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1

Teaching Clinical Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching Clinical Psychology, created by Dr. John Suler of Rider University, is devoted to �sharing ideas and resources for teaching clinical psychology.� Helpful for students and educators in the fields of mental health and human services counseling, this site contains practical in-class exercises, such as an exercise which illustrates what it is like to share secrets with strangers, and syllabi for courses in the clinical psychology curriculum. There are also larger projects for students, including an in-depth analysis of a psychotherapy case study and a role-play project which has students administer, score, and interpret a series of psychological tests given to a classmate.

Suler, John R., 1955-

2006-12-02

2

Reestablishing clinical psychology's subjective core.  

PubMed

Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author suggests that the APA not only should make a place at psychology's policy making table for "clinical expertise" but should prioritize clinical and subjective sources of data -- the essence of the psychological -- and set policies to ensure that objective data, such as behaviors and DSM diagnoses, are considered in their subjective context. The APA should also encourage researchers to devise ways to preserve as much as possible the personal "feel" of the clinical encounter in their data analysis and published conclusions. The APA also needs to assign priority to subjective emotional and relational skills on a par with academic and analytic skills in the selection and training of clinical psychology students. Reconnecting clinical psychology with its subjective evidentiary roots in ways such as these should help to bring us out from under the dominance of medicine, to the benefit of our profession and our clients. PMID:17874915

Hunsberger, Peter Hume

2007-09-01

3

Clinical psychology and evolutionary psychology: Toward a dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of evolutionary psychology as a theoretical framework for the study of human behavior has been spectacular. However, evolutionary psychology has been largely ignored by clinical psychology. This article is an attempt to encourage greater dialogue between the two. First, some of the major principles of evolutionary psychol- ogy are outlined, followed by consideration of some of the criticisms

Richard J. Siegert; Tony Ward

2002-01-01

4

Military Deception: A Clinical Psychological Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes four clinical psychological contributions to the study and practice of military deception. First, inferential techniques yield five generic factors of deception: intention, behavior, perception, teleology, and systems. Second, reliabi...

R. W. Bloom

1984-01-01

5

Psychotherapeutics and the Problematic Origins of Clinical Psychology in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problematic place of psychotherapy within the larger history of scientific psychology is reviewed, especially in the absence of any definitive history of clinical psychology yet written. Although standard histories of psychology imply that psychotherapy was somehow derived from the tradition of German laboratory science, modern historiography reveals a dramatically different story. Personality, abnormal, social, and clinical psychology have their

Eugene Taylor

2000-01-01

6

Sexism in the theory and practice of clinical psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the major schools of clinical psychology with regard to implications for the psychology of women. Theoretical orientations are compared in terms of the emphasis placed on biographical vs social determinants of personality development and psychopathology. It is concluded that a purely psychological approach is indadequate and that a model integrating sociological and psychological factors is necessary for understanding and

Jacqueline Voss; Linda Gannon

1978-01-01

7

Integrative Data Analysis in Clinical Psychology Research  

PubMed Central

Integrative Data Analysis (IDA), a novel framework for conducting the simultaneous analysis of raw data pooled from multiple studies, offers many advantages including economy (i.e., reuse of extant data), power (i.e., large combined sample sizes), the potential to address new questions not answerable by a single contributing study (e.g., combining longitudinal studies to cover a broader swath of the lifespan), and the opportunity to build a more cumulative science (i.e., examining the similarity of effects across studies and potential reasons for dissimilarities). There are also methodological challenges associated with IDA, including the need to account for sampling heterogeneity across studies, to develop commensurate measures across studies, and to account for multiple sources of study differences as they impact hypothesis testing. In this review, we outline potential solutions to these challenges and describe future avenues for developing IDA as a framework for studies in clinical psychology.

Hussong, Andrea M.; Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

8

AMEDD Clinical Psychology Short Course Held in Fort Gordon, Georgia on 13-17 February 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the proceedings of the 1989 AMEDD Clinical Psychology Short Course. Contents: Army Clinical Psychology into the 1990s; The Administratively Separate Psychology Service: Current Status and Update; Administratively Separate Psychology S...

A. D. MAngelsdorff

1990-01-01

9

Revisioning Clinical Psychology: Integrating Cultural Psychology into Clinical Research and Practice with Portuguese Immigrants  

PubMed Central

This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed-method research with the Portuguese community. The model demonstrates its value with ethnic minority clients by situating the clients within the context of their multi-layered social reality. The individual, familial, socio-cultural, and religio-moral domains are explored in two research projects, revealing the interrelation of these levels/contexts. The article is structured according to these domains. Study 1 is a quantitative study that validates the Agonias Questionnaire in Ontario. The results of this study are used to illustrate the individual domain of our proposed model. Study 2 is an ethnography conducted in the Azorean Islands, and the results of this study are integrated to illustrate the other three levels of the model, namely family, socio-cultural, and the religio-moral levels.

James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane

2013-01-01

10

Measurement of Depression: Clinical, Biological, Psychological, and Psychosocial Perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The papers from the conference on Measurement of Depression, held at Queens Hospital Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii in March 1984 are presented. Clinical, biological, psychological and psychosocial aspects of the problem are covered.

R. M. A. Hirschfeld A. J. Marsella M. M. Katz

1984-01-01

11

Child Diagnostic Assessment: Current Training Practices in Clinical Psychology Internships  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed clinical psychology internships with particular regard to current practices in training child diagnostic assessment: proportion of interns time spent in child versus adult experiences, child assessment versus other types of child experiences, and didactic versus direct clinical experience. Information concerned the frequency of assessment experience with various age levels, types of clinical problems, and specific test instruments. We

Jean C. Elbert; E. Wayne Holden

1987-01-01

12

Issues in Testing and the Design of Courses in Psychological Assessment and Diagnostics in Clinical and Counseling Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses issues in psychological testing and the design of courses in psychological assessment for students in clinical and counseling psychology. Prior to discussing the teaching of such courses, consideration is given to the role of assessment in an overall framework of clinical practice. Following this, topics such as the

Dimond, Richard E.

13

The role and scope of forensic clinical psychology in secure unit provisions: A proposed service model for psychological therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the role and scope of forensic clinical psychology in forensic services and to develop a service model for psychological treatments in secure unit settings. The paper presents the findings of a one-year audit of the Southwark Forensic Psychology Service between April 2004 and March 2005, completed in order to determine the clinical

Gisli H. Gudjonsson; Susan Young

2007-01-01

14

Sex role identification and the clinical psychology student  

Microsoft Academic Search

22 female (mean age 31.8 yrs) and 16 male (mean age 27.5 yrs) practicum students in clinical psychology completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory and a questionnaire assessing their attitudes toward clinical work. Females were more likely than males to work predominantly with children. Masculine and undifferentiated Ss attributed the source of their theoretical orientation to their clinical work, whereas feminine

Mary-Joan Gerson; Katherine L. Lewis

1984-01-01

15

AMEDD Clinical Psychology Short Course Held at Madigan Army Medical Center, in Tacoma, Washington on 13-17 June 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the proceedings of the 1988 AMEDD Clinical Psychology Short Course. Keywords: Abnormal psychology, Mental disorders, Clinical psychology, Exceptional Family Member Program, Neuropsychology, HIV, stress, Child psychology, Automation. (...

D. Mangelsdorffs

1990-01-01

16

Current Status and Future Prospects of Clinical Psycholog  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The escalating costs of health care and other recent trends have made health care decisions of great societal import, with decision-making responsibility often being transferred from practitioners to health economists, health plans, and insurers. Health care decision making increasingly is guided by evidence that a treatment is efficacious, effectivedisseminable, cost-effective, and scientifically plausible. Under these conditions of heightened cost concerns and institutionaleconomic decision making, psychologists are losing the opportunity to play a leadership role in mental and behavioral health care: Other types of practitioners are providing an increasing proportion of delivered treatment, and the use of psychiatric medication has increased dramatically relative to the provision of psychological interventions. Research has shown that numerous psychological interventions are efficacious, effective, and cost-effective. However, these interventions are used infrequently with patients who would benefit from them, in part because clinical psychologists have not made a convincing case for the use of these interventions (e.g., by supplying the data that decision makers need to support implementation of such interventions) and because clinical psychologists do not themselves use these interventions even when given the opportunity to do so. Clinical psychologists failure to achieve a more significant impact on clinical and public health may be traced to their deep ambivalence about the role of science and their lack of adequate science training, which leads them to value personal clinical experience over research evidence, use assessment practices that have dubious psychometric support, and not use the interventions for which there is the strongest evidence of efficacy. Clinical psychology resembles medicine at a point in its history when practitioners were operating in a largely prescientific manner. Prior to the scientific reform of medicine in the early 1900s, physicians typically shared the attitudes of many of todays clinical psychologists, such as valuing personal experience over scientific research. Medicine was reformed, in large part, by a principled effort by the American Medical Association to increase the science base of medical school education. Substantial evidence shows that many clinical psychology doctoral training programs, especially PsyD and for-profit programs, do not uphold high standards for graduate admission, have high studentfaculty ratios, deemphasize science in their training, and produce students who fail to apply or generate scientific knowledge. A promising strategy for improving the quality and clinical and public health impact of clinical psychology is through a new accreditation system that demands highquality science training as a central feature of doctoral training in clinical psychology. Just as strengthening training standards in medicine markedly enhanced the quality of health care, improved training standards in clinical psychology will enhance health and mental health care. Such a system will (a) allow the public and employers to identify scientifically trained psychologists; (b) stigmatize ascientific training programs and practitioners; (c) produce aspirational effects, thereby enhancing training quality generally; and (d) help accredited programs improve their training in the application and generation of science. These effects should enhance the generation, application, and dissemination of experimentally supported interventions, thereby improving clinical and public health. Experimentally based treatments not only are highly effective but also are cost-effective relative to other interventions; therefore, they could help control spiraling health care costs. The new Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System (PCSAS) is intended to accredit clinical psychology training programs that offer highquality science-centered education and training, producing graduates who are successful in generating and applying scientific knowledge

Baker, Timothy B.; McFall, Richard M.; Shoham, Varda

2010-01-01

17

Quality control and the practice of clinical psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of current health care reforms, quality control, accountability, and cost-effectiveness have become important issues in the practice of clinical psychology. It is imperative that practicing clinicians begin to evaluate their services to assess whether they demonstrate high quality and cost-effectiveness, as well as a continued commitment to qualify improvement. Deming's (1986) approach to quality control is discussed as a

Elizabeth A. Yeater; P GRACZYK

1998-01-01

18

Collective memory: A perspective from (experimental) clinical psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these memories as a property of individuals who are, to a greater or lesser extent, an integral part of their

Ineke Wessel; Michelle L. Moulds

2008-01-01

19

Graduate Training in Clinical Psychology and the Study of Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the current level of training in the study of suicide in member departments (N = 115) of the Council of University Directors of Clinical Psychology Programs. Of the 80% (92) of the departments that responded, only 35% offered any formal training in the study of suicide. If training occurred, it was usually offered as part of another course.

Bruce Bongar; Mort Harmatz

1989-01-01

20

Accessing the BIOSIS Previews Database in Clinical Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of using the BIOSIS Previews database as an online information retrieval tool in clinical psychology was investigated in a study conducted at the University of West Florida. Recognizing the importance of multi-database searching strategies when seeking comprehensive results, this study compared the citation output of this

Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Bob

21

Professional and ethical challenges of forensic clinical psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ethical and professional challenges encountered by two experienced forensic clinical psychologists in the course of their daily work. Five examples are chosen from a typical working week which illustrate and explain a particular professional dilemma and the forensic or organisational context The paper concludes that professional guidance from the British and Australian Psychological Societies and the

Kevin Howells

1996-01-01

22

psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The discipline--historical, introductory, overall aspects; Abnormal psychology--criminal, pathological, psychiatric, sexual; Child psychology--abnormal, adolescent, delinquent, gifted; Experimental psychology--applied, educational, physiological...

1967-01-01

23

Women entering clinical psychology: Q-sort narratives of career attraction of female clinical psychology trainees in the UK.  

PubMed

The great majority of the UK clinical psychology workforce are women, and this fact prompted an examination of the various ways clinical psychology might be seen as attractive to women--a neglected research topic. Female clinical psychology trainees from a variety of training programmes Q-sorted statements of potential job attractors. The process of analysis is outlined before most of the article is devoted to explicating the five narratives of attraction generated: making a difference, waiting for what I want, idealising challenge, identifying with distress and acknowledging power and privilege. Two super-ordinate 'stories' spanning the narratives are suggested--an over-riding attraction to the profession and a rebuttal of the suggestion that this attraction may be based on any overtly gendered grounds. In the absence of previous empirical data of women's attraction to clinical psychology, the small but significant contribution to understanding the profession made by the analysis is acknowledged--as is the need for further research to confirm and develop the findings. PMID:21928293

Baker, Martyn; Nash, Jen

2013-01-01

24

A Decade of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings: The Short Longer View  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress and accomplishments of psychology in medical settings over the past decade since the publication of the Handbook of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings (J. J. Sweet, R. H. Rozensky, & S. M. Tovian, 1991) and the subsequent founding of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings (JCPMS) in 1994 are highlighted. Areas of progress and accomplishments reviewed

Steven M. Tovian; Ronald H. Rozensky; Jerry J. Sweet

2003-01-01

25

Mentor Relationships in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Training: Results of a National Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a contemporary picture of mentor relationships in clinical psychology, focusing on 787 survey respondents who were U.S. members or associates of the American Psychological Association and graduated with a PhD or PsyD in clinical psychology in 1994, 1995, or 1996. Presents the results and discusses implications for graduate education. (CMK)

Clark, Richard A.; Harden, Sherry L.; Johnson, W. Brad

2000-01-01

26

AMEDD Clinical Psychology Short Course Held at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, 24 - 28 May 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proceedings of the 1993 AMEDD Clinical Psychology Short Course conducted in Bethesda, Maryland. Presentations examined changes in AMEDD Clinical Psychology, neuropsychology, National Health Reform, forensic psychology, and organizational changes.

A. D. Mangelsdorff G. Southwell K. Stephens

1994-01-01

27

[Cortical blindness, clinical, psychologic, and localizatory findings (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Description and evaluation of a case in which both occipital lobes of the brain and adjacent temporal and parietal areas were heavily damaged by malignant meningiomas. Loss of simple and complex visual functions resulted. During a 5-year period the clinical, neurologic, ophthalmologic, and psychologic findings could be completed by self-observation by the highly intelligent patient and compared with findings from three operations. Postmortal neuropathologic analysis showed loss of both left and right areas 17 and 18 and of right area 19. The localizations of elementary and complex visual functions in the brain are discussed. PMID:901160

Gerlach, J; Krauseneck, P; Liebaldt, G P

1977-07-15

28

Reconciling the professional and student identities of clinical psychology trainees.  

PubMed

The study explored the ways in which qualified and trainee clinical psychologists perceived professional behaviour, as illustrated in a series of short vignettes, in student and clinical practice contexts. Comparisons were made to identify the extent to which ideas of professionalism differed across different learning contexts and between qualified and unqualified staff, with the aim of adding to the literature on which factors influence the development of professional identity in health professionals. An online questionnaire depicting a range of potentially unprofessional behaviours was completed by 265 clinical psychology trainees and 106 qualified clinical psychologists. The data were analysed using a general linear model with simultaneous entry in which rater (trainee vs qualified clinical psychologist), setting (student vs placement) and their interaction predicted acceptability ratings. We found that, in general, trainees and qualified staff agreed on those behaviours that were potentially unprofessional, although where significant differences were found, these were due to trainees rating the same behaviours as more professionally acceptable than qualified clinical psychologists. Despite trainees identifying a range of behaviours as professionally unacceptable, some percentage reported having engaged in a similar behaviour in the past. Irrespective of the status of the rater, the same behaviours tended to be viewed as more professionally unacceptable when in a placement (clinical) setting than in a student (university) setting. Generally, no support was found for a rater by setting interaction. The study suggests that trainee clinical psychologists are generally successful at identifying professional norms, although they do not always act in accordance with these. Conflicting student and professional norms may result in trainees viewing some potentially unprofessional behaviour as less severe than qualified staff. Health professional educators should be aware of this fact and take steps to shape trainee norms to be consistent with that of the professional group. PMID:23053871

McKenzie, Karen; Cossar, Jill A; Fawns, Tim; Murray, Aja L

2013-10-01

29

University Clinics as Field Placements in School Psychology Training: A National Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many school psychology programs use university-based clinics as field placements for school psychology students, there is little information in the literature on how these clinics are organized, administered, and funded or on the nature, duration, and sequencing of clinic field experiences. A national telephone survey of 71 directors of

Hughes, Jan N.; Benson, A. Jerry

30

13 CyberPsychology meets clinical psychology: The emergence of e-therapy in mental health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical psychologists have traditionally shied away from technology, perhaps because many of the therapeutic elements of psychotherapy rely on verbal and nonverbal interpersonal communication. Although nothing will ever replace face-to-face communication as the key element of psychological practice, the advance of technol ogy is now offering new communication tools that psychologist and their patients feel comfortable using for clinical care.

Gianluca CASTELNUOVO; Andrea GAGGIOLI; Giuseppe RIVA

31

Clinical Validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62): Further Evaluation and Clinical Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-report instruments of psychological symptoms are increasingly used in counseling centers but rely on rigorous evaluation of their clinical validity. Three studies reported here (total N = 26,886) investigated the validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011) as an assessment and

McAleavey, Andrew A.; Nordberg, Samuel S.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.; Lockard, Allison J.

2012-01-01

32

StudentEducator Sex in Clinical and Counseling Psychology Doctoral Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed reported rates of sexual liaisons between students and educators during doctoral training in clinical or counseling psychology. One thousand American Psychological Association members (600 women & 400 men) were anonymously surveyed with a mailed questionnaire; response rate was 51%. Though only 2% of the male respondents reported sexual contact with an educator, 15% of the female respondents

Glenn A. Hammel; Rhoda Olkin; Daniel O. Taube

1996-01-01

33

Survey of Professional Education in Ethics in Clinical Psychology Internship Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Found that 80 percent of psychology programs offer ethics training, but less than half provide a formal, comprehensive learning experience. All but two of the programs that don't offer training reported it was the primary responsibility of the clinical psychology graduate school program. Urges formal training in ethical standards. (Author)

Newmark, Charles S.; Hutchins, Tracey C.

1981-01-01

34

Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

1984-01-01

35

Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects

Strasburger, Victor C.

36

Clinical Supervision and Psychological Functions: A New Direction for Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates Carl Jung's concept of psychological functions to four families of clinical supervision: the original clinical models, the humanistic/artistic models, the technical/didactic models, and the developmental/reflective models. Differences among clinical supervision models within these families are clarified as representing "communication

Pajak, Edward

2002-01-01

37

How special are the specialties? Workplace settings in counseling and clinical psychology in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

How special are the specialties? Although clinical and counseling psychology each have distinctive origins, past research suggests their potential convergence across time. In a survey of 5666 clinical and counseling psychologists, the similarities and differences between their workplace settings were examined during early-, mid-, and late-career phases to explore the distinctiveness of the two specialties. Overall, clinical and counseling psychologists

Greg J. Neimeyer; Jennifer M. Taylor; Douglas M. Wear; Aysenur Buyukgoze-Kavas

2011-01-01

38

Role Conflict in Forensic Clinical Psychology: Reply to Arcaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

I agree with Arcaya that there is potential for serious role conflict in conducting forensic evaluations, but I disagree with how this problem is characterized and explained. Arcaya's contentions are reformulated as research hypotheses that can be empirically tested. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists are relevant and are cited in support of several proposals for safeguarding defendant

Dewey G. Cornell

1987-01-01

39

Proceedings of the AMEDD (Army Medical Department) Clinical Psychology Short Course: Military Applications of Neuropsychology and Health Psychology Held in Presidio of San Francisco, California on 9-13 March 1987. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Proceedings of Volume I document the papers presented at the Poster Session of the 1987 AMEDD Clinical Psychology Short Course - Military Applications of Clinical Neuropsychology and Health Psychology. Papers representing other clinical areas and prof...

R. A. Byrne

1987-01-01

40

Training oncology and palliative care clinical nurse specialists in psychological skills: Evaluation of a pilot study.  

PubMed

Objective: National guidelines in the United Kingdom recommend training Clinical Nurse Specialists in psychological skills to improve the assessment and intervention with psychological problems experienced by people with a cancer diagnosis (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2004). This pilot study evaluated a three-day training program combined with supervision sessions from Clinical Psychologists that focused on developing skills in psychological assessment and intervention for common problems experienced by people with cancer. Methods: Questionnaires were developed to measure participants' levels of confidence in 15 competencies of psychological skills. Participants completed these prior to the program and on completion of the program. Summative evaluation was undertaken and results were compared. In addition, a focus group interview provided qualitative data of participants' experiences of the structure, process, and outcomes of the program. Results: Following the program, participants rated their confidence in psychological assessment and skills associated with providing psychological support as having increased in all areas. This included improved knowledge of psychological theories, skills in assessment and intervention and accessing and using supervision appropriately. The largest increase was in providing psycho-education to support the coping strategies of patients and carers. Thematic analysis of interview data identified two main themes including learning experiences and program enhancements. The significance of the clinical supervision sessions as key learning opportunities, achieved through the development of a community of practice, emerged. Significance of results: Although this pilot study has limitations, the results suggest that a combined teaching and supervision program is effective in improving Clinical Nurse Specialists' confidence level in specific psychological skills. Participants' experiences highlighted suggestions for refinement and development of the program. Opportunities for further research and developments in this area are discussed. PMID:23759219

Clark, Jane E; Aitken, Susan; Watson, Nina; McVey, Joanne; Helbert, Jan; Wraith, Anita; Taylor, Vanessa; Catesby, Sarah

2013-06-13

41

Apartheid and post-apartheid intern clinical psychology training in South Africa.  

PubMed

An analysis of race and sex of clinical psychology interns was undertaken at a major training hospital complex during the Apartheid and Post-apartheid periods. 7 of 87 (8.1%) interns trained in the apartheid period were Black African. Significantly more Black Africans and women were trained during the Post-apartheid period. The results were discussed within the context of South Africa's social and political transition, as well as international trends relating to sex and professional psychology. PMID:20099528

Pillay, Anthony L

2009-12-01

42

Prevalence of psychological distress among patients at a physical therapy clinic specializing in sports medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the frequency with which patients at an orthopedic physical therapy clinic specializing in sports medicine experience clinically meaningful psychological distress, 200 consecutive patients were administered a standardized measure of psychopathology. Patients varied in terms of diagnosis, stage of rehabilitation, and level of athletic involvement. The physical therapist and athletic trainer responsible for the rehabilitation of a patient rated

Britton W. Brewer; Albert J. Petitpas; Judy L. Van Raalte; Joseph H. Sklar; Terry D. Ditmar

1995-01-01

43

Revisioning the Clinical Relationship: Heinz Kohut and the Viewpoint of Self-Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychoanalysis is undergoing rapid and remarkable changes in its basic metapsychology, theoretical reflections, and concrete, clinical interventions. Through self-psychology, Heinz Kohut's alternative views on the clinical relationship have contributed to this restructuring of psychoanalysis. Traditionally, mainstream psychoanalysis has viewed the

Masek, Robert J.

44

John N. Buck (1906-1983): did he practically establish clinical psychology in Virginia?  

PubMed

A posthumous biographical profile is presented of John N. Buck, an early clinical psychologist who gained national recognition for his diverse contributions to the field. In addition to developing the House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) Projective Technique and an array of other psychological inventories, he was instrumental in establishing clinical psychology in Virginia. Buck served on the first Examining Board for Certification of Clinical Psychologists in Virginia (and the nation) and was later its chairman. He published his research in peer-reviewed journals and presented guest lectures at respected universities. These professional achievements were quite remarkable in light of the fact that Buck was paraplegic and had no college degree and only scattered formal training in psychology. PMID:8315047

Rowe, F B; Crews, W D; Finger, F W

1993-05-01

45

Ethnic Diversity in Clinical Psychology: Recruitment and Admission Practices among Doctoral Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines graduate recruitment and admissions processes for ethnic minority students in clinical psychology by surveying graduate admissions directors. Reports that 98% of programs reported efforts to recruit minority applicants with 82% using flexible criteria when evaluating applicants; directors identified community characteristics, financial

Munoz-Dunbar, Rocio; Stanton, Annette L.

1999-01-01

46

Clinical and psychological aspects of restless legs syndrome in uremic patients on hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine relationships of the presence of RLS in uremic patients regularly undergoing hemodialysis (HD) with demographic, clinical, and psychological factors. Methods: In 490 uremic patients on HD therapy in Japan, RLS was diagnosed based on diagnostic criteria established by the International Restless

Jiro Takaki; Tadahiro Nishi; Masaomi Nangaku; Hiromi Shimoyama; Toshio Inada; Norimasa Matsuyama; Hiroaki Kumano; Tomifusa Kuboki

2003-01-01

47

White Clinical Psychology Trainees' Views on Racial Equity within Programme Selection in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of diversity in both physical and epistemological access to programmes in higher education is an important concern worldwide. In South Africa, as elsewhere, access to professional clinical psychology training programmes is extremely competitive, and there is an important imperative to diversify the student profile. Perspectives of black

Traub, Craig M.; Swartz, Leslie

2013-01-01

48

Could Peer Review Inadvertently Lead to "Educational Malpractice"? Lessons from Clinical Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that teachers should consider developments in clinical psychology toward manualized, prescriptive treatments for specific diagnoses when considering recommendations of the American Association for Higher Education for peer review and communization of teaching. Explains that peer review and communization of teaching could lead to educational

Pomerantz, Andrew M.

2000-01-01

49

Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. 2006/2007 Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now in its 2006-2007 edition, this perennial bestseller is the resource students count on for the most current information on applying to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. The Insider's Guide presents up-to-date facts on 300 accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Each program's profile includes admissions

Mayne, Tracy J.; Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.

2006-01-01

50

Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. 2004/2005 Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now in its 2004/2005 edition, this perennial bestseller is the resource students count on for the most current information on applying to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. The Insider's Guide presents up-to-date facts on nearly 300 accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Each program's profile includes admissions

Sayette, Michael A.; Mayne, Tracy J.; Norcross, John C.

2004-01-01

51

The Effects of Creating Psychological Ownership on Physicians' Acceptance of Clinical Information Systems  

PubMed Central

Objective: Motivated by the need to push further our understanding of physicians' acceptance of clinical information systems, we propose a relatively new construct, namely, psychological ownership. We situated the construct within a nomological net using a prevailing and dominant information technology adoption behavior model as a logical starting point. Design: A mail survey was sent to the population of users of a regional physician order entry (POE) system aimed at speeding up the transmission of clinical data, mainly laboratory tests and radiology examinations, within a community health network. Measurements: All scales, but one, were measured using previously validated instruments. For its part, the psychological ownership scale was developed using a multistage iterative procedure. Results: Ninety-one questionnaires were returned to the researchers, for a response rate of 72.8%. Our findings reveal that, in order to foster physicians' adoption of a clinical information system, it is important to encourage and cultivate a positive attitude toward using the new system. In this connection, positive perception of the technology's usefulness is crucial. Second, results demonstrate that psychological ownership of a POE system is positively associated with physicians' perceptions of system utility and system user friendliness. Last, through their active involvement and participation, physicians feel they have greater influence on the development process, thereby developing feelings of ownership toward the clinical system. Conclusion: Psychological ownership's highly significant associations with user participation and crucial beliefs driving technology acceptance behaviors among physicians affirm the value of this construct in extending our understanding of POE adoption.

Pare, Guy; Sicotte, Claude; Jacques, Helene

2006-01-01

52

Personality Theory: Position and Derived Teaching Implications in Clinical Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A teaching model for personality theories based on and resulting from an evaluation and theoretical position of the field is described. After a review of the problems and diversity of the field and their limiting implications, especially for the professional psychologist teaching the graduate clinical student, some of the possible reasons behind the difficulties are explained. These include diminishing emphasis

Jacob Lomranz

1986-01-01

53

Social Construction: Vistas in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore here the potentials of a social constructionist orientation to knowledge for research and clinical practice. Dialogues on social construction emphasize the communal origins of knowledge. They stress the cultural basis of knowledge claims, the significance of language, the value saturation of all knowledge, and the significance of

Gergen, Kenneth J.; Lightfoot, Cynthia; Sydow, Lisa

2004-01-01

54

Psychological interventions for terroristic trauma: prevention, crisis management, and clinical treatment strategies.  

PubMed

Terrorist attacks combine features of a criminal assault, a mass casualty disaster and an act of war Accordingly, this article presents a model for prevention, response and recovery from the psychological impact of a terror attack. The nature of terrorism is delineated and the various psychological effects are described, including diagnostic clinical syndromes, as well as individual reactions. Interventions in the immediate aftermath of a terrorist attack include on-scene crisis intervention, short-term psychological stabilization, and longer-term psychotherapeutic approaches. Special techniques are described for individuals, families, children, and large groups of survivors and responders. Finally, the ways that mental health clinicians can serve as valuable consultants to community recovery efforts are discussed. PMID:21957724

Miller, Laurence

2011-01-01

55

AMEDD Forensic Psychology Short Course: Microcomputer Use in Support of Clinical Psychology in Peace and War Time Environments Held in San Antonio, Texas on 4-8 November 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the proceedings of the 1985 AMEDD Forensic Psychology Short Course which focused on microcomputer use in support of clinical psychology in peace and wartime environments. Contents: Legal issues in computerized testing, Landmarks in co...

A. D. Mangelsdorff

1986-01-01

56

Integrating Research Into Clinical Internship Training Bridging the Science/Practice Gap in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a capstone experience; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the business of science. Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists.

Spirito, Anthony

2012-01-01

57

The end of clinical psychology as we know it? A response to Snyder and Elliott's four level matrix model.  

PubMed

C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott's proposed model (this issue, pp. 1033-1054) represents a good effort toward reexamining the premises of clinical psychology education. However, there are several concepts left underdeveloped and inadequately defined. Furthermore, their ideas for improving clinical training seem largely divorced from the model proposed. Before making propositions toward a "new clinical psychology," clarification of the constructs and model is needed to understand how it can better educate and prepare future clinical psychologists for the demands of tomorrow's marketplaces. PMID:15965943

Desrochers, Stephan; Halpern, Diane F; Tan, Sherylle J; Riggio, Heidi R

2005-09-01

58

Clinical instructors' perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment in academic nursing environments.  

PubMed

The study purpose was to explore clinical instructors' (CIs') perceptions of empowerment in academic nursing environments. Clinical instructors, often part-time faculty, facilitate learning in professional practice environments. However, they also need to function within the academic environment to learn about the curriculum and how students are to be evaluated. The qualitative description method was used to obtain an understanding of CIs' empowerment experiences and to interpret their perceptions within the frameworks of Kanter's structural empowerment and Spreitzer's psychological empowerment theories. Eight CIs from two nursing programs were interviewed for this study. The empowerment components of support and confidence were important, yet insufficient, in CIs' perceptions of their role effectiveness. An implication for CIs was slow development of confidence in their ability to facilitate student learning that was consistent with curriculum goals. Recommendations for CIs and academic faculty are offered to support and retain clinical faculty. [J Nurs Educ. 2014;53(5):265-270.]. PMID:24766066

Wiens, Sandra; Babenko-Mould, Yolanda; Iwasiw, Carroll

2014-05-01

59

Clinical use of the Kessler psychological distress scales with culturally diverse groups.  

PubMed

The Kessler 10 (K10) and embedded Kessler 6 (K6) was developed to screen for non-specific psychological distress and serious mental illness in mental health surveys of English-speaking populations, but has been adopted in Western and non-Western countries as a screening and outcome measure in primary care and mental health settings. This review examines whether the original K6/K10's validity for culturally diverse populations was established, and whether the cultural equivalence, and sensitivity to change of translated or culturally adapted K6/K10s, has been demonstrated with culturally diverse client groups. Evidence for the original K6/K10's validity for culturally diverse populations is limited. Questions about the conceptual and linguistic equivalence of translated/adapted K6/K10s arise from reports of changes in item connotation and differential item functioning. Evidence for structural equivalence is inconsistent, as is support for criterion equivalence, with the majority of studies compromising on accuracy in case prediction. Research demonstrating sensitivity to change with culturally diverse groups is lacking. Inconsistent evidence for the K6/K10's cultural appropriateness in clinical settings, and a lack of clinical norms for either majority or culturally diverse groups, indicate the importance of further research into the psychological distress construct with culturally diverse clients, and the need for caution in interpreting K6/K10 scores. Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24733815

Stolk, Yvonne; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

2014-06-01

60

[Headaches of tension: clinical-psychological variants and perspectives of therapy].  

PubMed

We examined 72 patients with headache of tension (HAT), 56 women and 16 men, aged from 18 to 45 years (mean age 32,7+/-8,5 years). Frequent HAT was diagnosed in 48 cases and chronic HAT - in 24 cases. Clinical-psychological and electroencephalographic study was conducted before and after the treatment with adaptol. The results were compared to those of the control group. This group included 30 patients treated with alprazolam. Two clinical variants of the disease were singled out: asthenic (25 patients) and anxiety (47 patients). The correctness of the identification was confirmed by electroencephalographic data. The higher efficacy of adaptol was noted in frequent HAT. During the treatment, there was the reduction of severity of cephalgia syndrome and of anxiety and asthenic scores as well, while depression scores did not change. Adaptol was more effective compared to alprazolam. PMID:20517211

Chutko, L S; Surushkina, S Iu; Nikishena, I S; Iakovenko, E A; Kuzovenkova, M P; Anisimova, T I; Rozhkova, A V; Sergeev, A V

2010-01-01

61

Clinical and psychological correlates of two domains of hopelessness in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Hopelessness is a widely observed barrier to recovery from schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Yet little is known about how clinical, social, and psychological factors independently affect hope. Additionally, the relationships that exist between these factors and different kinds of hope are unclear. To explore both issues, we correlated two aspects of hope, expectations of the future and agency, with stigma, clinical symptoms, anxiety, and coping preferences in 143 persons with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Multiple regressions revealed that hope for the future was predicted by lesser alienation, lesser preference for ignoring stressors, and lesser emotional discomfort and negative symptoms, accounting for 43% of the variance. A greater sense of agency was linked to lesser endorsement of mental illness stereotypes, fewer negative symptoms, lesser social phobia, and lesser preference for ignoring stressors, accounting for 44% of the variance. Implications for research and interventions are discussed. PMID:19009477

Lysaker, Paul H; Salyers, Michelle P; Tsai, Jack; Spurrier, Linda Yorkman; Davis, Louanne W

2008-01-01

62

Psychological Variables Potentially Implicated in Opioid-Related Mortality as Observed in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Opioid-related deaths in the United States have become a public health problem, with accidental and unintended overdoses being especially troubling. Screening for psychological risk factors is an important first step in safeguarding against nonadherence practices and identifying patients who may be vulnerable to the risks associated with opioid therapy. Validated screening instruments can aid in this attempt as a complementary tool to clinicians assessments. A structured screening is imperative as part of an assessment, as clinician judgment is not the most reliable method of identifying nonadherence. As a complement to formal screening, we present for discussion and possible future study certain psychological variables observed during years of clinical practice that may be linked to medication nonadherence and accidental overdose. These variables include catastrophizing, fear, impulsivity, attention deficit disorders, existential distress, and certain personality disorders. In our experience, chronic pain patients with dual diagnoses may become chemical copers as a way of coping with their negative emotion. For these patients, times of stress could lead to accidental overdose. Behavioral, cognitive-behavioral (acceptance and commitment, dialectical behavior), existential (meaning-centered, dignity), and psychotropic therapies have been effective in treating these high-risk comorbidities, while managing expectations of pain relief appears key to preventing accidental overdose.

Passik, Steven D.; Lowery, Amy

2014-01-01

63

American Psychological Society: Psychological Research on the Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posted by the American Psychological Society (see the May 6, 1994 Scout Report), this Website presents an extensive annotated list of psychological research currently being conducted on the Web. In addition to a new studies section, topics include health psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, personality studies, psychology and religion, sensation and perception, social psychology, neural psychology, clinical psychology, developmental psychology, cognition, emotions, and others. Links are provided to the listed Websites.

2001-01-01

64

GRE requirements and student perceptions of fictitious clinical psychology graduate programs.  

PubMed

The influence of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) requirements on undergraduate students' perceptions of a fictitious clinical psychology graduate program was examined. The more rigorous a program's GRE requirement, the more highly students were expected to rate the program on quality, reputation, challenge of curriculum, attractiveness, and their willingness to apply. 140 undergraduate participants read and rated one of three possible program descriptions that differed only with regard to the stated GRE requirements. Although the effects were small, participants rated the program requiring a minimum combined GRE score of 1,200 (verbal and quantitative) as higher in quality and as having a more challenging curriculum compared to the program that required the GRE but with no minimum score. Although preliminary, these findings are consistent with previous research demonstrating that graduate school applicants use GRE requirements in their evaluation of graduate programs. PMID:21675553

Atwood, Karen L; Manago, Adriana M; Rogers, Ronald F

2011-04-01

65

[Clinical and preventive intervention in eating behaviour: a dialogue between psychology and nutritional sciences].  

PubMed

The eating habits modification is a clinical challenge, both on therapeutic and preventive levels, which requires tools from various areas of health, such as psychology and nutrition. In the structured work in these areas, that includes the referral to specialist consultants, there is a need of a first intervention in Primary Health Care, in clinical and community levels. In this paper, we attempt to systematize useful information for intervention. We will start by reviewing some important interviewing skills, some models of motivational interviewing, and we will make a brief reflection about the client. Then we will analyse an individual case structured in two complementary levels of interpretation: a closer look in general factors and another that reflect the antecedents, consequences and the description of the behaviour problem. We will also tackle issues related to the context in which the individual moves. We will analyse some group intervention programs within a clinical and preventive perspectives. Finally, we will discuss some concepts related to therapeutic adherence. PMID:22863479

Tinoco, Rui; Paiva, Isabel

2011-12-01

66

Predictors of treatment utilisation at cognitive remediation groups for schizophrenia: The roles of neuropsychological, psychological and clinical variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study highlights the importance of carefully assessing neuropsychological functioning at the outset of cognitive remediation (CR) treatment. The effects of neuropsychological, psychological, and clinical variables on treatment utilisation (TU) in CR groups for individuals with schizophrenia were examined. Data included neuropsychological and psychosocial assessments conducted with 39 adult clients enrolled in CR as part of their ongoing outpatient

Amanda L. Gooding; Alice Saperstein; Monica Rivera Mindt; Alice Medalia

2012-01-01

67

Twenty years of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings: we hope you will enjoy the show.  

PubMed

The 20th anniversary of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings is celebrated by highlighting the scientist-practitioner philosophy on which it was founded. The goal of the Journal-to provide an outlet for evidence-based approaches to healthcare that underscore the important scientific and clinical contributions of psychology in medical settings-is discussed. The contemporary relevance of this approach is related to the current implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care and its focus on accountability and the development of an interprofessional healthcare workforce; both of which have been foci of the Journal throughout its history and will continue to be so into the future. Several recommendations of future topic areas for the Journal to highlight regarding scientific, practice, policy, and education and training in professional health service psychology are offered. Successfully addressing these topics will support the growth of the field of psychology in the ever evolving healthcare system of the future and continue ensure that the Journal is a key source of professional information in health service psychology. PMID:24492915

Rozensky, Ronald H; Tovian, Steven M; Sweet, Jerry J

2014-03-01

68

Reproductive options for prospective parents in families with Huntington's disease: clinical, psychological and ethical reflections.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative late onset disorder. This review of reproductive options aims to increase reproductive confidence and to prevent suffering in relation to family planning around HD and possibly other late onset neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS Selected relevant literature and own views and experiences as clinical geneticists, psychologists and ethicists have been used. RESULTS Possible options, with emphasis on prenatal diagnosis (PD) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to prevent the transmission of HD to the next generation, are described and discussed. They are formally presented in a decision tree, taking into account the presence or absence of a fully penetrant allele (FPA), a reduced penetrant allele (RPA) or an intermediate allele (IA). A table compares invasive and non-invasive PD and PGD. From a psychological perspective, the complex process of counselling and decision-making regarding reproductive options is discussed. Special attention is paid to the decision to avoid the transmission of the mutation and to the confrontation and coping of a mutation-free child growing up with a parent developing disease symptoms. From an ethical point of view, reflections on both PD and PGD are brought forward taking into account the difference between FPA, RPA and IA, direct testing or exclusion testing and taking into account the welfare of the child in the context of medically assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION Recommendations and suggestions for good clinical practice in the reproductive care for HD families are formulated. PMID:23377865

de Die-Smulders, C E M; de Wert, G M W R; Liebaers, I; Tibben, A; Evers-Kiebooms, G

2013-01-01

69

The Status of Psychological Testing in Clinical Psychology: Relationships Between Test Use and Professional Activities and Orientations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The occupational specializations and therapeutic orientations of clinical psychologists were related to their use and opinion of testing. The two tests clinicians considered most important to clinical practice were the Rorschach and the Thematic Apperception Test. Among the 10 most frequently recommended test, projective measures were listed 30

Wade, Terry C.; And Others

1978-01-01

70

[The correlation between the clinical characteristics and psychological status in syndrome X patients].  

PubMed

Patients with anginal symptoms and normal coronary arteries have been found to present with high levels of neuroticism i.e. anxiety, depression and somatic concerns. Whether neuroticism plays a role in precipitating coronary hypoperfusion and symptoms is still a matter of investigation. The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between psychological status and clinical symptoms in 22 patients with syndrome X (angina and ST depression with angiographically normal coronary arteries and reversible myocardial perfusion abnormalities). Neuroticism was evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Sheehan Patient Rated Anxiety Scale, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression. Data were compared with those obtained in 30 patients with stable angina as well as coronary artery disease. All patients underwent an exercise stress testing and a 24-hour ambulatory Holter monitoring. Patients with syndrome X scored significantly higher than stable angina (p < 0.05 each) on all psychological tests but STAXI. No significant differences, between syndrome X and stable angina were found in exercise stress testing parameters and during Holter monitoring. Twelve out of 22 syndrome X patients had a score > 28 in HAM-A (Group 1, with frank psychiatric abnormalities). The remaining 10 patients were labelled as Group 2. No significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 were found in exercise capacity (time to 0.1 m V ST depression: 397 +/- 73 and 419 +/- 137 s, respectively; NS) or in the number of anginal episodes per day (0.9 +/- 1.3/24 hours and 0.6 +/- 0.8/24 hours respectively; NS). In contrast, Holter monitoring showed a significantly higher number of ischemic episodes in Group 1 than in Group 2 (1.6 +/- 1.7 vs 0.1 +/- 0.3/24 hours; p < 0.02) and a greater duration of ischemia (23.8 +/- 32 vs 0.3 +/- 1 min/24 hours; p < 0.03). We conclude that: patients with syndrome X evidence elevated neuroticism scores; a high degree of anxiety correlates with increased transient myocardial ischemia during daily life; neuroticism may itself cause changes in coronary microvascular function in syndrome X. Alternatively it may simply modulate the threshold for ischemia in the presence of underlying dysfunction. PMID:8766418

Ruggeri, A; Taruschio, G; Loricchio, M L; Samory, G; Borghi, A; Bugiardini, R

1996-06-01

71

The cognitive attentional syndrome: examining relations with mood and anxiety symptoms and distinctiveness from psychological inflexibility in a clinical sample.  

PubMed

Wells's (2009) metacognitive theory suggests that inflexible and recurrent styles of thinking in response to negative thoughts, feelings, and beliefs underlie mood and anxiety symptoms. Wells termed such styles of thinking as the cognitive attentional syndrome (CAS). Using a clinical sample (N=132) of patients with either a primary mood or anxiety disorder, we examined relations between the CAS and mood (depression) and anxiety (generalized anxiety, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and panic) symptoms. We also examined the distinctiveness of the CAS from the related construct of psychological inflexibility. The CAS shared significant positive associations with all of the assessed symptoms, but appeared particularly relevant to depression and generalized anxiety symptoms. Despite having a strong significant positive correlation with psychological inflexibility, the CAS tended to share unique relations with symptoms after controlling for psychological inflexibility. These results broadly support the purported transdiagnostic importance of Wells's theory and indicate that intervention strategies targeting the CAS might be useful in treating certain disorders. PMID:23790980

Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; McGrath, Patrick B; Gier-Lonsway, Stephanie; Jencius, Simon

2013-11-30

72

Training the Trainee as Well as the Trainer: Lessons to be Learned From Clinical Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The training literature in I\\/O psychology has benefited from empirical research in experimental psychology on such subject matter as massed vs distributive practice, knowledge of results (KOR), and the transfer of learning from the training setting to the workplace. The purpose of the present paper is to argue that further advances in the field of training will occur when there

Gary P. Latham; Peter A. Heslin

2003-01-01

73

The development of a forensic clinical psychology service in a community mental health team  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides detailed psychometric data on the patients in the care of a community forensic team in south-east London. Out of 59 patients referred to the psychology service, 39 (66%) attended at least one appointment. Overall, about 42% of all psychology appointments offered were not attended. The great majority (93%) of the patients were male, typically with a history

Susan Young; Gisli H. Gudjonsson; Rachel Terry

2006-01-01

74

Clinical and psychological correlates of health-related quality of life in obese patients  

PubMed Central

Background Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is poor in obese subjects and is a relevant outcome in intervention studies. We aimed to determine factors associated with poor HRQL in obese patients seeking weight loss in medical units, outside specific research projects. Methods HRQL, together with a number of demographic and clinical parameters, was studied with generic (SF-36, PGWB) and disease-specific (ORWELL-97) questionnaires in an unselected sample of 1,886 (1,494 women; 392 men) obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) patients aged 20-65 years attending 25 medical units scattered throughout Italy. The clinics provide weight loss treatment using different programs. General psychopathology (SCL-90 questionnaire), the presence of binge eating (Binge Eating scale), previous weight cycling and somatic comorbidity (Charlson's index) were also determined. Scores on SF-36 and PGWB were compared with Italian population norms, and their association with putative determinants of HRQL after adjustment for confounders was assessed through logistic regression analysis. Results HRQL scores were significantly lower in women than in men. A greater impairment of quality of life was observed in relation to increasing BMI class, concurrent psychopathology, associated somatic diseases, binge eating, and weight cycling. In multivariate analysis, psychopathology (presence of previously-diagnosed mental disorders and/or elevated scores on SCL-90) was associated with lower HRQL scores on both psychosocial and somatic domains; somatic diseases and higher BMI, after adjustment for confounders, were associated with impairment of physical domains, while binge eating and weight cycling appeared to affect psychosocial domains only. Conclusions Psychopathological disturbances are the most relevant factors associated with poor HRQL in obese patients, affecting not only psychosocial, but also physical domains, largely independent of the severity of obesity. Psychological/psychiatric interventions are essential for a comprehensive treatment of obesity, and to improve treatment outcome and to reduce the burden of disease.

2010-01-01

75

Narcissism at the crossroads: phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis.  

PubMed

This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical theories of narcissism spanning 35 years consistently describe variations in the expression of pathological narcissism that emphasize either grandiosity or vulnerable affects and self-states. Recent research in social/personality psychology examining the structure of narcissistic personality traits consistently finds two broad factors representing Grandiosity-Exhibitionism and Vulnerability-Sensitivity-Depletion respectively. However, the majority of psychiatric criteria for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) emphasize expressions of grandiosity. By placing most of the diagnostic emphasis on overt grandiosity, DSM NPD has been limited by poor discriminant validity, modest levels of temporal stability, and the lowest prevalence rate on Axis II. Despite converging support for two phenotypic themes associated with pathological narcissism, psychiatric diagnosis and social/personality psychology research often focus only on grandiosity in the assessment of narcissism. In contrast, clinical theory struggles with a proliferation of labels describing these broad phenotypic variations. We conclude that the construct of pathological narcissism is at a crossroads and provide recommendations for diagnostic assessment, clinical conceptualization, and future research that could lead to a more integrated understanding of narcissistic personality and narcissistic personality pathology. PMID:18029072

Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Ansell, Emily B

2008-04-01

76

Forensic Psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction to forensic psychology; Psychological structure of the administration of justice; The methods of forensic psychology; Psychological fundamentals of preliminary investigation; Psychological fundamentals of court proceedings; Psycholo...

A. V. Dulov

1976-01-01

77

Federal Funds to Train Clinical Psychologists for Work with Underserved Populations: The Bureau of Health Professions Graduate Psychology Education Grants Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr) Graduate Psychology Education program (GPE), which supports projects that train health service psychologists for work with underserved populations. BHPr history and funding criteria are discussed, as are those of BHPr's parent organization, the Health Resources Service Administration. BHPr objectives and methods for support of clinical psychology training parallel those that BHPr

Gerald Leventhal; Jeff Baker; Robert P. Archer; Bradley O. Hudson

2004-01-01

78

Our rich heritage are we building upon it or destroying it? Some malign influences of clinical psychology upon psychotherapy in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of professional, political, and societal factors are explored in terms of their destructive impact on the various traditions of psychotherapy. It is argued that a homogenised and reduced discourse has resulted, paradoxically, from ostensible efforts to improve access to psychological therapies and promote evidence-based practice. Certain trends and individuals within the profession of clinical psychology have played significant

Phil Mollon

2010-01-01

79

Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research  

PubMed Central

Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility-related grief and shame among men. Few resource-constrained countries have any data concerning male experiences of infertility.

Fisher, Jane RW; Hammarberg, Karin

2012-01-01

80

Applying psychological theory to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of taking intra-oral radiographs.  

PubMed

This study applies psychological theory to the implementation of evidence-based clinical practice. The first objective was to see if variables from psychological frameworks (developed to understand, predict and influence behaviour) could predict an evidence-based clinical behaviour. The second objective was to develop a scientific rationale to design or choose an implementation intervention. Variables from the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Self-Regulation Model, Operant Conditioning, Implementation Intentions and the Precaution Adoption Process were measured, with data collection by postal survey. The primary outcome was the number of intra-oral radiographs taken per course of treatment collected from a central fee claims database. Participants were 214 Scottish General Dental Practitioners. At the theory level, the Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 13% variance in the number of radiographs taken, Social Cognitive Theory explained 7%, Operant Conditioning explained 8%, Implementation Intentions explained 11%. Self-Regulation and Stage Theory did not predict significant variance in radiographs taken. Perceived behavioural control, action planning and risk perception explained 16% of the variance in number of radiographs taken. Knowledge did not predict the number of radiographs taken. The results suggest an intervention targeting predictive psychological variables could increase the implementation of this evidence-based practice, while influencing knowledge is unlikely to do so. Measures which predicted number of radiographs taken also predicted intention to take radiographs, and intention accounted for significant variance in behaviour (adjusted R(2)=5%: F(1,166)=10.28, p<.01), suggesting intention may be a possible proxy for behavioural data when testing an intervention prior to a service-level trial. Since psychological frameworks incorporate methodologies to measure and change component variables, taking a theory-based approach enabled the creation of a methodology that can be replicated for identifying factors predictive of clinical behaviour and for the design and choice of interventions to modify practice as new evidence emerges. PMID:16843579

Bonetti, Debbie; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Glidewell, Liz; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Clarkson, Jan E; Walker, Anne

2006-10-01

81

Measures of clinical severity, quality of life, and psychological distress in patients with psoriasis: a cluster analysis.  

PubMed

The impact of psoriasis on patients' quality of life may be quite destructive, and measures of disease status alone seem to have questionable validity in describing the true burden of illness. Our aim was to study, in patients with psoriasis, the relationship between classical measures of clinical status (i.e., PASI and SAPASI) and quality-of-life indexes (i.e., Skindex-29, Dermatology Life Quality Index, Psoriasis Disability Index, Impact of Psoriasis Questionnaire). In addition, two psychological distress indexes (i.e., Psoriasis Life Stress Inventory, 12-item General Health Questionnaire) were assessed. Data were collected between February 2000 and July 2001 at the inpatient wards of the Dermatological Institute IDI-IRCCS, Rome, Italy, in the framework of a large project on clinical, epidemiologic, emotional, and quality-of-life aspects of psoriasis. A cluster analysis of all the above-mentioned instruments was conducted on 786 eligible patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of psoriasis. Correlations between instruments were also analyzed in subsets of patients based on the main variables of interest. The instruments clustered in two distinct groups, one formed by clinical severity measurements and the other grouping all the quality-of-life and psychological indexes. The correlations between instruments observed in the subgroups determined by different sociodemographic and clinical variables showed the same pattern. In conclusion, the dissimilarity between clinical severity assessment and patient-centered measures stresses the need for a more comprehensive assessment of severity of psoriasis. PMID:15086541

Sampogna, Francesca; Sera, Francesco; Abeni, Damiano

2004-03-01

82

The Social Psychology of Black-White Interracial Interactions: Implications for Culturally Competent Clinical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social psychological research suggests that because of concerns about being perceived in stereotypical ways, people may experience negative affect and diminished attention and cognitive capacity during interracial interactions. The authors discuss this research in relation to therapy and assessment and also offer practical suggestions for ensuring

Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Sweeton, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

83

Research Use of Clinical Measures for Anxiety in the Recent Psychological Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports on recent trends in the psychological research literature on the use of measures in the assessment of anxiety. An analysis of PsycINFO, from 2000-2005, showed that the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index had the highest hit rates. The results indicate that many anxiety instruments that are popular in

Piotrowski, Chris; Gallant, Natoshia

2009-01-01

84

Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (?=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (?=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (?=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (?=0.58, p<0.001, sr(2)=0.32). Together, these predictors accounted for 65% of variance in disability (R(2)=0.65 p<0.001). The current investigation revealed that neuromuscular adaptations are independent from clinical pain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:24837629

Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Pich, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

2014-08-01

85

The association of gynecological symptoms with psychological distress in women of reproductive age: a survey from gynecology clinics in Beirut, Lebanon  

PubMed Central

To date there has been no previous research into a possible association between psychological distress and gynecologic symptoms in the Arab world. We hypothesized that psychological distress would be associated with specific gynecologic complaints as well as with psychosocial factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women attending gynecology clinics in Beirut, Lebanon. The study sample consisted of 355 women aged 18 to 49 years who were seeking healthcare from gynecologists affiliated with two general teaching hospitals in Beirut. Psychological distress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Gynecologic complaints were assessed by asking women about presenting gynecologic symptoms. Women who visited the gynecologists for specific complaints, for post-surgical follow-up, or for insertion of coils or other services were more likely to be distressed than women who were attending for a general checkup (?2= 9.466, p = 0.024). About 50% of women who reported abdominal pain or breast pain also reported significant psychological distress. Only bleeding and infertility were not significantly associated with psychological distress. It is concluded that a high proportion of women who attend gynecology clinics with specific complaints report psychological distress. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the psychological component of gynecological morbidity.

Chaaya, M. M.; Bogner, H. R.; Gallo, J. J.; Leaf, P. J.

2010-01-01

86

Identification of clinically significant psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity by examining quality of life in subjects with occupational asthma  

PubMed Central

Background The Juniper Asthma Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S)) is a questionnaire that allows measurement of disease specific quality of life. We wanted to examine correlations between the (AQLQ(S)) general and different subscale scores and both psychiatric morbidity and levels of psychological distress in individuals with occupational asthma (OA) and to determine if results in the emotional function subscale allow identification of individuals with clinically significant psychological distress or current psychiatric disorders. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of individuals with OA who were assessed during a re-evaluation for permanent disability, after they were no longer exposed to the sensitizing agent. Patients underwent a general sociodemographic and medical history evaluation, a brief psychiatric interview (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, PRIME-MD) and completed a battery of questionnaires including the AQLQ(S), the St-Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and the Psychiatric Symptom Index (PSI). Results There was good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.936 for the AQLQ(S) total score) and construct validity for the AQLQ(S) (Spearman rho = -0.693 for the SGRQ symptom score and rho = -0.650 for the asthma severity score). There were medium to large correlations between the total score of the AQLQ(S) and the SGRQ symptom score (r = -.693), and PSI total (r = -.619) and subscale scores (including depression, r = -.419; anxiety, r = -.664; anger, r = -.367; cognitive disturbances, r = -.419). A cut-off of 5.1 on the AQLQ(S) emotional function subscale (where 0 = high impairment and 7 = no impairment) had the best discriminative value to distinguish individuals with or without clinically significant psychiatric distress according to the PSI, and a cut-off of 4.7 best distinguished individuals with or without a current psychiatric disorder according to the PRIME-MD. Conclusions Impaired quality of life is associated with psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in individuals with OA. Findings suggest that the AQLQ(S) questionnaire may be used to identify patients with potentially clinically significant levels of psychological distress.

2011-01-01

87

Screening for psychological distress in patients with lung cancer: results of a clinical audit evaluating the use of the patient Distress Thermometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePatients with lung cancer frequently suffer psychological distress and guidelines in the United Kingdom recommend screening\\u000a of all cancer patients for this problem. The audit investigated use of the Distress Thermometer in terms of staff adherence\\u000a to locally developed guidelines, patient willingness to use the tool, its impact on referral rates to clinical psychology\\u000a services and concordance between the tool

Johanna Lynch; Frances Goodhart; Yolande Saunders; Stephen J. OConnor

2010-01-01

88

Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas - cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope

STEPHEN J. GUASTELLO

2000-01-01

89

Psychology in Mexico  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental

Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

2011-01-01

90

Bridging neuroscience and clinical psychology: cognitive behavioral and psychophysiological models in the evaluation and treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychology have long been considered to be separate disciplines. However, the phenomenon of brain plasticity in the context of a psychological intervention highlights the mechanisms of brain compensation and requires linking both clinical cognition and cognitive psychophysiology. A quantifiable normalization of brain activity seems to be correlated with an improvement of the tic symptoms after cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). This article presents broad outlines of the state of the current literature in the field of GTS. We present our clinical research model and methodology for the integration of cognitive neuroscience in the psychological evaluation and treatment of GTS to manage chronic tic symptoms.

Lavoie, Marc E; Leclerc, Julie; O'Connor, Kieron P

2013-01-01

91

Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.  

PubMed

Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. PMID:24627990

Haslam, S Alexander

2014-03-01

92

Survivors of childhood cancer in South Australia attending a late-effects clinic: a descriptive report of psychological, cognitive, and academic late-effects.  

PubMed

This study provides a description of psychological late effects among a heterogeneous cohort of pediatric cancer survivors (N = 70) attending the South Australian Late-effects Clinic. Survivors reported more problems on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist compared to normative data but no differences in Sluggish Cognitive Tempo scores. Forty-six percent of the sample reported school difficulties, and 12% of the sample age older than 15 reported smoking. Late-effects clinics should continue to monitor psychological well-being and health behaviors. Further research is recommended to determine whether sluggish cognitive tempo is a useful concept for the assessment of survivors. PMID:24364891

Roberts, Rachel M; Robins, Tamara; Gannoni, Anne F; Tapp, Heather

2014-01-01

93

The difficulty of making psychology research and clinical practice relevant to medicine: experiences and observations.  

PubMed

Psychology and medicine research and practice have demonstrated substantial and unique bodies of knowledge designed to both improve patient care and respond to contemporary health care needs for use of evidence and cost consciousness. At their full potential they represent a significant paradigm shift in healthcare. Despite impressive successes, it is clear that we are just on the cusp of such a change. These findings have had limited impact and penetration into medical practice, particularly outside of academic medicine and large, organized systems of health care, and there are multiple examples of such limitations in various arenas of health care. There also appear to be common themes to such examples which provide us opportunities to consider how psychologists might move things ahead. They also suggest how our unique position in academic medicine can both limit our impact and provide ways of creating continued shifts in the healthcare paradigm. PMID:19104956

Kessler, Rodger

2008-03-01

94

The psychological goods on clinical social work: a content analysis of the clinical social work and social justice literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this content analysis was to evaluate the extant literature on clinical social work and social justice. In July 2009, an online search of the university databases EBSCO Host (19882009) was conducted to identify articles on clinical social work and social justice. Thirty-six peer reviewed journal articles were identified and extracted. The majority were non-empirical articles (75%) published

Tina Maschi; Judy Baer; Sandra G. Turner

2011-01-01

95

Stepped care targeting psychological distress in head and neck and lung cancer patients: a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological distress is common in cancer survivors. Although there is some evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial care in distressed cancer patients, referral rate is low. Lack of adequate screening instruments in oncology settings and insufficient availability of traditional models of psychosocial care are the main barriers. A stepped care approach has the potential to improve the efficiency of psychosocial care. The aim of the study described herein is to evaluate efficacy of a stepped care strategy targeting psychological distress in cancer survivors. Methods/design The study is designed as a randomized clinical trial with 2 treatment arms: a stepped care intervention programme versus care as usual. Patients treated for head and neck cancer (HNC) or lung cancer (LC) are screened for distress using OncoQuest, a computerized touchscreen system. After stratification for tumour (HNC vs. LC) and stage (stage I/II vs. III/IV), 176 distressed patients are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Patients in the intervention group will follow a stepped care model with 4 evidence based steps: 1. Watchful waiting, 2. Guided self-help via Internet or a booklet, 3. Problem Solving Treatment administered by a specialized nurse, and 4. Specialized psychological intervention or antidepressant medication. In the control group, patients receive care as usual which most often is a single interview or referral to specialized intervention. Primary outcome is the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Secondary outcome measures are a clinical level of depression or anxiety (CIDI), quality of life (EQ-5D, EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-HN35, QLQ-LC13), patient satisfaction with care (EORTC QLQ-PATSAT), and costs (health care utilization and work loss (TIC-P and PRODISQ modules)). Outcomes are evaluated before and after intervention and at 3, 6, 9 and 12?months after intervention. Discussion Stepped care is a system of delivering and monitoring treatments, such that effective, yet least resource-intensive, treatment is delivered to patients first. The main aim of a stepped care approach is to simplify the patient pathway, provide access to more patients and to improve patient well-being and cost reduction by directing, where appropriate, patients to low cost (self-)management before high cost specialist services. Trial registration NTR1868

2012-01-01

96

Clinical holistic medicine: a psychological theory of dependency to improve quality of life.  

PubMed

In this paper, we suggest a psychological theory of dependency as an escape from feeling existential suffering and a poor quality of life. The ways in which human beings escape hidden existential pains are multiple. The wide range of dependency states seems to be the most common escape strategy used. If the patient can be guided into the hidden existential pain to feel, understand, and integrate it, we believe that dependency can be cured. The problem is that the patient must be highly motivated, sufficiently resourceful, and supported to want such a treatment that is inherently painful. Often, the family and surrounding world is suffering more than the dependent person himself, because the pattern of behavior the patient is dependent on makes him or her rather insensitive and unable to feel. If the patient is motivated, resourceful, and trusts his physician, recovery from even a severe state of dependency is not out of reach, if the holistic medical tools are applied wisely. The patient must find hidden resources to take action, then in therapy confront and feel old emotional pain, understand the source and inner logic of it, and finally learn to let go of negative attitudes and beliefs. In this way, the person can be healed and released of the emotional suffering and no longer be a slave to the dependency pattern. PMID:15349506

Ventegodt, Soren; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

2004-08-13

97

Observing Interpersonal Reasoning in a Clinic/Educational Setting: Toward the Integration of Developmental and Clinical-Child Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an on-going study in which clinical research techniques are used to examine children's social cognition and its development. The study focuses on the relation between subjects' verbally expressed reasoning about social issues in two situations: during interview sessions and in natural life settings. Subjects for the study are

Selman, Robert L.; And Others

98

Childhood Developmental Disorders: An Academic and Clinical Convergence Point for Psychiatry, Neurology, Psychology and Pediatrics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Significant advances in understanding brain development and behavior have not been accompanied by revisions of traditional academic structure. Disciplinary isolation and a lack of meaningful interdisciplinary opportunities are persistent barriers in academic medicine. To enhance clinical practice, research, and training for the next

Reiss, Allan L.

2009-01-01

99

Wedding the Public Health and Clinical Psychological Perspectives as a Prevention Scientist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author elaborated on his principles and theoretical perspectives as a clinical psychologist and mental health prevention researcher after 12 years of working in a school of public health. Described are principles and perspectives, which represent an integration of the life-course developmental, public health, community epidemiologic, and experimental trials perspectives. Readers are given examples from his own research, as well

Nick Ialongo

2002-01-01

100

Handbook of Cross-Cultural and Multicultural Personality Assessment. Personality and Clinical Psychology Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers includes: (1) "An Assessment-Intervention Model for Research and Practice with Multicultural Populations" (Richard H. Dana); (2) "An Africentric Perspective for Clinical Research and Practice" (Edward F. Morris); (3) "Myths about the Null Hypothesis and the Path to Reform" (Robert G. Malgady); (4) "A Construct-Based

Dana, Richard H., Ed.

101

13 Communication and Experience in Clinical Psychology and Neurorehabilitation: The Use of Virtual Reality Driving Simulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual reality (VR) driving simulators may be used as an aid to traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of a variety of driving- related disorders. In recent years there has been a heightened interest among researchers and clinicians in using VR technology to address a wide range of driving-related issues. Clinical applications include specific driving phobias, driving phobias related to

Brenda K. WIEDERHOLD; Mark D. WIEDERHOLD

102

General Exposure to Aging in Clinical and Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1992 an APA inter-divisional task force identified three levels of competency for professional practice with older adults: Exposure, Experience, and Expertise. It was recommended that all generalist programs provide their students with at least the first level of competency. However, most enter the field with little-to-no academic or clinical

Olthoff, Jacqueline K.

2010-01-01

103

Sexual dysfunction in pre-menopausal diabetic women: clinical, metabolic, psychological, cardiovascular, and neurophysiologic correlates.  

PubMed

An increased prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) has been reported in women with diabetes mellitus (DM). Our aim was to evaluate correlates (psychological, cardiovascular, and neurophysiologic) of FSD in DM women without chronic diabetic complications. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Michigan Diabetic Neuropathy Index (DNI), and the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy (SDN) questionnaires, metabolic variables, endothelial vascular function (flow-mediated dilation, FMD), echocardiography, and electromyography were studied. 109 pre-menopausal women (18-50 years) [48 with DM (14 type 1 DM, 34 type 2 DM, duration 12.6 1.91 years), and 61 healthy women] received the above questionnaires; physical activity, smoking habits, parity, BMI, waist circumference, HOMA-IR index, fibrinogen, cholesterol (total, HDL, LDL), triglycerides, HbA1c, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, total testosterone, and estradiol were measured; echocardiography, assessment of intima-media thickness (IMT), FMD, ECG (heart rate and Qtc, indexes of sympathetic activity), and electromyography were performed. FSFI total score and score for arousal, lubrication, and orgasm domains were lower in DM women than in controls (P < 0.05); DM women had higher BDI, Doppler A wave peak velocity, DNI, and SDN score (P < 0.001 to P < 0.04). Doppler E wave peak velocity, peroneal, posterior tibial and sural nerves conduction velocity and amplitude were lower in diabetic women than in controls (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). FSFI score was positively correlated with physical activity, Doppler E wave peak velocity, and peroneal nerve amplitude and negatively with BDI, parity, IMT, SDN, and HbA1c (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). At stepwise regression, SDN score (negatively) and Doppler E wave peak velocity (positively) predicted FSFI score (r = 507, P < 0.001). In conclusion, cardiovascular and neurological impairments are associated with FSD in diabetic women. Follow-up studies are required to evaluate sexual dysfunction as a risk factor for future cardiovascular or neurological events. PMID:23677545

Cortelazzi, Donatella; Marconi, Annamaria; Guazzi, Marco; Cristina, Maurizio; Zecchini, Barbara; Veronelli, Annamaria; Cattalini, Claudio; Innocenti, Alessandro; Bosco, Giovanna; Pontiroli, Antonio E

2013-12-01

104

Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour and so provide possible targets for knowledge translation interventions. Results suggest that more evidence-based behaviour may be achieved by influencing beliefs about the positive outcomes of placing fissure sealants and building a habit of placing them as part of patient management. However a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain.

2010-01-01

105

Applications of Generalizability Theory to Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Research  

PubMed Central

Using generalizability theory to evaluate the reliability of child and adolescent measures enables researchers to enhance precision of measurement and consequently increase confidence in research findings. With an observer-rated measure of child self-regulation, we illustrate how multiple sources of error variance (e.g., raters, items) affect the dependability (replicability) of scores and demonstrate methods for enhancing dependability of observer ratings. Using ratings of 181 children, we illustrate the use of two-facet (i.e., raters and items as sources of error) and three-facet (i.e., raters, items and occasions) analyses to optimize design features of future studies using this measure. In addition, we show how generalizability theory provides a useful conceptual framework for thinking about determinants of scores on acquaintance (e.g., teacher or parent) ratings, as well as observer ratings, and sheds light on the strengths and limitations of both types of data for child and adolescent clinical research.

Lakes, Kimberley D.; Hoyt, William T.

2013-01-01

106

A case study of amnion rupture sequence with acalvaria, blindness, and clefting: clinical and psychological profiles.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to report the case of a 10-year-old girl born with anophthalmia, bilateral oblique facial clefts, and missing scalp and bones over the temporal and parietal areas of the cranial vault bilaterally. Early amnion rupture seems to be the most probable cause of this rare combination of anomalies. Because no similar case has been reported in the literature so far, we describe here the clinical and psychosocial history of this unusual patient, who has been able to live the intellectually and socially normal life of a blind child in spite of the major craniofacial deformities. The already completed and possible future therapeutic strategies are discussed. PMID:15167227

Hukki, Jyri; Balan, Polina; Ceponiene, Rita; Kantola-Sorsa, Elina; Saarinen, Pia; Wikstrom, Heidi

2004-03-01

107

Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the

Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

2013-01-01

108

The Representation of Applied Psychology Areas in Introductory Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many psychology majors indicate helping others as a reason for majoring in psychology, yet many enter positions not closely related to the field. This discrepancy may be due to a lack of student knowledge of the applied areas of psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coverage of clinical, counseling,

Haselhuhn, Charlotte W.; Clopton, Kerri L.

2008-01-01

109

Senior house officers' work related stressors, psychological distress, and confidence in performing clinical tasks in accident and emergency: a questionnaire study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between accident and emergency senior house officers' psychological distress and confidence in performing clinical tasks and to describe work related stressors. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey with data collected at four points during senior house officers' six month attachment to accident and emergency departments. SUBJECTS: 171 newly appointed accident and emergency senior house officers from 27 hospitals in the South Thames region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychological distress measured with a 25 item questionnaire; confidence in performing a range of 35 clinical and practical activities (visual analogue scales); reported consultation stress factors, other work related stressors, and personal stressors. RESULTS: Overall confidence scores in carrying out a range of clinical and practical activities increased significantly between the end of the first and the end of the fourth month (Z = -6.05, P < 0.001). Senior house officers with higher psychological distress scores at the end of their first and fourth month had significantly lower confidence scores (Z = -3.20, P < 0.001; Z = -1.90, P < 0.05). Senior house officers with lower increases in confidence between the first and fourth month had significantly higher distress than those with greater increases (Z = -2.62, P < 0.001). Factors identified as causing stress during consultations included difficulties with communication, certain clinical presentations, and department organisational factors (particularly the intensity of workload). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress is linked to confidence in senior house officers. This supports the need to monitor and build confidence in senior house officers and to address work related stressors. Additional communication skills training needs to be considered.

Williams, S.; Dale, J.; Glucksman, E.; Wellesley, A.

1997-01-01

110

American Psychological Society: Teaching Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers of psychology looking for high-quality resources to augment their students' classroom experience need look no further than this collection of online materials. Compiled by the American Psychological Society, the links are divided into topical sections that include health psychology, statistics, clinical psychology, research methods, and a dozen other topics. Visitors to the site will find links that lead to course materials for an introductory class on physiological psychology and a set of materials on educational psychology from Miami University. Finally, the site is rounded out by a very extensive section on statistics, including links to several online statistics glossaries and calculators.

111

Exploring differential item functioning in the SF-36 by demographic, clinical, psychological and social factors in an osteoarthritis population  

PubMed Central

Background The SF-36 is a very commonly used generic measure of health outcome in osteoarthritis (OA). An important, but frequently overlooked, aspect of validating health outcome measures is to establish if items work in the same way across subgroup of a population. That is, if respondents have the same true level of outcome, does the item give the same score in different subgroups or is it biased towards one subgroup or another. Differential item functioning (DIF) can identify items that may be biased for one group or another and has been applied to measuring patient reported outcomes. Items may show DIF for different conditions and between cultures, however the SF-36 has not been specifically examined in an osteoarthritis population nor in a UK population. Hence, the aim of the study was to apply the DIF method to the SF-36 for a UK OA population. Methods The sample comprised a community sample of 763 people with OA who participated in the Somerset and Avon Survey of Health. The SF-36 was explored for DIF with respect to demographic, social, clinical and psychological factors. Well developed ordinal regression models were used to identify DIF items. Results DIF items were found by age (6 items), employment status (6 items), social class (2 items), mood (2 items), hip v knee (2 items), social deprivation (1 item) and body mass index (1 item). Although the impact of the DIF items rarely had a significant effect on the conclusions of group comparisons, in most cases there was a significant change in effect size. Conclusions Overall, the SF-36 performed well with only a small number of DIF items identified, a reassuring finding in view of the frequent use of the SF-36 in OA. Nevertheless, where DIF items were identified it would be advisable to analyse data taking account of DIF items, especially when age effects are the focus of interest.

2013-01-01

112

Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers

Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

113

Psychologic outcomes in implant prosthodontics.  

PubMed

Consensus regarding outcomes of the treatment of tooth loss, especially the psychologic outcomes, is needed to guide discovery of best practices and enable a better understanding of patient management for this chronic condition. This paper presents the findings of the ORONet Psychological Working Group for prosthodontics and aims to identify psychologic outcomes with properties deemed critical to meet clinical trial and clinical practice needs for the future. References obtained using a PubMed/Medline search were reviewed for clinical outcomes measures of interest. Clinical outcomes measures were judged relative to the criteria of truth, discrimination, and feasibility. Of the psychologic outcome measures identified in this systematic review, only the OHIP-14 was thought to be suitable for use in general practice and multi-institutional outcome registries and clinical trials. Development of clinically useful psychologic outcomes for future use could benefit from developmental methods and tools outlined in the patient-related outcomes field of clinical care. PMID:23998140

Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W; Garrett, Neal R; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J; Stanford, Clark M; Wolfaardt, Johan

2013-01-01

114

The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

2013-01-01

115

Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in tuberculosis patients in public primary care clinics in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB) patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa, where over 60?% of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV. Methods We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10), and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Using a cut off score of ?28 and ?16 on the K-10, 32.9?% and 81?% of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR?=?1.52; 95?% CI?=?1.24-1.85), lower formal education (OR?=?0.77; 95?% CI?=?0.65-0.91), poverty (OR?=?1.90; 95?% CI?=?1.57-2.31) and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR?=?0.74; 95?% CI?=?0.62-0.87) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ?28), and older age (OR?=?1.30; 95?% CI?=?1.00-1.69), lower formal education (OR?=?0.55; 95?% CI?=?0.42-0.71), poverty (OR?=?2.02; 95?% CI?=?1.50-2.70) and being HIV positive (OR?=?1.44; 95?% CI?=?1.19-1.74) were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ?16). In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use) and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not associated with psychological distress. Conclusions The study found high rates of psychological distress among tuberculosis patients. Improved training of providers in screening for psychological distress, appropriate referral to relevant health practitioners and providing comprehensive treatment for patients with TB who are co-infected with HIV is essential to improve their health outcomes. It is also important that structural interventions are promoted in order to improve the financial status of this group of patients.

2012-01-01

116

Lost in translation: The need for clinically relevant research on psychological interventions for distress in cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two sides in the current debate have engaged in a spirited and illuminating discussion of the current status of research on psychological interventions for distress in cancer patients. As would be expected, each side makes compelling arguments in favor of its position and identifies key weaknesses in the other sides position. More important, the audience benefits from the insightful

Paul B. Jacobsen

2006-01-01

117

Effects of Mindfulness-Based versus Interpersonal Process Group Intervention on Psychological Well-Being with a Clinical University Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety,

Byrne, Ciara; Bond, Lynne A.; London, Miv

2013-01-01

118

Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Brigham, J., & Grisso, T. (2003). Forensic Psychology. In D.K. Friedheim & I.B. Weiner (eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology. Vol. 1: The history of psychology, (pp. 391-411). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471383201, 9780471383208.\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.

John C. Brigham; Thomas Grisso

2003-01-01

119

[Clinical, psychological and psychosocial factors in spontaneous and recurrent or habitual abortion. Results of a pilot study].  

PubMed

In a pilotstudy about medical, psychological and psychosocial factors in spontaneous and recurrent spontaneous abortions 47 women were investigated. 26 of them had one, 14 tow and 7 three or more recurrent spontaneous abortions. Etiologic factors were unknown in about 90% of the cases. Illnesses observed were allergies, thyroid diseases and infections. An influence of social and psychosocial factors could not be proved in our sample. Psychological relevant factors were higher levels of fear and depressive and evasive coping strategies in pregnancy. Certain personality traits (vulnerability, nervousness and tendency to psychosomatic reactions) were found in women with three or more recurrent abortions. All patients showed depressive reactions to pregnancy loss. In a further investigation well defined subgroups of patients shall be compared. The results can serve as guidelines in pregnancy counselling. PMID:3223117

Lpple, M; Krumbacher, K

1988-01-01

120

Psychological facts and psychological theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological facts and their place in psychological theory are described. The future of facts and theory in the development of psychology as a science is discussed. Theory must be produced, amended, and used continuously to guide the collection of fact. The rules of science must be observed.

E. R. Guthrie

1946-01-01

121

20 CFR 416.1016 - Medical or psychological consultants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices...2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution...

2010-04-01

122

20 CFR 404.1616 - Medical or psychological consultants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices...2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution...

2009-04-01

123

20 CFR 416.1016 - Medical or psychological consultants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices...2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution...

2009-04-01

124

20 CFR 404.1616 - Medical or psychological consultants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices...2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution...

2013-04-01

125

20 CFR 416.1016 - Medical or psychological consultants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices...2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution...

2013-04-01

126

20 CFR 404.1616 - Medical or psychological consultants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices...2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution...

2010-04-01

127

Psychology in Spain: Its Historical and Cultural Roots, Instruction, Research and Future Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roots in Spanish Psychology dated back to Huarte de San Juan (1575). From this period to nowadays, Psychology has notably developed, branching in different areas such as psychology and sports and physical exercise, clinical and health psychology, educational psychology, psychology of social intervention, legal psychology, work and organisational

Montes-Berges, Beatriz; Aranda, Maria; Castillo-Mayen, Maria del Rosario

2011-01-01

128

Psychology of Military Groups.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Ideology and social psychology: The subject of social psychology; Interdependence of ideology and social psychology; Class and national features of social psychology; Basic elements of social psychology. Study of the psychology of a military gro...

A. Campbell E. Fortunatov

1968-01-01

129

Study protocol: a dissemination trial of computerized psychological treatment for depression and alcohol/other drug use comorbidity in an Australian clinical service  

PubMed Central

Background The rise of the internet and related technologies has significant implications for the treatment of complex health problems, including the combination of depression and alcohol/other drug (AOD) misuse. To date, no research exists to test the real world uptake of internet and computer-delivered treatment programs in clinical practice. This study is important, as it is the first to examine the adoption of the SHADE treatment program, a DVD-based psychological treatment for depression and AOD use comorbidity, by clinicians working in a publicly-funded AOD clinical service. The study protocol that follows describes the methodology of this dissemination trial. Methods/design 19 clinicians within an AOD service on the Central Coast of New South Wales, Australia, will be recruited to the trial. Consenting clinicians will participate in a baseline focus group discussion designed to explore their experiences and perceived barriers to adopting innovation in their clinical practice. Computer comfort and openness to innovation will also be assessed. Throughout the trial, current, new and wait-list clients will be referred to the research program via the clinical service, which will involve clients completing a baseline and 15-week follow-up clinical assessment with independent research assistants, comprising a range of mental health and AOD measures. Clinicians will also complete session checklists following each clinical session with a client, outlining the extent to which the SHADE computer program was used. Therapeutic alliance will be measured at intake and discharge from both the clinician and client perspectives. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the factors associated with the adoption of an innovative, computer-delivered evidence-based treatment program, SHADE, by clinicians working in an AOD service. The results will contribute to the development of a model of dissemination of SHADE, which could be applied to a range of technological innovations. Clinical trials registry Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976.

2012-01-01

130

Psychological Interventions in Dermatology  

PubMed Central

The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctorpatient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive regard. At the second tier, however, based on the clinical interview, some patients may require varying degrees of psychological change in order to better manage their illness. In such a context, a dermatologist with training in psychotherapy would be required. In the absence of such a person, the patient may be referred to a psychologist or another mental health professional trained in psychotherapy.

de Zoysa, Piyanjali

2013-01-01

131

[Political psychology].  

PubMed

In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis--vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

Resch, Mria; Bella, Tams

2013-04-21

132

Psychological models of mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different psychological models are reviewed for both unipolar depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The psychological models are useful to understand and plan care. They have been developed into effective clinical interventions, although all of them have some limitations and none of them is suitable for every patient. The most useful general model of cognitive behaviour therapy is probably the Five

Richard Morriss

2009-01-01

133

An investigation of the clinical use of the house-tree-person projective drawings in the psychological evaluation of child sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Identification and evaluation of child sexual abuse is an integral task for clinicians. To aid these processes, it is necessary to have reliable and valid psychological measures. This is an investigation of the clinical validity and use of the House-Tree-Person (HTP) projective drawing, a widely used diagnostic tool, in the assessment of child sexual abuse. HTP drawings were collected archivally from a sample of sexually abused children (n = 47) and a nonabused comparison sample (n = 82). The two samples were grossly matched for gender, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status. The protocols were scored using a quantitative scoring system. The data were analyzed using a discriminant function analysis. Group membership could not be predicted based on a total HTP score. PMID:11232089

Palmer, L; Farrar, A R; Valle, M; Ghahary, N; Panella, M; DeGraw, D

2000-05-01

134

Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of primary care physicians in Scotland and north England. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (referral rates for lumbar spine x-rays), behavioural simulation (lumbar spine x-ray referral decisions based upon scenarios), and behavioural intention (general intention to refer for lumbar spine x-rays in patients with low back pain). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Weinstein's Stage Model termed the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP), and knowledge. For each of the outcome measures, a generalised linear model was used to examine the predictive value of each theory individually. Linear regression was used for the intention and simulation outcomes, and negative binomial regression was used for the behaviour outcome. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross-theoretical construct' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all individual constructs across theories. Results Constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT predicted behaviour; however, the theoretical models did not fit the data well. When predicting behavioural simulation, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 11.6%, SCT 12.1%, OLT 8.1%, and II 1.5% of the variance, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, CS-SRM and II explained 16.5% of the variance in simulated behaviours. When predicting intention, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 25.0%, SCT 21.5%, CS-SRM 11.3%, OLT 26.3%, PAP 2.6%, and knowledge 2.3%, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT explained 33.5% variance in intention. Together these results suggest that physicians' beliefs about consequences and beliefs about capabilities are likely determinants of lumbar spine x-ray referrals. Conclusions The study provides evidence that taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain.

2011-01-01

135

Psychology and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the historical development of Canadian medicare and its significant influence on shaping not only the clinical services provided within Canada's public health care system but also its major impact on the nation's overall health research agenda. Particular emphasis is placed on how this has influenced the development and role of psychology in the public health care system.

John L. Arnett

2006-01-01

136

Amateur Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comments on a recent article in The Reporter (Feb. 16, 1962), where Marya Mannes, a staff writer of this publication, praises Joyce Brothers for her ability to answer complex psychological problems in simple language \\

W. G. Eliasberg

1962-01-01

137

Psychological Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Unmet Needs IBS and Holidays Personal Stories IBS Awareness Month The Art of IBS Mobile App Who We Are Contact Us Donate Psychological ... ... | Privacy & Security | Terms of Use | Site Map | Help | Free Info ...

138

Test Reviews: Bracken, B. A., & Howell, K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Depression." Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors review the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD), a 50-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms designed for children, adolescents, adults, and elderly adults from 8 to 79 years of age. Purporting to be sensitive to depressive symptomatology across the lifespan, the test items were written to reflect the

Aghakhani, Anoosha; Chan, Eric K.

2007-01-01

139

Substance misuse in depression and bipolar disorder: a review of psychological interventions and considerations for clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has documented high levels of co-morbidity between mental illness and substance misuse. This essay explores clinical practice issues relating to dual diagnosis substance misuse in bipolar disorder and depression. Such misuse is common in this population, and presents a number of challenges to clinicians. Those with substance misuse have more severe symptoms and an increased risk of relapse. Assessment

Thomas H. Richardson

2012-01-01

140

Test Review: Bracken, B. A., & Keith, L. K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Behavior." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB) is designed to assess both adaptive and problematic behaviors of children and adolescents from age 2 to 18 years. It can be individually or group administered, measures behaviors in different contexts, and includes both parent and teacher forms. The test was developed to be consistent with current

Beran, Tanya N.

2006-01-01

141

Measures of Clinical Severity, Quality of Life, and Psychological Distress in Patients with Psoriasis: A Cluster Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of psoriasis on patients' quality of life may be quite destructive, and measures of disease status alone seem to have questionable validity in describing the true burden of illness. Our aim was to study, in patients with psoriasis, the relationship between classical measures of clinical status (i.e., PASI and SAPASI) and quality-of-life indexes (i.e., Skindex-29, Dermatology Life Quality

Francesca Sampogna; Francesco Sera; Damiano Abeni

2004-01-01

142

A Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the Use of 3-D Virtual Worlds in Clinical Psychology  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present paper is to describe the role played by three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds in eHealth applications, addressing some potential advantages and issues related to the use of this emerging medium in clinical practice. Due to the enormous diffusion of the World Wide Web (WWW), telepsychology, and telehealth in general, have become accepted and validated methods for the treatment of many different health care concerns. The introduction of the Web 2.0 has facilitated the development of new forms of collaborative interaction between multiple users based on 3-D virtual worlds. This paper describes the development and implementation of a form of tailored immersive e-therapy called p-health whose key factor is interreality, that is, the creation of a hybrid augmented experience merging physical and virtual worlds. We suggest that compared with conventional telehealth applications such as emails, chat, and videoconferences, the interaction between real and 3-D virtual worlds may convey greater feelings of presence, facilitate the clinical communication process, positively influence group processes and cohesiveness in group-based therapies, and foster higher levels of interpersonal trust between therapists and patients. However, challenges related to the potentially addictive nature of such virtual worlds and questions related to privacy and personal safety will also be discussed.

Gaggioli, Andrea; Vigna, Cinzia; Riva, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

143

A Clinical-EEG Study of Sleepiness and Psychological Symptoms in Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy Patients Treated with Lacosamide  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to evaluate the EEG and clinical modifications induced by the new antiepileptic drug lacosamide (LCM) in patients with epilepsy. We evaluated 10 patients affected by focal pharmacoresistant epilepsy in which LCM (mean 250?mg/day) was added to the preexisting antiepileptic therapy, which was left unmodified. Morning waking EEG recording was performed before (t0) and at 6 months (t1) after starting LCM. At t0 and t1, patients were also administered questionnaires evaluating mood, anxiety, sleep, sleepiness, and fatigue (Beck Depression Inventory; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y1 and Y2; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Epworth Sleepiness Scale; Fatigue Severity Scale). We performed a quantitative analysis of EEG interictal abnormalities and background EEG power spectrum analysis. LCM as an add-on did not significantly affect anxiety, depression, sleepiness, sleep quality, and fatigue scales. Similarly, adding LCM to preexisting therapy did not modify significantly patient EEGs in terms of absolute power, relative power, mean frequency, and interictal abnormalities occurrence. In conclusion, in this small cohort of patients, we confirmed that LCM as an add-on does not affect subjective parameters which play a role, among others, in therapy tolerability, and our clinical impression was further supported by evaluation of EEG spectral analysis.

Giorgi, Filippo S.; Pizzanelli, Chiara; Pelliccia, Veronica; Di Coscio, Elisa; Maestri, Michelangelo; Iacopini, Elena; Iudice, Alfonso; Bonanni, Enrica

2013-01-01

144

Counseling Psychology in Israel: Successful Accomplishments of a Nonexistent Specialty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the status of counseling psychology in Israel in the context of its unique characteristics. Despite the respected status of psychology as a profession in Israel and its overall acceptance and involvement in numerous social issues, counseling psychology as a separate specialty is nonexistent, especially because of resistance to the clinical psychology specialty. In addition to general subjects

Azy Barak; G. Golan

2000-01-01

145

Stanford Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A host of online educational initiatives during the past few years have brought lectures from all over the world into the homes into many persons who may not have access to such programs in their own local communities. One such website brings the insights and collected knowledge of various members of Stanford University's renowned psychology department to the Internet-browsing public. The lectures address such topics as the psychology of evil, the role of parents in their children's lives, and the role of personal and collective efficacy. Along with these individual talks presented by various members of the psychology faculty, there are several nice panel sessions on the nature of language and the cultural shaping of emotion. Finally, the site also contains the lively question-and-answer sessions that followed each panel session.

146

Social and psychological factors in the distribution of STD in male clinic attenders. I Demographic and social factors.  

PubMed Central

We describe three related studies of possible aetiological risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in men attending an STD clinic. In this paper we present the results for a variety of social and demographic variables traditionally associated with STD. In contrast to the results in the next two papers, these were largely negative. Occurrence rates of overall STD or of hepatitis, syphilis, gonorrhoea, or non-specific urethritis (NSU) had no aetiologically relevant association with age, nationality, marital status, social class, occupation, non-sexual social contact, drug abuse, or aggressive attitudes and behaviour. Gonorrhoea, however, was the only STD which correlated with alcohol abuse and with eating out rather than at home. We conclude that, with the possible exception of gonorrhoea, social factors contribute little to the distribution of STD risk within the study population.

Fulford, K W; Catterall, R D; Hoinville, E; Lim, K S; Wilson, G D

1983-01-01

147

Psychological and psychosexual aspects of vulvar vestibulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To objectively assess the psychological and psychosexual morbidity of patients with vulvar vestibulitis. METHODS: 30 patients with variable degrees of vulvar vestibulitis were recruited from a vulval clinic. Each patient underwent a detailed history and clinical examination. Friedrich's criteria were used for the diagnosis of vulvar vestibulitis. Standardised questionnaires to assess psychological and psychosexual function were completed by the

D Nunns; D Mandal

1997-01-01

148

Black Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William

Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

149

Psychological Trivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses trivia related to the history of psychology (with many fun examples such as: What are the names of Pavlov's original dogs?) and the relationship of this game to students learning how to use library resources (in attempts to answer such trivia questions), as well as the relevance of such knowledge.

Robert S. Harper

1970-01-01

150

Adult Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,

Bischof, Ledford J.

151

Space psychology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

1974-01-01

152

Family-based associations in measures of psychological distress and quality of life in a cardiac screening clinic for inheritable cardiac diseases: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Family-based cardiac screening programmes for persons at risk for genetic cardiac diseases are now recommended. However, the psychological wellbeing and health related quality of life (QoL) of such screened patients is poorly understood, especially in younger patients. We sought to examine wellbeing and QoL in a representative group of adults aged 16 and over in a dedicated family cardiac screening clinic. Methods Prospective survey of consecutive consenting patients attending a cardiac screening clinic, over a 12 month period. Data were collected using two health measurement tools: the Short Form 12 (version 2) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), along with baseline demographic and screening visit-related data. The HADS and SF-12v.2 outcomes were compared by age group. Associations with a higher HADS score were examined using logistic regression, with multi-level modelling used to account for the family-based structure of the data. Results There was a study response rate of 86.6%, with n=334 patients providing valid HADS data (valid response rate 79.5%), and data on n=316 retained for analysis. One-fifth of patients were aged under 25 (n=61). Younger patients were less likely than older to describe significant depression on their HADS scale (p<0.0001), although there were overall no difference between the prevalence of a significant HADS score between the younger and older age groups (18.0% vs 20.0%, p=0.73). Significant positive associates of a higher HADS score were having lower educational attainment, being single or separated, and being closely related to the family proband. Between-family variance in anxiety and depression scores was greater than within-family variance. Conclusions High levels of anxiety were seen amongst patients attending a family-based cardiac screening clinic.Younger patients also had high rates of clinically significant anxiety. Higher levels of anxiety and depression tends to run in families, and this has implications for family screening and intervention programmes.

2013-01-01

153

School Psychology Research and Scholarship: USA Status, International Explorations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses questions regarding research in school psychology by coding all of the articles published from 1994-1998 in the main USA school psychology journals and in "School Psychology International." Assessment-related topics and research on clinical/personality issues dominated the USA literature, while clinical/personality and professional

Strein, William; Cramer, Katurah; Lawser, Matthew

2003-01-01

154

HISTORICALLY GROUNDING THE PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY: Implications for Professional Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author explores 3 ways the history of psychology can be made relevant to professional training in clinical psychology. Focusing on the practitioner-scholar model of clinical professional training, he argues that 3 central facets of historical understanding can be wedded to existing goals of professional training: (a) providing an interdisciplinary context for psychology, (b) addressing concerns about humans in the

Trey Buchanan

2002-01-01

155

The psychological effects of vasectomy for American men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed evidence concerning the psychological effects of vasectomy for American men. Surveys of postoperative sexual behavior and satisfaction and/or happiness were cited, as were data from studies employing clinical interviews and/or psychological tests. (Author/SB)

Bloom, Larry J.; Houston, B. Kent

1976-01-01

156

Psychological aspects of spontaneous and recurrent abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous abortion is common in early pregnancy, whilst recurrent miscarriage is relatively rare. Empirical studies of psychological sequellae of spontaneous abortions are limited, but strongly suggest that a significant number of women who miscarry, experience grief and various degrees of clinically-significant depression and anxiety. Depression is more common amongst women with recurrent abortions. Contributory factors for the development of psychological

D. Bagchi; T. Friedman

1999-01-01

157

Psychological associations with emotionalism after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological associations with emotionalism were examined, 1 month after stroke, in 448 stroke survivors who met inclusion criteria for a randomised trial of psychological treatment. One hundred and one (21.5%) patients had emotionalism. Thirty eight (38%) of those with emotionalism had a clinically significant mood disorder, compared with 64 of 347 (18%) of those without emotionalism. Emotionalism was associated

Tig Calvert; Peter Knapp; Allan House

1998-01-01

158

Competencies for psychology practice in primary care.  

PubMed

This article reports on the outcome of a presidential initiative of 2012 American Psychological Association President Suzanne Bennett Johnson to delineate competencies for primary care (PC) psychology in six broad domains: science, systems, professionalism, relationships, application, and education. Essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes are described for each PC psychology competency. Two behavioral examples are provided to illustrate each competency. Clinical vignettes demonstrate the competencies in action. Delineation of these competencies is intended to inform education, practice, and research in PC psychology and efforts to further develop team-based competencies in PC. PMID:24820690

McDaniel, Susan H; Grus, Catherine L; Cubic, Barbara A; Hunter, Christopher L; Kearney, Lisa K; Schuman, Catherine C; Karel, Michele J; Kessler, Rodger S; Larkin, Kevin T; McCutcheon, Stephen; Miller, Benjamin F; Nash, Justin; Qualls, Sara H; Connolly, Kathryn Sanders; Stancin, Terry; Stanton, Annette L; Sturm, Lynne A; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

2014-01-01

159

Sport Psychology in the Profession of Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, sport psychology has been identified with physical education; however, recent developments in the field toward applied issues have substantially expanded psychologists' interests and opportunities. Unfortunately, little is known about professional psychologists' involvement in sport psychology practice, research, and training. Therefore, a national survey of 500 male and 500 female psychologists (American Psychological Association Division 12members) was conducted. Based on

Trent A. Petrie; Nancy S. Diehl

1995-01-01

160

Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics

Zucchero, Renee' A.

2011-01-01

161

Health Psychology and Public Policy: The Political Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 20 years, psychologists have successfully modified federal statutes, resulting in recognition of the professions clinical and research expertise. Despite these successes, professional psychologys training institutions have largely failed to address basic issues in health policy and the implications of national health policy for psychology. The importance of public health programs under Title VII of the Public Health

Patrick H. DeLeon; Robert G. Frank; Danny Wedding

1995-01-01

162

The State of the Psychology Health Service Provider Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of

Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.

2011-01-01

163

Introduction to Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of

Edwards, Lesley

164

Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural

Cheung, Fanny M.

2012-01-01

165

Clinical effectiveness of health visitor training in psychologically informed approaches for depression in postnatal women: pragmatic cluster randomised trial in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate benefits for postnatal women of two psychologically informed interventions by health visitors.Design Prospective cluster trial randomised by general practice, with 18 month follow-up.Setting 101 general practices in Trent, England.Participants 2749 women allocated to intervention, 1335 to control.Intervention Health visitors (n=89 63 clusters) were trained to identify depressive symptoms at six to eight weeks postnatally using the Edinburgh

C Jane Morrell; Pauline Slade; Rachel Warner; Graham Paley; Simon Dixon; Stephen J Walters; Traolach Brugha; Michael Barkham; Gareth J Parry; Jon Nicholl

2009-01-01

166

Psychological correlates of childhood obesity.  

PubMed

To enhance the prevention and intervention efforts of childhood obesity, there is a strong need for the early detection of psychological factors contributing to its development and maintenance. Rather than a stable condition, childhood obesity represents a dynamic process, in which behavior, cognition and emotional regulation interact mutually with each other. Family structure and context, that is, parental and familial attitudes, activity, nutritional patterns as well as familial stress, have an important role with respect to the onset and maintenance of overweight and obesity. Behavioral and emotional problems are found in many, though not all, obese children, with a higher prevalence in clinical, treatment-seeking samples. The interrelatedness between obesity and psychological problems seems to be twofold, in that clinically meaningful psychological distress might foster weight gain and obesity may lead to psychosocial problems. The most frequently implicated psychosocial factors are externalizing (impulsivity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and internalizing (depression and anxiety) behavioral problems and uncontrolled eating behavior. These findings strengthen the need to further explore the interrelatedness between psychological problems and childhood obesity. PMID:21151145

Puder, J J; Munsch, S

2010-12-01

167

A Model for Primary Care Psychology With General Thoracic Surgical Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined a model for brief psychological assessment for providing primary psychological care to patients within a surgical, specialty outpatient clinic to provide early and accurate detection of psychological distress in patients to increase compassionate care. Questionnaires were completed by 351 outpatients and 227 of these outpatients were provided a model of primary care (brief psychological intervention). Patients were

Jeff Baker; Lisa A. Keenan; Joseph Zwischenberger

2005-01-01

168

A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individuals physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women. The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. Methods/Design This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Womens study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of womens health by Gror and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. Discussion The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases womens risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and health status in women.

2014-01-01

169

Practicing Psychologists Reflections on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An American Psychological Association (APA) policy definition of evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP) states that practice based on evidence must consider the best available research, use clinical expertise, and consider client contextual variables (APA Presidential Task Force, 2006). The researchers qualitatively examined clinical and counseling psychologists attitudes toward EBPP using grounded theory. The study explored the extent to which the

Jennifer L. Wilson; Erin Armoutliev; Elena Yakunina; James L. Werth

2009-01-01

170

Using Positive Psychology with Special Mental Health Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In our clinical practice, we have attempted to use a positive psychology approach in working with people with schizophrenia and youths with behavioral disorders. We present three clinical applications that use a positive psychology approach with these populations: group treatment with persons with schizophrenia; individual cognitive stimulation

Mohiuddin, Ahmed; Boisvert, Charles M.

2006-01-01

171

Psychological Component of Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... Organizations Resources: FAQs FAQs - The Psychological Component of Infertility -- written by the ASRM Mental Health Professional Group ( ... Professional in your area ) Q1. What impact does infertility have on psychological well being? Infertility often creates ...

172

Industrialism and applied psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determines the relation between industrialism and applied psychology. Applied psychology can help to minimize the mental deterioration by changing old habits of carelessness and wastefulness. Applied psychology must consider: (1) the necessity of readjusting and adapting national habits to modern economical and social requirements (2) mental activity and initiative of workers atrophied by specialization of labor and monotony of repetitive

Paul Kreuzpointner

1917-01-01

173

The Introductory Psychology Textbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an analysis of 10 common introductory psychology textbooks. Argues that the books tend to present psychology as tedious, even silly, and as a canned, multimedia, self-teaching program. Concludes that replacing textbooks with lectures based on the instructor's personal knowledge and experience would improve the teaching of psychology. (SG)

Blumenthal, Arthur L.

1991-01-01

174

What is Psychology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time there are in psychology three rival standpoints. (1) There is the traditional psychology of mental states. This type of psychology is objectionable since it seems to invert the standpoint of common sense, and since it rests upon an antiquated metaphysics. Having no objective standards, it leads nowhere. (2) Behaviorism arises as an extreme reaction to the

B. H. Bode

1922-01-01

175

Psychology for All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology

Popovic, Nash

2008-01-01

176

Psychology in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts

Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

2011-01-01

177

Psychology and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because psychology systematically explores human judgment, behavior, and well-being, it can teach us important lessons about how humans differ from the way they are traditionally described by economists. This essay discusses a selection of psychological findings relevant to economics. While standard economics assumes that each person maximizes stable and coherent preferences given rationally-formed probabilistic beliefs, psychological research teaches us about

Matthew Rabin

1998-01-01

178

School Psychology in Denmark.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

Poulsen, Anders

1987-01-01

179

Mistreating Psychology in the Decades of the Brain  

PubMed Central

We systematically mistreat psychological phenomena, both logically and clinically. This article explores three contentions: that the dominant discourse in modern cognitive, affective, and clinical neuroscience assumes that we know how psychology/biology causation works when we do not; that there are serious intellectual, clinical, and policy costs to pretending we do know; and that crucial scientific and clinical progress will be stymied as long as we frame psychology, biology, and their relationship in currently dominant ways. The arguments are developed with emphasis on misguided attempts to localize psychological function via neuroimaging, misunderstandings about the role of genetics in psychopathology, and unfortunate constraints on health-care policy and clinical service delivery. A particular challenge, articulated but not resolved in this article, is determining what constitutes adequate explanation in the relationship between psychology and biology.

Miller, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

180

The Psychology of Cyberspace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Professor John Suler of Rider University, The Psychology of Cyberspace is a frequently updated interactive document that provides "an evolving conceptual framework for understanding the various psychological components of cyberspace." Currently, the site contains six major components: The Fundamental Psychological Qualities of Cyberspace, The Psychology of the Individual in Cyberspace, The Psychology of Cyberspace Relationships, Group Dynamics in Cyberspace, Research Methods in Cyberpsychology, and The Palace Study, an ongoing case study of an online multimedia community. This extensive site also includes a subject index to aid information retrieval, and a modest annotated webliography of cyberpsychology resources.

Suler, John.

1999-01-01

181

A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology, a Training Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The material is presented particularly for practitioners, but academicians should find the material of help and value, also, for introductory courses to study of clinical psychology, abnormal psychology, and psychopathology. Areas covered include the foll...

W. R. Phelps

1974-01-01

182

Mainstreaming culture in psychology.  

PubMed

Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

Cheung, Fanny M

2012-11-01

183

Enhancing Placebo Effects: Insights From Social Psychology  

PubMed Central

Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions.

SLIWINSKI, JIM; ELKINS, GARY R.

2012-01-01

184

A socio-psychological investigation into limitations and incentives concerning reporting a clinically suspect situation aimed at improving early detection of classical swine fever outbreaks.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify limitations and incentives in reporting clinically suspect situations, possibly caused by classical swine fever (CSF), to veterinary authorities with the ultimate aim to facilitate early detection of CSF outbreaks. Focus group sessions were held with policy makers from the veterinary authorities, and representatives of veterinary practitioners and pig farmer unions. Personal interviews with a small group of pig farmers and practitioners were held to check limitations raised and solutions proposed during the focus group sessions. An electronic questionnaire was mailed to pig farmers and practitioners to investigate perceptions and attitudes with respect to clinically suspect situations possibly caused by CSF. After triangulating the responses of veterinary authorities, veterinary practitioners and farmers, six themes emerged across all groups: (1) lack of knowledge on the early signs of CSF; (2) guilt, shame and prejudice; (3) negative opinion on control measures; (4) dissatisfaction with post-reporting procedures; (5) lack of trust in government bodies; (6) uncertainty and lack of transparency of reporting procedures. The following solutions to facilitate early detection of CSF were put forward: (a) development of a clinical decision-support system for vets and farmers, in order to get faster diagnosis and detection of CSF; (b) possibility to submit blood samples directly to the reference laboratory to exclude CSF in a clinical situation with non-specific clinical signs, without isolation of the farm and free of charge for the individual farmer; (c) decrease social and economic consequences of reporting CSF, for example by improving the public opinion on first reports; (d) better schooling of veterinary officers to deal with emotions and insecurity of farmers in the process after reporting; (e) better communication of rules and regulations, where to report, what will happen next; (f) up-to-date website with information and visual material of the clinical signs of CSF. PMID:19854004

Elbers, A R W; Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, M J; van der Velden, P G; Loeffen, W L A; Zarafshani, K

2010-04-21

185

Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on

Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

2006-01-01

186

Psychology of Religion Pages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed and maintained by Professor Michael E. Nielsen of the Psychology Department at Georgia Southern University, this site offers numerous resources for people interested in psychological aspects of religious belief and behavior. The site is designed as an introduction to the psychology of religion, rather than a comprehensive treatment. Resources are grouped into three main categories: general resource pages, science and religion pages, and pages devoted to new religious movements. Contents include notable people in the psychology of religion; a bibliography; course syllabi; journal TOCs; essays on the field, on science and religion, and on several aspects of new religious movements; and related links.

Nielsen, Michael E.

1998-01-01

187

Predictors of perceived social support in long-term survivors of cardiac transplant: The role of psychological distress, quality of life, demographic characteristics and clinical course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To examine associations between perceived social support, quality of life, psychopathological, demographic and clinical variables in long-term heart transplant survivors. Methods: Sixty six patients transplanted from 10.2 3.3 years completed the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, Symptom Questionnaire and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Parameters of post-transplant medical course were retrieved. Spearman rank order correlation, MannWhitney U test,

Laura Sirri; Carlo Magelli; Silvana Grandi

2011-01-01

188

Multi-Cultural Psychology: Training a New Generation of Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the four campuses of the California School of Professional Psychology, a multicultural psychology curriculum integrates culture-specific and traditional therapy methods in the training of ethnic minority and nonminority clinical psychologists. The use of American Indian ceremonial and healing practices in psychotherapy interventions is

Gentry, Carole

1991-01-01

189

Identifying Effective Psychological Treatments of Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clarified efficacy of psychological treatments for insomnia through a meta-analysis of 66 outcome studies representing 139 treatment groups. Psychological treatments produced considerable enhancement of both sleep patterns and the subjective experience of sleep. Participants who were clinically referred and who did not regularly use sedatives

Murtagh, Douglas R. R.; Greenwood, Kenneth M.

1995-01-01

190

Psychology Interns as Patient Suicide Survivors: Incidence, Impact, and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated incidence, impact, and methods of coping with patient suicide during the training years of Psychology graduate students. All 54 interns in clinical psychology at the Boston VA in 19831988 were surveyed. 1 in 6 Ss had experienced a patient's suicide at some time during their training. The group who experienced a patient's suicide and a group who

Phillip M. Kleespies; Marcia R. Smith; Bonnie R. Becker

1990-01-01

191

Research Productivity in Counseling Psychology: An Update. Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is an update and review of institutional research productivity in counseling psychology. Institutional research productivity is assessed by totaling credits for articles published from 1993 to 2002 in the following journals: "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "The Counseling Psychologist," "Journal of Consulting and Clinical

Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Jenkins, Steve M.; Thomas, Adrian; Lindley, Lori D.; Schwartz, Jonathan P.; Loveland, James M.

2005-01-01

192

Topical and Applied Interests of Introductory Psychology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using forced-choice and continuous measures, introductory psychology students reported highest interest for the topical areas of clinical and social psychology (over biological, cognitive, and developmental) and for the applied areas of education and health (over business, environment, and law) at both the beginning and end of semesters. Among

Stalder, Daniel R.; Stec, Deborah A.

2007-01-01

193

Expanding community psychology's domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community psychology's twin goals of prevention and empowerment are ill-served when researchers and practitioners restrict their activities to traditional mental health settings. This paper echoes the call of the Swampscott conference for expanding community psychology's domain of inquiry and action. It reviews examples from the research literature of efforts at prevention and empowerment in five classes of behavior settings identified

Marybeth Shinn

1987-01-01

194

Nonempirical Issues in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general decline of radical empiricism has led to a renewed appreciation of the role of nonempirical contributions to the advancement of science. In psychology, this has meant the development of a theoretical wing comparable to the well-established theoretical traditions that exist in other scientific disciplines. Theoretical psychology is no longer the collection of vague generalities that once made up

Andre Kukla

1989-01-01

195

Psychologism and Instructional Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for

Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

2009-01-01

196

Teaching Anomalistic Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions

Jones, Warren; Zusne, Leonard

1981-01-01

197

Techniques in Adlerian Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus

Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.

198

Psychological Education Is...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue of P & G provides an overview of the psychological education movement and its implications for the practicing counselor. Psychological education is a relatively new discipline, but it is already providing important levers to help counselors refocus their efforts and increase their effectiveness. (Author)

Ivey, Allen E.; Alschuler, Alfred S.

1973-01-01

199

Gestalt in social psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citations superficially suggest that the relationship between Gestalt theory and contemporary social psychology is hardly recognizable if we disregard the occasional homage to Kurt Lewin. Neither Gestalt nor field theory belongs to the present pool of social-psychological theories. On the other hand, it can be shown that basic concepts of Gestalt theory have survived under various names and are still

Carl F. Graumann

1989-01-01

200

Teaching Psychology in Estonia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the experience of teaching psychology at Tartu University and Tallinn Pedagogical University in Estonia. Discusses the lessons learned by teaching in Estonia and applies those lessons to teaching psychology in the United States, focusing on the benefits teachers reap when they become more aware of themselves and their audiences. (CMK)

White, Lawrence T.; Ransdell, Sarah

2000-01-01

201

Foundations of Phenomenological Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phenomenology, hermeneutics and experiential psychology form the backbone of an emerging paradigm within psychology known as human science. Human science's use of phenomenology provides a way to set aside the naturalistic presupposition and directly study the irreducible involvement of human existence within a meaningful world, as it is given in

Aanstoos, Christopher M.

202

Psychological factors in recurrent genital herpes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To review recent research into psychological aspects of genital herpes and assess possible implications for clinical practice. METHODS: Review of all papers in the field on Medline 1985-96. RESULTS: Much attention has been paid to possible links between stress and recurrent genital herpes. There is no convincing evidence that stress in itself causes recurrences. It may be that recurrences are preceded by a prodromal period of altered mood. Patients with recurrences show considerable stress as a result of the disease, although most individuals eventually adjust psychologically. The impact of social support on adjustment remains unclear. The little evidence available suggests that antiviral treatments can help adjustment and the effects may perhaps outlast the period of active treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Existing research gives some clues to optimal patient management but there is a need for future research to focus much more clearly on clinical issues, particularly on means of alleviating psychological distress and on the impact of antivirals.

Green, J; Kocsis, A

1997-01-01

203

Online Psychology Laboratory (OPL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Online Psychology Laboratory (OPL) consists of (1) highly interactive, web-deliverable psychology experiments and demonstrations, (2) a cumulative data archive from which students can retrieve datasets for analysis, and (3) user-controlled data extraction and analysis tools designed for the diverse needs of end users. One of the goals of the collection is to offer support for student research and educators who are not adept in experimental design and data analysis. Psychology students will be able to collect data, analyze data, and report their findings for class assignments or individual projects. Because psychology is allied to many disciplines--biology, sociology, and political science among them--OPL will contribute to the set of experiments available to students who wish to study psychologically-based issues in related scientific disciplines.

2006-03-08

204

Avian psychology and communication.  

PubMed Central

The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution.

Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

2004-01-01

205

A brief screening tool for assessing psychological trauma in clinical practice: development and validation of the New York PTSD Risk Score?,??  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective was to develop a brief posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening instrument that is useful in clinical practice, similar to the Framingham Risk Score used in cardiovascular medicine. Methods We used data collected in New York City after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD) and other trauma data to develop a new PTSD prediction tool the New York PTSD Risk Score. We used diagnostic test methods to examine different clinical domains, including PTSD symptoms, trauma exposures, sleep disturbances, suicidal thoughts, depression symptoms, demographic factors and other measures to assess different PTSD prediction models. Results Using receiver operating curve (ROC) and bootstrap methods, five prediction domains, including core PTSD symptoms, sleep disturbance, access to care status, depression symptoms and trauma history, and five demographic variables, including gender, age, education, race and ethnicity, were identified. For the best prediction model, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.880 for the Primary Care PTSD Screen alone (specificity=82.2%, sensitivity=93.7%). Adding care status, sleep disturbance, depression and trauma exposure increased the AUC to 0.943 (specificity=85.7%, sensitivity=93.1%), a significant ROC improvement (P < .0001). Adding demographic variables increased the AUC to 0.945, which was not significant (P=.250). To externally validate these models, we applied the WTCD results to 705 pain patients treated at a multispecialty group practice and to 225 trauma patients treated at a Level I Trauma Center. These results validated those from the original WTCD development and validation samples. Conclusion The New York PTSD Risk Score is a multifactor prediction tool that includes the Primary Care PTSD Screen, depression symptoms, access to care, sleep disturbance, trauma history and demographic variables and appears to be effective in predicting PTSD among patients seen in healthcare settings. This prediction tool is simple to administer and appears to outperform other screening measures.

Boscarino, Joseph A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N.; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.

2013-01-01

206

Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models

Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

2009-01-01

207

Hispanic Issues in Psychology: Curricula and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on 1970-78 data, there are seven major problem areas in the training and education of Hispanics in academic clinical psychology: graduate student recruitment; graduate admission criteria; student support; faculty role models; curriculum content; training sites; lack of qualified applicants. Probable causes and possible solutions for each are

Bernal, Martha E.

1980-01-01

208

Psychological Screening with Deployed and Nondeployed Soldiers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. military has instituted a program of psychological screening for soldiers redeploying from the NATO mission in the mission in the former Yugoslavia in order to assess troop well-being. The screening process consisted of three clinical scales asse...

A. B. Adler A. H. Huffman C. A. Castro

1999-01-01

209

Effect of Vasectomy on Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pie- to postoperative changes in couples electing vasectomy are discussed. High satisfaction with the operation is found, along with apparently desirable changes in attitudes toward child rearing and views of self and spouse. There is, however, concurrent evidence (both on psychometric scales and on clinical ratings) of adverse psychological changes in both husband and wife and of reduced marital satisfaction

FREDERICK J. ZIEGLER; DAVID A. RODGERS

210

AllPsych Online: The Virtual Psychology Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For instructors or students looking for material on many aspects of psychology, the AllPsych Online site may prove to be indispensable. The site was started in 1999, and it contains eight primary sections which cover everything from classic psychology studies to an extensive reference area. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking through the "Reference" area, which features an expanded timeline of psychology through the ages, a dictionary, and biographies of prominent persons in the field. People interested in entering the field of psychology will want to click on over to the "Careers and Education in Psychology" section for the materials on various academic programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology. For a bit of a diversion, the site also has a "Fun and Games" area where visitors can take a look at some optical illusions and crossword puzzles.

Heffner, Christopher L.

2007-01-01

211

Psychological Impairments in the Patients with Acne  

PubMed Central

Background: The psychological impacts of acne appearance and its-related negative emotional reactions have been proved; however, these reactions are varied in different populations. Aim: We investigated whether acne and its severity affected psychological functioning in those who suffered from this disorder among Iranians. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six patients with acne vulgaris who consecutively attended the dermatology outpatient clinics in Semnan city in 2008 were included. Among them, 103 patients met the study's inclusion criterion and agreed to participate. One hundred and six age and gender cross-matched healthy volunteers were included as controls that attended the clinic with their diseased relatives. All acne patients were evaluated using the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). Results: According to the American Academy of Dermatology classification, 25.2% of the patients had mild acne, 50.5% moderate acne, and 24.3% severe acne. A higher percentage of participants than controls required further evaluation and psychological consultant when studying each psychological problem. The most common psychological symptoms requiring treatment due to disturbed daily activities in acne group were psychoticism (34.0%) and depression (31.1%), respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between the duration of illness and SCL-90 total score. When evaluating the SCL-90 scores, patients with multiple sites of involvement were affected more severely than those with a single site of involvement. Conclusion: Acne vulgaris has significant effects on psychological status. Effective concomitant anti-acne therapy and psychological assessment make significant contributions for the mental health and should be strongly recommended.

Behnam, Behnaz; Taheri, Ramin; Ghorbani, Raheb; Allameh, Peyvand

2013-01-01

212

Mindfulness and the psychology of presence.  

PubMed

Mindfulness, as 'being in the present on purpose' has become of practical and theoretical interest to clinical psychologists. It is an element in several influential and effective treatment methods. Research concentrates on the effects of practice but neglects the experience of presence. A common requirement that the clinician also practice mindfulness leads to an interest in describing clinical presence. This stance has been of interest in psychoanalysis but not studied in mainstream clinical psychology. The description of that as a state of being and the similarity between mindfulness practice and the phenomenological method provide a link with a 6-year series of seminars given to psychotherapists by the philosopher Martin Heidegger. His demonstrations of the relation between experiential and scientific knowledge offer a way to make links between a reflective clinical psychology, mindfulness, and current developments in the understanding of consciousness. PMID:17877862

Childs, David

2007-09-01

213

Development and Evaluation of the Balanced Index of Psychological Mindedness (BIPM)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological mindedness (PM) refers to a person's interest and ability to be in touch with and reflect on his or her psychological states and processes. In this multipart study, the authors present the Balanced Index of Psychological Mindedness (BIPM). The psychometric properties and clinical relevance of this 14-item self-report scale were

Nyklicek, Ivan; Denollet, Johan

2009-01-01

214

ATTITUDES CONCERNING PROFESSIONAL ISSUES IMPACTING PSYCHOTHERAPY PRACTICE AMONG MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN BOARD OF PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national survey of 400 (return rate = 56%) Clinical Diplomates of the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), concerning attitudes regarding a variety of current professional issues impacting psychotherapy practice, was conducted during the winter of 1997. Results indicate that ABPPs are displeased with managed healthcare, masters-level psychology professionals practicing independently, and free-standing professional schools of psychology. They are

Thomas G. Plante; Marcus Boccaccini; Erin Andersen

1998-01-01

215

Graduate Students Experiences, Interests, and Attitudes Toward Correctional\\/Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the availability of correctional and forensic psychology training as well as graduate students experiences and attitudes toward working with offender populations. Using survey data gathered from 175 graduate students representing 30 clinical and 29 counseling psychology programs, results indicate the availability of specialized training in correctional and\\/or forensic psychology for approximately one half of the participants. Furthermore,

Robert D. Morgan; Amanda M. Beer; Katherine L. Fitzgerald; Jon T. Mandracchia

2007-01-01

216

The Practice of Forensic Psychology: A Look Toward the Future in Light of the Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 1987 American Psychologist article, Tom Grisso summarized the state of forensic psychological assessment, noted its limitations and potential, and offered suggestions for researchers and practitioners interested in contributing to its future. Since that time, there have been many important developments in the field of forensic psychology, as well as in clinical psychology more generally, some of which were

Randy K. Otto; Kirk Heilbrun

2002-01-01

217

Using an Internship Opportunity to Expand Awareness of Industrial/Organizational Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The public perception of the field of psychology tends to be limited to the clinical area. Exposure to other areas of psychology through broad, introductory courses helps expand students' perspectives of psychology. This exposure may be too late, however, as many colleges cannot afford to devote entire courses to each of the many subfields of

Kisamore, Jennifer L.; Alexander, Evangeline

2008-01-01

218

Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for

Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

2012-01-01

219

Predicting Students' Performance in Introductory Psychology from their Psychology Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A

Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.

2009-01-01

220

[Parkinson's disease: psychological and behavioral disorders].  

PubMed

Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have clinically significant anxiety, depression, apathy, fatigue and sleep disturbances. These non motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are still not well recognized in clinical practice, either in primary or in secondary care, and are frequently missed during routine examination, but often contribute to impair the functional abilities in PD patients. Awareness of behavioral and psychological symptoms in PD should generate new approaches to improve their diagnosis accuracy and facilitate timely therapeutic interventions. PMID:23631043

Delgadillo-Iniguez, Daniel; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Gly-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Lacomblez, Lucette

2006-12-01

221

Teaching psychological diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Teaching experiences have been described which illustrate the medical student's tendency to isolate what is learned in psychiatry from clinical work in general medicine. This tendency can be minimized by presenting diagnosis as the complete assessment of a patient, rather than exclusively as a search for disease. Early experience in patient care helps the student broaden his or her concept of clinical assessment. An important goal of psychiatric teaching in medical school is to help students learn to evaluate the psychological status of the general medical patient. Attention is focused upon this evaluation by use of the problem-orientated record. Since the data base is derived largely from the medical history, objectives for the interview are presented in detail. Students are encouraged to consider the relations between the patient's psychological status and other aspects of the medical problems. Only after they have learned to make evaluations of general medical patients, are the psychiatric syndromes introduced. An example is presented of a programme in which psychiatric teaching is carried out in a surgical ward of a general hospital. Success of such programmes depends upon explicit description of goals and methods, and upon collaboration with colleagues in other departments who share similar goals. PMID:1203189

Ruff, G E; Mechanick, P G

1975-09-01

222

Darwin and Evolutionary Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Darwin's views on various psychological behaviors were significant. Basing his conclusions on empirical research, he wrote extensively on the phylogeny of behavior, emotional expression, sexual selection, instincts, evolution of morals, ontogeny of behavior, and genetics of behavior. (PS)

Ghiselin, Michael T.

1973-01-01

223

Producing Mentors in Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the doctoral psychology programs producing the most mentors (identified as dissertation supervisors). Assesses the quality of these programs as rated in past research. Discovers a strong correlation between those programs assigning mentors and those rated highest in quality. (MJP)

Willis, Frank N.; Diebold, Charles T.

1997-01-01

224

American Psychological Association  

MedlinePLUS

... Psychology Topics Addictions ADHD Anger Anxiety Bipolar Disorder Bullying Depression Eating Disorders Emotional Health Ethics Learning & Memory ... ADHD Aging Alzheimer's Anger Anxiety Autism Bipolar Disorder Bullying Children Death & Dying Depression Disability Eating Disorders Education ...

225

Teaching Educational Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the Millersville University of Pennsylvania, Teaching Educational Psychology (TEP) is an online, peer-refereed journal that is "devoted to increasing our shared knowledge base about the teaching of educational psychology to a variety of educational constituencies" including administrators, policy-makers, parents, and the public. The journal started publication in 2005 and is published twice a year. Visitors to the site can access all of the back issues of the journal, and they should also take a look at their reviewing guidelines and submission materials. Recent articles include "Using Student Interviews to Understand Theories of Motivation" and "Narrative as a Basis for Teaching Educational Psychology" Moving on, the site also includes links to related educational psychology sites and a list of reviewers.

226

Operational Psychology Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

Holland, Al

2009-01-01

227

Monitor on Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published eleven times a year by the American Psychological Association, the Monitor on Psychology contains a number of helpful pieces for those persons interested in the broad field of psychology, and for those who may be thinking about going into the field as well. Each month features a number of helpful features, including a commentary from the APA's president, an update on psychology and public policy, discussion of ethical practices, and an editorial from a working professional in the field. Each month the publication also contains a number of extended articles on such topics as personality disorders, the importance of psychologists' in troubled schools, and the role of psychologists in homeland security. Visitors to the site also have access to an archive of previous issues that stretches back to January 1998.

228

Are Problems Prevalent and Stable in Non-Clinical Populations? Problems and Test-Retest Stability of a Patient-Generated Measure, PSYCHLOPS (Psychological Outcome Profiles), in a Non-Clinical Student Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In straightened times counselling must evidence the changes it promotes on reputable measures. Patient-generated measures complement nomothetic measures and may be nearer the ethos of counselling in eliciting individuals' problems. Scores from such measures from non-clinical samples are rarely reported, making their test-retest stability

Evans, Chris; Ashworth, Mark; Peters, Marilyn

2010-01-01

229

What Is Forensic Psychology, Anyway?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of how forensic psychology is defined has taken on a new urgency in the context of an application to have forensic psychology designated a specialty by the American Psychological Association. To provide a historical perspective, I briefly review early attempts to apply psychological concepts to legal issues, beginning with the McNaughten trial in England in 1843. I then

John C. Brigham

1999-01-01

230

School Psychology in Saudi Arabia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews status of school psychology in Saudi Arabia. Describes rapidity of social change in Saudi Arabia, Saudi system of education, school psychology services, administration, training facilities, and school psychology's contributions to Saudi society. Presents plan for future development of school psychology and describes challenges confronting

el Sendiony, M. F. M.; And Others

1987-01-01

231

The Proper Study of Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Varying aspects of the study of psychology are discussed focusing on the shortcomings of the traditional definition of psychology as the study of behavior. Effects of cognitive, experimental, and applied psychology are examined, and a general concept of psychology as the study of the mind and mental processes is advanced. (BH)

Heim, Alice

1979-01-01

232

The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the

Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

2005-01-01

233

[Ibn Sina--psychology and psychological disorders].  

PubMed

Ebu Ali Husein Ibn Ali Ibn Sina (or Avicenna) was primarily a philosopher with amusing knowledge, who dealt in all aspects of art of medicine, astronomer, poet, musician and psychologist. This giant with an encyclopedic knowledge has dealt in almost all scientific branches or praxis with the great success. Numerous statements of his have been cornerstone of many sciences for centuries; and some of them are (in the era of computers and Internet) still current. The best known treatise on medicine of his is El-Kanun, consisting of five volumes, wherein all medical achievements (including psychology, psychiatry and neurology) of that period were described clearly. In his psychology, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) analyses the essence of human soul, mind, psychical streams, intellectum, dreams and prophecy, man's desires etc. in details. It is unnecessary to point out how much these items are actual in the contemporary psychology. Ibn al-Nefis has described systematically the symptoms and recovery of "head sick" (including headaches, cerebral sick like cranitis, letargy, coma, demency, melancholy, insomnia, nightmares, epilepsy, appoplexy, paralysis, spasm and many others) in his Mujez al-Kanun, that is synopsis of Ibn Sina Kanun. We need much time to see magnificance of this philosopher, that is best known as the great one among the physicians. His writings could be found in whole Bosnia, but there were many few that would study him and his works. It is out task to enable the future generations not only to know those works exist, but, also, to realize the essence of this marvelous genius; because there are very few people that can be compared to him. PMID:9324566

Ceri?, I; Mehi?-Basara, N

1997-01-01

234

Detecting referral and selection bias by the anonymous linkage of practice, hospital and clinic data using Secure and Private Record Linkage (SAPREL): case study from the evaluation of the Improved Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) service  

PubMed Central

Background The evaluation of demonstration sites set up to provide improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) comprised the study of all people identified as having common mental health problems (CMHP), those referred to the IAPT service, and a sample of attenders studied in-depth. Information technology makes it feasible to link practice, hospital and IAPT clinic data to evaluate the representativeness of these samples. However, researchers do not have permission to browse and link these data without the patients' consent. Objective To demonstrate the use of a mixed deterministic-probabilistic method of secure and private record linkage (SAPREL) - to describe selection bias in subjects chosen for in-depth evaluation. Method We extracted, pseudonymised and used fuzzy logic to link multiple health records without the researcher knowing the patient's identity. The method can be characterised as a three party protocol mainly using deterministic algorithms with dynamic linking strategies; though incorporating some elements of probabilistic linkage. Within the data providers' safe haven we extracted: Demographic data, hospital utilisation and IAPT clinic data; converted post code to index of multiple deprivation (IMD); and identified people with CMHP. We contrasted the age, gender, ethnicity and IMD for the in-depth evaluation sample with people referred to IAPT, use hospital services, and the population as a whole. Results The in IAPT-in-depth group had a mean age of 43.1 years; CI: 41.0 - 45.2 (n = 166); the IAPT-referred 40.2 years; CI: 39.4 - 40.9 (n = 1118); and those with CMHP 43.6 years SEM 0.15. (n = 12210). Whilst around 67% of those with a CMHP were women, compared to 70% of those referred to IAPT, and 75% of those subject to in-depth evaluation (Chi square p < 0.001). The mean IMD score for the in-depth evaluation group was 36.6; CI: 34.2 - 38.9; (n = 166); of those referred to IAPT 38.7; CI: 37.9 - 39.6; (n = 1117); and of people with CMHP 37.6; CI 37.3-37.9; (n = 12143). Conclusions The sample studied in-depth were older, more likely female, and less deprived than people with CMHP, and fewer had recorded ethnic minority status. Anonymous linkage using SAPREL provides insight into the representativeness of a study population and possible adjustment for selection bias.

2011-01-01

235

Intrusive Images in Psychological Disorders  

PubMed Central

Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in the medial and lateral parietal cortices, the lateral temporal cortex, and the medial temporal lobe. Evidence from cognitive psychology and neuroscience implies distinct neural bases to abstract, flexible, contextualized representations (C-reps) and to inflexible, sensory-bound representations (S-reps). We revise our previous dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder to place it within a neural systems model of healthy memory and imagery. The revised model is used to explain how the different types of distressing visual intrusions associated with clinical disorders arise, in terms of the need for correct interaction between the neural systems supporting S-reps and C-reps via visuospatial working memory. Finally, we discuss the treatment implications of the new model and relate it to existing forms of psychological therapy.

Brewin, Chris R.; Gregory, James D.; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil

2010-01-01

236

Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs.

Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

2014-01-01

237

Psychological factors in asthma.  

PubMed

: Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk factors and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122

Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Macqueen, Glenda

2008-03-15

238

Gender and Psychological Essentialism  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs.

Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

2010-01-01

239

Introduction to Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Psychology is a vast and complex area of inquiry, and students entering the field may be confounded by the number of subfields within the discipline. Professor Russell A. Dewey of Georgia Southern University has created this fine online introductory textbook that covers everything from states of consciousness to social psychology. The online text includes sixteen chapters, and each chapter contains a number of parts that break each topic into smaller subtopics. The text is well-written and it draws on a number of examples and well-known experiments that will keep readers engaged. The site is rounded out by the inclusion of Professor Dewey's contact information and links to additional resources.

Dewey, Russell A.

2007-09-03

240

The image of psychology programs: the value of the instrumental-symbolic framework.  

PubMed

As competition for funding and students intensifies, it becomes increasingly important for psychology programs to have an image that is attractive and makes them stand out from other programs. The current study uses the instrumental-symbolic framework from the marketing domain to determine the image of different master's programs in psychology and examines how these image dimensions relate to student attraction and competitor differentiation. The samples consist of both potential students (N = 114) and current students (N = 68) of three psychology programs at a Belgian university: industrial and organizational psychology, clinical psychology, and experimental psychology. The results demonstrate that both instrumental attributes (e.g., interpersonal activities) and symbolic trait inferences (e.g., sincerity) are key components of the image of psychology programs and predict attractiveness as well as differentiation. In addition, symbolic image dimensions seem more important for current students of psychology programs than for potential students. PMID:24946389

Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip; De Soete, Britt; Libbrecht, Nele; Schollaert, Eveline; Baligant, Dimphna

2014-01-01

241

Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were

Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

2009-01-01

242

ENERGY PSYCHOLOGY AND THE INSTANT PHOBIA CURE \\u2028New Paradigm or the Old Razzle Dazzle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This article introduces health professionals who work with psychological issues to the emerging field of energy psychology. It provides an overview of the field, covering basic concepts and procedures. It is intended to give the reader a basis to begin evaluating this new paradigm. Research and clinical evidence bearing upon clinical efficacy are presented, and plausible neurological mechanisms are

David Feinstein

243

Austin a decade later: Preparing community psychology students for work in social policy areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

I believe that an exciting and rewarding future for doctoral level community psychologists lies in the development of expertise in social policy formulation and administration. I urge a turning away from the prevailing background in clinical psychology that community psychologists receive. I hold that until community psychologists make a clear break with clinical psychology they will not gain autonomy and

Ira Iscoe

1984-01-01

244

Psychological Approaches to Organized Aggression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research note, the psychological aspects of terrorism are examined, the aspects examined are divided into six categories: 1) psychological analyses of terrorists, 2) the nature, timing, and effects of terrorist acts, 3) the behavior of terrorists,...

S. J. Rachman

1987-01-01

245

Psychological Deterrents to Nuclear Theft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1975 the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the National Bureau of Standards jointly conceived the psychological deterrents project as an on-going review of the unclassified and the classified literature relating to psychological factors that may have im...

G. Lapinsky

1981-01-01

246

APA Educational Psychology Handbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close

Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

2011-01-01

247

Cycles of Psychological Nigrescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expands the Cross model of psychological Nigrescence to hypothesize the changes in racial identity that a Black person can experience at various points in the life cycle. Describes how various stages of racial identity are manifest at three periods of life: late adolescence/early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. (Author/TE)

Parham, Thomas A.

1989-01-01

248

Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved

Gonsiorek, John C.

249

Psychology of Deafness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine conference papers discuss the psychology of deafness. They include seven papers from the United States: "Deafness: The Interdependent Variable" by M. Vernon and D. A. Rothstein, "The Reliability and Construct Validity of the Self-Concept of Academic Ability Scale-Form D for Hearing Impaired Students" by L. M. JOINER, "Studies of the

World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

250

Psychological Aspects of Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy

Paul Lehrer; Jonathan Feldman; Nicholas Giardino; Hye-Sue Song; Karen Schmaling

2002-01-01

251

The Psychology of Channeling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretically analyzes phenomenon of channeling from perspective of C. G. Jung's analytic psychology. Hypothesizes that contact with otherworldly spiritual beings claimed by channelers is actually projected contact with contents of channeler's own unconscious mind. Suggests that channelers seek more constructive ways of contacting their

Corey, Michael A.

1988-01-01

252

Civility and Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media in the '70s stressed the importance of self and popularized psychology. Amidst self-help best sellers, encounter sessions, and special interest groups, the author asks, "What has happened to civility?" and "Can a culture without civility call itself civilized?" Condensed and reprinted from "Daedalus," Summer 1980. (Editor)

Coles, Robert

1981-01-01

253

Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of

Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

2000-01-01

254

Positive Psychology Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also dis- cuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disor- ders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and

Martin E. P. Seligman; Tracy A. Steen; Christopher Peterson

255

Psychology and Anomalous Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Books by psychologists purporting to offer critical reviews of research in parapsychology do not use the scientific standards of discourse prevalent in psychology. Experiments at Maimonides Medical Center on possible extrasensory perception (ESP) in dreams are used to illustrate this point. The experiments have received little or no mention in some reviews to which they are clearly pertinent. In others,

Irvin L. Child

1985-01-01

256

Beyond Positive Psychology?  

PubMed Central

The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processesforgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindnesscan either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative.

McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

2014-01-01

257

Cross-Cultural Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides references to the work of cross-cultural psychologists that can be integrated into regular undergraduate psychology courses. Discusses methodological problems, benefits, and difficulties of cross-cultural research. Reviews contributions of this field to the study of perception, cognition, motivation, interpersonal interaction, and group

Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

1984-01-01

258

Cross-Cultural Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better

Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

259

A Psychology of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods

Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

260

Color and Psychological Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a ubiquitous perceptual experience, yet little scientific information about the influence of color on affect, cognition, and behavior is available. Accordingly, we have developed a general model of color and psychological functioning, which we present in this article. We also describe a hypothesis derived from this model regarding the influence of red in achievement contexts. In addition, we

Andrew J. Elliot; Markus A. Maier

2007-01-01

261

Space Psychology and Psychiatry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

2003-09-01

262

Psychological Autopsies in Court.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The crucial concept for defining suicide is intention. A major purpose of the psychological autopsy is to clarify the pre-mortem intentions of the victim, now deceased. This article reports cases in which the issue of suicide vs. accident came to trial because insurance benefits were at issue. (Author/BL)

Litman, Robert E.

1984-01-01

263

Cognitive psychology as ideology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a critical analysis of some of the major work in cognitive social, personality, and developmental psychology. It is argued that cognitivism, by virtue of the primacy it gives to the individual knower, to subjective determinants of behavior, and to formal cognitive operations, represents a set of values and interests that reproduce and reaffirm the existing nature of the social

Edward E. Sampson

1981-01-01

264

Giftedness and Psychological Type.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of the psychological types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), of 966 students at a public residential magnet high school for academically talented students with other gifted and traditional high school students found both magnet school students and gifted students showed a particular MBTI distribution. (DB)

Hawkins, John

1998-01-01

265

Psychologically Correct Race Baiting?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonplace these days for those with axes to grind to hijack the organs of professional associations with diatribes on pet issues. When the American Psychological Association bestowed one of its most prestigious awards recently, the recipient launched into vitriol about past and continuing mistreatment of minorities to a degree that moved

Thomas, Kenneth R.; Wubbolding, Robert E.; Jackson, Morris L.

2005-01-01

266

Accreditation in the profession of psychology: a cautionary tale.  

PubMed

This article examines the history of accreditation in psychology and applies the lessons learned to the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education's (AGHE) consideration of forming an organization to accredit programs in gerontology. The authors identify the challenges met and unmet, the successes and failures, and the key issues that emerged from psychology's experience with accreditation. Psychology has been accrediting programs in clinical psychology for more than 65 years, and the process has been marked by several false steps, considerable tension, and some controversy and at times significant dissatisfaction. The accreditation process that has emerged today, which includes counseling, school psychology, graduate practica, and postdoctoral practica sites, is generally well received yet some tensions exist. The authors apply the lessons learned from psychology's evolution to AGHE. The experience of psychology suggests a need for clear minimum standards and consistency across programs in training goals, if not in curricula and practica. However, setting standards for specific curricula and practice content may result in a similar contentiousness that has plagued psychology. Ultimately, the authors conclude that the benefits of accreditation of programs outweigh the deficits. PMID:22289066

Maiden, Robert; Knight, Bob G; Howe, Judith L; Kim, Seungyoun

2012-01-01

267

Psychological Research in Six Italian Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes liaison visits in the following institutions during October 1967: National Institute of Psychology, Rome; Psychological Institute, University of Naples; Laboratory of Applied Psychology, University of Palermo; Psychological Institute...

H. W. Sinaiko

1968-01-01

268

Psychodiagnostic Testing in Forensic Psychology: A Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article comments on five articles in a series designed to provide some current guidelines concerning the forensic applicability of five widely used psychological tests: the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III), the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM). The author's observations and recommendations make a valuable

Irving B. Weiner

2002-01-01

269

Contemporary Existentialist Tendencies in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modem psychology?s relation to existentialism takes at least three discernible forms. Firstly, theory and practice (particularly in psychotherapy, but also in other areas of psychology) that is directly traceable to philosophers and other writers who are termed ?existentialist.? Secondly, theory and practice that is not traceable in this way, but which raises questions, uses concepts or interprets findings in ways

Stuart Hanscomb

270

Energy Psychology in Disaster Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy psychology utilizes cognitive operations such as imaginal exposure to traumatic memories or visualization of optimal performance scenarioscombined with physical interventions derived from acupuncture, yoga, and related systemsfor inducing psychological change. While a controversial approach, this combination purportedly brings about, with unusual speed and precision, therapeutic shifts in affective, cognitive, and behavioral patterns that underlie a range of psychological concerns.

David Feinstein

2008-01-01

271

A Positive Psychology That Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human

Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

2006-01-01

272

Moving Ahead in Professional Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to Holloway and Roehlke's article on counseling psychologists'training by focusing on future directions for counseling psychology. Includes the place of "specialty" designations within psychology, the need for independence among psychology gatekeeping bodies, inclusion of nonpsychology trainees in counseling centers and timing of

McKinely, Donna L.; Hayes, Maggie

1987-01-01

273

Psychological Sciences Division: 1985 Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes research carried out under sponsorship of the Psychological Sciences Division of the U.S. Office of Naval Research during Fiscal Year 1985. The booklet is divided into three programmatic research areas: (1) Engineering Psychology; (2) Personnel and Training; and (3) Group Psychology. Each program is described by an overview

Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Psychological Sciences Div.

274

Marketing Sport Psychology Consulting Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of applied sport psychology continues to increase in popularity and offers new and exciting career opportunities. In addition to offering consulting services to athletes, coaches, and teams, applied sport psychology professionals also serve military, dance, and business clients (Lloyd & Foster, 2006). This article outlines a 10-step process that sport psychology professionals can use to successfully market their

F. Wayne Blann; Greg Shelley; Sarah C. Gates

2011-01-01

275

Ethics, Psychology, and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction to the Journal of Forensic Psychology's new section on Ethics, Psychology, and Public Policy, this essay outlines the contours that characterize the interrelationship between ethics, psychology, and public policy. Offering a broad and inclusive framework for understanding this interrelationship, it lays out and comments upon several spheres of analysis - the practical\\/professional, law, lawmaking, and public policy, justice

Christopher R. Williams

2009-01-01

276

Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic

Kendler, Howard H.

2005-01-01

277

Psychology's Role in Health Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This information packet contains eight two- to three-page publications from the American Psychological Association series "Psychological Services for the 21st Century, Psychology's Role in Health Care: Studying Human Behavior; Promoting Health; Saving Health Care Dollars; Providing Mental Health Services." The focus of the series is the connection

American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

278

Social Justice and School Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this

Nastasi, Bonnie K.

2008-01-01

279

Indigenisation of Psychology in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion

Dalal, Ajit K.

2011-01-01

280

Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative

Kanazawa, Satoshi

2010-01-01

281

Referrals for anger and aggression in forensic psychology outpatient services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate a clinical observation in referrals to a forensic clinical psychology outpatient service: that anger was related to obsessional-compulsive behaviours, possibly as a substitute means of controlling situations. A secondary hypothesis was that control of situations by obsessional-compulsive behaviours would result in greater levels of anxiety and depression, since this is not this

Mary McMurran; Vincent Egan; Cathryn Richardson; Shahla Ahmadi; Gillian Cooper

2000-01-01

282

A Pharmacy Student Searches for Psychological Predictors of Patient Compliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study by an undergraduate pharmacy student to gain experience in research methodology and to enhance individual clinical involvement is described. Results of psychological exams of 40 patients from a family practice clinic did not accurately predict patient compliance or noncompliance. (Author/MLW)

Wilson, Teresa A.; And Others

1982-01-01

283

Future directions in psychological assessment: combining evidence-based medicine innovations with psychology's historical strengths to enhance utility.  

PubMed

Assessment has been a historical strength of psychology, with sophisticated traditions of measurement, psychometrics, and theoretical underpinnings. However, training, reimbursement, and utilization of psychological assessment have been eroded in many settings. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) offers a different perspective on evaluation that complements traditional strengths of psychological assessment. EBM ties assessment directly to clinical decision making about the individual, uses simplified Bayesian methods explicitly to integrate assessment data, and solicits patient preferences as part of the decision-making process. Combining the EBM perspective with psychological assessment creates a hybrid approach that is more client centered, and it defines a set of applied research topics that are highly clinically relevant. This article offers a sequence of a dozen facets of the revised assessment process, along with examples of corollary research studies. An eclectic integration of EBM and evidence-based assessment generates a powerful hybrid that is likely to have broad applicability within clinical psychology and enhance the utility of psychological assessments. PMID:23153181

Youngstrom, Eric A

2013-01-01

284

Psychological evaluation of seafarers.  

PubMed

The CIA Factor Assessment is a psychological testing and related research activities carried out under auspices of Wartsila Land and Sea Academy at WLSA Regional Training Centre in the Philippines in June 2003. The purpose was to evaluate seafarers against their mental and physical health and obtain their charachteristic as individuals and as a group. The CIA (Consciousness, Intuition. Anticipation, professional psychometric testing) is a set of tests covering three essential values to determine one's suitability and fitness for work at sea developed in order to recognize and improve potentials of professional seafarers. The results of the evaluation were good. The examined persons had good or very good scores, only few of them were below average, requiring professional individual psychological attention/assistance, extended specialized training, or intensive pertinent testing. PMID:14974779

Jezewska, Maria

2003-01-01

285

School Psychology Resources Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 1,000 annotated links, this Website offers a valuable directory of online resources in the broad and burgeoning field of school psychology. Resources are divided into two broad categories: Specific Conditions, Disorders, and Disabilities, and Other Information. The first includes listings for such topics as Attention Deficit Disorders, Deafness, Eating Disorders, Learning Disabilities, Mental Retardation, Substance Abuse, and Tourette's Syndrome. The second catch-all category includes such topics as Adolescence, Assessment/Evaluation, ERIC Clearinghouses, Law and Education, Mental Health, Professional Organizations, and about a dozen others. The links are authoritative, and the Website is updated daily. A features section also includes an online bookstore, daily cartoon, and jobs information. The site is created and maintained by Sandra Steingart, who holds a doctorate in education and works in the Office of Psychological Services in the Baltimore County Public Schools.

286

Psychological aspects of asthma.  

PubMed

Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures. PMID:12090377

Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

2002-06-01

287

Noba Psychology Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Noba is an online tool that allows teachers to create their own free psychology textbooks by using provided content. Noba consists of nearly 90 short (2500-4000 word) chapters authored by leading instructors and researchers including 7 winners of the William James Award. Chapters are organized in familiar categories (Development, Learning & Memory, Personality, etc.) for easy reference. All Noba materials are licensed through Creative Commons under the CC BY-NA-SA license terms.

288

Social Psychology Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 11,000 links contained within its pages, the Social Psychology Network site is arguably the largest social psychology database on the Internet. Maintained by Professor Scout Plous of Wesleyan University, the site has been generously supported by the National Science Foundation. Visitors will appreciate the very clean layout of the siteâs homepage, as they are presented with a search engine, along with a number of electronic forums, and a listing of related topics. To delve into the siteâs contents, visitors may wish to select from any one of the areas on the left-hand side of the homepage, which include listings of doctoral programs in social psychology and teaching resources. There are numerous other options for interested parties, and they lead to such offerings as rankings of doctoral programs in the field and distance learning options in the field. Finally, visitors can also view many of the siteâs documents in a number of languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.

Plous, Scott

1996-01-01

289

Psychometric issues in the assessment of clinical competencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews studies that included measures of counselor or therapist competencies published between 1977 and mid-1982 in 4 journals: the Journal of Counseling Psychology, Counselor Education and Supervision, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, and Journal of Clinical Psychology. There were 235 instances of measuring clinicians' competencies in 149 studies. Evidence of the reliability and validity associated with the assessment instruments

Michael E. Scofield; Linda L. Yoxtheimer

1983-01-01

290

Psychological aftermath of the King's Cross fire.  

PubMed Central

The King's Cross fire occurred at the end of the evening rush hour, on 18 November 1987. King's Cross station is within the department's health district and we felt a responsibility to respond to the psychological aftermath. The unique features of our intervention were the degree of inter agency coordination, the use of a systematic outreach and screening programme, the collection of psychotherapy outcome measures and the development of an ongoing clinic. The work represents a sustained attempt to assess the nature and prevalence of post-traumatic reactions and the most medically and economically effective form of intervention. In this paper we describe the way our team responded to the high level of psychological distress that we found, we present some preliminary results, outline two therapeutic trials, and refer to the longterm consequences for the work of our department.

Rosser, R; Dewar, S; Thompson, J

1991-01-01

291

Evolutionary psychology and intelligence research.  

PubMed

This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative variation on a monomorphic design allows us to incorporate heritable individual differences in evolved adaptations. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, which is one consequence of the integration of evolutionary psychology and intelligence research, can potentially explain why less intelligent individuals enjoy TV more, why liberals are more intelligent than conservatives, and why night owls are more intelligent than morning larks, among many other findings. The general approach proposed here will allow us to integrate evolutionary psychology with any other aspect of differential psychology. PMID:20455621

Kanazawa, Satoshi

2010-01-01

292

Association for Applied Sport Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The three interrelated focus areas of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) are health and exercise psychology, performance psychology and social psychology. The aim of the Association is to see how "participation in sport, exercise, and physical activity may enhance personal development and well-being throughout the life span." Visitors will find that the "About" section of their website has a "History" link, as well as links to "Awards & Grants," "Fellows," and "Special Interest Groups." The "Publications" link has position papers published by the AASP in PDF format at the bottom of the page; topics of the papers include unethical behavior, choosing a sport psychology consultant, and human diversity. Visitors can check out the "Resource Center" link for information for parents, coaches, and athletes, which cover such topics as mental skills training information and how to teach and apply sport psychology skills.

293

Psychological factors involved in prurigo nodularis: A pilot study.  

PubMed

Emotional stresses and psychological disorders seem to be concurrent factors in some cases of prurigo nodularis (PN), a chronic skin condition with a difficult therapeutic approach. In order to improve the therapeutic strategies, we performed a psychometric study on 20 patients affected by generalized and histological proven PN. Specific questionnaires were employed to examine the hypotheses (General Health Questionnaire, State Trait Anxiety Inventory - form Y, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire). The results show that symptoms of anxiety and depression associated with PN are more severe than in the control group and that some specific traits of personality are more frequently represented in such subjects. The results of our study represent a first attempt to analyze the psychological problems and the personality dimensions which seem to characterize PN patients. Such evidence supports the importance of a psychological approach in the clinical management of PN, which should always include psychological assessment and treatment together with the other therapeutic options. PMID:20666670

Dazzi, Carla; Erma, Daniela; Piccinno, Roberta; Veraldi, Stefano; Caccialanza, Massimo

2011-08-01

294

The Graduate Research Training Environment in Professional Psychology: A Multilevel Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little program-level research on psychology graduate research training environments (RTEs) exists despite the RTE being a program-level (vs. student-level) construct. In the current study, the authors investigated correlates of programs' RTEs, including characteristics of the students, the faculty, and the programs themselves. Proportional stratified sampling of American Psychological Association-accredited PhD programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology yielded data

Jeffrey H. Kahn; Lewis Z. Schlosser

2010-01-01

295

Diversity Issues in Health Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As medicine and psychology join forces in the rapidly growing field of health psychology, the opportunity arises for each\\u000a to benefit from the other. Research in medicine has typically focused on white males in their 30s, while research in psychology\\u000a has focused on upper-middle-class college sophomores. Both approaches tend to neglect issues of populations that differ from\\u000a these norms by

Traci Mann; Pamela M. Kato

296

Mentoring and Psychological Contract Breach  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeMentoring and psychological contracts are related and important organizationally based social exchange relationships. Research\\u000a indicates that social support from internal mentors might buffer the negative effects of psychological contract breach (PCB),\\u000a but less is known about the possible negative influence that mentors might have on psychological contracts. This study investigates\\u000a protgs' perceptions of their mentors failure to fulfill mentoring obligations

Dana L. Haggard

297

Psychology of Intelligence Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new full-length book from the CIA's center for the Study of Intelligence is an attempt to translate and make available to intelligence analysts selected cognitive psychology technical reports on the processing of incomplete and ambiguous information. Compiled by Richards J. Heuer, Jr., the volume "pulls together and republishes, with some editing, updating, and additions, articles written during 1978-86 for internal use within the CIA Directorate of Intelligence." Users can read the full text of the report by section and chapter in HTML format.

Heuer, Richards J.

298

Psychological issues in patient outcomes.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the psychological issues of facial plastic surgery patients. It begins with a review of the research on the preoperative psychological characteristics of cosmetic surgery patients. Results from the studies assessing postoperative changes in psychological status are reviewed. The psychological issues of specific patient groups, including adolescents and male patients, are discussed. Individuals who undergo plastic surgical procedures as a result of craniofacial anomalies or facial injuries often face a myriad of psychosocial challenges. These issues are outlined in brief. The article concludes with a discussion of two psychiatric conditions, body dysmorphic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, that may be frequently encountered by facial plastic surgeons. PMID:12063660

Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E

2002-05-01

299

Evolutionary social psychology: Prospects and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of evolutionary psychology and the traditional assumptions of social psychology are highly compatible. Both disciplines trace observed behavioral variability to situational variability. Both assume that psychological mechanisms sensitive to social information are central to causal accounts of social behavior. Questions about the origins and functions of these psychological mechanisms are indispensable for understanding social behavior. Evolutionary psychology provides

David M. Buss

1990-01-01

300

Positive psychology: Past, present, and (possible) future  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is positive psychology? Where has it come from? Where is it going? These are the questions we address in this article. In defining positive psychology, we distinguish between the meta-psychological level, where the aim of positive psychology is to redress the imbalance in psychology research and practice, and the pragmatic level, which is concerned with what positive psychologists do,

P. Alex Linley; Stephen Joseph; Susan Harrington; Alex M. Wood

2006-01-01

301

A Contemporary Story of School Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification

Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

2012-01-01

302

"Giving Psychology Away": Some Experiences Teaching Undergraduates Practical Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the bulk of most undergraduate psychology curriculum is geared towards preparing students for graduate study. Proposes several specific curriculum changes designed to give the general undergraduate a working and useful knowledge of some of the fundamental concepts concerning psychology. Includes course outlines and structured

Grasha, Anthony F.

1998-01-01

303

Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described

Cox, Jared

2011-01-01

304

Psychology and Pluralism: Toward the Psychological Studies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, it is argued that efforts to devise a unified theory of psychological knowledge are problematic, and that the cultivation of multiple theoretical lenses contributes to a more useful and self-aware psychology. Various forms of unificationism, and the rationales behind such efforts, are discussed. Two drawbacks of unified theories are then explored, along with the virtues of multiplicity.

Suzanne R. Kirschner

2006-01-01

305

The Window on Psychology's Literature: A History of Psychological Abstracts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid expansion of scientific information at the end of the 19th century, disciplines sought ways to keep their members abreast of the relevant research. Those pressures were felt in the science of psychology in the United States, where psychologists developed a bibliographic aid, The Psychological Index, in 1895 only a little more than a

Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.; VandenBos, Gary R.

2006-01-01

306

Conceptual overlap of psychological constructs in low back pain.  

PubMed

The biopsychosocial model is increasingly accepted in low back pain (LBP) research and clinical practice. In order to assess the role of psychological factors in the development and persistence of pain, a wide array of measures has been developed. Yet there is likely to be considerable conceptual overlap between such measures, and consequently, a lack of clarity about the importance of psychological factors. The aims of this study were to investigate the extent of any such overlap. An observational cohort study of 1591 LBP patients consulting in primary care completed data on a range of psychological instruments. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA, respectively) were carried out at the subscale level (n=20) to investigate factor structure. The influences of the derived factors on clinical outcomes (pain intensity and self-reported disability) were then tested using linear regression. EFA yielded 4 factors, termed "Pain-related distress," "Cognitive coping," "Causal beliefs," and "Perceptions of the future," which accounted for 65.5% of the variance. CFA confirmed the validity of these factors models. The pain-related distress factor was found to have the strongest association to LBP patients' outcomes, accounting for 34.6% of the variance in pain intensity, and 51.1% of the variance in disability. Results confirmed that considerable overlap exists in psychological measures commonly used in LBP research. Most measures tap into patients' emotional distress. These findings help us to understand how psychological constructs relate together; implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:23726935

Campbell, Paul; Bishop, Annette; Dunn, Kate M; Main, Chris J; Thomas, Elaine; Foster, Nadine E

2013-09-01

307

Traveling Psychology Fair: Learner-Centered Outreach Activities to Stimulate Interest in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Traveling Psychology Fair is designed to bridge the gap between secondary and college psychology education, encourage enthusiasm for the study of psychology, enhance teaching resources for high school psychology instructors, and promote a deeper understanding of psychological principles for psychology majors. Consisting of 24 outreach

Johnson, Andrew T.; Mandernach, B. Jean

2006-01-01

308

Chronic Hepatitis C and Antiviral Treatment Regimens: Where Can Psychology Contribute?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the existing literature on psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and antiviral treatment; provide the state of the behavioral science in areas that presently hinder HCV-related health outcomes; and make recommendations for areas in which clinical psychology

Evon, Donna M.; Golin, Carol E.; Fried, Michael W.; Keefe, Francis J.

2013-01-01

309

Right-wing authoritarianism, political affiliation, religiosity, and their relation to psychological androgyny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authoritarian personality is characterized by a traditional attitude towards gender roles that reflects its conservative ideology [T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswik, D. J. Levinson, and R. N. Sanford (1950) The Authoritarian Personality, New York: Norton]. The present study investigated the relationship between S. L. Bem's [(1974) sex roles The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,

Gidi Rubinstein

1995-01-01

310

Improving the Recruitment and Retention of American Indian Students in Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a great need to increase the number of American Indian students in psychology, especially in clinical and counseling psychology. Nationally, there are fewer than 200 American Indian psychologists, and most mental health services for Indian people are provided by paraprofessionals, who may be poorly trained for this function. In addition,

Thomason, Timothy C.

311

Frequency and Course of Psychological Distress in Patients Attending an Integrated Primary Care Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent and course of psychological distress were examined in a representative sample of patients attending a primary health care practice in metropolitan Adelaide where general practitioner (GP) and clinical psychologist services are co-located. Scores for psychological distress were similar to national norms. Approximately one in six patients

Winefield, Helen R.; Turnbull, Deborah A.; Taplin, John E.

2005-01-01

312

School Psychology in South America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature discussing professional practices of school psychology in South America is very meager. This study attempted to identify demographic characteristics of school psychologists in four South American countries, their typical responsibilities, significant problems, and threats that jeopardize the delivery of psychological services within

Wechsler, Solange; Oakland, Thomas

313

Psychology's influence on constitutional interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When organized psychology files amicus briefs with the Supreme Court and other courts, it does so for a variety of reasons and seeks to advance a number of policy objectives. The thesis of this article is that pursuit of some of those objectives is improper and that their pursuit threatens to defeat other objectives. Psychology's expertise is not in constitutional

Thomas Grisso; Michael J. Sakst

1991-01-01

314

The first course in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews a literature of 112 titles. He discusses the published objectives of the course and concludes that three major objectives need emphasis: (1) acquaintance with most important and most generally accepted facts, principles, and hypotheses of psychology; (2) development of the habit of critical and objective analysis of psychological problems; (3) understanding on the part of the student

D. Wolfle

1942-01-01

315

Teaching Psychology to Computing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching psychology to computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where psychology is relevant to computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students' education. The second aim is to consider findings

Taylor, Jacqui

2008-01-01

316

The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.

Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

1993-01-01

317

Psychological Anthropology and Educational Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article (1) recommends how psychological anthropologists might more effectively influence educational research; (2) delineates likely priority problems for such research; and (3) takes up a fundamental criticism that might appear to argue that psychological anthropology would not further the study of education. (MM)

Harrington, Charles

1976-01-01

318

THE THEORY DEBATE IN PSYCHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a conceptual analysis of the theory debate in psychology, as carried out by cognitivists and radical behaviorists. The debate has focused on the necessity of theories in psychology. However, the logically primary issue is the nature of theories, or what theories are. This claim stems from the fact that cognitivists and radical behaviorists adopt disparate accounts of

Jos E. Burgos

2007-01-01

319

Psychological models of mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of psychological models for depression and bipolar disorder have at least some empirical support, are in common use and spawned effective psychological treatments for mood disorder. The article will discuss cognitive behaviour therapy and life events and social support models for unipolar depressive episodes, and more briefly review psychodynamic and medication adherence models for depression, and the development

Richard Morriss

2006-01-01

320

Psychology Tomorrow: Explorations of Consciousness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychology is again revitalizing efforts to explore the nature and extent of human consciousness. Although consciousness has always been the central subject matter of psychology, various metholodological and ideological "schools" have often quarreled as to exactly what constitutes the appropriate measure of the subject. What is most significant

Bancroft, Norris R.

321

Objective techniques for psychological assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.

Wortz, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Ross, T.

1973-01-01

322

Elementary psychology for eighth graders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elementary psychology course was offered at Amherst Central High School in Snyder, New York in 1954. Teaching methods included lectures, discussions and oral reports. The major topics studied included heredity and environment, personality types, frustrations and how to deal with them, the psychology of advertising, extrasensory perception, telepathy, parent-child relations, boy-girl relations, and family problems and how to solve

Joseph B. Patti

1956-01-01

323

New developments in forensic psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Briefly introduces the concept of forensic psychology, looking at areas such as stalking behaviour, self-mutilation, and execution competency. Suggests that the forensic psychiatrist needs to remain up to date with recent sexual harassment legislation, the use of neuropsychological testing and the assessment of child abuse. Covers other subjects including hate crime on the Internet, and psychological autopsy. Concludes that to

Suzanne David; Brian H. Kleiner

2001-01-01

324

Self Psychology as Feminist Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the "self psychology" theories of Heinz Kohut tend to neglect gender, they hold promise for feminist theory because they avoid some problems and limitations of the object-relations theory, especially its conflation of femininity with heterosexuality and apparent closure to historical change. Feminist self-psychology theory, in contrast,

Gardiner, Judith Kegan

1987-01-01

325

Integrating Social Justice and Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to extend the model Goodman et al. advanced for making counseling psychology training more useful in the struggle for social justice. In addition to affirming the ideas of Goodman et al., this article offers some specific examples of how conventional, micro-level ideas in U.S. psychology can be scaled upward to be useful across

Watts, Roderick J.

2004-01-01

326

Software Science and Cognitive Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halstead proposed a methodology for studying the process of programming known as software science. This methodology merges theories from cognitive psychology with theories from computer science. There is evidence that some of the assumptions of software science incorrectly apply the results of cognitive psychology studies. HAlstead proposed theories relative to human memory models that appear to be without support from

Neal S. Coulter

1983-01-01

327

Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

Sipes, Walter E.

2006-01-01

328

African-American Psychological Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to define psychological health from the individual perspectives of African-American women and men of different age groups, and to develop a global definition for all African-Americans. The findings suggest that characteristics of psychological health may be the same across race, although specific interpretations and

Edwards, Karen L.

1989-01-01

329

Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

American Psychologist, 2013

2013-01-01

330

Psychological Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Differences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project 'Psychological Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Differences' endeavored to answer key questions in cross-cultural psychology, including what psychological variables generate the largest differences. We created a 315-item online questionnaire repre...

G. Saucier

2013-01-01

331

Application to Graduate Psychology Programs by Undergraduate Students of Color: The Impact of a Research Training Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top 86 students were selected from a pool of approximately 400 applicants to a summer clinical psychology research training program for undergraduate students of color. Forty-three of the students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 clinical psychology research training programs, and 43 were randomly assigned to a control condition without training. The multicultural version of the training program

Gordon C. Nagayama Hall; Carolyn B. Allard

2009-01-01

332

Psychological aspects of pain.  

PubMed

Introduction. Pain is defined "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient's caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects. Objective. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment. State of knowledge. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems. Depression and related psychical disorders. There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms - both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry. Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used showed that pain catastrophizing, independent of the influence of depression, was significantly associated with increased activity in brain areas related to anticipation of pain, attention to pain, emotional aspects of pain and motor control. Pain behaviour is a conditioned pain. Care and concern on the part of others, secondarily enhance a patient's pain behaviours, which lead to an increase in the intensity of the pain experienced. A history of early life adversity (ELA) - rejection, neglect, physical or sexual abuse is related to the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adulthood. Ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Imaging of the human brain in chronic pain. Acute pain and chronic pain are encoded in different regions of the brain. Chronic pain can be considered a driving force that carves cortical anatomy and physiology, creating the chronic pain brain/ mind state. Cognitive-behavioural methods of pain treatment in domains of pain experience, cognitive coping and appraisal (positive coping measures), and reduced pain experience are effective in reducing pain in patients. PMID:25000837

Gorczyca, Rafa?; Filip, Rafa?; Walczak, Ewa

2013-12-30

333

Psychological diagnosis in sexology.  

PubMed

The author presents a model based on verbal and non-verbal instruments in order to elaborate a psychological diagnosis in troubles of sexual behavior. The instruments usually employed are the following: the map aimed at verifying harmony or conflict with significant people; family drawing, another means to check harmony or conflict in the nuclear family; genogram, in order to reconstruct family myths; body drawing aimed at discovering the body parts that give pleasure, uneasiness, annoyance-tickle and the problems connected with genitals; questionnaire on the couple aimed at finding out areas of mutual dissatisfaction; the drawing of the shared space in the couple, represented by the WE area, in order to identify the relational/emotional deficiencies. Using this model we can simplify the anamnesis, focus on the problematic areas, quickly check the unconscious contents and define a diagnosis with the subsequent hypothesis of intervention. PMID:12834033

Giommi, R

2003-01-01

334

Hispanic Psychology: Critical Issues in Theory and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides students, researchers, and practitioners with access to major theoretical and empirical issues in the field of Hispanic psychology. The book is divided into six parts: acculturation and adaptation, ethnic identity and behavior, clinical research and services, health and AIDS research, gender studies research, and education and

Padilla, Amado M., Ed.

335

Genetics and Psychology at a Crossroad: A Road Less Traveled?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More and more people are touched daily by genetic information. Even with the technological accomplishments generated by the Human Genome Initiative, genetic information will continue to produce uncertainty. It is this uncertainty that gives rise to many of the complex clinical dilemmas facing genetic and psychology professionals today. Some of the

Wang, Vivian Ota

336

Integrating Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues into Mainstream Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how clinical and research writings on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues remain invisible to mainstream psychology in such areas as life span development and aging, teen suicide, substance abuse, victimization, and family and couple relationships, examining determinants of wellbeing among GLBs and discussing what mainstream

Goldfried, Marvin R.

2001-01-01

337

Psychological Profile of Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape Instructor Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Psychological Profile of Navy Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) Instructor Personnel is critical to the success of this type of training. Sixty-four SERE instructors were administered a clinical interview; the Shipley, MMPI-2, NEO PI-R,...

J. M. Govia

1994-01-01

338

An Activity Analysis of Supervision During Training in School Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation of the School Psychology Program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) was designed to identify the components of effective supervision in the clinical setting. A survey was conducted of students' (school psychologist trainees) and their supervisors' perceptions of the amount of time spent during supervision

Westervelt, Van Dien; Brantley, John C.

339

The psychological profile of women attending breast-screening tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the benefits of early detection of breast cancer are generally known, only few women attend breast-screening examinations. The study was designed to gain insight into the problem by exploring the psychological profile of clinic attenders. In order to find out whether there is such a profile, 210 self-referred women were compared with 210 nonattending women, from the same working

Shulamith Kreitler; Samario Chaitchik; Hans Kreitler

1990-01-01

340

Psychological profiles of sexually abusive adolescents in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study aimed to profile the psychological and psychosocial characteristics of a group of Irish adolescents who had sexually abused other youngsters.Method: Levels of behavior problems, personal adjustment, anger management, and psychosocial adjustment were compared in 27 Irish adolescents with a history of sexually abusing another youngster (SA group), 20 clinical controls who had significant behavioral problems but no

Maria OHalloran; Alan Carr; Gary OReilly; Declan Sheerin; Joan Cherry; Rhonda Turner; Richard Beckett; Sarah Brown

2002-01-01

341

Light therapy for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objectives To review literature concerning the efficacy, clinical practicability and safety of light treatment for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Method Data collection included computer literature searches (MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Cochrane) and checks of refer- ences, covering the period of January 1980-September 2003. Trials were searched for evidence for treatment efficacy and for their consideration of the

Arvid Skjerve; Bjrn Bjorvatn; Fred Holsten

2004-01-01

342

The Economic and Scientific Future of Forensic Psychological Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The young field of forensic psychological assessment shows great promise. Its future is threatened, however, by economic forces in the legal system that may inhibit the development and use of applied research to strengthen its scientific base. In this article, these forces are explained by (a) describing the domain of clinical psychologists who perform assessments for courts, (b) reviewing current

Thomas Grisso

1987-01-01

343

Doctoral Student Selection in One Professional Psychology Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the determinants of the selection decision for applicants to one clinical Doctor of Psychology program and relationships among selection variables and program performance variables. Results and discussion illuminate the determinants of ratings made of applicants based on reading written application materials and determinants of ratings

King, Daniel W.; And Others

1986-01-01

344

Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have

Smith, David T.

345

Risk Assessment for Psychological Disorders in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Psychological symptoms are common & bothersome in post menopausal women. Hence, screening these women for risk factors for psychological disorders is an important measure to improve their health. Objective: To study the risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women Material & Methods: This was a prospective and observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a North Indian tertiary care hospital. It included a cross-section of 200 postmenopausal women attending gynecology OPD and menopausal clinic. Result: Psychological symptoms were present in 32% postmenopausal women while sleep disturbance and decreased concentration were reported by nearly 34%. Irritability, nervousness and depression were the presenting complaints in 31.5%, 28.5% and 23.5% women respectively. Mild depression was present in 41.5%, whereas 3% women suffered from clinical (moderate to severe) depression. Depression was significantly associated with vasomotor symptoms (p=0.000), past history of depression (p=0.048) and psychosocial stressors (p=0.000). Conclusion: Women during postmenopausal years are at increased risk of psychological disorders; hence assessment of mental health and address of related issues should be an integral part of comprehensive evaluation of these women.

Tamaria, Anuradha; Bharti, Rekha; Sharma, Manjula; Dewan, Rupali; Kapoor, Garima; Aggarwal, Abha; Batra, Achla; Batra, Aruna

2013-01-01

346

Risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Introduction: Psychological symptoms are common & bothersome in post menopausal women. Hence, screening these women for risk factors for psychological disorders is an important measure to improve their health. Objective: To study the risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women Material & Methods: This was a prospective and observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a North Indian tertiary care hospital. It included a cross-section of 200 postmenopausal women attending gynecology OPD and menopausal clinic. Result: Psychological symptoms were present in 32% postmenopausal women while sleep disturbance and decreased concentration were reported by nearly 34%. Irritability, nervousness and depression were the presenting complaints in 31.5%, 28.5% and 23.5% women respectively. Mild depression was present in 41.5%, whereas 3% women suffered from clinical (moderate to severe) depression. Depression was significantly associated with vasomotor symptoms (p=0.000), past history of depression (p=0.048) and psychosocial stressors (p=0.000). Conclusion: Women during postmenopausal years are at increased risk of psychological disorders; hence assessment of mental health and address of related issues should be an integral part of comprehensive evaluation of these women. PMID:24551665

Tamaria, Anuradha; Bharti, Rekha; Sharma, Manjula; Dewan, Rupali; Kapoor, Garima; Aggarwal, Abha; Batra, Achla; Batra, Aruna

2013-12-01

347

Psychological Health in Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Objectives The prevalence of both negative (distress) and positive responses (growth, well-being) to the cancer experience is examined and difficulties in establishing the prevalence of these responses discussed. A conceptual framework for understanding factors associated with psychological health in cancer survivors is presented. Finally, strategies for promoting psychological health in cancer survivors are examined. Data Sources Review of the literature. Conclusions Psychological health in cancer survivors is defined by the presence or absence of distress as well as the presence or absence of positive well-being and psychological growth. Furthermore, psychological health in cancer survivors is determined by the balance between two classes of factors: the stress and burden posed by the cancer experience and the resources available for coping with this stress and burden. Implications for nursing practice In general, promotion of psychological health is based upon the prevention or treatment of distress as well as the encouragement of growth and well-being. Periodic screening for psychological distress across the cancer trajectory is critical to appropriate management of distress.

Andrykowski, Michael A.; Lykins, Emily; Floyd, Andrea

2012-01-01

348

The psychological aspects of burning mouth syndrome.  

PubMed

It should be emphasized that at the present stage there is no consensus achieved regarding the etiopathogenesis of BMS. Almost all researchers point to lots of factors, simultaneously participating in genesis and development of BMS and at the same time most of them agreed on one - psychological factors play a crucial role in formation and maintenance of painful sensations. The aim of the study was the identification of psychological or psychiatric deviations (changes) among the patients with BMS to perform an adequate differentiated therapy. Clinico-psychological examination (dentist, neurologist, psychiatrist) was carried out in 39 patients from 46 to 70 years of age. Among them women - 36 and men - 3. To identify clinical types of BMS a classification of P.J. Lamey (1996) was used and as a result, depression, insomnia, cancerophobia, severe neurologic disorders, phobic syndrome were revealed. Three main categories - a chronic somatoform dysfunction (23 cases), chronic vegetative disorders (8), and chronic pain phenomenon (12) were identified. Only in one case was revealed a paranoid syndrome. Alongside with the well-known scheme of treatment (antidepressants, anticonvulsants, or neuroleptics) Psychotherapy was conducted, while EEG-feed back (Biofeed back, Neurofeed back) method was used for the first time. A number of important decisions were made the most important of which are the following: BMS - must be regarded as a psychosomatic problem rather than a psychiatric disorder. In addition to psychotherapy, using of EEG - feedback method greatly improved patients' condition and in 4 cases BMS clinical manifestations were evened-out completely. PMID:21685517

Kenchadze, R; Iverieli, M; Okribelashvili, N; Geladze, N; Khachapuridze, N

2011-05-01

349

Applications of Gandhian concepts in psychology and allied disciplines  

PubMed Central

The paper highlights the significance of Gandhian concepts in research in psychology and its related fields. To illustrate the application of Gandhian ideology, a test of non-violence is described here with its psychometric properties. Further, two unexplored research issues having a bearing on clinical psychology and psychiatry have been delineated. Firstly, a call for addressing the mental health problems of non-violent protesters numbering over one billion spread all over the world has been made. And secondly, there is a need for understanding the neurological basis of non-violent form of behavior, for example, the role of oxytocin, to increase the legitimacy of non-violence as adaptive behavior.

Kool, Vinod K.

2013-01-01

350

Psychological Consequences of Sexual Trauma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The psychological consequences of sexual trauma among survivors have been widely studied, but research investigations continue, in part, because rates of violence against girls and women remain high. The National Violence Against Women Survey found that 1...

M. Stone M. P. Koss N. P. Yuan

2006-01-01

351

Interactional Psychology and Organizational Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper first reviews some of the classic recent writings on interactional psychology and then presents an interpretation of current thinking about job attitudes, socialization to work, and leadership from the interactionist perspective. In the review,...

B. Schneider

1982-01-01

352

Prospects for a Positive Psychology of Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive psychology explores factors that make life worth living and the human strengths that enable individuals to confront challenges, appreciate others, and regard daily experiences as meaningful. This nascent area's focus can inform the direction of future research and practice in rehabilitation psychology. The authors discuss rehabilitation psychology's positive core strengths, identify positive psychology's levels of analysis and the implications

Dana S. Dunn; Sarah B. Dougherty

2005-01-01

353

Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the 2005 American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. After describing the rationale and results of this task force, the authors review the literature that has appeared following the approval of the Policy Statement on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology by the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives, with reference to the implications

Ronald F. Levant; Nadia T. Hasan

2008-01-01

354

The professional practice of educational psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the potential for the field of educational psychology to move beyond psychology-applied-to-education to develop a unique professional practice component. We argue that many of the things educational psychologists are trained to do and have been doing for years fall within the service provider domain. Educational psychology is the only subfield of psychology to focus on the design

John C. Houtz; Carol D. Lewis

1994-01-01

355

Raising Students' Awareness of Women in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The near invisibility of women's contributions to psychology is a serious problem in the teaching of psychology. We tested the effectiveness of a teaching exercise aimed at increasing students' awareness of women's contributions to psychology. The exercise involved making, displaying, and examining posters about women in psychology. Students (a)

Moradi, Bonnie; Townsend, Deborah T.

2006-01-01

356

The Three Faces of Social Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social psychology's current crisis largely reflects the division of the field into three increasingly isolated domains: psychological social psychology, symbolic interactionism, and psychological sociology. Brief critical discussion of these facets indicates that the strengths of each complement the weaknesses in the others, highlighting a need

House, James S.

1977-01-01

357

A psychological approach to information technology security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses from a psychological standpoint how human and more generally psychological dimensions were taken in consideration by the recent literature related to information technology security. We discuss three main psychologically relevant dimensions such as cognitive hacking, hackers profiling and human errors and distinguish four distinct levels of psychological approaches to information security.

Ivan Enrici; Mario Ancilli; Antonio Lioy

2010-01-01

358

An empirical analysis of trends in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined trends in the prominence of 4 widely recognized schools in scientific psychology: psy- choanalysis, behaviorism, cognitive psychology, and neu- roscience. The results, which replicated across 3 measures of prominence, showed the following trends: (a) psychoan- alytic research has been virtually ignored by mainstream scientific psychology over the past several decades; (b) behavioral psychology has declined in

Richard W. Robins; Samuel D. Gosling; Kenneth H. Craik

1999-01-01

359

The Future of Feminist Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The future status of the field of the psychology of women can be examined by looking at the reasons for the existence of the field. Any field of exploration consists of three components, i.e., a set of scholars, a domain of inquiry, and a methodology. The scholars involved in the psychology of women form a group on the basis of both achieved and

Reinharz, Shulamit

360

Psychological empowerment: Issues and illustrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussed several issues related to psychological empowerment. The thesis of this paper is that the development of a universal\\u000a and global measure of psychological empowerment may not be a feasible or appropriate goal. I begin by distinguishing between\\u000a empowerment processes and outcomes. Underlying assumptions are discussed including the notion that empowerment differs across\\u000a people, contexts, and times. A nomological network

Marc A. Zimmerman

1995-01-01

361

Psychological aspects of nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

Exploring the nature of nuclear war, this treatise examines human reaction to nuclear disaster and accidental explosions. The discussion is based on evidence of human fallibility that has emerged from the psychology of accidents and from research into decision-making in military and political contexts. The book draws on the psychology of negotiation and conflict resolution to suggest ways in which the threat of nuclear war might be reduced.

Thompson, J.

1985-01-01

362

American Psychologys Struggles With Its Curriculum: Should a Thousand Flowers Bloom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although discussions of a core curriculum in doctoral training in psychology can be heard in contemporary psychology, there is no such common core, nor has one ever existed in American psychologys history. Advocates of a core curriculum argue that it ensures breadth of training, an outcome made even more important by growing specialization in psychology, and that it provides psychologists

Ludy T. Benjamin

2001-01-01

363

Publication and Research Trends in Police Psychology: A Review of Five Forensic Psychology Journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police psychology (PP) articles in five forensic psychology journals (Behavioral Sciences and the Law; Criminal Justice and Behavior; Law and Human Behavior; Legal and Criminological Psychology; Psychology, Crime, and Law) were identified in order to examine PP publication and research trends within the field of forensic psychology. A level\\u000a of interest (LI) score was calculated by dividing the total number

Brent Snook; Brandy Doan; Richard M. Cullen; Jennifer M. Kavanagh; Joseph Eastwood

2009-01-01

364

Exploring the psychological and somatic impact of identity theft.  

PubMed

Identity theft is a new and growing form of white-collar crime. This exploratory study examined the psychological and somatic impact of identity theft and coping methods utilized by victims. Thirty-seven victims of identity theft participated in regional victim focus groups. Participants completed a victim impact questionnaire designed by the authors and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). The majority of participants expressed an increase in maladaptive psychological and somatic symptoms post victimization. Results on the BSI indicated that identity theft victims with unresolved cases, in contrast to those with resolved cases, were more likely to have clinically elevated scores when compared with a normative sample. Relatively similar coping mechanisms were utilized across victims. The results from this study suggest that victims of identity theft do have increased psychological and physical distress, and for those whose cases remain unresolved, distress is maintained over time. PMID:14979359

Sharp, Tracy; Shreve-Neiger, Andrea; Fremouw, William; Kane, John; Hutton, Shawn

2004-01-01

365

Advancing psychotherapy and evidence-based psychological interventions.  

PubMed

Psychological models of mental disorders guide research into psychological and environmental factors that elicit and maintain mental disorders as well as interventions to reduce them. This paper addresses four areas. (1) Psychological models of mental disorders have become increasingly transdiagnostic, focusing on core cognitive endophenotypes of psychopathology from an integrative cognitive psychology perspective rather than offering explanations for unitary mental disorders. It is argued that psychological interventions for mental disorders will increasingly target specific cognitive dysfunctions rather than symptom-based mental disorders as a result. (2) Psychotherapy research still lacks a comprehensive conceptual framework that brings together the wide variety of findings, models and perspectives. Analysing the state-of-the-art in psychotherapy treatment research, "component analyses" aiming at an optimal identification of core ingredients and the mechanisms of change is highlighted as the core need towards improved efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy, and improved translation to routine care. (3) In order to provide more effective psychological interventions to children and adolescents, there is a need to develop new and/or improved psychotherapeutic interventions on the basis of developmental psychopathology research taking into account knowledge of mediators and moderators. Developmental neuroscience research might be instrumental to uncover associated aberrant brain processes in children and adolescents with mental health problems and to better examine mechanisms of their correction by means of psychotherapy and psychological interventions. (4) Psychotherapy research needs to broaden in terms of adoption of large-scale public health strategies and treatments that can be applied to more patients in a simpler and cost-effective way. Increased research on efficacy and moderators of Internet-based treatments and e-mental health tools (e.g. to support "real time" clinical decision-making to prevent treatment failure or relapse) might be one promising way forward. PMID:24375536

Emmelkamp, Paul M G; David, Daniel; Beckers, Tom; Muris, Peter; Cuijpers, Pim; Lutz, Wolfgang; Andersson, Gerhard; Araya, Ricardo; Banos Rivera, Rosa M; Barkham, Michael; Berking, Matthias; Berger, Thomas; Botella, Christina; Carlbring, Per; Colom, Francesc; Essau, Cecilia; Hermans, Dirk; Hofmann, Stefan G; Knappe, Susanne; Ollendick, Thomas H; Raes, Filip; Rief, Winfried; Riper, Heleen; Van Der Oord, Saskia; Vervliet, Bram

2014-01-01

366

Psychological Climate: Implications from Cognitive Social Learning Theory and Interactional Psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underlying assumptions and rationale of psychological climate are addressed from the perspectives of cognitive social learning theory and interactional psychology. Major emphasis was placed on the implications of these theoretical models for psychological...

L. R. James J. J. Hater M. J. Gent J. R. Bruni

1977-01-01

367

A Model for a Doctor of Psychology Program in Forensic Psychology: Curriculum and Rationale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)

Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others

1976-01-01

368

Evaluation of the Psychology Place: A Web-Based Instructional Tool for Psychology Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a study that examined the effectiveness of assignments from the Web site "Psychology Place." Focuses on its use in an introductory psychology course," Psychology as a Natural Science" with undergraduate students (n=94). (CMK)

Wilson, Steffen Pope; Harris, Amy

2002-01-01

369

BACKGROUND ON THE PSYCHOLEGAL LEXIS PROPOSAL: Exploring the Potential of a Systematic Case Study Database in Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pragmatic psychology is a recently developed epistemological paradigm that integrates selected elements from each of the opposing sides in forensic psychology: a natural-scientific\\/positivist model that is experimental, group based, quantitatively focused, and deductively theory driven, and a clinical\\/hermeneutic model that is naturalistic, individual case based, qualitatively focused, and inductively description and discovery driven. Applying pragmatic psychology to the psycholegal domain

Daniel B. Fishman

2003-01-01

370

Psychological aspects of infertility.  

PubMed

Forty couples who attended the Infertility clinic of Government Royapettah Hospital, Madras, were included in the study and compared with matched controls who had off springs. All 80 persons were administered the M.H.Q. and the E.P.I. Psychosocial data was recorded and a clinical psychiatric evaluation was done. 51 out of 80 in the study group had psychiatric problems, predominantly depression and anxiety. These problems increased with increasing duration of childless marriage. 40 % of the infertile group had psychosexual dysfunction such as premature ejaculation and erectile disturbances as opposed to 2.5% in the controls. Presence of vaginisms, dysmenorrhea and sexual dissatisfaction were more in the women of the study group. 15 males bad oligospermia/azospermia. PMID:21927198

Thara, R; Ramachandran, V; Hassan, P P

1986-10-01

371

PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INFERTILITY*  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Forty couples who attended the Infertility clinic of Government Royapettah Hospital, Madras, were included in the study and compared with matched controls who had off springs. All 80 persons were administered the M.H.Q. and the E.P.I. Psychosocial data was recorded and a clinical psychiatric evaluation was done. 51 out of 80 in the study group had psychiatric problems, predominantly depression and anxiety. These problems increased with increasing duration of childless marriage. 40 % of the infertile group had psychosexual dysfunction such as premature ejaculation and erectile disturbances as opposed to 2.5% in the controls. Presence of vaginisms, dysmenorrhea and sexual dissatisfaction were more in the women of the study group. 15 males bad oligospermia/azospermia.

Thara, R.; Ramachandran, V.; Hassan, P.P. Mohammed

1986-01-01

372

E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana

373

Contributions of psychology to limiting climate change.  

PubMed

Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological contributions, summarizes what psychology has learned, and sets out an agenda for making additional contributions. It emphasizes that the greatest potential for contributions from psychology comes not from direct application of psychological concepts but from integrating psychological knowledge and methods with knowledge from other fields of science and technology. PMID:21553955

Stern, Paul C

2011-01-01

374

[Psychological aspects of induced abortion].  

PubMed

The present paper, based on the results of international studies, is focused on the reconsideration of the psychological aspects of induced abortion. By presenting a narrow cross-section of the Hungarian demographic data, we would like to emphasise the necessity and the significance of a deeper understanding of the subject. Factors behind the decision-making, short- and long term outcomes of the intervention influencing primarily the mental health of women and partner-relationship aspects are discussed in details. While acknowledging the complexity of the subject deriving from the legal, ethical, moral, religious, medical, social and sociological concerns, our aim is to call attention to the psychological aspects of induced abortion and the importance of psychological care of women undergoing surgical operation. PMID:22232522

Sz Mak, Hajnalka; Veszprmi, Bla

2011-01-01

375

Resources for Teaching Social Psychology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website was created by Professor Jon Mueller of North Central College in order to help fellow professors teach a range of social psychology topics to their students. The resources here are divided into 10 areas, including Online Lectures, Examples of Concepts, and Class Assignments. The site is updated frequently, and visitors can click through each of these sections to get a sense of the offerings. The Topics Resources area contains helpful links and activities related to conformity, aggression, and group influence. Moving on, the site also includes links to other teaching psychology sites, including Science of Relationships and the GoCognitive project, which offers an online center for teaching in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. [KMG

2000-01-01

376

Psychological evaluation and management of pediatric oncology patients in protected environments.  

PubMed

Specific aspects of psychological investigation and management of pediatric patients with widely disseminated solid tumors treated in semiportable, laminar airflow patient isolators are discussed. Information was obtained prospectively from a psychosocial study c-ordinated with a medical investigation of the use of protected environments (PE) employing barrier isolation as an adjunct to intensive anticancer therapy. Included are description of the development of psychological criteria for patient eligibility, psychometric evaluation, longitudinal behavioral observation, pre-entry and predischarge orientation techniques, as well as approaches to the ongoing management of patients and families. No debilitating psychological disturbance has been observed in these patients, and no patients have had to be removed for psychological reasons. Specific transitory psychological changes are noted as are the problems encountered by staff members functioning in such a setting. The adoption of a well-coordinated psychosocial program of investigation and clinical intervention has proved useful in maximizing patient adjustment to prolonged treatment in protected environments. PMID:979916

Kellerman, J; Rigler, D; Siegel, S E; McCue, K; Pospisil, J; Uno, R

1976-01-01

377

The More You Know: The Impact of Publication and Peer-Review Experience on Psychology Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New School Psychology Bulletin (NSPB) is a peer-reviewed journal operated by clinical psychology graduate students. Forty-four members of the editorial board and 27 authors were surveyed before and after working with NSPB. Results of the survey demonstrated that experience with the publication process resulted in quantitative decreases in

Doran, Jennifer M.; Somerville, William; Harlem-Siegel, Jessica; Steele, Howard

2014-01-01

378

Student Reviews of Selected Current Articles in Adolescent Psychology: Academics, Developmental Issues, Psychopathology, Sexual Behavior, Substance Abuse, and Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical annotations of articles written in 1988 or 1989 and selected from "PSYCHSCAN: Clinical Psychology" are presented in this document. The annotations were written by college students in an undergraduate adolescent psychology class. The annotations are clustered under the following topics: (1) academics, including learning disabilities, sleep

Gillis, H. Lee, Ed.; Sirmans, Amanda, Ed.

379

A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and

Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

2009-01-01

380

Acculturation and Acculturative Stress as Predictors of Psychological Distress and Quality-of-Life Functioning in Hispanic Psychiatric Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined acculturation level and type, acculturative stress, and several demographic variables as predictors of psychological distress and health-related quality of life in a sample of 101 Hispanic patients at a community psychiatric clinic. Acculturative stress was predictive of psychological distress beyond the effects of the

Thoman, Lisa Vinuesa; Suris, Alina

2004-01-01

381

Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.  

PubMed

Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert Garca for reviewing and editing an earlier version of this manuscript. PMID:22047002

Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

2012-01-01

382

Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics  

PubMed Central

Behavioral economics improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

Camerer, Colin

1999-01-01

383

Self Psychology and the Empathic Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that concepts such as self-object mirroring are bridging humanistic psychology and psychoanalysis. Information is presented on the self-psychology of Chicago psychoanalyst Heinz Kohut. (Author/DB)

Detrick, Douglas

1981-01-01

384

The Psychological Environment of Protective Shelters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research is focused upon studying the psychological environment that would prevail in such a public fallout shelter during the shelter period. Will there be psychological and sociological problems. If so, what would be the basis for them. What prevent...

G. H. Wright N. H. Fenstermacher

1966-01-01

385

Classroom Demonstrations of Social Psychological Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)

Singleton, Royce Jr.

1978-01-01

386

[Psychological aspects of cancer Information dedicated to patients and relatives].  

PubMed

In response to the evolution of the information-seeking behaviour of patients and concerns from health professionals regarding cancer patient information, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) introduced, in 1998, an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives, the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program (SSP). The methodology of this program adheres to established quality criteria regarding the elaboration of patient information. Cancer patient information, developed in this program, is based on clinical practice guidelines produced by the FNCLCC and the twenty French cancer centres, the National League against Cancer, The National Cancer Institute, the French Hospital Federation, the National Oncology Federation of Regional and University Hospitals, the French Oncology Federation of General Hospitals, many learned societies, as well as an active participation of patients, former patients and caregivers. The information and dialogue handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Vivre pendant et aprs un cancer reporting on the psychological aspects of cancer was worked out and published on the Web in 2005. The guide aims to provide cancer patients with support and advice about the psychological impact of the disease. It provides information on the possible personal consequences of the disease and treatments, in every domain: psychological, emotional, interpersonal, familial or professional. Patients are also advised of the emotional challenges associated with cancer, of the support they may expect at every stage of the disease, from diagnosis to treatment, and of psychological outcome after the disease is over. The document also provides healthcare professionals with a valuable, concise source of validated information on the psychological aspects of cancer, thus facilitating communication between carers and patients. Information provided in the present article has been selected from the information and dialogue handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Vivre pendant et aprs un cancer. The document addresses the issue of the psychological support made available to the patients during and after the disease. The SOR SAVOIR PATIENT guide can be downloaded from the FNCLCC website at: http://www.fnclcc.fr PMID:17338095

Machavoine, Jean-Luc; Bonnet, Valrie; Leichtnam-Dugarin, Line; Dolbeault, Sylvie; Marx, Eliane; Dauchy, Sarah; Flahault, Ccile; Bendrihen, Nicolas; Pelicier, Nicole; Syp, Laurence; Prennec, Marie-Estelle; Dilhuydy, Jean-Marie; Marx, Gilles; Chaussumier, Caroline; Brusco, Sylvie; Carretier, Julien; Delavigne, Valrie; Fervers, Batrice; Philip, Thierry

2007-02-01

387

Some Psychological Benefits of Gardening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological benefits derived from gardening, a leisure activity intimately involved with the natural environment, are examined. Three areas of benefits (tangible outcomes, primary gardening experiences, and sustained interest) were identified and related to the kind of garden, attitudinal, and role variables. (BL)

Kaplan, Rachel

1973-01-01

388

The Unconscious in Self Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

After defining the content of the unconscious in self psychology, the place of repressed archaic selfobject needs, the development of the concept of selfobject is described. The three basic selfobject transferences are portrayed, and the circumstances of healing in the therapeutic process from a Kohutian versus Freudian point of view are defined. Consecutively, the diversifications in the conceptions of the

Hans-Peter Hartmann

2007-01-01

389

Adolescent Psychology around the World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the "International Encyclopedia of Adolescence" (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors are

Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Ed.

2011-01-01

390

Psychological Nigrescence: An Afrocentric Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to two opening articles by Parham ("Cycles of Psychological Nigrescence") and Helms ("Considering Some Methodological Issues in Racial Identity Counseling Research"). The epistemological foundations of the (Non-African-based) source model of Black identity are examined from an Afrocentric perspective. (TE)

Nobles, Wade W.

1989-01-01

391

Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to

Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

2010-01-01

392

Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the

Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

2005-01-01

393

The Foundations of Social Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically there have been three recent attempts to supply an adequate foundation for social psychology. (1) Spencer and Schaeffle have developed a metabiological theory which implies a superconsciousness. Although superconsciousness is far from dead, this theory has not been generally accepted by psychologists. (2) Tarde has set forth a theory which reduces social phenomena to invention, opposition and repetition. Tarde's

K. Dunlap

1923-01-01

394

Psychological Androgyny and Interpersonal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College men and women (N=187) were classified as stereotyped, near-stereotyped, or androgynous by Bem's criteria. Bem's measure of psychological androgyny appears to reflect a highly generalizable personological construct that implicates both desirable and undesirable dimensions of interpersonal behavior. (Author)

Wiggins, Jerry S.; Holzmuller, Ana

1978-01-01

395

Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether the risk factor actually causes outcomes. Random assignment

E. Michael Foster

2010-01-01

396

Implementation Science and School Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The APA Division 16 Working Group on Translating Science to Practice contends that implementation science is essential to the process of translating evidence-based interventions (EBIs) into the unique context of the schools, and that increasing attention to implementation will lead to the improvement of school psychological services and school

Forman, Susan G.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Codding, Robin S.; Gonzales, Jorge E.; Reddy, Linda A.; Rosenfield, Sylvia A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Stoiber, Karen C.

2013-01-01

397

Making Psychology a Household Word  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA

Levant, Ronald F.

2006-01-01

398

Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy

Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

2007-01-01

399

Psychology and Population: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychology and Population is defined as the study of individual dispositions and behavior that affect the size, structure and dispersion of the population, and the way in which acts of individuals enter into the dynamics of population change. Even this definition was viewed as inadequate, ignoring, as it does, the reciprocal effect of population

Fawcett, James T.

400

Cultural Bias in Psychological Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite its reputation for being a scientific and precise tool for measurement, psychological testing is a culturally biased procedure that results in discrimination against minority groups, particularly against minority students. Academic achievement and intelligence tests, the two types of tests most frequently used in public schools, assume

Dent, Harold E.

401

Psychology of chronic pelvic pain.  

PubMed

Women with CPP are psychologically distressed group. Many come from severely disturbed families; a history of physical and sexual abuse is common. Emotional problems and depression are often expressed in terms of somatic complaints. Evaluation of the patient must, from the beginning, include attention to psychosocial factors. Close collaboration with mental health professionals is highly recommended. PMID:8115081

Rosenthal, R H

1993-12-01

402

Psychological management of mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based psychological treatments for adults with unipolar depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are reviewed. There is most empirical evidence for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which is examined in terms of what it is and its evidence base in unipolar depression, including severe, chronic, and treatment-resistant cases. The evidence base for the combination of CBT plus antidepressant treatment, including where continuation

Richard K. Morriss; Jan Scott

2009-01-01

403

Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.  

PubMed

Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive. PMID:21240104

Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

2010-12-01

404

Guidelines for prevention in psychology.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24188360

2014-04-01

405

Learned helplessness and health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews learned helplessness theory and its attributional reformulation for a health psychology audience. Particular emphasis is placed on the idea that not all instances of human helplessness are best described as learned helplessness. Some possible ways to apply the learned helplessness model to health and illness are discussed. (3 p ref)

Christopher Peterson

1982-01-01

406

Readings in Sports Psychology 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this collection of papers the psychology of human behavior and performance is examined as it is revealed by the action and interaction of athletes, coaches, and physical education teachers actively engaged in competitive and noncompetitive sports. The following subjects are discussed: (1) competitive sport and personality development; (2)

Whiting, H. T. A., Ed.

407

School Psychology: A Historical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the past, future concerns of school psychologists will be internal professional interests to the exclusion of the larger social concerns. With the past as a warning, there is a chance to overcome provincialism, favoring more interactions with educators, policymakers, and consumers of school psychology services. (Author/GK)

Abramowitz, Elizabeth A.

1981-01-01

408

Using thematic analysis in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different

Virginia Braun; Victoria Clarke

2006-01-01

409

Emotional Reactivity and Psychological Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an empirical test of Bowen's hypothesized relationships between differentiation of self and psychological symptoms, and examines further evidence for the construct validity of a newly developed instrument, the Behavioral and Emotional Reactivity Index (BERI). Finds an indirect relationship between emotional reactivity

Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Rosen, Karen H.; Stith, Sandra M.

2002-01-01

410

Parental Psychological and Emotional Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological abuse hits a child from many different sources. It is also the most difficult to counter. The counselor is in a delicate position when faced with the child she/he knows is being harmed by his parents. These students need help. (Author/BEF)

Morris, Joan

1979-01-01

411

Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also

Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin

2012-01-01

412

Psychological management of wound pruritus.  

PubMed

Objective: To explore the psychological treatment options for pruritus in patients with wounds. Method: This study employed a narrative design with a search being completed using the databases Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and CINAHL Plus. All articles between 1980-2013 that included the following search terms: [pruritus OR itch OR itching] AND [management OR psychological interventions OR treatment] AND [wounds OR burns OR wounds burns] were included in the review. Results: A number of psychological treatments options emerged from the literature search that were suggested to be effective for treating itching. These included methods such as habit reversal, suggestions, relaxation, massage and itch-coping programmes. Each of these methods showed potential for improving the patient experience by reducing itching, although the research evidence is currently somewhat limited. Conclusion: Although itching is a common symptom in wounds, the use of psychological treatments for this may be rather limited. The treatments discussed show promise and their use should be a welcome addition to the healthcare professional's armoury for working with people with wounds. Declaration of interest: There were no external sources of funding for thist study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. PMID:24920200

Upton, D; Penn, F; Richardson, C; Rippon, M

2014-06-01

413

The Social Psychology of Hatred  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatred has not typically been a topic of research in the field of social psychology, although several components which embody hatred have been studied extensively in this field. Social psychologists have tradition- ally considered prejudice, stereotyping, discrimination and intergroup aggression to be highly important and socially relevant topics for research, and thousands of studies by social psychologists have examined these

Evan R. Harrington

414

New ideas in industrial psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six of the current concepts in the field of industrial psychology which appear to the author to be important are discussed. They are: (1) that of Lewin and his colleagues concerning the motivation of workers, (2) the Likert and Katz group studies on factors in worker morale, (3) the approach of Shartle and his group to the study of leadership,

Edwin E. Ghiselli

1951-01-01

415

Influencing Policy with Social Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to this acceptance speech delivered by the recipient of the 1987 Kurt Lewin Award, social psychological contributions should be placed within an interdisciplinary framework and an institutional structure in order to make it more relevant for public policy. Recommendations for doing this are offered. (BJV)

Pettigrew, Thomas F.

1988-01-01

416

The cognitive psychology of gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent studies have shown there may be a strong cognitive bias in explaining persistent gambling. Theories that have been put forward include the illusion of control, cognitive regret, biased evaluations and the psychology of the near miss. Two exploratory studies examining the acquisition, development and maintenance of gambling behaviour involving adolescent fruit machine gamblers were carried out.

Mark D. Griffiths

1990-01-01

417

Contemporary Educational Psychology. Fifth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive coverage of the theories and basic concepts of educational psychology is provided. Also included are information on how they can be applied in a variety of learning situations and concrete advice for planning, implementing, and improving instruction. The focus is on teacher education. The chapters are: (1) "Classrooms, Teachers,

Good, Thomas L.; Brophy, Jere

418

Toward the quantification of psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory psychology, although it quantitatively measures temporal, spatial, and intensive differences, is considered a qualitative science, because sensations show qualitative and modality differences. These must be accounted for by some selective process, which is usually assigned to the end organ rather than to the afferent nerve terminal. A study of the nature of stimulation, however, shows that afferent nerves and

J. P. Nafe

1942-01-01

419

Board Certification in Counseling Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about

Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

2012-01-01

420

Psychological Barriers to Behavior Change  

PubMed Central

Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires changing patterns of behavior. This article describes three categories of psychological barriers to behavior change: those that prevent the admission of a problem, those that interfere with initial attempts to change behavior, and those that make long-term change difficult. Strategies are identified that family physicians can use to overcome the barriers.

Olson, James M.

1992-01-01

421

The Psychology of Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher needs to be well versed in the teaching of reading. There is content to read in each curriculum area regardless of the grade level taught. There also are clearly differentiated programs of instruction. Each is based on a selected psychological school of thought. Educators need to study and analyze each school of thought to see where it

Ediger, Marlow

2004-01-01

422

The Psychology of Reading Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each clearly differentiated program of reading instruction is based on a selected psychological school of thought. Rather than emphasizing one traditional plan of teaching, the teacher needs to study and analyze the student's curricular achievement to see what fits into the learner's repertoire of skills and knowledge. The materials and methods of

Ediger, Marlow

423

The Psychological Impact of Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present article is to review the literature on the psychological impact of rape on adult female victims. Typical patterns of recovery, types of symptoms, and variables affecting recovery are all reviewed. Among the problems discussed are fear and anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, poor self-esteem, social adjustment issues, and sexual dysfunctions. The moderating variables that are

PATRICIA A. RESICK

1993-01-01

424

Gender responses to psychological distress among Palestinians: Risk and protective factors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the extent to which differences in the presence of trauma, political and normative stressors, resources, coping, and hardiness could account for variation in gender responses to psychological distress among Palestinians. Participants were 624 males and females aged 27-56years. Questionnaires were administered in an interview format with participants at home. Results indicated that female gender has been associated with psychological distress. The females in this study reported feeling distressed by intrafamily strains, whereas males reported feeling distressed by work and family strains as well as losses. Political stressors were more predictive of psychological distress than was the presence of trauma or normative stressors. The sociodemographics had different patterns of relations with psychological distress. Females' education was negatively related to psychological distress, whereas the family income was negatively related to psychological distress in males. No significant differences between males and females were found in their coping responses. However, cognitive and behavioural strategies Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales (F-COPES) seem to combine and had an impact on psychological distress of females only. Also, family hardiness was evidenced to have an influence on perceived psychological distress in both genders. The clinical and policy implications of these conclusions were discussed. PMID:25040004

Khamis, Vivian

2014-08-01

425

Effects of Mindfulness on Psychological Health: A Review of Empirical Studies  

PubMed Central

Within the past few decades, there has been a surge of interest in the investigation of mindfulness as a psychological construct and as a form of clinical intervention. This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of mindfulness on psychological health. We begin with a discussion of the construct of mindfulness, differences between Buddhist and Western psychological conceptualizations of mindfulness, and how mindfulness has been integrated into Western medicine and psychology, before reviewing three areas of empirical research: cross-sectional, correlational research on the associations between mindfulness and various indicators of psychological health; intervention research on the effects of mindfulness-oriented interventions on psychological health; and laboratory-based, experimental research on the immediate effects of mindfulness inductions on emotional and behavioral functioning. We conclude that mindfulness brings about various positive psychological effects, including increased subjective well-being, reduced psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and improved behavioral regulation. The review ends with a discussion on mechanisms of change of mindfulness interventions and suggested directions for future research.

Keng, Shian-Ling; Smoski, Moria J.; Robins, Clive J.

2013-01-01

426

Family Relationship Quality is Associated with Psychological Distress, Dyspnea, and Quality of Life in COPD  

PubMed Central

Family relationship quality predicts medical outcomes in various health conditions, including stroke, end stage renal disease, and heart failure. Family relationships also influence the onset and course of depression and anxiety disorders. Family may be particularly important in COPD given the high prevalence of depression and anxiety in COPD patients and the association of depression and anxiety with important clinical features of COPD such as dyspnea. The objective of this study was to test three hypotheses in a sample of individuals with COPD: 1) unsupportive family relationships are associated with psychological distress; 2) psychological distress is associated with dyspnea and impairment in health-related quality of life; and 3) unsupportive family relationships are indirectly associated with dyspnea and health-related quality of life via psychological distress. Cross-sectional data were collected via self-report questionnaires completed by 526 individuals with COPD. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses. All three hypotheses were supported. Unsupportive family relationships were associated with psychological distress, psychological distress was associated with dyspnea and impairment in health-related quality of life, and unsupportive family relationships were indirectly associated with dyspnea and health-related quality of life via psychological distress. If subsequent longitudinal investigations demonstrate that unsupportive family relationships do indeed lead to psychological distress among individuals with COPD, then interventions to improve family relationships of patients with COPD could lead to reductions in psychological distress and, ultimately, to improvements in dyspnea and quality of life.

Holm, Kristen E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Make, Barry J.; Wamboldt, Frederick S.

2009-01-01

427

Industrial and Social Psychology at the Free University, Amsterdam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report briefly reviews education in psychology in The Netherlands. It discusses work of the Departments of Test Development and Industrial Psychology of the Laboratory of Industrial Psychology, and of the Laboratory of Social Psychology, the Free Univ...

N. H. Berry

1968-01-01

428

Psychology as a Moral Science: Aspects of John Deweys Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents an interpretation of certain aspects of John Deweys psychological works. The interpretation aims to show that Deweys framework speaks directly to certain problems that the discipline of psychology faces today. In particular the reflexive problem, the fact that psychology as an array of discursive practices has served to constitute forms of human subjectivity in Western cultures. Psychology

Svend Brinkmann

2004-01-01

429

Coverage of Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks: An Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the extent to which industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology is covered within introductory psychology textbooks (n=54). Determined whether I/O psychology was in a section, appendix, or chapter; and also compiled the number of pages that contained I/O psychology. Reports that only one-fourth of the textbooks had an overview. (CMK)

Maynard, Douglas C.; Geberth, Karen L.; Joseph, Todd A.

2002-01-01

430

Mixed Methods, Culture, and Psychology: A Review of Mixed Methods in Culture-Specific Psychological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This methodological review was undertaken to explore how researchers use mixed methods in culture-specific psychological research. Mixed methods represents a budding approach with the potential to explore the nexus of context and psychology, capturing the uniqueness of psychological phenomena within cultures. Twelve empirical studies that used mixed methods in culturally specific psychology were examined to determine designs commonly used as

Theodore T. Bartholomew; Jill R. Brown

2012-01-01

431

Sampling of Empirically Supported Psychological Treatments From Health Psychology: Smoking, Chronic Pain, Cancer, and Bulimia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions in health psychology and behavioral medicine represent an integral area of research for the development of psychological therapies to enhance health behaviors, manage symptoms and sequelae of disease, treat psychological symptoms and disorders, prolong survival in the face of a life-threatening illness, and improve quality of life. A sampling of interventions in health psychology and behavioral medicine is offered

Bruce E. Compas; David A. F. Haaga; Francis J. Keefe; Harold Leitenberg; David A. Williams

1998-01-01

432

Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to

Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

2012-01-01

433

The Asian American Psychological Association: Parallels and Intersections with Counseling Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect

Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny

2012-01-01

434

Measuring psychological flexibility in medical students and residents: a psychometric analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Psychological flexibility involves mindful awareness of our thoughts and feelings without allowing them to prohibit acting consistently with our values and may have important implications for patient-centered clinical care. Although psychological flexibility appears quite relevant to the training and development of health care providers, prior research has not evaluated measures of psychological flexibility in medical learners. Therefore, we investigated the validity of our learners responses to three measures related to psychological flexibility. Methods Fourth-year medical students and residents (n=275) completed three measures of overlapping aspects of psychological flexibility: (1) Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II); (2) Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire (CFQ); and (3) Mindful Attention and Awareness Questionnaire (MAAS). We evaluated five aspects of construct validity: content, response process, internal structure, relationship with other variables, and consequences. Results We found good internal consistency for responses on the AAQ (?=0.93), MAAS (?=0.92), and CFQ (?=0.95). Factor analyses demonstrated a reasonable fit to previously published factor structures. As expected, scores on all three measures were moderately correlated with one another and with a measure of life satisfaction (p<0.01). Conclusion Our findings provide preliminary evidence supporting validity of the psychological flexibility construct in a medical education sample. As psychological flexibility is a central concept underlying self-awareness, this work may have important implications for clinical training and practice.

Palladino, Christie L.; Ange, Brittany; Richardson, Deborah S.; Casillas, Rhonda; Decker, Matt; Gillies, Ralph A.; House, Amy; Rollock, Michael; Salazar, William H.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Zeidan, Ronnie; Stepleman, Lara

2013-01-01

435

Psychological Jurisprudence and Radical Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organized psychology increasingly seeks to promote human welfare through appellate court briefs, legislative advocacy, and other means consistent with an emerging psychological jurisprudence that directs legal attention to fundamental psychological values such as dignity, privacy, justice, equality, and autonomy. It is suggested that this well-meaning liberal agenda is wedded to a legal status quo that prevents significant social change through

Dennis R. Fox

1993-01-01

436

Developing the Psychological Capital of Resiliency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these turbulent times, we propose the importance of developing the psychological capital dimension of resiliency. After providing the theoretical background and meaning of psychological capital in general and resiliency in particular, the authors present proactive and reactive human resource development (HRD) strategies for its development. The proactive HRD includes increasing psychological assets, decreasing risk factors, and facilitating processes that

Fred Luthans; Gretchen R. Vogelgesang; Paul B. Lester

2006-01-01

437

Psychological preparation for the Olympic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review research literature on psychological preparation for Olympic Games performance. We address research identifying psychological characteristics associated with Olympic performance success, studies examining how these attributes are developed, stress and coping in Olympians, evaluation studies of the Olympic experience with particular emphasis on factors influencing performance, and the best practice literature on effective Olympic psychological consultations. Key principles are

Daniel Gould; Ian Maynard

2009-01-01

438

The psychology of aesthetic plastic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aesthetic plastic surgery and psychology are closely linked, as the aesthetic plastic surgeon is dealing with people's emotional, psychological, and social needs and aspirations. This article presents an overview of the relationship between the two professional disciplines. The minority of patients with psychiatric or psychological problems is described, and their treatment is considered in relation to both disciplines. We then

Eileen Bradbury

1994-01-01

439

Adult Children of Alcoholics and Psychological Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes investigation of relationship between parental alcoholism and psychological distress and mediating effects of social support and hardiness among undergraduates. Suggests parental alcoholism is positively related to psychological distress and higher levels of social support and hardiness are associated with lower levels of psychological

Kashubeck, Susan

1994-01-01

440

Reporting psychological pre-employment screening results  

Microsoft Academic Search

What sort of report you would like from you provider of psychological services may depend a great deal on your department's position on a number of variables. These variables include the number of applicants per hiring slot, concern over litigation, amount of weight given to psychological testing in the hiring process, and how the department views the psychological assessment. Ordinarily,

James Janik

1995-01-01

441

Screening for psychologically traumatized rape victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study aimed to determine whether the General Health Questionnaire, a simple psychological screening instrument, could be useful to non-specialists in screening for psychologically traumatized rape victims. Study design: 285 rape victims (mean age 22.5, men 8%) attending consecutively a Consultation for Victims of Psychological Trauma at the University Hospital in Tours, France, were assessed through the Structured Interview

J. M Darves-Bornoz; F Pierre; J. P Lpine; A Degiovanni; P Gaillard

1998-01-01

442

Facilitating Rigorous Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research methods have much to contribute to theoretical and applied knowledge in rehabilitation psychology. However, as a discipline, rehabilitation psychology has been behind the curve in employing qualitative methods. Objectives: This article is a summary of the state of qualitative research in rehabilitation and an introduction to various methodological dimensions to consider in implementing qualitative rehabilitation psychology research. Types

Kathleen Chwalisz; Sheetal R. Shah; Kayla M. Hand

2008-01-01

443

The Ideology of Logic in Contemporary Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. In this article, Kendler sought to resolve the methodological issue that divides much of contemporary psychology--namely, the difference between natural science and human science in their respective views of psychological life. Whereas Kendler

Olson, Rex

2006-01-01

444

Toward an Understanding of Media Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the psychology of multimedia. Topics include software development, including decisions about sound and image quality; theories of multiple intelligences; the psychology of learning; a model that includes semantics, semiotics, and synthetics; and the impact of media psychology on the use of multimedia for learning. (LRW)

Luskin, Bernard J.

1996-01-01

445

Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher

Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

2012-01-01

446

Health Care Megatrends and Health Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health psychology is a major new area of professional psychological practice that has emerged during a period of rapid changes in the health care industry. In this article, published literature is examined for historical, educational, and health care delivery system contributions. Four megatrends in medicine and health care that impinge upon health psychology are described.

Richard H. Dana; W. Theodore May

1986-01-01

447

Counseling Psychology in the Minnesota Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews history of counseling psychology at University of Minnesota, noting contributions of Donald Paterson and his associates in 1920s and 1930s and of E. G. Williamson, John Darley, and Gilbert Wrenn in establishment of American Psychological Association (APA) Division of Counseling Psychology. Notes that Minnesota offers APA-accredited

Borow, Henry

1990-01-01

448

Educational and Training Models in Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic psychology has experienced remarkable growth over the past three decades. Perhaps the best evidence of this growth is the number of forensic psychology training programs currently enrolling students. Those interested in forensic psychology can choose from several types of programs aimed at different educational outcomes. In addition, opportunities for postdoctoral fellowships, continuing education, and respecialization have

David DeMatteo; Geoffrey Marczyk; Daniel A. Krauss; Jeffrey Burl

2009-01-01

449

Job Satisfaction, Leisure Satisfaction, and Psychological Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures the job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health of 189 full-time employed men. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were significant positive predictors of psychological health. Although job satisfaction was higher for white collar workers than for blue collar workers, the prediction of psychological health was

Pearson, Quinn M.

1998-01-01

450

Teaching Psychological Report Writing: Content and Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of teaching graduate students in school psychology to write psychological reports that teachers and parents find readable and that guide intervention. The consensus from studies across four decades of research is that effective psychological reports connect to the client's context; have clear

Wiener, Judith; Costaris, Laurie

2012-01-01

451

Psychological Test Use in Criminal Forensic Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors surveyed forensic psychologists and psychiatrists (about 80% of whom were board certified) regarding their use of psychological testing in evaluations for competence to stand trial (CST; n = 102) and criminal responsibility (CR; n = 96), as well as their opinions about the importance of psychological testing for these evaluations. Psychological testing was perceived as either essential or

Randy Borum; Thomas Grisso

1995-01-01

452

Werner's Relevance for Contemporary Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the contributions of Heinz Werner to developmental psychology and identifies the tensions between Werner's theory and the practices of contemporary developmental psychology. Core issues of Werner's psychology concern: (1) development as heuristic, rather than phenomenon; (2) developmental process analysis; and (3) conceptions of the

Glick, Joseph A.

1992-01-01

453

Education and Psychology: The Relationship Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses relationship problems between psychology and education, sources of potential conflict between research and practice, and how a conceptual framework for better communication between education and psychology may be evolved. Educational psychologists should work to avoid estrangement of psychology from education through promoting mutual

Clark, Philip M.

1978-01-01

454

A Test of Contemporary Misconceptions in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a contemporary misconception test based on popular myths in psychology. Misconceptions in psychology are commonplace, strongly held, and can be problematic for teaching accurate information. This study examined several predictors of misconceptions in eleven psychological topic areas. We also

Gardner, Rick M.; Brown, Dana L.

2013-01-01

455

Improving Construct Validity with Cognitive Psychology Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines testing practices in: (1) the past, in which the traditional paradigm left little room for cognitive psychology principles; (2) the present, in which testing research is enhanced by principles of cognitive psychology; and (3) the future, in which the potential of cognitive psychology should be fully realized through item design.

Embretson, Susan; Gorin, Joanna

2001-01-01

456

National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula" attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best

American Psychologist, 2013

2013-01-01

457

Desiderata: Towards Indigenous Models of Vocational Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of a relative lack of cross-cultural validity in most current (Western) psychological models, indigenous models of psychology have recently become a popular approach for understanding behaviour in specific cultures. Such models would be valuable to vocational psychology research with culturally diverse populations. Problems facing

Leong, Frederick T. L.; Pearce, Marina

2011-01-01

458

Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological

Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

2013-01-01

459

The Magic of Psychology in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational psychology is a curricular requirement for most teacher preparation programs in the world. Knowledge of educational psychology is assessed on examinations for teacher licensure in most jurisdictions, and understanding of psychology is assumed to be indispensible for effective teaching at all levels. Traditional university-based

Fendler, Lynn

2012-01-01

460

The Memorability of Introductory Psychology Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost 2 million students enroll in introductory psychology each year in the United States, making it the second most popular undergraduate course in the nation. Introductory psychology not only serves as a prerequisite for other courses in the discipline but for some students this course provides their only exposure to psychological science.

Landrum, R. Eric; Gurung, Regan A. R.

2013-01-01

461

Implications of cognitive psychology for educational testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to examine views about learning and the learner grounded in cognitive psychology and to discuss their implications for educational testing. The new perspectives about learning and the learner suggested by cognitive psychology imply changes in educational testing. The first part of this paper compares perspectives about learning and the learner in cognitive psychology with

Sun-Geun Baek I

1994-01-01

462

Biological priority and psychological supremacy: a new integrative paradigm derived from process theory.  

PubMed

Process theory is a comprehensive theory of physical and psychological processes that can serve to integrate biological, social, and psychodynamic psychiatry. Process theory uses concepts derived from mathematical dynamics and Heraclitus's process philosophy. It provides three novel and clinically applicable concepts: 1) biological priority and psychological supremacy (as contrasted to theories of biological or psychological primacy), 2) union of opposites (as contrasted to psychoanalytic and dialectic conflicts and to systems homeostasis), and 3) creative bifurcations (as contrasted to determinism and developmental theories). PMID:2686474

Sabelli, H C; Carlson-Sabelli, L

1989-12-01

463

The psychology of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis: a review.  

PubMed

Fatigue is a frequent and disabling symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is difficult to define and measure. Today, MS-related fatigue is not fully understood, and evidence related to explanatory pathophysiological factors are conflicting. Here, we evaluate the contribution of psychological factors to MS-related fatigue. Insight into the possible underlying psychological mechanisms might help us to develop adequate psychological interventions and to improve the overall management of fatigue. Conceptual issues and the relationships between MS-related fatigue and mood, anxiety, cognition, personality, and cognitive-behavioral factors are discussed, and the implications for clinical practice and research are presented. PMID:19073287

Bol, Yvonne; Duits, Annelien A; Hupperts, Raymond M M; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Verhey, Frans R J

2009-01-01

464

[The state of the psychological contract and its relation with employees' psychological health].  

PubMed

In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues. PMID:17296041

Gracia, Francisco Javier; Silla, Inmaculada; Peir, Jos Mara; Fortes-Ferreira, Lina

2006-05-01

465

Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology.  

PubMed

After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research. PMID:23394178

Teo, Thomas

2013-02-01

466

Reformulating Psychological Difficulties in People with Parkinson's Disease: The Potential of a Social Relational Approach to Disablism  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the psychological difficulties experienced by people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is dominated by individualistic neurobiological and psychological perspectives. Therefore, this opinion paper draws on a reformulation of the social model of disability, Thomas' (1999) and (2007) social relational approach to disablism, to offer an alternative way of conceptualising psychological difficulties experienced by people with PD. This opinion paper explores the ways in which socially imposed restrictions and stigma may contribute to psychological difficulties by using Thomas' (2007) concept of psychoemotional disablism. By using the lens of psychoemotional disablism, this paper demonstrates that people with PD can be exposed to stigmatising attitudes and interactions which could contribute to restrictions, feelings of shame, and psychological difficulties such as depression. Accordingly, it is argued that further attention to the link between psychological difficulties and social dimensions of disablism in PD is needed in both research arenas and clinical practice to broaden understandings and interventions for people with PD.

Simpson, Jane; McMillan, Helen

2013-01-01

467

Moralized Psychology or Psychologized Morality? Ethics and Psychology in Recent Theorizing about Moral and Character Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral philosophy seems well placed to claim the key role in theorizing about moral education. Indeed, moral philosophers have from antiquity had much to say about psychological and other processes of moral formation. Given this history, it may seem ironic that much systematic latter-day theorizing about moral education has been social scientific,

Carr, David

2007-01-01

468

The needs of older adults with schizophrenia Implications for psychological interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper assesses whether the needs of people with schizophrenia over 65years differ from those of younger adults with the diagnosis. It reviews studies comparing older and younger adults and older adults with schizophrenia and non-clinical or clinical controls on measures of psychosocial functioning. It also considers how psychological interventions can be best designed to cater for the specific needs

Katherine Berry; Christine Barrowclough

2009-01-01

469

A Model for Training Graduate Psychology Students to Become Legally Informed Clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

A legally informed clinician is one who possesses sufficient knowledge of mental health law to recognize and address legal issues that arise in clinical practice (Bersoff et al., 1997). This article argues that students, programs, and the communities they serve have much to gain by training graduate students to become legally informed clinicians. The authors describe how one clinical psychology

Krissie Fernandez; Karen M. Davis; Mary Alice Conroy; Marcus T. Boccaccini

2009-01-01

470

Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate

Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

2012-01-01

471

Ecological Psychology and Social Psychology: It is Holt, or Nothing!  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists\\u000a could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished\\u000a from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering\\u000a the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and

Eric P. Charles

2011-01-01

472

Psychological factors and coronary heart disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although psychological factors play an important role in coronary heart diseases (CHD), it seems there is a need for more researches in this respect. The present study aimed to review psychological factors, including depression, anxiety and stress related to etiology and prognosis of CHD. METHODS This was a review on medical and psychological literatures, particularly in the years 1995-2012. RESULTS As protective factor or risk factor, psychological factors play an important role in CHD. CONCLUSION Given the findings of this study, it seems necessary that we pay attention to psychological factors, as independent risk factors or protective factors for CHD.

Khayyam-Nekouei, Zohreh; Neshatdoost, Hamidtaher; Yousefy, Alireza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Manshaee, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

473

Live related renal transplantation: psychological, social, and cultural issues.  

PubMed

Cadaveric donation rates have remained static, whereas transplant waiting lists continue to rise as demand for renal transplants far exceeds supply. One solution to bridge the supply and demand gap is to increase live donation. If live donation is to increase, it is important to offer evidence-based psychologic and social support to ensure that transplant clinical success is not at the cost of psychologic and social harm. This article reports the findings of two substantive qualitative studies, both examining similar aspects of live donation: study A from a psychologic perspective and study B from a social-cultural perspective. The findings show that living-related renal donors do not express regret after donation and do report enhanced self-esteem. The decision to donate is immediate and altruistic for most parents, although some fathers expressed a degree of ambivalence. The decision to donate is more difficult and complex for siblings and may lead to conflict between family of birth and family of marriage. Reciprocity and feelings of obligation did not appear to cause relationship difficulties for siblings but were reported by some of the adolescent recipients who had received a parental graft, leading to psychologic distress and social-familial alienation. These two qualitative studies have demonstrated psychosocial risks within the live donation process. These risks should be recognized within transplant programs and professional care provided to ensure confidential presurgery donor and recipient advocacy and continuing psychosocial support for the family unit postdonation. PMID:14578766

Franklin, Patricia M; Crombie, Alison K

2003-10-27

474

Ecological psychology and social psychology: it is Holt, or nothing!  

PubMed

What is the greatest contribution that ecological psychologists can offer social psychology? Ideally, ecological psychologists could explain how people directly perceive the unique properties of their social partners. But social partners are distinguished from mundane objects because they possess mental traits, and tradition tells us that minds cannot be seen. When considering the ideal possibility, we reject that doctrine and posit minds as perceivable. For ecological psychology, this entails asserting that minds are the types of things able to structure ambient energy. Contemporary research and theory suggests distinctly ecological ways of attacking this problem, but the problem is not new. Almost 100years ago, Holt argued for the visibility of minds. Thus when considering these ideas, ecological psychologists face a choice that is at once about their future and their past. Extending ecological psychology's first principles into the social realm, we come to the point where we must either accept or reject Holt's arguments, and the wider context they bring. In doing so, we accept or reject our ability to study the uniquely social. PMID:20440585

Charles, Eric P

2011-03-01

475

Evolutionary psychology. Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations.  

PubMed

Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychological theories; some from empirical findings that may have disturbing implications; some from misunderstandings about the logic of evolutionary psychology; and some from reasonable scientific concerns about its underlying framework. This article identifies some of the most common concerns and attempts to elucidate evolutionary psychology's stance pertaining to them. These include issues of testability and falsifiability; the domain specificity versus domain generality of psychological mechanisms; the role of novel environments as they interact with evolved psychological circuits; the role of genes in the conceptual structure of evolutionary psychology; the roles of learning, socialization, and culture in evolutionary psychology; and the practical value of applied evolutionary psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current evolutionary psychology. PMID:20141266

Confer, Jaime C; Easton, Judith A; Fleischman, Diana S; Goetz, Cari D; Lewis, David M G; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M

2010-01-01

476

Psychological presentations without hepatic involvement in Wilson disease.  

PubMed

Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive inborn error of copper metabolism that leads to neurologic symptoms and variable degrees of hepatic damage. The most common characteristic signs clinically are liver disease, psychiatric disease, neurologic disease, or a combination of these. Early recognition by means of clinical signs and an early initiation of therapy using chelators or zinc-salts are essential for a good outcome and prognosis. This report describes a male suffering from Wilson disease who exhibited an unusual presentation that included psychological manifestations without hepatic involvement. He was initially treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and a seizure disorder until brain imaging established the diagnosis of Wilson disease. PMID:16996405

Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Wong, Mun-Ching

2006-10-01

477

Positive psychology in psychological interventions in rehabilitation medicine.  

PubMed

Human beings have always tackled their problems and the adversities of life by drawing on their own resources, resilience, and values, and yet the focus on pathology has effectively long dominated the cognitive approach of psychologists to ill-being. Psychological interventions in rehabilitation medicine were formed around the codification and containment of the ill-being, in an almost surgical or antibiotic sense of "correcting" the negativity: identifying and removing or combating the ill-being, or, if possible, its sources; the distance to be covered was from negativity to zero: absence of ill-being as a synonym for well-being. But what makes a 20-year-old tetraplegic look to the future? Where does someone who has been waiting for heart transplant for one, two or three years find the strength to carry on while living on 18 drugs and no more than two little bottles of water a day? In its use in the context of health care, positive psychology is that part of psychology that takes on the task--among others--of deciphering the mechanisms through which it becomes possible to adapt to a chronic illness. But not only. Positive psychology also offers the opportunity to systematise knowledge concerning the possibility of overreaching the distance from negativity to zero, of going beyond, of nourishing positivity, enriching and improving oneself, despite the presence of an organic disease or a disability. Positive psychotherapy does not negate painful or unpleasant experiences, but encourages the use of resources to understand weaknesses and it is contributing substantially to drawing our attention back to optimism, courage, positive emotions, flexibility, creativity, faith, hopes, honesty, perseverance, flourishing and on their relationships with physical health. A different language from the one that years of pragmatism have accustomed us to. If positive psychology can help our patients to see, through the pain, anger and fear, something that makes their life still worth living, it only remains to add it to the tools of our trade. PMID:21488485

Majani, Giuseppina

2011-01-01

478

Affect as a Psychological Primitive  

PubMed Central

In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness.

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

2009-01-01

479

[Psychological disorders and environmental pollution].  

PubMed

In the past years Environmental Medicine has established itself in the departments of community medicine. The clients of these health offices as well as those attending other Environmental Outpatient Departments and who suffer from anxiety in connection with environmental pollution show increasingly psychomatic and even psychiatric disturbances. This paper demonstrates, from the psychiatrists as well as the environmental physicians point of view, the relationship between psychological disturbances and environmental pollution in a typical case-history. The differentiation between possibly toxically induced symptoms and psychologically caused symptoms will be made clear. The aim of this interdisciplinary paper is to contribute towards reducing contact anxiety between Psychiatry und Environmental Medicine also to reduce the clients' fears of psychiatrisation and thus to facilitate therapeutic intervention. PMID:11285753

Schauer, A; Dornow, R

2001-02-01

480

Is Psychoanalysis a Folk Psychology?  

PubMed Central

Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these extensionists, asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennetts theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues.

Arminjon, Mathieu

2013-01-01

481

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

PubMed Central

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

2012-01-01

482

Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies  

PubMed Central

Background The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for individuals with specific psychosocial problems. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search using PubMed, PsychInfo, the Cochrane register, and manual searches. Forty articles, describing 39 studies, totaling 6,139 participants, met the criteria for inclusion. The outcome measures used were subjective well-being, psychological well-being and depression. Positive psychology interventions included self-help interventions, group training and individual therapy. Results The standardized mean difference was 0.34 for subjective well-being, 0.20 for psychological well-being and 0.23 for depression indicating small effects for positive psychology interventions. At follow-up from three to six months, effect sizes are small, but still significant for subjective well-being and psychological well-being, indicating that effects are fairly sustainable. Heterogeneity was rather high, due to the wide diversity of the studies included. Several variables moderated the impact on depression: Interventions were more effective if they were of longer duration, if recruitment was conducted via referral or hospital, if interventions were delivered to people with certain psychosocial problems and on an individual basis, and if the study design was of low quality. Moreover, indications for publication bias were found, and the quality of the studies varied considerably. Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis show that positive psychology interventions can be effective in the enhancement of subjective well-being and psychological well-being, as well as in helping to reduce depressive symptoms. Additional high-quality peer-reviewed studies in diverse (clinical) populations are needed to strengthen the evidence-base for positive psychology interventions.

2013-01-01

483

[Psychological characteristics of Cushing's syndrome].  

PubMed

Psychological state of 15 patients with Cushing's syndrome was studied, including 8 subjects with bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia, 4 with adrenocortical adenoma, 2 with hypophyseal adenoma and 1 with adrenocortical cancer. The weakened intellect was noted in patients, suffering from adrenocortical hyperplasia. Low emotional stability, anxiety, suspiciousness and hesitation were characteristic of the patients under study. Psychic stability was lowered. A possible role of endogenous and exogenic factors of depression, as well as the conditions of hospitalization for such patients are discussed. PMID:7156071

Alvarez, M A; Navarro, D

1982-01-01

484

Free Will in Scientific Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTSome actions are freer than others, and the difference is palpably important in terms of inner process, subjectiveperception,andsocialconsequences.Psychology can study the difference between,freer and less free actions without,making,dubious,metaphysical,commitments. Human evolution seems to have created a relatively new, more,complex,form of action control that corresponds,to popular,notions of free will. It is marked,by self-control and rational choice, both of which are highly adaptive,

Roy F. Baumeister

2008-01-01

485

[Bronchial asthma and psychological stress].  

PubMed

Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation and activation of inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils and mast cells, in the bronchial wall and airway lumen. The behavior of inflammatory cells in asthmatic airways is tightly regulated by a network of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Studies on asthmatics and asthma models of mice have revealed that psychological stress increases the frequency and severity of asthmatics' symptoms by enhancing the airway inflammatory responses associated with further skewing of the balance toward a Th2-dominant cytokine profile. However, the precise mechanisms linking the input to the brain (psychological stress) to the output in the airways (asthma exacerbations) are not well understood. The binding of opioid peptides to their receptors, consisting of three subtypes, mu, delta, and kappa, plays a critical role in eliciting homeostatic responses to psychological stress. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated by opioids under stressful conditions through binding to mu-opioid receptors (MOR). Activation of the HPA axis results in the enhanced secretion of cortisol. This stress hormone has been reported to shift the immune response from Th1 to Th2 by the down-regulation of Th1 cytokine expression. Recently, we found, using a murine model, that restraint causing psychological stress exacerbates allergen-induced airway inflammation and Th2 cytokine expression via MOR in the central nervous system. A novel strategy for the management and prevention of stress-induced asthma should be developed, focusing on molecular events such as the activation of MOR. PMID:20408448

Ohno, Isao

2010-03-01

486

sci.psychology.psychotherapy.moderated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new Usenet Group, moderated by a team of six people, including John Grohol, one of the founders of the well known Mental Health Net (discussed in the October 4, 1996 Scout Report), "exists as a forum for the discussion of psychotherapy." Appropriate discussion topics include: particular types of psychotherapy, particular psychological disorders, research relevant to psychotherapy, psychopharmacological treatments, diagnostic issues, employment opportunities, conference announcements, and relevant research.

1997-01-01

487

Memory metaphors in cognitive psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In describing memory phenomena in natural language, a spatial metaphor is typically employed. Memories are considered to be\\u000a objects that are stored in a mind space, and the process of retrieval is conceived as a search for these objects. It is argued\\u000a that this metaphor has been carried over into many of the popular theories of memory in cognitive psychology

Henry L. Roediger

1980-01-01

488

Inductive Measures of Psychological Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight summary dimensions of psychological climate, i.e., autonomy, trust, cohesiveness, pressure, support, recognition, fairness, and innovation, were derived from over 80 differently labeled dimensions reported in the literature. Five item scales of each summary dimension were developed and tested in a sample (n = 367) of managerial employees. Coefficients alpha for the scales ranged from 0.80-0.89. When the 40 items

Daniel J. Koys; Thomas A. DeCotiis

1991-01-01

489

Psychological interventions in early psychosis.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of psychological treatments in schizophrenia has been explored in controlled trials over the last 15 years leading to the conclusion that they are an important adjunct to antipsychotic medication in the treatment of the disorder. Family interventions and cognitive-behavioral treatments have received the most attention. However, studies have mainly been carried out with individuals with chronic, treatment-resistant psychosis, where participants have already been stabilized on antipsychotic medication, and there has been little evaluation of approaches with people with a first episode of schizophrenia. This article will review the literature relating to cognitive-behavioral individual and family interventions in early psychosis. The little evidence that exists suggests that family interventions and individual cognitive-behavioral interventions are acceptable to first-episode patients and that patients can be retained in treatment. In addition, some studies suggest that psychological treatments convey advantages over standard treatments for psychosis in terms of reducing the transition from pre-psychotic states to full-blown psychosis, reducing residual psychotic symptomatology, and improving caregiver outcomes. Considerable work is needed to elucidate the specific needs of first-episode patients and to rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions. The challenges to be met in developing treatments in this area relate to addressing the developmental needs of this group, incorporating substance use routinely into interventions, and developing treatments that are specific to the phase of illness that the individuals are experiencing. PMID:16006594

Haddock, Gillian; Lewis, Shn

2005-07-01

490

Psychology Experiments on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PsychExperiments is an extraordinary online cognitive and social psychology laboratory site developed with funding from the US Department of Education's Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education (FIPSE). Visitors, including faculty and students, can participate in interactive online experiments, download and analyze cumulative data from over 35 ongoing and completed experiments conducted over the last five years, and consult support materials in preparation for using or developing on-site experiments. Recently added experiments include Learning and Memory, Semantic Differential, Perception of Gender in Facial Features, the Be A Juror study, and a Wheel of Fortune study. The data are designed to be downloaded in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and participation in online experiments requires a Shockwave Authorware player. A link is also provided to a substantial chapter-by-chapter summary of the recently published Psychological Experiments on the Internet, edited by Michael H. Birnbaum, complete with links to data and experiment Websites relevant to each article. Psychology Experiments on the Internet is hosted by the University of Mississippi.

2000-01-01

491

Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress.  

PubMed

Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students (N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also tested, but failed to support, a mediational model with Time 2 (mid-semester) procrastination as a hypothesized mechanism through which Time 1 (early-semester) perfectionism would affect Time 3 (end-semester) psychological distress. An alternative model with Time 2 perfectionism as a mediator of the procrastination-distress association also was not supported. Within-time analyses revealed generally consistent strength of effects in the correlations between the 3 constructs over the course of the semester. A significant interaction effect also emerged. Time 1 procrastination had no effect on otherwise high levels of psychological distress at the end of the semester for highly perfectionistic students, but at low levels of Time 1 perfectionism, the most distressed students by the end of the term were those who were more likely to have procrastinated earlier in the semester. Implications of the stability of the constructs and their association over time, as well as the moderating effects of procrastination, are discussed in the context of maladaptive perfectionism and problematic procrastination. PMID:22352949

Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Clark, Dustin

2012-04-01

492

An introduction to primary care and psychology.  

PubMed

The health care system in the United States has been less effective and more expensive than it needs to be, but the organizational and political will to address these shortcomings is beginning to emerge. These changes are particularly noticeable in primary care, at the heart of an improved health care system. The value of primary care turns on its comprehensiveness, which means that behavioral health care-health behavior change, mental health care, management of psychological symptoms and psychosocial distress, and attention to substance abuse-must be woven into the fabric of primary care practice. This integration is beginning to happen as psychologists and other behavioral health clinicians are incorporated as essential team members in the patient-centered medical home and other emerging models of primary care. This article introduces psychologists to the fundamental changes taking place in primary care and to the various roles that psychologists can play in the new health care system. We describe the extensive breadth and diversity of primary care by age, sex, setting, and type of clinical problem and the implications of this variety for the psychologist's role. This description is not simply a clinical exercise: Transformation of the primary care system also has policy, educational, and research dimensions. We describe how psychologists are essential to these functions as well. PMID:24820682

McDaniel, Susan H; deGruy, Frank V

2014-01-01

493

Psychologic Interventions for the Anxious Dental Patient  

PubMed Central

This article asserts that pharmacologic usage can be reduced by understanding that pain is composed of somatic, affective, and cognitive elements; the dentist should be assertive in addressing and dealing with the emotional and psychological aspects of the anxious and fearful patient. The dentist can measure levels of anxiety and fear through self-report and records of dental care; an easily administered test of dental anxiety, such as the Dental Anxiety Scale; and a structured interview in a nonoperatory setting. For those patients exhibiting a moderate amount of anxiety, attention to basic aspects of good clinic care should be sufficient. For those patients manifesting a high level of anxiety, a treatment program implemented by a dental clinical assistant is outlined and recommended. The treatment program is intended to increase patient relaxation, positive cognitive coping statements, sensory information, sense of control, and confidence in handling the dental procedures. At any level of anxiety, it is recommended that patients be abundantly praised for any element of success in dealing with the stress of their dental experience. Lastly, for those patients who do not respond to treatment efforts to reduce anxiety, it is recommended that the dentist establish a regular consultation with a psychologist who is an expert in treating dental fear and anxiety.

Pawlicki, Robert

1987-01-01

494

Intergenerational effects of war trauma among Palestinian families mediated via psychological maltreatment.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that intergenerational effects of parents' war trauma on offspring's attachment and mental health are mediated by psychological maltreatment. Two hundred and forty children and their parents were sampled from a war-prone area, Gaza, Palestine. The parents reported the number and type of traumatic experiences of war they had had during their lifetime before the child's birth and during a current war when the child was 10-12 years old. The children reported their war traumas, experiences of psychological maltreatment, attachment security, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and aggression. The direct and indirect intergenerational effects of war trauma were tested in structural equation models. The hypotheses were confirmed for father's past war exposure, and disconfirmed for mother's war exposure. The father's past war trauma had a negative association with attachment security and positive association with the child's mental health problems mediated by increased psychological maltreatment. In contrast, the mother's past war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression via decreased psychological maltreatment. The mother's current war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression and aggression via decreased psychological maltreatment. Among fathers, past war exposure should be considered as a risk factor for psychological maltreatment of children and the associated attachment insecurity and mental health problems. Among mothers, war exposure as such could be given less clinical attention than PTSS in the prevention of psychological maltreatment of children. PMID:23768956

Palosaari, Esa; Punamki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; Diab, Marwan

2013-11-01

495

Psychological symptoms and intermittent hypertension following acute microwave exposure  

SciTech Connect

Two men who were accidently, acutely irradiated with X-band microwave radiation have been followed up clinically for 12 months. Both men developed similar psychological symptoms, which included emotional lability, irritability, headaches, and insomnia. Several months after the incidents, hypertension was diagnosed in both patients. No organic basis for the psychological problems could be found nor could any secondary cause for the hypertension. A similar syndrome following microwave exposure has been described by the East Europeans. The two cases we report, with comparable subjective symptoms and hypertension following a common exposure, provide further strong, circumstantial evidence of cause and effect. A greater knowledge of the mechanisms involved in bioeffects which may be induced by radiofrequency and microwave radiation is definitely needed.

Forman, S.A.; Holmes, C.K.; McManamon, T.V.; Wedding, W.R.

1982-11-01

496

Health psychology and distress after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study of 23 adult haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients is to compare the presence of post-transplantation depression disorders by gender and to compare the outcomes among those with and without depressive disorders using a health psychology focus. This cross-sectional pilot study of mid-term survivors took place in hospital outpatient clinic. Main outcome measures are depression disorders, health status (Short Form-12) and health anxiety. Female survivors had a higher rate of depression disorders, but those with treated depressive disorders were similar to those without depression on health-related quality of life and health anxiety. Neither patient age nor time since HSCT was associated with depressive disorders. A health psychology approach may enhance management of HSCT survivorship. PMID:19473223

DeMarinis, V; Barsky, A J; Antin, J H; Chang, G

2009-01-01

497

Pediatric headache: associated psychosocial factors and psychological treatment.  

PubMed

All relevant databases (i.e., Pubmed, PsycINFO) were searched for studies published in 2011-2013 focusing on the association of behavioral, cognitive-emotional, and psychosocial factors with recurrent headache in children and adolescents. Only 3 studies were found dealing with psychological intervention for headache; only 2 of them presented empirical data but were not conducted as a RCT. Eleven studies (clinical and population) were concerned with the association of psychosocial factors, dysfunctional psychological traits, and symptoms and headache or examined certain pain features (triggers, course over time, disability). Most studies were interested in the association of cognitive-emotional symptoms (e.g., internalizing symptoms, anxiety) and their relation to headache, including a meta-analysis. In nearly all studies, a close bond between negative affectivity and headache, especially migraine, was revealed. PMID:23645184

Krner-Herwig, Birgit

2013-06-01

498

Essential Paul Meehl lessons for personality assessment psychology.  

PubMed

The author presents four essential Meehl lessons for personality assessment. First, Meehl's particular form of the integration of science and practice is described. Second, by outlining Meehl's Hedonic Capacity conjecture, Meehl's contribution to the inclusion of personality individual differences in generating the full clinical picture and i