology and benign nature of this condition, establish a good doctor-patient relationship, and then provide advice for daily living (diet and lifestyle modifications, explanations, and reassurance). The proposed pharmacological treatment is divided into two steps: initial treatment including an acid inhibitory drug (H2RA or PPI) or prokinetics, (strong recommendation); second-line treatment including anxiolytics, antidepressants, and Japanese traditional medicine (weak recommendation). H. pylori eradication, strongly recommended with a high evidence level, is positioned separately from other treatment flows. Conditions that do not respond to these treatment regimens are regarded as refractory FD. Patients will be further examined for other organic disorders or will be referred to specialists using other approaches such as psychosomatic treatment. PMID:25586651

Miwa, Hiroto; Kusano, Motoyasu; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Kato, Mototsugu; Joh, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Nakada, Koji; Nagahara, Akihito; Futagami, Seiji; Manabe, Noriaki; Inui, Akio; Haruma, Ken; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Yakabi, Koji; Hongo, Michio; Uemura, Naomi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2015-02-01

147

Recommended Practices for Promoting Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the importance of physical development as an integrated part of early childhood education is well understood, many early childhood teachers lack the specific background and training in this area. To fill this gap, this article presents a framework of recommended practices and a corresponding assessment tool. The Head Start Body Start…

Wright, Paul M.; Stork, Steve

2013-01-01

148

SOLAR MAGNETIC TRACKING. I. SOFTWARE COMPARISON AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES C. E. DeForest  

E-print Network

SOLAR MAGNETIC TRACKING. I. SOFTWARE COMPARISON AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES C. E. DeForest Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 400, Boulder, CO 80302; deforest@boulder.swri.edu H. J & Deforest 2003) is intended to drive semi- empirical MHD models of the quiet Sun, and YAFTA (Welsch

DeForest, Craig

149

Applications of software reliability using the IEEE\\/AIAA recommended practice on software reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software-based systems have become the dominant player in the computer systems world. Since it is imperative that computer systems operate reliably, considering the criticality of software to the success of contemporary systems, the IEEE and AIAA commissioned the development of a new standard called the recommended practice on software reliability. This is an expository paper. It is not a research

N. Schneidewind; M. Hinchey

2009-01-01

150

Progress on the development of standards and recommended practices for CEM computer modeling and code validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress towards the development of standards and recommended practices for computational electromagnetics (CEM) computer modeling and simulation and code validation is discussed in this paper. This has been a topic of recent interest within the electromagnetics community. The relevant areas addressed include printed circuit board radiated and conducted emissions\\/immunity, system-level EMC, radar cross section (RCS) of complex structures, and the

Andrew L. Drozd

2003-01-01

151

Kidney function and clinical recommendations of drug dose adjustment in geriatric patients  

PubMed Central

Background In elderly patients chronic kidney disease often limits drug prescription. As several equations for quick assessment of kidney function by estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and several different clinical recommendations for drug dose adjustment in renal failure are published, choosing the correct approach for drug dosage is difficult for the practitioner. The aims of our study were to quantify the agreement between eGFR-equations grouped by creatinine-based or cystatin C-based and within the groups of creatinine and cystatin C-based equations and to investigate whether use of various literature and online references results in different recommendations for drug dose adjustment in renal disease in very elderly primary care patients. Methods We included 108 primary care patients aged 80 years and older from 11 family practices into a cross-sectional study. GFR was estimated using two serum creatinine-based equations (Cockroft-Gault, MDRD) and three serum cystatin C-based equations (Grubb, Hoek, Perkins). Concordance between different equations was quantified using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Essential changes in drug doses or discontinuation of medication were documented and compared in terms of estimated renal function as a consequence of the different eGFR-equations using five references commonly used in the US, Great Britain and Germany. Results In general, creatinine-based equations resulted in lower eGFR-estimation and in higher necessity of drug dose adjustment than cystatin C-based equations. Concordance was high between creatinine-based equations alone (ICCs 0.87) and between cystatin C-based equations alone (ICCs 0.90 to 0.96), and moderate between creatinine-based equations and cystatin C-based equations (ICCs 0.54 to 0.76). When comparing the five different references consulted to identify necessary drug dose adjustments we found that the numbers of drugs that necessitate dose adjustment in the case of renal impairment differed considerably. The mean number of recommended changes in drug dosage ranged between 1.9 and 2.5 per patient depending on the chosen literature reference. Conclusions Our data suggest that the choice of the literature source might have even greater impact on drug management than the choice of the equation used to estimate GFR alone. Efforts should be deployed to standardize methods for estimating kidney function in geriatric patients and literature recommendations on drug dose adjustment in renal failure. PMID:24020893

2013-01-01

152

Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

Williams, Craig H.

2004-01-01

153

Learning Styles of Radiography Students during Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…

Ward, L. Patrice

2009-01-01

154

Pareto Fronts in Clinical Practice for Pinnacle  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Our aim was to develop a framework to objectively perform treatment planning studies using Pareto fronts. The Pareto front represents all optimal possible tradeoffs among several conflicting criteria and is an ideal tool with which to study the possibilities of a given treatment technique. The framework should require minimal user interaction and should resemble and be applicable to daily clinical practice. Methods and Materials: To generate the Pareto fronts, we used the native scripting language of Pinnacle{sup 3} (Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA). The framework generates thousands of plans automatically from which the Pareto front is generated. As an example, the framework is applied to compare intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer patients. For each patient and each technique, 3000 plans are generated, resulting in a total of 60,000 plans. The comparison is based on 5-dimensional Pareto fronts. Results: Generating 3000 plans for 10 patients in parallel requires on average 96 h for IMRT and 483 hours for VMAT. Using VMAT, compared to IMRT, the maximum dose of the boost PTV was reduced by 0.4 Gy (P=.074), the mean dose in the anal sphincter by 1.6 Gy (P=.055), the conformity index of the 95% isodose (CI{sub 95%}) by 0.02 (P=.005), and the rectal wall V{sub 65} {sub Gy} by 1.1% (P=.008). Conclusions: We showed the feasibility of automatically generating Pareto fronts with Pinnacle{sup 3}. Pareto fronts provide a valuable tool for performing objective comparative treatment planning studies. We compared VMAT with IMRT in prostate patients and found VMAT had a dosimetric advantage over IMRT.

Janssen, Tomas; Kesteren, Zdenko van; Franssen, Gijs; Damen, Eugène [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vliet, Corine van, E-mail: c.v.vliet@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2013-03-01

155

Implementing competency recommendations into pre-registration nursing curricula: effects upon levels of confidence in clinical skills.  

PubMed

The competency based pre-registration nursing curriculum was introduced to address concerns about levels of confidence and competence in skills of newly qualified Project 2000 educated nurses [Department of Health, 1999. Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Healthcare. The Stationary Office, London]. This study sought to examine whether the implementation of the competency recommendations has led to improvements in the confidence of nursing students in their clinical skills. A self-administered questionnaire examining ratings of confidence in areas of nursing practice and core competencies as specified by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) [UKCC, 2001. Requirements for Pre-registration Nursing Programmes. UKCC, London] was administered to 139 final year adult nursing students who were studying with the Project 2000 or competency curriculum. The response rate was 53%, results indicating that the students studying the competency curriculum have higher levels of confidence in all areas of their practice targeted by the competency recommendations than students studying in the Project 2000 curriculum. The positive effect that the competency recommendations had upon levels of confidence in nursing practice, and the implications of such changes to curricula are discussed. PMID:16154666

Farrand, Paul; McMullan, Mirjam; Jowett, Rosalynd; Humphreys, Ann

2006-02-01

156

Recommended screening and preventive practices for long-term survivors after hematopoietic cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) technology and supportive care techniques have led to improvements in long-term survival after HCT. Emerging indications for transplantation, introduction of newer graft sources (e.g. umbilical cord blood) and transplantation of older patients using less intense conditioning regimens have also contributed to an increase in the number of HCT survivors. These survivors are at risk for developing late complications secondary to pre-, periand post-transplant exposures and risk-factors. Guidelines for screening and preventive practices for HCT survivors were published in 2006. An international group of transplant experts was convened in 2011 to review contemporary literature and update the recommendations while considering the changing practice of transplantation and international applicability of these guidelines. This review provides the updated recommendations for screening and preventive practices for pediatric and adult survivors of autologous and allogeneic HCT. PMID:23049402

Majhail, Navneet Singh; Rizzo, James Douglas; Lee, Stephanie Joi; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Bonfim, Carmem; Burns, Linda Jean; Chaudhri, Naeem; Davies, Stella; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Seber, Adriana; Socie, Gerard; Szer, Jeff; Lint, Maria Teresa Van; Wingard, John Reid; Tichelli, Andre

2012-01-01

157

Recommended Screening and Preventive Practices for Long-term Survivors after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) technology and supportive care techniques have led to improvements in long-term survival after HCT. Emerging indications for transplantation, introduction of newer graft sources (e.g. umbilical cord blood) and transplantation of older patients using less intense conditioning regimens have also contributed to an increase in the number of HCT survivors. These survivors are at risk for developing late complications secondary to pre-, peri- and post-transplant exposures and risk-factors. Guidelines for screening and preventive practices for HCT survivors were published in 2006. An international group of transplant experts was convened in 2011 to review contemporary literature and update the recommendations while considering the changing practice of transplantation and international applicability of these guidelines. This review provides the updated recommendations for screening and preventive practices for pediatric and adult survivors of autologous and allogeneic HCT. PMID:22178693

Majhail, Navneet S; Rizzo, J Douglas; Lee, Stephanie J; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Bonfim, Carmem; Burns, Linda J; Chaudhri, Naeem; Davies, Stella; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Seber, Adriana; Socie, Gerard; Szer, Jeff; Lint, Maria Teresa Van; Wingard, John R; Tichelli, Andre

2011-01-01

158

Recommended Screening and Preventive Practices for Long-term Survivors after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) technology and supportive care techniques have led to improvements in long-term survival after HCT. Emerging indications for transplantation, introduction of newer graft sources (e.g. umbilical cord blood) and transplantation of older patients using less intense conditioning regimens have also contributed to an increase in the number of HCT survivors. These survivors are at risk for developing late complications secondary to pre-, peri- and post-transplant exposures and risk-factors. Guidelines for screening and preventive practices for HCT survivors were published in 2006. An international group of transplant experts was convened in 2011 to review contemporary literature and update the recommendations while considering the changing practice of transplantation and international applicability of these guidelines. This review provides the updated recommendations for screening and preventive practices for pediatric and adult survivors of autologous and allogeneic HCT. PMID:22446607

Majhail, Navneet S; Rizzo, J Douglas; Lee, Stephanie J; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Bonfim, Carmem; Burns, Linda J; Chaudhri, Naeem; Davies, Stella; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Seber, Adriana; Socie, Gerard; Szer, Jeff; Lint, Maria Teresa Van; Wingard, John R; Tichelli, Andre

2011-01-01

159

Recommended Screening and Preventive Practices for Long-term Survivors after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) technology and supportive care techniques have led to improvements in long-term survival after HCT. Emerging indications for transplantation, introduction of newer graft sources (e.g. umbilical cord blood) and transplantation of older patients using less intense conditioning regimens have also contributed to an increase in the number of HCT survivors. These survivors are at risk for developing late complications secondary to pre-, peri- and post-transplant exposures and risk-factors. Guidelines for screening and preventive practices for HCT survivors were published in 2006. An international group of transplant experts was convened in 2011 to review contemporary literature and update the recommendations while considering the changing practice of transplantation and international applicability of these guidelines. This review provides the updated recommendations for screening and preventive practices for pediatric and adult survivors of autologous and allogeneic HCT. PMID:22395764

Majhail, Navneet S; Rizzo, J Douglas; Lee, Stephanie J; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Bonfim, Carmem; Burns, Linda J; Chaudhri, Naeem; Davies, Stella; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Seber, Adriana; Socie, Gerard; Szer, Jeff; Lint, Maria Teresa Van; Wingard, John R; Tichelli, Andre

2012-01-01

160

Clinical practice guidelines for translating pharmacogenomic knowledge to bedside. Focus on anticancer drugs  

PubMed Central

The development of clinical practice recommendations or guidelines for the clinical use of pharmacogenomics data is an essential issue for improving drug therapy, particularly for drugs with high toxicity and/or narrow therapeutic index such as anticancer drugs. Although pharmacogenomic-based recommendations have been formulated for over 40 anticancer drugs, the number of clinical practice guidelines available is very low. The guidelines already published indicate that pharmacogenomic testing is useful for patient selection, but final dosing adjustment should be carried out on the basis of clinical or analytical parameters rather than on pharmacogenomic information. Patient selection may seem a modest objective, but it constitutes a crucial improvement with regard to the pre-pharmacogenomics situation and it saves patients’ lives. However, we should not overstate the current power of pharmacogenomics. At present the pharmacogenomics of anticancer drugs is not sufficiently developed for dose adjustments based on pharmacogenomics only, and no current guidelines recommend such adjustments without considering clinical and/or analytical parameters. This objective, if ever attained, would require the use of available guidelines, further implementation with clinical feedback, plus a combination of genomics and phenomics knowledge. PMID:25191268

Agúndez, José A. G.; Esguevillas, Gara; Amo, Gemma; García-Martín, Elena

2014-01-01

161

Management of hypersensitivity to platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy: cepo review and clinical recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background Although antineoplastic agents are critical in the treatment of cancer, they can potentially cause hypersensitivity reactions that can have serious consequences. When such a reaction occurs, clinicians can either continue the treatment, at the risk of causing a severe or a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction, or stop the treatment, although it might be the only one available. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effectiveness of methods used to prevent and treat hypersensitivity reactions to platinum- or taxane-based chemotherapy and to develop evidence-based recommendations. Methods The scientific literature published to December 2013, inclusive, was reviewed. Results Premedication with antihistamines, H2 blockers, and corticosteroids is not effective in preventing hypersensitivity reactions to platinum salts. However, premedication significantly reduces the incidence of hypersensitivity to taxanes. A skin test can generally be performed to screen for patients at risk of developing a severe reaction to platinum salts in the presence of grade 1 or 2 reactions, but skin testing does not appear to be useful for taxanes. A desensitization protocol allows for re-administration of either platinum- or taxane-based chemotherapy to some patients without causing severe hypersensitivity reactions. Conclusions Several strategies such as premedication, skin testing, and desensitization protocols are available to potentially allow for administration of platinum- or taxane-based chemotherapy to patients who have had a hypersensitivity reaction and for whom no other treatment options are available. Considering the available evidence, the Comité de l’évolution des pratiques en oncologie made recommendations for clinical practice in Quebec. PMID:25089112

Boulanger, J.; Boursiquot, J.N.; Cournoyer, G.; Lemieux, J.; Masse, M.S.; Almanric, K.; Guay, M.P.

2014-01-01

162

An investigation of nurse educator's perceptions and experiences of undertaking clinical practice.  

PubMed

Educational policy (DOH, 1999. Making a difference: strengthening the nursing, midwifery and health visiting contribution to health and healthcare. Department of Health, London; UKCC, 1999. Fitness for Practice. United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, London; Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2006. Standards to support learning and assessment in practice. Nursing and Midwifery Council, London) and current nursing literature (Griscti, O., Jacono, B., Jacono, J., 2005. The nurse educator's clinical role. Journal of Advanced Nursing 50 (1), 84-92; Owen, S., Ferguson, K., Baguley, I., 2005. The clinical activity of mental health nurse lecturers. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 12, 310-316), place increasing emphasis on nurse educators undertaking clinical practice to facilitate their clinical confidence and competence. This study investigated nurse educators' perceptions and experiences of undertaking clinical practice. A qualitative design and descriptive, exploratory approach were used. A purposive sample of 11 nurse educators in one nursing department, took part in two focus group interviews, one with 5 and the other with 6 respondents, to identify and discuss their perceptions and experiences of undertaking clinical practice. A process of thematic content analysis revealed three broad themes relating to the meaning and importance of clinical practice, perceived benefits and barriers which are examined and discussed. The paper concludes that despite policy recommendations, barriers highlighted in this study such as insufficient time, heavy workload and a lack of valuing of the clinical role have been raised over the past few decades. The effect of undertaking clinical practice, particularly on the quality of teaching is argued to be valuable armoury in the battle to secure sufficient resources to support engagement in clinical practice. Financial and organisational commitment; valuing of clinical practice and research evidence are crucial to realising clinical practice for nurse educators. Alternative interpretations of what may constitute the clinical role such as joint research projects and supporting and supervising students are offered, which need to be assessed against clear, specific and realistic aims for the clinical role of the nurse educator. PMID:18586358

Williams, Angela; Taylor, Cathy

2008-11-01

163

Uses of progesterone in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Progesterone is the natural progestagen produced by the corpus luteum during the luteal phase. It is absorbed when administered orally, but is greater than 90% metabolized during the first hepatic pass. This greatly limits the efficacy of once-daily administration and also results in unphysiologically high levels of progesterone metabolites, particularly those reduced at the 5-a position. These metabolites can cause dizziness and drowsiness to the point of preventing the operation of a motor vehicle. Synthetic progestins, such as medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethindrone acetate (NETA), have been specifically designed to resist enzymatic degradation and remain active after oral administration. However, these compounds exert undesirable effects on the liver and often cause severe psychological side effects. The permeability of the skin does not allow for administration of progesterone in the quantities normally produced by the corpus luteum, i.e., up to 25 mg/day during the mid-luteal phase. To avoid this problem, synthetic progestins such as NETA have been administered transdermally. These compounds, though, just like synthetic estrogens administered non-orally, retain undesirable hepatic effects even when administered transdermally. Transvaginal administration of progesterone is a practical non-oral route available for administering progesterone. Early experience was gained with vaginal suppositories, which lack manufacturing controls. Recently, a new progesterone gel formulation has been designed for vaginal use. The clinical acceptability of this product has been enhanced by the bioadhesive characteristics of its polycarbophil-based gel, which conveys controlled and sustained-released properties. Investigations have shown that because of local direct vagina-to-uterus transport, which results in a preferential uterine uptake of progesterone, this formulation given in conjunction with physiological amounts of estradiol produces endometrial changes similar to those seen in the luteal phase, despite plasma progesterone levels that remain subphysiologic. Studies in infertility show that vaginal progesterone in this form allows secretory transformation of the endometrium and the development of pregnancy despite providing low systemic progesterone concentrations. Fewer side effects occur when used for hormone replacement than typically encountered with progestins and oral progesterone. Uses in patients with infertility and hypoestrogenism and secondary amenorrhea are reviewed. PMID:10338267

Warren, M P; Shantha, S

1999-01-01

164

Stress Management Training in Health Psychology Practice: Critical Clinical Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress management training interventions have become one of the most popular treatment programs in health psychology practice. Although numerous clinical approaches are available, limited attention is given to the matching of intervention with the clinical needs of individuals. As a result, stress management programs are more frequently marketed in clinical and community settings as palliative techniques without sufficient exploration of

J. Bruce Hillenberg; Thomas M. DiLorenzo

1987-01-01

165

Clinical implementation of AAPM Task Group 32 recommendations on brachytherapy source strength specification.  

PubMed

Historically the strength of sealed brachytherapy sources has been described by many physical quantities, including true activity, apparent activity, and equivalent mass of radium. Recently, the AAPM Task Group 32 recommended that these quantities be replaced by a single quantity, air-kerma strength, with units of muGy m2h-1. A set of equations has been developed for unambiguously converting source strength estimates and renormalizing published dose-rate tables, which assume traditional quantities and units, into forms consistent with air-kerma strength. For commonly used brachytherapy sources, multiplicative conversion factors for each source-strength formalism and set of units are given. To convert equivalent mass of radium to air-kerma strength requires a single multiplicative factor, 7.23 muGy m2h-1/mgRaEq, applicable to all sources. Based upon a review of vendor source specification practices, the factors for converting source strength of 198Au, 103Pd, and 125I seeds from apparent mCi to air-kerma strength are 2.06, 1.29, and 1.27 muGy m2h-1/mCi(apparent), respectively. These factors are independent of source geometry but depend on the nominal exposure rate constant value selected by the vendor. Conversion factors applicable to mass of radium or true activity depend upon both source geometry and radionuclide identity. Because many of these conversion factors depend upon vendor choices of physical constants and exposure rate constants, readers are cautioned to carefully review vendor source strength specification practices before adopting these values clinically. Finally, the relationships between the various source strength quantities and absorbed dose rate in the medium surrounding the source are elucidated. PMID:1870487

Williamson, J F; Nath, R

1991-01-01

166

Assessment of Clinical Skills in Medical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The introduction of a clinical skills examination (CSE) to Step 2 of the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) has focused attention on the design and delivery of large-scale standardized tests of clinical skills and raised the question of the appropriateness of evaluation of these competencies across the span of a physician's career. This…

Scoles, Peter V.; Hawkins, Richard E.; LaDuca, Anthony

2003-01-01

167

Advanced Clinical Certificate A Certificate in Advanced Clinical Practice  

E-print Network

Abramovitz, MD Children, Adolescents and Families - Tonia M. Spence, LCSW, MSEd Bereavement, Secondary Trauma Certificate program focuses on strengthening clinical skills through a trauma focused lens. Each session - Susan McConnaughy, PhD, LCSW Enhancing Trauma-Informed Clinical Reasoning and Case Formulation Robert

Qiu, Weigang

168

Recommended Practice for Pressure Measurements and Calculation of Effective Pumping Speeds During Electric Propulsion Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Variability between facility-to-facility and more importantly ground-to-flight performance can result in large margins in application or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration, and on-orbit performance. A recommended practice for making pressure measurements, pressure diagnostics, and calculating effective pumping speeds with justification is presented.

Dankanich, John W.; Walker, Mitchell; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.

2013-01-01

169

Good practice recommendations for paediatric outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (p-OPAT) in the UK: a consensus statement.  

PubMed

There is compelling evidence to support the rationale for managing children on intravenous antimicrobial therapy at home whenever possible, including parent and patient satisfaction, psychological well-being, return to school/employment, reductions in healthcare-associated infection and cost savings. As a joint collaboration between the BSAC and the British Paediatric Allergy, Immunity and Infection Group, we have developed good practice recommendations to highlight good clinical practice and governance within paediatric outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (p-OPAT) services across the UK. These guidelines provide a practical approach for safely delivering a p-OPAT service in both secondary care and tertiary care settings, in terms of the roles and responsibilities of members of the p-OPAT team, the structure required to deliver the service, identifying patients and pathologies that are suitable for p-OPAT, ensuring appropriate vascular access, antimicrobial choice and delivery and the clinical governance aspects of delivering a p-OPAT service. The process of writing a business case to support the introduction of a p-OPAT service is also addressed. PMID:25331058

Patel, Sanjay; Abrahamson, Ed; Goldring, Stephen; Green, Helen; Wickens, Hayley; Laundy, Matt

2014-10-19

170

Best Practice Recommendations for a Corporate Wiki in the Research & Development Department of Software Company  

E-print Network

Engineering Management Field Project Best Practice Recommendations for a Corporate Wiki in the Research & Development Department of Software Company By Shannon A.S. Skoglund Spring Semester, 2011 An EMGT Field Project report... Alexandria is the departmental wiki knowledge management system of the Software Company’s Research and Development department. According to a survey crafted for this project and completed by 84% of the department, Alexandria could be made more effective...

Skoglund, Shannon A. S.

2011-05-20

171

Low Impact Development Practices: A Review of Current Research and Recommendations for Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low impact development (LID) approach has been recommended as an alternative to traditional stormwater design. Research\\u000a on individual LID practices such as bioretention, pervious pavements, and grassed swales has increased in recent years. Bioretention\\u000a cells have been effective in retaining large volumes of runoff and pollutants on site, and consistently reduced concentrations\\u000a of certain pollutants such as metals. However,

Michael E. Dietz

2007-01-01

172

Alzheimer’s Disease: A Clinical Practice-Oriented Review  

PubMed Central

Investigation in the field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the commonest cause of dementia, has been very active in recent years and it may be difficult for the clinician to keep up with all the innovations and to be aware of the implications they have in clinical practice. The authors, thus, reviewed recent literature on the theme in order to provide the clinician with an updated overview, intended to support decision-making on aspects of diagnosis and management. This article begins to focus on the concept of AD and on its pathogenesis. Afterward, epidemiology and non-genetic risk factors are approached. Genetics, including genetic risk factors and guidelines for genetic testing, are mentioned next. Recommendations for diagnosis of AD, including recently proposed criteria, are then reviewed. Data on the variants of AD is presented. First approach to the patient is dealt with next, followed by neuropsychological evaluation. Biomarkers, namely magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography, FDG PET, PiB PET, CSF tau, and A? analysis, as well as available data on their diagnostic accuracy, are also discussed. Factors predicting rate of disease progression are briefly mentioned. Finally, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including established and emerging drugs, are addressed. PMID:22529838

Alves, Luísa; Correia, Ana Sofia A.; Miguel, Rita; Alegria, Paulo; Bugalho, Paulo

2012-01-01

173

Conducting record review studies in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Clinical record review or chart review is a previously recorded data to answer clinical queries. Such a study can be used to answer specific clinical questions in a relatively easy and less resource intensive manner. But these studies may be constrained by the limited information retrievable and inadequacy of records. Various types of data sources may be available for conducting such reviews (like case charts, computerized registries, etc), each with specific strengths and weaknesses. The procedure usually consists of drawing up the research question, identifying the appropriate data source, devising a data extraction plan, extracting the data, checking for errors, data analysis, and appropriate archiving and dissemination of the findings. The ethical aspects in such studies primarily pertain to issues of informed consent and confidentiality. This paper provides a broad overview of how to go about a clinical record review, and serves as a ready reference for those who would like to undertake such record reviews. PMID:25386466

Sarkar, Siddharth; Seshadri, Divya

2014-09-01

174

Conducting Record Review Studies in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Clinical record review or chart review is a previously recorded data to answer clinical queries. Such a study can be used to answer specific clinical questions in a relatively easy and less resource intensive manner. But these studies may be constrained by the limited information retrievable and inadequacy of records. Various types of data sources may be available for conducting such reviews (like case charts, computerized registries, etc), each with specific strengths and weaknesses. The procedure usually consists of drawing up the research question, identifying the appropriate data source, devising a data extraction plan, extracting the data, checking for errors, data analysis, and appropriate archiving and dissemination of the findings. The ethical aspects in such studies primarily pertain to issues of informed consent and confidentiality. This paper provides a broad overview of how to go about a clinical record review, and serves as a ready reference for those who would like to undertake such record reviews. PMID:25386466

Seshadri, Divya

2014-01-01

175

Breast tomosynthesis in clinical practice: initial results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the potential value of tomosynthesis in women with an abnormal screening mammogram\\u000a or with clinical symptoms. Mammography and tomosynthesis investigations of 513 woman with an abnormal screening mammogram\\u000a or with clinical symptoms were prospectively classified according to the ACR BI-RADS criteria. Sensitivity and specificity\\u000a of both techniques for the detection of cancer

Hendrik J. Teertstra; Claudette E. Loo; Maurice A. A. J. van den Bosch; Harm van Tinteren; Emiel J. T. Rutgers; Sara H. Muller; Kenneth G. A. Gilhuijs

2010-01-01

176

Quality of life end points in cancer clinical trials: review and recommendations.  

PubMed

In this presentation, issues that influenced the development of policies for inclusion of quality of life end points in certain Southwest Oncology Group clinical trials are reviewed. The key policies recommended by us and adopted by the Cancer Control Research Committee of the Southwest Oncology Group are as follows: (a) Begin assessment of quality of life in specific types of phase III protocols. (b) Always measure physical functioning, emotional functioning, symptoms (general and protocol specific), and global quality of life separately. (c) Include measures of social functioning and additional protocol-specific measures if resources permit. (d) Use patient-based questionnaires with psychometric properties that have been documented in published studies. In this review, we also recommend specific questionnaires. Our recommendations may prove useful for other cancer clinical trials groups and for multi-institution trials of treatment for chronic diseases. PMID:2646455

Moinpour, C M; Feigl, P; Metch, B; Hayden, K A; Meyskens, F L; Crowley, J

1989-04-01

177

Public School Voice Clinics, Part II: Diagnosis and Recommendations--A 10-Year Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 10 years of school district voice clinics, 249 cases were reviewed. Vocal nodules, chronic laryngitis and thickened cords were frequently noted. One-third of the cases had concomitant allergies, ear, and/or upper respiratory problems. Direct voice therapy was recommended for 65 percent of attendees. (Author/CL)

Miller, Sandra Q.; Madison, Charles L.

1984-01-01

178

Electronic prescribing increases uptake of clinical pharmacologists' recommendations in the hospital setting  

PubMed Central

AIMS To determine whether electronic prescribing facilitates the uptake of clinical pharmacologists' recommendations for improving drug safety in medical inpatients. METHODS Electronic case records and prescription charts (either electronic or paper) of 502 patients hospitalized on medical wards in a large Swiss teaching hospital between January 2009 and January 2010 were studied by four junior and four senior clinical pharmacologists. Drug-related problems were identified and interventions proposed. The implementation and time delays of these proposed interventions were compared between the patients for whom paper drug charts were used and the patients for whom electronic drug charts were used. RESULTS One hundred and fifty-eight drug-related problems in 109 hospital admissions were identified and 145 recommendations were made, of which 51% were implemented. Admissions with an electronic prescription chart (n = 90) were found to have 2.74 times higher odds for implementation of the change than those with a paper prescription chart (n = 53) (95% confidence interval 1.2, 6.3, P = 0.018, adjusted for any dependency introduced by patient, ward or clinical team; follow-up for two cases missing). The time delay between recommendations being made and their implementation (if any) was minimal (median 1 day) and did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Electronic prescribing in this hospital setting was associated with increased implementation of clinical pharmacologists' recommendations for improving drug safety when compared with handwritten prescribing on paper. PMID:21627677

Taegtmeyer, Anne B; Curkovic, Ivanka; Rufibach, Kaspar; Corti, Natascia; Battegay, Edouard; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A

2011-01-01

179

Clinical practice beyond science: debunking the scientific myth.  

PubMed

The theme of the RANZCP 28th Conference questioned the science of clinical practice. This question is explored in the light of prevailing paradigms of 20th century psychiatry and recent claims by scientism, especially biologism, that assumes an organic causation for all abnormal behaviour. It is argued that a paradigm of objective science is necessary to understanding many aspects of mental illness, but not sufficient to explain certain essential phenomena, such as altered states of consciousness and empathy, encounted daily in clinical practice. Discarding these phenomena in the name of "science" runs the risk of clinical practice becoming "mindless". The "reconquest of the subjective" is offered as a way to extend clinical practice beyond objective science. PMID:8067971

Halasz, G

1994-03-01

180

A qualitative study of nursing student experiences of clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background Nursing student's experiences of their clinical practice provide greater insight to develop an effective clinical teaching strategy in nursing education. The main objective of this study was to investigate student nurses' experience about their clinical practice. Methods Focus groups were used to obtain students' opinion and experiences about their clinical practice. 90 baccalaureate nursing students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery) were selected randomly from two hundred students and were arranged in 9 groups of ten students. To analyze the data the method used to code and categories focus group data were adapted from approaches to qualitative data analysis. Results Four themes emerged from the focus group data. From the students' point of view," initial clinical anxiety", "theory-practice gap"," clinical supervision", professional role", were considered as important factors in clinical experience. Conclusion The result of this study showed that nursing students were not satisfied with the clinical component of their education. They experienced anxiety as a result of feeling incompetent and lack of professional nursing skills and knowledge to take care of various patients in the clinical setting. PMID:16280087

Sharif, Farkhondeh; Masoumi, Sara

2005-01-01

181

Conceptual models used in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Nurses' difficulties in articulation of conceptual models may be due to several factors--not the least of which are the existence of discrete theories for each area of nursing specialization, dissociation in curricula of theory from practice, a holistic conceptual framework that may be inadequately defined at the process level, and an impulse toward idealism on the part of the nurses themselves. These observations challenge both the theorists and the practitioners of modern nursing to describe more clearly the definition of quality for the science and art of nursing. Nurses are beginning to grasp the idea of holism. It is not the summation of parts to make a whole. Holism is the identification of life patterns, which are reflective of the whole. Nurses in practice and research are starting to create methods of inquiry that portray the wholeness of the autonomous person in continual, dynamic change and exchange with a changing universe. These initial explorations are leading to the evolution of the concepts of person, environment, and health into a distinctive theoretical base for nursing practice. In practice, research, and education, nurses must be committed to excellent, current descriptions of these human life patterns. PMID:2728414

Wardle, M G; Mandle, C L

1989-02-01

182

Neurobiology of Addictions: Implications for Clinical Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers helping professionals an introduction to the neurobiological aspects of substance abuse. It presents the basic information on the subject, including the various neurobiological theories of addiction, and places them in a psychosocial context. In addition to connecting the theoretical information with practical applications, the…

Spence, Richard T., Ed.; DiNitto, Diana M., Ed.; Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg, Ed.

183

Development of Clinical Practice Standards for Nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing, with leadership from the American Nurses Association (ANA), has a long-standing com mitment to the development of standards. The first nursing practice standards were published in 1973. Since that time, both the ANA and specialty nursing organizations have developed standards. However, the proliferation of standards, reflecting a wide di vergence of intent, format, and scope, has limited their usefulness.

Joyce Waterman Taylor

1991-01-01

184

Breast Cancer Biomarkers: Utility in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. For the past decades, new technical tools have been developed for biomarkers at the DNA, RNA and protein levels to better understand the biology of breast cancer. This progress is essential to classify the disease into clinically relevant subtypes, which may lead to new therapeutic opportunities. Novel biomarker development is paramount to deliver personalized cancer therapies. Further, tumor evolution, being natural or under treatment pressure, should be monitored and “liquid biopsies” by detecting circulating tumor cells or circulating free tumor DNA in blood samples will become an important option. This paper reviews the new generation of biomarkers and the current evidence to demonstrate their analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility. PMID:24416469

Le Du, Fanny; Ueno, Naoto T.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.

2013-01-01

185

An Internet Portal for the Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background The complexity and quality requirements for the development of clinical practice guidelines steadily increase. Internet technologies support this process by optimizing the development process. Objective The aim of this internet based solution was to facilitate the development of clinical practice guidelines. Methods An internet portal was developed allowing for a shared workplace to support clinical practice guideline authoring. It is based on a Content Management System and combines different tools for document handling and editing, communication as well as process and team steering. Results Until now, the internet portal has been successfully implicated in the development of six evidence- and consensus-based clinical practice guidelines. Additional German and European clinical practice guidelines are currently generated with support of the internet portal. The available tools allow for a flexible design of the scheduled workflow, depending on the requirements of the respective group. An additional strength of the platform is the advantage to transfer all data from a previous version of a guideline into the next ‘life-cycle’. Conclusion The application of the portal results in a considerable reduction of costs and development time of the resulting clinical practice guidelines. PMID:23616852

Höhne, W.J.; Karge, T.; Siegmund, B.; Preiss, J.; Hoffmann, J.C.; Zeitz, M.; Fölsch, U.R.

2010-01-01

186

Investigators’ Perspectives on Translating Human Microbiome Research into Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Human microbiome research has the potential to transform the practice of medicine, fundamentally shifting the ways in which we think not only about human health, illness, and disease, but also about clinical practice and public health interventions. Drawing from a larger qualitative study on ethical, legal, and social dimensions of human microbiome research, in this article we document perspectives related to the translation of human microbiome research into clinical practice, focusing particularly on implications for health, illness, and disease. Methods We conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews (2009–2010) with 63 researchers and National Institutes of Health project leaders (“investigators”) involved with human microbiome research. Interviews explored a range of ethical, legal, and social implications of human microbiome research, including investigators’ perspectives on potential strategies for translating findings to clinical practice. Using thematic content analysis, we identified and analyzed emergent themes and patterns. Results We identified three themes: (1) Investigators’ general perspectives on the clinical utility of human microbiome research, (2) Investigators’ perspectives on antibiotic use, overuse, and misuse, and (3) Investigators’ perspectives concerning future challenges of translating data to clinical practice. Conclusion The issues discussed by investigators concerning the clinical significance of human microbiome research, including embracing a new paradigm of health and disease, the importance of microbial communities, and clinical utility, will be of critical importance as this research moves forward. PMID:23615375

Slashinski, Melody J.; Whitney, Simon N.; Achenbaum, Laura S.; Keitel, Wendy A.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; McGuire, Amy L.

2013-01-01

187

Integration of Evidence-Based Practice into the University Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explains different principles, which can be used for the integration of evidence-based practice into the university clinic. Research literature, systematic reviews and practice guidelines are shown to work as the evidence for the teachers, as well as the students.

Goldstein, Brian A.

2008-01-01

188

[From clinical practice evaluation programme to relevant transfusions].  

PubMed

Clinical practice evaluation programme is now a mandatory process for healthcare institutions. Integrative part of the certification procedures conducted by the French National Health Agency (Haute Autorité de Santé [HAS]), it has became a new major approach to improve both the quality and the safety of healthcare. It concerns also transfusional practices. PMID:21051265

Devie, I

2010-12-01

189

The clinical nurse leader: a response from practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In October 2003, over 200 nurse leaders from education and practice met at the invitation of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. A newly released white paper, describing the role of the clinical nurse leader, was discussed at the conference. This article outlines a response to that white paper from one practice setting. The article shares information about another

Karen Neil Drenkard

2004-01-01

190

ASCPRO Recommendations for the Assessment of Fatigue as an Outcome in Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Context Development of pharmacologic and behavioral interventions for cancer-related fatigue (CRF) requires adequate measures of this symptom. A guidance document from the Food and Drug Administration offers criteria for the formulation and evaluation of patient-reported outcome measures used in clinical trials to support drug or device labeling claims. Methods An independent working group, ASCPRO (Assessing Symptoms of Cancer Using Patient-Reported Outcomes), has begun developing recommendations for the measurement of symptoms in oncology clinical trials. The recommendations of the Fatigue Task Force for measurement of CRF are presented here. Results There was consensus that CRF could be measured effectively in clinical trials as the sensation of fatigue or tiredness, impact of fatigue/tiredness on usual functioning or as both sensation and impact. The ASCPRO Fatigue Task Force constructed a definition and conceptual model to guide measurement of CRF. ASCPRO recommendations do not endorse a specific fatigue measure but clarify how to evaluate and implement fatigue assessments in clinical studies. The selection of a CRF measure should be tailored to the goals of the research. Measurement issues related to various research environments were also discussed. Conclusion There exist in the literature good measures of CRF for clinical trials with strong evidence of clarity and comprehensibility to patients, content and construct validity, reliability, sensitivity to change in conditions in which one would expect them to change (assay sensitivity), and sufficient evidence to establish guides for interpreting changes in scores. Direction for future research is discussed. PMID:20538190

Barsevick, Andrea M.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Manning, Donald C.; O'Mara, Ann M.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Scott, Jane A.; Sloan, Jeff A.

2010-01-01

191

Hernia Surgery: From Guidelines to Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Over the last 30 years, hernia surgery has developed into an evidence-based practice assisted by the development of guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prior to 1993, best practice in the UK was a nylon darn repair under general anaesthesia as an in-patient with prolonged recovery. The publication of The Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCSE) Guidelines on Groin Hernia Repair stimulated debate and coincided with the introduction of mesh hernioplasty and laparoscopic techniques. Further evolution of hernia management has occurred to enable the production of the European Hernia Society (EHS) guidelines in 2008. RESULTS The EHS guidelines cover all aspects of abdominal wall surgery including: indications for operation; investigations; organising surgical care; techniques; local anaesthesia; after-care, complications and outcome; and information for patients. CONCLUSIONS Surgeons have many choices when selecting an appropriate hernia operation for an individual patient. The EHS guidelines provide a basis for this decision-making. PMID:19416585

Kingsnorth, Andrew N

2009-01-01

192

Issues in Clinical Practice With Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various issues are considered in terms of their empirical support and practical utility. DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria seem inappropriate and are largely ignored by researchers; revisions are clearly needed. Assessments of sex offenders characteristically cover cognitions, social difficulties, life-style problems, and sexual deviances. The first three of these areas have generated limited research to date and there is need to expand

W. L. MARSHALL; A. ECCLES

1991-01-01

193

Protocol Page 1 of 2 Clinical Manual -Nursing Practice Manual  

E-print Network

Protocol Page 1 of 2 Clinical Manual - Nursing Practice Manual John Dempsey Hospital ­ Department of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROTOCOL FOR: Sensory Perception, Altered DESIRED PATIENT OUTCOME: CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND CARE: 1. Impaired verbal communication: the patient

Oliver, Douglas L.

194

Digoxin in clinical practice: sorting out the facts.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to sort out from the huge amount of facts related to digoxin in the literature those pertinent to current clinical practice. Seven aspects of digoxin are discussed: its mechanism of action, therapeutic controversy, clinical efficacy, avoidance of toxicity, manifestations of toxicity, indications, and its use in coronary artery disease. PMID:7492463

Doi, S A; Landless, P N

1995-01-01

195

[Hypnotic communication and hypnosis in clinical practice].  

PubMed

In addition to usual medical care it is often critical to consider the patient's inner world in order to sensitively differentiate between harmful and helpful suggestive elements. The respective abilities in terms of hypnotic communication can be easily learned. Confident, empathic attention and a calm, understanding and figurative language narrowing the focus on positive emotions and positive change, which have been shown to improve the patient's chances of healing, are of particular importance. Proper clinical hypnosis goes one step further: it makes explicit use of suggestions, trance, and trance phenomena. The major clinical indications for hypnosis include psychosomatic disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, depression, and pain syndromes. Hypnosis can also be employed as an adjunct for surgical therapy. PMID:24985229

Wehrli, Hans

2014-07-01

196

Everolimus in clinical practice—renal transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everolimus is a proliferation signal inhibitor (PSI)\\/ mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor that is structurally similar to sirolimus, but with a number of important pharmacokinetic differences, including a shorter half-life and time to steady state. In clinical trials, the efficacy of everolimus 1.5 mg\\/day and 3.0 mg\\/day combined with ciclosporin (CsA) and steroids in de novo renal transplant recipients is

Julio Pascual

2006-01-01

197

[Malignant biliary obstruction, general review and clinical practice].  

PubMed

This review recalls the clinical, anatomic, physiopathological and etiological features necessary in the management of patients with neoplastic bile duct obstruction and exposes the current practice concerning endoscopic and radiologic palliative drainage. Clinical practice according to the clinical situations is explained. This review exposes complications management for patients having undergone an endoscopic or percutaneous drainage of the biliary ducts, the particular case of periportal stenosis, the respective indications of endoscopic and transhepatic percutaneous drainage, usual immediate evolution according to the type of the stenosis and the technique used as well as the management in case of stent obstruction. PMID:23644517

Bonnel, Didier; André, Thierry; Mader, Benoît; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Bensoussan, Emmanuel; Liguory, Claude

2013-05-01

198

Dronedarone for atrial fibrillation: the limited reliability of clinical practice guidelines.  

PubMed

Concerns have been expressed about the reliability of clinical practice guidelines. We analyzed 3 guidelines from medical specialty societies about dronedarone hydrochloride, an antiarrhythmic drug related to amiodarone hydrochloride, for treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation. We compared the recommendations in these guidelines with the conclusions about dronedarone that we reached by applying the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Method to the same evidence base. In our analysis, as a rate control drug, dronedarone was better than placebo only for a surrogate outcome (heart rate). As a rhythm control drug, dronedarone was associated with 13 (95% CI, -15 to 61) excess deaths per 1000 patients treated as compared with placebo. Compared with amiodarone, dronedarone was less effective (214 [95% CI, 130 to 294] more recurrences of atrial fibrillation per 1000 patients treated) and similarly tolerated (-28 [95% CI, -69 to 33] more serious adverse events requiring drug suspension per 1000 patients treated). Despite the limits of the evidence, all 3 guidelines recommended dronedarone for prevention of recurrences of atrial fibrillation; 2 of the guidelines recommended it as a rate control agent. Our findings raise questions about the reliability of these clinical practice guidelines, as well as the financial associations between many of the panel members and the manufacturer of dronedarone. PMID:24535046

Iannone, Primiano; Haupt, Enrico; Flego, Gaddo; Truglio, Paola; Minardi, Monica; Clarke, Simon; Magrini, Nicola

2014-04-01

199

[Obsessions before Freud: history and clinical practice].  

PubMed

The article analyses the significance of the concept of "obsession" in nineteenth-century alienism. From a clinical point of view, Esquirol's description was completed by other authors (Jules Falret, Legrand du Saulle). In the area of psychopathological studies, French alienism, with Morel's emotional delirium or Janet's psychasthenia, defended the emotional theory, as opposed to the intellectual disorder proposed by German doctors. Lastly, the importance of the cultural framework is stressed in the appearance of obsessive symptoms and their interpretation. Along these lines, the article discusses the relationship of religious scruples to melancholy or the appearance of diagnostic categories subject to fin de siècle codes and mentalities. PMID:25119249

Huertas, Rafael

2014-12-01

200

An overview of candesartan in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and renal disease. The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 7 defined hypertension as a blood pressure of more than 140/90 mmHg and recommended to initiate treatment with a two-drug combination for stage 2 hypertension (blood pressure of 160-179/100-109 mmHg). The need for drug combinations is clear from a patient and physician perspective as they provide more effective blood pressure lowering, reduce pill burden, improve compliance and decrease hypertension-related morbidity and mortality. Angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy has been proven to be well tolerated and effective in the management of hypertension, chronic heart failure with left ventricular dysfunction and the prevention and progression of diabetic renal disease. Blockers of the renin-angiotensin system are an important component of antihypertensive combination therapy. Thiazide-type diuretics are usually added to increase the blood pressure lowering efficacy. Fixed drug-drug combinations of both principles, such as candesartan/hydrochlorothiazide, are highly effective in lowering blood pressure while providing improved compliance, a good tolerability and largely neutral metabolic profile. In this article, we review the literature for the role of candesartan-based therapy for hypertension, stroke, diabetes mellitus and heart failure. PMID:21878042

Khawaja, Zeeshan; Wilcox, Christopher S

2011-01-01

201

A value-based practice model of rehabilitation: consumers' recommendations in action.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to present a model of rehabilitation practice that is based on the recommendations of consumers who used rehabilitation services and have a life-changing physical impairment (spinal cord injury - SCI). This value-based practice model is based on two qualitative studies. The first study developed the framework (social adaptation) for a new practice model based on values. The second study, described in this paper, used the framework to learn about recommendations for change in the rehabilitation process. Participants in the second study were 80 volunteers who live with a SCI in the community, across the province of Ontario, Canada. A snowball strategy was used to recruit interested participants. Participants were involved in face-to-face interviews which included questions on what helped and hindered their initial rehabilitation process, and their recommendations for change. In this paper, we described a model that demonstrates how consumer input is essential in shaping a comprehensive rehabilitation process. The model is based on overarching value statements that express the worthiness of all individuals, the value of the lived experience of disability and the responsibility of the rehabilitation process to enable client autonomy. Four "values in action" are articulated: caring and respect for the individual and his/her personhood; applying the lived experience of disability; fostering autonomy; and promoting hopefulness. These values have been initially described in another paper based on a specific subset of 15 women living with SCI related to body issues during rehabilitation. This paper builds on this value work and we develop key practices for a progressive rehabilitation culture and model, based on the larger study group of 80 participants (men and women with SCI). This value-based model, when integrated with traditional, physical improvement-focused rehabilitation, has the potential to create a more effective process by offering clients better support as they go through the complex process of re-building their lives and making the transition back to the community. Implications for Rehabilitation We suggest that the Values in the Action Rehabilitation Practice Model that emphasized social adaptation be used along side the physical rehabilitation approach to enhance client-based practice. That peers with disabilities work collaboratively with rehabilitation professionals within a culture that acknowledges and reimburses their knowledge and expertise. Rehabilitation professionals learn about the lived experience of disability and systemic issues by being involved in grass-roots community organizations. PMID:25427892

Yoshida, Karen K; Self, Hazel M; Renwick, Rebecca M; Forma, Laura L; King, Audrey J; Fell, Leslie A

2014-11-27

202

Interferon alpha for the adjuvant treatment of melanoma: review of international literature and practical recommendations from an expert panel on the use of interferon.  

PubMed

The degree to which interferon (IFN) alpha-2b offers real clinical benefits in the adjuvant therapy of melanoma at high risk of recurrence is a subject of debate. This, together with questions over optimal treatment scheme and concerns over toxicity, has limited its clinical use. On the basis of a review of the literature, an Italian Expert Panel has made practical recommendations for a consistent approach in the use of IFN. Although it is clear that more research into predictive factors to identify patients most likely to benefit from adjuvant IFN therapy is required, IFN remains the only currently available adjuvant option for melanoma. Based on meta-analyses of clinical trials, there is clear evidence that treatment with IFN is beneficial with regard to overall and recurrence-free survival (RFS). As such, IFN should be offered to patients who are at high risk of recurrence. Specific recommendations with regard to disease stage are provided. PMID:24621162

Ascierto, Paolo A; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Muggiano, Antonio; Mandalà, Mario; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Del Vecchio, Michele; Rinaldi, Gaetana; Simeone, Ester; Queirolo, Paola

2014-08-01

203

[Antibiotic-associated diarrhea in clinical practice].  

PubMed

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is considered to mean at least 3 shapeless stool episodes within 2 or more consecutive days when using antibacterial agents. Due to the fact that antibiotics are used most commonly to treat many diseases, AAD is one of the topical problems for different clinical specialists. There has recently been increased interest in this condition due to its higher morbidity and mortality rates and the emergence of novel treatment-resistant virulent strains of Clostridium difficile 027 and 078/126. The paper discusses the possible risk of developing AAD depending on the class of the antibiotic used, as well as the mechanisms of its development. Infectious diarrhea most frequently results from bacterial overgrowth due to that the obligate intestinal microflora is suppressed by antibacterial drugs. C. difficile, Clostridium perfringers, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Candida spp. are etiological factors in the development of this diarrhea. The severest intestinal lesions include pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) caused by C. difficile. The clinical and endoscopic picture and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of PMC are described. Therapy for this menacing condition is traditionally based on the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the new drug fidaxomycin whose superiority over vancomycin has been demonstrated by a recurrence criterion. The paper discusses in detail other treatment options, including the use of probiotics. PMID:23653946

Luzina, E V; Lareva, N V

2013-01-01

204

Clinical Practice Guideline for Vitamin D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vitamin D and its metabolites have clinical significance because they play a critical function in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Although not all of the pathologic mechanisms have been adequately described, vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, as measured by low levels of 25-OH vitamin D, are associated with a variety of clinical conditions including osteoporosis, falls and fractures in the elderly, decreased immune function, bone pain, and possibly colon cancer and cardiovascular health.2 Apart from inadequate dietary intake, patients may present with low levels of vitamin D if they receive inadequate sunlight. The astronaut population is potentially vulnerable to low levels of vitamin D for several reasons. Firstly, they may train for long periods in Star City, Russia, which by virtue of its northern latitude receives less sunlight in winter months. Secondly, astronauts are deprived of sunlight while aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In addition, ISS crew members are exposed to microgravity for prolonged durations and are likely to develop low bone mineral density despite the use of countermeasures. Therefore, closely monitoring and maintaining adequate vitamin D levels is important for the astronaut corps.

Tarver, William J.

2013-01-01

205

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline  

PubMed Central

Objective: We developed clinical practice guidelines for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Participants: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Endocrine Society Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS), ten additional clinicians experienced in treating CAH, a methodologist, and a medical writer. Additional experts were also consulted. The authors received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus Process: Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions. The guidelines were reviewed and approved sequentially by The Endocrine Society’s CGS and Clinical Affairs Core Committee, members responding to a web posting, and The Endocrine Society Council. At each stage, the Task Force incorporated changes in response to written comments. Conclusions: We recommend universal newborn screening for severe steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency followed by confirmatory tests. We recommend that prenatal treatment of CAH continue to be regarded as experimental. The diagnosis rests on clinical and hormonal data; genotyping is reserved for equivocal cases and genetic counseling. Glucocorticoid dosage should be minimized to avoid iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome. Mineralocorticoids and, in infants, supplemental sodium are recommended in classic CAH patients. We recommend against the routine use of experimental therapies to promote growth and delay puberty; we suggest patients avoid adrenalectomy. Surgical guidelines emphasize early single-stage genital repair for severely virilized girls, performed by experienced surgeons. Clinicians should consider patients’ quality of life, consulting mental health professionals as appropriate. At the transition to adulthood, we recommend monitoring for potential complications of CAH. Finally, we recommend judicious use of medication during pregnancy and in symptomatic patients with nonclassic CAH. PMID:20823466

Speiser, Phyllis W.; Azziz, Ricardo; Baskin, Laurence S.; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Hensle, Terry W.; Merke, Deborah P.; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; Miller, Walter L.; Montori, Victor M.; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Ritzen, Martin; White, Perrin C.

2010-01-01

206

Innovation in clinical pharmacy practice and opportunities for academic--practice partnership.  

PubMed

Clinical pharmacy has a rich history of advancing practice through innovation. These innovations helped to mold clinical pharmacy into a patient-centered discipline recognized for its contributions to improving medication therapy outcomes. However, innovations in clinical pharmacy practice have now waned. In our view, the growth of academic–practice partnerships could reverse this trend and stimulate innovation among the next generation of pioneering clinical pharmacists. Although collaboration facilitates innovation,academic institutions and health care systems/organizations are not taking full advantage of this opportunity. The academic–practice partnership can be optimized by making both partners accountable for the desired outcomes of their collaboration, fostering symbiotic relationships that promote value-added clinical pharmacy services and emphasizing continuous quality improvement in the delivery of these services. Optimizing academic–practice collaboration on a broader scale requires both partners to adopt a culture that provides for dedicated time to pursue innovation, establishes mechanisms to incubate ideas, recognizes where motivation and vision align, and supports the purpose of the partnership. With appropriate leadership and support, a shift in current professional education and training practices, and a commitment to cultivate future innovators, the academic–practice partnership can develop new and innovative practice advancements that will improve patient outcomes. PMID:24877189

Gubbins, Paul O; Micek, Scott T; Badowski, Melissa; Cheng, Judy; Gallagher, Jason; Johnson, Samuel G; Karnes, Jason H; Lyons, Kayley; Moore, Katherine G; Strnad, Kyle

2014-05-01

207

The nocebo effect and its relevance for clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Negative expectations deriving from the clinical encounter can produce negative outcomes, known as nocebo effects. Specifically, research on the nocebo effect indicates that information disclosure about potential side effects can itself contribute to producing adverse effects. Neurobiological processes play a role in the nocebo effect and this paper provides a selective review of mechanistic research on the nocebo effect. Comparatively little attention has been directed to clinical studies and their implications for daily clinical practice. The nocebo response is influenced by the content and the way information is presented to patients in clinical trials in both the placebo as well as active treatment conditions. Nocebo effect adversely influences quality of life and therapy adherence, emphasizing the need for minimizing these responses to the extent possible. Evidence further indicates that the informed consent process in clinical trials may induce nocebo effects. This paper concludes with ethical directions for future patient-oriented research and routine practice. PMID:21862825

Colloca, Luana; Miller, Franklin G.

2011-01-01

208

Clinical practice: swallowing problems in cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in early childhood. The worldwide prevalence of CP is approximately 2-2.5 per 1,000 live births. It has been clinically defined as a group of motor, cognitive, and perceptive impairments secondary to a non-progressive defect or lesion of the developing brain. Children with CP can have swallowing problems with severe drooling as one of the consequences. Malnutrition and recurrent aspiration pneumonia can increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Early attention should be given to dysphagia and excessive drooling and their substantial contribution to the burden of a child with CP and his/her family. This review displays the important functional and anatomical issues related to swallowing problems in children with CP based on relevant literature and expert opinion. Furthermore, based on our experience, we describe a plan for approach of investigation and treatment of swallowing problems in cerebral palsy. PMID:21932013

Erasmus, Corrie E; van Hulst, Karen; Rotteveel, Jan J; Willemsen, Michel A A P; Jongerius, Peter H

2012-03-01

209

A burn formula in clinical practice.  

PubMed Central

In a retrospective review of the 10-year period 1969-78 the intravenous plasma loads given to patients admitted to one burn centre were studied and compared with the volumes predicted by the formula used at that centre. Of 1728 patients admitted 342 (19.8%) received intravenous resuscitation with plasma. The formula appeared to be a good empirical guide to transfusion needs in the 36 h after burning. Patients with burns in excess of 45% body surface area (BSA), and particularly children, were likely to require more fluid than that indicated by the formula estimate. However, as burns in excess of 50% BSA are uncommon (50/1728 admissions) it seems reasonable to use a formula which is a guide to the probable needs of most patients while accepting the clinical response as the best means of assessing the actual fluid need of each patient, especially those with extensive injury. PMID:7247262

Griffiths, R. W.; Laing, J. E.

1981-01-01

210

Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interdisciplinary rehabilitation of chronic nonmalignant pain syndrome patients.  

PubMed

This is an update to evidence-based practice guidelines for chronic nonmalignant pain syndrome patients first published in 1995 and revised in 1999. The current guidelines recommend interdisciplinary-focused rehabilitation, which is goal-directed and time-limited. Emphasis is placed on educating patients in active self-management techniques that stress maximizing function. Integrated treatment involving medical, psychological/behavioral, physical/occupational therapy, and disability/vocational interventions are recommended on an outpatient basis whenever clinically possible. Patient selection criteria are delineated. Updated references providing evidence-based support for the recommendations are provided, including the use of opioids and sedative-hypnotic medications, injection and block procedures, acupuncture, implantable spinal infusion and stimulation devices, and other invasive spinal surgery procedures such as intradiscal electrothermal therapy. Guideline integration and early detection and intervention with chronic pain syndrome patients are encouraged. PMID:17177763

Sanders, Steven H; Harden, R Norman; Vicente, Peter J

2005-12-01

211

Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Medical and Surgical Management of Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Korea  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this clinical practice guideline (CPG) is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the medical and surgical management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Since the release of the first Korean CPGs for stroke, evidence has been accumulated in the management of ICH, such as intracranial pressure control and minimally invasive surgery, and it needs to be reflected in the updated version. The Quality Control Committee at the Korean Society of cerebrovascular Surgeons and the Writing Group at the Clinical Research Center for Stroke (CRCS) systematically reviewed relevant literature and major published guidelines between June 2007 and June 2013. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence and the grade of the recommendation were determined using the methods adapted from CRCS. A draft guideline was scrutinized by expert peer reviewers and also discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. CPGs based on scientific evidence are presented for the medical and surgical management of patients presenting with primary ICH. This CPG describes the current pertinent recommendations and suggests Korean recommendations for the medical and surgical management of a patient with primary ICH. PMID:25368758

Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Seo, Dae-Hee; Park, Sukh-Que; Sheen, Seung Hun; Park, Hyun Sun; Kang, Sung Don; Kim, Jae Min; Oh, Chang Wan; Hong, Keun-Sik; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kwon, Sun-Uck; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Park, In Sung; Rha, Joung-Ho

2014-01-01

212

Approved Clinical Instructors' Perspectives on Implementation Strategies in Evidence-Based Practice for Athletic Training Students  

PubMed Central

Context: Understanding implementation strategies of Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs) who use evidence-based practice (EBP) in clinical instruction will help promote the use of EBP in clinical practice. Objective: To examine the perspectives and experiences of ACIs using EBP concepts in undergraduate athletic training education programs to determine the importance of using these concepts in clinical practice, clinical EBP implementation strategies for students, and challenges of implementing EBP into clinical practice while mentoring and teaching their students. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Telephone interviews. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen ACIs (11 men, 5 women; experience as a certified athletic trainer = 10 ± 4.7 years, experience as an ACI = 6.8 ± 3.9 years) were interviewed. Data Collection and Analysis: We interviewed each participant by telephone. Interview transcripts were analyzed and coded for common themes and subthemes regarding implementation strategies. Established themes were triangulated through peer review and member checking to verify the data. Results: The ACIs identified EBP implementation as important for validation of the profession, changing paradigm shift, improving patient care, and improving student educational experiences. They promoted 3 methods of implementing EBP concepts with their students: self-discovery, promoting critical thinking, and sharing information. They assisted students with the steps of EBP and often faced challenges in implementation of the first 3 steps of EBP: defining a clinical question, literature searching, and literature appraisal. Finally, ACIs indicated that modeling the behavior of making clinical decisions based on evidence was the best way to encourage students to continue using EBP. Conclusions: Athletic training education program directors should encourage and recommend specific techniques for EBP implementation in the clinical setting. The ACIs believed that role modeling is a strategy that can be used to promote the use of EBP with students. Training of ACIs should include methods by which to address the steps of the EBP process while still promoting critical thinking. PMID:22488192

Hankemeier, Dorice A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.

2011-01-01

213

Consensus-based recommendations for investigating clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Background Critics of systematic reviews have argued that these studies often fail to inform clinical decision making because their results are far too general, that the data are sparse, such that findings cannot be applied to individual patients or for other decision making. While there is some consensus on methods for investigating statistical and methodological heterogeneity, little attention has been paid to clinical aspects of heterogeneity. Clinical heterogeneity, true effect heterogeneity, can be defined as variability among studies in the participants, the types or timing of outcome measurements, and the intervention characteristics. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for investigating clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews. Methods We used a modified Delphi technique with three phases: (1) pre-meeting item generation; (2) face-to-face consensus meeting in the form of a modified Delphi process; and (3) post-meeting feedback. We identified and invited potential participants with expertise in systematic review methodology, systematic review reporting, or statistical aspects of meta-analyses, or those who published papers on clinical heterogeneity. Results Between April and June of 2011, we conducted phone calls with participants. In June 2011 we held the face-to-face focus group meeting in Ann Arbor, Michigan. First, we agreed upon a definition of clinical heterogeneity: Variations in the treatment effect that are due to differences in clinically related characteristics. Next, we discussed and generated recommendations in the following 12 categories related to investigating clinical heterogeneity: the systematic review team, planning investigations, rationale for choice of variables, types of clinical variables, the role of statistical heterogeneity, the use of plotting and visual aids, dealing with outlier studies, the number of investigations or variables, the role of the best evidence synthesis, types of statistical methods, the interpretation of findings, and reporting. Conclusions Clinical heterogeneity is common in systematic reviews. Our recommendations can help guide systematic reviewers in conducting valid and reliable investigations of clinical heterogeneity. Findings of these investigations may allow for increased applicability of findings of systematic reviews to the management of individual patients. PMID:24004523

2013-01-01

214

Assessment in the Service of Teaching and Learning: Changes in Practice Enabled by Recommended Changes in Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes major points about the transformation of educational assessment that emerged from the work of Gordon Commission and it presents recommendations to different stakeholders as to needed changes in policy, practice, and research and development.

Pellegrino, James W.

2014-01-01

215

Impact of Pathology Practice on Outcome in Published Studies of DCIS. Recommendations for a Uniform Pathology Protocol  

Cancer.gov

Impact of Pathology Practice on Outcome in Published Studies of DCIS. Recommendations for a Uniform Pathology Protocol Michael D. Lagios The Breast Cancer Consultation Service Tiburon, CA Prognostic Factors for Local Recurrence • Grade • Size (extent

216

HIV-1 tropism testing and clinical management of CCR5 antagonists: Quebec review and recommendations  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 tropism assays play a crucial role in determining the response to CCR5 receptor antagonists. Initially, phenotypic tests were used, but limited access to these tests prompted the development of alternative strategies. Recently, genotyping tropism has been validated using a Canadian technology in clinical trials investigating the use of maraviroc in both experienced and treatment-naive patients. The present guidelines review the evidence supporting the use of genotypic assays and provide recommendations regarding tropism testing in daily clinical management. PMID:24489562

Tremblay, Cécile; Hardy, Isabelle; Lalonde, Richard; Trottier, Benoit; Tsarevsky, Irina; Vézina, Louis-Philippe; Roger, Michel; Wainberg, Mark; Baril, Jean-Guy

2013-01-01

217

Clinical Implications of Numeracy: Theory and Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Low numeracy is pervasive and constrains informed patient choice, reduces medication compliance, limits access to treatments, impairs risk communication, and affects medical outcomes; therefore, it is incumbent upon providers to minimize its adverse effects. Purpose We provide an overview of research on health numeracy and discuss its implications in clinical contexts. Conclusions Low numeracy cannot be reliably inferred on the basis of patients’ education, intelligence, or other observable characteristics. Objective and subjective assessments of numeracy are available in short forms and could be used to tailor health communication. Low scorers on these assessments are subject to cognitive biases, irrelevant cues (e.g., mood), and sharper temporal discounting. Because prevention of the leading causes of death (e.g., cancer and cardiovascular disease) depends on taking action now to prevent serious consequences later, those low in numeracy are likely to require more explanation of risk to engage in prevention behaviors. Visual displays can be used to make numerical relations more transparent, and different types of displays have different effects (e.g., greater risk avoidance). Ironically, superior quantitative processing seems to be achieved by focusing on qualitative gist and affective meaning, which has important implications for empowering patients to take advantage of the evidence in evidence-based medicine. PMID:18677452

Reyna, Valerie F.; Fagerlin, Angela; Lipkus, Isaac; Peters, Ellen

2013-01-01

218

Placebos in clinical practice and research.  

PubMed Central

The main current application of placebo is in clinical research. The term placebo effect refers to diverse non-specific, desired or non-desired effects of substances or procedures and interactions between patient and therapist. Unpredictability of the placebo effect necessitates placebo-controlled designs for most trials. Therapeutic and diagnostic use of placebo is ethically acceptable only in few well-defined cases. While "therapeutic" application of placebo almost invariably implies deception, this is not the case for its use in research. Conflicts may exist between the therapist's Hippocratic and scientific obligations. The authors provide examples in neuropsychiatry, illustrating that objective scientific data and well-considered guidelines may solve the ethical dilemma. Placebo control might even be considered an ethical obligation but some provisos should be kept in mind: (a) no adequate therapy for the disease should exist and/or (presumed) active therapy should have serious side-effects; (b) placebo treatment should not last too long; (c) placebo treatment should not inflict unacceptable risks, and (d) the experimental subject should be adequately informed and informed consent given. PMID:8798935

De Deyn, P P; D'Hooge, R

1996-01-01

219

Reconciling Multiple Hypertension Guidelines to Promote Effective Clinical Practice.  

PubMed

The new Joint National Committee 8 (JNC-8) blood pressure guidelines were recently published, and there are some major changes from JNC-7. There are also differences between JNC-8 and hypertension guidelines created by major organizations in North America and around the world published from 2013 to the present. In the face of conflicting evidence, it is difficult for practicing clinicians to reconcile these differences and to incorporate new guidance into their practice. This commentary will identify similarities and differences between guidelines, provide some literature context in the areas of differing recommendations, and then provide advice to enhance patient care. PMID:24951309

Salvo, Marissa; White, C Michael

2014-06-20

220

PRACTICAL HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE—Preparation and Clinical Use*  

PubMed Central

Human growth hormone was prepared from acetone-dried pituitary powder by hot glacial acetic acid extraction and subsequent precipitation by sodium chloride and cold acetone. The yield was 13 per cent and the preparation was called practical growth hormone in recognition of its complement of corticotropin. Treatment of two dwarfs with practical growth hormone in aqueous solution, 1 or 2 mg intramuscularly on alternate days, accelerated the growth rate and there were no physical signs or laboratory indications of adrenal stimulation or other adverse effects. The preparation is recommended for its safety, simplicity and relatively good yield. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:14131399

Vanderlaan, W. P.; Lewis, U. J.; Jones, A. E.; Fisher, J. N.

1964-01-01

221

Replacing manual sphygmomanometers with automated blood pressure measurement in routine clinical practice.  

PubMed

1. Conventional manual measurement of blood pressure (BP) in clinical practice is no longer considered to be the best method for evaluating a patient's BP status. Home BP and 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring are now recommended for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. ?2. Recent studies provide an alternative to conventional office BP, namely automated office (AO) BP, which involves multiple BP readings taken with a fully automated device with the patient resting quietly alone. Automated office BP is preferable to routine manual office BP in that it exhibits improved accuracy and a stronger relationship to both ambulatory BP and target organ damage. 3. Having the patient alone eliminates conversation between the patient and the observer, a cause of 'white coat hypertension'. The use of an automated device improves accuracy, reduces digit preference, minimizes observer bias and facilitates the recording of multiple BP readings. ?4. Comparative BP data obtained in clinical studies in both research settings and routine community practice support the use of a cut-off point of 135/85 mmHg for defining hypertension using AOBP, which is the same cut-off point currently recommended for awake ambulatory BP and home BP. 5. Reduction of the white coat response using AOBP should reduce the need to monitor patients with ambulatory BP and home BP after initiation of antihypertensive therapy. There is now sufficient evidence to consider replacing manual office BP with AOBP in routine clinical practice. PMID:23819734

Myers, Martin G

2014-01-01

222

Heterogeneity in head and neck IMRT target design and clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess patterns of H&N IMRT practice with particular emphasis on elective target delineation. Materials and methods Twenty institutions with established H&N IMRT expertise were solicited to design clinical target volumes for the identical H&N cancer case. To limit contouring variability, a primary tonsil GTV and ipsilateral level II node were pre-contoured. Participants were asked to accept this GTV, and contour their recommended CTV and PTV. Dose prescriptions, contouring time, and recommendations regarding chemotherapy were solicited. Results All 20 institutions responded. Remarkable heterogeneity in H&N IMRT design and practice was identified. Seventeen of 20 centers recommended treatment of bilateral necks whereas 3/20 recommended treatment of the ipsilateral neck only. The average CTV volume was 250 cm3 (range 37–676 cm3). Although there was high concordance in coverage of ipsilateral neck levels II and III, substantial variation was identified for levels I, V, and the contralateral neck. Average CTV expansion was 4.1 mm (range 0–15 mm). Eight of 20 centers recommended chemotherapy (cisplatin), whereas 12/20 recommended radiation alone. Responders prescribed on average 69 and 68 Gy to the tumor and metastatic node GTV, respectively. Average H&N target volume contouring time was 102.5 min (range 60–210 min). Conclusion This study identifies substantial heterogeneity in H&N IMRT target definition, prescription, neck treatment, and use of chemotherapy among practitioners with established H&N IMRT expertise. These data suggest that continued efforts to standardize and simplify the H&N IMRT process are desirable for the safe and effective global advancement of H&N IMRT practice. PMID:22405806

Hong, Theodore S.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.; Harari, Paul M.

2013-01-01

223

Contact Precautions for Multidrug-Resistant Organisms (MDROs): Current Recommendations and Actual Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Contact precautions are recommended for interactions with patients colonized/infected with multidrug-resistant organisms; however, rates of contact precautions practice are unknown. Methods Observers recorded the availability of supplies and staff/visitor adherence to contact precautions at rooms of patients indicated for contact precautions. Data were collected at three sites in a New York City hospital network. Results Contact precautions signs were present for 85.4% of indicated patients. The largest proportions were indicated for isolation for vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cultures. Isolation carts were available outside 93.7-96.7% of rooms displaying signs, and personal protective equipment was available at rates of 49.4-72.1% for gloves (all sizes: small, medium, and large) and 91.7-95.2% for gowns. Overall adherence rates upon room entry and exit, respectively, were 19.4% and 48.4% for hand hygiene, 67.5% and 63.5% for gloves, and 67.9% and 77.1% for gowns. Adherence was significantly better in intensive care units (p<0.05) and by patient-care staff (p<0.05), and patient-care staff compliance with one contact precautions behavior was predictive of adherence to additional behaviors (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings support the recommendation that methods to monitor contact precautions and identify and correct non-adherent practices should be a standard component of infection prevention and control programs. PMID:19913329

Clock, Sarah A.; Cohen, Bevin; Behta, Maryam; Ross, Barbara; Larson, Elaine L.

2009-01-01

224

Clinical Practice Guideline Management Information Systems: Cancer Guidelines as Boundary Spanning Tranformable Objects of Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper elaborates on the concept of transformable boundary artifacts and their role in fostering knowledge-based work in cross-organization virtual communities of practice. The domain of investigation is clinical practice guidelines development for cancer. By reviewing the social worlds involved, we claim that guideline development is a boundary spanning activity which can be facilitated through social networking tools of a

Demosthenes Akoumianakis; Giannis Milolidakis; Anargyros Akrivos; Zacharias Panteris; Giorgos Ktistakis

2010-01-01

225

Nurses' clinical reasoning: processes and practices of medication safety.  

PubMed

In this article, we describe the depth of knowledge and skill nurses used in making decisions regarding the safe processes and practices of medication administration. Using grounded theory, we identified the essence of medication safety by nurses as the theme of clinical reasoning. Nurses used two medication safety processes within the clinical reasoning theme-maintaining medication safety and managing the environment-together with six categories of patient-focused medication safety practices in the first process and four categories of environmental-focused safety practices within the second process. These processes and practices present an emerging model of safe medication administration developed from the narratives of 50 medical-surgical nurses. This model provides researchers with the basis for the development of systemic policies for safer medication administration for patients. Health care professional educators might also find the results useful in developing curricula focused on patient safety as the foundation of quality care. PMID:21873283

Dickson, Geri L; Flynn, Linda

2012-01-01

226

Evidence-based practice: a model for clinical application.  

PubMed

Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care. Published meta-analyses and systematic reviews provide clear, unbiased evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions. Yet translating the interventions into the practice setting requires additional clinical skills and judgments extending beyond the scientific assessment of the EBP literature. Effective use of EBP interventions requires clinicians effectively answering an additional set of questions specific to the case and clinical context. These questions focus on correctly identifying the problem and increased level of specificity for any given situation. Using a clinical application of the PICO model, the clinician and the patient should be able to achieve a higher level of clinical outcomes. PMID:23950547

Rice, Michael J

2013-01-01

227

Pain After Spinal Cord Injury: An Evidence-based Review for Clinical Practice and Research  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives: To examine the reliability, validity, sensitivity, and practicality of various outcome measures for pain after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to provide recommendations for specific measures for use in clinical trials. Data Sources: Relevant articles were obtained through a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PubMed databases from inception through 2006. Study Selection: The authors performed literature searches to find articles containing data relevant to the reliability and validity of each pain outcome measure in SCI and selected non-SCI populations. Data Extraction: After reviewing the articles, an investigator extracted information utilizing a standard template. A second investigator reviewed the chosen articles and the extracted pertinent information to confirm the findings of the first investigator. Data Synthesis: Taking into consideration both the quantity and quality of the studies analyzed, judgments on reliability and validity of the measures were made by the two investigators. Based upon these judgments, recommendations were formulated for use of specific measures in future clinical trials. In addition, for a subset of measures a voting process by a larger group of SCI experts allowed formulation of recommendations including determining which measures should be incorporated into a minimal dataset of measures for clinical trials and which ones need revision and further validity and reliability testing before use. Conclusions: A 0–10 Point Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) is recommended as the outcome measure for pain intensity after SCI, while the 7-Point Guy/Farrar Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scale is recommended as the outcome measure for global improvement in pain. The SF-36 single pain interference question and the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) or Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) pain interference items are recommended as the outcome measures for pain interference after SCI. Brush or cotton wool and at least one high-threshold von Frey filament are recommended to test mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia while a Peltier-type thermotester is recommended to test thermal allodynia/hyperalgesia. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) or Bryce-Ragnarsson pain taxonomies are recommended for classification of pain after SCI, while the Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS) is recommended for measuring change in neuropathic pain and the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) for quantitating neuropathic and nociceptive pain discrimination. PMID:18092558

Bryce, Thomas N; Budh, Cecilia Norrbrink; Cardenas, Diana D; Dijkers, Marcel; Felix, Elizabeth R; Finnerup, Nanna B; Kennedy, Paul; Lundeberg, Thomas; Richards, J. Scott; Rintala, Diana H; Siddall, Philip; Widerstrom-Noga, Eva

2007-01-01

228

Recommendations for incorporating patient-reported outcomes into clinical comparative effectiveness research in adult oncology.  

PubMed

Examining the patient's subjective experience in prospective clinical comparative effectiveness research (CER) of oncology treatments or process interventions is essential for informing decision making. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are the standard tools for directly eliciting the patient experience. There are currently no widely accepted standards for developing or implementing PRO measures in CER. Recommendations for the design and implementation of PRO measures in CER were developed via a standardized process including multistakeholder interviews, a technical working group, and public comments. Key recommendations are to include assessment of patient-reported symptoms as well as health-related quality of life in all prospective clinical CER studies in adult oncology; to identify symptoms relevant to a particular study population and context based on literature review and/or qualitative and quantitative methods; to assure that PRO measures used are valid, reliable, and sensitive in a comparable population (measures particularly recommended include EORTC QLQ-C30, FACT, MDASI, PRO-CTCAE, and PROMIS); to collect PRO data electronically whenever possible; to employ methods that minimize missing patient reports and include a plan for analyzing and reporting missing PRO data; to report the proportion of responders and cumulative distribution of responses in addition to mean changes in scores; and to publish results of PRO analyses simultaneously with other clinical outcomes. Twelve core symptoms are recommended for consideration in studies in advanced or metastatic cancers. Adherence to methodologic standards for the selection, implementation, and analysis/reporting of PRO measures will lead to an understanding of the patient experience that informs better decisions by patients, providers, regulators, and payers. PMID:23071244

Basch, Ethan; Abernethy, Amy P; Mullins, C Daniel; Reeve, Bryce B; Smith, Mary Lou; Coons, Stephen Joel; Sloan, Jeff; Wenzel, Keith; Chauhan, Cynthia; Eppard, Wayland; Frank, Elizabeth S; Lipscomb, Joseph; Raymond, Stephen A; Spencer, Merianne; Tunis, Sean

2012-12-01

229

A Comparison of the Effects of Computer and Manual Reminders on Compliance with a Mental Health Clinical Practice Guideline  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the relative effectiveness of computer and manual reminder systems on the implementation of a clinical practice guideline.DesignSeventy-eight outpatients in a mental health clinic were randomly assigned within clinician to one of the two reminder systems. The computer system, called CaseWalker, reminded clinicians when guideline-recommended screening for mood disorder was due, ensured the fidelity of the diagnosis of major

Dale S Cannon; Steven N Allen

2000-01-01

230

The heterogeneity of clinical practice patterns among an international cohort of pulmonary arterial hypertension experts.  

PubMed

The extent to which pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) experts share common practice patterns that are in alignment with published expert consensus recommendations is unknown. Our objective was to characterize the clinical management strategies used by an international cohort of self-identified PAH experts. A 32-item questionnaire composed mainly of rank order or Likert scale questions was distributed via the Internet (August 5, 2013, through January 20, 2014) to four international pulmonary vascular disease organizations. The survey respondents (N = 105) were field experts reporting 11.6 ± 8.7 years of PAH experience. Likert scale responses (1 = disagree, 7 = agree) were 3.0-5.0, indicating a disparity in opinions, for 78% of questions. Respondent (dis)agreement scores were 4.4 ± 2.2 for use of expert recommendations to determine catheterization timing in PAH. For PAH patients without cardiogenic shock or known vasoreactivity status, the most and least preferred first-line therapies (1 = most preferred, 5 = least preferred) were phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE-Vi) and subcutaneous prostacyclin analogues, respectively (1.4 ± 0.8 vs. 4.0 ± 1.1; P < 0.05). Compared with US-practicing clinicians (N = 46), non-US-practicing clinicians (N = 57) favored collaboration between cardiology and pulmonary medicine for clinical decision making (1 = disagree, 7 = agree; 3.1 ± 2.2 vs. 4.8 ± 2.2; P < 0.0001) and PDE-Vi (6.5% vs. 22.4%) as first-line therapy for PAH patients with cardiogenic shock but were less likely to perform vasoreactivity testing in patients with lung disease-induced pulmonary hypertension (4.3 ± 2.1 vs. 2.2 ± 1.6; P < 0.0001). In conclusion, practice patterns among PAH experts diverge from consensus recommendations and differ by practice location, suggesting that opportunity may exist to improve care quality for this highly morbid cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:25621157

Ryan, John J; Butrous, Ghazwan; Maron, Bradley A

2014-09-01

231

Results from the national sepsis practice survey: predictions about mortality and morbidity and recommendations for limitation of care orders  

PubMed Central

Introduction Critically ill patients and families rely upon physicians to provide estimates of prognosis and recommendations for care. Little is known about patient and clinician factors which influence these predictions. The association between these predictions and recommendations for continued aggressive care is also understudied. Methods We administered a mail-based survey with simulated clinical vignettes to a random sample of the Critical Care Assembly of the American Thoracic Society. Vignettes represented a patient with septic shock with multi-organ failure with identical APACHE II scores and sepsis-associated organ failures. Vignettes varied by age (50 or 70 years old), body mass index (BMI) (normal or obese) and co-morbidities (none or recently diagnosed stage IIA lung cancer). All subjects received the vignettes with the highest and lowest mortality predictions from pilot testing and two additional, randomly selected vignettes. Respondents estimated outcomes and selected care for each hypothetical patient. Results Despite identical severity of illness, the range of estimates for hospital mortality (5th to 95th percentile range, 17% to 78%) and for problems with self-care (5th to 95th percentile range, 2% to 74%) was wide. Similar variation was observed when clinical factors (age, BMI, and co-morbidities) were identical. Estimates of hospital mortality and problems with self-care among survivors were significantly higher in vignettes with obese BMIs (4.3% and 5.3% higher, respectively), older age (8.2% and 11.6% higher, respectively), and cancer diagnosis (5.9% and 6.9% higher, respectively). Higher estimates of mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.29 per 10% increase in predicted mortality), perceived problems with self-care (adjusted odds ratio 1.26 per 10% increase in predicted problems with self-care), and early-stage lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio 5.82) were independently associated with recommendations to limit care. Conclusions The studied clinical factors were consistently associated with poorer outcome predictions but did not explain the variation in prognoses offered by experienced physicians. These observations raise concern that provided information and the resulting decisions about continued aggressive care may be influenced by individual physician perception. To provide more reliable and accurate estimates of outcomes, tools are needed which incorporate patient characteristics and preferences with physician predictions and practices. PMID:19549300

O'Brien, James M; Aberegg, Scott K; Ali, Naeem A; Diette, Gregory B; Lemeshow, Stanley

2009-01-01

232

Link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary artery disease: implication for clinical practice.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are global epidemics that incur significant morbidity and mortality. These diseases are frequently found in combination, and they can also be found independent of the common causal factors, primarily smoking. Both conditions are systemic disorders with overlapping mechanisms and pathophysiologic processes. CAD has a strong effect on the severity and prognosis of COPD and vice versa, including acute exacerbations. Even the most recent practical clinical recommendations driven by Clinical Practice Guidelines still focus on one disease at a time, and do not provide advice for the management of patients with associated chronic conditions. COPD should be approached in a more comprehensive manner, including the treatment of cardiac comorbidities, particularly CAD. To focus treatment on these comorbidities might modify the natural course of the disease in patients with COPD who may not find relief from treatment of COPD alone. PMID:22142519

Boschetto, Piera; Beghé, Bianca; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Ceconi, Claudio

2012-04-01

233

Classification and clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome: recommendations of recent evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines.  

PubMed

Objectives. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), characterized by subjective complaints without physical or biomarker abnormality, courts controversy. Recommendations in recent guidelines addressing classification and diagnosis were examined for consistencies or differences. Methods. Systematic searches from January 2008 to February 2013 of the US-American National Guideline Clearing House, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, Guidelines International Network, and Medline for evidence-based guidelines for the management of FMS were conducted. Results. Three evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines, independently developed in Canada, Germany, and Israel, recommended that FMS can be clinically diagnosed by a typical cluster of symptoms following a defined evaluation including history, physical examination, and selected laboratory tests, to exclude another somatic disease. Specialist referral is only recommended when some other physical or mental illness is reasonably suspected. The diagnosis can be based on the (modified) preliminary American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010 diagnostic criteria. Discussion. Guidelines from three continents showed remarkable consistency regarding the clinical concept of FMS, acknowledging that FMS is neither a distinct rheumatic nor mental disorder, but rather a cluster of symptoms, not explained by another somatic disease. While FMS remains an integral part of rheumatology, it is not an exclusive rheumatic condition and spans a broad range of medical disciplines. PMID:24379886

Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Shir, Yoram; Ablin, Jacob N; Buskila, Dan; Amital, Howard; Henningsen, Peter; Häuser, Winfried

2013-01-01

234

Classification and Clinical Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Recommendations of Recent Evidence-Based Interdisciplinary Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), characterized by subjective complaints without physical or biomarker abnormality, courts controversy. Recommendations in recent guidelines addressing classification and diagnosis were examined for consistencies or differences. Methods. Systematic searches from January 2008 to February 2013 of the US-American National Guideline Clearing House, the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, Guidelines International Network, and Medline for evidence-based guidelines for the management of FMS were conducted. Results. Three evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines, independently developed in Canada, Germany, and Israel, recommended that FMS can be clinically diagnosed by a typical cluster of symptoms following a defined evaluation including history, physical examination, and selected laboratory tests, to exclude another somatic disease. Specialist referral is only recommended when some other physical or mental illness is reasonably suspected. The diagnosis can be based on the (modified) preliminary American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010 diagnostic criteria. Discussion. Guidelines from three continents showed remarkable consistency regarding the clinical concept of FMS, acknowledging that FMS is neither a distinct rheumatic nor mental disorder, but rather a cluster of symptoms, not explained by another somatic disease. While FMS remains an integral part of rheumatology, it is not an exclusive rheumatic condition and spans a broad range of medical disciplines. PMID:24379886

Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Shir, Yoram; Ablin, Jacob N.; Buskila, Dan; Henningsen, Peter

2013-01-01

235

Clinical nutrition guidelines of the French Speaking Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (SFNEP): Summary of recommendations for adults undergoing non-surgical anticancer treatment.  

PubMed

Up to 50% of patients with cancer suffer from weight loss and undernutrition (as called cachexia) even though it is rarely screened or properly handled. Patients' prognosis and quality of life could be greatly improved by simple and inexpensive means encompassing nutritional status assessment and effective nutritional care. These guidelines aim to give health professionals and patients practical and up-to-date advice to manage nutrition in the principal situations encountered during the cancer course according to the type of tumour and treatment (i.e. radio and/or chemotherapy). Specific suggestions are made for palliative and elderly patients because of specific risks of undernutrition and related comorbidities in this subset. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendations are detailed as stated by current literature and consensus opinion of clinical experts in each field. PMID:24794790

2014-08-01

236

Guidance on How to Move from Current Practice to Recommended Practice in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative Publication)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides guidance on how to move from current practice to recommended practice in Life Cycle Impact Assessment. It is composed of three complementary parts elaborated in the first task force (TFI) of the LCIA programme, with contribution of the other three task forces:...

237

Coordination of Scheduling Clinical Externship or Clinical Practice Experiences for Students in Physical Therapy Educational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project to coordinate the scheduling of allied health occupations students for clinical practice or externship experiences in Southeast Florida is described. A model clinical facility utilization and time schedule matrix was developed for four programs: the physical therapy programs at Florida International University (FIU) and the University of…

Patterson, Robert K.; Kass, Susan H.

238

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 3 Clinical Manual Nursing Practice Manual  

E-print Network

staff as they work with the patient, family and interdisciplinary team to: a. Plan the patient's careClinical Procedure Page 1 of 3 Clinical Manual ­ Nursing Practice Manual John Dempsey Hospital ­ Department of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROCEDURE FOR: Documentation: Patient Care

Oliver, Douglas L.

239

Reflections on Speech-Language Therapists' Talk: Implications for Clinical Practice and Education. Clinical Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research into the practices of speech-language therapists in clinical sessions is beginning to identify the way communication in clinical interactions both facilitates and potentially impedes the achievement of therapy goals. Aims: This target article aims to raise the issues that arise from critical reflections on the communication of…

Ferguson, Alison; Armstrong, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

240

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 3 Clinical Manual / Nursing Practice Manual  

E-print Network

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 3 Clinical Manual / Nursing Practice Manual John Dempsey Hospital will be queried as to their current possession of personal medications. 2. All patients will be instructed on a daily basis, to be kept in Pyxis. 7. The physician/practitioner must write an order to allow use

Oliver, Douglas L.

241

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 3 Clinical Manual / Nursing Practice Manual  

E-print Network

Clinical Procedure Page 1 of 3 Clinical Manual / Nursing Practice Manual John Dempsey Hospital ­ Department of Nursing The University of Connecticut Health Center PROCEDURE FOR: Assessment: Scope of Nursing Physical Assessment: Adult Inpatient POLICY: 1. The scope of nursing care as well as the process utilized

Oliver, Douglas L.

242

Prototypes for Content-Based Image Retrieval in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has been proposed as key technology for computer-aided diagnostics (CAD). This paper reviews the state of the art and future challenges in CBIR for CAD applied to clinical practice. We define applicability to clinical practice by having recently demonstrated the CBIR system on one of the CAD demonstration workshops held at international conferences, such as SPIE Medical Imaging, CARS, SIIM, RSNA, and IEEE ISBI. From 2009 to 2011, the programs of CADdemo@CARS and the CAD Demonstration Workshop at SPIE Medical Imaging were sought for the key word “retrieval” in the title. The systems identified were analyzed and compared according to the hierarchy of gaps for CBIR systems. In total, 70 software demonstrations were analyzed. 5 systems were identified meeting the criterions. The fields of application are (i) bone age assessment, (ii) bone fractures, (iii) interstitial lung diseases, and (iv) mammography. Bridging the particular gaps of semantics, feature extraction, feature structure, and evaluation have been addressed most frequently. In specific application domains, CBIR technology is available for clinical practice. While system development has mainly focused on bridging content and feature gaps, performance and usability have become increasingly important. The evaluation must be based on a larger set of reference data, and workflow integration must be achieved before CBIR-CAD is really established in clinical practice. PMID:21892374

Depeursinge, Adrien; Fischer, Benedikt; Müller, Henning; Deserno, Thomas M

2011-01-01

243

Semi-Spontaneous Oral Text Production: Measurements in Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple…

Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

2009-01-01

244

The Use of Bone Age in Clinical Practice – Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the role of skeletal maturity (‘bone age’, BA) assessment in clinical practice. BA is mainly used in children with the following conditions: short stature (addressed in part 1 of this review), tall stature, early or late puberty, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (all addressed in part 2). Various manual and automatic methods of BA assessment have been developed.

David D. Martin; Jan M. Wit; Ze’ev Hochberg; Lars Sävendahl; Rick R. van Rijn; Oliver Fricke; Noël Cameron; Janina Caliebe; Thomas Hertel; Daniela Kiepe; Kerstin Albertsson-Wikland; Hans Henrik Thodberg; Gerhard Binder; Michael B. Ranke

2011-01-01

245

A General Model for Preventive Intervention in Clinical Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project to develop curriculum and instructional materials in preventive medicine has been initiated by the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine in cooperation with the Center for Educational Development in Health at Boston University. A model delineating physician responsibilities in the preventive dimension of clinical practice was…

Segall, Ascher; And Others

1981-01-01

246

Prodrugs: Do They Have Advantages in Clinical Practice?  

E-print Network

administration of the prodrug to rats in comparison with sodium phenytoin. The lower... if it is for paediatric use or intended for parenteral administration), and the drug/form- Prodrugs in Clinical Practice 4 5 8 Table I. Comprehensive review articles on prodrugs ulation must be relatively free of irritation on administration. For intravenous usage...

Stella, Valentino J.; Charman, W. N. A.; Naringrekar, V. H.

1985-05-01

247

Preoperative fluid restrictions: hospital policy and clinical practice.  

PubMed

This study examined the practice of preoperative fluid restrictions and the influence of the hospital 'nil by mouth' policy on clinical practice. Structured interviews were used to assess the knowledge of nurses and anaesthetists relating to current hospital policy, their attitudes to fluid fasting and the constituents of clear fluids. The interval between the last intake of fluid and the induction of anaesthesia was measured in 90 adult patients to determine actual periods of fasting. It was found that most patients on the same operating list commenced fasting simultaneously with little or no attempt made to individualize the timing which contributed to prolonged periods without fluids, ranging from 3 hours 30 minutes to 17 hours and 45 minutes. Only 30% of nurses were aware of the hospital policy compared with 75% of anaesthetists. The evidence from this study demonstrated that the hospital policy was not reflected in clinical practice which continued to be based on tradition. PMID:11261028

Seymour, S

248

Queering Know-How: Clinical Skill Acquisition as Ethical Practice.  

PubMed

Our study of queer women patients and their primary health care providers (HCPs) in Halifax, Nova Scotia, reveals a gap between providers' theoretical knowledge of "cultural competency" and patients' experience. Drawing on Patricia Benner's Dreyfusian model of skill acquisition in nursing, we suggest that the dissonance between the anti-heteronormative principles expressed in interviews and the relative absence of skilled anti-heteronormative clinical practice can be understood as a failure to grasp the field of practice as a whole. Moving from "knowing-that" to "knowing-how" in terms of anti-heteronormative clinical skills is not only a desirable epistemological trajectory, we argue, but also a way of understanding better and worse ethical practice. PMID:25037245

Heyes, Cressida J; Thachuk, Angela

2014-07-19

249

IT Governance Practices in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Recommendations from an Empirical Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much has been learned through IT governance research about the nature of IT-related decisions, the location of decision rights for these decisions, and governance mechanisms applied to facilitate associated decision processes in large organisations. Our knowledge about IT governance structures in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), on the other hand, is quite limited. Adopting a qualitative and inductive approach, this study examines the nature and influence of IT governance in SMEs through interviews with executives from three SMEs. Our results demonstrate that IT decision authority was centralized in all three SMEs but that senior management involvement in governance procedures and communication practices about governance policies were observed to explain differences in these organisations’ IT use. We propose recommendations based on the findings of this study.

Huang, Rui; Zmud, Robert W.; Price, R. Leon

250

A Study of Business Incubators: Models, Best Practices, and Recommendations for NASA and Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted to provide NASA-Kennedy Space Center with information and recommendations to support establishing one or more technology-based business incubators In Florida. The study involved assembling information about incubators: why they succeed, why they fail, how they are organized, and what services they provide. Consequently, this study focuses on widely-recognized "best practices," needed to establish successful technology- based business incubators. The findings are used to optimize the design and implementation of one or more technology-based business incubators to be established in Florida. Recommendations reflect both the essential characteristics of successful incubators and the optimal business demographics in Florida. Appendix A provides a fuller description of the objectives of the study. Technology-based business incubators are an increasing catalyst of new business development across the USi Incubators focus on providing entrepreneurs and small start-up firms with a wide array of support services necessary to bring forth new products and processes based on technologies developed in the nation's federal and private laboratories and universities. Appendix B provides extensive discussion of findings relative to technology- based business incubators.

1997-01-01

251

Clinically Relevant Transmitted Drug Resistance to First Line Antiretroviral Drugs and Implications for Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background The aim was to analyse trends in clinically relevant resistance to first-line antiretroviral drugs in Spain, applying the Stanford algorithm, and to compare these results with reported Transmitted Drug Resistance (TDR) defined by the 2009 update of the WHO SDRM list. Methods We analysed 2781 sequences from ARV naive patients of the CoRIS cohort (Spain) between 2007–2011. Using the Stanford algorithm “Low-level resistance”, “Intermediate resistance” and “High-level resistance” categories were considered as “Resistant”. Results 70% of the TDR found using the WHO list were relevant for first-line treatment according to the Stanford algorithm. A total of 188 patients showed clinically relevant resistance to first-line ARVs [6.8% (95%Confidence Interval: 5.8–7.7)], and 221 harbored TDR using the WHO list [7.9% (6.9–9.0)]. Differences were due to a lower prevalence in clinically relevant resistance for NRTIs [2.3% (1.8–2.9) vs. 3.6% (2.9–4.3) by the WHO list] and PIs [0.8% (0.4–1.1) vs. 1.7% (1.2–2.2)], while it was higher for NNRTIs [4.6% (3.8–5.3) vs. 3.7% (3.0–4.7)]. While TDR remained stable throughout the study period, clinically relevant resistance to first line drugs showed a significant trend to a decline (p?=?0.02). Conclusions Prevalence of clinically relevant resistance to first line ARVs in Spain is decreasing, and lower than the one expected looking at TDR using the WHO list. Resistance to first-line PIs falls below 1%, so the recommendation of screening for TDR in the protease gene should be questioned in our setting. Cost-effectiveness studies need to be carried out to inform evidence-based recommendations. PMID:24637804

Monge, Susana; Guillot, Vicente; Alvarez, Marta; Chueca, Natalia; Stella, Natalia; Peña, Alejandro; Delgado, Rafael; Córdoba, Juan; Aguilera, Antonio; Vidal, Carmen; García, Federico; CoRIS

2014-01-01

252

How Current Clinical Practice Guidelines for Low Back Pain Reflect Traditional Medicine in East Asian Countries: A Systematic Review of Clinical Practice Guidelines and Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a gap between evidence of traditional medicine (TM) interventions in East-Asian countries from the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) and evidence from current systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs) and to analyze the impact of this gap on present CPGs. Methods We examined 5 representative TM interventions in the health care systems of East-Asian countries. We searched seven relevant databases for CPGs to identify whether core CPGs included evidence of TM interventions, and we searched 11 databases for SR-MAs to re-evaluate current evidence on TM interventions. We then compared the gap between the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs. Results Thirteen CPGs and 22 SR-MAs met our inclusion criteria. Of the 13 CPGs, 7 CPGs (54%) mentioned TM interventions, and all were for acupuncture (only one was for both acupuncture and acupressure). However, the CPGs did not recommend acupuncture (or acupressure). Of 22 SR-MAs, 16 were for acupuncture, 5 for manual therapy, 1 for cupping, and none for moxibustion and herbal medicine. Comparing the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs, an underestimation or omission of evidence for acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy in current CPGs was detected. Thus, applying the results from the SR-MAs, we moderately recommend acupuncture for chronic LBP, but we inconclusively recommend acupuncture for (sub)acute LBP due to the limited current evidence. Furthermore, we weakly recommend cupping and manual therapy for both (sub)acute and chronic LBP. We cannot provide recommendations for moxibustion and herbal medicine due to a lack of evidence. Conclusions The current CPGs did not fully reflect the evidence for TM interventions. As relevant studies such as SR-MAs are conducted and evidence increases, the current evidence on acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy should be rigorously considered in the process of developing or updating the CPG system. PMID:24505363

Cho, Hyun-Woo; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Lim, Byungmook; Heo, Kwang-Ho; Liu, Jian-Ping; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul

2014-01-01

253

Larynx Preservation Clinical Trial Design: Key Issues and Recommendations-A Consensus Panel Summary  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop guidelines for the conduct of Phase III clinical trials of larynx preservation in patients with locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: A multidisciplinary international consensus panel developed recommendations after reviewing results from completed Phase III randomized trials, meta-analyses, and published clinical reports with updates available through November, 2007. The guidelines were reviewed and approved by the panel. Results: According to the recommendations, the trial population should include patients with T2 or T3 laryngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma not considered for partial laryngectomy and exclude those with laryngeal dysfunction or age greater than 70 years. Functional assessments should include speech and swallowing. Voice should be routinely assessed with a simple, validated instrument. The primary endpoint should capture survival and function. The panel created a new endpoint: laryngo-esophageal dysfunction-free survival. Events are death, local relapse, total or partial laryngectomy, tracheotomy at 2 years or later, or feeding tube at 2 years or later. Recommended secondary endpoints are overall survival, progression-free survival, locoregional control, time to tracheotomy, time to laryngectomy, time to discontinuation of feeding tube, and quality of life/patient-reported outcomes. Correlative biomarker studies for near-term trials should include estimated glomerular filtration rate, excision repair cross-complementary-1 gene, E-cadherin and {beta}-catenin, epiregulin and amphiregulin, and TP53 mutation. Conclusions: Revised trial designs in several key areas are needed to advance the study of larynx preservation. With consistent methodologies, clinical trials can more effectively evaluate and quantify the therapeutic benefit of novel treatment options for patients with locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.

Lefebvre, Jean-Louis [Departement de Cancerologie Cervico-Faciale, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France)], E-mail: jl-lefebvre@o-lambret.fr; Ang, K. Kian [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2009-04-01

254

AARC clinical practice guideline: transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide and oxygen: 2012.  

PubMed

An electronic literature search for articles published between January 1990 and September 2011 was conducted by using the PubMed, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library databases. The update of this clinical practice guideline is the result of reviewing a total of 124 articles: 3 randomized controlled trials, 103 prospective trials, 1 retrospective study, 3 case studies, 11 review articles, 2 surveys and 1 consensus paper on transcutaneous monitoring (TCM) for P(tcO(2)) and P(tcCO(2)). The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria: (1) Although P(tcCO(2)) has a good correlation with P(aCO(2)) and is a reliable method to evaluate plasma CO(2) levels, it is recommended that arterial blood gas values be compared to transcutaneous readings taken at the time of arterial sampling, in order to verify the transcutaneous values, and periodically as dictated by the patient's clinical condition. (2) It is suggested that P(tcCO(2)) may be used in clinical settings where monitoring the adequacy of ventilation is indicated. (3) It is suggested that P(tcO(2)) and P(tcCO(2)) may be used in determining the adequacy of tissue perfusion and monitoring of reperfusion. (4) It is suggested that TCM should be avoided in the presence of increased thickness or edema of the skin and/or subcutaneous tissue where the sensor is applied. (5) It is recommended that sites used for a TCM be changed as often as necessary and that they be alternated and observed to avoid thermal injury. Manufacturer recommendations should be followed. PMID:23107301

Restrepo, Ruben D; Hirst, Keith R; Wittnebel, Leonard; Wettstein, Richard

2012-11-01

255

RUNNING HEAD: From the Classroom to Clinical Practice From the Classroom to Clinical Practice: A Music Therapy Students' Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides the opportunity to learn about three music therapy students' experiences of applying classroom learning in clinical practice in community- based agencies in Ontario. Varying outcomes and insights as result of placements including an Alzheimer's day program, a continuing care facility, and an intervention centre for children with Autism are discussed.

Robyn Braybrook; Ruth Watkiss; Nefeli Kaderli; Petra Kern

256

[Clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with invasive breast cancer].  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Preventive measures, early diagnosis and development of all treatment modalities (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal and targeted biologic therapy) led to improvement in survival and quality of life of the patient. In order to standardize and optimize the approach, following good clinical practice standards, we bring consensus guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer patients as a result of consensus of a multidisciplinary team of experts for breast cancer. PMID:22519245

Tomek, Rudolf; Oreskovi?, Lidija Beketi?; Vrdoljak, Eduard; Soldi?, Zeljko; Podolski, Paula; Plestina, Stjepko; Gugi?, Damir; Vojnovi?, Zeljko; Mise, Branka Petric; Tomi?, Snjezana; Fajdi?, Josip; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir; Drinkovi?, Ivan; Brkljaci?, Boris; Musta?, Elvira

2012-01-01

257

Clinical and practical considerations in the pharmacologic management of narcolepsy.  

PubMed

Despite published treatment recommendations and the availability of approved and off-label pharmacologic therapies for narcolepsy, the clinical management of this incurable, chronic neurologic disorder remains challenging. While treatment is generally symptomatically driven, decisions regarding which drug(s) to use need to take into account a variety of factors that may affect adherence, efficacy, and tolerability. Type 1 narcolepsy (predominantly excessive daytime sleepiness with cataplexy) or type 2 narcolepsy (excessive daytime sleepiness without cataplexy) may drive treatment decisions, with consideration given either to a single drug that targets multiple symptoms or to multiple drugs that each treat a specific symptom. Other drug-related characteristics that affect drug choice are dosing regimens, tolerability, and potential drug-drug interactions. Additionally, the patient should be an active participant in treatment decisions, and the main symptomatic complaints, treatment goals, psychosocial setting, and use of lifestyle substances (ie, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and cannabis) need to be discussed with respect to treatment decisions. Although there is a lack of narcolepsy-specific instruments for monitoring therapeutic effects, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness (eg, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test) can be used to provide guidance on whether treatment goals are being met. These considerations are discussed with the objective of providing clinically relevant recommendations for making treatment decisions that can enhance the effective management of patients with narcolepsy. PMID:25458251

Thorpy, Michael J; Dauvilliers, Yves

2014-10-16

258

Clinical coaching--an innovative role to improve marginal nursing students' clinical practice.  

PubMed

In order for undergraduate nursing students to demonstrate their ability to achieve the required level of competency with practice they must be able to integrate both the clinical skills and knowledge that are pivotal to safe and competent nursing practice. In response to ongoing concerns about students' level of competency expressed by the supervising clinical staff, one School of Nursing and Midwifery created a Clinical Coach (CC) role. The purpose of this paper is to present the data collected including outcomes achieved and the coaching strategies used when a CC role was implemented to support and develop nursing practice for the marginal performer or 'at risk' student. A literature review of the application of coaching to nursing, a detailed analysis and discussion of the outcomes identified from auditing of collected data and the specific coaching strategies that resulted in successful outcomes for students is presented. This model of Clinical Coaching for nursing students could readily be adopted by other Schools of Nursing and Midwifery. This account of the regime of coaching practices may also offer a transferable, adaptable and flexible approach for other health professions who require their undergraduate students to complete clinical placements in preparation for professional practice. PMID:25066808

Kelton, Moira F

2014-11-01

259

Probiotics in dietary guidelines and clinical recommendations outside the European Union.  

PubMed

Fermented foods have been consumed for centuries across many geographical locales and have traditionally been considered healthy foods, partly because of the live microbes contained in them. The concept of "probiotics" further requires that the microbes be defined and their health effects be demonstrated through human intervention studies or other suitable investigations before marketing with corresponding health messages. Here, we review recommendations for fermented foods and probiotics in several countries outside the EU, focusing on food-based dietary guidelines. We emphasize recommendations on yoghurt and probiotics made by expert bodies. We found that dietary guidelines commonly advocate the consumption of yoghurt or similar products, but specific comments on probiotics are rare. Further, we reviewed guidelines from clinical associations. In general, they acknowledge the beneficial effects of probiotics, but often suggest the need for further research. This is true despite good quality evidence supporting the role of probiotics for certain health effects, such as prevention of eczema in infants, management of side effects from antibiotics and alleviation of functional bowel symptoms. Additional research to support future dietary recommendations should focus on determining effect size, identifying responders and non-responders, clarifying strain-specificity of effects and confirming mechanisms. PMID:25473160

Ebner, Stephan; Smug, Linda N; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Salminen, Seppo J; Sanders, Mary Ellen

2014-11-21

260

Probiotics in dietary guidelines and clinical recommendations outside the European Union  

PubMed Central

Fermented foods have been consumed for centuries across many geographical locales and have traditionally been considered healthy foods, partly because of the live microbes contained in them. The concept of “probiotics” further requires that the microbes be defined and their health effects be demonstrated through human intervention studies or other suitable investigations before marketing with corresponding health messages. Here, we review recommendations for fermented foods and probiotics in several countries outside the EU, focusing on food-based dietary guidelines. We emphasize recommendations on yoghurt and probiotics made by expert bodies. We found that dietary guidelines commonly advocate the consumption of yoghurt or similar products, but specific comments on probiotics are rare. Further, we reviewed guidelines from clinical associations. In general, they acknowledge the beneficial effects of probiotics, but often suggest the need for further research. This is true despite good quality evidence supporting the role of probiotics for certain health effects, such as prevention of eczema in infants, management of side effects from antibiotics and alleviation of functional bowel symptoms. Additional research to support future dietary recommendations should focus on determining effect size, identifying responders and non-responders, clarifying strain-specificity of effects and confirming mechanisms. PMID:25473160

Ebner, Stephan; Smug, Linda N; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Salminen, Seppo J; Sanders, Mary Ellen

2014-01-01

261

Ten tips for receiving feedback effectively in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Background Despite being recognized as a fundamental part of the educational process and emphasized for several decades in medical education, the influence of the feedback process is still suboptimal. This may not be surprising, because the focus is primarily centered on only one half of the process – the teachers. The learners are the targets of the feedback process and improvement needs to be shifted. Learners need to be empowered with the skills needed to receive and utilize feedback and compensate for less than ideal feedback delivery due to the busy clinical environment. Methods Based on the available feedback literature and clinical experience regarding feedback, the author developed 10 tips to empower learners with the necessary skills to seek, receive, and handle feedback effectively, regardless of how it is delivered. Although, most of the tips are directed at the individual clinical trainee, this model can be utilized by clinical educators involved in learner development and serve as a framework for educational workshops or curriculum. Results Ten practical tips are identified that specifically address the learner's role in the feedback process. These tips not only help the learner to ask, receive, and handle the feedback, but will also ease the process for the teachers. Collectively, these tips help to overcome most, if not all, of the barriers to feedback and bridge the gaps in busy clinical practices. Conclusions Feedback is a crucial element in the educational process and it is shown that we are still behind in the optimal use of it; thus, learners need to be taught how to better receive and utilize feedback. The focus in medical education needs to balance the two sides of the feedback process. It is time now to invest on the learner's development of skills that can be utilized in a busy day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:25079664

Algiraigri, Ali H.

2014-01-01

262

Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations  

PubMed Central

Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

2013-01-01

263

Practice Inquiry: Clinical Uncertainty as a Focus for Small-Group Learning and Practice Improvement  

PubMed Central

Problem Many primary care physicians in nonacademic settings lack a collegial forum for engaging the clinical uncertainties inherent in their work. Program Description “Practice Inquiry” is proposed as a set of small-group, practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) methods designed to help clinicians better manage case-based clinical uncertainty. Clinicians meet regularly at their offices/clinics to present dilemma cases, share clinical experience, review evidence for blending with experience, and draw implications for practice improvement. From 2001 through 2005, Practice Inquiry was introduced to sites in the San Francisco Bay Area as a demonstration effort. Meeting rosters, case logs, a feedback survey, and meeting field notes documented implementation and provided data for a formative, qualitative evaluation. Program Evaluation Of the 30 sites approached, 14 held introductory meetings. As of summer 2006, 98 clinicians in 11 sites continue to hold regularly scheduled group meetings. Of the 118 patient cases presented in the seven oldest groups, clinician–patient relationship and treatment dilemmas were most common. Clinician feedback and meeting transcript data provided insights into how busy practitioners shared cases, developed trust, and learned new knowledge/skills for moving forward with patients. Discussion Ongoing clinician involvement suggests that Practice Inquiry is a feasible, acceptable, and potentially useful set of PBLI methods. Two of the Practice Inquiry’s group learning tasks received comparatively less focus: integrating research evidence with clinical experience and tracking dilemma case outcomes. Future work should focus on reducing the methodological limitations of a demonstration effort and examining factors affecting clinician participation. Set-aside work time for clinicians, or other equally potent incentives, will be necessary for the further elaboration of these PBLI methods aimed at managing uncertainty. PMID:17356994

Morgan, Laura; Johnson, Lisa; Yatabe, Kay

2007-01-01

264

Bringing New PET Drugs to Clinical Practice - A Regulatory Perspective  

PubMed Central

The regulatory framework for radioactive drugs, in particular those used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans, has been gradually established since the release of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act in 1997. Various guidances specially tailored to accommodate special properties of PET drugs have been issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in order to ensure this valuable technology (i.e., PET molecular imaging) will continue to be available to patients and yet the safety and efficacy of PET drugs are well regulated so that public health will be protected. This article presents several key elements of this regulatory framework for PET drugs. New regulatory avenues proposed by the FDA to facilitate the research and development process to bring more new PET drugs to clinical practice, as well as to foster the opportunity of using “orphan” PET drugs in clinical practice are also discussed in this paper. PMID:24312157

Hung, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

265

Clinical Psychologists’ Firearm Risk Management Perceptions and Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the current perceptions and practices of discussing firearm risk management with\\u000a patients diagnosed with selected mental health problems. A three-wave survey was mailed to a national random sample of clinical\\u000a psychologists and 339 responded (62%). The majority (78.5%) believed firearm safety issues were greater among those with mental\\u000a health problems. However, the

Andrea Traylor; James H. Price; Susan K. Telljohann; Keith King; Amy Thompson

2010-01-01

266

Biosimilars in oncology: from development to clinical practice.  

PubMed

Biologics play an integral role in the treatment of cancer not only for their therapeutic effects and ability to improve outcomes, but also as supportive care agents. Biologics are more complex to manufacture and take longer to bring to market. Because biologics are considerably more costly than small-molecule drugs, their use has placed an increasing economic demand on healthcare systems worldwide. Biosimilars are designed to be highly similar to existing branded biologics, but because biologics cannot be exactly copied, biosimilars should not be referred to as generic, exact versions of the innovator biologic. Biosimilars have the potential to increase access and provide lower cost options for cancer care as patent protection for some of the most widely used biologics begins to expire. Regulatory requirements for biosimilars are evolving, as are global harmonization and/or standardization strategies that can facilitate their robust clinical development. This review highlights critical factors involved with the integration of biosimilars into oncology treatment paradigms and practices. Clinicians will likely seek out practice guidelines and position statements from established scientific societies to help evaluate key information regarding biosimilars, such as efficacy, safety, comparability, and interchangeability with the reference biologic. Automatic substitution, nomenclature, extrapolation of clinical data from one indication to another, as well as parameters for ongoing pharmacovigilance are evolving considerations. Education of physicians and other healthcare providers, payers, and patients about biosimilars may facilitate informed decision making, promote acceptance of biosimilars into clinical practice, increase accessibility, and expedite associated health and economic benefits. PMID:24767633

Rak Tkaczuk, Katherine H; Jacobs, Ira Allen

2014-04-01

267

Research staff training in a multisite randomized clinical trial: Methods and recommendations from the Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) trial  

PubMed Central

Background Descriptions of and recommendations for meeting the challenges of training research staff for multisite studies are limited despite the recognized importance of training on trial outcomes. The STRIDE (STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise) study is a multisite randomized clinical trial that was conducted at nine addiction treatment programs across the United States within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) and evaluated the addition of exercise to addiction treatment as usual (TAU), compared to health education added to TAU, for individuals with stimulant abuse or dependence. Research staff administered a variety of measures that required a range of interviewing, technical, and clinical skills. Purpose In order to address the absence of information on how research staff are trained for multisite clinical studies, the current manuscript describes the conceptual process of training and certifying research assistants for STRIDE. Methods Training was conducted using a three-stage process to allow staff sufficient time for distributive learning, practice, and calibration leading up to implementation of this complex study. Results Training was successfully implemented with staff across nine sites. Staff demonstrated evidence of study and procedural knowledge via quizzes and skill demonstration on six measures requiring certification. Overall, while the majority of staff had little to no experience in the six measures, all research assistants demonstrated ability to correctly and reliably administer the measures throughout the study. Conclusions Practical recommendations are provided for training research staff and are particularly applicable to the challenges encountered with large, multisite trials. PMID:25379036

Walker, Robrina; Morris, David W; Greer, Tracy L; Trivedi, Madhukar H

2014-01-01

268

A survey of clinical practices and readiness to adopt evidence-based practices: Dissemination research in an addiction treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addiction research is challenged to disseminate evidence-based practices into routine clinical settings. The successful adoption of innovation must consider issues of fit, such as the characteristics, readiness, and attitudes of clinicians in the community. We constructed a survey to assess clinical practices and readiness to adopt certain evidence-based practices in addiction treatment programs. The instrument was administered to directors (n

Mark P. McGovern; Thomas S. Fox; Haiyi Xie; Robert E. Drake

2004-01-01

269

Vitamin D in North-East Asian clinical nutrition practice.  

PubMed

Sound clinical nutrition practice is grounded in evidence and stimulated by research. Yet, there are unanswered questions about food-health relationships. Clinical nutrition involves the identification of nutritional disorders and the motivation to rectify them with all required care. Vitamin D health exemplifies the biomedical, societal and environmental dimensions of clinical nutrition, its science and practice. It depends most of all on access to sunshine and food and probably represents a paradigm in human health which is still at its beginning. Nevertheless, the problem of its deficiency is much more widespread and common than has been thought since it was first identified as a cause of rickets and osteomalacia. It is now known to spare no body organ or system. The problem in North-East Asia is comparable to much of the rest of the world, but the risk profile for it is exaggerated by atmospheric pollution, cultures with sun-avoidance on account of skin colour and potentially mitigated by foodstuffs like fish, eggs, organ meats and mushrooms which can partially offset sunshine-deficiency. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and confirmation by biochemistry which may not be affordable. Therefore a close working relationship between public health and clinical nutritionist is essential. PMID:23353625

Wahlqvist, Mark L

2013-01-01

270

Chinese medicine approach in clinical practice for breast cancer survivors.  

PubMed

A Chinese medicine (CM) approach, designed based on the clinical experiences of the West Los Angeles Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a practical path for assessing and treating breast cancer survivors. The approach consists of balancing the body with deciphering the cause of the patient's chief complaints by assessing and recognizing the six physiological dysfunctions that include gastrointestinal problems, sleeps problems, emotional imbalance, low body energy, menstrual change and pain. Multifaceted interventions are used for eliminating various CM pathologies based on identifying the basic CM patterns (syndromes) differentiation. Watching to assess the above two situations dynamically is used for outcome evaluation and predicting prognosis. Therefore this approach is called BMW. It can serve as a reference for CM clinical practice and integrative clinical care. It also can be used to simplify the clinical interpretation of CM and provide an easier way for CM doctors to communicate with Western medical doctors and patients. Additionally, it can be used as a guide for patients to assess their own symptoms for self-monitoring and self-care. PMID:21809127

Li, Jie-Jia; Fu, Jian-Ping; Li, Jack Thomas

2012-04-01

271

[Clinical practice guideline on the management of patients with dyspepsia. Update 2012].  

PubMed

The aim of the Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) on the Management of Patients with Dyspepsia is to generate recommendations on the optimal approach to dyspepsia in the primary care and specialized outpatient setting. The main objective of this CPG is to help to optimize the diagnostic process, identifying patients with a low risk of a serious organic disease (mainly tumoral), who could be safely managed without the need for invasive diagnostic tests and/or referral to a specialist. The importance of this aim lies in the need to accurately diagnose patients with esophagogastric cancer and correctly treat peptic ulcer while, at the same time, reduce negative endoscopies in order to appropriately use the available healthcare resources.This CPG reviews the initial strategies that can be used in patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia and evaluates the possible decision to begin empirical therapy or to investigate the existence of a lesion that could explain the symptoms. This CPG also discusses functional dyspepsia, which encompasses all patients with dyspepsia with no demonstrable cause on endoscopy. Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection are also made. To classify the scientific evidence and strengthen the recommendations, the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group) system has been used (http://www.gradeworkinggroup.org/). PMID:23186826

Gisbert, Javier P; Calvet, Xavier; Ferrándiz, Juan; Mascort, Juan; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Marzo, Mercè

2012-12-01

272

Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review.  

PubMed

The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician's understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

2014-02-01

273

Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review  

PubMed Central

The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician’s understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

2014-01-01

274

[Embryo vitrification: French clinical practice analysis for BLEFCO].  

PubMed

Frozen thawed embryo transfer is currently an important part of present-day assisted reproductive technology (ART) aiming at increasing the clinical pregnancy rate per oocyte retrieval. Although slow freezing method has been the reference during 2 decades, the recent years witnessed an expansion of ultrarapid cryopreservation method named vitrification. Recently in France, vitrification has been authorized for cryopreserving human embryos. Therefore BLEFCO consortium decides to perform a descriptive study through questionnaires to evaluate the state of vitrification in the French clinical practice. Questionnaires were addressed to the 105 French centres of reproductive biology and 60 were fully completed. Data analysis revealed that embryo survival rate as well as, clinical pregnancy rate were increased after vitrification technology when compared to slow freezing procedure. Overall, these preliminary data suggest that vitrification may improve ART outcomes through an increasing of the cumulative pregnancy rate per oocyte retrieval. PMID:23962680

Hesters, L; Achour-Frydman, N; Mandelbaum, J; Levy, R

2013-09-01

275

Clinical application of plasma thermograms. Utility, practical approaches and considerations.  

PubMed

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of blood plasma are part of an emerging area of the clinical application of DSC to biofluid analysis. DSC analysis of plasma from healthy individuals and patients with various diseases has revealed changes in the thermal profiles of the major plasma proteins associated with the clinical status of the patient. The sensitivity of DSC to the concentration of proteins, their interactions with other proteins or ligands, or their covalent modification underlies the potential utility of DSC analysis. A growing body of literature has demonstrated the versatility and performance of clinical DSC analysis across a range of biofluids and in a number of disease settings. The principles, practice and challenges of DSC analysis of plasma are described in this article. PMID:25448297

Garbett, Nichola C; Mekmaysy, Chongkham S; DeLeeuw, Lynn; Chaires, Jonathan B

2014-11-01

276

[Functional neuroimaging in the diagnosis of patients with Parkinsonism: Update and recommendations for clinical use].  

PubMed

Functional Neuroimaging has been traditionally used in research for patients with different Parkinsonian syndromes. However, the emergence of commercial radiotracers together with the availability of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and, more recently, positron emission tomography (PET) have made them available for clinical practice. Particularly, the development of clinical evidence achieved by functional neuroimaging techniques over the past two decades have motivated a progressive inclusion of several biomarkers in the clinical diagnostic criteria for neurodegenerative diseases that occur with Parkinsonism. However, the wide range of radiotracers designed to assess the involvement of different pathways in the neurodegenerative process underlying Parkinsonian syndromes (dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway integrity, basal ganglia and cortical neuronal activity, myocardial sympathetic innervation), and the different neuroimaging techniques currently available (scintigraphy, SPECT and PET), have generated some controversy concerning the best neuroimaging test that should be indicated for the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism. In this article, a panel of nuclear medicine and neurology experts has evaluated the functional neuroimaging techniques emphazising practical considerations related to the diagnosis of patients with uncertain origin parkinsonism and the assessment Parkinson's disease progression. PMID:24731551

Arbizu, J; Luquin, M R; Abella, J; de la Fuente-Fernández, R; Fernandez-Torrón, R; García-Solís, D; Garrastachu, P; Jiménez-Hoyuela, J M; Llaneza, M; Lomeña, F; Lorenzo-Bosquet, C; Martí, M J; Martinez-Castrillo, J C; Mir, P; Mitjavila, M; Ruiz-Martínez, J; Vela, L

2014-01-01

277

Implementing routine outcome monitoring in clinical practice: Benefits, challenges, and solutions.  

PubMed

Abstract This article reviews the benefits, obstacles, and challenges that can hinder (and have hindered) implementation of routine outcome monitoring in clinical practice. Recommendations for future routine outcome assessment efforts are also provided. Spanning three generations, as well as multiple developed tools and approaches, the four authors of this article have spent much of their careers working to address these issues and attempt to consolidate this learning and experience briefly here. Potential "elephants in the room" are brought into the discussion wherever relevant, rather than leaving them to obstruct silently the field's efforts. Some of these topics have been largely ignored, yet must be addressed if we are to fulfill our promise of integrating science and practice. This article is an attempt to identify these important issues and start an honest and open dialogue. PMID:23885809

Boswell, James F; Kraus, David R; Miller, Scott D; Lambert, Michael J

2015-01-01

278

Bridging the gap between research and practice in a clinical and training network: Aigle's program.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to share our experience at the Aiglé Foundation in fostering research that can conducted by (or in collaboration with) clinicians within a specific type of naturalistic setting-one that not only provides psychological services but also trains psychotherapists. After presenting the structure of Aiglé and the implementation of its scientific-practitioner philosophy, we describe some of the research that has been conducted with our network of clinicians and the benefits of connecting clinical practice and academic work. We then discuss some of the obstacles that we have encountered in conducting such studies, as well as a number of strategies that we adopted in attempting to address these challenges. We end this article by briefly describing the current state of our practice-research network, and by offering some recommendations to facilitate the conduct of research by and for clinicians. PMID:24289487

Fernández-Alvarez, Héctor; Gómez, Beatriz; García, Fernando

2015-01-01

279

Recommendations for clinical trials of off-label drugs used to treat advanced-stage cancer. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Between one half and three quarters of cancer drugs are being used off label, and only 27 percent of off-label uses are supported by strong clinical evidence. More clinical trials on off-label usage of cancer drugs are needed. This study provides recommendations that may be helpful in planning recruitment strategies for such trials.

280

Pharmacological therapies in post stroke recovery: recommendations for future clinical trials.  

PubMed

Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability in adults and is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Early reperfusion and neuroprotection techniques have been the focus of much effort with the aim of very acute treatment of the stroke. Targeting different mechanisms, pharmacological therapies have the potential to reduce disability in a large fraction of patients who survive the acute stroke. The brain's capacity to reorganize after stroke through plasticity mechanisms can be modulated by pharmacological agents. A number of therapeutic interventions are under study, including small molecules, growth factors, and monoclonal antibodies. Recently it has been shown that the SSRI fluoxetine improved motor deficit in patients with ischaemic stroke and hemiplegia which appeared to be independent of the presence of depression. In this context, it is of major importance to support innovative research in order to promote the emergence of new pharmacological treatments targeting neurological recovery after stroke, as opposed to acute de-occlusion and neuroprotection. This paper is the work of a group of 14 scientists with aim of (1) addressing key areas of the basic and clinical aspects of human brain plasticity after stroke and potential pharmacological targets for recovery, (2) asking questions about the most appropriate characteristics of clinical trials testing drugs in post stroke recovery and (3) proposing recommendations for future clinical trials. PMID:24221642

Chollet, F; Cramer, S C; Stinear, C; Kappelle, L J; Baron, J C; Weiller, C; Azouvi, P; Hommel, M; Sabatini, U; Moulin, T; Tardy, J; Valenti, M; Montgomery, S; Adams, H

2014-08-01

281

Diagnostic evaluation and management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: A clinical practice guideline  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Pulmonary embolism is a common condition. Some patients subsequently develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Many care gaps exist in the diagnosis and management of CTEPH patients including lack of awareness, incomplete diagnostic assessment, and inconsistent use of surgical and medical therapies. METHODS A representative interdisciplinary panel of medical experts undertook a formal clinical practice guideline development process. A total of 20 key clinical issues were defined according to the patient population, intervention, comparator, outcome (PICO) approach. The panel performed an evidence-based, systematic, literature review, assessed and graded the relevant evidence, and made 26 recommendations. RESULTS Asymptomatic patients postpulmonary embolism should not be screened for CTEPH. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, the possibility of CTEPH should be routinely evaluated with initial ventilation/ perfusion lung scanning, not computed tomography angiography. Pulmonary endarterectomy surgery is the treatment of choice in patients with surgically accessible CTEPH, and may also be effective in CTEPH patients with disease in more ‘distal’ pulmonary arteries. The anatomical extent of CTEPH for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy is best assessed by contrast pulmonary angiography, although positive computed tomography angiography may be acceptable. Novel medications indicated for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension may be effective for selected CTEPH patients. CONCLUSIONS The present guideline requires formal dissemination to relevant target user groups, the development of tools for implementation into routine clinical practice and formal evaluation of the impact of the guideline on the quality of care of CTEPH patients. Moreover, the guideline will be updated periodically to reflect new evidence or clinical approaches. PMID:21165353

Mehta, Sanjay; Helmersen, Doug; Provencher, Steeve; Hirani, Naushad; Rubens, Fraser D; De Perrot, Marc; Blostein, Mark; Boutet, Kim; Chandy, George; Dennie, Carole; Granton, John; Hernandez, Paul; Hirsch, Andrew M; Laframboise, Karen; Levy, Robert D; Lien, Dale; Martel, Simon; Shoemaker, Gerard; Swiston, John; Weinkauf, Justin

2010-01-01

282

Use of a Reduced (4Dose) Vaccine Schedule for Postexposure Prophylaxis to Prevent Human Rabies Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This report summarizes new recommendation and updates previous recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent human rabies (CDC. Human rabies prevention—United States, 2008: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 2008;57(No. RR-3)). Previously, ACIP recommended a 5-dose rabies vaccination regimen with human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) or purified chick

Charles E. Rupprecht; Deborah Briggs; Catherine M. Brown; Richard Franka; Samuel L. Katz; Harry D Kerr; Susan M. Lett; Robin Levis; Martin I. Meltzer; William Schaffner; Paul R. Cieslak

2008-01-01

283

ASTS recommended practice guidelines for controlled donation after cardiac death organ procurement and transplantation.  

PubMed

The American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) champions efforts to increase organ donation. Controlled donation after cardiac death (DCD) offers the family and the patient with a hopeless prognosis the option to donate when brain death criteria will not be met. Although DCD is increasing, this endeavor is still in the midst of development. DCD protocols, recovery techniques and organ acceptance criteria vary among organ procurement organizations and transplant centers. Growing enthusiasm for DCD has been tempered by the decreased yield of transplantable organs and less favorable posttransplant outcomes compared with donation after brain death. Logistics and ethics relevant to DCD engender discussion and debate among lay and medical communities. Regulatory oversight of the mandate to increase DCD and a recent lawsuit involving professional behavior during an attempted DCD have fueled scrutiny of this activity. Within this setting, the ASTS Council sought best-practice guidelines for controlled DCD organ donation and transplantation. The proposed guidelines are evidence based when possible. They cover many aspects of DCD kidney, liver and pancreas transplantation, including donor characteristics, consent, withdrawal of ventilatory support, operative technique, ischemia times, machine perfusion, recipient considerations and biliary issues. DCD organ transplantation involves unique challenges that these recommendations seek to address. PMID:19624569

Reich, D J; Mulligan, D C; Abt, P L; Pruett, T L; Abecassis, M M I; D'Alessandro, A; Pomfret, E A; Freeman, R B; Markmann, J F; Hanto, D W; Matas, A J; Roberts, J P; Merion, R M; Klintmalm, G B G

2009-09-01

284

Recommended management practices for operation and closure of shallow injection wells at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Safe Drinking Water Act established the Underground Injection Control (UIC) program to ensure that underground injection of wastes does not endanger an underground source of drinking water. Under UIC regulations, an injection well is a hole in the ground, deeper than it is wide, that receives wastes or other fluid substances. Types of injection wells range from deep cased wells to shallow sumps, drywells, and drainfields. The report describes the five classes of UIC wells and summarizes relevant regulations for each class of wells and for the UIC program. The main focus of the report is Class IV and V shallow injection wells. Class IV wells are prohibited and should be closed when they are identified. Class V wells are generally authorized by rule, but EPA or a delegated state may require a permit for a Class V well. This report provides recommendations on sound operating and closure practices for shallow injection wells. In addition the report contains copies of several relevant EPA documents that provide additional information on well operation and closure. Another appendix contains information on the UIC programs in 21 states in which there are DOE facilities discharging to injection wells. The appendix includes the name of the responsible regulatory agency and contact person, a summary of differences between the state`s regulations and Federal regulations, and any closure guidelines for Class IV and V wells.

Not Available

1993-07-01

285

Prevention of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, and mumps, 2013: summary recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).  

PubMed

This report is a compendium of all current recommendations for the prevention of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), and mumps. The report presents the recent revisions adopted by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on October 24, 2012, and also summarizes all existing ACIP recommendations that have been published previously during 1998-2011 (CDC. Measles, mumps, and rubella--vaccine use and strategies for elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome and control of mumps: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 1998;47[No. RR-8]; CDC. Revised ACIP recommendation for avoiding pregnancy after receiving a rubellacontaining vaccine. MMWR 2001;50:1117; CDC. Updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] for the control and elimination of mumps. MMWR 2006;55:629-30; and, CDC. Immunization of healthcare personnel: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 2011;60[No. RR-7]). Currently, ACIP recommends 2 doses of MMR vaccine routinely for children with the first dose administered at age 12 through 15 months and the second dose administered at age 4 through 6 years before school entry. Two doses are recommended for adults at high risk for exposure and transmission (e.g., students attending colleges or other post-high school educational institutions, healthcare personnel, and international travelers) and 1 dose for other adults aged ?18 years. For prevention of rubella, 1 dose of MMR vaccine is recommended for persons aged ?12 months. At the October 24, 2012 meeting, ACIP adopted the following revisions, which are published here for the first time. These included: • For acceptable evidence of immunity, removing documentation of physician diagnosed disease as an acceptable criterion for evidence of immunity for measles and mumps, and including laboratory confirmation of disease as a criterion for acceptable evidence of immunity for measles, rubella, and mumps. • For persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, expanding recommendations for vaccination to all persons aged ?12 months with HIV infection who do not have evidence of current severe immunosuppression; recommending revaccination of persons with perinatal HIV infection who were vaccinated before establishment of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) with 2 appropriately spaced doses of MMR vaccine once effective ART has been established; and changing the recommended timing of the 2 doses of MMR vaccine for HIV-infected persons to age 12 through 15 months and 4 through 6 years. • For measles postexposure prophylaxis, expanding recommendations for use of immune globulin administered intramuscularly (IGIM) to include infants aged birth to 6 months exposed to measles; increasing the recommended dose of IGIM for immunocompetent persons; and recommending use of immune globulin administered intravenously (IGIV) for severely immunocompromised persons and pregnant women without evidence of measles immunity who are exposed to measles. As a compendium of all current recommendations for the prevention of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), and mumps, the information in this report is intended for use by clinicians as baseline guidance for scheduling of vaccinations for these conditions and considerations regarding vaccination of special populations. ACIP recommendations are reviewed periodically and are revised as indicated when new information becomes available. PMID:23760231

McLean, Huong Q; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Temte, Jonathan L; Wallace, Gregory S

2013-06-14

286

Framework of policy recommendations for implementation of evidence-based practice: a systematic scoping review  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evidence-based practice (EBP) may help improve healthcare quality. However, not all healthcare professionals and managers use EBP in their daily practice. We systematically reviewed the literature to summarise self-reported appreciation of EBP and organisational infrastructure solutions proposed to promote EBP. Design Systematic review. Two investigators independently performed the systematic reviewing process. Information sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for publications between 2000 and 2011. Eligibility criteria for included studies Reviews and surveys of EBP attitude, knowledge, awareness, skills, barriers and facilitators among managers, doctors and nurses in clinical settings. Results We found 31 surveys of fairly good quality. General attitude towards EBP was welcoming. Respondents perceived several barriers, but also many facilitators for EBP implementation. Solutions were proposed at various organisational levels, including (inter)national associations and hospital management promoting EBP, pregraduate and postgraduate education, as well as individual support by EBP mentors on the wards to move EBP from the classroom to the bedside. Conclusions More than 20?years after its introduction, the EBP paradigm has been embraced by healthcare professionals as an important means to improve quality of patient care, but its implementation is still deficient. Policy exerted at microlevel , middlelevel and macrolevel, and supported by professional, educational and managerial role models, may further facilitate EBP. PMID:23355664

Ubbink, Dirk T; Guyatt, Gordon H; Vermeulen, Hester

2013-01-01

287

Electronic risk assessment for venous thromboembolism: investigating physicians’ rationale for bypassing clinical decision support recommendations  

PubMed Central

Objective The underutilisation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is still a problem in the UK despite the emergence of national guidelines and incentives to increase the number of patients undergoing VTE risk assessments. Our objective was to examine the reasons doctors gave for not prescribing enoxaparin when recommended by an electronic VTE risk assessment alert. Design We used a qualitative research design to conduct a thematic analysis of free text entered into an electronic prescribing system. Setting The study took place in a large University teaching hospital, which has a locally developed electronic prescribing system known as PICS (Prescribing, Information and Communication System). Participants We extracted prescription data from all inpatient admissions over a 7-month period in 2012 using the audit database of PICS. Intervention The completion of the VTE risk assessment form introduced into the hospital-wide electronic prescribing and health records system is mandatory. Where doctors do not prescribe VTE prophylaxis when recommended, they are asked to provide a reason for this decision. The free-text field was introduced in May 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measures Free-text reasons for not prescribing enoxaparin when recommended were thematically coded. Results A total of 1136 free-text responses from 259 doctors were collected in the time period and 1206 separate reasons were analysed and coded. 389 reasons (32.3%) for not prescribing enoxaparin were coded as being due to ‘clinical judgment’; in 288 (23.9%) of the responses, doctors were going to reassess the patient or prescribe enoxaparin; and in 245 responses (20.3%), the system was seen to have produced an inappropriate alert. Conclusions In order to increase specificity of warnings and avoid users developing alert fatigue, it is essential that an evaluation of user responses and/or end user feedback as to the appropriateness and timing of alerts is obtained. PMID:25260369

Nwulu, Ugochi; Brooks, Hannah; Richardson, Suzanna; McFarland, Lorraine; Coleman, Jamie J

2014-01-01

288

Academy of Medicine Singapore-Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines: Autism Spectrum Disorders in pre-school children.  

PubMed

The Academy of Medicine Singapore (AMS) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) publish clinical practice guidelines to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based guidance on managing important medical conditions. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the AMS-MOH clinical practice guidelines on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), for the information of readers of the Singapore Medical Journal. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website (http://www.moh. gov.sg/mohcorp/publications.aspx?id=24048). The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines. PMID:20428749

2010-03-01

289

The Use of Recommended Transition Education Practices and Perceptions of Administrative Support: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized a mixed-methods approach to explore the relationship between the implementation of recommended transition education practices and perceptions of administrative support of transition education. Utilizing a web-based survey, I surveyed 120 secondary educators across Oklahoma to determine the extent to which they reported the use…

Little, Karen Sopina

2012-01-01

290

Method transfer, partial validation, and cross validation: recommendations for best practices and harmonization from the global bioanalysis consortium harmonization team.  

PubMed

This paper presents the recommendations of the Global Bioanalytical Consortium Harmonization Team on method transfer, partial validation, and cross validation. These aspects of bioanalytical method validation, while important, have received little detailed attention in recent years. The team has attempted to define, separate, and describe these related activities, and present practical guidance in how to apply these techniques. PMID:25190270

Briggs, R J; Nicholson, R; Vazvaei, F; Busch, J; Mabuchi, M; Mahesh, K S; Brudny-Kloeppel, M; Weng, N; Galvinas, P A R; Duchene, P; Hu, Pei; Abbott, R W

2014-11-01

291

On Going (Way) beyond One's Data: A Proposal to Restrict Recommendations for Practice in Primary Educational Research Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To counteract what we see as a growing research-reporting concern, we propose the following editorial-policy change regarding the content of primary research articles in educational research journals: Contributors should restrict their discussion and conclusions to their data and not offer recommendations for educational practice nor speculate…

Robinson, Daniel H.; Levin, Joel R.; Schraw, Gregory; Patall, Erika A.; Hunt, Earl B.

2013-01-01

292

Cross-sectional study of 168 patients with hepatorenal tyrosinaemia and implications for clinical practice.  

PubMed

BackgroundHepatorenal tyrosinaemia (Tyr 1) is a rare inborn error of tyrosine metabolism. Without treatment, patients are at high risk of developing acute liver failure, renal dysfunction and in the long run hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of our study was to collect cross-sectional data.MethodsVia questionnaires we collected retrospective data of 168 patients with Tyr 1 from 21 centres (Europe, Turkey and Israel) about diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and outcome. In a subsequent consensus workshop, we discussed data and clinical implications.ResultsEarly treatment by NTBC accompanied by diet is essential to prevent serious complications such as liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and renal disease. As patients may remain initially asymptomatic or develop uncharacteristic clinical symptoms in the first months of life newborn mass screening using succinylacetone (SA) as a screening parameter in dried blood is mandatory for early diagnosis. NTBC-treatment has to be combined with natural protein restriction supplemented with essential amino acids. NTBC dosage should be reduced to the minimal dose allowing metabolic control, once daily dosing may be an option in older children and adults in order to increase compliance. Metabolic control is judged by SA (below detection limit) in dried blood or urine, plasma tyrosine (<400 ¿M) and NTBC-levels in the therapeutic range (20¿40 ¿M). Side effects of NTBC are mild and often transient.Indications for liver transplantation are hepatocellular carcinoma or failure to respond to NTBC. Follow-up procedures should include liver and kidney function tests, tumor markers and imaging, ophthalmological examination, blood count, psychomotor and intelligence testing as well as therapeutic monitoring (SA, tyrosine, NTBC in blood).ConclusionBased on the data from 21 centres treating 168 patients we were able to characterize current practice and clinical experience in Tyr 1. This information could form the basis for clinical practice recommendations, however further prospective data are required to underpin some of the recommendations. PMID:25081276

Mayorandan, Sebene; Meyer, Uta; Gokcay, Gülden; Segarra, Nuria; de Baulny, Hélène; van Spronsen, Francjan; Zeman, Jiri; de Laet, Corinne; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Thimm, Eva; Maiorana, Arianna; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Moeslinger, Dorothea; Brunner-Krainz, Michaela; Lotz-Havla, Amelie; Cocho de Juan, José; Couce Pico, Maria; Santer, René; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Mandel, Hanna; Bliksrud, Yngve; Freisinger, Peter; Aldamiz-Echevarria, Luis; Hochuli, Michel; Gautschi, Matthias; Endig, Jessica; Jordan, Jens; McKiernan, Patrick; Ernst, Stefanie; Morlot, Susanne; Vogel, Arndt; Sander, Johannes; Das, Anibh

2014-08-01

293

Rufinamide from clinical trials to clinical practice in the United States and Europe.  

PubMed

Rufinamide is a triazole derivative structurally unrelated to other antiepileptic drugs that is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients aged ?4 years. Originally granted orphan drug status, marketing authorisation was obtained on the basis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 138 LGS patients. An open-label extension study subsequently demonstrated that rufinamide's efficacy and tolerability were maintained over the longer term (median duration of treatment, 432 days). Recently published reports from Europe and the United States have described the use of adjunctive rufinamide to treat LGS in clinical practice. These data complement the clinical trial results, by providing information on the efficacy and tolerability of rufinamide when used on an individualised basis in real-world practice, under less tightly restricted conditions in terms of patient population and dosing strategies. A comparison of the data reveals that a "lower and slower" dosing strategy tends to be adopted in clinical practice, in comparison with the clinical trial, which does not appear to compromise efficacy, but may provide improvements in tolerability. Individual case reports provide additional valuable information on how rufinamide is being used to treat different seizure types associated with LGS. Since clinical experience with rufinamide is currently at an early stage, there are still unanswered questions relating to its use, and it is likely that its place in the adjunctive treatment of LGS will evolve as further data emerge. PMID:21669560

Resnick, Trevor; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Brown, Lawrence W; Flamini, Robert; Kerr, Michael; Kluger, Gerhard; Kothare, Sanjeev; Philip, Sunny; Harrison, Miranda; Narurkar, Milind

2011-05-01

294

Improving access to clinical practice guidelines with an interactive graphical interface using an iconic language  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical practice guidelines are useful for physicians, and guidelines are available on the Internet from various websites such as Vidal Recos. However, these guidelines are long and difficult to read, especially during consultation. Similar difficulties have been encountered with drug summaries of product characteristics. In a previous work, we have proposed an iconic language (called VCM, for Visualization of Concepts in Medicine) for representing patient conditions, treatments and laboratory tests, and we have used these icons to design a user interface that graphically indexes summaries of product characteristics. In the current study, our objective was to design and evaluate an iconic user interface for the consultation of clinical practice guidelines by physicians. Methods Focus groups of physicians were set up to identify the difficulties encountered when reading guidelines. Icons were integrated into Vidal Recos, taking human factors into account. The resulting interface includes a graphical summary and an iconic indexation of the guideline. The new interface was evaluated. We compared the response times and the number of errors recorded when physicians answered questions about two clinical scenarios using the interactive iconic interface or a textual interface. Users’ perceived usability was evaluated with the System Usability Scale. Results The main difficulties encountered by physicians when reading guidelines were obtaining an overview and finding recommendations for patients corresponding to “particular cases”. We designed a graphical interface for guideline consultation, using icons to identify particular cases and providing a graphical summary of the icons organized by anatomy and etiology. The evaluation showed that physicians gave clinical responses more rapidly with the iconic interface than the textual interface (25.2 seconds versus 45.6, p < 0.05). The physicians appreciated the new interface, and the System Usability Scale score value was 75 (between good and excellent). Conclusion An interactive iconic interface can provide physicians with an overview of clinical practice guidelines, and can decrease the time required to access the content of such guidelines. PMID:25158762

2014-01-01

295

Research on placebo analgesia is relevant to clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Over the decades, research into placebo responses has shed light onto several endogenous (i.e. produced from within) mechanisms underlying modulation of pain perception initiated after the administration of inert substances (i.e. placebos). Chiropractors and manual therapists should embrace analgesic-placebo-research in an attempt to maximize clinical benefit. Historical views that placebo responses are fake, passive, undesirable, and require deception and therefore should be minimized and avoided in clinical practice are outdated. Further, statements that contend the placebo response represents a single mechanism are overly simplistic. This commentary will discuss research that shows that there are several active biological processes underlying modulation of pain perception involved in placebo analgesia and its counterpart nocebo hyperalgesia. We contend that it is highly likely that, to some extent, all of these biological processes are engaged, in varying degrees, following all interventions and represent endogenous pain modulating processes. Failure, of chiropractors and manual therapists, to embrace a more contemporary view of analgesic-placebo-research serves as a barrier to transferring knowledge into clinical practice and represents a missed opportunity to improve the delivery of current treatments. PMID:24484728

2014-01-01

296

Changing clinical practice: management of paediatric community-acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Rationale and aim To compare clinical features and management of paediatric community-acquired pneumonia (PCAP) following the publication of UK pneumonia guidelines in 2002 with data from a similar survey at the same hospitals in 2001–2002 (pre-guidelines). Methods A prospective survey of 11 hospitals in Northern England was undertaken during 2008–2009. Clinical and laboratory data were recorded on children aged ?16 years who presented with clinical and radiological features of pneumonia. Results 542 children were included. There was a reduction in all investigations performed (P?recommendations. Improvements in antibiotic use are possible and have implications for future antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Further work using cost-effectiveness analysis may also demonstrate a financial benefit to health services from adoption of guidelines. PMID:24118607

Elemraid, Mohamed A; Rushton, Stephen P; Thomas, Matthew F; Spencer, David A; Eastham, Katherine M; Gennery, Andrew R; Clark, Julia E

2014-01-01

297

Chiropractic clinical practice guideline: evidence-based treatment of adult neck pain not due to whiplash  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To provide an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the chiropractic cervical treatment of adults with acute or chronic neck pain not due to whiplash. This is a considerable health concern considered to be a priority by stakeholders, and about which the scientific information was poorly organized. OPTIONS Cervical treatments: manipulation, mobilization, ischemic pressure, clinic- and home-based exercise, traction, education, low-power laser, massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, pillows, pulsed electromagnetic therapy, and ultrasound. OUTCOMES The primary outcomes considered were improved (reduced and less intrusive) pain and improved (increased and easier) ranges of motion (ROM) of the adult cervical spine. EVIDENCE An “extraction” team recorded evidence from articles found by literature search teams using 4 separate literature searches, and rated it using a Table adapted from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. The searches were 1) Treatment; August, 2003, using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, ICL, The Cochrane Library (includes CENTRAL), and EBSCO, identified 182 articles. 2) Risk management (adverse events); October, 2004, identified 230 articles and 2 texts. 3) Risk management (dissection); September, 2003, identified 79 articles. 4) Treatment update; a repeat of the treatment search for articles published between September, 2003 and November, 2004 inclusive identified 121 articles. VALUES To enable the search of the literature, the authors (Guidelines Development Committee [GDC]) regarded chiropractic treatment as including elements of “conservative” care in the search strategies, but not in the consideration of the range of chiropractic practice. Also, knowledge based only on clinical experience was considered less valid and reliable than good-caliber evidence, but where the caliber of the relevant evidence was low or it was non-existent, unpublished clinical experience was considered to be equivalent to, or better than the published evidence. REPORTED BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS The expected benefits from the recommendations include more rapid recovery from pain, impairment and disability (improved pain and ROM). The GDC identified evidence-based pain benefits from 10 unimodal treatments and more than 7 multimodal treatments. There were no pain benefits from magnets in necklaces, education or relaxation alone, occipital release alone, or head retraction-extension exercise combinations alone. The specificity of the studied treatments meant few studies could be generalized to more than a minority of patients. Adverse events were not addressed in most studies, but where they were, there were none or they were minor. The theoretic harm of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) was not reported, but an analysis suggested that 1 VAD may occur subsequent to 1 million cervical manipulations. Costs were not analyzed in this guideline, but it is the understanding of the GDC that recommendations limiting ineffective care and promoting a more rapid return of patients to full functional capacity will reduce patient costs, as well as increase patient safety and satisfaction. For simplicity, this version of the guideline includes primarily data synthesized across studies (evidence syntheses), whereas the technical and the interactive versions of this guideline (http://ccachiro.org/cpg) also include relevant data from individual studies (evidence extractions). RECOMMENDATIONS The GDC developed treatment, risk-management and research recommendations using the available evidence. Treatment recommendations addressing 13 treatment modalities revolved around a decision algorithm comprising diagnosis (or assessment leading to diagnosis), treatment and reassessment. Several specific variations of modalities of treatment were not recommended. For adverse events not associated with a treatment modality, but that occur in the clinical setting, there was evidence to recommend reconsideration of treatment options or referral to the appropriate health services. For adverse eve

Anderson-Peacock, Elizabeth; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Bryans, Roland; Danis, Normand; Furlan, Andrea; Marcoux, Henri; Potter, Brock; Ruegg, Rick; Gross Stein, Janice; White, Eleanor

2005-01-01

298

Pressure Ulcers in Adults: Prediction and Prevention. Clinical Practice Guideline Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This package includes a clinical practice guideline, quick reference guide for clinicians, and patient's guide to predicting and preventing pressure ulcers in adults. The clinical practice guideline includes the following: overview of the incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers; clinical practice guideline (introduction, risk assessment tools…

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

299

Clinical Expert Panel on Monitoring Potential Lung Toxicity of Inhaled Oligonucleotides: Consensus Points and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Oligonucleotides (ONs) are an emerging class of drugs being developed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases including the treatment of respiratory diseases by the inhalation route. As a class, their toxicity on human lungs has not been fully characterized, and predictive toxicity biomarkers have not been identified. To that end, identification of sensitive methods and biomarkers that can detect toxicity in humans before any long term and/or irreversible side effects occur would be helpful. In light of the public's greater interests, the Inhalation Subcommittee of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group (OSWG) held expert panel discussions focusing on the potential toxicity of inhaled ONs and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of different monitoring techniques for use during the clinical evaluation of inhaled ON candidates. This white paper summarizes the key discussions and captures the panelists' perspectives and recommendations which, we propose, could be used as a framework to guide both industry and regulatory scientists in future clinical research to characterize and monitor the short and long term lung response to inhaled ONs. PMID:22809313

Alton, Eric W.; Boushey, Homer A.; Garn, Holger; Green, Francis H.; Hodges, Michael; Martin, Richard J.; Murdoch, Robert D.; Renz, Harald; Shrewsbury, Stephen B.; Seguin, Rosanne; Johnson, Graham; Parry, Joel D.; Tepper, Jeff; Renzi, Paolo; Cavagnaro, Joy

2012-01-01

300

Neural adaptations to resistive exercise: mechanisms and recommendations for training practices.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that neural factors play an important role in muscle strength gains. This article reviews the neural adaptations in strength, with the goal of laying the foundations for practical applications in sports medicine and rehabilitation. An increase in muscular strength without noticeable hypertrophy is the first line of evidence for neural involvement in acquisition of muscular strength. The use of surface electromyographic (SEMG) techniques reveal that strength gains in the early phase of a training regimen are associated with an increase in the amplitude of SEMG activity. This has been interpreted as an increase in neural drive, which denotes the magnitude of efferent neural output from the CNS to active muscle fibres. However, SEMG activity is a global measure of muscle activity. Underlying alterations in SEMG activity are changes in motor unit firing patterns as measured by indwelling (wire or needle) electrodes. Some studies have reported a transient increase in motor unit firing rate. Training-related increases in the rate of tension development have also been linked with an increased probability of doublet firing in individual motor units. A doublet is a very short interspike interval in a motor unit train, and usually occurs at the onset of a muscular contraction. Motor unit synchronisation is another possible mechanism for increases in muscle strength, but has yet to be definitely demonstrated. There are several lines of evidence for central control of training-related adaptation to resistive exercise. Mental practice using imagined contractions has been shown to increase the excitability of the cortical areas involved in movement and motion planning. However, training using imagined contractions is unlikely to be as effective as physical training, and it may be more applicable to rehabilitation. Retention of strength gains after dissipation of physiological effects demonstrates a strong practice effect. Bilateral contractions are associated with lower SEMG and strength compared with unilateral contractions of the same muscle group. SEMG magnitude is lower for eccentric contractions than for concentric contractions. However, resistive training can reverse these trends. The last line of evidence presented involves the notion that unilateral resistive exercise of a specific limb will also result in training effects in the unexercised contralateral limb (cross-transfer or cross-education). Peripheral involvement in training-related strength increases is much more uncertain. Changes in the sensory receptors (i.e. Golgi tendon organs) may lead to disinhibition and an increased expression of muscular force. Agonist muscle activity results in limb movement in the desired direction, while antagonist activity opposes that motion. Both decreases and increases in co-activation of the antagonist have been demonstrated. A reduction in antagonist co-activation would allow increased expression of agonist muscle force, while an increase in antagonist co-activation is important for maintaining the integrity of the joint. Thus far, it is not clear what the CNS will optimise: force production or joint integrity. The following recommendations are made by the authors based on the existing literature. Motor learning theory and imagined contractions should be incorporated into strength-training practice. Static contractions at greater muscle lengths will transfer across more joint angles. Submaximal eccentric contractions should be used when there are issues of muscle pain, detraining or limb immobilisation. The reversal of antagonists (antagonist-to-agonist) proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation contraction pattern would be useful to increase the rate of tension development in older adults, thus serving as an important prophylactic in preventing falls. When evaluating the neural changes induced by strength training using EMG recording, antagonist EMG activity should always be measured and evaluated. PMID:16464122

Gabriel, David A; Kamen, Gary; Frost, Gail

2006-01-01

301

Evaluating the design of a family practice healthcare clinic using discrete-event simulation.  

PubMed

With increased pressures from governmental and insurance agencies, today's physician devotes less time to patient care and more time to administration. To assist physician clinics in evaluating potential operating procedures that improve operating efficiencies and better satisfy patients, an object-oriented discrete-event simulation model has been constructed using the Visual Simulation Environment (VSE). The research presented herein describes a methodology for determining appropriate staffing and physical resources in a clinical environment using this simulation model. This methodology takes advantage of several simulation-based statistical techniques, including batch means: fractional factorial design: and simultaneous ranking, selection, and multiple comparisons. A clinic effectiveness measure is introduced that captures several objectives within a health care clinic, including profitability and patient satisfaction. An explanation of the experimental design is provided and results of the experimentation are presented. Based upon the experimental results, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made for an appropriate staffing and facility size for a two physician family practice healthcare clinic. PMID:11993750

Swisher, James R; Jacobson, Sheldon H

2002-04-01

302

Qualitative Distinctions and Similarities in the Practice of Clinical Nurse Specialists and Nurse Practitioners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of results of two studies regarding the actual practice of clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners revealed a shared core of advanced practice competencies as well as distinct differences between practice roles. (JOW)

Fenton, Mary V.; Brykczynski, Karen A.

1993-01-01

303

Reimagining Nursing's Place in the History of Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

This work posits how medical history might be conceptualized if nurses and nursing history was used as the analytical lens. Nursing is seen not as a separate part or subsection of medical history, but rather one that is deeply embedded in the relationships and social order of clinical practice. Nursing is an analytical category in and of itself. By approaching nursing as such a category, we enlarge “new notions of historical significance” to encompass personal, political, public, and private activities that constitute medical experiences. PMID:18375461

Fairman, Julie; D'Antonio, Patricia

2008-01-01

304

Relevance of guideline-based ICD indications to clinical practice  

PubMed Central

The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has established itself as life-saving therapy in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Remarkable technological advances have made ICDs easier and safer to implant, with improved therapeutic and diagnostic functions and reduced morbidity. Guidelines on ICD indications have been proposed by American and European scientific societies since a number of years, based upon trials and expert opinion. In the context of variable economic and political constraints, it is questionable whether these guidelines may be applied to all settings. This review discusses the guideline-based indications, critically examines their applicability to clinical practice, and discusses alternatives to ICD therapy. PMID:24568834

Al-Jefairi, Nora; Burri, Haran

2014-01-01

305

The role of fluorescence diagnosis in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence diagnosis is a fast, easy, noninvasive, selective, and sensitive diagnostic tool for estimation of treatment results in oncology. In clinical practice the use of photodynamic diagnosis is focused on five targets: detection for prevention of malignant transformation precancerous changes, detection of neoplasmatic tissue in the early stages for fast removal, prevention of expansion and detection of recurrence of the cancer, monitoring therapy, and the possibility of excluding neoplasmatic disease. In this article, selected applications of fluorescence diagnosis at the Center for Laser Diagnostics and Therapy in Bytom, Poland, for each of these targets are presented. PMID:23935372

Siero?, Aleksander; Siero?-Sto?tny, Karolina; Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Latos, Wojciech; Kwiatek, Sebastian; Straszak, Dariusz; Bugaj, Andrzej M

2013-01-01

306

Initiating a vasectomy training clinic in a family practice residency.  

PubMed

The development of and initial experience with a vasectomy training clinic in a family practice residency program are presented. A literature review and faculty consensus resulted in the acceptance of a standardized technique in which the ends of the vas are cauterized and not tied. An appropriate time block per patient to allow for counseling and for teaching of the technique was 90 minutes. Patients were recruited by instituting reduced charges and advertising through the local Planned Parenthood office and county health service. A partial prepayment was required to reduce broken appointments. Review of the first 50 cases indicates a good resident experience, an appropriately low complication rate, and no failures. PMID:2753259

Eggertsen, S C; Leversee, J H; Nuovo, J

1989-01-01

307

Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?  

PubMed Central

Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU) risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed. PMID:21197359

Kottner, Jan; Balzer, Katrin

2010-01-01

308

Common Data Elements for Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Recommendations from the Working Group on Demographics and Clinical Assessment  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Common Data Elements (CDEs) initiative is a National Institutes of Health (NIH) interagency effort to standardize naming, definitions, and data structure for clinical research variables. Comparisons of the results of clinical studies of neurological disorders have been hampered by variability in data coding, definitions, and procedures for sample collection. The CDE project objective is to enable comparison of future clinical trials results in major neurological disorders, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. As part of this effort, recommendations for CDEs for research on TBI were developed through a 2009 multi-agency initiative. Following the initial recommendations of the Working Group on Demographics and Clinical Assessment, a separate workgroup developed recommendations on the coding of clinical and demographic variables specific to pediatric TBI studies for subjects younger than 18 years. This article summarizes the selection of measures by the Pediatric TBI Demographics and Clinical Assessment Working Group. The variables are grouped into modules which are grouped into categories. For consistency with other CDE working groups, each variable was classified by priority (core, supplemental, and emerging). Templates were produced to summarize coding formats, guide selection of data points, and provide procedural recommendations. This proposed standardization, together with the products of the other pediatric TBI working groups in imaging, biomarkers, and outcome assessment, will facilitate multi-center studies, comparison of results across studies, and high-quality meta-analyses of individual patient data. PMID:21939389

Adelson, P. David; Pineda, Jose; Bell, Michael J.; Abend, Nicholas S.; Berger, Rachel P.; Giza, Christopher C.; Hotz, Gillian

2012-01-01

309

Utilization of the American Telemedicine Association's Clinical Practice Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: The American Telemedicine Association (ATA) Standards and Guidelines Committee develops practice standards and guidelines. Key to the Committee's mission is dissemination so the standards can be used in the practice of telemedicine. Over a 2-year period, when a standards document was accessed from the ATA Web site, a short survey was completed, but it did not assess how the documents were used once downloaded. A more formal survey was conducted to determine the impact ATA standards and guidelines are having on healthcare delivery via telemedicine. Materials and Methods: A survey was developed and distributed via SurveyMonkey to 13,177 ATA members and nonmembers in November 2011. Results were compiled and analyzed after a 90-day open period for responses to be submitted. Results: The majority of respondents (96%) believe the practice of telemedicine/telehealth should have standards and guidelines and that the ATA and other professional societies/associations should be responsible for developing them. The top uses of guidelines include guidance for clinical practice, training, gaining reimbursement, and research. Respondents indicating a need for standards and guidelines said the ATA (78.7%) and other professional societies/associations (74.5%) should be responsible for development. When asked to list specific practice guidelines or standards they are using for telehealth, the majority (21.5%) are using in-house (e.g., hospital, company)-developed guidelines, followed by those from professional associations/societies (20.4%) and those developed by the ATA (18.2%). Conclusions: Overall, the survey results indicate guidelines documents developed by the ATA and other professional societies and those developed in-house are being regularly accessed and used in both public and private sectors. Practitioners of telemedicine believe that standards and guidelines are needed for guidance for clinical practice, training, gaining reimbursement, and research, and they are to use those developed by professional organization such as the ATA as well as those developed by their own institutions. PMID:24050615

Antoniotti, Nina; Bernard, Jordana

2013-01-01

310

The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis of the first deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) may be challenging due to the inaccuracy of clinical assessment and diversity of diagnostic tests. On one hand, missed diagnosis may result in life-threatening conditions. On the other hand, unnecessary treatment may lead to serious complications. As a result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo-Embolism (SAVTE; a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society) with the methodological support of the McMaster University Working Group, produced this clinical practice guideline to assist healthcare providers in evidence-based clinical decision-making for the diagnosis of a suspected first DVT of the lower extremity. Twenty-four questions were identified and corresponding recommendations were made following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. These recommendations included assessing the clinical probability of DVT using Wells criteria before requesting any test and undergoing a sequential diagnostic evaluation, mainly using highly sensitive D-dimer by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compression ultrasound. Although venography is the reference standard test for the diagnosis of DVT, its use was not recommended.

Al-Hameed, Fahad; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M; Shamy, Abdulrahman; Qadi, Abdulelah; Bakhsh, Ebtisam; Aboelnazar, Essam; Abdelaal, Mohamad; Al Khuwaitir, Tarig; Al-Moamary, Mohamed S.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Brozek, Jan; Schünemann, Holger; Mustafa, Reem; Falavigna, Maicon

2015-01-01

311

Best practices recommendations in the application of immunohistochemistry in the bladder lesions: report from the International Society of Urologic Pathology consensus conference.  

PubMed

The bladder working group of the 2013 International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) Conference on Best Practices Recommendation in the Application of Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in Urologic Pathology discussed 5 settings in which IHC is commonly used in clinical practice. With regard to markers for urothelial differentiation, the committee found that there is no ideal marker or established panel to confirm urothelial differentiation. On the basis of the differential diagnostic consideration, positivity for GATA3, CK20, p63, and either high-molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK) or cytokeratin (CK)5/6 is of value in proving urothelial differentiation in the appropriate morphologic and clinical context. With regard to the role of IHC in the distinction of reactive atypia from urothelial carcinoma in situ, the committee recommended that morphology remains the gold standard in this differential diagnosis and that, at best, the IHC panel of CK20/p53/CD44(s) has potential utility but is variably used and has limitations. The immunostaining pattern must be interpreted with strict morphologic correlation, because overreliance on IHC may be misleading, particularly in the posttreatment setting. IHC has no role in the distinction of dysplasia versus carcinoma in situ and in the grading of papillary urothelial carcinoma. IHC may have a limited but distinct role in staging of bladder cancer. In a subset of cases, depending on the clinical and histologic context, broad-spectrum cytokeratins (to identify early or obscured invasion) and desmin (distinction of muscle from desmoplasia and to highlight muscle contours for subclassification) may be helpful. Limited experience and conflicting data preclude smoothelin or vimentin to be recommended routinely for subclassifying muscle type at this time. In the workup of a spindled cell proliferation of the bladder and in limited specimens, we recommend an immunohistochemical panel of 6 markers including ALK1, SMA, desmin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), and p63 with either of HMWCK or CK5/6. Currently, there are no prognostic immunohistochemical or molecular studies that are recommended to be routinely performed on biopsy or resection specimens. PMID:25029121

Amin, Mahul B; Trpkov, Kiril; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Grignon, David

2014-08-01

312

2006-2007 American Diabetes Association Nutrition Recommendations: Issue for Practice Translation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The American Diabetes Association 2006 Nutrition Recommendations update the previous 2002 statement which was accompanied by technical review and was modified slightly in 2004. The complete 2006 recommendations are available at www.diabetes.org/ add link information). The role of nutrition in dia...

313

Design and Delivery of a Tailored Intervention to Implement Recommendations for Multimorbid Patients Receiving Polypharmacy into Primary Care Practices  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Managing polypharmacy is particularly demanding for general practitioners as coordinators of care. Recently, a German guideline for polypharmacy in primary care has been published. This paper describes the content and delivery of a tailored intervention, which aims at improving the implementation of guideline recommendations for polypharmacy into practice, considering individual barriers. Materials and Methods. Firstly, barriers for implementation and the corresponding strategies to address them have been identified. On this basis, an intervention consisting of a workshop for health care professionals and educational materials for patients has been developed. The workshop focused on knowledge, awareness, and skills. The educational materials included a tablet computer. Practice teams will elaborate individual concepts of how to implement the recommendations into their practice. The workshop has been evaluated by the participants by means of a questionnaire. Results. During the workshop 41 possible sources of medication errors and 41 strategies to improve medication management have been identified. Participants evaluated the workshop overall positively, certifying its relevancy to practice. Discussion. The concept of the workshop seemed appropriate to impart knowledge about medication management to the participants. It will have to be evaluated, if the intervention finally resulted in an improved implementation of the guideline recommendations.

Szecsenyi, Joachim; Steinhäuser, Jost

2015-01-01

314

Adjuvant Chemotherapy Following Complete Resection of Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Adults: A Clinical Practice Guideline  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To review the literature and make recommendations for the use of anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy in adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Patients. The recommendations apply to patients >15 years old with completely resected STS. Methods. A systematic overview of the published literature was combined with a consensus process around the interpretation of the evidence in the context of conventional practice to develop an evidence-based practice guideline. Results. Four meta-analyses and 17 randomized clinical trials comparing anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation were reviewed. The Sarcoma Meta-Analysis Collaboration (SMAC) was the best analysis because it assessed individual patient data and had the longest follow-up. The results of the SMAC meta-analysis together with data from more recently published randomized trials, as well as our analysis of the toxicity and compliance data, are incorporated in this systematic review. Discussion. It is reasonable to consider anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who have had removal of a sarcoma with features predicting a high likelihood of relapse (deep location, size >5 cm, high histological grade). Although the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy are most apparent in patients with extremity sarcomas, patients with high-risk tumours at other sites should also be considered for such therapy. PMID:18521341

Bramwell, Vivien H. C.; Bell, Robert; Davis, Aileen M.; Charette, Manya L.; The members of the cancer care Ontario practice guidelines initiative sarcoma disease site group

2002-01-01

315

Recommendations from the Clinical Trials Task Force as regards Phase II trials  

Cancer.gov

The CTD-TF has attempted to provide guidance by developing these general recommendations. These recommendations primarily focus on trial designs to demonstrate activity but may include secondary objectives exploring toxicity, scheduling or biomarkers.

316

American geriatrics society abstracted clinical practice guideline for postoperative delirium in older adults.  

PubMed

The abstracted set of recommendations presented here provides essential guidance both on the prevention of postoperative delirium in older patients at risk of delirium and on the treatment of older surgical patients with delirium, and is based on the 2014 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Guideline. The full version of the guideline, American Geriatrics Society Clinical Practice Guideline for Postoperative Delirium in Older Adults is available at the website of the AGS. The overall aims of the study were twofold: first, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the prevention of postoperative delirium in older adults; and second, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the treatment of postoperative delirium in older adults. Prevention recommendations focused on primary prevention (i.e., preventing delirium before it occurs) in patients who are at risk for postoperative delirium (e.g., those identified as moderate-to-high risk based on previous risk stratification models such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, Delirium: Diagnosis, Prevention and Management. Clinical Guideline 103; London (UK): 2010 July 29). For management of delirium, the goals of this guideline are to decrease delirium severity and duration, ensure patient safety and improve outcomes. PMID:25495432

2015-01-01

317

Application of the CIT concept in the clinical environment: hurdles, practicalities, and clinical benefits.  

PubMed

Basic neuroscience research on brain plasticity, motor learning, and recovery has stimulated new concepts in motor rehabilitation. Combined with the development of methodological goal standards in clinical outcome research, these findings have effectuated the introduction of a double-paradigm shift in physical rehabilitation: (a) the move toward evidence-based procedures and disablement models for the assessment of clinical outcome and (b) the introduction of training-based concepts that are theoretically founded in learning theory. A major drive for new interventions has further come from recent findings on the adaptive capacities of neural networks and their linkage to perception, performance, and long-term recovery. In this context, constraint-induced movement therapy, an intervention initially designed for upper-limb hemiparesis, represents the theoretically and empirically most thoroughly founded training concept. Several clinical trials on constraint-induced therapy (CIT) have shown its efficacy in higher functioning patients; however, the transfer of the treatment into standard health care seems slow. Survey research further suggests a rather poor acceptance of CIT among clinical staff and it seems that the implementation of CIT is hindered by barriers constructed of beliefs and assumptions that demand a critical and evidence-based discussion. Within this context, we have conducted a series of experiments on amended CIT protocols and their application in the clinical environment which addressed the following issues: (1) massed practice: are 6 hours of daily training inevitable to achieve clinical benefits? (2) practicality: what is feasible in the standard care setting and what are the clinical benefits achieved by "feasible compromise CIT protocols?" (3) apprehensions: are concerns on increased muscular tone and pathologic movement patterns justified, and (4) learned nonuse: is the assumption of "hidden" residual abilities valid so that it warrants the constraint condition? In the present paper, the key findings of these studies will be summarized and critically discussed. PMID:16633019

Sterr, Annette; Szameitat, Andre; Shen, Shan; Freivogel, Susanna

2006-03-01

318

Biomarker identification in psychiatric disorders: from neuroscience to clinical practice.  

PubMed

Patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit several neurobehavioral and neuropsychological alterations compared to healthy controls. However, signature endpoints of these behavioral manifestations have not yet been translated into clinical tests for diagnosis and follow-up measures. Recently, neuroproteomic approaches have been utilized to identify unique signature markers indicative of these disorders. Development of reliable biomarkers has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, classification, and monitoring of clinical responses in psychiatric diseases. However, the lack of biological gold standards, the evolving nosology of psychiatric disorders, and the complexity of the nervous system are among the major challenges that have hindered efforts to develop reliable biomarkers in the field of neuropsychiatry and drug abuse. While biomarkers currently have a limited role in the area of neuropsychiatry, several promising biomarkers have been proposed in conditions such as dementia, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, and addiction. One of the primary objectives of this review is to discuss the role of proteomics in the development of biomarkers specific to neuropsychiatry. We discuss and evaluate currently available biomarkers as well as those that are under research for clinical use in the future. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2015;21:37-48). PMID:25603450

Razafsha, Mahdi; Khaku, Aunali; Azari, Hassan; Alawieh, Ali; Behforuzi, Hura; Fadlallah, Bilal; Kobeissy, Firas H; Wang, Kevin K; Gold, Mark S

2015-01-01

319

7(th) International Immunoglobulin Conference: Immunoglobulin in Clinical Practice.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy has been the mainstay of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) treatment for more than 30 years and has substantially changed the lives of patients. This review focuses on aspects of Ig use in clinical practice in addition to discussing prioritizing future Ig use. Despite Ig therapy, PID patients continue to be predisposed to recurrent, subclinical respiratory tract infections, which may lead to chronic lung disease. Research has shown that one of the underlying reasons for this deterioration in lung function is the differential distribution and concentration of Ig isotypes in the airway lumen. Further to this, the relationship between Ig dose and infection outcome is explored, expanding on end-of-cycle loss of efficacy (wear-off) particularly with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), how this can confound the determination of optimal IgG dose and how our aim of treatment should be to improve clinical outcome. This review goes on to discuss the safety of Ig replacement therapy, which is generally well tolerated by most patients, compares the rates of systemic adverse reactions between IVIg and SCIg and highlights the advantages of SCIg administration in this respect, including the use of pre-infused subcutaneous recombinant human hyaluronidase to aid subcutaneous infusion volumes. The growing demand for Ig replacement therapy is challenging physicians; here we show the development of prioritization algorithms to assist in identifying those who will benefit most from this clinically valuable therapy. PMID:25546766

Shapiro, R S; Borte, M

2014-12-01

320

Critical appraisal in clinical practice: sometimes irrelevant, occasionally invalid.  

PubMed

A core activity of evidence-based practice is the search for and appraisal of evidence on specific clinical issues. Clinicians vary in their competence in this process; we therefore developed a 16-item checklist for quality of content (relevance and validity) and presentation (useability, attribution, currency and contact details). This was applied to a set of 55 consecutive appraisals conducted by clinicians and posted at a web-based medical journal club site. Questions were well formulated in 51/55 (92%) of the appraisals. However, 22% of appraisals missed the most relevant articles to answer the clinical question. Validity of articles was well appraised, with methodological information and data accurately extracted in 84% and accurate conversion to clinically meaningful summary statistics in 87%. The appraisals were presented in a useable way with appropriate and clear bottom-lines stated in 95%. The weakest link in production of good-quality critical appraisals was identification of relevant articles. This should be a focus for evidence-based medicine and critical appraisal skills. PMID:11691894

Coomarasamy, A; Latthe, P; Papaioannou, S; Publicover, M; Gee, H; Khan, K S

2001-11-01

321

Multidisciplinary Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients require different treatment strategies according to disease extension, liver function, and patient's fitness. We evaluated HCC multidisciplinary management in clinical practice. Methods. Consecutive patients were followed and treated with tailored medical, locoregional, and surgical treatments, according to disease stage and patient's fitness (age, Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS)). Activity, efficacy, and safety were evaluated. Results. Thirty-eight patients were evaluated: median age, 74; elderly 92%; CIRS secondary 28 (74%); Child-Pugh A 20 (53%), B 11 (29%); and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) 0 2 (5%), A 9 (24%), B 10 (26%), C 13 (34%), and D 4 (11%). Overall survival (OS) was 30 months. At 9 months median follow-up, among 25 unresectable HCC, OS was 10 months; BCLC B–D unfit for sorafenib showed OS 3 months. Ten patients (40%) received sorafenib: Child-Pugh A 5 (50%) and B 5 (50%) and disease control rate 89%, progression-free survival 7 months, and OS 9 months. G3-4 toxicities: anorexia, hypertransaminaemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and hypercreatininemia. Limiting toxicity syndromes were 40%, all multiple sites. Conclusion. HCC patients require multidisciplinary clinical management to properly select tailored treatments according to disease stage, fitness, and liver function. Patients suitable for sorafenib should be carefully selected, monitored for individual safety, and prevalently characterized by limiting toxicity syndromes multiple sites. PMID:24900987

Cannita, Katia; Giordano, Aldo Victor; Manetta, Rosa; Vicentini, Roberto; Carducci, Sergio; Saltarelli, Patrizia; Iapadre, Nerio; Coletti, Gino; Ficorella, Corrado; Ricevuto, Enrico

2014-01-01

322

Water immersion recovery for athletes: effect on exercise performance and practical recommendations.  

PubMed

Water immersion is increasingly being used by elite athletes seeking to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery. Accelerated short-term (hours to days) recovery may improve competition performance, allow greater training loads or enhance the effect of a given training load. However, the optimal water immersion protocols to assist short-term recovery of performance still remain unclear. This article will review the water immersion recovery protocols investigated in the literature, their effects on performance recovery, briefly outline the potential mechanisms involved and provide practical recommendations for their use by athletes. For the purposes of this review, water immersion has been divided into four techniques according to water temperature: cold water immersion (CWI; ?20 °C), hot water immersion (HWI; ?36 °C), contrast water therapy (CWT; alternating CWI and HWI) and thermoneutral water immersion (TWI; >20 to <36 °C). Numerous articles have reported that CWI can enhance recovery of performance in a variety of sports, with immersion in 10-15 °C water for 5-15 min duration appearing to be most effective at accelerating performance recovery. However, the optimal CWI duration may depend on the water temperature, and the time between CWI and the subsequent exercise bout appears to influence the effect on performance. The few studies examining the effect of post-exercise HWI on subsequent performance have reported conflicting findings; therefore the effect of HWI on performance recovery is unclear. CWT is most likely to enhance performance recovery when equal time is spent in hot and cold water, individual immersion durations are short (~1 min) and the total immersion duration is up to approximately 15 min. A dose-response relationship between CWT duration and recovery of exercise performance is unlikely to exist. Some articles that have reported CWT to not enhance performance recovery have had methodological issues, such as failing to detect a decrease in performance in control trials, not performing full-body immersion, or using hot showers instead of pools. TWI has been investigated as both a control to determine the effect of water temperature on performance recovery, and as an intervention itself. However, due to conflicting findings it is uncertain whether TWI improves recovery of subsequent exercise performance. Both CWI and CWT appear likely to assist recovery of exercise performance more than HWI and TWI; however, it is unclear which technique is most effective. While the literature on the use of water immersion for recovery of exercise performance is increasing, further research is required to obtain a more complete understanding of the effects on performance. PMID:23743793

Versey, Nathan G; Halson, Shona L; Dawson, Brian T

2013-11-01

323

Research designs for proof-of-concept chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations.  

PubMed

Proof-of-concept (POC) clinical trials play an important role in developing novel treatments and determining whether existing treatments may be efficacious in broader populations of patients. The goal of most POC trials is to determine whether a treatment is likely to be efficacious for a given indication and thus whether it is worth investing the financial resources and participant exposure necessary for a confirmatory trial of that intervention. A challenge in designing POC trials is obtaining sufficient information to make this important go/no-go decision in a cost-effective manner. An IMMPACT consensus meeting was convened to discuss design considerations for POC trials in analgesia, with a focus on maximizing power with limited resources and participants. We present general design aspects to consider including patient population, active comparators and placebos, study power, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships, and minimization of missing data. Efficiency of single-dose studies for treatments with rapid onset is discussed. The trade-off between parallel-group and crossover designs with respect to overall sample sizes, trial duration, and applicability is summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of more recent trial designs, including N-of-1 designs, enriched designs, adaptive designs, and sequential parallel comparison designs, are summarized, and recommendations for consideration are provided. More attention to identifying efficient yet powerful designs for POC clinical trials of chronic pain treatments may increase the percentage of truly efficacious pain treatments that are advanced to confirmatory trials while decreasing the percentage of ineffective treatments that continue to be evaluated rather than abandoned. PMID:24865794

Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C; McDermott, Michael P; Baron, Ralf; Gastonguay, Marc R; Gilron, Ian; Katz, Nathaniel P; Mehta, Cyrus; Raja, Srinivasa N; Senn, Stephen; Taylor, Charles; Cowan, Penney; Desjardins, Paul; Dimitrova, Rozalina; Dionne, Raymond; Farrar, John T; Hewitt, David J; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Kalso, Eija; Kerns, Robert D; Leff, Richard; Leong, Michael; Petersen, Karin L; Ravina, Bernard M; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rice, Andrew S C; Rowbotham, Michael C; Sampaio, Cristina; Sindrup, Søren H; Stauffer, Joseph W; Steigerwald, Ilona; Stewart, Jonathan; Tobias, Jeffrey; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Wallace, Mark; White, Richard E

2014-09-01

324

Robot-mediated upper limb physiotherapy: review and recommendations for future clinical trials.  

PubMed

Robot-mediated physiotherapy provides a new possibility for improving the outcome of rehabilitation of patients who are recovering from stroke. This study is a review of robot-supported upper limb physiotherapy focusing on the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, OVID, and EBSCO for clinical trials with robots providing shoulder, elbow, or wrist therapy. Results concerning motor control, spasticity, functional outcome, and the main features of the studies were evaluated. A total of 178 papers were found. On the basis of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 30 studies remained for evaluation. In these trials, a total of 493 patients received robot-aided therapy. The Fugl-Meyer assessment was the most commonly used motor scale, and in 24 of 27 trials, motor function improved significantly. The application of the Modified Ashworth Scale showed that spasticity decreased significantly in nine of 21 trials. Functional scales were only examined in one-third of the studies with significant changes being found in half of them. The intensity and duration of the interventions as well as the elapsed time poststroke were varied. There are several scales, which were used in only a few trials. Unifying the methodology in robotic trials is desirable. Clarification of the acute/subacute/chronic categories, standardizing the application of certain scales for outcome measure in each trial, use of functional scales, and a clearer description of the interventions are recommended. PMID:21543990

Péter, Orsolya; Fazekas, Gábor; Zsiga, Katalin; Dénes, Zoltán

2011-09-01

325

2002 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada  

PubMed Central

Objective To revise and expand the 1996 Osteoporosis Society of Canada clinical practice guidelines for the management of osteoporosis, incorporating recent advances in diagnosis, prevention and management of osteoporosis, and to identify and assess the evidence supporting the recommendations. Options All aspects of osteoporosis care and its fracture complications — including classification, diagnosis, management and methods for screening, as well as prevention and reducing fracture risk — were reviewed, revised as required and expressed as a set of recommendations. Outcomes Strategies for identifying and evaluating those at high risk; the use of bone mineral density and biochemical markers in diagnosis and assessing response to management; recommendations regarding nutrition and physical activity; and the selection of pharmacologic therapy for the prevention and management of osteoporosis in men and women and for osteoporosis resulting from glucocorticoid treatment. Evidence All recommendations were developed using a justifiable and reproducible process involving an explicit method for the evaluation and citation of supporting evidence. Values All recommendations were reviewed by members of the Scientific Advisory Council of the Osteoporosis Society of Canada, an expert steering committee and others, including family physicians, dietitians, therapists and representatives of various medical specialties involved in osteoporosis care (geriatric medicine, rheumatology, endocrinology, obstetrics and gynecology, nephrology, radiology) as well as methodologists from across Canada. Benefits, harm and costs Earlier diagnosis and prevention of fractures should decrease the medical, social and economic burdens of this disease. Recommendations This document outlines detailed recommendations pertaining to all aspects of osteoporosis. Strategies for identifying those at increased risk (i.e., those with at least one major or 2 minor risk factors) and screening with central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at age 65 years are recommended. Bisphosphonates and raloxifene are first-line therapies in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Estrogen and progestin/progesterone is a first-line therapy in the prevention and a second-line therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Nasal calcitonin is a second-line therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Although not yet approved for use in Canada, hPTH(1-34) is expected to be a first-line treatment for postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis. Ipriflavone, vitamin K and fluoride are not recommended. Bisphosphonates are the first-line therapy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients requiring prolonged glucocorticoid therapy and for men with osteoporosis. Nasal or parenteral calcitonin is a first-line treatment for pain associated with acute vertebral fractures. Impact-type exercise and age-appropriate calcium and vitamin D intake are recommended for the prevention of osteoporosis. Validation: All recommendations were graded according to the strength of the evidence; where the evidence was insufficient and recommendations were based on consensus opinion alone, this is indicated. These guidelines are viewed as a work in progress and will be updated periodically in response to advances in this field. PMID:12427685

Brown, Jacques P.; Josse, Robert G.

2002-01-01

326

Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome.  

PubMed

New strategies for the care of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are developing and several novel treatments have been globally produced. New methods of care should be customized geographically because each country has a specific medical system, life style, eating habit, gut microbiota, genes and so on. Several clinical guidelines for IBS have been proposed and the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE) subsequently developed evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for IBS. Sixty-two clinical questions (CQs) comprising 1 definition, 6 epidemiology, 6 pathophysiology, 10 diagnosis, 30 treatment, 4 prognosis, and 5 complications were proposed and statements were made to answer to CQs. A diagnosis algorithm and a three-step treatment was provided for patients with chronic abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort and/or abnormal bowel movement. If more than one alarm symptom/sign, risk factor and/or routine examination is positive, colonoscopy is indicated. If all of them, or the subsequent colonoscopy, are/is negative, Rome III or compatible criteria is applied. After IBS diagnosis, step 1 therapy consisting of diet therapy, behavioral modification and gut-targeted pharmacotherapy is indicated for four weeks. Non-responders to step 1 therapy proceed to the second step that includes psychopharmacological agents and simple psychotherapy for four weeks. In the third step, for patients non-responsive to step 2 therapy, a combination of gut-targeted pharmacotherapy, psychopharmacological treatments and/or specific psychotherapy is/are indicated. Clinical guidelines and consensus for IBS treatment in Japan are well suited for Japanese IBS patients; as such, they may provide useful insight for IBS treatment in other countries around the world. PMID:25500976

Fukudo, Shin; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Akiho, Hirotada; Inamori, Masahiko; Endo, Yuka; Okumura, Toshikatsu; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Kamiya, Takeshi; Sato, Ken; Chiba, Toshimi; Furuta, Kenji; Yamato, Shigeru; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Azuma, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Mine, Tetsuya; Miura, Soichiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Kentaro; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2015-01-01

327

Tumor markers in clinical practice: General principles and guidelines  

PubMed Central

Tumor markers are assuming a growing role in all aspects of cancer care, starting from screening to follow-up after treatment, and their judicious application in clinical practice needs a thorough understanding of the basics of pathophysiology, techniques of identification or testing, reasons for out-of-range levels of tumor markers, as well as the knowledge of evidence of their role in any given malignancy. These are, at the most, just an adjunct to diagnosis, and establishing a diagnosis on the basis of tumor markers alone (especially a single result) is fraught with associated pitfalls because of the problem of nonspecificity. In reality an ideal tumor marker does not exist. Detection can be done either in tissue or in body fluids like ascitic or pleural fluid or serum. Clinical uses can be broadly classified into 4 groups: screening and early detection, diagnostic confirmation, prognosis and prediction of therapeutic response and monitoring disease and recurrence. In addition to variable sensitivity and specificity, the prevalence of a particular malignancy may be a major determinant in the application of a particular test as a screening tool. Serum levels, in certain situations, can be used in staging, prognostication or prediction of response to therapy. Monitoring disease is, perhaps, the most common clinical use of serum tumor markers. Rising trend in serum levels may detect recurrence of disease well before any clinical or radiological evidence of disease is apparent ("biochemical recurrence"). Sampling should ideally be repeated after 5-6 half-lives of the marker in question (or the marker with the longest half-life if multiple markers are being considered); but if found elevated, the next sampling after 2-4 weeks, for additional evidence, may be justified. PMID:20668599

Sharma, S.

2009-01-01

328

Practices, patients and (im)perfect data - feasibility of a randomised controlled clinical drug trial in German general practices  

PubMed Central

Background Randomised controlled clinical (drug) trials supply high quality evidence for therapeutic strategies in primary care. Until now, experience with drug trials in German general practice has been sparse. In 2007/2008, the authors conducted an investigator-initiated, non-commercial, double-blind, randomised controlled pilot trial (HWI-01) to assess the clinical equivalence of ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Here, we report the feasibility of this trial in German general practices and the implementation of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) standards as defined by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) in mainly inexperienced general practices. Methods This report is based on the experience of the HWI-01 study conducted in 29 German general practices. Feasibility was defined by 1) successful practice recruitment, 2) sufficient patient recruitment, 3) complete and accurate data collection and 4) appropriate protection of patient safety. Results The final practice recruitment rate was 18%. In these practices, 79 of 195 screened UTI patients were enrolled. Recruitment differed strongly between practices (range 0-12, mean 2.8 patients per practice) and was below the recruitment goal of approximately 100 patients. As anticipated, practice nurses became the key figures in the screening und recruitment of patients. Clinical trial demands, in particular for completing symptom questionnaires, documentation of source data and reporting of adverse events, did not agree well with GPs' documentation habits and required support from study nurses. In many cases, GPs and practice staff seemed to be overwhelmed by the amount of information and regulations. No sudden unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs) were observed during the trial. Conclusions To enable drug trials in general practice, it is necessary to adapt the setup of clinical research infrastructure to the needs of GPs and their practice staff. Risk adaption of clinical trial regulations is necessary to facilitate non-commercial comparative effectiveness trials in primary health care. Trial Registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN00470468 PMID:21457558

2011-01-01

329

Are VA primary care providers aware of HIV testing recommendations for Veterans? Findings at an urban VA primary care clinic.  

PubMed

Given the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in veterans and that nearly 90% of veterans have not been HIV tested, the Veterans Affairs (VA) has recommended routine HIV testing of all veterans.The objective of this study carried out at an urban VA primary care clinic was to assess provider knowledge of recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and VA HIV testing recommendations and policies. Fifty-six primary care providers completed a survey. Nearly 40% of providers were unaware of the CDC recommendation to test all persons ages 13 to 64 in health care settings or the VA policy to test veterans of all ages. Over 75% of providers were unaware of the latest requirements for pre- and posttest counseling, and many were unaware of the latest consent process requirements. Educating VA providers about recent HIV testing recommendations and policies may improve the low HIV testing prevalence in the VA. PMID:23707836

Arya, Monisha; Bush, Amber L; Kallen, Michael A; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Giordano, Thomas P

2013-04-01

330

Use of hepatitis B vaccination for adults with diabetes mellitus: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic infection of the liver leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. In the United States, since 1996, a total of 29 outbreaks of HBV infection in one or multiple long-term-care (LTC) facilities, including nursing homes and assisted-living facilities, were reported to CDC; of these, 25 involved adults with diabetes receiving assisted blood glucose monitoring. These outbreaks prompted the Hepatitis Vaccines Work Group of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to evaluate the risk for HBV infection among all adults with diagnosed diabetes. The Work Group reviewed HBV infection-related morbidity and mortality and the effectiveness of implementing infection prevention and control measures. The strength of scientific evidence regarding protection was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology,* and safety, values, and cost-effectiveness were incorporated into a recommendation using the GRADE system. Based on the Work Group findings, on October 25, 2011, ACIP recommended that all previously unvaccinated adults aged 19 through 59 years with diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) be vaccinated against hepatitis B as soon as possible after a diagnosis of diabetes is made (recommendation category A). Data on the risk for hepatitis B among adults aged ?60 years are less robust. Therefore, ACIP recommended that unvaccinated adults aged ?60 years with diabetes may be vaccinated at the discretion of the treating clinician after assessing their risk and the likelihood of an adequate immune response to vaccination (recommendation category B). This report summarizes these recommendations and provides the rationale used by ACIP to inform their decision making. PMID:22189894

2011-12-23

331

Disparate inclusion of older adults in clinical trials: priorities and opportunities for policy and practice change. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The Eliminating Disparities in Clinical Trials (EDICT) initiative conducted several meetings, workshops, and policy reviews to develop recommendations for increasing participation of underrepresented groups in clinical trials.

332

A Systematic Review of Recent Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Diagnosis, Assessment and Management of Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), optimal hypertension control is not achieved in many parts of the world; one of the challenges is the volume of guidelines on this topic and their variable quality. To systematically review the quality, methodology, and consistency of recommendations of recently-developed national CPGs on the diagnosis, assessment and the management of hypertension. Methodology/Principal Findings MEDLINE, EMBASE, guidelines' websites and Google were searched for CPGs written in English on the general management of hypertension in any clinical setting published between January 2006 and September 2011. Four raters independently appraised each CPG using the AGREE-II instrument and 2 reviewers independently extracted the data. Conflicts were resolved by discussion or the involvement of an additional reviewer. Eleven CPGs were identified. The overall quality ranged from 2.5 to 6 out of 7 on the AGREE-II tool. The highest scores were for “clarity of presentation” (44.4% ?88.9%) and the lowest were for “rigour of development” (8.3%–30% for 9 CGPs). None of them clearly reported being newly developed or adapted. Only one reported having a patient representative in its development team. Systematic reviews were not consistently used and only 2 up-to-date Cochrane reviews were cited. Two CPGs graded some recommendations and related that to levels (but not quality) of evidence. The CPGs' recommendations on assessment and non-pharmacological management were fairly consistent. Guidelines varied in the selection of first-line treatment, adjustment of therapy and drug combinations. Important specific aspects of care (e.g. resistant hypertension) were ignored by 6/11 CPGs. The CPGs varied in methodological quality, suggesting that their implementation might not result in less variation of care or in better health-related outcomes. Conclusions/Significance More efforts are needed to promote the realistic approach of localization or local adaptation of existing high-quality CPGs to the national context. PMID:23349738

Al-Ansary, Lubna A.; Tricco, Andrea C.; Adi, Yaser; Bawazeer, Ghada; Perrier, Laure; Al-Ghonaim, Mohammed; AlYousefi, Nada; Tashkandi, Mariam; Straus, Sharon E.

2013-01-01

333

Practices used for recommending sickness certification by general practitioners: A conversation analytic study of UK primary care consultations.  

PubMed

Existing research indicates that many patients and doctors find the process of negotiating sickness certification for time off work to be a difficult one. This study examined how patients and general practitioners (GPs) managed these negotiations in a sample of UK primary care consultations. The study made use of an existing dataset of audio-recorded consultations between 13 GPs and 506 unselected adult patients in five general practices in London. Forty-nine consultations included discussions for both initial and repeat sickness certification across a wide range of conditions. Here we report our findings on doctor practices for recommending, as opposed to patient practices for advocating for, sickness certification (n = 26 cases). All cases were transcribed in detail and analysed using conversation analytic methods. Four main communication practices were observed: (1) declarative statements of need for sickness certification; (2) 'do you need' offers for sickness certification; (3) 'do you want' offers for sickness certification; and (4) conditional 'If X, Y' offers for sickness certification. These different communication practices indexed doctor agency, doctor endorsement and patient entitlement to varying degrees. In the main, recommendations to patients presenting with biomedical problems or a repeat occurrence of a psychosocial problem displayed stronger doctor endorsement and patient entitlement. Contrastingly, recommendations to patients presenting with new psychosocial and biopsychosocial problems, displayed weaker endorsement and patient entitlement. This study offers new evidence to support the Parsonian argument that becoming sick involves entering a social role with special rights and obligations. Through documenting doctors' orientations to their gatekeeping role as well as patients' orientations to differential rights vis à vis legitimacy, we demonstrate the contrasting stances of doctors in situ when giving sick notes for biomedical problems as opposed to difficulties of a more psychosocial nature. PMID:25521506

Wheat, Hannah C; Barnes, Rebecca K; Byng, Richard

2015-02-01

334

IOM and DHHS Meeting on Making Clinical Practice Guidelines Appropriate for Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The increasing prevalence of Americans with multiple (2 or more) chronic conditions raises concerns about the appropriateness and applicability of clinical practice guidelines for patient management. Most guidelines clinicians currently rely on have been designed with a single chronic condition in mind, and many such guidelines are inattentive to issues related to comorbidities. PURPOSE In response to the need for guideline developers to address comorbidities in guidelines, the Department of Health and Human Services convened a meeting in May 2012 in partnership with the Institute of Medicine to identify principles and action options. RESULTS Eleven principles to improve guidelines’ attentiveness to the population with multiple chronic conditions were identified during the meeting. They are grouped into 3 interrelated categories: (1) principles intended to improve the stakeholder technical process for developing guidelines; (2) principles intended to strengthen content of guidelines in terms of multiple chronic conditions; and (3) principles intended to increase focus on patient-centered care. CONCLUSION This meeting built upon previously recommended actions by identifying additional principles and options for government, guideline developers, and others to use in strengthening the applicability of clinical practice guidelines to the growing population of people with multiple chronic conditions. The suggested principles are helping professional societies to improve guidelines’ attentiveness to persons with multiple chronic conditions. PMID:24821897

Goodman, Richard A.; Boyd, Cynthia; Tinetti, Mary E.; Von Kohorn, Isabelle; Parekh, Anand K.; McGinnis, J. Michael

2014-01-01

335

Family doctors' knowledge and self-reported care of type 2 diabetes patients in comparison to the clinical practice guideline: cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that providing doctors with guidelines will lead to more effective clinical practice and better patient care. However, different studies have shown contradictory results in quality improvement as a result of guideline implementation. The aim of this study was to compare family doctors' knowledge and self-reported care of type 2 diabetes patients with recommendation standards of

Anneli Rätsep; Ruth Kalda; Ivika Oja; Margus Lember

2006-01-01

336

Management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: An evidence-based clinical practice review  

PubMed Central

AIM: To build a consensus among Chilean specialists on the appropriate management of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in clinical practice. METHODS: NAFLD has now reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The optimal treatment for NAFLD has not been established due to a lack of evidence-based recommendations. An expert panel of members of the Chilean Gastroenterological Society and the Chilean Hepatology Association conducted a structured analysis of the current literature on NAFLD therapy. The quality of the evidence and the level of recommendations supporting each statement were assessed according to the recommendations of the United States Preventive Services Task Force. A modified three-round Delphi technique was used to reach a consensus among the experts. RESULTS: A group of thirteen experts was established. The survey included 17 open-ended questions that were distributed among the experts, who assessed the articles associated with each question. The levels of agreement achieved by the panel were 93.8% in the first round and 100% in the second and third rounds. The final recommendations support the indication of lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise, for all patients with NAFLD. Proven pharmacological therapies include only vitamin E and pioglitazone, which can be used in nondiabetic patients with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (the progressive form of NAFLD), although the long-term safety and efficacy of these therapies have not yet been established. CONCLUSION: Current NAFLD management is rapidly evolving, and new pathophysiology-based therapies are expected to be introduced in the near future. All NAFLD patients should be evaluated using a three-focused approach that considers the risks of liver disease, diabetes and cardiovascular events. PMID:25232252

Arab, Juan P; Candia, Roberto; Zapata, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Cristián; Arancibia, Juan P; Poniachik, Jaime; Soza, Alejandro; Fuster, Francisco; Brahm, Javier; Sanhueza, Edgar; Contreras, Jorge; Cuellar, M Carolina; Arrese, Marco; Riquelme, Arnoldo

2014-01-01

337

Models in the development of clinical practice guidelines.  

PubMed

Clinical practice guidelines should be based on the best scientific evidence derived from systematic reviews of primary research. However, these studies often do not provide evidence needed by guideline development groups to evaluate the tradeoffs between benefits and harms. In this article, the authors identify 4 areas where models can bridge the gaps between published evidence and the information needed for guideline development applying new or updated information on disease risk, diagnostic test properties, and treatment efficacy; exploring a more complete array of alternative intervention strategies; assessing benefits and harms over a lifetime horizon; and projecting outcomes for the conditions for which the guideline is intended. The use of modeling as an approach to bridge these gaps (provided that the models are high-quality and adequately validated) is considered. Colorectal and breast cancer screening are used as examples to show the utility of models for these purposes. The authors propose that a modeling study is most useful when strong primary evidence is available to inform the model but critical gaps remain between the evidence and the questions that the guideline group must address. In these cases, model results have a place alongside the findings of systematic reviews to inform health care practice and policy. PMID:25437409

Habbema, J Dik F; Wilt, Timothy J; Etzioni, Ruth; Nelson, Heidi D; Schechter, Clyde B; Lawrence, William F; Melnikow, Joy; Kuntz, Karen M; Owens, Douglas K; Feuer, Eric J

2014-12-01

338

Clinical usefulness of teleradiology in general dental practice  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to investigate the clinical usefulness of teleradiology in general dental practice. Materials and Methods Two hundred and seventy five cases were submitted for inquiry to the case presentation board of the website of The Korean Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology for a 5 year periods. The diagnosis results of those cases were analyzed according to the disease classification, the correlation with the patient's chief complaint, the necessity of additional examinations or treatments, the image modalities, and the number of dentists inquiring. Results Differential diagnoses of normal anatomic structures were the most frequently submitted cases, covering 15.6% of all cases. Among 275 cases, 164 cases required no additional treatments or examinations. Panoramic radiographs were the most frequently submitted images, accounting for 248 inquiries. The 275 cases were submitted by 96 dentists. Fifty-two dentists wrote one inquiry, and 44 inquired 2 or more times. The average inquiry number of the latter group was 5.0 cases. Conclusion A teleradiology system in general dental practice could be helpful in the differential diagnosis of common lesions and reduce unnecessary costs. PMID:23807933

2013-01-01

339

Clinical features of constipation in general practice in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Definition and diagnosis of constipation remain challenging, partly due to different perceptions of the disease by doctors and patients. Aim To evaluate prevalence and features of constipation among individuals seen in general practice, by comparing different diagnostic instruments. Methods Standardized questionnaires and the Bristol stool form scale were distributed to all subjects attending 10 general practitioners for any reason in a 2-week period. The questionnaires investigated constipation defined according to: (1) self-perception (yes/no); (2) a visual analogue scale; (3) Rome III Criteria. Results The prevalence of constipation in 1306 subjects (790 female, 516 male) resulted: (1) 34% self-reported; (2) 28% by visual analogue scale; (3) 24% by Rome Criteria. Constipation was more frequent in females. A high frequency of symptoms of obstructed defecations was observed with differences among patients with self-reported constipation with or without Bristol stool type 1–2. Conclusions Prevalence of constipation among individuals attending their GP ranges between 24 and 34%, according to the different definitions adopted. Symptoms of obstructed defecations are frequent. The combination of self-evaluation and the Bristol stool type scale is potentially useful to identify subgroups of patients with different clinical features in general practice. PMID:25360307

Cottone, Carmelo; Tosetti, Cesare; Disclafani, Giuseppe; Ubaldi, Enzo; Cogliandro, Rosanna

2014-01-01

340

Clinical risk – minimising harm in practical procedures and use of equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses some of the clinical negligence problems and risk management issues arising from training of health professionals (predominantly junior hospital doctors) in practical procedures. There continue to be incidents, claims and complaints in the NHS arising from the clinical practice of doctors or other health professionals who are not perceived to be competent in some of the practical

Jane Cowan

2000-01-01

341

Implementing a Gerontological Clinical Nursing Practice With an Interdisciplinary Focus: Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gerontological clinical nursing practice with an interdisciplinary focus was developed to provide opportunities for student nurses to expand their knowledge about aging, hone assessment skills, and critically examine beliefs about older adults. The practice included theory about older adults and a rotation through a variety of clinical settings where students had practice opportunities with older adults. Based on the

Sherry Dahlke; Cindy Fehr

2010-01-01

342

Variations in evidence-based clinical practices in nine United States Veterans Administration opioid agonist therapy clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) for opioid dependence has a strong evidence base, but clinical practice often does not conform to evidence-based practices. The goal of the OpiATE Initiative is to improve patient outcomes by implementing four evidence-based practices in United States Veterans Administration OAT clinics: (1) long-term maintenance orientation, (2) adequate dosing, (3) adequate counseling, and (4) use of

Mark L Willenbring; Hildi J Hagedorn; Andrea C Postier; Marie Kenny

2004-01-01

343

Optical Coherence Tomography: Clinical Applications in Medical Practice  

PubMed Central

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a success story of scientific and technological co-operation between a physicist and a clinician. The concept of cross-sectional imaging revolutionalized the applicability of OCT in the medical profession. OCT is a non-contact, topographic, biomicroscopic device that provides high resolution, cross-sectional digital images of live biological tissues in vivo and in real time. OCT is based on the property of tissues to reflect and backscatter light involving low-coherence interferometry. The spatial resolution of as little as 3 microns or even less has allowed us to study tissues almost at a cellular level. Overall, OCT is an invaluable adjunct in the diagnosis and follow up of many diseases of both anterior and posterior segments of the eye, primarily or secondary to systemic diseases. The digitalization and advanced software has made it possible to store and retrieve huge patient data for patient services, clinical applications and academic research. OCT has revolutionized the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, follow up and response to treatment in almost all fields of clinical practice involving primary ocular pathologies and secondary ocular manifestations in systemic diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, vascular and neurological diseases, thus benefitting non-ophthalmologists as well. Systemically, OCT is proving to be a helpful tool in substantiating early diagnosis in diseases like multiple sclerosis and drug induced retinopathies by detecting early changes in morphology of the retinal nerve fiber layer. PMID:23599874

Al-Mujaini, Abdullah; Wali, Upender K.; Azeem, Sitara

2013-01-01

344

Understanding Gastrointestinal Distress: A Framework for Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

We describe a framework to help clinicians think about health-related quality of life in their gastrointestinal (GI) patients. We introduce “GI distress” as a clinically relevant concept and explain how it may result from physical symptoms, cognitions, and emotions. The GI distress framework suggests that providers should divide GI physical symptoms into four categories: pain, gas/bloat, altered defecation, and foregut symptoms. We describe how these physical symptoms can be amplified by maladaptive cognitions, including external locus of control, catastrophizing, and anticipation anxiety. We suggest determining the level of embarrassment from GI symptoms and asking about stigmatization. GI patients may also harbor emotional distress from their illness and may exhibit visceral anxiety marked by hypervigilance, fear, and avoidance of GI sensations. Look for signs of devitalization, indicated by inappropriate fatigue. When appropriate, screen for suicidal ideations. Finally, we provide a list of high-yield questions to screen for these maladaptive cognitions and emotions, and explain how the GI distress framework can be used in clinical practice. PMID:21378758

Spiegel, Brennan M.R.; Khanna, Dinesh; Bolus, Roger; Agarwal, Nikhil; Khanna, Puja; Chang, Lin

2014-01-01

345

Optical coherence tomography: clinical applications in medical practice.  

PubMed

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a success story of scientific and technological co-operation between a physicist and a clinician. The concept of cross-sectional imaging revolutionalized the applicability of OCT in the medical profession. OCT is a non-contact, topographic, biomicroscopic device that provides high resolution, cross-sectional digital images of live biological tissues in vivo and in real time. OCT is based on the property of tissues to reflect and backscatter light involving low-coherence interferometry. The spatial resolution of as little as 3 microns or even less has allowed us to study tissues almost at a cellular level. Overall, OCT is an invaluable adjunct in the diagnosis and follow up of many diseases of both anterior and posterior segments of the eye, primarily or secondary to systemic diseases. The digitalization and advanced software has made it possible to store and retrieve huge patient data for patient services, clinical applications and academic research. OCT has revolutionized the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, follow up and response to treatment in almost all fields of clinical practice involving primary ocular pathologies and secondary ocular manifestations in systemic diseases like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, vascular and neurological diseases, thus benefitting non-ophthalmologists as well. Systemically, OCT is proving to be a helpful tool in substantiating early diagnosis in diseases like multiple sclerosis and drug induced retinopathies by detecting early changes in morphology of the retinal nerve fiber layer. PMID:23599874

Al-Mujaini, Abdullah; Wali, Upender K; Azeem, Sitara

2013-03-01

346

[Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease: from research to clinical practice and ethics].  

PubMed

In 2011, the so-called Dubois criteria introduced the use of biomarkers in research (in particular, brain amyloid positron emission tomography imaging and the cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau/fosfo-tau and beta-amyloid 1-42) for the early or preclinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Even so, we are looking at an increased use of these markers in clinical practice. In the 1960s, Alzheimer's disease was considered a rare form of presenile dementia, but gradually it has been recognized as the prevalent form of old-age dementia. As a consequence, what was once regarded as an inevitable outcome of old age is now recognized as a true disease. Several factors contributed to this paradigm shift, in particular a longer lifespan, new techniques of in vivo study of the central nervous system, and the pressure exerted by the pharmaceutical industry and patient groups. The current lack of disease-modifying therapies and the high incidence of mild cognitive impairment, which is a risk factor for dementia, raise a series of clinical ethical problems ranging from how diagnosis is communicated to how resources are used. This article offers a conceptual scheme through which these issues can be addressed. PMID:25072545

Tarquini, Daniela; Pucci, Eugenio; Gasparini, Maddalena; Zullo, Silvia; Tiraboschi, Pietro; Bonito, Virginio; Defanti, Carlo Alberto

2014-01-01

347

The spatial QRS-T angle: implications in clinical practice.  

PubMed

The ventricular gradient (VG) as a concept was conceived in the 1930s and its calculation yielded information that was not otherwise obtainable. The VG was not utilized by clinicians at large because it was not easy to understand and its computation time-consuming. The contemporary spatial QRS-T angle is based on the concept of the VG and defined as its mathematical and physiological integral. Its current major clinical use is to assess the cardiac primary repolarization abnormalities in 3-dimensional spatial vectorial plans which are normally untraced in the presence of secondary electrophysiological activity in a 2-dimensional routine electrocardiogram (ECG). Currently the calculation of the spatial QRS-T angle can be easily computed on the basis of a classical ECG and contributes to localization of arrhythmogenic areas in the heart by assessing overall and local heterogeneity of the myocardial ventricular action potention duration. Recent population-based studies suggest that the spatial QRS-T angle is a dominant ECG predictor of future cardiovascular events and death and it is superior to more conventional ECG parameters. Its assessment warrants consideration for intensified primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts and should be included in everyday clinical practice. This review addresses the nature and diagnostic potential of the spatial QRS-T angle. The main focus is its role in ECG assessment of dispersion of repolarization, a key factor in arrythmogeneity. PMID:23909632

Voulgari, Christina; Pagoni, Stamatina; Tesfaye, Solomon; Tentolouris, Nicholas

2013-08-01

348

Strategies for promoting physical activity in clinical practice.  

PubMed

The time has come for healthcare systems to take an active role in the promotion of physical activity (PA). The connection between PA and health has been clearly established and exercise should be viewed as a cost effective medication that is universally prescribed as a first line treatment for virtually every chronic disease. While there are potential risks associated with exercise, these can be minimized with a proper approach and are far outweighed by the benefits. Key to promoting PA in the clinical setting is the use of a PA Vital Sign in which every patient's exercise habits are assessed and recorded in their medical record. Those not meeting the recommended 150min per week of moderate intensity PA should be encouraged to increase their PA levels with a proper exercise prescription. We can improve compliance by assessing our patient's barriers to being more active and employing new and evolving technology like accelerometers and smart phones applications, along with various websites and programs that have proven efficacy. PMID:25459975

Sallis, Robert; Franklin, Barry; Joy, Liz; Ross, Robert; Sabgir, David; Stone, James

2015-01-01

349

Breast ultrasound tomography: bridging the gap to clinical practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional sonography, which performs well in dense breast tissue and is comfortable and radiation-free, is not practical for screening because of its operator dependence and the time needed to scan the whole breast. While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can significantly improve on these limitations, it is also not practical because it has long been prohibitively expensive for routine use. There is therefore a need for an alternative breast imaging method that obviates the constraints of these standard imaging modalities. The lack of such an alternative is a barrier to dramatically impacting mortality (about 45,000 women in the US per year) and morbidity from breast cancer because, currently, there is a trade-off between the cost effectiveness of mammography and sonography on the one hand and the imaging accuracy of MRI on the other. This paper presents a progress report on our long term goal to eliminate this trade-off and thereby improve breast cancer survival rates and decrease unnecessary biopsies through the introduction of safe, cost-effective, operatorindependent sonography that can rival MRI in accuracy. The objective of the study described in this paper was to design and build an improved ultrasound tomography (UST) scanner in support of our goals. To that end, we report on a design that builds on our current research prototype. The design of the new scanner is based on a comparison of the capabilities of our existing prototype and the performance needed for clinical efficacy. The performance gap was quantified by using clinical studies to establish the baseline performance of the research prototype, and using known MRI capabilities to establish the required performance. Simulation software was used to determine the basic operating characteristics of an improved scanner that would provide the necessary performance. Design elements focused on transducer geometry, which in turn drove the data acquisition system and the image reconstruction engine specifications. The feasibility of UST established by our earlier work and that of other groups, forms the rationale for developing a UST system that has the potential to become a practical, low-cost device for breast cancer screening and diagnosis.

Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Janer, Roman; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Goll, Jeffrey; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Greenway, William

2012-03-01

350

Goal-oriented hypertension management: translating clinical trials to practice.  

PubMed

Several clinical trials using a blood pressure (BP) treatment algorithm focused on a predetermined goal have achieved better control rates than those of national survey data. These trials reached the Sixth Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI) diastolic blood pressure (DBP) goal of <90 mm Hg in >90% of volunteers and systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal of <140 mm Hg in >60% of volunteers. We evaluated BP control of 437 consecutive patients after at least one year of follow up in a specialist clinic which employed "goal-oriented management," ie, treating to a specific BP goal without a formal drug treatment algorithm, to determine whether JNC VI goals could be achieved. Overall, 276 (63%) patients achieved SBP goal, with 376 (86%) at DBP goal and 358 (59%) at both goals. Only 23% of patients were on monotherapy, with 34% requiring 2 drugs and 37% requiring 3 or more medications. There was no substantial difference in BP control rates among age, gender, and ethnicity subgroups. However, in the 20% of patients who were diabetic, only 52% had a BP of <140 mm Hg and <90 mm Hg, whereas fewer (22% and 15%, respectively) achieved the more stringent goals of JNC VI and the American Diabetic Association (ADA)/National Kidney Foundation (NKF). Goal-oriented management achieved dramatically better control rates than what is reported. Although DBP control was easy to achieve, achieving SBP goal still remained difficult. Employing goal-oriented management can translate BP control results achieved in clinical trials into outpatient practice. PMID:12364348

Singer, Gregory M; Izhar, Munavvar; Black, Henry R

2002-10-01

351

Diagnostic Methods for Bile Acid Malabsorption in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Altered bile acid (BA) concentrations in the colon may cause diarrhea or constipation. BA malabsorption (BAM) accounts for >25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea and chronic diarrhea in Western countries. As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are desired in clinical practice to help direct the most effective treatment course for the chronic bowel dysfunction. This review appraises the methodology, advantages and disadvantages of 4 tools that directly measure BAM: 14C-glycocholate breath and stool test, 75Selenium HomotauroCholic Acid Test (SeHCAT), 7 ?-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs. 14C-glycocholate is a laborious test no longer widely utilized. 75SeHCAT is validated, but not available in the United States. Serum C4 is a simple, accurate method that is applicable to a majority of patients, but requires further clinical validation. Fecal measurements to quantify total and individual fecal BAs are technically cumbersome and not widely available. Regrettably, none of these tests are routinely available in the U.S., and a therapeutic trial with a BA binder is used as a surrogate for diagnosis of BAM. Recent data suggest there is an advantage to studying fecal excretion of the individual BAs and their role in BAM; this may constitute a significant advantage of the fecal BA method over the other tests. Fecal BA test could become a routine addition to fecal fat measurement in patients with unexplained diarrhea. In summary, availability determines the choice of test among C4, SeHCAT and fecal BA; more widespread availability of such tests would enhance clinical management of these patients. PMID:23644387

Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Saenger, Amy

2013-01-01

352

What Should We Mean by Empirical Validation in Hypnotherapy: Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly surveys the trend of and controversy surrounding empirical validation in psychotherapy. Empirical validation of hypnotherapy has paralleled the practice of validation in psychotherapy and the professionalization of clinical psychology, in general. This evolution in determining what counts as evidence for bona fide clinical practice has gone from theory-driven clinical approaches in the 1960s and 1970s through critical

Assen Alladin; Linda Sabatini; Jon K. Amundson

2007-01-01

353

Therapeutic songwriting in music therapy, Part II: Comparing the literature with practice across diverse clinical populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of literature on therapeutic songwriting with diverse clinical populations indicates that clinicians employ a wide range of approaches. The purpose of this research was to establish trends in the clinical practice of songwriting as implemented across a range of clinical populations. Responses to a 21-question online survey were obtained from 419 professional music therapists practicing in 29

Felicity Baker; Tony Wigram; David Stott; Katrina McFerran

2009-01-01

354

Empirical Recommendations for Improving the Stability of the Dot-Probe Task in Clinical Research.  

PubMed

The dot-probe task has been widely used in research to produce an index of biased attention based on reaction times (RTs). Despite its popularity, very few published studies have examined psychometric properties of the task, including test-retest reliability, and no previous study has examined reliability in clinically anxious samples or systematically explored the effects of task design and analysis decisions on reliability. In the current analysis, we used dot-probe data from 3 studies in which attention bias toward threat-related faces was assessed at multiple (?5) time-points. Two of the studies were similar (adults with social anxiety disorder, similar design features) whereas 1 was more disparate (pediatric healthy volunteers, distinct task design). We explored the effects of analysis choices (e.g., bias score formula, outlier handling method) on reliability and searched for convergent findings across the 3 studies. We found that, when concurrently considering the 3 studies, the most reliable RT index of bias used data from dot-bottom trials, comparing congruent to incongruent trials, with rescaled outliers, particularly after averaging across more than 1 assessment point. Although reliability of RT bias indices was moderate to low, within-session variability in bias (attention bias variability; ABV), a recently proposed RT index, was more reliable across sessions. Several eyetracking-based indices of attention bias (available in the pediatric healthy sample only) showed reliability that matched the optimal RT index (ABV). On the basis of these findings, we make specific recommendations to researchers using the dot-probe, particularly those wishing to investigate individual differences and/or single-patient applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25419646

Price, Rebecca B; Kuckertz, Jennie M; Siegle, Greg J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Silk, Jennifer S; Ryan, Neal D; Dahl, Ronald E; Amir, Nader

2014-11-24

355

Reporting Practices in Confirmatory Factor Analysis: An Overview and Some Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reporting practices in 194 confirmatory factor analysis studies (1,409 factor models) published in American Psychological Association journals from 1998 to 2006 were reviewed and compared with established reporting guidelines. Three research questions were addressed: (a) how do actual reporting practices compare with published guidelines? (b) how…

Jackson, Dennis L.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Purc-Stephenson, Rebecca

2009-01-01

356

Singapore ministry of health clinical practice guidelines on stroke and transient ischemic attacks.  

PubMed

The primary aim of these guidelines is to assist individual clinicians, hospital departments, and hospital administrators to produce local protocols for the: • assessment, investigation and immediate management of individuals with a transient ischemic attack or acute stroke (other than sub-arachnoid hemorrhage), and • secondary prevention and risk factor management following a transient ischemic attack or acute stroke. The secondary aim of these guidelines is to suggest methods for implementation and clinical audit. The workgroup preparing these guidelines was formed by the Ministry of Health, Singapore. It comprised healthcare workers from relevant specialties, family medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, and a lay patient advocate. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network's Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Patients with Stroke were reviewed, updated, and modified to meet local needs. The final guidelines are made up of evidence-based recommendations covering the following areas - assessment, investigation, immediate management, secondary prevention, rehabilitation, and implications for service delivery. The guidelines were sent to professional organizations for comments and endorsements. The final version was circulated to all medical practitioners in Singapore. It is hoped that the guidelines will improve the care of patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack. Clinical quality improvement measures are proposed. PMID:21557813

Venketasubramanian, N; Pwee, K H; Chen, C P L

2011-06-01

357

Use of incisional negative pressure wound therapy on closed median sternal incisions after cardiothoracic surgery: clinical evidence and consensus recommendations.  

PubMed

Negative pressure wound therapy is a concept introduced initially to assist in the treatment of chronic open wounds. Recently, there has been growing interest in using the technique on closed incisions after surgery to prevent potentially severe surgical site infections and other wound complications in high-risk patients. Negative pressure wound therapy uses a negative pressure unit and specific dressings that help to hold the incision edges together, redistribute lateral tension, reduce edema, stimulate perfusion, and protect the surgical site from external infectious sources. Randomized, controlled studies of negative pressure wound therapy for closed incisions in orthopedic settings (which also is a clean surgical procedure in absence of an open fracture) have shown the technology can reduce the risk of wound infection, wound dehiscence, and seroma, and there is accumulating evidence that it also improves wound outcomes after cardiothoracic surgery. Identifying at-risk individuals for whom prophylactic use of negative pressure wound therapy would be most cost-effective remains a challenge; however, several risk-stratification systems have been proposed and should be evaluated more fully. The recent availability of a single-use, closed incision management system offers surgeons a convenient and practical means of delivering negative pressure wound therapy to their high-risk patients, with excellent wound outcomes reported to date. Although larger, randomized, controlled studies will help to clarify the precise role and benefits of such a system in cardiothoracic surgery, limited initial evidence from clinical studies and from the authors' own experiences appears promising. In light of the growing interest in this technology among cardiothoracic surgeons, a consensus meeting, which was attended by a group of international experts, was held to review existing evidence for negative pressure wound therapy in the prevention of wound complications after surgery and to provide recommendations on the optimal use of negative pressure wound therapy on closed median sternal incisions after cardiothoracic surgery. PMID:25280449

Dohmen, Pascal M; Markou, Thanasie; Ingemansson, Richard; Rotering, Heinrich; Hartman, Jean M; van Valen, Richard; Brunott, Maaike; Segers, Patrique

2014-01-01

358

Emergency Response Training Practices for People With DisabilitiesAnalysis of Some Current Practices and Recommendations for Future Training Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year thousands of people are potentially affected by the types of emergency preparedness and response training plans practiced in their communities. Between 1998 and 2002, 3,000 counties in the United States declared disasters that have included floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, winter storms, thunderstorms, fires, ice storms, and earthquakes. Emergency preparedness for all people, including people with disabilities, may involve natural

Jennifer L. Rowland; Glen W. White; Michael H. Fox; Catherine Rooney

2007-01-01

359

The UNESCO Recommendation on Adult Education: Implications for Practice in the US.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and then describes the UNESCO Recommendation on the Development of Adult Education, the first worldwide standard-setting instrument in this field, and suggests why the provisions of this document are important to adult educators in the United…

Spikes, Frank

1979-01-01

360

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR FLOW MEASUREMENT IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS WITH VENTURI TUBES AND VENTURI NOZZLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Venturi tubes and venturi nozzles are suitable for in-plant flow measurement of raw influent, treated effluent, return activated sludge, certain digested sludges, and for air and gas flows. However, they are not generally recommended for measurement of raw primary sludge. For cla...

361

Theory and practical recommendations for autocorrelation-based image correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image correlation spectroscopy (ICS) is a powerful technique for detecting arrangement of fluorophores in images. This tutorial gives background into the mathematical underpinnings of ICS, specifically image autocorrelation. The effects of various artifacts and image processing steps, including background subtraction, noise, and image morphology were examined analytically and their effects on ICS analysis modeled. A series of recommendations was built based on this analysis.

Robertson, Claire; George, Steven C.

2012-08-01

362

Translating Research into Practice: Trans Youth Recommendations for Improving School Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trans youth are considered one of the most marginalized and oppressed populations. Many experience transphobia and violence based on their gender identity and expression. This qualitative study describes the school experiences of 24 trans youth in Philadelphia and presents their recommendations for school administrators and educators. To…

Sausa, Lydia A.

2005-01-01

363

[Informed consent in clinical practice and medical research].  

PubMed

The present paper deals with the basic aspects, influences and elements that constitute Informed Consent seeing it as a process and not only as an administrative format. Both the patient-physician relationship, as well as the research subject-investigator relationship, should be seen in the same manner, in spite of recognizing specific objectives for each one. For this reason, Informed Consent should not be different regarding both clinical as well as research activities. The patient-physician relationship presents a disbalance of power within the relationship in favor of the physician; this adds to the moral considerations that take place within both participants. Informed Consent should be defined in a broad sense as all those actions that promote a process of communication and dialogue which facilitates a person in order to make decisions with respect of an action, practice or product that have an impact on his/her body, intimacy or other vital spaces. Informed Consent has influences that originate in basic bioethical principles (autonomy, beneficience, non-maleficence, justice), professional and international declarations (Hippocratic Oath, Declaration of Helsinki), as well as legal considerations pertinent to each country. In our country legality emmanates from the General Health Law which, unfortunately, only contemplates Informed Consent as part of the relation established in clinical research. However, the Official Medican Norm on the Clinical Record establishes the conditions where Informed Consent must be obtained during clinical as well as research activities. Primary components of Informed Consent (revelation, capacity to understand and voluntariness), can be better understood when divided into several elements: information, voluntariness, risks and benefits, confidentiality, return of information, utility of the process and management of fragility. Informed Consent should be legally instrumented in an explicit written manner (administrative formats). However, it is important to recognize the limitations of these formats when used outside the context of a continuous communication process with the patient. For this reason, ultimate instrumentation is through continuous dialogue between patient and physician. Finally, Informed Consent might help improve the patient-physician relationship which, in the end, might be the best way to counteract the influence of the establishment of health management services. PMID:14515678

Santillan-Doherty, Patricio; Cabral-Castañeda, Antonio; Soto-Ramírez, Luis

2003-01-01

364

Ergonomic best practices in masonry: regional differences, benefits, barriers, and recommendations for dissemination.  

PubMed

Within construction the masonry trade has particularly high rates of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). A NIOSH-sponsored meeting of masonry stakeholders explored current and potential "Best Practices" for reducing MSDs in masonry and identified potential regional differences in use of practices. To verify and better understand the regional effects and other factors associated with differences in practice use, a national telephone survey of masonry contractors was conducted. The United States was divided into four regions for evaluation: Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, and West Coast. Nine practices with the potential to reduce MSDs in masonry workers were evaluated. Masonry contractors, owners, and foremen completed 183 surveys. The results verify regional differences in use of best practices in masonry. Half-weight cement bags and autoclave aerated concrete were rarely used anywhere, while lightweight block and mortar silos appear to be diffusing across the country. The Northeast uses significantly fewer best practices than other regions. This article examines reasons for regional differences in masonry best practice, and findings provide insight into use and barriers to adoption that can be used by safety managers, researchers, and other safety advocates to more effectively disseminate ergonomic solutions across the masonry industry. PMID:20521196

Hess, Jennifer; Weinstein, Marc; Welch, Laura

2010-08-01

365

Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older - United States, 2015.  

PubMed

In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2015. This schedule provides a summary of ACIP recommendations for the use of vaccines routinely recommended for adults aged 19 years or older in two figures, footnotes for each vaccine, and a table that describes primary contraindications and precautions for commonly used vaccines for adults. Changes in the 2015 adult immunization schedule from the 2014 schedule included the August 2014 recommendation for routine administration of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in series with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for all adults aged 65 years or older, the August 2014 revision on contraindications and precautions for the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), and the October 2014 approval by the Food and Drug Administration to expand the approved age for use of recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). These revisions were also reviewed and approved by the American College of Physicians, American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and American College of Nurse-Midwives. PMID:25654609

Kim, David K; Bridges, Carolyn B; Harriman, Kathleen H

2015-02-01

366

Concordance between Clinical Practice and Published Evidence: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network  

PubMed Central

Background. Documenting the gap between what is occurring in clinical practice and what published research suggests is an important step toward improving care. This study quantified concordance between clinical practice and published evidence across preventive, diagnostic and treatment procedures among a sample of dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Methods. Network dentists completed one questionnaire about their demographic characteristics and another about how they treat patients across 12 scenarios/clinical practice behaviors. Responses to each clinical practice were coded as consistent (i.e., ‘1’) or inconsistent (i.e., ‘0’) with published evidence, summed, and divided by the number of all non-missing to create an overall ‘concordance’ score, calculated as the mean percent of responses that were consistent with published evidence. Results. Analyses were limited to participants in the United States (N = 591). Mean concordance at the practitioner level was 62% (SD = 18); procedure-specific concordance ranged from 8-100%. Affiliation with a large group practice, being a female practitioner, and receiving a dental degree before 1990 were independently associated with high concordance (?75%). Conclusions. Dentists reported a medium-range concordance between practice and evidence. Clinical Implications. Efforts to bring research findings into routine practice are needed. PMID:24379327

Norton, Wynne E.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Makhija, Sonia K.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Bader, James D.; Rindal, D. Brad; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Gilbert, Gregg H.

2013-01-01

367

The practice and clinical implications of tablet splitting in international health  

PubMed Central

Objective Tablet splitting is frequently performed to facilitate correct dosing, but the practice and implications in low-income settings have rarely been discussed. Methods We selected eight drugs, with narrow therapeutic indices or critical dosages, frequently divided in the Lao PDR (Laos). These were split, by common techniques used in Laos, by four nurses and four laypersons. The mean percentage deviation from the theoretical expected weight and weight loss of divided tablets/capsules were recorded. Results Five of eight study drugs failed, on splitting, to meet European Pharmacopoeia recommendations for tablet weight deviation from the expected weight of tablet/capsule halves with 10% deviating by more than 25%. There was a significant difference in splitting accuracy between nurses and laypersons (P = 0.027). Coated and unscored tablets were less accurately split than uncoated (P = 0.03 and 0.0019 for each half) and scored (0.0001 for both halves) tablets. Conclusion These findings have potential clinical implications on treatment outcome and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Investment by drug companies in a wider range of dosage units, particularly for narrow therapeutic index and critical dosage medicines, is strongly recommended. PMID:24702766

Elliott, Ivo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Yeuichaixong, Sengchanh; Lee, Sue J; Newton, Paul N

2014-01-01

368

Clinical practice guidelines for treatment of acne vulgaris: a critical appraisal using the AGREE II instrument.  

PubMed

A significant number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) about the treatment of acne vulgaris in adolescents and adults have been published worldwide. However, little is known about the quality of CPGs in this field. The aim of this study was to appraise the methodological quality of published acne vulgaris CPGs. We performed a systematic review of published CPGs on acne vulgaris therapy from July 2002 to July 2012. Three reviewers independently assessed each CPG using the AGREE II instrument. A standardized score was calculated for each of the six domains. Our search strategy identified 103 citations but just six met our inclusion criteria. Agreement among reviewers was very good: 0.981. The domains that scored better were: "scope and purpose" and "clarity and presentation". Those that scored worse were "stakeholder involvement", "rigor of development", and "applicability". The European and the Malaysian CPGs were the only recommended with no further modifications. In addition, the Mexican, Colombian and the United States guidelines were recommended with provisos, with lower scores regarding stakeholder involvement, rigor of development and applicability. Only two guidelines clearly reported outcome measures for evaluating efficacy or included quality of life outcomes. CPGs varied regarding the consideration of light/laser therapy or consideration of complementary/alternative medicines. None of them included cost considerations of drugs such as systemic isotretinoin. In conclusion, published acne vulgaris CPGs for acne therapy vary in quality with a clear need to improve their methodological rigor. This could be achieved with the adherence to current CPGs development standards. PMID:23925586

Sanclemente, Gloria; Acosta, Jorge-Luis; Tamayo, Maria-Eulalia; Bonfill, Xavier; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

2014-04-01

369

Use of event recorders and loop recorders in clinical practice: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.  

PubMed

Several kinds of electrocardiogram monitoring systems are now available in the clinical practice. The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess the use of different monitoring techniques in the evaluation of patients with unexplained syncope, palpitations, and in those with established diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Forty-five centres in Europe answered the questionnaire and the majority (78%) were university hospitals. The answers showed a discrepancy between the recommended use of implantable loop recorders (ILRs) in patients with unexplained syncope and the use of this device in clinical practice. In most of the cases only a minority of patients (<20%) seemed to actually receive an ILR as a part of the diagnostic process in accordance to the current guidelines. Holter monitoring systems and external loop recorders seemed to be the preferred monitoring techniques both in patients with recurrent palpitations and in those with established diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. PMID:25172620

Sciaraffia, Elena; Chen, Jian; Hocini, Meleze; Larsen, Torben Bierregaard; Potpara, Tatjana; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

2014-09-01

370

Summary of Recommended Biosafety Levels for Infectious Agents1 BSL Agents Practices  

E-print Network

in healthy adults Standard Microbiological Practices None required Open bench top sink required 2 Associated of infectious materials; PPEs: laboratory coats; gloves; face protection as needed BSL-1 plus: Autoclave

Kay, Mark A.

371

Development of Offshore Wind Recommended Practice for U.S. Waters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses how the American Petroleum Institute oil and gas standards were interfaced with International Electrotechnical Commission and other wind turbine and offshore industry standards to provide guidance for reliable engineering design practices for offshore wind energy systems.

Musial, W. D.; Sheppard, R. E.; Dolan, D.; Naughton, B.

2013-04-01

372

Moving from Principles to Practice: Recommended Policy Changes to Promote Family-Centered Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper emphasizes the value of family-centered care. Discussion highlights family-centered philosophies (e.g., Systems\\u000a of Care [SOCs]) and practice models (i.e., wraparound) and identifies discrepancies between conceptualizations and actual\\u000a practice. Data from multiple sources detail issues in fidelity to family-centered values and needs and risks experienced by\\u000a siblings of children with severe emotional disturbance and their caregivers. This discussion provides

Ryan P. KilmerJames; James R. Cook; Eylin Palamaro Munsell

2010-01-01

373

Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians. In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not) the primary clinical professions to accommodate the growing need to accommodate patient access to health care while maintaining lower health care costs. As such, the role of pharmacists in health care is expanding, punctuating the need to enhance and improve Pharmacy education. Accurate assessment of the current gaps in Pharmacy education in Canada provides a unique opportunity for a new Pharmacy School at the University of Waterloo to establish a non-traditional, outcomes-based model to curricular design. We are applying this iterative curriculum assessment and design process to the establishment of a Medical Microbiology program, deemed as a prominent gap in former Pharmacy educational training programs. A pilot study was carried out distributing a comprehensive survey to a local group of pharmacists practicing in a variety of settings including: hospital, clinic, community, independent, industry and government, to assess perceived gaps in Pharmacy microbiology and infectious disease education. Preliminary findings of the surveys indicate that practitioners feel under-qualified in some areas of microbiology. The results are discussed with respect to a curricular redesign model and next steps in the process of curricular design are proposed. PMID:23653713

Wasfi, Olla; Power, Mary; Slavcev, Roderick A.

2010-01-01

374

Clinical Microbiology in Pharmacy Education: A Practice-based Approach.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, alongside viral and fungal human pathogens, supports the argument that skills in microbiology and infectious disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention are of growing global importance to be held among primary care clinicians. In Canada, inevitable future astronomical health care costs largely due to an aging population, have forced eyes upon pharmacists as one of (if not) the primary clinical professions to accommodate the growing need to accommodate patient access to health care while maintaining lower health care costs. As such, the role of pharmacists in health care is expanding, punctuating the need to enhance and improve Pharmacy education. Accurate assessment of the current gaps in Pharmacy education in Canada provides a unique opportunity for a new Pharmacy School at the University of Waterloo to establish a non-traditional, outcomes-based model to curricular design. We are applying this iterative curriculum assessment and design process to the establishment of a Medical Microbiology program, deemed as a prominent gap in former Pharmacy educational training programs. A PILOT STUDY WAS CARRIED OUT DISTRIBUTING A COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY TO A LOCAL GROUP OF PHARMACISTS PRACTICING IN A VARIETY OF SETTINGS INCLUDING: hospital, clinic, community, independent, industry and government, to assess perceived gaps in Pharmacy microbiology and infectious disease education. Preliminary findings of the surveys indicate that practitioners feel under-qualified in some areas of microbiology. The results are discussed with respect to a curricular redesign model and next steps in the process of curricular design are proposed. PMID:23653713

Wasfi, Olla; Power, Mary; Slavcev, Roderick A

2010-01-01

375

Practical tips to improve Asian American participation in cancer clinical trials. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

This 60-minute online course educates healthcare providers about cultural humility skills and provides educational resources and tips for changing practice to improve Asian American clinical trial participation.

376

Practice recommendations cite use of disinfection caps, implementation strategies to reduce CLABSIs.  

PubMed

The use of disinfection caps is one strategy highlighted in updated guidelines that focus on reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). The recommendations, which are sponsored by the Arlington, VA-based Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and other infection control organizations, focus not just on specific strategies, but also how to implement the strategies. Infection control advocates are hopeful that the dramatic gains made in reducing the incidence of CLABSls in ICUs can be extended to other units of the hospital setting including the ED. Disinfection caps are recommended under the"special approaches" section of the guidelines, which offers recommendations for locations or populations that have unacceptably high CLABSI rates. However, some hospitals are adopting the approach throughout their facilities with impressive results. Infection preventionists at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, IL report that disinfection caps helped them reduce CLABSls by 68% in one year, saving the organization more than $1 million. The approach replaces a scrub-the-hub approach that was used previously, but left room for error, according to administrators. Guideline authors gave disinfection caps a level 1 ranking, indicating that there is high-quality evidence to support their effectiveness. However, the authors stopped short of calling for their use on a routine basis PMID:25141498

2014-09-01

377

Ethical clinical practice and sport psychology: when two worlds collide.  

PubMed

From their own practices, the authors offer insight into potential ethical dilemmas that may frequently develop in an applied psychology setting in which sport psychology is also being practiced. Specific ethical situations offered for the reader's consideration include confidentiality with coaches, administration, parents, and athlete-clients; accountability in ethical billing practices and accurate diagnosing; identification of ethical boundaries in nontraditional practice settings (locker room, field, rink, etc.); and establishment of professional competence as it relates to professional practice and marketing. PMID:17036422

Brown, Jeffrey L; Cogan, Karen D

2006-01-01

378

7(th) International Immunoglobulin Conference: Immunoglobulin in Clinical Practice.  

PubMed

Intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulins (IVIg and SCIg, respectively) are increasingly used in clinical practice, not only as replacement therapy but also for immunomodulation. Physicians have learned that primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients are susceptible to recurrent respiratory tract infections even when appropriately treated with immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy. Further investigation will establish whether a combined therapeutic approach including Ig dose optimization will prevent progressive lung disease in PID. The wear-off effects observed with IVIg can be minimized by adjusting the dosing regimen. It is also possible to avoid the cyclic wear-off following transition to SCIg administration. Consideration of benefit versus risk with Ig therapy includes evaluating the potential occurrence of thromboembolic and haemolytic events, which may be more frequent when Ig is administered in high doses and in the presence of pre-existing risk factors. The ability to select an administration method from IVIg, SCIg or hyaluronidase-facilitated SCIg infusions provides patient choice and alternatives if one or other administration route is not suitable for a patient. The evolution in indications, applications, and understanding of Ig therapy described here has reinforced the need for robust methods to prioritize Ig use. PMID:25546773

Shapiro, R S; Borte, M

2014-12-01

379

Clinical applications of laser therapy on the dental practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental practice consists of a series of laboring procedures which demands the use of several types of equipment and materials. Usually patient"s fears brings additional burden to the Dentists. The use of Lasers for treating and diagnosis in Dentistry is quite new comparing to other medical areas. Initially Laser technology was used as an alternative method for treating dental caries in order to substitute the use of the drill. Lately surgical Lasers have shown themselves very useful for treating several pathologies and began to be used as a powerful tool on the treatment of several conditions affecting the maxillofacial complex and later on, the era of the use of Laser therapy began. The advent of the diode Lasers made possible the introduction of small units at the dental office and Laser therapy was used to improve healing and later included also caries diagnosis. This paper discuss the use of Laser therapy on Restorative Dentistry, Periodondology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral implantology and other. Clinical and laboratorial experience has demonstrated that Laser therapy does improve the healing of both mineralized and soft tissues, reduces pain and inflammation, and also reduces both cost and length of the dental treatment.

Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

2004-09-01

380

Automating clinical practice guidelines: a corporate-academic partnership.  

PubMed

Implementation of guidelines offers one of the largest opportunities for quality improvement, utilization review, and cost control for the health-care enterprise. If guidelines could be implemented on a large scale, their adoption could result in $100 billion in annual savings as well as improve the quality of patient care. However, infrastructural barriers impede progress. Collaboration between the Laboratory Medicine Health Services Program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, and the Cerner Corporation, funded by the National Institute of Standards and Technology as part of the Advanced Technology Program involving ¿Information Infrastructure for Healthcare,¿ is focused on developing and delivering: 1) methods for creating operational forms of guidelines; 2) an effective computer-based architecture for implementing guidelines in clinical practice; 3) methods for packaging guidelines for wide distribution; 4) methods for testing the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of guidelines; and 5) a model for collecting, aggregating, and normalizing data from disparate systems. This hypothesis-driven research program is focused on laboratory medicine-based guidelines as a tool for developing, testing, and evaluating methods that can be implemented widely. PMID:10157542

Friedberg, R C; Moser, S A; Jamieson, P W; Margulies, D M; Smith, J A; McDonald, J M

1996-01-01

381

Inclusion and exclusion criteria for epilepsy clinical trials-recommendations from the April 30, 2011 NINDS workshop.  

PubMed

On April 30th, 2011 the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) held a workshop to identify key problems in recent epilepsy clinical trials and propose approaches to address the barriers that impede development of new therapeutic options for epilepsy. Preliminary recommendations were made for selection criteria for subjects entered into epilepsy trials that maximize the scientific impact of the trial and increase the ability to recruit appropriate subjects efficiently and safely. These recommendations were further refined by the authors following the workshop, and subsequently shared with all NINDS workshop participants and with the participants of the 2011 AED XI workshop on epilepsy trials (approximately 200 participants) for further comment. The working group agreed to a final set of criteria that include updated considerations of subject age, clinical semiology, EEG and imaging results, use of prior and current therapies, co-occurring conditions, and suicidality, among others. PMID:24702822

Fertig, Evan; Fureman, Brandy E; Bergey, Gregory K; Brodie, Mary Ann; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Hirtz, Deborah; Kossoff, Eric H; LaFrance, W Curt; Versavel, Mark; French, Jacqueline

2014-07-01

382

Health issues and the practicing radiologist: defining concepts and developing recommendations for leave options and policies.  

PubMed

Radiologists today are faced with the challenges of maintaining and balancing individual and family health needs and the demands of the workplace. To provide the highest quality and safest care of our patients, a corresponding ethos of support for a healthy workforce is required. There is a paucity of targeted information describing protections for and maintenance of the health of the practicing radiologist, in both private and academic settings. However, a review of existing family and medical leave policies may be helpful to practice leaders and practicing radiologists as a platform for the development of strategic workforce plans. This writing, by members of the ACR Commission on Human Resources, addresses the following areas: (1) medical leave, (2) maternity and/or paternity leave, and (3) disability. PMID:24007608

Heilbrun, Marta E; Bender, Claire E; Truong, Hang B; Bluth, Edward I

2013-09-01

383

Practice Parameters for the Clinical Evaluation and Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders  

PubMed Central

The expanding science of circadian rhythm biology and a growing literature in human clinical research on circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) prompted the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) to convene a task force of experts to write a review of this important topic. Due to the extensive nature of the disorders covered, the review was written in two sections. The first review paper, in addition to providing a general introduction to circadian biology, addresses “exogenous” circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including shift work disorder (SWD) and jet lag disorder (JLD). The second review paper addresses the “endogenous” circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD), delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), irregular sleep-wake rhythm (ISWR), and the non–24-hour sleep-wake syndrome (nonentrained type) or free-running disorder (FRD). These practice parameters were developed by the Standards of Practice Committee and reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the AASM to present recommendations for the assessment and treatment of CRSDs based on the two accompanying comprehensive reviews. The main diagnostic tools considered include sleep logs, actigraphy, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), circadian phase markers, and polysomnography. Use of a sleep log or diary is indicated in the assessment of patients with a suspected circadian rhythm sleep disorder (Guideline). Actigraphy is indicated to assist in evaluation of patients suspected of circadian rhythm disorders (strength of recommendation varies from “Option” to “Guideline,” depending on the suspected CRSD). Polysomnography is not routinely indicated for the diagnosis of CRSDs, but may be indicated to rule out another primary sleep disorder (Standard). There is insufficient evidence to justify the use of MEQ for the routine clinical evaluation of CRSDs (Option). Circadian phase markers are useful to determine circadian phase and confirm the diagnosis of FRD in sighted and unsighted patients but there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in the diagnosis of SWD, JLD, ASPD, DSPD, or ISWR (Option). Additionally, actigraphy is useful as an outcome measure in evaluating the response to treatment for CRSDs (Guideline). A range of therapeutic interventions were considered including planned sleep schedules, timed light exposure, timed melatonin doses, hypnotics, stimulants, and alerting agents. Planned or prescribed sleep schedules are indicated in SWD (Standard) and in JLD, DSPD, ASPD, ISWR (excluding elderly-demented/nursing home residents), and FRD (Option). Specifically dosed and timed light exposure is indicated for each of the circadian disorders with variable success (Option). Timed melatonin administration is indicated for JLD (Standard); SWD, DSPD, and FRD in unsighted persons (Guideline); and for ASPD, FRD in sighted individuals, and for ISWR in children with moderate to severe psychomotor retardation (Option). Hypnotic medications may be indicated to promote or improve daytime sleep among night shift workers (Guideline) and to treat jet lag-induced insomnia (Option). Stimulants may be indicated to improve alertness in JLD and SWD (Option) but may have risks that must be weighed prior to use. Modafinil may be indicated to improve alertness during the night shift for patients with SWD (Guideline). Citation: Morgenthaler TI; Lee-Chiong T; Alessi C; Friedman L; Aurora N; Boehlecke B; Brown T; Chesson AL; Kapur V; Maganti R; Owens J; Pancer J; Swick TJ; Zak R; Standards of Practice Committee of the AASM. Practice Parameters for the Clinical Evaluation and Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1445-1459. PMID:18041479

Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Alessi, Cathy; Friedman, Leah; Aurora, R. Nisha; Boehlecke, Brian; Brown, Terry; Chesson, Andrew L.; Kapur, Vishesh; Maganti, Rama; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd J.; Zak, Rochelle

2007-01-01

384

Provision of clinical pharmacist services for individuals with chronic hepatitis C viral infection: Joint Opinion of the GI/Liver/Nutrition and Infectious Diseases Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.  

PubMed

The objective of this opinion paper was to identify and describe potential clinical pharmacists' services for the prevention and management of patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The goals of this paper are to guide the establishment and development of pharmacy services for patients infected with HCV and to highlight HCV research and educational opportunities. Recommendations were based on the following: a review of published data on clinical pharmacist involvement in the treatment and management of HCV-infected patients; a consensus of clinical pharmacists who provide direct patient care to HCV-infected patients and practice in different pharmacy models, including community-based and academic settings; and a review of published guidelines and literature focusing on the treatment and management of HCV infections. The recommendations provided in this opinion paper define the areas of clinical pharmacist involvement and clinical pharmacy practice in the treatment and management of patients with HCV. Clinical pharmacists can promote preventive measures and education about reducing HCV transmission, improve medication adherence, assist in monitoring clinical and adverse effects, recommend treatment strategies to minimize adverse effects and drug interactions, and facilitate medication acquisition and logistics that positively improve patient outcomes and reduce the health care system costs. PMID:25359244

Mohammad, Rima A; Bulloch, Marilyn N; Chan, Juliana; Deming, Paulina; Love, Bryan; Smith, Lisa; Dong, Betty J

2014-12-01

385

Making E-­?serials Holdings Data Transferable: Applying the KBART Recommended Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Knowledge Bases and Related Tools (KBART) project is an initiative of the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) and UKSG which has established a set of best practices for the exchange of electronic resource holdings metadata between content providers and knowledgebase developers. The benefits of KBART are that it relieves information professionals from the time consuming process of actively reconciling

Jason S Price; Lori Duggan

2011-01-01

386

TOC: Table of Contents Practices of Primary Journals--Recommendations for Monolingual, Multilingual and International Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Table of contents (TOC) practices of some 120 primary journals were analyzed. The journals were randomly selected. The method of randomization is described. The samples were selected from a university library with a holding of approximately 12,000 titles published worldwide. A questionnaire was designed. Purpose was to find uniformity and…

Juhasz, Stephen; And Others

387

Recommended Practices: A Review of Schoolwide Preventative Programs and Strategies on Cyberbullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyberbullying is a growing concern among school-age students. The combination of increased access, ease, and use of Web-based communication are part of what attributes to the problem. Cyberbullying affects not only students, but also parents and administrators. Because schools have the ability to reach all groups involved, it may be practical for schools to implement preventive and support ongoing efforts

Michael A. Couvillon; Vessela Ilieva

2011-01-01

388

Recommended Practices: A Review of Schoolwide Preventative Programs and Strategies on Cyberbullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cyberbullying is a growing concern among school-age students. The combination of increased access, ease, and use of Web-based communication are part of what attributes to the problem. Cyberbullying affects not only students, but also parents and administrators. Because schools have the ability to reach all groups involved, it may be practical for…

Couvillon, Michael A.; Ilieva, Vessela

2011-01-01

389

The Technology of Teacher Licensing Testing: A Discussion of Issues and Recommendations for Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on teacher testing issues related to job analysis, test specification development, reliability, and validity. It emphasizes the conceptualization and operational definition of appropriate validity evidence to assess the quality of licensure testing decisions. It is suggested that the process of job, or practice, analysis would…

Crehan, Kevin D.; Hess, Robert K.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

390

Behavioral Sport Psychology Consulting: A Review of Some Practice Concerns and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses several contemporary issues in behavioral sport psychology which have relevance for professionals conducting intervention with athletes and coaches. It discusses cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and applied behavior analysis (ABA) disciplines, noting similarities and the need for further convergence in practice and research. Other areas emphasized in the review are intervention integrity, social validity assessment, coach-effectiveness training, and marketing

James K. Luiselli

2012-01-01

391

Recommended practices for the management of embryology, andrology, and endocrinology laboratories: a committee opinion.  

PubMed

This document provides a general overview for physicians of the qualities and conditions necessary for good management practices within the endocrinology, andrology, and embryology laboratories in the United States. It is intended as an addendum to previously published guidelines that further detail these responsibilities. PMID:25064400

2014-10-01

392

Management of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Clinical Practice: Initiation, Maintenance, and Discontinuation of Therapy  

PubMed Central

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible visual loss in elderly populations. In recent years, pharmacological inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), via intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (Lucentis) or bevacizumab (Avastin), has offered the first opportunity to improve visual outcomes in patients diagnosed with this disorder. In this paper, we provide recommendations on how bevacizumab and ranibizumab may be best applied in current clinical practice, with an emphasis on their underlying pharmacology and efficacy. In addition, we review current guidelines for the initiation, maintenance, and discontinuation of anti-VEGF therapies, as well as emerging treatment strategies and future directions in the field. PMID:22174995

Keane, Pearse A.; Tufail, Adnan; Patel, Praveen J.

2011-01-01

393

American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update on Chemotherapy for Stage IV Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to provide updated recommendations for the treatment of patients with stage IV non–small-cell lung cancer. A literature search identified relevant randomized trials published since 2002. The scope of the guideline was narrowed to chemotherapy and biologic therapy. An Update Committee reviewed the literature and made updated recommendations. One hundred sixty-two publications met the inclusion criteria. Recommendations were based on treatment strategies that improve overall survival. Treatments that improve only progression-free survival prompted scrutiny of toxicity and quality of life. For first-line therapy in patients with performance status of 0 or 1, a platinum-based two-drug combination of cytotoxic drugs is recommended. Nonplatinum cytotoxic doublets are acceptable for patients with contraindications to platinum therapy. For patients with performance status of 2, a single cytotoxic drug is sufficient. Stop first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy at disease progression or after four cycles in patients who are not responding to treatment. Stop two-drug cytotoxic chemotherapy at six cycles even in patients who are responding to therapy. The first-line use of gefitinib may be recommended for patients with known epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation; for negative or unknown EGFR mutation status, cytotoxic chemotherapy is preferred. Bevacizumab is recommended with carboplatin-paclitaxel, except for patients with certain clinical characteristics. Cetuximab is recommended with cisplatin-vinorelbine for patients with EGFR-positive tumors by immunohistochemistry. Docetaxel, erlotinib, gefitinib, or pemetrexed is recommended as second-line therapy. Erlotinib is recommended as third-line therapy for patients who have not received prior erlotinib or gefitinib. Data are insufficient to recommend the routine third-line use of cytotoxic drugs. Data are insufficient to recommend routine use of molecular markers to select chemotherapy. PMID:19917871

Azzoli, Christopher G.; Baker, Sherman; Temin, Sarah; Pao, William; Aliff, Timothy; Brahmer, Julie; Johnson, David H.; Laskin, Janessa L.; Masters, Gregory; Milton, Daniel; Nordquist, Luke; Pfister, David G.; Piantadosi, Steven; Schiller, Joan H.; Smith, Reily; Smith, Thomas J.; Strawn, John R.; Trent, David; Giaccone, Giuseppe

2009-01-01

394

Multidisciplinary consensus: a practical guide for the integration of abiraterone into clinical practice.  

PubMed

Abiraterone improves survival, relieves pain, improves quality of life and extends time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). A consensus-based guide for using abiraterone in patients with mCRPC has been developed by Australian clinicians with expertise in prostate cancer, based on their experience and supported by published data. Recommendations were developed for eight key topics: abiraterone administration; steroid administration and duration of use; concomitant medications and drug interactions; timing of testing and monitoring response; safety in different populations; potential toxicities; precautions and contraindications; and referral and multidisciplinary care. Abiraterone is taken orally in a fasting state. Symptoms associated with mineralocorticoid excess are managed by coadministration of low-dose prednisone or prednisolone. Potassium levels, blood pressure and liver function need to be tested frequently during the early treatment phase. Response to treatment is monitored based on symptoms, radiological imaging and PSA levels. Potential adverse consequences of long-term steroid therapy on bone and metabolic health need to be screened for and managed. Advanced prostate cancer is best managed by a multidisciplinary team and early referral should be considered. Questions about the potential use of abiraterone in early disease and in combination with other therapies are being addressed in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:25132163

Woo, Henry H; Begbie, Stephen; Gogna, Kumar; Mainwaring, Paul N; Murphy, Declan G; Parnis, Francis; Steer, Christopher; Davis, Ian D

2014-09-01

395

Advisory committee on immunization practices recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years - United States, 2015.  

PubMed

Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviews the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years to ensure that the schedules reflect current recommendations for Food and Drug Administration-licensed vaccines. In October 2014, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years for 2015, which include several changes from the 2014 immunization schedules. For 2015, the figures, footnotes, and tables are being published on the CDC immunization schedule website (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). This provides readers electronic access to the most current version of the schedules and footnotes on the CDC website. Health care providers are advised to use figures, tables, and the combined footnotes together. Printable versions of the 2015 immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years also are available at the website in several formats, including portrait, landscape, and pocket-sized versions. Ordering instructions for laminated versions and "parent-friendly" schedules also are available at the immunization schedule website. PMID:25654610

Strikas, Raymond A

2015-02-01

396

Recommendation by a law body to ban infant male circumcision has serious worldwide implications for pediatric practice and human rights  

PubMed Central

Background Recent attempts in the USA and Europe to ban the circumcision of male children have been unsuccessful. Of current concern is a report by the Tasmanian Law Reform Institute (TLRI) recommending that non-therapeutic circumcision be prohibited, with parents and doctors risking criminal sanctions except where the parents have strong religious and ethnic ties to circumcision. The acceptance of this recommendation would create a precedent for legislation elsewhere in the world, thereby posing a threat to pediatric practice, parental responsibilities and freedoms, and public health. Discussion The TLRI report ignores the scientific consensus within medical literature about circumcision. It contains legal and ethical arguments that are seriously flawed. Dispassionate ethical arguments and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child are consistent with parents being permitted to authorize circumcision for their male child. Uncritical acceptance of the TLRI report’s recommendations would strengthen and legitimize efforts to ban childhood male circumcision not just in Australia, but in other countries as well. The medical profession should be concerned about any attempt to criminalize a well-accepted and evidence-based medical procedure. The recommendations are illogical, pose potential dangers and seem unworkable in practice. There is no explanation of how the State could impose criminal charges against doctors and parents, nor of how such a punitive apparatus could be structured, nor how strength of ethnic or religious ties could be determined. The proposal could easily be used inappropriately, and discriminates against parents not tied to the religions specified. With time, religious exemptions could subsequently be overturned. The law, governments and the medical profession should reject the TLRI recommendations, especially since the recent affirmative infant male circumcision policy statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics attests to the significant individual and public health benefits and low risk of infant male circumcision. Summary Doctors should be allowed to perform medical procedures based on sound evidence of effectiveness and safety with guaranteed protection. Parents should be free to act in the best interests of the health of their infant son by having him circumcised should they choose. PMID:24010685

2013-01-01

397

Clinical Practices and Outcomes in Elderly Hemodialysis Patients: Results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS)  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Demand for hemodialysis among elderly patients is increasing worldwide. Although clinical care of this high-risk group is complex and challenging, no guidelines exist to inform hemodialysis practices. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) provides a unique opportunity to assess dialysis practices and associated outcomes among elderly versus younger patients on chronic in-center hemodialysis in 12 countries. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Clinical characteristics, dialysis practices, and outcomes of elderly versus younger patients were compared among participants in four DOPPS regions in 2005 through 2007. Results Although participant mean age increased over time in all DOPPS countries, the percentage of elderly varied widely. Overall, comorbidities and malnutrition were more common in the elderly. Fistulae were used less frequently among elderly versus younger patients in Europe and North America but not in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. No difference in treatment time was observed between elderly and younger patients after normalizing for body weight. In all regions, ultrafiltration rates were lower among elderly patients. Elderly patients reported poorer quality of life with respect to the physical but not mental component scores. Mortality risk was three- to sixfold higher in the elderly group, whereas causes of death overall were similar for elderly and younger patients. Conclusions Elderly patients represent a different proportion of DOPPS participants across countries, possibly reflecting differences in policies and clinical practices. In general, hemodialysis practices in the elderly reflected each region's clinical patterns, with some variation by age group depending upon the practice. PMID:21734085

Tong, Lin; Tentori, Francesca; Akiba, Takashi; Karaboyas, Angelo; Gillespie, Brenda; Akizawa, Tadao; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Bommer, Juergen; Port, Friedrich K.

2011-01-01

398

Safety and Efficacy of IV-TPA for Ischaemic Stroke in Clinical Practice – A Bayesian Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Observational studies of new treatments in routine practice are clinically important but may be limited by bias. We used a Bayesian approach to interpret and sequentially combine phase 4 studies of IV-TPA within 3 h for acute ischaemic stroke to quantify the cumulative evidence for the efficacy and safety of this therapy in clinical practice. Methods: Prior probability distributions

Killian E. T. O’Rourke; Cathal D. Walsh; Peter J. Kelly

2009-01-01

399

Knowledge Systems, Health Care Teams, and Clinical Practice: A Study of Successful Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clinical teams are of growing importance to healthcare delivery, but little is known about how teams learn and change their clinical practice. We examined how teams in three US hospitals succeeded in making significant practice improvements in the area of antimicrobial resistance. This was a qualitative cross-case study employing Soft Knowledge…

Olson, Curtis A.; Tooman, Tricia R.; Alvarado, Carla J.

2010-01-01

400

Implementing a Gerontological Clinical Nursing Practice with an Interdisciplinary Focus: Lessons Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A gerontological clinical nursing practice with an interdisciplinary focus was developed to provide opportunities for student nurses to expand their knowledge about aging, hone assessment skills, and critically examine beliefs about older adults. The practice included theory about older adults and a rotation through a variety of clinical settings…

Dahlke, Sherry; Fehr, Cindy

2010-01-01