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Sample records for clinical psychology

  1. Reestablishing Clinical Psychology's Subjective Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsberger, Peter Hume

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…

  2. What Do Students in Psychology Courses Know about Clinical Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jon B.; Cantrell, Peggy J.

    This study examined what psychology students know about clinical psychology as most students with declared majors in psychology state that they have career plans to work in applied psychology. A five-item questionnaire was administered to 162 undergraduates in three introductory and upper level psychology courses. The questionnaire asked students…

  3. Understanding egorrhea from cultural-clinical psychology

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Jun; Wada, Kaori; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Based on his observations in Japanese clinical settings, Fujinawa (1972) conceptualized egorrhea syndrome, which includes symptoms such as erythrophobia, fear of eye-to-eye confrontation, olfactory reference syndrome, delusions of soliloquy, delusions of sleep talking, and thought broadcasting. The key feature of this syndrome is self-leakage, a perceived sense that one's personal internal information, such as feelings and thoughts, are leaking out. To reach a more comprehensive understanding of egorrhea, this paper aims to present general overview and reconsider the phenomenon of self-leakage using cultural-clinical psychology as a framework. First, the symptoms of egorrhea are reviewed in relation to other related psychopathologies such as social anxiety disorder (SAD) and taijin kyofusho (TKS), as well as schizophrenia. Second, a series of empirical studies conducted using Japanese non-clinical samples are summarized. The results of these studies form the basis for subsequent discussions, which incorporates the cultural-clinical psychology perspective proposed by Ryder et al. (2011). This paper ends with a general discussion regarding implications for research and clinical practice. PMID:24348445

  4. What predicts performance during clinical psychology training?

    PubMed Central

    Scior, Katrina; Bradley, Caroline E; Potts, Henry W W; Woolf, Katherine; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While the question of who is likely to be selected for clinical psychology training has been studied, evidence on performance during training is scant. This study explored data from seven consecutive intakes of the UK's largest clinical psychology training course, aiming to identify what factors predict better or poorer outcomes. Design Longitudinal cross-sectional study using prospective and retrospective data. Method Characteristics at application were analysed in relation to a range of in-course assessments for 274 trainee clinical psychologists who had completed or were in the final stage of their training. Results Trainees were diverse in age, pre-training experience, and academic performance at A-level (advanced level certificate required for university admission), but not in gender or ethnicity. Failure rates across the three performance domains (academic, clinical, research) were very low, suggesting that selection was successful in screening out less suitable candidates. Key predictors of good performance on the course were better A-levels and better degree class. Non-white students performed less well on two outcomes. Type and extent of pre-training clinical experience on outcomes had varied effects on outcome. Research supervisor ratings emerged as global indicators and predicted nearly all outcomes, but may have been biased as they were retrospective. Referee ratings predicted only one of the seven outcomes examined, and interview ratings predicted none of the outcomes. Conclusions Predicting who will do well or poorly in clinical psychology training is complex. Interview and referee ratings may well be successful in screening out unsuitable candidates, but appear to be a poor guide to performance on the course. Practitioner points While referee and selection interview ratings did not predict performance during training, they may be useful in screening out unsuitable candidates at the application stage High school final academic performance

  5. A Clinical Psychology Training Program Interfaces with the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, Alvin E.

    This paper describes how clinical child psychologists are trained in a pediatric psychology program and emphasizes their interface with the school. The need for clinical child psychology training is stressed, and training programs for pediatric psychologists and clinical child psychologists are compared. The collaborative pediatric psychology…

  6. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  7. Integrative Data Analysis in Clinical Psychology Research

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Integrative Data Analysis (IDA), a novel framework for conducting the simultaneous analysis of raw data pooled from multiple studies, offers many advantages including economy (i.e., reuse of extant data), power (i.e., large combined sample sizes), the potential to address new questions not answerable by a single contributing study (e.g., combining longitudinal studies to cover a broader swath of the lifespan), and the opportunity to build a more cumulative science (i.e., examining the similarity of effects across studies and potential reasons for dissimilarities). There are also methodological challenges associated with IDA, including the need to account for sampling heterogeneity across studies, to develop commensurate measures across studies, and to account for multiple sources of study differences as they impact hypothesis testing. In this review, we outline potential solutions to these challenges and describe future avenues for developing IDA as a framework for studies in clinical psychology. PMID:23394226

  8. Revisioning Clinical Psychology: Integrating Cultural Psychology into Clinical Research and Practice with Portuguese Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed-method research with the Portuguese community. The model demonstrates its value with ethnic minority clients by situating the clients within the context of their multi-layered social reality. The individual, familial, socio-cultural, and religio-moral domains are explored in two research projects, revealing the interrelation of these levels/contexts. The article is structured according to these domains. Study 1 is a quantitative study that validates the Agonias Questionnaire in Ontario. The results of this study are used to illustrate the individual domain of our proposed model. Study 2 is an ethnography conducted in the Azorean Islands, and the results of this study are integrated to illustrate the other three levels of the model, namely family, socio-cultural, and the religio-moral levels. PMID:23720642

  9. Clinical Psychology: A Research and Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broskowski, Anthony

    The purpose of this paper is to present a clinical research and development (R and D) model along with the rationale for its implementation and a sample training program for clinical psychologists. Although it may be possible to correct some problems by a clearer restatement of the scientist-professional model, a new model of clinical R and D has…

  10. Current Status and Future Prospects of Clinical Psycholog

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Timothy B.; McFall, Richard M.; Shoham, Varda

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The escalating costs of health care and other recent trends have made health care decisions of great societal import, with decision-making responsibility often being transferred from practitioners to health economists, health plans, and insurers. Health care decision making increasingly is guided by evidence that a treatment is efficacious, effective–disseminable, cost-effective, and scientifically plausible. Under these conditions of heightened cost concerns and institutional–economic decision making, psychologists are losing the opportunity to play a leadership role in mental and behavioral health care: Other types of practitioners are providing an increasing proportion of delivered treatment, and the use of psychiatric medication has increased dramatically relative to the provision of psychological interventions. Research has shown that numerous psychological interventions are efficacious, effective, and cost-effective. However, these interventions are used infrequently with patients who would benefit from them, in part because clinical psychologists have not made a convincing case for the use of these interventions (e.g., by supplying the data that decision makers need to support implementation of such interventions) and because clinical psychologists do not themselves use these interventions even when given the opportunity to do so. Clinical psychologists’ failure to achieve a more significant impact on clinical and public health may be traced to their deep ambivalence about the role of science and their lack of adequate science training, which leads them to value personal clinical experience over research evidence, use assessment practices that have dubious psychometric support, and not use the interventions for which there is the strongest evidence of efficacy. Clinical psychology resembles medicine at a point in its history when practitioners were operating in a largely prescientific manner. Prior to the scientific reform of medicine in the

  11. Comparing School and Clinical Psychology Internship Applicant Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Emery B.; Perfect, Michelle M.; Edwinson, Roxanne M.

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of internship applicants to internship positions listed in the online directory of the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) is estimated at 1.23:1. In 2014a, approximately 14% of all students who participated in the match were not placed. Although the internship crisis impacts students in clinical,…

  12. Ethical Issues in Mentoring Doctoral Students in Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Anna; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical issues abound in any relationship that is defined by differences between the parties in rank, status, and power. Such is the case in the relationship between a doctoral student in clinical psychology and his or her mentor. In this article, we examine several potential areas of ethical concern within the mentor-student relationship. We…

  13. Accessing the BIOSIS Previews Database in Clinical Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Bob

    The efficacy of using the BIOSIS Previews database as an online information retrieval tool in clinical psychology was investigated in a study conducted at the University of West Florida. Recognizing the importance of multi-database searching strategies when seeking comprehensive results, this study compared the citation output of this…

  14. Multiple Regression Analyses in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaccard, James; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida

    2006-01-01

    A major form of data analysis in clinical child and adolescent psychology is multiple regression. This article reviews issues in the application of such methods in light of the research designs typical of this field. Issues addressed include controlling covariates, evaluation of predictor relevance, comparing predictors, analysis of moderation,…

  15. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations.

    PubMed

    Macaskill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) have been created to further develop these strengths in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care contexts. The review identified that most of this research involves measuring character strengths and their association with health outcomes in patients with a range of different conditions, similar to the position in positive psychology research on non-clinical populations. More recently, PPIs are beginning to be applied to clinical populations with physical health problems and this research, although relatively scarce, is reviewed here for cancer, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. In common with PPIs being evaluated in the general population, high quality studies are scarce. Applying PPIs to patients with serious health conditions presents significant challenges to health psychologists. They must ensure that patients are dealt with appropriately and ethically, given that exaggerated claims for PPIs are made on the internet quite frequently. This is discussed along with the need for more high quality research. PMID:27618122

  16. Tobacco Cessation Training in Clinical Psychology and Clinical Social Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfelder, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tobacco and smoking cessation training and curriculum in graduate clinical psychology and graduate clinical social work programs. The current status of the clinical graduate programs' tobacco education curricula was evaluated by using the Transtheoretical Model's Stages of Change. Perceived barriers to…

  17. Clinical Psychology Training in Sleep and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Phillips, Cindy; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that clinical psychologists would benefit from more training in sleep and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances are commonly comorbid with mental health disorders and this relationship is often bidirectional. In addition, psychologists have become integral members of multidisciplinary sleep medicine teams and there are not enough qualified psychologists to meet the clinical demand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current education on sleep and sleep disorders provided to clinical psychology predoctoral students and interns. Directors of graduate programs and internships (N = 212) completed a brief online survey on sleep education in their program. Only 6% of programs offers formal didactic courses in sleep, with 31% of programs offering training in the treatment of sleep disorders. There are few programs with sleep faculty (16%), and most reported that their institutions were ineffective in providing sleep education. Thirty-nine percent of training directors reported they would implement a standard curriculum on sleep, if available. The findings from this study suggest that more opportunities are needed for trainees in clinical psychology to gain didactic and clinical experience with sleep and sleep disorders. PMID:19132641

  18. Guidelines for clinical supervision in health service psychology.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This document outlines guidelines for supervision of students in health service psychology education and training programs. The goal was to capture optimal performance expectations for psychologists who supervise. It is based on the premises that supervisors (a) strive to achieve competence in the provision of supervision and (b) employ a competency-based, meta-theoretical approach to the supervision process. The Guidelines on Supervision were developed as a resource to inform education and training regarding the implementation of competency-based supervision. The Guidelines on Supervision build on the robust literatures on competency-based education and clinical supervision. They are organized around seven domains: supervisor competence; diversity; relationships; professionalism; assessment/evaluation/feedback; problems of professional competence, and ethical, legal, and regulatory considerations. The Guidelines on Supervision represent the collective effort of a task force convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). PMID:25581007

  19. Psychological safety of a multiple channel cochlear implant device. Psychological aspects of a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Haas, L J

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-three deaf patients were screened psychologically and medically for suitability to receive an intracochlear implant. After initial screening for psychological normalcy, candidates were assessed again 1 year postimplant. Isolated deleterious psychological effects were found, and certain aspects of psychological functioning were enhanced. Overall evidence suggests that the implant is not psychologically damaging. PMID:2228457

  20. Exploring Clinical Psychology Doctoral Students' Attitudes towards Adults with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundon, Chandra R.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether clinical psychology doctoral students hold uniquely stigmatizing views of adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to adults with other clinical disorders. Through the use of clinical vignettes and attitudinal measures, three hypotheses investigated clinical psychology doctoral students'…

  1. Empirically supported psychological treatments: the challenge of evaluating clinical innovations.

    PubMed

    Church, Dawson; Feinstein, David; Palmer-Hoffman, Julie; Stein, Phyllis K; Tranguch, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Clear and transparent standards are required to establish whether a therapeutic method is "evidence based." Even when research demonstrates a method to be efficacious, it may not become available to patients who could benefit from it, a phenomenon known as the "translational gap." Only 30% of therapies cross the gap, and the lag between empirical validation and clinical implementation averages 17 years. To address these problems, Division 12 of the American Psychological Association published a set of standards for "empirically supported treatments" in the mid-1990s that allows the assessment of clinical modalities. This article reviews these criteria, identifies their strengths, and discusses their impact on the translational gap, using the development of a clinical innovation called Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) as a case study. Twelve specific recommendations for updates of the Division 12 criteria are made based on lessons garnered from the adoption of EFT within the clinical community. These recommendations would shorten the cycle from the research setting to clinical practice, increase transparency, incorporate recent scientific advances, and enhance the capacity for succinct comparisons among treatments. PMID:25265265

  2. Staff Perspectives of Service User Involvement on Two Clinical Psychology Training Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Simon P.; Holttum, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated both negative and positive staff perspectives of service user involvement on two clinical psychology training courses as part of an ongoing process of service evaluation. Ten clinical psychology staff from two training courses were interviewed over the telephone by a current trainee clinical psychologist using a…

  3. University Clinics as Field Placements in School Psychology Training: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Benson, A. Jerry

    Although many school psychology programs use university-based clinics as field placements for school psychology students, there is little information in the literature on how these clinics are organized, administered, and funded or on the nature, duration, and sequencing of clinic field experiences. A national telephone survey of 71 directors of…

  4. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  5. Of Course: Prerequisite Courses for Admission into APA-Accredited Clinical and Counseling Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.; Stratigis, Katerina Y.; Zimmerman, Barrett E.

    2014-01-01

    Students often inquire about which psychology courses to complete in preparation for graduate school. This study provides data that enable students and their advisors to make research-informed decisions. We surveyed the directors of the 304 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology (97%…

  6. Teaching Statistics in APA-Accredited Doctoral Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: A Syllabi Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ord, Anna S.; Ripley, Jennifer S.; Hook, Joshua; Erspamer, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Although statistical methods and research design are crucial areas of competency for psychologists, few studies explore how statistics are taught across doctoral programs in psychology in the United States. The present study examined 153 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology and aimed…

  7. Interreality in the management of psychological stress: a clinical scenario.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Raspelli, Simona; Pallavicini, Federica; Grassi, Alessandra; Algeri, Davide; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The term "psychological stress" describes a situation in which a subject perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. According to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the best validated approach covering both stress management and stress treatment is the Cognitive Behavioral (CBT) approach. We aim to design, develop and test an advanced ICT based solution for the assessment and treatment of psychological stress that is able to improve the actual CBT approach. To reach this goal we will use the "interreality" paradigm integrating assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, that creates a bridge between the physical and virtual worlds. Our claim is that bridging virtual experiences (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation) with real experiences (allowing both the identification of any critical stressors and the assessment of what has been learned) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, advanced sensors and PDA/mobile phones) is the best way to address the above limitations. To illustrate the proposed concept, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Paola, a 45 years old nurse, with a mother affected by progressive senile dementia. PMID:20543263

  8. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Compliance and Clinical Significance in the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odgaard, Eric C.; Fowler, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In 2005, the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" ("JCCP") became the first American Psychological Association (APA) journal to require statistical measures of clinical significance, plus effect sizes (ESs) and associated confidence intervals (CIs), for primary outcomes (La Greca, 2005). As this represents the single largest…

  9. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in a Psychology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Labrador, Francisco J; Estupiñá, Francisco J; Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Mónica; Fernández-Arias, Ignacio; Alonso, Pablo; Ballesteros, Francisco; Blanco, Carmen; Gómez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    People with anxiety disorders demand psychological attention most often. Therefore, it seems important to identify both the characteristics of the patients who demand help and the clinical variables related to that demand and its treatment. A cohort of 292 patients who requested help at a university clinical facility was studied. The typical profile of the patient was: being female, young, unmarried, with some college education, and having previously received treatment, especially pharmacological one. The three most frequent diagnoses of anxiety, which include 50% of the cases, were: Anxiety Disorder not otherwise specified, Social Phobia, and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. Regarding the characteristics of the intervention, the average duration of the assessment was 3.5 sessions (SD = 1.2), and the duration of the treatment was 14 sessions (SD = 11.2). The percentage of discharges was 70.2%. The average cost of treatment was around €840. The results are discussed, underlining the value of empirically supported treatments for anxiety disorders. PMID:26514227

  10. From imagination to virtual reality: the future of clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Vincelli, F

    1999-01-01

    The possible role of virtual reality (VR) in clinical psychology derives prevalently from the central role occupied by the imagination and by memory in psychotherapy. These two elements, which are fundamental in the life of everyone, present absolute and relative limits to individual potential. Thanks to virtual experiences, it is possible to transcend these limits. The re-created world may be more vivid and real at times than the one that most subjects are able to describe through their own imagination and through their own memory. This article focuses on imaginative techniques to find new ways of applications in therapy. In particular, the way VR can be used to improve the efficacy of current techniques is explored. VR produces a change with respect to the traditional relationship between client and therapist. The new configuration of this relationship is based on the awareness of being more skilled in the difficult operations of recovery of past experiences through the memory and of foreseeing future experiences through the imagination. At the same time, subjects undergoing treatment perceive the advantage of being able to recreate and use a real experiential world within the confines of their therapists's clinical offices. PMID:19178241

  11. Children's Views Matter Too! A Pilot Project Assessing Children's and Adolescents' Experiences of Clinical Psychology Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael; Russo, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study explored the experiences and understanding of clinical psychology practices and services of children and adolescents attending clinical psychology outpatient appointments. Fifteen young participants took part in the study. A content analysis indicated that young children and adolescents have an appropriate understanding of the…

  12. Clinical Validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62): Further Evaluation and Clinical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Andrew A.; Nordberg, Samuel S.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.; Lockard, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-report instruments of psychological symptoms are increasingly used in counseling centers but rely on rigorous evaluation of their clinical validity. Three studies reported here (total N = 26,886) investigated the validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011) as an assessment and…

  13. Multicultural Grand Rounds: Competency-Based Training Model for Clinical Psychology Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students to enter the field of psychology as competent professionals requires that multicultural practices be infused into all areas of training. This article describes how the Grand Rounds model was adapted to a graduate clinical psychology training program to foster applied learning in multicultural competence. This extension of Grand…

  14. Lack of political diversity and the framing of findings in personality and clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2015-01-01

    I extend the arguments of Duarte et al. by examining the implications of political uniformity for the framing of findings in personality and clinical psychology. I argue that the one-sided framing of psychological research on political ideology has limited our understanding of the personality correlates of liberalism and conservatism. PMID:26786842

  15. Effect of Training in Psychology on the Causal Interpretation of a Clinical Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilibert, Daniel; Banovic, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to show how training in psychology leads students (at the beginning and the end of their studies) to consider that psychological disorders result from dispositional factors specific to the patients, particularly in therapeutic failure (fundamental attribution error and hindsight bias). Faced with a clinical case of a somatic…

  16. Multicultural Training of Clinical and Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students: Ideals vs. Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bryana F. C.

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA), which is the advocating body for the field of psychology, emphasizes the importance of multicultural competencies for researchers and clinicians (APA, 2003; 2010). Graduate students are the field's future professionals. The multicultural training of doctoral level clinical and counseling…

  17. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  18. Ethical clinical practice and sport psychology: when two worlds collide.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeffrey L; Cogan, Karen D

    2006-01-01

    From their own practices, the authors offer insight into potential ethical dilemmas that may frequently develop in an applied psychology setting in which sport psychology is also being practiced. Specific ethical situations offered for the reader's consideration include confidentiality with coaches, administration, parents, and athlete-clients; accountability in ethical billing practices and accurate diagnosing; identification of ethical boundaries in nontraditional practice settings (locker room, field, rink, etc.); and establishment of professional competence as it relates to professional practice and marketing. PMID:17036422

  19. Clinical Supervision and Psychological Functions: A New Direction for Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Relates Carl Jung's concept of psychological functions to four families of clinical supervision: the original clinical models, the humanistic/artistic models, the technical/didactic models, and the developmental/reflective models. Differences among clinical supervision models within these families are clarified as representing "communication…

  20. Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburger, Victor C.

    Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…

  1. Evolving Perspectives: Consultation, School Psychology, and the Clinical Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Barbara R.; And Others

    A training program was implemented to provide consultation services in a residential treatment center for emotionally disturbed individuals. Prior to the program's implementation, clinicians were discouraged and frustrated because staff needs could not adequately be met. Psychological services to 36 severely disturbed females, ages 12 to 22, were…

  2. The return of science to education in clinical psychology: a reply to Snyder and Elliott.

    PubMed

    Rand, Kevin L

    2005-09-01

    Clinical psychology currently exists in a state of isolation from the other scientific domains. This disconnect is explained, in part, by the continued adherence to mind-body dualism by many clinical psychologists and the rift between researchers and practitioners within the discipline. However, natural science researchers are reasserting the connection between physical and biological properties and psychological phenomena. As a result, knowledge and skill pertaining to the scientific method will become increasingly important in the education of future clinical psychologists. Modifications to both undergraduate and graduate training are suggested. PMID:15965945

  3. It's time to Rework the Blueprints: Building a Science for Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millon, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    The aims in this article are to connect the conceptual structure of clinical psychological science to what the author believes to be the omnipresent principles of evolution, use the evolutionary model to create a deductively derived clinical theory and taxonomy, link the theory and taxonomy to comprehensive and integrated approaches to assessment,…

  4. Revisioning the Clinical Relationship: Heinz Kohut and the Viewpoint of Self-Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masek, Robert J.

    Psychoanalysis is undergoing rapid and remarkable changes in its basic metapsychology, theoretical reflections, and concrete, clinical interventions. Through self-psychology, Heinz Kohut's alternative views on the clinical relationship have contributed to this restructuring of psychoanalysis. Traditionally, mainstream psychoanalysis has viewed the…

  5. Leaving behind our preparadigmatic past: Professional psychology as a unified clinical science.

    PubMed

    Melchert, Timothy P

    2016-09-01

    The behavioral and neurosciences have made remarkable progress recently in advancing the scientific understanding of human psychology. Though research in many areas is still in its early stages, knowledge of many psychological processes is now firmly grounded in experimental tests of falsifiable theories and supports a unified, paradigmatic understanding of human psychology that is thoroughly consistent with the rest of the natural sciences. This new body of knowledge poses critical questions for professional psychology, which still often relies on the traditional theoretical orientations and other preparadigmatic practices for guiding important aspects of clinical education and practice. This article argues that professional psychology needs to systematically transition to theoretical frameworks and a curriculum that are based on an integrated scientific understanding of human psychology. Doing so would be of historic importance for the field and would result in major changes to professional psychology education and practice. It would also allow the field to emerge as a true clinical science. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27571528

  6. The comparative importance of books: clinical psychology in the health sciences library.

    PubMed Central

    Wehmeyer, J M; Wehmeyer, S

    1999-01-01

    Clinical psychology has received little attention as a subject in health sciences library collections. This study seeks to demonstrate the relative importance of the monographic literature to clinical psychology through the examination of citations in graduate student theses and dissertations at the Fordham Health Sciences Library, Wright State University. Dissertations and theses were sampled randomly; citations were classified by format, counted, and subjected to statistical analysis. Books and book chapters together account for 35% of the citations in clinical psychology dissertations, 25% in nursing theses, and 8% in biomedical sciences theses and dissertations. Analysis of variance indicates that the citations in dissertations and theses in the three areas differ significantly (F = 162.2 with 2 and 253 degrees of freedom, P = 0.0001). Dissertations and theses in biomedical sciences and nursing theses both cite significantly more journals per book than the dissertations in clinical psychology. These results support the hypothesis that users of clinical psychology literature rely more heavily on books than many other users of a health sciences library. Problems with using citation analyses in a single subject to determine a serials to monographs ratio for a health sciences library are pointed out. PMID:10219478

  7. Graduate education in clinical psychology for the twenty-first century: educating psychological health care providers.

    PubMed

    Levant, Ronald F

    2005-09-01

    This comment focuses on a topic that is implied but not explicated in C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott's article (this issue, PP. 1033-1054): The biopsychosocial model. I begin by discussing the status of health care, taking up in turn its tremendous problems and the negative effects of a system built on mind-body dualism. I argue for a transformation of the biomedical system to a biopsychosocial system. I then discuss the opportunities for psychology and the implications for training. PMID:15965917

  8. Reconciling the Professional and Student Identities of Clinical Psychology Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen; Cossar, Jill A.; Fawns, Tim; Murray, Aja L.

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the ways in which qualified and trainee clinical psychologists perceived professional behaviour, as illustrated in a series of short vignettes, in student and clinical practice contexts. Comparisons were made to identify the extent to which ideas of professionalism differed across different learning contexts and between…

  9. The clinical differential approach of Sante De Sanctis in Italian "scientific" psychology.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Sante De Sanctis, a psychiatrist and psychologist, is one of the most representative figures of Italian "scientific" psychology. He is considered one of the founders of the discipline as well as one of its main protagonists in the years between the two World Wars. Both with his extensive scientific productions (which include more than three hundred works) and with his uninterrupted institutional activity, he has left his significant mark on the history of Italian psychology. He was the first professor of Experimental Psychology and was internationally known: some of his works have been published in French, Swiss, American, German, Scandinavian, and English journals, and some of his volumes have been translated into English and German. Together with the other psychologists of the second generation (Binet, Külpe, Münsterberg, Stern, Claparède, Ebbinghaus), he was the Italian psychologist who decided to enrich the classical paradigm of Wundt's physiological psychology, by developing during the twentieth century the program of methodological and epistemological enlargement of the discipline. In his fundamental treatise Psicologia Sperimentale, written in 1929-30, a clear modern conception of psychology emerged: it jointly included both the generalist aspect (with some studies on psychophysical proportionality, thought mimicry, dreams, attention, emotions, etc.) and the applicative one, which included psychopathology, labor psychology, educational psychology, and criminal psychology, all seen in a general experimental framework. The present paper aims precisely to highlight the originality of De Sanctis' experimentalism that applied the differential clinical approach to the discipline of psychology, causing it for the first time in Italy to be seen in a unitary way as both general and applied psychology. PMID:19569448

  10. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  11. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  12. Borders and Modal Articulations. Semiotic Constructs of Sensemaking Processes Enabling a Fecund Dialogue Between Cultural Psychology and Clinical Psychology.

    PubMed

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The notion of the border is an interesting advancement in research on the processes of meaning making within the cultural psychology. The development of this notion in semiotic key allows to handle with adequate complexity construction, transformation, stability and the breakup of the relationship between person/world/otherness. These semiotic implications have already been widely discussed and exposed by authors such Valsiner (2007, 2014), Neuman (2003, 2008), Simão (Culture & Psychology, 9, 449-459, 2003, Theory & Psychology, 15, 549-574, 2005, 2015), with respect to issues of identity/relatedness, inside/outside, stability/change in the irreversible flow of the time. In this work, after showing some of the basics of such semiotic notion of border, we discuss the processes of construction and transformation of borders through the modal articulation, defined as the contextual positioning that the person assumes with respect to the establishment of a boundary in terms of necessity, obligation, willingness, possibility, permission, ability. This modal subjective positioning acquires considerable interest from the clinical point of view since its degree of plasticity vs that of rigidity is the basis of processes of development or stiffening of relations between person/world/otherness. PMID:26149084

  13. Reflections on a do-it-yourself training program in clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Shakow, D

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a somewhat modified version of the inaugural Rapaport--Klein Memorial Lecture at Austen Riggs Center presented June 21, 1974. The author describes the experiences, the series of "apprenticeships" and clinical exposures, which coalesced into his education, from teenage days in the New York Madison House settlement, through Harvard undergraduate and graduate work, to Worcester State Hospital as head of psychological services and research. In conclusion, the author discusses the effects of the kinds of training experiences he has described on the issues that arose in the formulation of formal standards of training in clinical psychology. PMID:801140

  14. Postgraduate Clinical Psychology Students' Perceptions of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Stress Management Intervention and Clinical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Stafford-Brown, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research into stress management interventions for clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) is limited, despite evidence indicating that these individuals are at risk for elevated stress, which can negatively impact personal and professional functioning. This study explored: (1) CPTs' perceptions of a previously evaluated Acceptance and…

  15. Psychological type and explanatory style of nursing students and clinical faculty.

    PubMed

    Allchin, Lynn; Dzurec, Laura Cox; Engler, Arthur J

    2009-04-01

    Health care providers' collaboration and effective teamwork are essential to patient safety and quality care. Part of an ongoing project, this study focused on nursing faculty-student communication characteristics, specifically examining psychological type (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) and explanatory style (Attributional Style Questionnaire) of participating first-year baccalaureate nursing students (n = 286) and clinical nursing faculty (n = 59) from both 2-year and 4-year nursing programs. Modal student psychological type was ESFJ, and modal faculty psychological type was ISTJ. The two groups demonstrated significant differences in information processing styles and in making decisions and judgments. Students demonstrated slightly more optimistic outlooks than did faculty. Psychological type and level of optimism did not appear to correlate. Data from this study provide an initial framework on which to base research to examine quality of teamwork among health care providers and, consequently, the quality of patient care. PMID:19441635

  16. Social Construction: Vistas in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Kenneth J.; Lightfoot, Cynthia; Sydow, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    We explore here the potentials of a social constructionist orientation to knowledge for research and clinical practice. Dialogues on social construction emphasize the communal origins of knowledge. They stress the cultural basis of knowledge claims, the significance of language, the value saturation of all knowledge, and the significance of…

  17. Cultural Responsivity in Clinical Psychology Graduate Students: A Developmental Approach to the Prediction of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrin, Sebastian Everett

    2010-01-01

    This study used a mixed-method approach to examine students' experiences in multicultural training and their opinions about various aspects of their course(s). A developmental model of learning was employed to analyze results. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between clinical psychology doctoral students' self-reported…

  18. Recognizing Business Issues in Professional Psychology for Clinical PsyD Trainees and Early Career Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The largest number of licensed psychologists are centralized in California. More PsyD than PhD degrees in clinical psychology are now awarded, and California houses 16 of the 59 APA-accredited programs. Post-millennia Early Career Psychologists (ECPs) typically accumulate over $120,000 in education debt, and may be concerned with the cost-benefit…

  19. Factors That Help and Hinder Scientific Training in Counseling and Clinical Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to better understand scientific training within clinical and counseling psychology doctoral programs. A primary goal is to extend previous research by expanding the scientific training outcome variables from research interest and productivity to include additional characteristics of scientific mindedness such as…

  20. Cross-Gender Mentorship in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs: An Exploratory Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Sherry L.; Clark, Richard A.; Johnson, W. Brad; Larson, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    The mentorship experiences of recent clinical psychology doctorates reporting a primary mentor in graduate school were assessed by means of a survey. Among 518 responding psychologists, male graduates were significantly more likely to have a same-gender mentor, and female graduates were more likely to report receiving support from mentors of both…

  1. The Effects of Creating Psychological Ownership on Physicians' Acceptance of Clinical Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Paré, Guy; Sicotte, Claude; Jacques, Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Motivated by the need to push further our understanding of physicians' acceptance of clinical information systems, we propose a relatively new construct, namely, psychological ownership. We situated the construct within a nomological net using a prevailing and dominant information technology adoption behavior model as a logical starting point. Design: A mail survey was sent to the population of users of a regional physician order entry (POE) system aimed at speeding up the transmission of clinical data, mainly laboratory tests and radiology examinations, within a community health network. Measurements: All scales, but one, were measured using previously validated instruments. For its part, the psychological ownership scale was developed using a multistage iterative procedure. Results: Ninety-one questionnaires were returned to the researchers, for a response rate of 72.8%. Our findings reveal that, in order to foster physicians' adoption of a clinical information system, it is important to encourage and cultivate a positive attitude toward using the new system. In this connection, positive perception of the technology's usefulness is crucial. Second, results demonstrate that psychological ownership of a POE system is positively associated with physicians' perceptions of system utility and system user friendliness. Last, through their active involvement and participation, physicians feel they have greater influence on the development process, thereby developing feelings of ownership toward the clinical system. Conclusion: Psychological ownership's highly significant associations with user participation and crucial beliefs driving technology acceptance behaviors among physicians affirm the value of this construct in extending our understanding of POE adoption. PMID:16357351

  2. White Clinical Psychology Trainees' Views on Racial Equity within Programme Selection in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Craig M.; Swartz, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The issue of diversity in both physical and epistemological access to programmes in higher education is an important concern worldwide. In South Africa, as elsewhere, access to professional clinical psychology training programmes is extremely competitive, and there is an important imperative to diversify the student profile. Perspectives of black…

  3. Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. 2006/2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayne, Tracy J.; Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Now in its 2006-2007 edition, this perennial bestseller is the resource students count on for the most current information on applying to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. The Insider's Guide presents up-to-date facts on 300 accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Each program's profile includes admissions…

  4. Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. 2004/2005 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayette, Michael A.; Mayne, Tracy J.; Norcross, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Now in its 2004/2005 edition, this perennial bestseller is the resource students count on for the most current information on applying to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. The Insider's Guide presents up-to-date facts on nearly 300 accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Each program's profile includes admissions…

  5. What Comes before Report Writing? Attending to Clinical Reasoning and Thinking Errors in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Meadow

    2015-01-01

    Psychoeducational assessment involves collecting, organizing, and interpreting a large amount of data from various sources. Drawing upon psychological and medical literature, we review two main approaches to clinical reasoning (deductive and inductive) and how they synergistically guide diagnostic decision-making. In addition, we discuss how the…

  6. Religion and Spirituality within Counselling/Clinical Psychology Training Programmes: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jafari, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing efforts to attend to religious and spiritual issues within clinical/counselling psychology. However, there is limited research demonstrating how successfully such content is integrated into existing training programmes. This investigation sought to review primary research literature related to training…

  7. Suicidal Behaviors among Clients at an Outpatient Psychology Clinic versus the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.

    1982-01-01

    Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)

  8. Cliques and Cohesion in a Clinical Psychology Graduate Cohort: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunze, Kimberley Annette

    2013-01-01

    To date, no published research has utilized social network analysis (SNA) to analyze graduate cohorts in clinical psychology. The purpose of this research is to determine how issues of likability among students correlate with other measures, such as disclosure, health, spiritual maturity, help in projects, familiarity, and ease of providing…

  9. Chronic widespread pain: clinical comorbidities and psychological correlates.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Ogata, Soshiro; Vehof, Jelle; Williams, Frances

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have provided consistent evidence for a genetic influence on chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the etiological structure underlying CWP by examining the covariation between CWP and psychological comorbidities and psychoaffective correlates and (2) the decomposition of the covariation into genetic and environmental components. A total of 3266 female twins (mean age 56.6 years) were subject to multivariate analyses. Using validated questionnaires to classify twins as having CWP, the prevalence of CWP was 20.8%. In the multivariate analysis, the most suitable model was the common pathway model. This model revealed 2 underlying latent variables, one common to anxiety, emotional intelligence, and emotional instability (f1) and the other common to depression and CWP (f2), the latter being highly heritable (86%). Both latent variables (f1 and f2) shared an additive genetic and a nonshared environmental factor. In addition, a second additive genetic factor loading only on f2 was found. This study reveals the structure of genetic and environmental influences of CWP and its psychoaffective correlates. The results show that the clustering of CWP and depression is due to a common, highly heritable, underlying latent trait. In addition, we found evidence that CWP, anxiety, emotional instability, and emotional intelligence are influenced by different underlying latent traits sharing the same genetic and nonshared environmental factors. This is the first study to reveal the structure and relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on complex etiological mechanisms of CWP and its correlates. PMID:25851458

  10. [THE RESULTS OF CLINICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH WERE IDENTIFIED NEUROTIC DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Solovyova, M

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of the clinical and psychopathological and psychological diagnostic, investigations mental health employees of financial institutions, description and analysis of clinical forms identified disorders. PMID:26638468

  11. Structured clinical interview guide for postdeployment psychological screening programs.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kathleen M; Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Eckford, Rachel D

    2008-05-01

    Brief structured clinical interviews are a key component of the Department of Defense postdeployment health reassessment program. Such interviews are critical for recommending individuals for follow-up assessment and care. To standardize the interview process, U.S. Army Medical Research Unit-Europe developed a structured interview guide, designed in response to both clinical requirements and research findings. The guide includes sections on depression, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder, anger, relationship problems, alcohol problems, and sleep problems. In addition, there is an open-ended section on other problems and a section for case dispositions. Data from a 2005 blinded validation study with soldiers returning from a 1-year-long combat deployment are included to demonstrate the utility of the structured interview. Guidelines and implementation considerations for the use of the structured interview are discussed. PMID:18543560

  12. Tourette syndrome: clinical and psychological aspects of 250 cases.

    PubMed

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1985-05-01

    Tourette syndrome is a common hereditary neuropsychiatric disorder consisting of multiple tics and vocal noises. We summarize here clinical aspects of 250 consecutive cases seen over a period of 3 years. The sex ratio was four males to one female, and the mean age of onset was 6.9 years. Only 10% were Jewish, indicating that it is not more prevalent in Ashkenazi Jews. Only 33% had compulsive swearing (coprolalia), indicating that this is not necessary for the diagnosis. The most frequent initial symptoms were rapid eye-blinking, facial grimacing, and throat-clearing. In this series, it was clear that Tourette syndrome is a psychiatric as well as a neurological disorder. Significant discipline problems and/or problems with anger and violence occurred in 61%, and 54% had attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Some degree of exhibitionism was present in 15.9% of males and 6.1% of females. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was seen in 32%. Other than tics and vocal noises, the most common parental complaints were of short temper and everything being a confrontation. There were no significant clinical differences between familial and sporadic cases. Whenever a child presents with a learning disorder, attention-deficit disorder, or significant discipline or emotional problems, the parents should be questioned about the presence of tics or vocal noises in the patient and other family members. PMID:3859204

  13. [The relationship between psychological stress and the clinical course of multiple sclerosis. An update].

    PubMed

    Strenge, H

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between psychological stress and the course of MS has been investigated in several studies using methods with different qualities. The majority of findings indicates that acute short-term stressors have no negative consequences. Chronic psychosocial stressors, however, such as interpersonal conflicts, loss and complicated bereavement, low perceived social support, anxiety and depressive episodes have to be regarded as possible risk factors for the development of MS exacerbations. The neuroimmunological findings in MS and under various stress conditions are delineated with emphasis on the changes in lymphocyte and cytokine networks and evaluated with regard to their possible clinical significance. Practical consequences for psychological intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:11345583

  14. [The birth of clinical psychology in the scientific work of Lightner Witmer].

    PubMed

    Morabito, Carmela

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the beginning of Clinical Psychology in the first years of XX century, when a central role was played by the theoretical and practical approach on mental retardation and behavioural disorders of L. Witmer. The author describes the cultural formation of Witmer, between Structural Psychology and Functionalism, and the special attention he devoted to the management and education of children affected by mental retardation and behavioural problems. ... Any child, the functions of whose brain are not developed up to the normal limit for his age, is suffering from retardation ... Retardation must be defined in terms of individual capacity for physical and mental development.... PMID:17992853

  15. Virtual reality and imaginative techniques in clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Vincelli, F; Molinari, E

    1998-01-01

    The great potential offered by Virtual Reality (VR) derives prevalently from the central role, in psychotherapy, occupied by the imagination and by memory. These two elements, which are fundamental in the life of every one of us, present absolute and relative limits to individual potential. Thanks to virtual experiences, it is possible to transcend these limits. The re-created world may at times be more vivid and real than the one that most subjects are able to describe through their own imagination and through their own memory. This chapter focuses on imaginative techniques to find new ways of applications in therapy. In particular the chapter analyses in which way VR can be used to improve the efficacy of current techniques. VR produces a change with respect to the traditional relationship between client and therapist. The new configuration of this relationship is based on the awareness of being more skilled in the difficult operations of recovery of past experiences, through the memory, and of foreseeing of future experiences, through the imagination. At the same time, the subject undergoing treatment perceives the advantage of being able to re-create and use a real experiential world within the walls of the clinical office of his own therapist. PMID:10350930

  16. Detecting psychological distress among patients attending secondary health care clinics. Self-report and physician rating.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D; Rabinowitz, J; Ben Yehuda, Y

    1995-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, as reported by patients and their physicians, in orthopedic, neurology, dermatology, and ophthalmology clinics; to study their accuracy in detecting psychological distress; and to determine if there is any connection among psychological distress, accuracy of detecting distress, and use of mental health and primary health care physicians' prognosis for the somatic complaints. Five hundred and fifty-six patients, ages 18-21, responded to the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Demoralization Scale (PERI-D), a measure of psychological distress, and to questions about their mental health and use of mental health and primary health services. Physicians, who were blind to patients' responses, were asked to what extent they thought the cause of patients' complaints was physical and to what extent they thought it was psychological in nature, and to prognosticate. Based on the PERI-D, about 25% of patients were distressed, this was less for females than males and varied between clinics. Based on self-reporting, about 14% of patients (males and females) were distressed. Based on physician reporting, about 17% (males less) were distressed. Physicians identified 35% of the PERI-D-distressed cases and 79% of nondistressed cases. About 66% of patients identified their distress and 83% their lack of distress. Increased use of primary health care and mental health care was related to distress. The prognosis was negatively related to distress. Based on this study, there is a need for more attention to psychological distress among secondary health care patients. Patients' ability to identify their distress suggests the importance of involving the patient in the diagnostic process. Correct detection of distress alone does not appear to decrease the use of primary medical and mental health services. PMID:8714802

  17. Correlates of intimate partner psychological aggression perpetration in a clinical sample of alcoholic men.

    PubMed

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Taft, Casey T; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Murphy, Christopher M

    2012-04-01

    This study longitudinally examined correlates of intimate partner psychological aggression in a sample of 178 men seeking treatment for alcoholism and their partners, building on a previous investigation examining correlates of intimate partner physical aggression (Taft et al., 2010). The men were largely Caucasian; average age was 41.0 years. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed distal and proximal predictors of psychological aggression perpetration. Distal factors, assessed at baseline, included initial alcohol problem severity, beliefs about alcohol, and antisocial personality characteristics. Proximal factors, assessed at baseline and at follow-ups 6 and 12 months later, included alcohol and drug use, relationship adjustment, and anger. Psychological aggression was assessed at all three time points. Findings showed that both groups of variables were associated with psychological aggression perpetration. Beliefs that drinking causes relationship problems and variables related to alcohol consumption exhibited the strongest associations with psychological aggression. The findings are consistent with theoretical models that emphasize both distal and proximal effects of drinking on intimate partner aggression. Implications for clinical interventions and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22409160

  18. Promoting Mentalization in Clinical Psychology at Universities: A Linguistic Analysis of Student Accounts.

    PubMed

    Freda, Maria Francesca; Esposito, Giovanna; Quaranta, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the structure of mentalization (Bateman & Fonagy, 2012) in a training context. The dual purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of practicum student training and whether the Linguistic Inquiry method (Pennebaker, 2000) could be used to evaluate the three dimensions of mentalization - relational, cognitive, and emotional. The training utilized the groups and their accounts as devices and mediators to conceptualize the relationship between self-mentalizing training, the academic context and the practicum experience. Accounts from 38 Italian students pursuing master degree in Clinical, Dynamic, and Community Psychology were analyzed by LIWC software. The Wilcoxon test showed a significant increase in mentalizing words during the middle and end of the term, as compared with the beginning. The results displayed a need to promote mentalization within academic settings and indicated the value of this competence for clinical psychology. PMID:27247640

  19. Promoting Mentalization in Clinical Psychology at Universities: A Linguistic Analysis of Student Accounts

    PubMed Central

    Freda, Maria Francesca; Esposito, Giovanna; Quaranta, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the structure of mentalization (Bateman & Fonagy, 2012) in a training context. The dual purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of practicum student training and whether the Linguistic Inquiry method (Pennebaker, 2000) could be used to evaluate the three dimensions of mentalization — relational, cognitive, and emotional. The training utilized the groups and their accounts as devices and mediators to conceptualize the relationship between self-mentalizing training, the academic context and the practicum experience. Accounts from 38 Italian students pursuing master degree in Clinical, Dynamic, and Community Psychology were analyzed by LIWC software. The Wilcoxon test showed a significant increase in mentalizing words during the middle and end of the term, as compared with the beginning. The results displayed a need to promote mentalization within academic settings and indicated the value of this competence for clinical psychology. PMID:27247640

  20. The Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS): Merging clinical practice, training, and research.

    PubMed

    Youn, Soo Jeong; Castonguay, Louis G; Xiao, Henry; Janis, Rebecca; McAleavey, Andrew A; Lockard, Allison J; Locke, Benjamin D; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this article is to present information about a standardized multidimensional measure of psychological symptoms, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS; Locke et al., 2011; Locke, McAleavey, et al., 2012; McAleavey, Nordberg, Hayes, et al., 2012), developed to assess difficulties specific to college students' mental health. We provide (a) a brief review and summary of the psychometric and research support for the CCAPS; (b) examples of the use of the CCAPS for various purposes, including clinical, training, policy, and counseling center advocacy; and (c) implications of the integration of routine outcome monitoring and feedback for the future of training, research, and clinical practice. In particular, the article emphasizes how the assimilation of and symbiotic relationship between research and practice can address the scientist-practitioner gap. PMID:26641373

  1. Attitudes toward Substance Abuse Clients: An Empirical Study of Clinical Psychology Trainees.

    PubMed

    Mundon, Chandra R; Anderson, Melissa L; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population are likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation. PMID:26375324

  2. Expanding the Aperture of Psychological Assessment: Introduction to the Special Section on Innovative Clinical Assessment Technologies and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trull, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary psychological assessment is dominated by tried-and-true methods like clinical interviewing, self-report questionnaires, intellectual assessment, and behavioral observation. These approaches have served as the mainstays of psychological assessment for decades. To be sure, these methods have survived over the years because clinicians…

  3. Integrating Research Into Clinical Internship Training Bridging the Science/Practice Gap in Pediatric Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Spirito, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345

  4. Cocaine Use among the College Age Group: Biological and Psychological Effects--Clinical and Laboratory Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Knowledge about cocaine's effect on the human mind and body is limited and not clearly documented. This article discusses various biological and psychological effects of the drug based on clinical and laboratory studies of man. (Author/DF)

  5. The end of clinical psychology as we know it? A response to Snyder and Elliott's four level matrix model.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Stephan; Halpern, Diane F; Tan, Sherylle J; Riggio, Heidi R

    2005-09-01

    C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott's proposed model (this issue, pp. 1033-1054) represents a good effort toward reexamining the premises of clinical psychology education. However, there are several concepts left underdeveloped and inadequately defined. Furthermore, their ideas for improving clinical training seem largely divorced from the model proposed. Before making propositions toward a "new clinical psychology," clarification of the constructs and model is needed to understand how it can better educate and prepare future clinical psychologists for the demands of tomorrow's marketplaces. PMID:15965943

  6. Psychological distress of cancer and clinical trial participation: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kelly, C; Ghazi, F; Caldwell, K

    2002-03-01

    The House of Commons Select Committee on Science and Technology 2000 state that currently less than 5% of adult patients with solid tumours are entered into clinical trials. They recommend that increasing the number of adult cancer patients entering clinical trials must become a high priority. Health-care providers need to prepare themselves for this proposed increase in trial participants by assessing the current status of care and implementing changes within the current infrastructure to provide optimal holistic care. Cancer can change a patient's life either for better or for worse. At one extreme, having cancer leads to enhanced appreciation of life and closer bonds with others. However, at the other extreme, cancer combined with its treatment is viewed as an event that evokes distress and emotional anguish taxing the individual's ability to cope. In the last 25 years, owing to the advent of clinical trials, progress has been made in cancer treatment. Clinical trials may be hailed as the saviour to many therapeutic dilemmas. Treatments are now available which can offer patients hope of cure. Nevertheless, many participants may fear, for the purpose of research, that they may be assigned to less than optimal therapy or that their care will be carried out in a sterile scientific atmosphere devoid of humane and personal consideration. These and other reasons may cause unacceptable personal distress that overrides the potential therapeutic gain. Cancer diagnosis coupled with the ramifications of clinical trial involvement can have significant psychological implications. They may trigger the onset of a mood disorder or exacerbate a present symptom. This article will identify mood disorders in the cancer population, focus on the participants' needs in the clinical trial arena and investigate the influence trial participation has on psychological status. PMID:11966830

  7. Empirically supported treatments for panic disorder with agoraphobia in a Spanish psychology clinic.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Francisco; Labrador, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia (PD/Ag), as well as the characteristics of the treatment and its results and cost in a University Psychology Clinic. Fifty patients demanded psychological assistance for PD/Ag; 80% were women, with an average age of 29.22 years (SD = 9.03). Mean number of evaluation sessions was 3.26 (SD = 1.03), and of treatment sessions, 13.39 (SD = 9.237). Of the patients, 83.33% were discharged (that is, questionnaire scores were below the cut-off point indicated by the authors, and no PD/Ag was observed at readministration of the semistructured interview), 5.5% refused treatment, and 11% were dropouts. The average number of treatment sessions of patients who achieved therapeutic success was 15.13 (SD = 8.98). Effect sizes (d) greater than 1 were obtained in all the scales. Changes in all scales were significant (p < .05). The estimated cost of treatment for patients who achieved therapeutic success was 945.12€. The treatment results are at least similar to those of studies of efficacy and effectiveness for PD/Ag. The utility of generalizing treatments developed in research settings to a welfare clinic is discussed. PMID:26054491

  8. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    PubMed

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  9. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37–38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  10. How Can Psychological Science Inform Research About Genetic Counseling for Clinical Genomic Sequencing?

    PubMed Central

    Rini, Christine; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Roberts, J. Scott; Christensen, Kurt D.; Evans, James P.; Brothers, Kyle B.; Roche, Myra I.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Henderson, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation genomic sequencing technologies (including whole genome or whole exome sequencing) are being increasingly applied to clinical care. Yet, the breadth and complexity of sequencing information raise questions about how best to communicate and return sequencing information to patients and families in ways that facilitate comprehension and optimal health decisions. Obtaining answers to such questions will require multidisciplinary research. In this paper, we focus on how psychological science research can address questions related to clinical genomic sequencing by explaining emotional, cognitive, and behavioral processes in response to different types of genomic sequencing information (e.g., diagnostic results and incidental findings). We highlight examples of psychological science that can be applied to genetic counseling research to inform the following questions: (1) What factors influence patients' and providers' informational needs for developing an accurate understanding of what genomic sequencing results do and do not mean?; (2) How and by whom should genomic sequencing results be communicated to patients and their family members?; and (3) How do patients and their families respond to uncertainties related to genomic information? PMID:25488723

  11. A psychometric investigation of "macroscopic" speech measures for clinical and psychological science.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; Renshaw, Tyler L; Mitchell, Kyle R; Kim, Yunjung

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of vocal expression is a critical endeavor for psychological and clinical sciences and is an increasingly popular application for computer-human interfaces. Despite this, and despite advances in the efficiency, affordability, and sophistication of vocal analytic technologies, there is considerable variability across studies regarding what aspects of vocal expression are studied. Vocal signals can be quantified in a myriad of ways, and their underlying structure, at least with respect to "macroscopic" measures from extended speech, is presently unclear. To address this issue, we evaluated the psychometric properties-notably, the structural and construct validity-of a systematically defined set of global vocal features. Our analytic strategy focused on (a) identifying redundant variables among this set, (b) employing principal components analysis (PCA) to identify nonoverlapping domains of vocal expression, (c) examining the degrees to which the vocal variables are modulated as a function of changes in speech task, and (d) evaluating the relationship between the vocal variables and cognitive (i.e., verbal fluency) and clinical (i.e., depression, anxiety, and hostility) variables. Spontaneous speech samples from 11 independent studies of young adults (>60 s in length), employing one of three different speaking tasks, were examined (N = 1,350). Confounding variables (i.e., sex, ethnicity) were statistically controlled for. The PCA identified six distinct domains of vocal expression. Collectively, vocal expression (defined in terms of these domains) was modulated as a function of speech task and was related to the cognitive and clinical variables. These findings provide empirically grounded implications for the study of vocal expression in psychological and clinical sciences. PMID:25862539

  12. Clinical and psychological telemonitoring and telecare of high risk heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Villani, Alessandra; Malfatto, Gabriella; Compare, Angelo; Della Rosa, Francesco; Bellardita, Lara; Branzi, Giovanna; Molinari, Enrico; Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a trial of telemonitoring and telecare for patients with chronic heart failure leaving hospital after being treated for clinical instability. Eighty patients were randomized before hospital discharge to a usual care group (n=40: follow-up at the outpatient clinic) or to an integrated management group (n=40: patients learned to use a handheld PDA and kept in touch daily with the monitoring centre). At enrolment, the groups were similar for all clinical variables. At one-year follow-up, integrated management patients showed better adherence, reduced anxiety and depression, and lower NYHA class and plasma levels of BNP with respect to the usual care patients (e.g. NYHA class 2.1 vs 2.4, P<0.02). Mortality and hospital re-admissions for congestive heart failure were also reduced in integrated management patients (P<0.05). Integrated management was more expensive than usual care, although the cost of adverse events was 42% lower. In heart failure patients at high risk of relapse, the regular acquisition of simple clinical information and the possibility for the patient to contact the clinical staff improved drug titration, produced better psychological status and quality of life, and reduced hospitalizations for heart failure. PMID:25339632

  13. "Against all hushing up and stamping down": the Medico-Psychological Clinic of London and the novelist May Sinclair.

    PubMed

    Martindale, Philippa

    2004-01-01

    May Sinclair (1863-1946) was one of the first modern novelists to appropriate psychoanalytic theories in her works. She was an early reader of the new psychoanalytic techniques but, rather than embracing its theories wholeheartedly and unquestioningly, she synthesized those that appealed to her own psychology of womanhood. Moreover, Sinclair's position was a unique one. As well as a highly acclaimed novelist with a respected public voice, she was closely associated with the setting up of one of the first psychotherapeutic centres in Britain, the Medico-Psychological Clinic of London. In this paper, I argue that the eclectic psychoanalytic situations in which Sinclair places her literary heroines mirror the eclectic and potentially feminist endeavours of the medico-Psychological Clinic. I draw upon archival material, hitherto unexamined by literary critics and medical historians, to reflect upon the turbulent lifespan of the Clinic and the attempts to curtail its controversial practices. PMID:21850804

  14. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-06-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects. PMID:1619628

  15. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-01-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects. PMID:1619628

  16. Psychological Variables Potentially Implicated in Opioid-Related Mortality as Observed in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Passik, Steven D.; Lowery, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Opioid-related deaths in the United States have become a public health problem, with accidental and unintended overdoses being especially troubling. Screening for psychological risk factors is an important first step in safeguarding against nonadherence practices and identifying patients who may be vulnerable to the risks associated with opioid therapy. Validated screening instruments can aid in this attempt as a complementary tool to clinicians’ assessments. A structured screening is imperative as part of an assessment, as clinician judgment is not the most reliable method of identifying nonadherence. As a complement to formal screening, we present for discussion and possible future study certain psychological variables observed during years of clinical practice that may be linked to medication nonadherence and accidental overdose. These variables include catastrophizing, fear, impulsivity, attention deficit disorders, existential distress, and certain personality disorders. In our experience, chronic pain patients with dual diagnoses may become “chemical copers” as a way of coping with their negative emotion. For these patients, times of stress could lead to accidental overdose. Behavioral, cognitive-behavioral (acceptance and commitment, dialectical behavior), existential (meaning-centered, dignity), and psychotropic therapies have been effective in treating these high-risk comorbidities, while managing expectations of pain relief appears key to preventing accidental overdose. PMID:21668755

  17. Managing chronic pathologies with a stepped mHealth-based approach in clinical psychology and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Zoppis, Italo; Santoro, Eugenio; Ceccarini, Martina; Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Corti, Stefania; Borrello, Maria; Giusti, Emanuele Maria; Cattivelli, Roberto; Melesi, Anna; Mauri, Giancarlo; Molinari, Enrico; Sicurello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases and conditions typically require long-term monitoring and treatment protocols both in traditional settings and in out-patient frameworks. The economic burden of chronic conditions is a key challenge and new and mobile technologies could offer good solutions. mHealth could be considered an evolution of eHealth and could be defined as the practice of medicine and public health supported by mobile communication devices. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted, and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies. Possible applications include stepped mHealth approach, where patients can be monitored and treated in their everyday contexts. Unfortunately, many barriers for the spread of mHealth are still present. Due the significant impact of psychosocial factors on disease evolution, psychotherapies have to be included into the chronic disease protocols. Existing psychological theories of health behavior change have to be adapted to the new technological contexts and requirements. In conclusion, clinical psychology and medicine have to face the “chronic care management” challenge in both traditional and mHealth settings. PMID:25926801

  18. Quagmires for clinical psychology and executive coaching? Ethical considerations and practice challenges.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Judith Ann

    2016-04-01

    As the coaching field burgeons, both the mental health and coaching professionals, and their respective professions, face a myriad of potential quagmires, especially if the unique challenges encountered are ignored. After a short introduction and presentation on ethics and morals related to executive coaching and clinical therapy, a discussion follows on the lengthy and intimate relationship between executive coaching and psychology. Next are definitions and comparisons and 6 areas that are potential quagmires. This includes roles, skill sets/core competencies, education/training, licensing/credentialing-certification, governing bodies and confidentiality, and fees/reimbursement. Each section includes a discussion and several questions to highlight potentially problematic areas, practice challenges, and/or ethical issues, followed with brief responses. This paper concludes with the inquiry, "Where do we go from here?" PMID:27042883

  19. Relevance of multicultural training to students' applications to clinical psychology programs.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M E; Sirolli, A A; Weisser, S K; Ruiz, J A; Chamberlain, V J; Knight, G P

    1999-02-01

    Interest in the efficacy of multicultural training for practitioners and scientists working with multicultural populations has led to questions about the characteristics of students who seek this training. Students of ethnic minority background, as compared with White students, may be more likely to seek programs that offer this training, and their ethnic or racial identity may be related to this preference. This study explores the relevance of multicultural training to White and ethnic minority graduate students in accredited clinical psychology programs. Students rated the relevance of multicultural and general training components to their decisions about where to apply to graduate school. The ethnic minority students' mean ratings of the relevance of multicultural components were higher than those of White students, and the degree of ethnic minority students' ethnic identification was positively correlated to these relevance ratings. PMID:15603238

  20. Now or Later?: An Empirical Investigation of When and Why Students Apply to Clinical Psychology PhD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimak, Eric H.; Edwards, Katie M.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Suhr, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study used a national sample of PhD students in clinical psychology (N = 1,034) to explore when students decided to pursue their graduate degree, reasons for their decisions, and associated satisfaction. Results indicated that immediately after completing their undergraduate degree, 57% of current graduate students reported postponing…

  1. Reproductive options for prospective parents in families with Huntington's disease: clinical, psychological and ethical reflections.

    PubMed

    de Die-Smulders, C E M; de Wert, G M W R; Liebaers, I; Tibben, A; Evers-Kiebooms, G

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative late onset disorder. This review of reproductive options aims to increase reproductive confidence and to prevent suffering in relation to family planning around HD and possibly other late onset neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS Selected relevant literature and own views and experiences as clinical geneticists, psychologists and ethicists have been used. RESULTS Possible options, with emphasis on prenatal diagnosis (PD) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to prevent the transmission of HD to the next generation, are described and discussed. They are formally presented in a decision tree, taking into account the presence or absence of a fully penetrant allele (FPA), a reduced penetrant allele (RPA) or an intermediate allele (IA). A table compares invasive and non-invasive PD and PGD. From a psychological perspective, the complex process of counselling and decision-making regarding reproductive options is discussed. Special attention is paid to the decision to avoid the transmission of the mutation and to the confrontation and coping of a mutation-free child growing up with a parent developing disease symptoms. From an ethical point of view, reflections on both PD and PGD are brought forward taking into account the difference between FPA, RPA and IA, direct testing or exclusion testing and taking into account the welfare of the child in the context of medically assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION Recommendations and suggestions for good clinical practice in the reproductive care for HD families are formulated. PMID:23377865

  2. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-05-18

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  3. Psychological Distress and Emotional Pain Among Adult Attendees of a Dental Clinic: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Erinfolami, Adebayo Rasheed; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Oshodi, Yewande Olufunmilayo; Akinbode, Abiola Adelphine; Fadipe, Babatunde; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    2016-01-01

    We set out to carry out a case-control evaluation of psychological distress and emotional pain among adult attendees of a Nigerian dental clinic. A total of 201 subjects, made up of 101 dental patients (test group) matched with age and sex with 100 normal subjects (controls), was recruited into the study. All participants completed a designed socio-demographic questionnaire. General Health Question naire and Psyche ache Assessment Schedule were also administered to assess psychological distress based on cut-off scores ≥3 and emotional pain based on cut-off scores ≥28 respectively. The mean ages of study and control group were 33 (±12) and 36 (±13) years respectively, and both study and control groups were not significantly different in all the assessed socio-demographic parameters. Overall, 21.8% (n=22) of the subjects had psychological distress, while only 7% of the control group had psychological distress. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.003). Similarly, there was significant difference in the experience of psyche ache (unbearable psychological pain) as over a third of the dental patients (37.6%, n=38) had emotional pain, while only 13% of the controls experienced psych ache (P<0.001). In this study, the burden of psychological distress and emotional pain was many-fold in dental patients when compared with the controls. PMID:27403272

  4. Twenty years of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings: we hope you will enjoy the show.

    PubMed

    Rozensky, Ronald H; Tovian, Steven M; Sweet, Jerry J

    2014-03-01

    The 20th anniversary of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings is celebrated by highlighting the scientist-practitioner philosophy on which it was founded. The goal of the Journal-to provide an outlet for evidence-based approaches to healthcare that underscore the important scientific and clinical contributions of psychology in medical settings-is discussed. The contemporary relevance of this approach is related to the current implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care and its focus on accountability and the development of an interprofessional healthcare workforce; both of which have been foci of the Journal throughout its history and will continue to be so into the future. Several recommendations of future topic areas for the Journal to highlight regarding scientific, practice, policy, and education and training in professional health service psychology are offered. Successfully addressing these topics will support the growth of the field of psychology in the ever evolving healthcare system of the future and continue ensure that the Journal is a key source of professional information in health service psychology. PMID:24492915

  5. Classification of nonspecific low back pain. I. Psychological involvement in low back pain. A clinical, descriptive approach.

    PubMed

    Coste, J; Paolaggi, J B; Spira, A

    1992-09-01

    An unselected sample of outpatient subjects (n = 330) with localized nonspecific low back pain (LBP) was studied. Investigation consisted of clinical assessment, physical examination, and psychiatric interview based on the DSM-III classification. A psychiatric disorder, according to the DSM-III criteria (axis I) was found in 41% of the subjects. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were used to objectively identify clinical subtypes without preconceived theoretical models. Correspondence analyses suggested the existence of a 'psychological pain' syndrome consisting of several of the following symptoms: diffuse back pain, impossibility to assess intensity of pain on a pain scale, aggravation of pain by changing climate, by domestic activities or by psychological factors and dysesthesias in the back. Cluster analysis provided support for a four-group classification of low back pain, which may be interpreted through the relationships between psychological disturbances and the LBP clinical features. The results call for further investigation of the complex relationship between psychological disturbances and back pain. However, clinicians must be aware of the interest of a minimal psychiatric assessment in low back pain patients: psychiatric disorders frequently appear in these patients and an appropriate treatment of the psychiatric syndrome may reduce back pain. PMID:1411753

  6. Preliminary Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; King, Jessica D; Kennard, Betsy D; Westers, Nicholas J; Mayes, Taryn L; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-08-01

    This study offers a preliminary examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner 2005) in an adolescent clinical sample. The IPTS offers a nuanced framework that has many conceptual and practical merits. Although this theory has a growing base of evidence among adults, it has yet to be tested in adolescents using direct measures of its central constructs. Participants were 147 adolescents (76.2 % girls) on an inpatient psychiatric unit, who completed measures of key IPTS constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, acquired capability for suicide, as well as depression severity, hopelessness, and severity of suicidal symptoms. Our findings were largely consistent with hypotheses derived from the IPTS: perceived burdensomeness, and at a marginal level, thwarted belongingness, were independently associated with current suicidal ideation. The thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness interaction marginally distinguished between adolescents with passive and active suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for suicide was associated with recent suicidal intent. Examination of all three IPTS constructs simultaneously revealed main effects of each construct (with a marginal effect of thwarted belongingness), and interaction effects for thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness by acquired capability for suicide in association with suicidal symptom severity. Sex, age, depression severity, and hopelessness were controlled in all analyses. This study offers strong, albeit preliminary, support of the IPTS in a clinical adolescent sample. Assessment of IPTS constructs may be useful in determining persistent risk for suicide attempt. Prospective tests of the theory, and extensions to intervention and prevention should be considered in future IPTS research. PMID:26667025

  7. Knowledge of family history as a clinically useful index of psychological well-being and prognosis: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Duke, Marshall P; Lazarus, Amber; Fivush, Robyn

    2008-06-01

    Based on an instance of "clinical lore" we assess the efficacy of children's and adolescents' knowledge of family history as an index of psychological well-being and potential for positive change in clinical and educational settings. We report that knowledge of family history is significantly correlated with internal locus of control, higher self-esteem, better family functioning, greater family cohesiveness, lower levels of anxiety, and lower incidence of behavior problems. We suggest that through the use of a brief measure of family knowledge, practicing clinicians can rapidly generate a data-based correlate of children's well-being and likelihood of overcoming psychological and educational challenges. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122420

  8. [The possibilities of adaptation of patients with multiple sclerosis: the results of clinical and psychological study].

    PubMed

    Emelin, E V; Enikolopov, S N; Boĭko, A N; Gusev, E I

    2006-01-01

    A complex clinical and psychological examination of three groups of patients with stable neurological deficit (113 subjects, 77 men and 76 women, aged from 19 to 67 years) included those with multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic cerebral vascular disorders and chronic dorsopathy with illness duration 5-7 years has been carried out. Neuropsychological status and quality of life were assessed using the following tests: Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36); the method of E.B. Fantalova "Level of Ratio of "Values" to "Availability" in Different Life Spheres", Integrative Anxiety Test, Manual for the Constructive Thinking Inventory, Coping test (Lazarus), Beck depression scale. In total, 42 traits on 6 tests have been studied. The study was conducted before and after treatment (21 +/- 2 days). The results revealed that patients with chronic neurological disorders, in particular with MS, often had subclinical depression, which negatively influenced the disease course, and needed treatment. A high level of anxiety was found in MS patients that was related to situational social defensive reaction. Low ability to positive reevaluation of life situations, one of the causes of anxiety states, was observed in all the groups, especially in MS. In MS patients, their real state was not consistent with their perception of this state. They also were featured by personal superstitious thinking. Most of the patients with MS had a good constructive thinking, preserved ability to emotional and behavioral self-control that indicated favorable prognosis in future complex rehabilitation. After the course of symptomatic vascular and metabolic therapy, with the exception of antidepressants and neuroleptics, the appearances of depression and anxiety as well as expression of social defensive reactions and situational phobic component of anxiety were decreased that suggested the necessity of inclusion of individual psychotherapy as a part the complex rehabilitation therapy

  9. Applying psychological theory to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of taking intra-oral radiographs.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Debbie; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Glidewell, Liz; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Clarkson, Jan E; Walker, Anne

    2006-10-01

    This study applies psychological theory to the implementation of evidence-based clinical practice. The first objective was to see if variables from psychological frameworks (developed to understand, predict and influence behaviour) could predict an evidence-based clinical behaviour. The second objective was to develop a scientific rationale to design or choose an implementation intervention. Variables from the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Self-Regulation Model, Operant Conditioning, Implementation Intentions and the Precaution Adoption Process were measured, with data collection by postal survey. The primary outcome was the number of intra-oral radiographs taken per course of treatment collected from a central fee claims database. Participants were 214 Scottish General Dental Practitioners. At the theory level, the Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 13% variance in the number of radiographs taken, Social Cognitive Theory explained 7%, Operant Conditioning explained 8%, Implementation Intentions explained 11%. Self-Regulation and Stage Theory did not predict significant variance in radiographs taken. Perceived behavioural control, action planning and risk perception explained 16% of the variance in number of radiographs taken. Knowledge did not predict the number of radiographs taken. The results suggest an intervention targeting predictive psychological variables could increase the implementation of this evidence-based practice, while influencing knowledge is unlikely to do so. Measures which predicted number of radiographs taken also predicted intention to take radiographs, and intention accounted for significant variance in behaviour (adjusted R(2)=5%: F(1,166)=10.28, p<.01), suggesting intention may be a possible proxy for behavioural data when testing an intervention prior to a service-level trial. Since psychological frameworks incorporate methodologies to measure and change component variables, taking a theory-based approach

  10. Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jane RW; Hammarberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility

  11. Roy Schafer's contributions to psychological testing: from clinical sensibility to the analytic attitude.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    The author reviews Schafer's contributions to psychological testing, emphasizing his development of the test battery, his significant contributions to psychoanalytically oriented Rorschach interpretation, and his understanding of the complex interpersonal dynamics involved in psychological test interpretation. The author also discusses his use of Schafer's writing in his own teaching and academic work, noting that Schafer's contributions have not only provided innovative methods for examining test data, but have also promoted a respectful, humanistic, and individualized approach to the patient in testing and treatment. The author asserts that Schafer's later seminal contributions to psychoanalysis had their origins in his early career as a psychologist applying psychoanalytic ideas to testing. PMID:23457096

  12. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  13. Graduate Training in Clinical and Counseling Psychology in the Era of Managed Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecox, Jennifer L.; Diamond, Kandi L.; Fisher, Lori J.; Lichtenberg, James W.

    The emergence of managed care has placed many new demands on practicing psychologists. To ensure that graduate students are gaining the skills necessary to function effectively in the current healthcare environment, training programs may need to modify their curricula. Recently, the American Psychological Association assembled a task force to…

  14. The Social Psychology of Black-White Interracial Interactions: Implications for Culturally Competent Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Sweeton, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Social psychological research suggests that because of concerns about being perceived in stereotypical ways, people may experience negative affect and diminished attention and cognitive capacity during interracial interactions. The authors discuss this research in relation to therapy and assessment and also offer practical suggestions for ensuring…

  15. [Clinical study on shortening the birth process using psychological suggestion therapy].

    PubMed

    Hao, T Y; Li, Y H; Yao, S F

    1997-10-01

    To investigate the effect of psychological suggestion therapy on the birth process, a specially designed, prospective study of psychological suggestion ("insubstantial comfort") was undertaken in 120 healthy, full-term primipara with singleton pregnancy and cephalic presentation. All cases were randomly divided into 2 groups, the birth processes and final modes of delivery were analyzed in 60 cases interfered with the psychological suggestion therapy and 60 cases with spontaneous birth processes as control group. The results showed that a significant shorter time of the first and second stages of labor in the study group than that in the control group (P < 0.01). Based on this study, it is suggested that the conversation concerning about the evaluation of individual birth process between the mother-to-be and nurse should be controlled carefully for the purpose of advancing of birth process. The nurse should apply the psychological suggestion therapy during the birth process, specially when answering the question raised by mother-to-be about the quantity of the cervical dilataion. It is also suggested that the purpose of the rectal examination taking during the first stage of labor should be given some kind of meaning of psychotherapy. PMID:9495995

  16. Failure Rate of Spine Surgeons in Preoperative Clinical Screening of Severe Psychological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Faridhoseini, Farhad; Ariamanesh, Shahrara; Kazar, Mahya Hashemi; Baradaran, Aslan

    2016-01-01

    Background The surgeon's attention to the patient's underlying psychological state is essential to attaining desired outcomes. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and severity of psychological disorders in patients undergoing elective spine surgery. Methods In this case-control study, associated psychological disorders were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire at a single academic spine surgery center from August 2013 to June 2015. The case group consisted of 68 adult patients (mean age, 38.2 ± 9.6 years; male:female = 41:27) undergoing elective spine surgery and the control group included 69 healthy visitors of the orthopedic patients (mean age, 37.1 ± 6.9 years; male:female = 40:29) who voluntarily participated in the study. The 2 groups were compared for statistical analysis and a p-value < 5% was considered significance. Results There was no statistically significant intergroup difference with regard to gender and age. The incidences of abnormal anxiety and depression were the same in the case group (14 patients, 20.6%). The values were 3 (4.3%) and 5 (7.2%), respectively, in the control group, showing statistically significant difference. Any association between the severity of depression and age or sex could not be identified. Conclusions In spite of spine surgeons' attempts to screen severe psychological disorders preoperatively, up to 21% of which cannot be diagnosed prior to elective spine surgery. Therefore, we believe the use of a questionnaire would be helpful in assessing patients' underlying psychological state before elective spine surgery. PMID:27247741

  17. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, p<0.001, sr(2)=0.32). Together, these predictors accounted for 65% of variance in disability (R(2)=0.65 p<0.001). The current investigation revealed that neuromuscular adaptations are independent from clinical pain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:24837629

  18. Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program Admissions: Differential Values as a Function of Program Characteristics and the Implications of the Mentor-Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Jesse A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this research were to 1) examine the qualities for which applicants are selected for entrance into clinical psychology Ph.D. programs, and 2) investigate the prevalence and impact of the mentor-model approach to admissions on multiple domains of programs and the field at large. Fifty Directors of Clinical Training (DCTs) provided data…

  19. A Short-Term, Prospective Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Ideation in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N

    2016-06-01

    The present prospective study tested a portion of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) in an adolescent clinical sample. Participants were 143 adolescents consecutively admitted to a partial hospitalization program who completed assessments at intake and discharge from the program. Results partially supported the IPTS and suggest that (1) perceived burdensomeness may be an important socially based cognition for understanding concurrent risk for suicidal ideation (SI); (2) thwarted belongingness affects depression symptom severity over time, which indirectly predicts SI over a short follow-up time frame; and (3) the IPTS constructs may function differently in a high-risk clinical adolescent sample, compared to adults, although findings are preliminary. PMID:26456085

  20. The use of functional neuroimaging to evaluate psychological and other non-pharmacological treatments for clinical pain.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Karin B; Berna, Chantal; Loggia, Marco L; Wasan, Ajay D; Edwards, Robert R; Gollub, Randy L

    2012-06-29

    A large number of studies have provided evidence for the efficacy of psychological and other non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of chronic pain. While these methods are increasingly used to treat pain, remarkably few studies focused on the exploration of their neural correlates. The aim of this article was to review the findings from neuroimaging studies that evaluated the neural response to distraction-based techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), clinical hypnosis, mental imagery, physical therapy/exercise, biofeedback, and mirror therapy. To date, the results from studies that used neuroimaging to evaluate these methods have not been conclusive and the experimental methods have been suboptimal for assessing clinical pain. Still, several different psychological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities were associated with increased pain-related activations of executive cognitive brain regions, such as the ventral- and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was also evidence for decreased pain-related activations in afferent pain regions and limbic structures. If future studies will address the technical and methodological challenges of today's experiments, neuroimaging might have the potential of segregating the neural mechanisms of different treatment interventions and elucidate predictive and mediating factors for successful treatment outcomes. Evaluations of treatment-related brain changes (functional and structural) might also allow for sub-grouping of patients and help to develop individualized treatments. PMID:22445888

  1. The association of gynecological symptoms with psychological distress in women of reproductive age: a survey from gynecology clinics in Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Chaaya, M. M.; Bogner, H. R.; Gallo, J. J.; Leaf, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    To date there has been no previous research into a possible association between psychological distress and gynecologic symptoms in the Arab world. We hypothesized that psychological distress would be associated with specific gynecologic complaints as well as with psychosocial factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending gynecology clinics in Beirut, Lebanon. The study sample consisted of 355 women aged 18 to 49 years who were seeking healthcare from gynecologists affiliated with two general teaching hospitals in Beirut. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Gynecologic complaints were assessed by asking women about presenting gynecologic symptoms. Women who visited the gynecologists for specific complaints, for post-surgical follow-up, or for insertion of coils or other services were more likely to be distressed than women who were attending for a general checkup (χ2= 9.466, p = 0.024). About 50% of women who reported abdominal pain or breast pain also reported significant psychological distress. Only bleeding and infertility were not significantly associated with psychological distress. It is concluded that a high proportion of women who attend gynecology clinics with specific complaints report psychological distress. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the psychological component of gynecological morbidity. PMID:14584304

  2. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  3. Counseling Psychology in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthei, Bob

    The history of counseling psychology in Australia, which has been marked by confusion and uncertainty about the distinction between it and other applied areas such as clinical psychology, community psychology, educational psychology, and psychotherapy, is discussed in this paper. The development of the Division of Counselling Psychology within the…

  4. Bridging neuroscience and clinical psychology: cognitive behavioral and psychophysiological models in the evaluation and treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Marc E; Leclerc, Julie; O’Connor, Kieron P

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychology have long been considered to be separate disciplines. However, the phenomenon of brain plasticity in the context of a psychological intervention highlights the mechanisms of brain compensation and requires linking both clinical cognition and cognitive psychophysiology. A quantifiable normalization of brain activity seems to be correlated with an improvement of the tic symptoms after cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). This article presents broad outlines of the state of the current literature in the field of GTS. We present our clinical research model and methodology for the integration of cognitive neuroscience in the psychological evaluation and treatment of GTS to manage chronic tic symptoms. PMID:24795782

  5. Psychological needs, service utilization and provision of care in a specialist mental health clinic for young refugees: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Michelson, Daniel; Sclare, Irene

    2009-04-01

    This study addressed psychological needs, patterns of service utilization and provision of care in a specialist mental health service for young refugees and asylum seekers in London. Comparisons were made between two groups with different levels of postulated mental health need: unaccompanied minors (UAMs; n = 49) and children accompanied to the UK by one or more primary caregivers (n = 29). Significant differences were observed in referral pathways, with UAMs more likely to be referred by social services and less likely to be referred from medical agencies. UAMs also attended fewer sessions during treatment, and missed a greater proportion of scheduled appointments. Contrary to prediction, group comparisons revealed similar levels of post-migration stress and overall psychological morbidity. However, UAMs experienced significantly more traumatic events prior to resettlement, and were more likely to exhibit symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than their accompanied peers. Despite their elevated risk of PTSD, UAMs were less likely than accompanied children to have received trauma-focused interventions. UAMs were also significantly less likely to have been treated using cognitive therapy, anxiety management and parent/carer training, as well as receiving fewer types of practical assistance with basic social needs. The clinical and service implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19293323

  6. Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. PMID:24627990

  7. The Psychological Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Pain: a Review of BHI 2 Clinical and Forensic Interpretive Considerations.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Daniel; Disorbio, John Mark

    2014-01-01

    Pain is the most common reason why patients see a physician. Within the USA, it has been estimated that at least 116 million US adults suffer from chronic pain, with an estimated annual national economic cost of $560-635 billion. While pain is in part a sensory process, like sight, touch, or smell, pain is also in part an emotional experience, like depression, anxiety, or anger. Thus, chronic pain is arguably the quintessential biopsychosocial condition. Due to the overwhelming evidence of the biopsychosocial nature of pain and the value of psychological assessments, the majority of chronic pain guidelines recommend a psychological evaluation as an integral part of the diagnostic workup. One biopsychosocial inventory designed for the assessment of patients with chronic pain is the Battery for Health Improvement 2 (BHI 2). The BHI 2 is a standardized psychometric measure, with three validity measures, 16 clinical scales, and a multidimensional assessment of pain. This article will review how the BHI 2 was developed, BHI 2 concepts, validation research, and an overview of the description and interpretation of its scales. Like all measures, the BHI 2 has strengths and weaknesses of which the forensic psychologist should be aware, and particular purposes for which it is best suited. Guided by that knowledge, the BHI 2 can play a useful role in the forensic psychologist's toolbox. PMID:25478059

  8. Suicide and perfectionism: a psychological autopsy study of non-clinical suicides.

    PubMed

    Kiamanesh, Parvin; Dyregrov, Kari; Haavind, Hanne; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    This study explores suicide in relation to perfectionism among individuals who died by suicide with no history of treatment in mental health care or of suicide attempts. The study is part of an ongoing psychological autopsy study (PA-study). It aimed to produce a phenomenological understanding of the dynamics/processes from perfectionism to suicide among 6 men aged 22 to 58. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the interview data of 41 key informants. Based on the informants' narratives, it seemed that perfectionism left these men less able to cope with their (self-perceived) inability to meet their high expectations. Four themes emerged from analysis: 1) striving for success; 2) fear of failure; 3) keeping up the façade; and 4) rigidity. The results may be important in the prevention of nonclinical suicides, a group that is particularly difficult to identify, especially if the deceased have been regarded as very successful in many areas. PMID:25304870

  9. Can Psychological, Social and Demographical Factors Predict Clinical Characteristics Symptomatology of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Kapelski, Pawel; Łabędzka, Magdalena; Skibinska, Maria; Zaremba, Dorota; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) is a complex, psychiatric disorder affecting 1 % of population. Its clinical phenotype is heterogeneous with delusions, hallucinations, depression, disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms. Bipolar affective disorder (BD) refers to periodic changes in mood and activity from depression to mania. It affects 0.5-1.5 % of population. Two types of disorder (type I and type II) are distinguished by severity of mania episodes. In our analysis, we aimed to check if clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions occurrence in BD and SCH cases. We included total sample of 443 bipolar and 439 schizophrenia patients. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We applied regression models to analyse associations between clinical and demographical traits from OPCRIT and symptom dimensions. We used previously computed dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder as quantitative traits for regression models. Male gender seemed protective factor for depression dimension in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder sample. Presence of definite psychosocial stressor prior disease seemed risk factor for depressive and suicidal domain in BD and SCH. OPCRIT items describing premorbid functioning seemed related with depression, positive and disorganised dimensions in schizophrenia and psychotic in BD. We proved clinical and demographical characteristics of the sample are predictors of symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We also saw relation between clinical dimensions and course of disorder and impairment during disorder. PMID:26646576

  10. Integrating Professional Programs in a Traditional Undergraduate Psychology Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Bernard; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Four papers presented by psychology faculty members from Clemson University discuss how each person met the need for undergraduates to obtain job preparation in psychology. Topics cover industrial psychology, clinical psychology, teaching of psychology, and an interdisciplinary curriculum. (ND)

  11. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Pitts, Nigel B; Thomas, Ruth; Glidewell, Elizabeth; Maclennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Walker, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs) in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator), behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics) and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model (SM), and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to try to avoid the

  12. Acupuncture Anxiolytic Effects on Physiological and Psychological Assessments for a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shayestehfar, Monir; Seif-Barghi, Tohid; Zarei, Sahar; Mehran, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial we examined the effect of acupuncture on anxiety of the adolescent football players prior to the competition using psychological and physiological markers. A total of 45 athletes were equally allocated to either acupuncture group, sham group, or wait-list control group. Thereafter, all participants were asked to complete an anxiety questionnaire before and after the intervention. Their heart rate and skin conductance were also examined before and after the intervention. The results of ANOVA on posttest scores showed that acupuncture had a significant effect on cognitive anxiety (p = 0.001) and somatic anxiety (p < 0.001) but not on self-confidence (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the results showed that acupuncture significantly decreased the skin conductance in acupuncture group compared to sham group (p = 0.006) and wait-list control group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the results suggested that acupuncture has the capacity to decrease cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety prior to competition in adolescent athletes, while this was accompanied by significant physiological changes. This trial is registered with IRCT138904074264N1 (IRCT is a Primary Registry in the WHO Registry Network). PMID:27127679

  13. Reputation strength as a determinant of faculty employment: a test of the step-down thesis among clinical psychology doctoral programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael C; Ilardi, Stephen S; Johnson, Rebecca J

    2006-07-01

    This study tested the folkloristic belief that doctoral degree recipients who pursue academic careers typically wind up at institutions ranked lower in prestige than the institutions at which they trained (the step-down thesis). We used a database of faculty members in 150 clinical psychology doctoral programs accredited by the American Psychological Association, and compared each faculty member's training institution with the current employing institution on three distinct reputation ranking systems: The Center (University of Florida, Gainesville) for overall university reputation, the National Research Council (Washington, DC) for doctoral degree department reputation, and the news magazine, U.S. News and World Report ranking for clinical psychology training program reputation. Although support for the step-down thesis was found across all three ranking systems, a disproportionately large number of professors were also observed to move laterally in terms of their employing institution's reputation. PMID:16541384

  14. Psychology in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  15. Handbook of Cross-Cultural and Multicultural Personality Assessment. Personality and Clinical Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Richard H., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: (1) "An Assessment-Intervention Model for Research and Practice with Multicultural Populations" (Richard H. Dana); (2) "An Africentric Perspective for Clinical Research and Practice" (Edward F. Morris); (3) "Myths about the Null Hypothesis and the Path to Reform" (Robert G. Malgady); (4) "A Construct-Based…

  16. Childhood Developmental Disorders: An Academic and Clinical Convergence Point for Psychiatry, Neurology, Psychology and Pediatrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Significant advances in understanding brain development and behavior have not been accompanied by revisions of traditional academic structure. Disciplinary isolation and a lack of meaningful interdisciplinary opportunities are persistent barriers in academic medicine. To enhance clinical practice, research, and training for the next…

  17. Healthcare Reform and Preparing the Future Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Workforce.

    PubMed

    Janicke, David M; Fritz, Alyssa M; Rozensky, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare environment is undergoing important changes for both patients and providers, in part due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Ultimately the healthcare delivery system will function very differently by the end of this decade. These changes will have important implications for the education, training, scientific inquiry, and practice of clinical child and adolescent psychologists. In this article we provide a brief description of the fundamental features of the ACA, with a specific focus on critical components of the act that have important, specific implications for clinical child and adolescents psychologists. We then provide recommendations to help position our field to thrive in the evolving healthcare environment to help facilitate further awareness and promote discussion of both challenges and opportunities that face our field in this evolving health care environment. PMID:26158589

  18. Analyzing Statistical Mediation with Multiple Informants: A New Approach with an Application in Clinical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Lesther A.; Litson, Kaylee; Lockhart, Ginger; Chassin, Laurie; Geiser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Testing mediation models is critical for identifying potential variables that need to be targeted to effectively change one or more outcome variables. In addition, it is now common practice for clinicians to use multiple informant (MI) data in studies of statistical mediation. By coupling the use of MI data with statistical mediation analysis, clinical researchers can combine the benefits of both techniques. Integrating the information from MIs into a statistical mediation model creates various methodological and practical challenges. The authors review prior methodological approaches to MI mediation analysis in clinical research and propose a new latent variable approach that overcomes some limitations of prior approaches. An application of the new approach to mother, father, and child reports of impulsivity, frustration tolerance, and externalizing problems (N = 454) is presented. The results showed that frustration tolerance mediated the relationship between impulsivity and externalizing problems. The new approach allows for a more comprehensive and effective use of MI data when testing mediation models. PMID:26617536

  19. Embodied and exbodied mind in clinical psychology. A proposal for a psycho-social interpretation of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Zatti, Alberto; Zarbo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A brief theoretical review of the current state of the art of embodiment research in clinical psychology has been expounded in order to highlight the key role that embodied conceptualization has on the understanding and explanation of several mental disorders, such as eating disorders, schizophrenia and depression. Evidence has suggested that mental disorders may be explained as disturbances of embodiment, from the disembodiment to the hyperembodiment. In order to understand how some clinical conditions are affected by cultural models, we propose and define a new framework called Exbodiment, complementary to the Embodiment approach to cognition. Mental disorder is strictly related to the subject-culture interaction that may be explained as a two way process in which embodiment and exbodiment are complementary points of view. In this perspective, embodiment may be seen as the "top-down" process, while exbodiment the "bottom-up" one. The introduction of exbodiment conceptualization highlights how subject is both receiver and interpreter of social influence. Subject is the target of a cultural pressure and, at the same time, enacts its own embodied culture in world. Exbodiment conceptualization may help clinicians to better understand and explain the role of culture in the onset and maintenance of mental disorders. PMID:25784894

  20. Embodied and exbodied mind in clinical psychology. A proposal for a psycho-social interpretation of mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zatti, Alberto; Zarbo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A brief theoretical review of the current state of the art of embodiment research in clinical psychology has been expounded in order to highlight the key role that embodied conceptualization has on the understanding and explanation of several mental disorders, such as eating disorders, schizophrenia and depression. Evidence has suggested that mental disorders may be explained as disturbances of embodiment, from the disembodiment to the hyperembodiment. In order to understand how some clinical conditions are affected by cultural models, we propose and define a new framework called Exbodiment, complementary to the Embodiment approach to cognition. Mental disorder is strictly related to the subject-culture interaction that may be explained as a two way process in which embodiment and exbodiment are complementary points of view. In this perspective, embodiment may be seen as the “top-down” process, while exbodiment the “bottom-up” one. The introduction of exbodiment conceptualization highlights how subject is both receiver and interpreter of social influence. Subject is the target of a cultural pressure and, at the same time, enacts its own embodied culture in world. Exbodiment conceptualization may help clinicians to better understand and explain the role of culture in the onset and maintenance of mental disorders. PMID:25784894

  1. Clinical, psychological, and personality correlates of asceticism in anorexia nervosa: from saint anorexia to pathologic perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Fassino, Secondo; Pierò, Andrea; Gramaglia, Carla; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Gandione, Marina; Rovera, Giovanni Giacomo; Bartocci, Goffredo

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the personality and clinical correlates of asceticism in 154 anorectic patients. Multiple linear regression models showed that asceticism was related to angry temperament, high control over anger, perfectionism, maturity fears, and number of vomiting episodes per week. These results suggest that the self-discipline and hypercontrol of anorectic patients are related to a temperament prone to angry feelings in subjects with a fear of becoming adult and with a trait of pathologic perfectionism. PMID:17166949

  2. Eliminating "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) terminology in clinical breast practice: The cognitive psychology point of view.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Yoder, Whitney R; Riva, Silvia; Mazzocco, Ketti; Arnaboldi, Paola; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence from the literature that the terms "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) should be eliminated in clinical breast cancer practice and replaced with the new "ductal intraepithelial neoplasia" (DIN) and "lobular intraepithelial neoplasia" (LIN) terminology. The main purpose of the present article is to expand on this argument from a cognitive psychology perspective and offer suggestions for further research, emphasizing how the elimination of the term "carcinoma" in "in situ" breast cancer diagnoses has the potential to reduce both patient and health care professional confusion and misperceptions that are often associated with the DCIS and LCIS diagnoses, as well as limit the adverse psychological effects of women receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis. We comment on the recent peer-reviewed literature on the clinical implications and psychological consequences for breast cancer patients receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis and we use a cognitive perspective to offer new insight into the benefits of embracing the new DIN and LIN terminology. Using cognitive psychology and cognitive science in general, as a foundation, further research is advocated in order to yield data in support of changing the terminology and therefore, offer a chance to significantly improve the lives and psychological sequelae of women facing such a diagnosis. Typology: Controversies/Short Commentary. PMID:26614547

  3. Transparency of Outcome Reporting and Trial Registration of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Marleine; Riehm, Kira E.; McKay, Dean; Thombs, Brett D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Confidence that randomized controlled trial (RCT) results accurately reflect intervention effectiveness depends on proper trial conduct and the accuracy and completeness of published trial reports. The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) is the primary trials journal amongst American Psychological Association (APA) journals. The objectives of this study were to review RCTs recently published in JCCP to evaluate (1) adequacy of primary outcome analysis definitions; (2) registration status; and, (3) among registered trials, adequacy of outcome registrations. Additionally, we compared results from JCCP to findings from a recent study of top psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals. Methods Eligible RCTs were published in JCCP in 2013–2014. For each RCT, two investigators independently extracted data on (1) adequacy of outcome analysis definitions in the published report, (2) whether the RCT was registered prior to enrolling patients, and (3) adequacy of outcome registration. Results Of 70 RCTs reviewed, 12 (17.1%) adequately defined primary or secondary outcome analyses, whereas 58 (82.3%) had multiple primary outcome analyses without statistical adjustment or undefined outcome analyses. There were 39 (55.7%) registered trials. Only two trials registered prior to patient enrollment with a single primary outcome variable and time point of assessment. However, in one of the two trials, registered and published outcomes were discrepant. No studies were adequately registered as per Standard Protocol Items: Recommendation for Interventional Trials guidelines. Compared to psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals, the proportion of published trials with adequate outcome analysis declarations was significantly lower in JCCP (17.1% versus 32.9%; p = 0.029). The proportion of registered trials in JCCP (55.7%) was comparable to behavioral medicine journals (52.6%; p = 0.709). Conclusions The quality of published outcome analysis

  4. Positive results of clinical educational support in situations of psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Tavormina, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Education is a complex process that involves the individual in the course of his entire life and leads to the maturation and the overall development of his personality. The educational process involves the complete growth of each and completes the infinite possibilities that every child has potential since birth. Education also is a necessity for the human being, as only adequate environmental stimulation causes the mental processes to begin. In fact, the higher intellectual functions, such as language, thought, memory, emerge only from social and educational experiences of the child. The educational surgery creates experiences and learning that allow the person to change by improving the efficiency of synaptic connections. Clinical pedagogy has developed in Italy in the last decades of the twentieth century with the aim of research and experimenting educational purposes suitable for different situations in order to provide each subject with appropriate development opportunities. Clinical pedagogical support is offered in the form of artistic or bodily activities and represents for the individual a positive environment that allows the development of different brain areas and the potential inherent in them. The various methods are suitable for any situation of existential discomfort, which are understood as moments of personal growth. PMID:25413523

  5. Physical and psychological sequelae to torture. A controlled clinical study of exiled asylum applicants.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P

    1988-10-01

    The study comprised 24 male Lebanese refugees living in Denmark. Twelve of them alleged having been tortured in Lebanon during the period 1981-85. The remaining twelve had neither been imprisoned nor tortured and thus acted as control persons. All the testimonies were found to be valid according to a method previously used by the author. The most common forms of torture were blows against the head, body and foot soles, suspension and asphyxiation. Threats and solitary confinement were frequent, and sexual violations were also reported. At the time of examination (March-November 1986), the main complaints were headaches, various cardiopulmonary symptoms, sleep disturbances with nightmares, impaired concentration and memory, and emotional lability. Suicide attempts were reported. Prior to the torture all the probands had been healthy except for several cases of gunshot wounds. The clinical examination revealed different scars possibly related to torture in nearly all the cases. Missing or fractured teeth, peripheral nerve damage and mental depression were also found. The 12 controls had several mental and physical complaints, but significantly fewer than the probands. Almost all of them had scars from gunshot wounds. The present study clearly indicates that torture plus exilation has a more deteriorating effect on the health status than exilation alone. PMID:3209147

  6. A typology of coping with Type 1 diabetes in emerging adulthood: associations with demographic, psychological, and clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Vanhalst, Janne; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Weets, Ilse

    2010-06-01

    The present study set out to develop a typology of illness coping (as assessed through tackling spirit, illness integration, passive resignation, and avoidance coping) in a sample of 194 emerging adults (18-30 years) with Type 1 diabetes. Four groups, each with their own unique profile scores on illness coping, were identified through cluster analysis: active integrated, passive avoidant, high generic low integrated, and low generic high integrated coping. These clusters were differentiated on the basis of demographic, psychological (problem areas in diabetes, illness perceptions, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem), and clinical parameters (HbA(1c)-values indexing glycemic control). The active integrated cluster (and, to a lesser extent, the low generic high integrated cluster) evidenced the most optimal profile (i.e., better glycemic control, low depressive symptoms, etc.), the passive avoidant cluster (and, to a lesser extent, the high generic low integrated cluster) the least optimal profile. Implications for the study and practice of coping with a chronic illness are discussed. PMID:20107885

  7. Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the…

  8. Manual for Clinical Psychology Trainees. Third Edition. Brunner/Mazel Basic Principles into Practice Series, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choca, James P.; Van Denburg, Eric J.

    Though directed primarily to graduate psychology students, this revised and expanded edition is intended to assist everyone involved in patient care. The manual attempts to provide practical and easily understandable guidelines which can be used for each step in the provision of psychological services. Instead of documenting every possible…

  9. Expanding Empathy in Our Clinical Work: A Response to Wickramasekera II's (2015) "Mysteries of Hypnosis and the Self Are Revealed by the Psychology and Neuroscience of Empathy.".

    PubMed

    Kaklauskas, Francis J; Clements, Carla June

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a central tenet of psychotherapeutic process. This article builds upon Wickramasekera II's (2015) "Mysteries of Hypnosis and the Self are Revealed by the Psychology and Neuroscience of Empathy," with particular focus on "empathetic involvement theory." A brief transtheoretical and research review of empathy is provided. A couple's therapy case illustration is provided to elucidate how one can expand "empathetic involvement theory" into clinical practice. Emphasis is placed upon the dimensions of sensation and body/mind connectedness. PMID:26675157

  10. Senior house officers' work related stressors, psychological distress, and confidence in performing clinical tasks in accident and emergency: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S.; Dale, J.; Glucksman, E.; Wellesley, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between accident and emergency senior house officers' psychological distress and confidence in performing clinical tasks and to describe work related stressors. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey with data collected at four points during senior house officers' six month attachment to accident and emergency departments. SUBJECTS: 171 newly appointed accident and emergency senior house officers from 27 hospitals in the South Thames region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychological distress measured with a 25 item questionnaire; confidence in performing a range of 35 clinical and practical activities (visual analogue scales); reported consultation stress factors, other work related stressors, and personal stressors. RESULTS: Overall confidence scores in carrying out a range of clinical and practical activities increased significantly between the end of the first and the end of the fourth month (Z = -6.05, P < 0.001). Senior house officers with higher psychological distress scores at the end of their first and fourth month had significantly lower confidence scores (Z = -3.20, P < 0.001; Z = -1.90, P < 0.05). Senior house officers with lower increases in confidence between the first and fourth month had significantly higher distress than those with greater increases (Z = -2.62, P < 0.001). Factors identified as causing stress during consultations included difficulties with communication, certain clinical presentations, and department organisational factors (particularly the intensity of workload). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress is linked to confidence in senior house officers. This supports the need to monitor and build confidence in senior house officers and to address work related stressors. Additional communication skills training needs to be considered. PMID:9116547

  11. A randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of an intervention to treat psychological distress and improve quality of life after autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Braamse, Annemarie M J; van Meijel, B; Visser, O J; Boenink, A D; Cuijpers, P; Eeltink, C E; Hoogendoorn, A W; van Marwijk Kooy, M; van Oppen, P; Huijgens, P C; Beekman, A T F; Dekker, J

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress contributes to impaired quality of life in hematological cancer patients. Stepped care treatment, in which patients start with the least intensive treatment most likely to work and only receive more intensive interventions if needed, could improve distress. We aimed to evaluate the outcome of stepped care treatment on psychological distress and physical functioning in patients treated with autologous stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies. In the present study, we performed a randomized clinical trial with two treatment arms: stepped care and care as usual. Baseline assessment and randomization occurred during pre-transplant hospitalization. Stepped care was initiated after 6 weeks, consisting of (1) watchful waiting, (2) Internet-based self-help intervention, and (3) face-to-face counseling/ psychopharmacological treatment/ referral. Follow-up measurements were conducted at 13, 30, and 42 weeks after transplantation. Stepped care (n = 47) and care as usual (n = 48) were comparable on baseline characteristics. The uptake of the intervention was low: 24 patients started with step 1, 23 with step 2, and none with step 3. Percentages of distressed patients ranged from 4.1 to 9.7 %. Ten percent of patients received external psychological or psychiatric care. No statistically significant differences were found between stepped care and care as usual on psychological distress or physical functioning in intention to treat analyses, nor in per protocol analyses. The stepped care program was not effective in decreasing psychological distress. The low intervention uptake, probably related to the low levels of psychological distress, offers an explanation for this outcome. Future research should take into account patients' specific care needs. Netherlands Trial Registry identifier: NTR1770. PMID:26420062

  12. The Representation of Applied Psychology Areas in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselhuhn, Charlotte W.; Clopton, Kerri L.

    2008-01-01

    Many psychology majors indicate helping others as a reason for majoring in psychology, yet many enter positions not closely related to the field. This discrepancy may be due to a lack of student knowledge of the applied areas of psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coverage of clinical, counseling,…

  13. From Dunce to Doctor: A Critical Autobiography of a Dyslexic Doctoral Student Pursuing a Doctorate of Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Much is known about the phenomenon of learning disabilities, especially dyslexia in children. Only recently, however, has psychological research focused on adult learning disabilities. The bulk of research on the phenomenon of adult learning disabilities has been quantitative research, which neglected the subjective experience of those it is…

  14. Developmental Course of Deprivation-Specific Psychological Patterns: Early Manifestations, Persistence to Age 15, and Clinical Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreppner, Jana; Kumsta, Robert; Rutter, Michael; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jennifer; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    In chapter IV, the authors focused on their findings on the developmental course of deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs). The authors rediscussed the syndrome concept in the light of two main considerations. First, the findings indicated substantial overlap among the four postulated DSPs at 15 years including CI and I/O before…

  15. Effects of Mindfulness-Based versus Interpersonal Process Group Intervention on Psychological Well-Being with a Clinical University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Ciara; Bond, Lynne A.; London, Miv

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety,…

  16. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work. PMID:8439278

  17. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in tuberculosis patients in public primary care clinics in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB) patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa, where over 60 % of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV. Methods We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10), and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Using a cut off score of ≥28 and ≥16 on the K-10, 32.9 % and 81 % of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.85), lower formal education (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.91), poverty (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.31) and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR = 0.74; 95 % CI = 0.62-0.87) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥28), and older age (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.69), lower formal education (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.71), poverty (OR = 2.02; 95 % CI = 1.50-2.70) and being HIV positive (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.74) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥16). In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use) and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not associated with

  18. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  19. Diet and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders. PMID:8795935

  20. Demographical, Clinical, and Psychological Characteristics of Users and Nonusers of an Online Platform for T2DM Patients (e-VitaDM-3/ZODIAC-44)

    PubMed Central

    Roelofsen, Yvonne; van Vugt, Michael; Hendriks, Steven H.; van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Snoek, Frank J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Huijsman, Robbert; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Online platforms offer opportunities for support in changing lifestyle and taking responsibility for one's health, but engaging patients with type 2 diabetes is challenging. Previous studies have shown that patients interested in platforms were more often male, younger, and higher educated. This study aims to investigate differences in clinical and psychological characteristics between users and nonusers of a newly developed platform. Methods. A prospective study started in the Drenthe region of Netherlands. Participants in the study concerning quality of care and quality of life were additionally invited to use the platform. Results. 633 patients were registered after they opted for platform use. Of these patients, 361 (57.0%) never logged on, 184 (29.1%) were labeled “curious” users, and 88 (13.9%) were identified as “active” users. Users had lower HbA1c levels and more often hypertension compared to nonusers, and reported higher quality of life, better well-being, lower diabetes-related distress, and better medication adherence. Discussion. Platform use was associated with more favorable clinical and psychological characteristics relative to nonuse. Those with greater severity of disease, lower mood, and progression of disease used the platform the least. Other approaches need to be developed to reach these patients. Furthermore, improving the platform could also help to reach them. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01570140. PMID:26682232

  1. Study protocol: a dissemination trial of computerized psychological treatment for depression and alcohol/other drug use comorbidity in an Australian clinical service

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rise of the internet and related technologies has significant implications for the treatment of complex health problems, including the combination of depression and alcohol/other drug (AOD) misuse. To date, no research exists to test the real world uptake of internet and computer-delivered treatment programs in clinical practice. This study is important, as it is the first to examine the adoption of the SHADE treatment program, a DVD-based psychological treatment for depression and AOD use comorbidity, by clinicians working in a publicly-funded AOD clinical service. The study protocol that follows describes the methodology of this dissemination trial. Methods/design 19 clinicians within an AOD service on the Central Coast of New South Wales, Australia, will be recruited to the trial. Consenting clinicians will participate in a baseline focus group discussion designed to explore their experiences and perceived barriers to adopting innovation in their clinical practice. Computer comfort and openness to innovation will also be assessed. Throughout the trial, current, new and wait-list clients will be referred to the research program via the clinical service, which will involve clients completing a baseline and 15-week follow-up clinical assessment with independent research assistants, comprising a range of mental health and AOD measures. Clinicians will also complete session checklists following each clinical session with a client, outlining the extent to which the SHADE computer program was used. Therapeutic alliance will be measured at intake and discharge from both the clinician and client perspectives. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the factors associated with the adoption of an innovative, computer-delivered evidence-based treatment program, SHADE, by clinicians working in an AOD service. The results will contribute to the development of a model of dissemination of SHADE, which could be applied to a range of technological

  2. The development of a diversity mentoring program for faculty and trainees: A program at the Brown Clinical Psychology Training Consortium

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Kuo, Caroline; Hernandez, Lynn; Clark, Uraina S.; Wenze, Susan J.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Hunter, Heather L.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Zlotnick, Caron

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need for increasing the diversity representation among clinicians and researchers in academic medicine, including departments of psychiatry and psychology. Mentorship of under-represented groups has been identified as an important way to remediate diversity-related barriers in the field. This paper outlines the early development and pilot implementation of a diversity mentorship program at Brown University. In an effort to inform and guide future diversity programs, we discuss the challenges faced in creating the program, the successes experienced during the first year, and the future directions undertaken as a means for improving the program. PMID:25346563

  3. Incorporating Law into the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Elizabeth V.

    1983-01-01

    Law and psychology interface in a number of traditional researchable subfields of psychology, such as social, clinical, and developmental. Another reason for the inclusion of legal courses in college psychology courses is that the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Standards of Psychologists" mandates that psychologists stay current in…

  4. [Transpersonal psychology -- psychology of consciousness: chances and problems].

    PubMed

    Walach, Harald; Kohls, Niko; Belschner, Wilfried

    2005-01-01

    Transpersonal psychology represents a perspective which has gained importance in psychological research and clinical practice over the last years. This paper offers an overview on the history and the sources of transpersonal psychology. Additionally, important themes and topics of transpersonal psychology will be discussed such as a) the importance of spirituality in psychotherapy and counselling, b) spirituality as a resource for maintaining and regaining health, c) spiritual experiences as an avenue to consciousness, d) the delimination of extraordinary states of consciousness and "spiritual crises". In the next paragraph specific problems and critical points of transpersonal psychology are presented. Among them are the discussion of the question whether experience free of language is at all possible as well as the question how notions coming from eastern traditions can be translated into western psychology. Finally, some positive aspects of transpersonal psychology will be presented, and we submit that transpersonal psychology should be taken seriously in a scientific way. PMID:16136444

  5. Clinical Psychology and Cardiovascular Disease: An Up-to-Date Clinical Practice Review for Assessment and Treatment of Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Angelo; Germani, Elena; Proietti, Riccardo; Janeway, David

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present review is underline the association between cardiac diseases and anxiety and depression. In the first part of the article, there is a description of anxiety and depression from the definitions of DSM-IV TR. In the second part, the authors present the available tests and questionnaires to assess depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the last part of the review different types of interventions are reported and compared; available interventions are pharmacological or psychological treatments. PMID:22016750

  6. Relation of different measures of psychological characteristics to oral health habits, diabetes adherence and related clinical variables among diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Syrjälä, Anna-Maija H; Ylöstalo, Pekka; Niskanen, Mirka C; Knuuttila, Matti L E

    2004-04-01

    Among diabetic patients, oral health status and oral health behavior have been found to relate to metabolic control. The aim was to analyse which psychological characteristics, i.e. intention, self-efficacy, locus of control or self-esteem related to health behavior most comprehensively explain oral health habits, diabetes adherence, dental caries, deepened periodontal pockets, and the metabolic parameter HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin). The study subjects consisted of a group of 149 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Data were obtained from self-completed questionnaires. The proportions of variance explained by the linear regression model were used as measures in the comparisons. It was found that oral health habits and diabetes adherence correlated. Both dental and diabetes self-efficacy scores were related to oral health habits and diabetes adherence. This indicates that self-efficacy is the best overall determinant of various health behavior practices. The ability of psychological characteristics to explain oral health was limited. Improvement of self-efficacy therefore may have a positive effect on various aspects of health behaviors. PMID:15056106

  7. Differences in psychological health and family dysfunction by sexual victimization type in a clinical sample of African American adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    We examined levels of sexual victimization among a sample of 249 14- to 19-year-old African American adolescent women. Victimization was common: 32.1% reported having been raped, 33.7% had experienced sexual coercion, and 10.8% reported an attempted rape. Only 23.4% had never been victimized. We investigated whether levels of psychological health and family dysfunction varied as a function of the type of sexual victimization. Girls who had been raped had lower levels of self-esteem and mastery and higher levels of depression compared to girls who reported no sexual victimization. Significantly higher levels of family cohesion and significantly lower levels of family support were reported by girls who had been raped versus girls who reported no sexual victimization. These findings are a starting point for future studies by providing evidence that levels of mental health and family dysfunction vary by the type of sexual victimization experienced. PMID:19817034

  8. Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  9. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  10. Political and clinical developments in analytical psychology, 1972-2014: subjectivity, equality and diversity-inside and outside the consulting room.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Utilizing Jung's idea of theory as a 'personal confession', the author charts his own development as a theorist, establishing links between his personal history and his ideas. Such links include his relationship with both parents, his sexuality, his cultural heritage, and his fascination with Tricksters and with Hermes. There follows a substantial critical interrogation of what the author discerns as the two main lines of clinical theorizing in contemporary analytical psychotherapy: interpretation of transference-countertransference, and the relational approach. His conclusion is that neither is superior to the other and neither is in fact adequate as a basis for clinical work. The focus then shifts to explore a range of political and social aspects of the clinical project of analytical psychology: economic inequality, diversity within the professional field, and Jung's controversial ideas about Jews and Africans. The author calls for an apology from the 'Jungian community' for remarks about Africans analogous to the apology already issued for remarks about Jews. The paper is dedicated to the author's friend Fred Plaut (1913-2009). PMID:25331504

  11. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of primary care physicians in Scotland and north England. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (referral rates for lumbar spine x-rays), behavioural simulation (lumbar spine x-ray referral decisions based upon scenarios), and behavioural intention (general intention to refer for lumbar spine x-rays in patients with low back pain). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Weinstein's Stage Model termed the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP), and knowledge. For each of the outcome measures, a generalised linear model was used to examine the predictive value of each theory individually. Linear regression was used for the intention and simulation outcomes, and negative binomial regression was used for the behaviour outcome. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross-theoretical construct' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all individual constructs across theories. Results Constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT predicted behaviour; however, the theoretical models did not fit the data well. When predicting behavioural simulation, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 11.6%, SCT 12.1%, OLT 8.1%, and II 1.5% of the variance, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, CS-SRM and II explained 16.5% of the variance in simulated behaviours. When predicting intention, the proportion of variance

  12. Psychology in Spain: Its Historical and Cultural Roots, Instruction, Research and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes-Berges, Beatriz; Aranda, Maria; Castillo-Mayen, Maria del Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Roots in Spanish Psychology dated back to Huarte de San Juan (1575). From this period to nowadays, Psychology has notably developed, branching in different areas such as psychology and sports and physical exercise, clinical and health psychology, educational psychology, psychology of social intervention, legal psychology, work and organisational…

  13. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Characteristics, Psychological Factors, and Peripheral Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hua; Fox, Mark; Zheng, Xia; Deng, Yanyong; Long, Yanqin; Huang, Zhihui; Du, Lijun; Xu, Fei; Dai, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Psychosocial factors and low-grade colonic mucosal immune activation have been suggested to play important roles in the pathophysiology of IBS. In total, 94 patients with IBS and 13 healthy volunteers underwent a 10 g lactulose hydrogen breath test (HBT) with concurrent (99m)Tc scintigraphy. All participants also completed a face-to-face questionnaire survey, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Life Event Stress (LES), and general information. Serum tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and IL-10 levels were measured. The 89 enrolled patients with IBS and 13 healthy controls had no differences in baseline characteristics. The prevalence of SIBO in patients with IBS was higher than that in healthy controls (39% versus 8%, resp.; p = 0.026). Patients with IBS had higher anxiety, depression, and LES scores, but anxiety, depression, and LES scores were similar between the SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative groups. Psychological disorders were not associated with SIBO in patients with IBS. The serum IL-10 level was significantly lower in SIBO-positive than SIBO-negative patients with IBS. PMID:27379166

  14. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Characteristics, Psychological Factors, and Peripheral Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hua; Fox, Mark; Zheng, Xia; Deng, Yanyong; Long, Yanqin; Huang, Zhihui; Du, Lijun; Xu, Fei; Dai, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Psychosocial factors and low-grade colonic mucosal immune activation have been suggested to play important roles in the pathophysiology of IBS. In total, 94 patients with IBS and 13 healthy volunteers underwent a 10 g lactulose hydrogen breath test (HBT) with concurrent 99mTc scintigraphy. All participants also completed a face-to-face questionnaire survey, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Life Event Stress (LES), and general information. Serum tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and IL-10 levels were measured. The 89 enrolled patients with IBS and 13 healthy controls had no differences in baseline characteristics. The prevalence of SIBO in patients with IBS was higher than that in healthy controls (39% versus 8%, resp.; p = 0.026). Patients with IBS had higher anxiety, depression, and LES scores, but anxiety, depression, and LES scores were similar between the SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative groups. Psychological disorders were not associated with SIBO in patients with IBS. The serum IL-10 level was significantly lower in SIBO-positive than SIBO-negative patients with IBS. PMID:27379166

  15. Sleep Problems as Consequence, Contributor, and Comorbidity: Introduction to the Special Issue on Sleep, Published in Coordination With Special Issues in Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology and Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Dean W

    2016-07-01

    Despite long-standing public and scientific interest in the phenomenon of sleep, the current decade has shown tremendous growth in our understanding of the sleep of children who have medical or developmental conditions. To accommodate, promote, and guide that growth, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, and Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics have published coordinated special issues, encompassing >30 relevant articles. This article introduces the special issue in Journal of Pediatric Psychology, highlighting papers that illustrate how sleep problems are not only commonly comorbid with childhood medical and developmental conditions; they are also likely caused by and contribute to these conditions. In doing so, these coordinated special issues guide clinical care and reveal opportunities for future research. PMID:27189693

  16. Test Reviews: Bracken, B. A., & Howell, K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Depression." Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghakhani, Anoosha; Chan, Eric K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD), a 50-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms designed for children, adolescents, adults, and elderly adults from 8 to 79 years of age. Purporting to be sensitive to depressive symptomatology across the lifespan, the test items were written to reflect the…

  17. Test Review: Bracken, B. A., & Keith, L. K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Behavior." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Tanya N.

    2006-01-01

    The Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB) is designed to assess both adaptive and problematic behaviors of children and adolescents from age 2 to 18 years. It can be individually or group administered, measures behaviors in different contexts, and includes both parent and teacher forms. The test was developed to be consistent with current…

  18. Interpersonal Conceptions in Children with Difficulties in Interpersonal Relations: Toward the Integration of Developmental and Child Clinical Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Robert L.; And Others

    This paper discusses a developmental-descriptive approach to the study of children, adolescent, and adult understanding of interpersonal relationships. A study is reported which compares the level of interpersonal reasoning of children with clinically identified peer relation problems with the reasoning level of a case-control sample of better…

  19. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  20. An online guided ACT intervention for enhancing the psychological wellbeing of university students: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Panajiota; Lappalainen, Päivi; Muotka, Joona; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2016-03-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are relatively common problems among university students. This study examined whether an online psychological intervention aiming at enhancing the wellbeing of university students could be an effective and practical alternative for meeting the needs of a university population. University students (N = 68; 85% female; 19-32 years old) were randomly assigned to either a guided seven-week online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (iACT) intervention or a waiting list control condition (WLC). A between-groups pre-post (iACT vs WLC) design with 12-month follow-up for the iACT participants was conducted. The intervention participants were offered two face-to-face meetings, completed online exercises during a five-week period, and received personal weekly written feedback via the website from their randomly assigned, trained student coaches. Waitlist participants were offered the intervention program soon after the post measurements. Results in this small efficacy trial showed that the iACT participants had significantly higher gains in wellbeing (between group, d = 0.46), life satisfaction (d = 0.65), and mindfulness skills (d = 0.49). In addition, iACT participants' self-reported stress (d = 0.54) and symptoms of depression (d = 0.69) were significantly reduced compared to the participants in the control group. These benefits were maintained over a 12-month follow-up period (within iACT group, d = 0.65-0.69, for primary measures). The results suggest that an online-based, coach-guided ACT program with blended face-to-face and online sessions could be an effective and well-accepted alternative for enhancing the wellbeing of university students. PMID:26848517

  1. A Conceptual and Empirical Review of the Meaning, Measurement, Development, and Teaching of Intervention Competence in Clinical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jacques P.

    2009-01-01

    Through the course of this paper we discuss several fundamental issues related to the intervention competence of psychologists. Following definitional clarification and proposals for more strictly distinguishing competence from adherence, we interpret Dreyfus and Dreyfus’s (1986) five stage theory of competence development (from novice to expert) within a strictly clinical framework. Existing methods of competence assessment are then evaluated, and we argue for the use of new and multiple assessment modalities. Next, we utilize the previous sections as a foundation to propose methods for training and evaluating competent psychologists. Lastly, we discuss several potential impediments to large scale competence assessment and education, such as the heterogeneity of therapeutic orientations and what could be termed a lack of transparency in clinical training. PMID:18952334

  2. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    PubMed

    Steca, Patrizia; D'Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio; Greco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:27589065

  3. Psychological Interventions in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctor–patient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive regard. At the second tier, however, based on the clinical interview, some patients may require varying degrees of psychological change in order to better manage their illness. In such a context, a dermatologist with training in psychotherapy would be required. In the absence of such a person, the patient may be referred to a psychologist or another mental health professional trained in psychotherapy. PMID:23372215

  4. Conceptual Models of Psychological Distress Among Low-income Patients in an Inner-city Primary Care Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Karasz, Alison; Sacajiu, Galit; Garcia, Nerina

    2003-01-01

    Although depression and anxiety syndromes are common in primary care, many depressed and anxious patients fail to receive effective treatment. Little attention has been given to the role of illness beliefs in shaping these patients' treatment preferences and decisions. Using semistructured interviews, this study examined conceptual models of depressive symptoms among patients in an inner-city clinic. A theoretical taxonomy of patients' conceptual models of distress was developed: each category was associated with a unique pattern of treatment preferences. We conclude that patients' models of distress may play an important role in treatment-seeking decisions, and deserve further investigation. PMID:12823655

  5. [Psychological violences].

    PubMed

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  6. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  7. Humanistic Psychology: Some Unfinished Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippner, Stanley

    The need for humanistically-oriented research may be viewed as the unfinished business of humanistic psychology. Additional research is needed to support some of the theoretical positions of humanistic psychology which have emerged from clinical practice, education, and management consultation rather than from laboratories and field studies. The…

  8. Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia and Dog Phobia in Youth: Psychological Characteristics and Associated Features in a Clinical Sample.

    PubMed

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2016-05-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia is a particularly debilitating condition that has been largely ignored in the child literature. The present study examined the clinical phenomenology of BII phobia in 27 youths, relative to 25 youths with dog phobia-one of the most common and well-studied phobia subtypes in youth. Children were compared on measures of phobia severity, functional impairment, comorbidity, threat appraisals (danger expectancies and coping), focus of fear, and physiological responding, as well as vulnerability factors including disgust sensitivity and family history. Children and adolescents with BII phobia had greater diagnostic severity. In addition, they were more likely to have a comorbid diagnosis of a physical health condition, to report more exaggerated danger expectancies, and to report fears that focused more on physical symptoms (e.g., faintness and nausea) in comparison to youth with dog phobia. The present study advances knowledge relating to this poorly understood condition in youth. PMID:27157026

  9. Conducting a Randomized Clinical Trial of an Psychological Intervention for Parents/Caregivers of Children with Cancer Shortly after Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Stehl, Meredith Lutz; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Rodriguez, Alyssa; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Pai, Ahna L. H.; Boeving, Alexandra; Reilly, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Objective To report acceptability, feasibility, and outcome data from a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a brief intervention for caregivers of children newly diagnosed with cancer. Method Eighty-one families were randomly assigned following collection of baseline data to Intervention or Treatment as Usual (TAU). Recruitment and retention rates and progression through the protocol were tracked. Measures of state anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms served as outcomes. Results Difficulties enrolling participants included a high percentage of newly diagnosed families failing to meet inclusion criteria (40%) and an unexpectedly low participation rate (23%). However, movement through the protocol was generally completed in a timely manner and those completing the intervention provided positive feedback. Outcome data showed no significant differences between the arms of the RCT. Conclusions There are many challenges inherent in conducting a RCT shortly after cancer diagnosis. Consideration of alternative research designs and optimal timing for interventions are essential next steps. PMID:19091806

  10. Is Psychology a Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    Identifies commonly accepted characteristics of professions and proposes as the most important defining property of a profession the availability of a useful, communicable technology based in a reasonably coherent intellectual discipline. The qualifications of psychology as a profession, with special emphasis on clinical applications of…

  11. Psychological Component of Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... that they have: a graduate degree in a mental health profession a license to practice and/or state registration clinical training in the psychological aspects of infertility experience in the medical and ... to a competent mental health professional, you can check the ASRM website ...

  12. Family-based associations in measures of psychological distress and quality of life in a cardiac screening clinic for inheritable cardiac diseases: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Family-based cardiac screening programmes for persons at risk for genetic cardiac diseases are now recommended. However, the psychological wellbeing and health related quality of life (QoL) of such screened patients is poorly understood, especially in younger patients. We sought to examine wellbeing and QoL in a representative group of adults aged 16 and over in a dedicated family cardiac screening clinic. Methods Prospective survey of consecutive consenting patients attending a cardiac screening clinic, over a 12 month period. Data were collected using two health measurement tools: the Short Form 12 (version 2) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), along with baseline demographic and screening visit-related data. The HADS and SF-12v.2 outcomes were compared by age group. Associations with a higher HADS score were examined using logistic regression, with multi-level modelling used to account for the family-based structure of the data. Results There was a study response rate of 86.6%, with n=334 patients providing valid HADS data (valid response rate 79.5%), and data on n=316 retained for analysis. One-fifth of patients were aged under 25 (n=61). Younger patients were less likely than older to describe significant depression on their HADS scale (p<0.0001), although there were overall no difference between the prevalence of a significant HADS score between the younger and older age groups (18.0% vs 20.0%, p=0.73). Significant positive associates of a higher HADS score were having lower educational attainment, being single or separated, and being closely related to the family proband. Between-family variance in anxiety and depression scores was greater than within-family variance. Conclusions High levels of anxiety were seen amongst patients attending a family-based cardiac screening clinic.Younger patients also had high rates of clinically significant anxiety. Higher levels of anxiety and depression tends to run in families, and this has

  13. Sport Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  14. Annotated Bibliography on the Teaching of Psychology: 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David E.; Schroder, Simone I.

    1998-01-01

    Includes materials on: (1) abnormal and clinical psychology, and personality; (2) career issues; (3) cognition and learning; (4) educational technology; (5) faculty evaluation; (6) graduate education; (7) high school instruction; (8) history of psychology; (9) introductory psychology; (10) perception, and physiological and comparative psychology;…

  15. Psychological maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Roberta; Barlow, Jane; Macmillan, Harriet

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125

  16. [The current status of psychology in Korea].

    PubMed

    Cha, J H

    1992-02-01

    This paper read as the special lecture at the Annual Convention of The Japanese Psychological Association, held at Tokyo Metropolitan University in 1990, and reported on the recent trends of psychology in the Republic of Korea. This report dealt essentially with four topics; 1) the history of Korean psychology which was divided into four periods of creation, reconstruction, development, and current status, after the liberation at the end of the World War II in 1945, 2) the distribution and academic status of 26 universities, with formal department of psychology, 3) general situation of job opportunities for the graduates in psychology of these universities, 4) the composition of Korean Psychological Association (KPA), consisting of nine divisions (social, industrial and organizational, clinical, consultations and psychotherapy, experimental and cognitive, developmental, biological and physiological psychology) with the total of about 400 members. Last, some directions of Korean psychology to the future was suggested. PMID:1507672

  17. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    PubMed

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion. PMID:17036424

  18. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  19. Psychology Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  20. Psychology Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  1. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  2. The Psychology Technician Training Program at Georgia College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nish, William W.

    This paper describes an undergraduate training program for psychology students in the clinical, technical aspects of psychology. The program is designed to prepare students for work under the supervision of doctoral-level psychologists without having to obtain graduate degrees in clinical psychology. The program was developed in 1971 by Georgia…

  3. Darwinian theory, functionalism, and the first American psychological revolution.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher D

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within the highly pragmatic American context and to facilitate the application of psychology to domains outside of the scientific laboratory. Applications of psychology that emerged from the functionalist ethos included child and developmental psychology, clinical psychology, psychological testing, and industrial/vocational psychology. Functionalism was also the ground within which behaviorism rooted and grew into the dominant form of psychology through the middle of the 20th century. PMID:19203139

  4. The psychological effects of vasectomy for American men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Larry J.; Houston, B. Kent

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed evidence concerning the psychological effects of vasectomy for American men. Surveys of postoperative sexual behavior and satisfaction and/or happiness were cited, as were data from studies employing clinical interviews and/or psychological tests. (Author/SB)

  5. Rationale for Clinical Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Morris L.

    1976-01-01

    The author, one of the originators and developers of the clinical supervision process, offered a cogent rationale for clinical supervision. He defined clinical supervision and discussed the psychological-sociological basis for its practice. (Editor)

  6. Developing psychological services following facial trauma.

    PubMed

    Choudhury-Peters, Deba; Dain, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Adults presenting to oral and maxillofacial surgery services are at high risk of psychological morbidity. Research by the Institute of Psychotrauma and the centre for oral and maxillofacial surgery trauma clinic at the Royal London hospital (2015) demonstrated nearly 40% of patients met diagnostic criteria for either depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, alcohol misuse, or substance misuse, or were presenting with facial appearance distress. Most facial injury patients were not receiving mental health assessment or treatment, and the maxillofacial team did not have direct access to psychological services. Based on these research findings, an innovative one-year pilot psychology service was designed and implemented within the facial trauma clinic. The project addressed this need by offering collaborative medical and psychological care for all facial injury patients. The project provided brief screening, assessment, and early psychological intervention. The medical team were trained to better recognise and respond to psychological distress. PMID:27493750

  7. Developing psychological services following facial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury-Peters, Deba; Dain, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Adults presenting to oral and maxillofacial surgery services are at high risk of psychological morbidity. Research by the Institute of Psychotrauma and the centre for oral and maxillofacial surgery trauma clinic at the Royal London hospital (2015) demonstrated nearly 40% of patients met diagnostic criteria for either depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, alcohol misuse, or substance misuse, or were presenting with facial appearance distress. Most facial injury patients were not receiving mental health assessment or treatment, and the maxillofacial team did not have direct access to psychological services. Based on these research findings, an innovative one-year pilot psychology service was designed and implemented within the facial trauma clinic. The project addressed this need by offering collaborative medical and psychological care for all facial injury patients. The project provided brief screening, assessment, and early psychological intervention. The medical team were trained to better recognise and respond to psychological distress. PMID:27493750

  8. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  9. The psychology of autonomy.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    In May 2016, right around the time that this issue of the Hastings Center Report should be published, The Hastings Center is holding a conference in New York City titled "Bioethics Meets Moral Psychology." The goal of the conference is to consider the lessons that bioethicists should learn from the raft of literature now accumulating on how the mental processes of perception, emotion, and thinking affect things that bioethicists care about, from the education of health care professionals to the conflicts that arise in clinical care, the "culture wars" over bioethical policy issues, the status of different cultures' value systems, and the very understanding of the values that are foundational in moral thinking. The articles in this issue simply provide more evidence that bioethics is meeting moral psychology. PMID:27150409

  10. When did "scientific psychology" begin in Russia?

    PubMed

    Sirotkina, Irina

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of the institutionalisation of psychology in Russia was as complex as in other countries. The institutionalisation was more than a single event or even a series of events: it was a manifold process that involved various actors, groups, and political parties, and took at least several decades. Psychology was taught within the subject of philosophy, but as a separate course, at high schools, from the early nineteenth century. When, in mid-century, philosophy was banned from universities for political reasons, logic and psychology still remained in the curriculum. Psychology became a contested area in the 1860s, with the rise of the radical movement that accompanied the abolition of serfdom and other reforms. The young radicals, or nihilists, favoured positive science and gave clear preference to physiology; at medical schools, psychology gradually became part of physiology and psychiatry teaching. Psychiatric clinics provided a venue for the first psychological experiments; the first courses in experimental psychology were also taught to psychiatry students. At the turn of the century, humanities departments joined in by opening laboratories and adding courses in experimental psychology to the philosophical psychology traditionally taught. Yet by 1917, the year when the monarchy ended in Russia, only two universities, in Moscow and Odessa, had succeeded in founding laboratories. The institutionalisation of psychology on a mass scale followed the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. The new communist regime facilitated the country's modernisation, and psychology became one of its instruments. PMID:19569437

  11. Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Presents the American Psychological Association Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults. The present document is intended to assist psychologists in evaluating their own readiness for working clinically with older adults and in seeking and using appropriate education and training to increase their knowledge, skills, and experience…

  12. Casebook for Providers of Psychological Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Professional Standards

    1984-01-01

    Discusses three cases involving quality assurance problems in clinical, industrial/organizational, and school psychology. Gives a statement of problem, applicable American Psychological Association policies, an interpretation of policy and principles in light of major questions posed by each case, and educative ramifications. (CMG)

  13. Gestalt Therapy: Its Inheritance from Gestalt Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yontef, Gary M.

    When adequately elaborated, the basic method of Gestalt therapy can be traced to the phenomenological field theory of Gestalt psychology. Gestalt therapy differs from Gestalt psychology not because of a difference in philosophy or method, but because of different contexts; the clinical context has different demands than those of basic research.…

  14. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological interventions for the management of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children/adolescents and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Skapinakis, Petros; Caldwell, Deborah; Hollingworth, William; Bryden, Peter; Fineberg, Naomi; Salkovskis, Paul; Welton, Nicky; Baxter, Helen; Kessler, David; Churchill, Rachel; Lewis, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common and disabling condition. OBJECTIVES To determine the clinical effectiveness, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological interventions for the treatment of OCD in children, adolescents and adults. DATA SOURCES We searched the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Trials Registers, which includes trials from routine searches of all the major databases. Searches were conducted from inception to 31 December 2014. REVIEW METHODS We undertook a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of the clinical effectiveness and acceptability of available treatments. Outcomes for effectiveness included mean differences in the total scores of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale or its children's version and total dropouts for acceptability. For the cost-effectiveness analysis, we developed a probabilistic model informed by the results of the NMA. All analyses were performed using OpenBUGS version 3.2.3 (members of OpenBUGS Project Management Group; see www.openbugs.net ). RESULTS We included 86 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in our systematic review. In the NMA we included 71 RCTs (54 in adults and 17 in children and adolescents) for effectiveness and 71 for acceptability (53 in adults and 18 in children and adolescents), comprising 7643 and 7942 randomised patients available for analysis, respectively. In general, the studies were of medium quality. The results of the NMA showed that in adults all selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and clomipramine had greater effects than drug placebo. There were no differences between SSRIs, and a trend for clomipramine to be more effective did not reach statistical significance. All active psychological therapies had greater effects than drug placebo. Behavioural therapy (BT) and cognitive therapy (CT) had greater effects than psychological placebo, but cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) did not

  15. A Coaching Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008), John Radford considers "what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education". In this article, the author looks at the possible inclusion of coaching psychology within undergraduate psychology programmes. Coaching psychology as an applied area of psychology…

  16. Polycultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness. PMID:25251481

  17. 20 CFR 404.1616 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1616 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1016 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1016 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  1. The State of the Psychology Health Service Provider Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…

  2. A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual’s physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women. The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. Methods/Design This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women’s study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women’s health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. Discussion The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women’s risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and

  3. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  4. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  5. Pioneers in pediatric psychology: integrating nutrition and child development interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M

    2015-05-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  6. Predictors of Psychology Graduate Student Interest in the Field of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viecili, Michelle A.; MacMullin, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictors of interest in the future provision of clinical services to people with developmental disabilities by Canadian graduate students in psychology. Utilizing a cross-sectional survey, 458 psychology students from clinical, clinical neuropsychology, and counseling psychology programs from across Canada provided…

  7. Improving clinical skills to support the emotional and psychological well-being of patients with end-stage renal disease: a qualitative evaluation of two interventions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Francesca; Combes, Gill; Hare, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) need and want improved emotional and psychological support. Explicit attention to patients' emotional issues during consultations can help, yet renal consultants rarely address emotional problems. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate whether two different low-cost interventions could individually enable consultants to talk with patients about their emotional concerns during routine outpatient consultations. Method One intervention involved patients using a Patient Issues Sheet to identify two to three issues they would like to talk about in their consultation and the second involved consultants asking patients a direct question about their emotional feelings. Consultants were trained to handle any emotional issues raised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five consultants and 36 ESRD patients from two UK renal units. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. Results Although consultants and patients tended to use the two interventions in different ways, they expressed generally positive views about how helpful the interventions were in promoting discussion of emotional issues. Consultants appreciated the training for facilitating empathetic handling of patients' emotional disclosures and containment of discussion. Most patients who raised emotional concerns were satisfied with their consultant's responses, while others were dissuaded from more explicit discussion by their consultant's concentration on physical considerations. Conclusions These qualitative study findings suggest that both interventions are feasible and acceptable and have the potential to help consultants improve emotional and psychological patient care, providing cognitive and behavioural tools to enable discussion of emotional issues during routine outpatient consultations. PMID:27274842

  8. The psychology of suicidal behaviour.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-06-01

    The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404

  9. Introduction to Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

  10. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  11. A socio-psychological investigation into limitations and incentives concerning reporting a clinically suspect situation aimed at improving early detection of classical swine fever outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Elbers, A R W; Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, M J; van der Velden, P G; Loeffen, W L A; Zarafshani, K

    2010-04-21

    The aim of this study was to identify limitations and incentives in reporting clinically suspect situations, possibly caused by classical swine fever (CSF), to veterinary authorities with the ultimate aim to facilitate early detection of CSF outbreaks. Focus group sessions were held with policy makers from the veterinary authorities, and representatives of veterinary practitioners and pig farmer unions. Personal interviews with a small group of pig farmers and practitioners were held to check limitations raised and solutions proposed during the focus group sessions. An electronic questionnaire was mailed to pig farmers and practitioners to investigate perceptions and attitudes with respect to clinically suspect situations possibly caused by CSF. After triangulating the responses of veterinary authorities, veterinary practitioners and farmers, six themes emerged across all groups: (1) lack of knowledge on the early signs of CSF; (2) guilt, shame and prejudice; (3) negative opinion on control measures; (4) dissatisfaction with post-reporting procedures; (5) lack of trust in government bodies; (6) uncertainty and lack of transparency of reporting procedures. The following solutions to facilitate early detection of CSF were put forward: (a) development of a clinical decision-support system for vets and farmers, in order to get faster diagnosis and detection of CSF; (b) possibility to submit blood samples directly to the reference laboratory to exclude CSF in a clinical situation with non-specific clinical signs, without isolation of the farm and free of charge for the individual farmer; (c) decrease social and economic consequences of reporting CSF, for example by improving the public opinion on first reports; (d) better schooling of veterinary officers to deal with emotions and insecurity of farmers in the process after reporting; (e) better communication of rules and regulations, where to report, what will happen next; (f) up-to-date website with information and

  12. Psychological correlates of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Puder, J J; Munsch, S

    2010-12-01

    To enhance the prevention and intervention efforts of childhood obesity, there is a strong need for the early detection of psychological factors contributing to its development and maintenance. Rather than a stable condition, childhood obesity represents a dynamic process, in which behavior, cognition and emotional regulation interact mutually with each other. Family structure and context, that is, parental and familial attitudes, activity, nutritional patterns as well as familial stress, have an important role with respect to the onset and maintenance of overweight and obesity. Behavioral and emotional problems are found in many, though not all, obese children, with a higher prevalence in clinical, treatment-seeking samples. The interrelatedness between obesity and psychological problems seems to be twofold, in that clinically meaningful psychological distress might foster weight gain and obesity may lead to psychosocial problems. The most frequently implicated psychosocial factors are externalizing (impulsivity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and internalizing (depression and anxiety) behavioral problems and uncontrolled eating behavior. These findings strengthen the need to further explore the interrelatedness between psychological problems and childhood obesity. PMID:21151145

  13. Cognitive Defusion versus Thought Distraction: A Clinical Rationale, Training, and Experiential Exercise in Altering Psychological Impacts of Negative Self-Referential Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Wendell, Johanna W.; Sheehan, Shawn T.

    2010-01-01

    Using two modes of intervention delivery, the present study compared the effects of a cognitive defusion strategy with a thought distraction strategy on the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts. One mode of intervention delivery consisted of a clinical rationale and training (i.e., Partial condition). The…

  14. Life Begins at Thirty: Training and Employment Opportunities in the Psychology of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozard, James L.

    1978-01-01

    Possibilities for employment opportunities related to aging are reviewed for four areas of professional psychology: clinical and counseling psychology, education, human factors engineering and ecological psychology, and teaching research. Some reasons for the slow development of opportunities for employment in the field of psychology of aging are…

  15. Using Positive Psychology with Special Mental Health Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohiuddin, Ahmed; Boisvert, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    In our clinical practice, we have attempted to use a positive psychology approach in working with people with schizophrenia and youths with behavioral disorders. We present three clinical applications that use a positive psychology approach with these populations: group treatment with persons with schizophrenia; individual cognitive stimulation…

  16. Embodiment as a unifying perspective for psychology.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M

    2010-07-01

    A basic claim of the embodiment framework is that all psychological processes are influenced by body morphology, sensory systems, motor systems, and emotions. As such, the framework holds the promise of providing a unifying perspective for psychological research. This article begins with a sketch of several arguments, from evolution to philosophy, as to why the embodiment framework is a good bet. These arguments are followed by a review of approaches to embodiment, including those from cognitive linguistics, perceptual symbol theory, and action-based theories. Finally, examples are provided for how a unifying perspective might work for cognition (including language and memory), cognitive and social development, social psychology, neuroscience, clinical psychology, and psychology applied to education. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271505

  17. Mistreating Psychology in the Decades of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    We systematically mistreat psychological phenomena, both logically and clinically. This article explores three contentions: that the dominant discourse in modern cognitive, affective, and clinical neuroscience assumes that we know how psychology/biology causation works when we do not; that there are serious intellectual, clinical, and policy costs to pretending we do know; and that crucial scientific and clinical progress will be stymied as long as we frame psychology, biology, and their relationship in currently dominant ways. The arguments are developed with emphasis on misguided attempts to localize psychological function via neuroimaging, misunderstandings about the role of genetics in psychopathology, and unfortunate constraints on health-care policy and clinical service delivery. A particular challenge, articulated but not resolved in this article, is determining what constitutes adequate explanation in the relationship between psychology and biology. PMID:21949539

  18. Psychology in Action: Psychology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Sigmund

    1977-01-01

    "Psychologists in the People's Republic of China are engaged in research concerning theory, Chinese language, child development, vision, audition, and areas of physiological psychology including acupuncture, pain, memory, and central nervous system functioning. The Institute of Psychology within the Chinese Academy of Sciences represents the…

  19. [Identification of psychologically impaired patients in cardiologic rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Kittel, J; Karoff, M

    1998-05-01

    As psychological factors have a substantial influence on the further medical, psychological and occupational career of a patient with somatic disease, early identification of patients with psychological disturbances is of special importance in medical rehabilitation. The share of psychologically disturbed patients in a cardiac rehabilitation clinic has been screened. Different methods for identification of anxious and depressive patients (by medical and psychological staff as well as a screening instrument) are compared. Concluding, the benefit of introducing a screening instrument as a routine procedure is discussed under the aspect of effectivity. PMID:9653795

  20. Marginalization of Vocational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Although vocational psychology has diverse theoretical models and an empirical tradition, it is marginalized within counseling psychology. Its vitality is weakened by those who take a dabbler, pundit, or booster approach to scholarship. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)

  1. Humanistic Psychology and Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders Richards, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The place of the encounter group within the framework of humanistic psychology is examined and an assessment of the moral significance of the humanistic psychology movement and the encounter group technique is attempted. (Editor)

  2. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  3. A randomized clinical trial of Behavioral Activation (BA) therapy for improving psychological and physical health in dementia caregivers: results of the Pleasant Events Program (PEP).

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Ceglowski, Jennifer; Ho, Jennifer; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Ziegler, Michael G; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor; Mausbach, Brent T

    2013-10-01

    Dementia caregiving is associated with elevations in depressive symptoms and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study evaluated the efficacy of the Pleasant Events Program (PEP), a 6-week Behavioral Activation intervention designed to reduce CVD risk and depressive symptoms in caregivers. One hundred dementia family caregivers were randomized to either the 6-week PEP intervention (N = 49) or a time-equivalent Information-Support (IS) control condition (N = 51). Assessments were completed pre- and post-intervention and at 1-year follow-up. Biological assessments included CVD risk markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer. Psychosocial outcomes included depressive symptoms, positive affect, and negative affect. Participants receiving the PEP intervention had significantly greater reductions in IL-6 (p = .040), depressive symptoms (p = .039), and negative affect (p = .021) from pre- to post-treatment. For IL-6, clinically significant improvement was observed in 20.0% of PEP participants and 6.5% of IS participants. For depressive symptoms, clinically significant improvement was found for 32.7% of PEP vs 11.8% of IS participants. Group differences in change from baseline to 1-year follow-up were non-significant for all outcomes. The PEP program decreased depression and improved a measure of physiological health in older dementia caregivers. Future research should examine the efficacy of PEP for improving other CVD biomarkers and seek to sustain the intervention's effects. PMID:23916631

  4. How Different Are Students of School Psychology and Clinical Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolor, Alexander; Brannigan, Gary G.

    1976-01-01

    The authors have formulated some impressions of differences and similarities found in these trainees. In personality, the students in these fields often display differences in need for structure, need for external support, social maturity, and desire for autonomous professional functioning. Implications for quality of service offered and training…

  5. Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  6. Bringing Psychology to Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, Dale

    1987-01-01

    Describes a set of exercises called Bringing Psychology to Life (BPL), which is designed to engage introductory psychology students in learning course and textbook content by having them develop psychological explanations for events in their lives. Maintains that BPL is an excellent icebreaker for graduate teaching assistants and a vehicle for…

  7. Psychology: Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1986 introduces students to psychology and its related subject areas. Students learn that psychology has matured through the centuries from its taboo beginnings in supernatural beliefs and magic to its current status as a scientific discipline. Sections of the book include: (1) "What is Psychology?"; (2) "Human Development";…

  8. Teaching of Psychology Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Douglas A., Ed.

    Produced by and for members of Division Two, American Psychological Association, this newsletter regularly contains: 1) reports on division meetings; 2) activities of its committees, such as those on pre-college psychology, adult education, course outlines, psychology in professional schools; 3) articles and studies; and, 4) reports on studies and…

  9. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  10. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…