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Sample records for clinical psychology

  1. Understanding egorrhea from cultural-clinical psychology

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Jun; Wada, Kaori; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Based on his observations in Japanese clinical settings, Fujinawa (1972) conceptualized egorrhea syndrome, which includes symptoms such as erythrophobia, fear of eye-to-eye confrontation, olfactory reference syndrome, delusions of soliloquy, delusions of sleep talking, and thought broadcasting. The key feature of this syndrome is self-leakage, a perceived sense that one's personal internal information, such as feelings and thoughts, are leaking out. To reach a more comprehensive understanding of egorrhea, this paper aims to present general overview and reconsider the phenomenon of self-leakage using cultural-clinical psychology as a framework. First, the symptoms of egorrhea are reviewed in relation to other related psychopathologies such as social anxiety disorder (SAD) and taijin kyofusho (TKS), as well as schizophrenia. Second, a series of empirical studies conducted using Japanese non-clinical samples are summarized. The results of these studies form the basis for subsequent discussions, which incorporates the cultural-clinical psychology perspective proposed by Ryder et al. (2011). This paper ends with a general discussion regarding implications for research and clinical practice. PMID:24348445

  2. Mentoring Women in Clinical Psychology: A Case Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Janet R.

    This presidential address is based on a personal mentoring history. It begins by examining two pioneering women in clinical psychology, Dr. Mildred Bessie Mitchell and Lillian Shuck Wolfe. Topics examined are: (1) factors that led them to choose a career in clinical psychology; (2) whether they think it is important for women in clinical training…

  3. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  4. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  5. Integrative Data Analysis in Clinical Psychology Research

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Integrative Data Analysis (IDA), a novel framework for conducting the simultaneous analysis of raw data pooled from multiple studies, offers many advantages including economy (i.e., reuse of extant data), power (i.e., large combined sample sizes), the potential to address new questions not answerable by a single contributing study (e.g., combining longitudinal studies to cover a broader swath of the lifespan), and the opportunity to build a more cumulative science (i.e., examining the similarity of effects across studies and potential reasons for dissimilarities). There are also methodological challenges associated with IDA, including the need to account for sampling heterogeneity across studies, to develop commensurate measures across studies, and to account for multiple sources of study differences as they impact hypothesis testing. In this review, we outline potential solutions to these challenges and describe future avenues for developing IDA as a framework for studies in clinical psychology. PMID:23394226

  6. Revisioning Clinical Psychology: Integrating Cultural Psychology into Clinical Research and Practice with Portuguese Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed-method research with the Portuguese community. The model demonstrates its value with ethnic minority clients by situating the clients within the context of their multi-layered social reality. The individual, familial, socio-cultural, and religio-moral domains are explored in two research projects, revealing the interrelation of these levels/contexts. The article is structured according to these domains. Study 1 is a quantitative study that validates the Agonias Questionnaire in Ontario. The results of this study are used to illustrate the individual domain of our proposed model. Study 2 is an ethnography conducted in the Azorean Islands, and the results of this study are integrated to illustrate the other three levels of the model, namely family, socio-cultural, and the religio-moral levels. PMID:23720642

  7. Making the history of psychology clinically and philosophically relevant.

    PubMed

    Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    2002-08-01

    The author discusses ways to make the history of psychology course relevant for a clinical psychology doctoral program within a multidenominational Protestant theological seminary. She uses a personalist orientation to emphasize the need to integrate psychology, philosophy, and theology. She differentiates among the intrapersonal, interpersonal, impersonal, and transpersonal dimensions of experience. She illustrates the rich multidisciplinary historical roots of contemporary psychology by tracing the the history of the term psychology and examining its meanings in the existential psychology of Søren Kierkegaard and in the 19th-century novel. She includes brief histories of the "new psychology" and of the unconscious. She describes how she uses the field of psychotheological integration to illustrate principles of historiography and summarizes resources used to supplement traditional textbooks. PMID:12269333

  8. Current Status and Future Prospects of Clinical Psycholog

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Timothy B.; McFall, Richard M.; Shoham, Varda

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The escalating costs of health care and other recent trends have made health care decisions of great societal import, with decision-making responsibility often being transferred from practitioners to health economists, health plans, and insurers. Health care decision making increasingly is guided by evidence that a treatment is efficacious, effective–disseminable, cost-effective, and scientifically plausible. Under these conditions of heightened cost concerns and institutional–economic decision making, psychologists are losing the opportunity to play a leadership role in mental and behavioral health care: Other types of practitioners are providing an increasing proportion of delivered treatment, and the use of psychiatric medication has increased dramatically relative to the provision of psychological interventions. Research has shown that numerous psychological interventions are efficacious, effective, and cost-effective. However, these interventions are used infrequently with patients who would benefit from them, in part because clinical psychologists have not made a convincing case for the use of these interventions (e.g., by supplying the data that decision makers need to support implementation of such interventions) and because clinical psychologists do not themselves use these interventions even when given the opportunity to do so. Clinical psychologists’ failure to achieve a more significant impact on clinical and public health may be traced to their deep ambivalence about the role of science and their lack of adequate science training, which leads them to value personal clinical experience over research evidence, use assessment practices that have dubious psychometric support, and not use the interventions for which there is the strongest evidence of efficacy. Clinical psychology resembles medicine at a point in its history when practitioners were operating in a largely prescientific manner. Prior to the scientific reform of medicine in the early 1900s, physicians typically shared the attitudes of many of today’s clinical psychologists, such as valuing personal experience over scientific research. Medicine was reformed, in large part, by a principled effort by the American Medical Association to increase the science base of medical school education. Substantial evidence shows that many clinical psychology doctoral training programs, especially PsyD and for-profit programs, do not uphold high standards for graduate admission, have high student–faculty ratios, deemphasize science in their training, and produce students who fail to apply or generate scientific knowledge. A promising strategy for improving the quality and clinical and public health impact of clinical psychology is through a new accreditation system that demands highquality science training as a central feature of doctoral training in clinical psychology. Just as strengthening training standards in medicine markedly enhanced the quality of health care, improved training standards in clinical psychology will enhance health and mental health care. Such a system will (a) allow the public and employers to identify scientifically trained psychologists; (b) stigmatize ascientific training programs and practitioners; (c) produce aspirational effects, thereby enhancing training quality generally; and (d) help accredited programs improve their training in the application and generation of science. These effects should enhance the generation, application, and dissemination of experimentally supported interventions, thereby improving clinical and public health. Experimentally based treatments not only are highly effective but also are cost-effective relative to other interventions; therefore, they could help control spiraling health care costs. The new Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System (PCSAS) is intended to accredit clinical psychology training programs that offer highquality science-centered education and training, producing graduates who are successful in generating and applying scientific knowledge. Psychologists, universities, and other stakeholders should vigorously support this new accreditation system as the surest route to a scientifically principled clinical psychology that can powerfully benefit clinical and public health. PMID:20865146

  9. Expertise in Clinical Psychology. The Effects of University Training and Practical Experience on Expertise in Clinical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Sabine; Spada, Hans; Caspar, Franz; Burri, Salome

    2013-01-01

    How do university training and subsequent practical experience affect expertise in clinical psychology? To answer this question we developed methods to assess psychological knowledge and the competence to diagnose, construct case conceptualizations, and plan psychotherapeutic treatment: a knowledge test and short case studies in a first study, and a complex, dynamically evolving case study in the second study. In our cross-sectional studies, psychology students, trainees in a certified postgraduate psychotherapist curriculum, and behavior therapists with more than 10?years of experience were tested (100 in total: 20 each of novice, intermediate, and advanced university students, postgraduate trainees, and therapists). Clinical knowledge and competence increased up to the level of trainees but unexpectedly decreased at the level of experienced therapists. We discuss the results against the background of expertise research and the training of clinical psychologists (in Germany). Important factors for the continuing professional development of psychotherapists are proposed. PMID:23543213

  10. Ethical Issues in Mentoring Doctoral Students in Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Anna; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical issues abound in any relationship that is defined by differences between the parties in rank, status, and power. Such is the case in the relationship between a doctoral student in clinical psychology and his or her mentor. In this article, we examine several potential areas of ethical concern within the mentor-student relationship. We…

  11. Multiple Regression Analyses in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaccard, James; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida

    2006-01-01

    A major form of data analysis in clinical child and adolescent psychology is multiple regression. This article reviews issues in the application of such methods in light of the research designs typical of this field. Issues addressed include controlling covariates, evaluation of predictor relevance, comparing predictors, analysis of moderation,…

  12. Comparing School and Clinical Psychology Internship Applicant Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Emery B.; Perfect, Michelle M.; Edwinson, Roxanne M.

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of internship applicants to internship positions listed in the online directory of the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) is estimated at 1.23:1. In 2014a, approximately 14% of all students who participated in the match were not placed. Although the internship crisis impacts students in clinical,…

  13. Comparing School and Clinical Psychology Internship Applicant Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Emery B.; Perfect, Michelle M.; Edwinson, Roxanne M.

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of internship applicants to internship positions listed in the online directory of the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) is estimated at 1.23:1. In 2014a, approximately 14% of all students who participated in the match were not placed. Although the internship crisis impacts students in clinical

  14. Accessing the BIOSIS Previews Database in Clinical Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Bob

    The efficacy of using the BIOSIS Previews database as an online information retrieval tool in clinical psychology was investigated in a study conducted at the University of West Florida. Recognizing the importance of multi-database searching strategies when seeking comprehensive results, this study compared the citation output of this…

  15. Accessing the BIOSIS Previews Database in Clinical Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Perdue, Bob

    The efficacy of using the BIOSIS Previews database as an online information retrieval tool in clinical psychology was investigated in a study conducted at the University of West Florida. Recognizing the importance of multi-database searching strategies when seeking comprehensive results, this study compared the citation output of this…

  16. Ethnicity and clinical psychology: a content analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Iwamasa, Gayle Y; Sorocco, Kristen H; Koonce, Danel A

    2002-07-01

    As the demographics of the U.S. population continues to change and become increasingly diverse, clinical psychologists will need to demonstrate their competence in providing culturally appropriate treatments to a wide variety of populations. This article summarizes a comprehensive content analysis of five of the leading scholarly journals in clinical psychology over a 17-year period (1980-1997). Results indicate that only 29.3% of the published articles in the clinical psychology literature included ethnic minority participants. Furthermore, only 5.4% of the articles actually focused specifically on ethnic minority populations. Thus, the clinical psychology literature does not contain adequate coverage of ethnically diverse populations in the U.S., despite their growing numbers. This content analysis provides the field with a baseline for future comparison to determine whether the field in general is responding to the needs of an increasingly diverse society, and to help gauge whether clinical psychologists have the scholarly resources available to assist them with becoming more culturally competent. Implications for the paucity of research and recommendations to ameliorate the problem are discussed. PMID:12214331

  17. Tobacco Cessation Training in Clinical Psychology and Clinical Social Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfelder, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tobacco and smoking cessation training and curriculum in graduate clinical psychology and graduate clinical social work programs. The current status of the clinical graduate programs' tobacco education curricula was evaluated by using the Transtheoretical Model's Stages of Change. Perceived barriers to…

  18. Tobacco Cessation Training in Clinical Psychology and Clinical Social Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinfelder, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tobacco and smoking cessation training and curriculum in graduate clinical psychology and graduate clinical social work programs. The current status of the clinical graduate programs' tobacco education curricula was evaluated by using the Transtheoretical Model's Stages of Change. Perceived barriers to…

  19. ["Psychological employees" in psychiatry. The establishment of clinical psychology at the example of Lilo Süllwolds diagnostic efforts to incipient schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Lilo Süllwold (*1930) was the first psychologist in the German Federal Republic to acquire habilitation for Clinical Psychology at a Medical Faculty. However, she had already been appointed professor for Clinical Psychology following to a new University Act implementing the recommendations of the National Council of Science and Humanities. Her habilitation treatise to justify the initial professorship appointment centered on a self-made questionnaire as a diagnostic tool for beginning schizophrenia. The manner how the questionnaire together with the politico-scientific structural changes at the German Federal universities endowed the young psychologist with a carrier in psychiatry, is an illuminating example of psychology's way into psychiatry: the institutionalization and professionalization of Clinical Psychology in psychiatry since the end of the 1950s up to the end of the 1970s. In a comparative perspective on the developments of Clinical Psychology in the German Democratic Republic, the example demonstrates not only the role of new psychological theories und methods in research and clinic in enabling the entry of the new profession into psychiatry, but also the importance of initial socio-economic and socio-politic frame conditions and decisions. The negotiation of the scope or limits of competences between doctors and psychologists created more than a professional niche inside the clinic; it changed psychiatry and psychology as academic branches in their structures due to the establishment of new Clinical Psychology departments. The role of the psychologist turned from a doctor's "assistant" into a colleague at "eye level". PMID:26821495

  20. Guidelines for clinical supervision in health service psychology.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This document outlines guidelines for supervision of students in health service psychology education and training programs. The goal was to capture optimal performance expectations for psychologists who supervise. It is based on the premises that supervisors (a) strive to achieve competence in the provision of supervision and (b) employ a competency-based, meta-theoretical approach to the supervision process. The Guidelines on Supervision were developed as a resource to inform education and training regarding the implementation of competency-based supervision. The Guidelines on Supervision build on the robust literatures on competency-based education and clinical supervision. They are organized around seven domains: supervisor competence; diversity; relationships; professionalism; assessment/evaluation/feedback; problems of professional competence, and ethical, legal, and regulatory considerations. The Guidelines on Supervision represent the collective effort of a task force convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). PMID:25581007

  1. Exploring Clinical Psychology Doctoral Students' Attitudes towards Adults with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundon, Chandra R.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether clinical psychology doctoral students hold uniquely stigmatizing views of adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to adults with other clinical disorders. Through the use of clinical vignettes and attitudinal measures, three hypotheses investigated clinical psychology doctoral students'…

  2. Exploring Clinical Psychology Doctoral Students' Attitudes towards Adults with Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundon, Chandra R.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether clinical psychology doctoral students hold uniquely stigmatizing views of adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) compared to adults with other clinical disorders. Through the use of clinical vignettes and attitudinal measures, three hypotheses investigated clinical psychology doctoral students'…

  3. Empirically supported psychological treatments: the challenge of evaluating clinical innovations.

    PubMed

    Church, Dawson; Feinstein, David; Palmer-Hoffman, Julie; Stein, Phyllis K; Tranguch, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Clear and transparent standards are required to establish whether a therapeutic method is "evidence based." Even when research demonstrates a method to be efficacious, it may not become available to patients who could benefit from it, a phenomenon known as the "translational gap." Only 30% of therapies cross the gap, and the lag between empirical validation and clinical implementation averages 17 years. To address these problems, Division 12 of the American Psychological Association published a set of standards for "empirically supported treatments" in the mid-1990s that allows the assessment of clinical modalities. This article reviews these criteria, identifies their strengths, and discusses their impact on the translational gap, using the development of a clinical innovation called Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) as a case study. Twelve specific recommendations for updates of the Division 12 criteria are made based on lessons garnered from the adoption of EFT within the clinical community. These recommendations would shorten the cycle from the research setting to clinical practice, increase transparency, incorporate recent scientific advances, and enhance the capacity for succinct comparisons among treatments. PMID:25265265

  4. Changing the Clinical Psychology Training Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This paper proposes that the American Psychological Association establish a standard model of training for doctoral programs in clinical psychology requiring a specific number of credits, along with specific course recommendations appropriate for practice in the 21st century. This model should reflect the impact of psychology on the biological…

  5. Of Course: Prerequisite Courses for Admission into APA-Accredited Clinical and Counseling Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.; Stratigis, Katerina Y.; Zimmerman, Barrett E.

    2014-01-01

    Students often inquire about which psychology courses to complete in preparation for graduate school. This study provides data that enable students and their advisors to make research-informed decisions. We surveyed the directors of the 304 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology (97%…

  6. Of Course: Prerequisite Courses for Admission into APA-Accredited Clinical and Counseling Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.; Stratigis, Katerina Y.; Zimmerman, Barrett E.

    2014-01-01

    Students often inquire about which psychology courses to complete in preparation for graduate school. This study provides data that enable students and their advisors to make research-informed decisions. We surveyed the directors of the 304 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology (97%…

  7. Resilient Systemics to Telehealth Support for Clinical Psychiatry and Psychology.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Reliably expanding our clinical practice and lowering our overhead with telepsychiatry, telepsychology, distance counseling and online therapy, requires resilient and antifragile system and tools. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include more reliable treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The wise and proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding social results. We present, as an example, the main steps to achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support, devoted to psychiatry and psychology application. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application. PMID:26153013

  8. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Compliance and Clinical Significance in the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odgaard, Eric C.; Fowler, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In 2005, the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" ("JCCP") became the first American Psychological Association (APA) journal to require statistical measures of clinical significance, plus effect sizes (ESs) and associated confidence intervals (CIs), for primary outcomes (La Greca, 2005). As this represents the single largest…

  9. Aerospace clinical psychology and its role in serving practitioners of hazardous activities.

    PubMed

    King, R

    1999-04-01

    Aerospace clinical psychology is defined as a special application of psychology to the hazardous and stressful occupations associated with aviation and space flight. Aerospace clinical psychological services usually are offered on a unit or organizational level, though interventions can be designed for individuals and their families. The application of aerospace clinical psychology to the "failing aviator" is described and the current status of the field is provided. The roles of flight surgeons and mental health providers are explained. Associations between poor pilot coping skills and failure at crew resource management are explored. Areas for future research are detailed. PMID:12182199

  10. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in a Psychology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Labrador, Francisco J; Estupiñá, Francisco J; Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Mónica; Fernández-Arias, Ignacio; Alonso, Pablo; Ballesteros, Francisco; Blanco, Carmen; Gómez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    People with anxiety disorders demand psychological attention most often. Therefore, it seems important to identify both the characteristics of the patients who demand help and the clinical variables related to that demand and its treatment. A cohort of 292 patients who requested help at a university clinical facility was studied. The typical profile of the patient was: being female, young, unmarried, with some college education, and having previously received treatment, especially pharmacological one. The three most frequent diagnoses of anxiety, which include 50% of the cases, were: Anxiety Disorder not otherwise specified, Social Phobia, and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. Regarding the characteristics of the intervention, the average duration of the assessment was 3.5 sessions (SD = 1.2), and the duration of the treatment was 14 sessions (SD = 11.2). The percentage of discharges was 70.2%. The average cost of treatment was around €840. The results are discussed, underlining the value of empirically supported treatments for anxiety disorders. PMID:26514227

  11. Children's Views Matter Too! A Pilot Project Assessing Children's and Adolescents' Experiences of Clinical Psychology Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael; Russo, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study explored the experiences and understanding of clinical psychology practices and services of children and adolescents attending clinical psychology outpatient appointments. Fifteen young participants took part in the study. A content analysis indicated that young children and adolescents have an appropriate understanding of the…

  12. Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical Psychology. 1992/1993 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayette, Michael A.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help the prospective clinical psychology graduate student go through the application and selection process necessary for acceptance. Chapter 1 describes the two predominant training models in clinical psychology and alternatives to the discipline itself. Chapter 2 covers the essential preparation needed to enter graduate…

  13. Accuracy of Psychology Interns' Clinical Predictions of Re-Incarceration of Delinquents: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Michael P.; Dent, Tyffani M. Monford; Coady, Jeff; Stewart, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    This study involved the assessment of three psychology interns' ability to predict re-incarceration based on the use of clinical judgement. Three psychology interns in an APA-accredited internship were given training on how to use clinical judgement in predicting future incarceration on the part of youth incarcerated in a juvenile correctional…

  14. Toward Improved Statistical Reporting in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff; Thomason, Neil; Pannuzzo, Dominique; Smith, Julian; Fyffe, Penny; Edmonds, Holly; Harrington, Claire; Schmitt, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Philip Kendall's (1997) editorial encouraged authors in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) to report effect sizes and clinical significance. The present authors assessed the influence of that editorial--and other American Psychological Association initiatives to improve statistical practices--by examining 239 JCCP articles…

  15. Clinical Validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62): Further Evaluation and Clinical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Andrew A.; Nordberg, Samuel S.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.; Lockard, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-report instruments of psychological symptoms are increasingly used in counseling centers but rely on rigorous evaluation of their clinical validity. Three studies reported here (total N = 26,886) investigated the validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011) as an assessment and…

  16. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  17. Multicultural Training of Clinical and Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students: Ideals vs. Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Bryana F. C.

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA), which is the advocating body for the field of psychology, emphasizes the importance of multicultural competencies for researchers and clinicians (APA, 2003; 2010). Graduate students are the field's future professionals. The multicultural training of doctoral level clinical and counseling…

  18. Effect of Training in Psychology on the Causal Interpretation of a Clinical Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilibert, Daniel; Banovic, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to show how training in psychology leads students (at the beginning and the end of their studies) to consider that psychological disorders result from dispositional factors specific to the patients, particularly in therapeutic failure (fundamental attribution error and hindsight bias). Faced with a clinical case of a somatic…

  19. The four psychologies of psychoanalysis and their place in clinical work.

    PubMed

    Pine, F

    1988-01-01

    Clinical psychoanalysis has led to the development of four conceptually separable perspectives on the functioning of the human mind. These are referred to herein as the psychologies of drive, ego, object relations, and self. Their clinical relevance is explored by applying them to issues regarding evenly hovering attention and the mutative factors in psychoanalysis. Those two areas, in turn, are seen to undergo an expansion when viewed from the perspective of each of the four psychologies. PMID:3049755

  20. Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburger, Victor C.

    Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…

  1. Adolescents and the Media: Medical and Psychological Impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasburger, Victor C.

    Aimed at primary care physicians and nurses, educators, and parents, this book reviews media effects on adolescent behavior and psychology. The book notes that television is a powerful medium to which adolescents are uniquely susceptible and how studies have shown television's ability to shape social attitudes. Theories of how television affects…

  2. Evolving Perspectives: Consultation, School Psychology, and the Clinical Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Barbara R.; And Others

    A training program was implemented to provide consultation services in a residential treatment center for emotionally disturbed individuals. Prior to the program's implementation, clinicians were discouraged and frustrated because staff needs could not adequately be met. Psychological services to 36 severely disturbed females, ages 12 to 22, were…

  3. Clinical, physiological, and psychological study of asthmatic children attending a hospital clinic

    PubMed Central

    Norrish, Mary; Tooley, Marian; Godfrey, Simon

    1977-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the relationship between clinical, physiological, and psychological factors in 63 children with asthma are reported. The children were classified according to the severity of their asthma by reference to their regular drug usage and also were assessed in terms of the quality of control of the asthma and the degree of compliance with medication. Lung function tests and exercise tests were also carried out. Standard questionnaires to detect emotional or behavioural `deviance' in the children were completed by their mothers and by class teachers and assessments made of their personalities and the mental health of their mothers. Though the percentage of children with deviant scores on the questionnaire was high, it was not much greater than had been found among other (nonasthmatic) London children. Resting peak flow rate, measured as the mean of at least three tests on different clinical attendances, reflected the clinical grading of severity. Deviant children had lower levels of peak flow than non-deviant children, but their bronchial lability as measured by exercise-induced asthma was similar. Poor control of the asthma was associated with emotional or behavioural deviance, whereas deviance was independent of the severity of the asthma per se. PMID:75715

  4. [Pinocchio and the unattained identity: Jervis' contribution to child clinical psychology].

    PubMed

    Meacci, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis is mainly known as a psychiatrist, but he also worked on psychological methodology and tackled important issues in clinical psychology. This essay describes the concept of personal identity elaborated by Jervis and its importance in Child Clinical Psychology. The problems related to personal identity appear very early in Jervis' work, influenced by the ethnologist Ernesto De Martino. His first considerations are found in his Preface to The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi (1968), in which Jervis describes the unhappy upbringing, the anti-social behaviour, and the unattained identity of the wooden puppet. Subsequently, in Presenza e identith (1984), Fondamenti di Psicologia Dinamica (1993) and La conquista dell'identith (1997), Jervis dealt with the theme of identity from a Dynamic Psychology perspective, showing that the formation of personal identity is a basic aspect of the development of the individual that starts in early childhood. PMID:25807688

  5. It's time to Rework the Blueprints: Building a Science for Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millon, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    The aims in this article are to connect the conceptual structure of clinical psychological science to what the author believes to be the omnipresent principles of evolution, use the evolutionary model to create a deductively derived clinical theory and taxonomy, link the theory and taxonomy to comprehensive and integrated approaches to assessment,…

  6. The comparative importance of books: clinical psychology in the health sciences library.

    PubMed

    Wehmeyer, J M; Wehmeyer, S

    1999-04-01

    Clinical psychology has received little attention as a subject in health sciences library collections. This study seeks to demonstrate the relative importance of the monographic literature to clinical psychology through the examination of citations in graduate student theses and dissertations at the Fordham Health Sciences Library, Wright State University. Dissertations and theses were sampled randomly; citations were classified by format, counted, and subjected to statistical analysis. Books and book chapters together account for 35% of the citations in clinical psychology dissertations, 25% in nursing theses, and 8% in biomedical sciences theses and dissertations. Analysis of variance indicates that the citations in dissertations and theses in the three areas differ significantly (F = 162.2 with 2 and 253 degrees of freedom, P = 0.0001). Dissertations and theses in biomedical sciences and nursing theses both cite significantly more journals per book than the dissertations in clinical psychology. These results support the hypothesis that users of clinical psychology literature rely more heavily on books than many other users of a health sciences library. Problems with using citation analyses in a single subject to determine a serials to monographs ratio for a health sciences library are pointed out. PMID:10219478

  7. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  8. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  9. Pain Clinic Referral to Psychological Services Best Addressed with Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Chami, A. Tony

    2013-01-01

    A case study of a middle aged female with severe musculoskeletal medical conditions causing severe pain is presented. The referral for psychological services was conducted in concordance with the medical treatments. In this case, the complex nature of the severe musculoskeletal medical conditions necessitated intensive care and the collaborative communications provided this to the patient. A tabulation of representative treatments is provided with an explanation of the nature of the collaboration. Outcome data in terms of patient self-reported pain ratings and sleep logging provided evidence of a mild improvement and stability where more negative findings, given the complexity of the medical conditions was expected.

  10. Reconciling the Professional and Student Identities of Clinical Psychology Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen; Cossar, Jill A.; Fawns, Tim; Murray, Aja L.

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the ways in which qualified and trainee clinical psychologists perceived professional behaviour, as illustrated in a series of short vignettes, in student and clinical practice contexts. Comparisons were made to identify the extent to which ideas of professionalism differed across different learning contexts and between…

  11. Reconciling the Professional and Student Identities of Clinical Psychology Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen; Cossar, Jill A.; Fawns, Tim; Murray, Aja L.

    2013-01-01

    The study explored the ways in which qualified and trainee clinical psychologists perceived professional behaviour, as illustrated in a series of short vignettes, in student and clinical practice contexts. Comparisons were made to identify the extent to which ideas of professionalism differed across different learning contexts and between…

  12. Borders and Modal Articulations. Semiotic Constructs of Sensemaking Processes Enabling a Fecund Dialogue Between Cultural Psychology and Clinical Psychology.

    PubMed

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The notion of the border is an interesting advancement in research on the processes of meaning making within the cultural psychology. The development of this notion in semiotic key allows to handle with adequate complexity construction, transformation, stability and the breakup of the relationship between person/world/otherness. These semiotic implications have already been widely discussed and exposed by authors such Valsiner (2007, 2014), Neuman (2003, 2008), Simão (Culture & Psychology, 9, 449-459, 2003, Theory & Psychology, 15, 549-574, 2005, 2015), with respect to issues of identity/relatedness, inside/outside, stability/change in the irreversible flow of the time. In this work, after showing some of the basics of such semiotic notion of border, we discuss the processes of construction and transformation of borders through the modal articulation, defined as the contextual positioning that the person assumes with respect to the establishment of a boundary in terms of necessity, obligation, willingness, possibility, permission, ability. This modal subjective positioning acquires considerable interest from the clinical point of view since its degree of plasticity vs that of rigidity is the basis of processes of development or stiffening of relations between person/world/otherness. PMID:26149084

  13. The clinical differential approach of Sante De Sanctis in Italian "scientific" psychology.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Sante De Sanctis, a psychiatrist and psychologist, is one of the most representative figures of Italian "scientific" psychology. He is considered one of the founders of the discipline as well as one of its main protagonists in the years between the two World Wars. Both with his extensive scientific productions (which include more than three hundred works) and with his uninterrupted institutional activity, he has left his significant mark on the history of Italian psychology. He was the first professor of Experimental Psychology and was internationally known: some of his works have been published in French, Swiss, American, German, Scandinavian, and English journals, and some of his volumes have been translated into English and German. Together with the other psychologists of the second generation (Binet, Külpe, Münsterberg, Stern, Claparède, Ebbinghaus), he was the Italian psychologist who decided to enrich the classical paradigm of Wundt's physiological psychology, by developing during the twentieth century the program of methodological and epistemological enlargement of the discipline. In his fundamental treatise Psicologia Sperimentale, written in 1929-30, a clear modern conception of psychology emerged: it jointly included both the generalist aspect (with some studies on psychophysical proportionality, thought mimicry, dreams, attention, emotions, etc.) and the applicative one, which included psychopathology, labor psychology, educational psychology, and criminal psychology, all seen in a general experimental framework. The present paper aims precisely to highlight the originality of De Sanctis' experimentalism that applied the differential clinical approach to the discipline of psychology, causing it for the first time in Italy to be seen in a unitary way as both general and applied psychology. PMID:19569448

  14. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  15. Psychological Aspects of Paediatric Burns (A Clinical Review)

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Burn injuries in childhood can be traumatic with lasting effects until adulthood. This article reviews the various psychological issues one confronts when treating paediatric patients with burn injuries. A wide range of factors influence recovery and rehabilitation from paediatric burns. The role of family members, family dynamics, parental reactions, parental psychiatric illness, and pre-morbid psychiatric illness in the child are important factors. The entire family and the burned child have to show good coping skills if recovery from paediatric burn injuries is to be possible. It is very important that paediatric burn units realize the need for a child psychiatrist and psychotherapist in their rehabilitation team. Good psychotherapy along with burns-related treatment will go a long way to enhance the quality of life of these patients. PMID:21991217

  16. Reflections on a do-it-yourself training program in clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Shakow, D

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a somewhat modified version of the inaugural Rapaport--Klein Memorial Lecture at Austen Riggs Center presented June 21, 1974. The author describes the experiences, the series of "apprenticeships" and clinical exposures, which coalesced into his education, from teenage days in the New York Madison House settlement, through Harvard undergraduate and graduate work, to Worcester State Hospital as head of psychological services and research. In conclusion, the author discusses the effects of the kinds of training experiences he has described on the issues that arose in the formulation of formal standards of training in clinical psychology. PMID:801140

  17. The interface of self psychology, infant research, and neuroscience in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rustin, Judith

    2009-04-01

    This article focuses on the integration of self psychology with findings from infant research and neuroscience. While Kohut's psychology of the self provides a useful theoretical model for psychoanalytic practice, aspects of infant research and neuroscience offer specificity and nuance to basic self-psychological concepts. Kohut proposed that self-psychological psychoanalysis ameliorates derailed development through patient-analyst interaction, while a listening stance of empathic immersion begins the curative process of derailed development and sets the stage for reparative psychoanalytic work. Findings from infant research delineate much more specifically the nature of attunement both in early mother-infant and analyst-patient interactions. Findings from neuroscientific research delineate how early mother-infant experiences are encoded in implicit memory and explicates the emotional substrate of affects and feelings. This emotional substrate exists at birth and provides a means of communication both in infancy and adulthood. Additionally, infant research delineates the mutuality of the interactive process. Thus, both infant research and neuroscience add subtlety and nuance to basic self-psychological concepts. This subtlety opens up new ways of understanding patients and expands the clinical repertoire. Three clinical vignettes demonstrate how this nuance and expansion of self-psychological concepts are applied in the context of an ongoing psychoanalytic treatment. PMID:19379242

  18. Postgraduate Clinical Psychology Students' Perceptions of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Stress Management Intervention and Clinical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Stafford-Brown, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research into stress management interventions for clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) is limited, despite evidence indicating that these individuals are at risk for elevated stress, which can negatively impact personal and professional functioning. This study explored: (1) CPTs' perceptions of a previously evaluated Acceptance and…

  19. Postgraduate Clinical Psychology Students' Perceptions of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Stress Management Intervention and Clinical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Stafford-Brown, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research into stress management interventions for clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) is limited, despite evidence indicating that these individuals are at risk for elevated stress, which can negatively impact personal and professional functioning. This study explored: (1) CPTs' perceptions of a previously evaluated Acceptance and…

  20. Chronic widespread pain: clinical comorbidities and psychological correlates.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Ogata, Soshiro; Vehof, Jelle; Williams, Frances

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have provided consistent evidence for a genetic influence on chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the etiological structure underlying CWP by examining the covariation between CWP and psychological comorbidities and psychoaffective correlates and (2) the decomposition of the covariation into genetic and environmental components. A total of 3266 female twins (mean age 56.6 years) were subject to multivariate analyses. Using validated questionnaires to classify twins as having CWP, the prevalence of CWP was 20.8%. In the multivariate analysis, the most suitable model was the common pathway model. This model revealed 2 underlying latent variables, one common to anxiety, emotional intelligence, and emotional instability (f1) and the other common to depression and CWP (f2), the latter being highly heritable (86%). Both latent variables (f1 and f2) shared an additive genetic and a nonshared environmental factor. In addition, a second additive genetic factor loading only on f2 was found. This study reveals the structure of genetic and environmental influences of CWP and its psychoaffective correlates. The results show that the clustering of CWP and depression is due to a common, highly heritable, underlying latent trait. In addition, we found evidence that CWP, anxiety, emotional instability, and emotional intelligence are influenced by different underlying latent traits sharing the same genetic and nonshared environmental factors. This is the first study to reveal the structure and relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on complex etiological mechanisms of CWP and its correlates. PMID:25851458

  1. Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. 2006/2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayne, Tracy J.; Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Now in its 2006-2007 edition, this perennial bestseller is the resource students count on for the most current information on applying to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. The Insider's Guide presents up-to-date facts on 300 accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Each program's profile includes admissions…

  2. Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. 2006/2007 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayne, Tracy J.; Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Now in its 2006-2007 edition, this perennial bestseller is the resource students count on for the most current information on applying to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. The Insider's Guide presents up-to-date facts on 300 accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Each program's profile includes admissions…

  3. Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. 2004/2005 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayette, Michael A.; Mayne, Tracy J.; Norcross, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Now in its 2004/2005 edition, this perennial bestseller is the resource students count on for the most current information on applying to doctoral programs in clinical or counseling psychology. The Insider's Guide presents up-to-date facts on nearly 300 accredited programs in the United States and Canada. Each program's profile includes admissions…

  4. What Comes before Report Writing? Attending to Clinical Reasoning and Thinking Errors in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Meadow

    2015-01-01

    Psychoeducational assessment involves collecting, organizing, and interpreting a large amount of data from various sources. Drawing upon psychological and medical literature, we review two main approaches to clinical reasoning (deductive and inductive) and how they synergistically guide diagnostic decision-making. In addition, we discuss how the…

  5. Survey Response Rates and Survey Administration in Counseling and Clinical Psychology: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Pamela S.; Green, Kathy E.; Martinussen, Monica

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results of a meta-analysis of survey response rates in published research in counseling and clinical psychology over a 20-year span and describes reported survey administration procedures in those fields. Results of 308 survey administrations showed a weighted average response rate of 49.6%. Among possible moderators, response…

  6. Recognizing Business Issues in Professional Psychology for Clinical PsyD Trainees and Early Career Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The largest number of licensed psychologists are centralized in California. More PsyD than PhD degrees in clinical psychology are now awarded, and California houses 16 of the 59 APA-accredited programs. Post-millennia Early Career Psychologists (ECPs) typically accumulate over $120,000 in education debt, and may be concerned with the cost-benefit…

  7. Recognizing Business Issues in Professional Psychology for Clinical PsyD Trainees and Early Career Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The largest number of licensed psychologists are centralized in California. More PsyD than PhD degrees in clinical psychology are now awarded, and California houses 16 of the 59 APA-accredited programs. Post-millennia Early Career Psychologists (ECPs) typically accumulate over $120,000 in education debt, and may be concerned with the cost-benefit…

  8. Factors That Help and Hinder Scientific Training in Counseling and Clinical Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to better understand scientific training within clinical and counseling psychology doctoral programs. A primary goal is to extend previous research by expanding the scientific training outcome variables from research interest and productivity to include additional characteristics of scientific mindedness such as…

  9. White Clinical Psychology Trainees' Views on Racial Equity within Programme Selection in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Craig M.; Swartz, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The issue of diversity in both physical and epistemological access to programmes in higher education is an important concern worldwide. In South Africa, as elsewhere, access to professional clinical psychology training programmes is extremely competitive, and there is an important imperative to diversify the student profile. Perspectives of black…

  10. Survey Response Rates and Survey Administration in Counseling and Clinical Psychology: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Pamela S.; Green, Kathy E.; Martinussen, Monica

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results of a meta-analysis of survey response rates in published research in counseling and clinical psychology over a 20-year span and describes reported survey administration procedures in those fields. Results of 308 survey administrations showed a weighted average response rate of 49.6%. Among possible moderators, response…

  11. White Clinical Psychology Trainees' Views on Racial Equity within Programme Selection in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Craig M.; Swartz, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The issue of diversity in both physical and epistemological access to programmes in higher education is an important concern worldwide. In South Africa, as elsewhere, access to professional clinical psychology training programmes is extremely competitive, and there is an important imperative to diversify the student profile. Perspectives of black…

  12. Cliques and Cohesion in a Clinical Psychology Graduate Cohort: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunze, Kimberley Annette

    2013-01-01

    To date, no published research has utilized social network analysis (SNA) to analyze graduate cohorts in clinical psychology. The purpose of this research is to determine how issues of likability among students correlate with other measures, such as disclosure, health, spiritual maturity, help in projects, familiarity, and ease of providing…

  13. Cultural Responsivity in Clinical Psychology Graduate Students: A Developmental Approach to the Prediction of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrin, Sebastian Everett

    2010-01-01

    This study used a mixed-method approach to examine students' experiences in multicultural training and their opinions about various aspects of their course(s). A developmental model of learning was employed to analyze results. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between clinical psychology doctoral students' self-reported…

  14. Cliques and Cohesion in a Clinical Psychology Graduate Cohort: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunze, Kimberley Annette

    2013-01-01

    To date, no published research has utilized social network analysis (SNA) to analyze graduate cohorts in clinical psychology. The purpose of this research is to determine how issues of likability among students correlate with other measures, such as disclosure, health, spiritual maturity, help in projects, familiarity, and ease of providing…

  15. What Comes before Report Writing? Attending to Clinical Reasoning and Thinking Errors in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Meadow

    2015-01-01

    Psychoeducational assessment involves collecting, organizing, and interpreting a large amount of data from various sources. Drawing upon psychological and medical literature, we review two main approaches to clinical reasoning (deductive and inductive) and how they synergistically guide diagnostic decision-making. In addition, we discuss how the…

  16. Factors That Help and Hinder Scientific Training in Counseling and Clinical Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to better understand scientific training within clinical and counseling psychology doctoral programs. A primary goal is to extend previous research by expanding the scientific training outcome variables from research interest and productivity to include additional characteristics of scientific mindedness such as…

  17. Psychological Problems and Clinical Outcomes of Children with Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yoon Young; Kim, Heung Dong; Lee, Joon Soo; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Our purpose was to investigate psychological problems and clinical outcomes in children with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 25 patients who were diagnosed with PNES between 2006 and 2012. Results Twenty-five children with PNES, aged 8 to 19 years (mean 13.82), were referred to psychiatrists for psychiatric assessment. On their initial visit, 72% of patients had comorbid psychological problems, including depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, adjustment disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Among these, depression was the most frequent (36%). Predisposing and triggering factors included familial distress (40%), social distress (24%), and specific events (20%). The following treatment was advised based on the results of the initial psychological assessment: 3 patients regularly visited psychiatric clinic to assess their clinical status without treatment, nine underwent psychotherapy, and 13 received a combination of psychotherapy and psychopharmacological therapy. At the mean follow-up of 31.5 months after diagnosis, 20 patients (80%) were event-free at follow-up, three (12%) showed reduced frequency, and two (8%) experienced persistent symptoms. Conclusion The outcomes of PNES in children are much better than those in adults, despite a high rate of psychological comorbidities. PMID:25323891

  18. Ethical dilemmas experienced by clinical psychology trainee therapists.

    PubMed

    Bhola, Poornima; Sinha, Ananya; Sonkar, Suruchi; Raguram, Ahalya

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are inevitable during psychotherapeutic interactions, and these complexities and challenges may be magnified during the training phase. The experience of ethical dilemmas in the arena of therapy and the methods of resolving these dilemmas were examined among 35 clinical psychologists in training, through an anonymous and confidential online survey. The trainees' responses to four open-ended questions on any one ethical dilemma encountered during therapy were analysed, using thematic content analysis. The results highlighted that the salient ethical dilemmas related to confidentiality and boundary issues. The trainees also raised ethical questions regarding therapist competence, the beneficence and non-maleficence of therapeutic actions, and client autonomy. Fifty-seven per cent of the trainees reported that the dilemmas were resolved adequately, the prominent methods of resolution being supervision or consultation and guidance from professional ethical guidelines. The trainees felt that the professional codes had certain limitations as far as the effective resolution of ethical dilemmas was concerned. The findings indicate the need to strengthen training and supervision methodologies and professional ethics codes for psychotherapists and counsellors in India. PMID:26322398

  19. Theoretical gender and clinical gender: epistemological reflections on the psychology of women.

    PubMed

    Chodorow, N J

    1996-01-01

    This paper points to problematic tendencies in psychoanalytic thinking about women and suggests approaches that might address these problems. Psychoanalytic theories about women tend to overgeneralize, universalize, and essentialize. Furthermore, they do not sufficiently explicate the inextricable cultural aspects in anyone's gender psychology, and they are often permeated with unreflected-upon cultural assumptions. I suggest that paying attention to clinical individuality and assuming that subjective gender has multiple components for everyone gives us better understanding of our patients and points us toward more accurate and complete gender theories. There are many psychologies of women. Each woman creates her own psychological gender through emotionally and conflictually charged unconscious fantasies that help construct her inner world, that projectively imbue cultural conceptions, and that interpret her sexual anatomy. By making some unconscious fantasies and interpretations more salient than others, each woman creates her own prevalent animation of gender. PMID:9170064

  20. Do Special Occasions Trigger Psychological Distress Among Older Bereaved Spouses? An Empirical Assessment of Clinical Wisdom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Mental health professionals have suggested that widowed persons experience heightened psychological distress on dates that had special meaning for them and their late spouse, such as a wedding anniversary or the late spouse’s birthday. This study examined the effects of such occasions on grief, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of older widowed persons. Methods. OLS regression models were estimated using data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) study, a large prospective probability study of late-life widowhood. Participants were interviewed prior to and both 6 and 18 months after spousal loss; married matched controls were interviewed at comparable times. Results. Widowed persons reported heightened psychological distress when interviewed during the month of their late spouse’s birthday, a post-holiday period (January), and in June, a month associated with wedding anniversaries and graduations in the United States. The distressing effects of special occasions on psychological symptoms were evidenced only within the first 6 months postloss, and were not apparent at the 18-month follow-up. Discussion. Our results support the clinical observation that persons in the early stages of spousal bereavement are at increased risk of psychological distress at times with special significance to the couple. We highlight methodological and clinical implications. PMID:23811691

  1. Mentoring ethnic minority counseling and clinical psychology students: A multicultural, ecological, and relational model.

    PubMed

    Chan, Anne W; Yeh, Christine J; Krumboltz, John D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to understand the role of race and culture in successful mentoring relationships in graduate school. We examined the practices of 9 faculty mentors working with 15 ethnic minority doctoral students in counseling and clinical psychology. Grounded theory was used to discern unifying patterns and to formulate a theory of multicultural mentoring. Five overall themes significant to multicultural mentoring emerged: (a) career support and guidance tailored for ethnic minorities, (b) relationality between mentors and protégés, (c) significance of contexts, (d) interconnections across contexts, and (e) multidirectionality of interactions between contexts. The 5 themes combined to form a multicultural, ecological, and relational model of mentoring. Our findings suggest that mentoring ethnic minority students can be successful, productive, and satisfying for both mentors and protégés when mentors possess the necessary skills, time, commitment, and multicultural competencies. Implications for doctoral programs in counseling and clinical psychology are discussed, along with recommendations for future research directions. PMID:26053060

  2. [The importance of social psychological and clinical factors for prescribing group psychotherapy for neurosis patients].

    PubMed

    Grineva, I M; Khokholeva, A A; Obora, V V; Karagodina, E G; Lazarenko, A N

    1989-11-01

    Socio-psychological and clinical factors and their significance for group psychotherapy were investigated in 62 patients with neuroses. The obtained statistically valid differences of some characteristic aspects between groups of patients with positive and negative directives. This indicates the necessity of differential approach to group psychotherapy and active individual and group work on the creation of positive motivation to this type of treatment. PMID:2609597

  3. 5HTT is associated with the phenotype psychological flexibility: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gloster, Andrew T; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hamm, Alfons; Höfler, Michael; Alpers, Georg W; Kircher, Tilo; Ströhle, Andreas; Lang, Thomas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Deckert, Jürgen; Reif, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Adaption to changing environments is evolutionarily advantageous. Studies that link genetic and phenotypic expression of flexible adjustment to one's context are largely lacking. In this study, we tested the importance of psychological flexibility, or goal-related context sensitivity, in an interaction between psychotherapy outcome for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG) and a genetic polymorphism. Given the established role of the 5HTT-LPR polymorphism in behavioral flexibility, we tested whether this polymorphism (short group vs. long group) impacted therapy response as a function of various endophenotypes (i.e., psychological flexibility, panic, agoraphobic avoidance, and anxiety sensitivity). Patients with PD/AG were recruited from a large multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial on cognitive-behavioral therapy. Pre- to post-treatment changes by 5HTT polymorphism were analyzed. 5HTT polymorphism status differentiated pre- to post-treatment changes in the endophenotype psychological flexibility (effect size difference d = 0.4, p < 0.05), but none of the specific symptom-related endophenotypes consistently for both the intent-to-treat sample (n = 228) and the treatment completers (n = 194). Based on the consistency of these findings with existing theory on behavioral flexibility, the specificity of the results across phenotypes, and the consistency of results across analyses (i.e., completer and intent to treat), we conclude that 5HTT polymorphism and the endophenotype psychological flexibility are important variables for the treatment of PD/AG. The endophenotype psychological flexibility may help bridge genetic and psychological literatures. Despite the limitation of the post hoc nature of these analyses, further study is clearly warranted. PMID:25588519

  4. Integrating research into clinical internship training bridging the science/practice gap in pediatric psychology.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Spirito, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345

  5. Jack of all trades, master of none?: an alternative to clinical psychology's market-driven mission creep.

    PubMed

    Heesacker, Martin

    2005-09-01

    The authors C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott of this special issue's target article, "Twenty-First Century Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology: A Four Level Matrix Model" (this issue, pp. 1033-1054), are right that scientific distinctions should sometimes be de-emphasized in service of understanding the larger scientific vision. However, they take their combining too far, arrogating unto clinical psychology elements best left to their original scholarly disciplines. Snyder and Elliott simply present the next logical step in clinical psychology's longstanding tradition of "mission creep," broadening its focus to encompass new potential markets. Instead, the keeping and sharpening of disciplinary and subdisciplinary boundaries might best serve clinical psychology. The emphasis would shift from mission creep to building links with complementary disciplines and subdisciplines, to tackle issues that require true interdisciplinary scholarship. PMID:15965920

  6. Cocaine Use among the College Age Group: Biological and Psychological Effects--Clinical and Laboratory Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Knowledge about cocaine's effect on the human mind and body is limited and not clearly documented. This article discusses various biological and psychological effects of the drug based on clinical and laboratory studies of man. (Author/DF)

  7. Clinical instructors' perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment in academic nursing environments.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Sandra; Babenko-Mould, Yolanda; Iwasiw, Carroll

    2014-05-01

    The study purpose was to explore clinical instructors' (CIs') perceptions of empowerment in academic nursing environments. Clinical instructors, often part-time faculty, facilitate learning in professional practice environments. However, they also need to function within the academic environment to learn about the curriculum and how students are to be evaluated. The qualitative description method was used to obtain an understanding of CIs' empowerment experiences and to interpret their perceptions within the frameworks of Kanter's structural empowerment and Spreitzer's psychological empowerment theories. Eight CIs from two nursing programs were interviewed for this study. The empowerment components of support and confidence were important, yet insufficient, in CIs' perceptions of their role effectiveness. An implication for CIs was slow development of confidence in their ability to facilitate student learning that was consistent with curriculum goals. Recommendations for CIs and academic faculty are offered to support and retain clinical faculty. PMID:24766066

  8. Matrix model of clinical psychology: applause or the sound of one hand clapping?

    PubMed

    Worthington, Everett L

    2005-09-01

    The matrix model as proposed by C.R. Snyder and T.R. Elliott (this issue, pp.1033-1054) is a welcome refocusing of clinical psychology for the 21st century. Yet, limitations to the model are that (a) it shifts attention to the target of interventions (i.e., "clients") and virtually ignores the function of the interventionist; (b) it might not be the best way to characterize "clients"; and (c) training might take longer than 5 years. Overall, it is a heuristic model; will it be accepted? PMID:15965930

  9. How Can Psychological Science Inform Research About Genetic Counseling for Clinical Genomic Sequencing?

    PubMed Central

    Rini, Christine; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Roberts, J. Scott; Christensen, Kurt D.; Evans, James P.; Brothers, Kyle B.; Roche, Myra I.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Henderson, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation genomic sequencing technologies (including whole genome or whole exome sequencing) are being increasingly applied to clinical care. Yet, the breadth and complexity of sequencing information raise questions about how best to communicate and return sequencing information to patients and families in ways that facilitate comprehension and optimal health decisions. Obtaining answers to such questions will require multidisciplinary research. In this paper, we focus on how psychological science research can address questions related to clinical genomic sequencing by explaining emotional, cognitive, and behavioral processes in response to different types of genomic sequencing information (e.g., diagnostic results and incidental findings). We highlight examples of psychological science that can be applied to genetic counseling research to inform the following questions: (1) What factors influence patients' and providers' informational needs for developing an accurate understanding of what genomic sequencing results do and do not mean?; (2) How and by whom should genomic sequencing results be communicated to patients and their family members?; and (3) How do patients and their families respond to uncertainties related to genomic information? PMID:25488723

  10. Clinical use of the Kessler psychological distress scales with culturally diverse groups.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Yvonne; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2014-06-01

    The Kessler 10 (K10) and embedded Kessler 6 (K6) was developed to screen for non-specific psychological distress and serious mental illness in mental health surveys of English-speaking populations, but has been adopted in Western and non-Western countries as a screening and outcome measure in primary care and mental health settings. This review examines whether the original K6/K10's validity for culturally diverse populations was established, and whether the cultural equivalence, and sensitivity to change of translated or culturally adapted K6/K10s, has been demonstrated with culturally diverse client groups. Evidence for the original K6/K10's validity for culturally diverse populations is limited. Questions about the conceptual and linguistic equivalence of translated/adapted K6/K10s arise from reports of changes in item connotation and differential item functioning. Evidence for structural equivalence is inconsistent, as is support for criterion equivalence, with the majority of studies compromising on accuracy in case prediction. Research demonstrating sensitivity to change with culturally diverse groups is lacking. Inconsistent evidence for the K6/K10's cultural appropriateness in clinical settings, and a lack of clinical norms for either majority or culturally diverse groups, indicate the importance of further research into the psychological distress construct with culturally diverse clients, and the need for caution in interpreting K6/K10 scores. PMID:24733815

  11. Scientific tools, fake treatments, or triggers for psychological healing: how clinical trial participants conceptualise placebos.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Felicity L; Jacobson, Eric E; Shaw, Jessica R; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2012-03-01

    Placebos are an essential tool in randomised clinical trials, where they are used to control for bias and contextual healing effects. Placebos and their effects are also studied from multiple diverse perspectives, but the perspectives of placebo recipients are seldom considered. Research shows that people form cognitive and affective representations of active treatments such as medicines, and that they use these representations to guide their behaviour; it seems reasonable to suggest that people might also think about and develop representations of placebos. We adopted a qualitative approach to examine in detail how participants in one RCT, conducted in the USA, conceptualised placebos. 12 people were interviewed 3 times each, at the start, middle, and end of a trial of placebo effects and acupuncture for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The interview data were analysed inductively and we identified four ways in which the participants conceptualised placebos: placebos are necessary for research; placebo effects are fake; placebo acupuncture is not real acupuncture; placebos have real effects mediated by psychological mechanisms. Participants' conceptualisations of placebos were dynamic and situated in a broader psychological and socio-cultural context. Seeing placebo effects as legitimate seemed to be facilitated by having more holistic models of healing, viewing IBS as psychological, and seeing treatment as multifactorial. However, some participants maintained a negative view of placebo effects (e.g. as illusions) that was apparently inconsistent with their other beliefs (e.g. in mind-body healing mechanisms). This may indicate a dominance of negative discourses around placebos at a socio-cultural level. Negative views of placebos are inconsistent with evidence that placebo treatments can have positive effects on symptoms. RCT participants should be informed about potential benefits of placebo treatments to avoid misunderstandings and unease. Future work should improve methods of providing participants with full accurate information about placebos and their effects. PMID:22285289

  12. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-01-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects. PMID:1619628

  13. Psychological variables potentially implicated in opioid-related mortality as observed in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Lowery, Amy

    2011-06-01

    Opioid-related deaths in the United States have become a public health problem, with accidental and unintended overdoses being especially troubling. Screening for psychological risk factors is an important first step in safeguarding against nonadherence practices and identifying patients who may be vulnerable to the risks associated with opioid therapy. Validated screening instruments can aid in this attempt as a complementary tool to clinicians' assessments. A structured screening is imperative as part of an assessment, as clinician judgment is not the most reliable method of identifying nonadherence. As a complement to formal screening, we present for discussion and possible future study certain psychological variables observed during years of clinical practice that may be linked to medication nonadherence and accidental overdose. These variables include catastrophizing, fear, impulsivity, attention deficit disorders, existential distress, and certain personality disorders. In our experience, chronic pain patients with dual diagnoses may become "chemical copers" as a way of coping with their negative emotion. For these patients, times of stress could lead to accidental overdose. Behavioral, cognitive-behavioral (acceptance and commitment, dialectical behavior), existential (meaning-centered, dignity), and psychotropic therapies have been effective in treating these high-risk comorbidities, while managing expectations of pain relief appears key to preventing accidental overdose. PMID:21668755

  14. Managing chronic pathologies with a stepped mHealth-based approach in clinical psychology and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Zoppis, Italo; Santoro, Eugenio; Ceccarini, Martina; Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Corti, Stefania; Borrello, Maria; Giusti, Emanuele Maria; Cattivelli, Roberto; Melesi, Anna; Mauri, Giancarlo; Molinari, Enrico; Sicurello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases and conditions typically require long-term monitoring and treatment protocols both in traditional settings and in out-patient frameworks. The economic burden of chronic conditions is a key challenge and new and mobile technologies could offer good solutions. mHealth could be considered an evolution of eHealth and could be defined as the practice of medicine and public health supported by mobile communication devices. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted, and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies. Possible applications include stepped mHealth approach, where patients can be monitored and treated in their everyday contexts. Unfortunately, many barriers for the spread of mHealth are still present. Due the significant impact of psychosocial factors on disease evolution, psychotherapies have to be included into the chronic disease protocols. Existing psychological theories of health behavior change have to be adapted to the new technological contexts and requirements. In conclusion, clinical psychology and medicine have to face the “chronic care management” challenge in both traditional and mHealth settings. PMID:25926801

  15. Psychological Variables Potentially Implicated in Opioid-Related Mortality as Observed in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Passik, Steven D.; Lowery, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Opioid-related deaths in the United States have become a public health problem, with accidental and unintended overdoses being especially troubling. Screening for psychological risk factors is an important first step in safeguarding against nonadherence practices and identifying patients who may be vulnerable to the risks associated with opioid therapy. Validated screening instruments can aid in this attempt as a complementary tool to clinicians’ assessments. A structured screening is imperative as part of an assessment, as clinician judgment is not the most reliable method of identifying nonadherence. As a complement to formal screening, we present for discussion and possible future study certain psychological variables observed during years of clinical practice that may be linked to medication nonadherence and accidental overdose. These variables include catastrophizing, fear, impulsivity, attention deficit disorders, existential distress, and certain personality disorders. In our experience, chronic pain patients with dual diagnoses may become “chemical copers” as a way of coping with their negative emotion. For these patients, times of stress could lead to accidental overdose. Behavioral, cognitive-behavioral (acceptance and commitment, dialectical behavior), existential (meaning-centered, dignity), and psychotropic therapies have been effective in treating these high-risk comorbidities, while managing expectations of pain relief appears key to preventing accidental overdose. PMID:21668755

  16. [Criterion-oriented measurement in clinical psychology: development of a test on stress management].

    PubMed

    Reicherts, M

    1985-01-01

    Criterion-oriented tests evaluate the performance of the individual in relation to a given criterion which describes abilities and skills (intended competencies). The measuring process decides statistically if the person is "mastering" the criterion or not. The intended competencies should be represented by test items of high content-validity. The structure and application of this method especially to diagnostical issues of clinical psychology and therapeutic control are discussed. Steps are described construing a criterion-oriented test of stress and coping processes related to depressive and fearful behavior. The test is based on a situation-action-model in the theoretical framework of "stress and coping", "self-efficacy", "control" and "learned helplessness". Method and construction of items are shown in order to find some dimensions of coping-behavior-in-situations (appraisals, person-directed and environment-directed actions) and its sequential organisation in stressful episodes. PMID:3834699

  17. NeuroVR: an open source virtual reality platform for clinical psychology and behavioral neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Villani, Daniela; Preziosa, Alessandra; Morganti, Francesca; Corsi, Riccardo; Faletti, Gianluca; Vezzadini, Luca

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, the use of virtual reality for clinical and research applications has become more widespread. However, the diffusion of this approach is still limited by three main issues: poor usability, lack of technical expertise among clinical professionals, and high costs. To address these challenges, we introduce NeuroVR (http://www.neurovr.org--http://www.neurotiv.org), a cost-free virtual reality platform based on open-source software, that allows non-expert users to adapt the content of a pre-designed virtual environment to meet the specific needs of the clinical or experimental setting. Using the NeuroVR Editor, the user can choose the appropriate psychological stimuli/stressors from a database of objects (both 2D and 3D) and videos, and easily place them into the virtual environment. The edited scene can then be visualized in the NeuroVR Player using either immersive or non-immersive displays. Currently, the NeuroVR library includes different virtual scenes (apartment, office, square, supermarket, park, classroom, etc.), covering two of the most studied clinical applications of VR: specific phobias and eating disorders. The NeuroVR Editor is based on Blender (http://www.blender.org), the open source, cross-platform suite of tools for 3D creation, and is available as a completely free resource. An interesting feature of the NeuroVR Editor is the possibility to add new objects to the database. This feature allows the therapist to enhance the patient's feeling of familiarity and intimacy with the virtual scene, i.e., by using photos or movies of objects/people that are part of the patient's daily life, thereby improving the efficacy of the exposure. The NeuroVR platform runs on standard personal computers with Microsoft Windows; the only requirement for the hardware is related to the graphics card, which must support OpenGL. PMID:17377310

  18. Now or Later?: An Empirical Investigation of When and Why Students Apply to Clinical Psychology PhD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimak, Eric H.; Edwards, Katie M.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Suhr, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study used a national sample of PhD students in clinical psychology (N = 1,034) to explore when students decided to pursue their graduate degree, reasons for their decisions, and associated satisfaction. Results indicated that immediately after completing their undergraduate degree, 57% of current graduate students reported postponing…

  19. [Socio-psychological aspects of voluntary abortion at the Obstetrical and Gynecological Clinic of Catania].

    PubMed

    Di Leo, S; Montoneri, C; Nocera, F; Cinquerrui, G; Garozzo, G; Sciacchitano, S

    1980-01-01

    At the Obstetrical and Gynecologic Clinic of the University of Catania, Italy, a questionnaire was prepared to be completed by patients seeking abortion. The purpose was to gather some knowledge of the psychosocial factors and attitudes leading to voluntary abortion. The questionnaire, which is included in the document, contains questions about medical history, sexual life, motivation for abortion, psychological reaction, and contraceptive knowledge and usage. Of 595 abortions performed between March and September 1979 only 151 (25.37%) questionnaires were completed. 47.01% of women were between 25-35, 84.10% were married, 70% came from the city of Catania or the neighboring suburbs, 52.31% of women had elementary school education, 45.01% had 1-2 children and 27.14% 2-4 children, 68.62% of women requesting abortion were in the age group 18-25 with 1-2 children, and 68.21% were housewives. Motivation for interruption of pregnancy was high parity (19.20%), too close pregnancies (17.21%), and psychological reasons (9.27%). While most women knew about modern contraceptive methods, only 47.01% used hormonal contraception, 78.14% relied on coitus interruptus, 37.08% on the condom, and 34.43% on periodic abstinence. Last conception was due to contraceptive failure in 53.98% of cases. In 1979 there were a total of 960 legal abortions; only 97 women requested contraception after the abortion, and 13 came back for a repeat intervention. These data clearly demonstrate the lack of correct information on contraception on the part of most women. PMID:7344682

  20. Twenty years of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings: we hope you will enjoy the show.

    PubMed

    Rozensky, Ronald H; Tovian, Steven M; Sweet, Jerry J

    2014-03-01

    The 20th anniversary of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings is celebrated by highlighting the scientist-practitioner philosophy on which it was founded. The goal of the Journal-to provide an outlet for evidence-based approaches to healthcare that underscore the important scientific and clinical contributions of psychology in medical settings-is discussed. The contemporary relevance of this approach is related to the current implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care and its focus on accountability and the development of an interprofessional healthcare workforce; both of which have been foci of the Journal throughout its history and will continue to be so into the future. Several recommendations of future topic areas for the Journal to highlight regarding scientific, practice, policy, and education and training in professional health service psychology are offered. Successfully addressing these topics will support the growth of the field of psychology in the ever evolving healthcare system of the future and continue ensure that the Journal is a key source of professional information in health service psychology. PMID:24492915

  1. Clinical, socio-demographic and psychological characteristics in individuals with persistent psychotic experiences with and without a "need for care".

    PubMed

    Peters, Emmanuelle; Ward, Thomas; Jackson, Mike; Morgan, Craig; Charalambides, Monica; McGuire, Philip; Woodruff, Peter; Jacobsen, Pamela; Chadwick, Paul; Garety, Philippa A

    2016-02-01

    Individuals reporting persistent psychotic experiences (PEs) in the general population, but without a "need for care", are a unique group of particular importance in identifying risk and protective factors for psychosis. We compared people with persistent PEs and no "need for care" (non-clinical, N=92) with patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (clinical, N=84) and controls without PEs (N=83), in terms of their phenomenological, socio-demographic and psychological features. The 259 participants were recruited from one urban and one rural area in the UK, as part of the UNIQUE (Unusual Experiences Enquiry) study. Results showed that the non-clinical group experienced hallucinations in all modalities as well as first-rank symptoms, with an earlier age of onset than in the clinical group. Somatic/tactile hallucinations were more frequent than in the clinical group, while commenting and conversing voices were rare. Participants in the non-clinical group were differentiated from their clinical counterparts by being less paranoid and deluded, apart from ideas of reference, and having fewer cognitive difficulties and negative symptoms. Unlike the clinical group, they were characterized neither by low psychosocial functioning nor by social adversity. However, childhood trauma featured in both groups. They were similar to the controls in psychological characteristics: they did not report current emotional problems, had intact self-esteem, displayed healthy schemas about the self and others, showed high life satisfaction and well-being, and high mindfulness. These findings support biopsychosocial models postulating that environmental and psychological factors interact with biological processes in the aetiology of psychosis. While some PEs may be more malign than others, lower levels of social and environmental adversity, combined with protective factors such as intact IQ, spirituality, and psychological and emotional well-being, may reduce the likelihood of persistent PEs leading to pathological outcomes. Future research should focus on protective factors and determinants of well-being in the context of PEs, rather than exclusively on risk factors and biomarkers of disease states. PMID:26833608

  2. Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane R W; Hammarberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility-related grief and shame among men. Few resource-constrained countries have any data concerning male experiences of infertility. PMID:22179515

  3. Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jane RW; Hammarberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility-related grief and shame among men. Few resource-constrained countries have any data concerning male experiences of infertility. PMID:22179515

  4. Research Use of Clinical Measures for Anxiety in the Recent Psychological Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris; Gallant, Natoshia

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on recent trends in the psychological research literature on the use of measures in the assessment of anxiety. An analysis of PsycINFO, from 2000-2005, showed that the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index had the highest hit rates. The results indicate that many anxiety instruments that are popular in…

  5. The Social Psychology of Black-White Interracial Interactions: Implications for Culturally Competent Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Sweeton, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Social psychological research suggests that because of concerns about being perceived in stereotypical ways, people may experience negative affect and diminished attention and cognitive capacity during interracial interactions. The authors discuss this research in relation to therapy and assessment and also offer practical suggestions for ensuring…

  6. Clinical psychological and neuropsychological issues with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs)

    PubMed Central

    Cavazzana, Annachiara; Cavalli, Chiara; Bottio, Tomaso; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Gerosa, Gino; Volpe, Bianca Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Background Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly being used to treat patients in end-stage heart failure (HF) as bridge-to-transplantation, lifetime support or destination therapy. However, the importance of this newer technique for chronic cardiac support compared to heart transplantation is still open to discussion. To date, there are few studies that extensively explore the psychological and cognitive profiles of patient with ventricular assist devices (VADs). Methods We studied the psychological aspects, quality of life (QOL) and cognitive profiles of 19 patients with HF before VAD implantation and then at two, five and 16 months post-implantation. Results Our results showed that after VAD implantation, patients did not show any psychopathological problems such as anxiety and/or depression. More interestingly, despite the constant risk of neurological events determined by the continuous-blood-flow pump (CBFP), patients’ cognitive functioning did not worsen. In fact, significant enhancements were observed over time. Conclusions Psychological and cognitive deficits are common in advanced HF and often worsen over time. Appropriately designed and randomized studies are needed to demonstrate whether earlier VAD implantation is warranted to arrest cognitive decline and encourage better post-implantation adaptation. PMID:25452908

  7. Designs and Discriminations for Clinical Group Supervision in Counselling Psychology: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Glen

    2006-01-01

    Evidence suggests that group clinical supervision of counsellors and trainees is an effective mode of service delivery. However, clinical supervision is often understood to be concerned with teaching a generic set of skills. Without specifically labeling them as such, clinical supervision groups are implicitly identified as psycho-educational…

  8. Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program Admissions: Differential Values as a Function of Program Characteristics and the Implications of the Mentor-Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Jesse A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this research were to 1) examine the qualities for which applicants are selected for entrance into clinical psychology Ph.D. programs, and 2) investigate the prevalence and impact of the mentor-model approach to admissions on multiple domains of programs and the field at large. Fifty Directors of Clinical Training (DCTs) provided data…

  9. Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program Admissions: Differential Values as a Function of Program Characteristics and the Implications of the Mentor-Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Jesse A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this research were to 1) examine the qualities for which applicants are selected for entrance into clinical psychology Ph.D. programs, and 2) investigate the prevalence and impact of the mentor-model approach to admissions on multiple domains of programs and the field at large. Fifty Directors of Clinical Training (DCTs) provided data…

  10. Counseling Psychology in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthei, Bob

    The history of counseling psychology in Australia, which has been marked by confusion and uncertainty about the distinction between it and other applied areas such as clinical psychology, community psychology, educational psychology, and psychotherapy, is discussed in this paper. The development of the Division of Counselling Psychology within the…

  11. Divorce and Death: A Meta-Analysis and Research Agenda for Clinical, Social, and Health Psychology.

    PubMed

    Sbarra, David A; Law, Rita W; Portley, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    Divorce is a relatively common stressful life event that is purported to increase risk for all-cause mortality. One problem in the literature on divorce and health is that it is fragmented and spread across many disciplines; most prospective studies of mortality are based in epidemiology and sociology, whereas most mechanistic studies are based in psychology. This review integrates research on divorce and death via meta-analysis and outlines a research agenda for better understanding the potential mechanisms linking marital dissolution and risk for all-cause mortality. Random effects meta-analysis with a sample of 32 prospective studies (involving more than 6.5 million people, 160,000 deaths, and over 755,000 divorces in 11 different countries) revealed a significant increase in risk for early death among separated/divorced adults in comparison to their married counterparts. Men and younger adults evidenced significantly greater risk for early death following marital separation/divorce than did women and older adults. Quantification of the overall effect size linking marital separation/divorce to risk for early death reveals a number of important research questions, and this article discusses what remains to be learned about four plausible mechanisms of action: social selection, resource disruptions, changes in health behaviors, and chronic psychological distress. PMID:26168197

  12. Bridging neuroscience and clinical psychology: cognitive behavioral and psychophysiological models in the evaluation and treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Marc E; Leclerc, Julie; O’Connor, Kieron P

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychology have long been considered to be separate disciplines. However, the phenomenon of brain plasticity in the context of a psychological intervention highlights the mechanisms of brain compensation and requires linking both clinical cognition and cognitive psychophysiology. A quantifiable normalization of brain activity seems to be correlated with an improvement of the tic symptoms after cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). This article presents broad outlines of the state of the current literature in the field of GTS. We present our clinical research model and methodology for the integration of cognitive neuroscience in the psychological evaluation and treatment of GTS to manage chronic tic symptoms. PMID:24795782

  13. Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. PMID:24627990

  14. The Psychological Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Pain: a Review of BHI 2 Clinical and Forensic Interpretive Considerations.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Daniel; Disorbio, John Mark

    2014-01-01

    Pain is the most common reason why patients see a physician. Within the USA, it has been estimated that at least 116 million US adults suffer from chronic pain, with an estimated annual national economic cost of $560-635 billion. While pain is in part a sensory process, like sight, touch, or smell, pain is also in part an emotional experience, like depression, anxiety, or anger. Thus, chronic pain is arguably the quintessential biopsychosocial condition. Due to the overwhelming evidence of the biopsychosocial nature of pain and the value of psychological assessments, the majority of chronic pain guidelines recommend a psychological evaluation as an integral part of the diagnostic workup. One biopsychosocial inventory designed for the assessment of patients with chronic pain is the Battery for Health Improvement 2 (BHI 2). The BHI 2 is a standardized psychometric measure, with three validity measures, 16 clinical scales, and a multidimensional assessment of pain. This article will review how the BHI 2 was developed, BHI 2 concepts, validation research, and an overview of the description and interpretation of its scales. Like all measures, the BHI 2 has strengths and weaknesses of which the forensic psychologist should be aware, and particular purposes for which it is best suited. Guided by that knowledge, the BHI 2 can play a useful role in the forensic psychologist's toolbox. PMID:25478059

  15. Clinical psychology Ph.D. program rankings: evaluating eminence on faculty publications and citations.

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Malone, Carrie J; González, Melissa L; McClure, David R; Laud, Rinita B; Minshawi, Noha F

    2005-01-01

    Program rankings and their visibility have taken on greater and greater significance. Rarely is the accuracy of these rankings, which are typically based on a small subset of university faculty impressions, questioned. This paper presents a more comprehensive survey method based on quantifiable measures of faculty publications and citations. The most frequently published core clinical faculty across 157 APA-approved clinical programs are listed. The implications of these data are discussed. PMID:16303581

  16. Interprofessional clinical education for occupational therapy and psychology students: a social skills training program for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Howell, Dana M; Wittman, Peggy; Bundy, Myra Beth

    2012-01-01

    An interprofessional clinical learning experience was developed for pre-licensure occupational therapy (OT) and psychology graduate students. Students worked in interprofessional teams to plan and implement a social skills training program for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The objectives were to provide a hands-on, student-led clinical experience; facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning through leadership partnerships and teach children with ASD to engage in appropriate social skill behaviors. Concurrently, faculty performed qualitative research to explore how the students worked together to provide intervention to the children. Data were collected via interview, direct observation of student planning sessions and student interprofessional interactions, and collection of posts from an online social network site used for session planning. There were six student participants and two faculty participants. Four themes emerged: learning who I am as a professional, learning to appreciate our professional differences, learning to communicate with each other and figuring it out, for the benefit of the kids. This interprofessional clinical learning experience and research helps ensure that students are adequately prepared to represent their profession as part of a diverse interprofessional health care team. PMID:22233368

  17. Integrating Professional Programs in a Traditional Undergraduate Psychology Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Bernard; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Four papers presented by psychology faculty members from Clemson University discuss how each person met the need for undergraduates to obtain job preparation in psychology. Topics cover industrial psychology, clinical psychology, teaching of psychology, and an interdisciplinary curriculum. (ND)

  18. [Malnutrition in the elderly: clinical features, psychological and social determinants. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Morrone, A; Donini, L M; Scardella, P; Piombo, L; Pinto, A; Giusti, A M; Neri, B; Hagedorn, T; Proietti, A R; Cataldi, S; Cucinotta, D; Di Bella, G; Barbagallo, M; Cannella, C

    2011-01-01

    In industrialized Countries malnutrition is a very frequent condition in frail groups of the population, people with low income and elderly subjects above all if institutionalized. The aim of the study is to: analyse the prevalence of malnutrition in a sample of elderly people located in different geographical areas in Italy; identify the psychological, social, economic, environmental, cultural and demographic determinants of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition (estimated through the MNA) is high in both sexes (28% of F and 21.9% of M. Age, institutionalisation, health status, autonomy status, cognitive status and education level are some of the factors that correlate with the presence of malnutrition. Loneliness and poverty seem to have a negative impact on nutritional status but further data are needed to confirm this hypothesis. The data collected confirm the need to activate services dedicated to assess the nutritional status of elderly people, to implement campaigns in particular on food education for the elderly population, to set tools and guide lines for caregivers. PMID:21770232

  19. Psychology in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  20. Handbook of Cross-Cultural and Multicultural Personality Assessment. Personality and Clinical Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Richard H., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: (1) "An Assessment-Intervention Model for Research and Practice with Multicultural Populations" (Richard H. Dana); (2) "An Africentric Perspective for Clinical Research and Practice" (Edward F. Morris); (3) "Myths about the Null Hypothesis and the Path to Reform" (Robert G. Malgady); (4) "A Construct-Based…

  1. Childhood Developmental Disorders: An Academic and Clinical Convergence Point for Psychiatry, Neurology, Psychology and Pediatrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Significant advances in understanding brain development and behavior have not been accompanied by revisions of traditional academic structure. Disciplinary isolation and a lack of meaningful interdisciplinary opportunities are persistent barriers in academic medicine. To enhance clinical practice, research, and training for the next…

  2. Handbook of Cross-Cultural and Multicultural Personality Assessment. Personality and Clinical Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Richard H., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: (1) "An Assessment-Intervention Model for Research and Practice with Multicultural Populations" (Richard H. Dana); (2) "An Africentric Perspective for Clinical Research and Practice" (Edward F. Morris); (3) "Myths about the Null Hypothesis and the Path to Reform" (Robert G. Malgady); (4) "A Construct-Based…

  3. Childhood Developmental Disorders: An Academic and Clinical Convergence Point for Psychiatry, Neurology, Psychology and Pediatrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Significant advances in understanding brain development and behavior have not been accompanied by revisions of traditional academic structure. Disciplinary isolation and a lack of meaningful interdisciplinary opportunities are persistent barriers in academic medicine. To enhance clinical practice, research, and training for the next…

  4. Analyzing Statistical Mediation with Multiple Informants: A New Approach with an Application in Clinical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Lesther A.; Litson, Kaylee; Lockhart, Ginger; Chassin, Laurie; Geiser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Testing mediation models is critical for identifying potential variables that need to be targeted to effectively change one or more outcome variables. In addition, it is now common practice for clinicians to use multiple informant (MI) data in studies of statistical mediation. By coupling the use of MI data with statistical mediation analysis, clinical researchers can combine the benefits of both techniques. Integrating the information from MIs into a statistical mediation model creates various methodological and practical challenges. The authors review prior methodological approaches to MI mediation analysis in clinical research and propose a new latent variable approach that overcomes some limitations of prior approaches. An application of the new approach to mother, father, and child reports of impulsivity, frustration tolerance, and externalizing problems (N = 454) is presented. The results showed that frustration tolerance mediated the relationship between impulsivity and externalizing problems. The new approach allows for a more comprehensive and effective use of MI data when testing mediation models. PMID:26617536

  5. Embodied and exbodied mind in clinical psychology. A proposal for a psycho-social interpretation of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Zatti, Alberto; Zarbo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A brief theoretical review of the current state of the art of embodiment research in clinical psychology has been expounded in order to highlight the key role that embodied conceptualization has on the understanding and explanation of several mental disorders, such as eating disorders, schizophrenia and depression. Evidence has suggested that mental disorders may be explained as disturbances of embodiment, from the disembodiment to the hyperembodiment. In order to understand how some clinical conditions are affected by cultural models, we propose and define a new framework called Exbodiment, complementary to the Embodiment approach to cognition. Mental disorder is strictly related to the subject-culture interaction that may be explained as a two way process in which embodiment and exbodiment are complementary points of view. In this perspective, embodiment may be seen as the "top-down" process, while exbodiment the "bottom-up" one. The introduction of exbodiment conceptualization highlights how subject is both receiver and interpreter of social influence. Subject is the target of a cultural pressure and, at the same time, enacts its own embodied culture in world. Exbodiment conceptualization may help clinicians to better understand and explain the role of culture in the onset and maintenance of mental disorders. PMID:25784894

  6. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in Down syndrome: Early indicators of clinical Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Dekker, Alain D; Strydom, André; Coppus, Antonia M W; Nizetic, Dean; Vermeiren, Yannick; Naudé, Petrus J W; Van Dam, Debby; Potier, Marie-Claude; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2015-12-01

    Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are a core symptom of dementia and are associated with suffering, earlier institutionalization and accelerated cognitive decline for patients and increased caregiver burden. Despite the extremely high risk for Down syndrome (DS) individuals to develop dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), BPSD have not been comprehensively assessed in the DS population. Due to the great variety of DS cohorts, diagnostic methodologies, sub-optimal scales, covariates and outcome measures, it is questionable whether BPSD have always been accurately assessed. However, accurate recognition of BPSD may increase awareness and understanding of these behavioural aberrations, thus enabling adaptive caregiving and, importantly, allowing for therapeutic interventions. Particular BPSD can be observed (long) before the clinical dementia diagnosis and could therefore serve as early indicators of those at risk, and provide a new, non-invasive way to monitor, or at least give an indication of, the complex progression to dementia in DS. Therefore, this review summarizes and evaluates the rather limited knowledge on BPSD in DS and highlights its importance and potential for daily clinical practice. PMID:26343344

  7. Embodied and exbodied mind in clinical psychology. A proposal for a psycho-social interpretation of mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zatti, Alberto; Zarbo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A brief theoretical review of the current state of the art of embodiment research in clinical psychology has been expounded in order to highlight the key role that embodied conceptualization has on the understanding and explanation of several mental disorders, such as eating disorders, schizophrenia and depression. Evidence has suggested that mental disorders may be explained as disturbances of embodiment, from the disembodiment to the hyperembodiment. In order to understand how some clinical conditions are affected by cultural models, we propose and define a new framework called Exbodiment, complementary to the Embodiment approach to cognition. Mental disorder is strictly related to the subject-culture interaction that may be explained as a two way process in which embodiment and exbodiment are complementary points of view. In this perspective, embodiment may be seen as the “top-down” process, while exbodiment the “bottom-up” one. The introduction of exbodiment conceptualization highlights how subject is both receiver and interpreter of social influence. Subject is the target of a cultural pressure and, at the same time, enacts its own embodied culture in world. Exbodiment conceptualization may help clinicians to better understand and explain the role of culture in the onset and maintenance of mental disorders. PMID:25784894

  8. Transparency of Outcome Reporting and Trial Registration of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Marleine; Riehm, Kira E.; McKay, Dean; Thombs, Brett D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Confidence that randomized controlled trial (RCT) results accurately reflect intervention effectiveness depends on proper trial conduct and the accuracy and completeness of published trial reports. The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) is the primary trials journal amongst American Psychological Association (APA) journals. The objectives of this study were to review RCTs recently published in JCCP to evaluate (1) adequacy of primary outcome analysis definitions; (2) registration status; and, (3) among registered trials, adequacy of outcome registrations. Additionally, we compared results from JCCP to findings from a recent study of top psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals. Methods Eligible RCTs were published in JCCP in 2013–2014. For each RCT, two investigators independently extracted data on (1) adequacy of outcome analysis definitions in the published report, (2) whether the RCT was registered prior to enrolling patients, and (3) adequacy of outcome registration. Results Of 70 RCTs reviewed, 12 (17.1%) adequately defined primary or secondary outcome analyses, whereas 58 (82.3%) had multiple primary outcome analyses without statistical adjustment or undefined outcome analyses. There were 39 (55.7%) registered trials. Only two trials registered prior to patient enrollment with a single primary outcome variable and time point of assessment. However, in one of the two trials, registered and published outcomes were discrepant. No studies were adequately registered as per Standard Protocol Items: Recommendation for Interventional Trials guidelines. Compared to psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals, the proportion of published trials with adequate outcome analysis declarations was significantly lower in JCCP (17.1% versus 32.9%; p = 0.029). The proportion of registered trials in JCCP (55.7%) was comparable to behavioral medicine journals (52.6%; p = 0.709). Conclusions The quality of published outcome analysis definitions and trial registrations in JCCP is suboptimal. Greater attention to proper trial registration and outcome analysis definition in published reports is needed. PMID:26581079

  9. Eliminating "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) terminology in clinical breast practice: The cognitive psychology point of view.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Yoder, Whitney R; Riva, Silvia; Mazzocco, Ketti; Arnaboldi, Paola; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence from the literature that the terms "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) should be eliminated in clinical breast cancer practice and replaced with the new "ductal intraepithelial neoplasia" (DIN) and "lobular intraepithelial neoplasia" (LIN) terminology. The main purpose of the present article is to expand on this argument from a cognitive psychology perspective and offer suggestions for further research, emphasizing how the elimination of the term "carcinoma" in "in situ" breast cancer diagnoses has the potential to reduce both patient and health care professional confusion and misperceptions that are often associated with the DCIS and LCIS diagnoses, as well as limit the adverse psychological effects of women receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis. We comment on the recent peer-reviewed literature on the clinical implications and psychological consequences for breast cancer patients receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis and we use a cognitive perspective to offer new insight into the benefits of embracing the new DIN and LIN terminology. Using cognitive psychology and cognitive science in general, as a foundation, further research is advocated in order to yield data in support of changing the terminology and therefore, offer a chance to significantly improve the lives and psychological sequelae of women facing such a diagnosis. Typology: Controversies/Short Commentary. PMID:26614547

  10. Positive results of clinical educational support in situations of psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Tavormina, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Education is a complex process that involves the individual in the course of his entire life and leads to the maturation and the overall development of his personality. The educational process involves the complete growth of each and completes the infinite possibilities that every child has potential since birth. Education also is a necessity for the human being, as only adequate environmental stimulation causes the mental processes to begin. In fact, the higher intellectual functions, such as language, thought, memory, emerge only from social and educational experiences of the child. The educational surgery creates experiences and learning that allow the person to change by improving the efficiency of synaptic connections. Clinical pedagogy has developed in Italy in the last decades of the twentieth century with the aim of research and experimenting educational purposes suitable for different situations in order to provide each subject with appropriate development opportunities. Clinical pedagogical support is offered in the form of artistic or bodily activities and represents for the individual a positive environment that allows the development of different brain areas and the potential inherent in them. The various methods are suitable for any situation of existential discomfort, which are understood as moments of personal growth. PMID:25413523

  11. The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire: validity and psychological correlates in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Riley, W T; McCranie, E W

    1990-01-01

    This study sought to compare the original and revised scoring systems of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) and to assess the construct validity of the Dependent and Self-Critical subscales of the DEQ in a clinically depressed sample. Subjects were 103 depressed inpatients who completed the DEQ, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hopelessness Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ), the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The original and revised scoring systems of the DEQ evidenced good concurrent validity for each factor scale, but the revised system did not sufficiently discriminate dependent and self-critical dimensions. Using the original scoring system, self-criticism was significantly and positively related to severity of depression, whereas dependency was not, particularly for males. Factor analysis of the DEQ scales and the other scales used in this study supported the dependent and self-critical dimensions. For men, the correlation of the DEQ with the MMPI scales indicated that self-criticism was associated with psychotic symptoms, hostility/conflict, and a distress/exaggerated response set, whereas dependency did not correlate significantly with any MMPI scales. Females, however, did not exhibit a differential pattern of correlations between either the Dependency or the Self-Criticism scales and the MMPI. These findings suggest possible gender differences in the clinical characteristics of male and female dependent and self-critical depressive subtypes. PMID:2348339

  12. Towards Resilient Telehealth Support for Clinical Psychiatry and Psychology: A Strategic Review.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have increasingly shown a willingness to adopt Internet, mHealth and telehealth applications as a part of managing their health. Recent technological advances in the use of the Internet and video technologies has greatly impacted the provision of psychotherapy and other clinical services as well as how the training of psychotherapists may be conducted. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The major issue in such a development is whether online interventions will be structured or unstructured. The proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding results. We present a strategic review and, as an example, the main steps to develop and achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application. PMID:26153014

  13. Supporting cancer patients and their carers: the contribution of art therapy and clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gudrun; Browning, Mary

    2009-11-01

    The value of various types of psychosocial support for people with cancer is now becoming well established. Typically the term 'psychosocial' includes: counselling and psychotherapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, education and information, and social support. The research literature sometimes fails to clarify the exact nature of the different approaches and their relative efficacy. Inevitably, even within a specific type of therapeutic approach, there is variation owing to the professional background and skills of different practitioners. This article describes the relative contributions made by an art psychotherapist and a clinical psychologist working together in a cancer and palliative care service in Wales. The referrals come from the same sources and tend to be for similar types of problem. The assessment and formulation processes are also broadly similar. Interventions, however, are markedly different. These are described in some detail through case study examples. PMID:20081731

  14. Supporting cancer patients and their carers: the contribution of art therapy and clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gudrun; Browning, Mary

    2009-12-01

    The value of various types of psychosocial support for people with cancer is now becoming well established. Typically the term 'psychosocial' includes: counselling and psychotherapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, education and information, and social support. The research literature sometimes fails to clarify the exact nature of the different approaches and their relative efficacy. Inevitably, even within a specific type of therapeutic approach, there is variation owing to the professional background and skills of different practitioners. This article describes the relative contributions made by an art psychotherapist and a clinical psychologist working together in a cancer and palliative care service in Wales. The referrals come from the same sources and tend to be for similar types of problem. The assessment and formulation processes are also broadly similar. Interventions, however, are markedly different. These are described in some detail through case study examples. PMID:20081739

  15. Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the…

  16. Manual for Clinical Psychology Trainees. Third Edition. Brunner/Mazel Basic Principles into Practice Series, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choca, James P.; Van Denburg, Eric J.

    Though directed primarily to graduate psychology students, this revised and expanded edition is intended to assist everyone involved in patient care. The manual attempts to provide practical and easily understandable guidelines which can be used for each step in the provision of psychological services. Instead of documenting every possible…

  17. Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the…

  18. Demography, clinical characteristics, psychological and abuse profiles, treatment, and long-term follow-up of patients with gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Soykan, I; Sivri, B; Sarosiek, I; Kiernan, B; McCallum, R W

    1998-11-01

    Patients with gastroparesis frequently present challenging clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic problems. Data from 146 gastroparesis patients seen over six years were analyzed. Patients were evaluated at the time of initial diagnosis and at the most recent follow-up in terms of gastric emptying and gastrointestinal symptomatology. The psychological status and physical and sexual abuse history in female idiopathic gastroparesis patients were ascertained and an association between those factors and gastrointestinal symptomatology was sought. Eighty-two percent of patients were females (mean age: 45 years old). The mean age for onset of gastroparesis was 33.7 years. The etiologies in 146 patients are: 36% idiopathic, 29% diabetic, 13% postgastric surgery, 7.5% Parkinson's disease, 4.8% collagen vascular disorders, 4.1% intestinal pseudoobstruction, and 6% miscellaneous causes. Subgroups were identified within the idiopathic group: 12 patients (23%) had a presentation consistent with a viral etiology, 48% had very prominent abdominal pain. Other subgroups were gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonulcer dyspepsia (19%), depression (23%), and onset of symptoms immediately after cholecystectomy (8%). Sixty-two percent of women with idiopathic gastroparesis reported a history of physical or sexual abuse, and physical abuse was significantly associated with abdominal pain, somatization, depression, and lifetime surgeries. At the end of the follow-up period, 74% required continuous prokinetic therapy, 22% were able to stop prokinetics, 5% had undergone gastrectomy, 6.2% went onto gastric electrical stimulation (pacing), and 7% had died. At some point 21% had required nutrition support with a feeding jejunostomy tube or periods of parenteral nutrition. A good response to pharmacological agents can be expected in the viral and dyspeptic subgroups of idiopathics, Parkinson's disease, and the majority of diabetics, whereas a poorer outcome to prokinetics can be expected in postgastrectomy patients, those with connective tissue disease, a subgroup of diabetics, and the subset of idiopathic gastroparesis dominated by abdominal pain and history of physical and sexual abuse. Appreciation of the different etiologies and psychological status of the patients may help predict response to prokinetic therapy. PMID:9824125

  19. Expanding Empathy in Our Clinical Work: A Response to Wickramasekera II's (2015) "Mysteries of Hypnosis and the Self Are Revealed by the Psychology and Neuroscience of Empathy.".

    PubMed

    Kaklauskas, Francis J; Clements, Carla June

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a central tenet of psychotherapeutic process. This article builds upon Wickramasekera II's (2015) "Mysteries of Hypnosis and the Self are Revealed by the Psychology and Neuroscience of Empathy," with particular focus on "empathetic involvement theory." A brief transtheoretical and research review of empathy is provided. A couple's therapy case illustration is provided to elucidate how one can expand "empathetic involvement theory" into clinical practice. Emphasis is placed upon the dimensions of sensation and body/mind connectedness. PMID:26675157

  20. A randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of an intervention to treat psychological distress and improve quality of life after autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Braamse, Annemarie M J; van Meijel, B; Visser, O J; Boenink, A D; Cuijpers, P; Eeltink, C E; Hoogendoorn, A W; van Marwijk Kooy, M; van Oppen, P; Huijgens, P C; Beekman, A T F; Dekker, J

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress contributes to impaired quality of life in hematological cancer patients. Stepped care treatment, in which patients start with the least intensive treatment most likely to work and only receive more intensive interventions if needed, could improve distress. We aimed to evaluate the outcome of stepped care treatment on psychological distress and physical functioning in patients treated with autologous stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies. In the present study, we performed a randomized clinical trial with two treatment arms: stepped care and care as usual. Baseline assessment and randomization occurred during pre-transplant hospitalization. Stepped care was initiated after 6 weeks, consisting of (1) watchful waiting, (2) Internet-based self-help intervention, and (3) face-to-face counseling/ psychopharmacological treatment/ referral. Follow-up measurements were conducted at 13, 30, and 42 weeks after transplantation. Stepped care (n = 47) and care as usual (n = 48) were comparable on baseline characteristics. The uptake of the intervention was low: 24 patients started with step 1, 23 with step 2, and none with step 3. Percentages of distressed patients ranged from 4.1 to 9.7 %. Ten percent of patients received external psychological or psychiatric care. No statistically significant differences were found between stepped care and care as usual on psychological distress or physical functioning in intention to treat analyses, nor in per protocol analyses. The stepped care program was not effective in decreasing psychological distress. The low intervention uptake, probably related to the low levels of psychological distress, offers an explanation for this outcome. Future research should take into account patients' specific care needs. Netherlands Trial Registry identifier: NTR1770. PMID:26420062

  1. The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided. PMID:23710346

  2. The Representation of Applied Psychology Areas in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselhuhn, Charlotte W.; Clopton, Kerri L.

    2008-01-01

    Many psychology majors indicate helping others as a reason for majoring in psychology, yet many enter positions not closely related to the field. This discrepancy may be due to a lack of student knowledge of the applied areas of psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coverage of clinical, counseling,…

  3. From Dunce to Doctor: A Critical Autobiography of a Dyslexic Doctoral Student Pursuing a Doctorate of Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Much is known about the phenomenon of learning disabilities, especially dyslexia in children. Only recently, however, has psychological research focused on adult learning disabilities. The bulk of research on the phenomenon of adult learning disabilities has been quantitative research, which neglected the subjective experience of those it is…

  4. Developmental Course of Deprivation-Specific Psychological Patterns: Early Manifestations, Persistence to Age 15, and Clinical Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreppner, Jana; Kumsta, Robert; Rutter, Michael; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jennifer; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    In chapter IV, the authors focused on their findings on the developmental course of deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs). The authors rediscussed the syndrome concept in the light of two main considerations. First, the findings indicated substantial overlap among the four postulated DSPs at 15 years including CI and I/O before…

  5. Effects of Mindfulness-Based versus Interpersonal Process Group Intervention on Psychological Well-Being with a Clinical University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Ciara; Bond, Lynne A.; London, Miv

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety,…

  6. From Dunce to Doctor: A Critical Autobiography of a Dyslexic Doctoral Student Pursuing a Doctorate of Clinical Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Much is known about the phenomenon of learning disabilities, especially dyslexia in children. Only recently, however, has psychological research focused on adult learning disabilities. The bulk of research on the phenomenon of adult learning disabilities has been quantitative research, which neglected the subjective experience of those it is…

  7. Effects of Mindfulness-Based versus Interpersonal Process Group Intervention on Psychological Well-Being with a Clinical University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Ciara; Bond, Lynne A.; London, Miv

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety,…

  8. Developmental Course of Deprivation-Specific Psychological Patterns: Early Manifestations, Persistence to Age 15, and Clinical Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreppner, Jana; Kumsta, Robert; Rutter, Michael; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jennifer; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    In chapter IV, the authors focused on their findings on the developmental course of deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs). The authors rediscussed the syndrome concept in the light of two main considerations. First, the findings indicated substantial overlap among the four postulated DSPs at 15 years including CI and I/O before…

  9. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  10. Do Web-Based and Clinic Samples of Gay Men Living With HIV Differ on Self-Reported Physical and Psychological Symptoms? A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Fiona; Molloy, Tim; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the Internet is commonly used to recruit samples in studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors, it has not been used to measure patient-reported well-being. As the burden of long-term chronic HIV infection rises, the Internet may offer enormous potential for recruitment to research and interventions. Objective This study aimed to compare two samples of gay men living with HIV, one recruited via the Web and the other recruited in outpatient settings, in terms of self-reported physical and psychological symptom burden. Methods The Internet sample was recruited from a UK-wide Web-based survey of gay men with diagnosed HIV. Of these, 154 respondents identified themselves as resident in London and were included in this analysis. The HIV clinic sample was recruited from five HIV outpatient clinics. Of these participants, 400 gay men recruited in London clinics were included in this analysis. Results The Web-based sample was younger than the clinic sample (37.3 years, SD 7.0 vs 40.9 years, SD 8.3), more likely to be in paid employment (72.8%, 99/136 vs 60.1%, 227/378), less likely to be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (58.4%, 90/154 vs 68.0%, 266/391), and had worse mean psychological symptom burden compared to the clinic sample (mean scores: 1.61, SD 1.09 vs 1.36, SD 0.96) but similar physical symptom burden (mean scores: 0.78, SD 0.65 vs 0.70, SD 0.74). In multivariable logistic regression, for the physical symptom burden model, adjusted for age, ethnicity, employment status, and ART use, the recruitment setting (ie, Web-based vs clinic) was not significantly associated with high physical symptom score. The only variable that remained significantly associated with high physical symptom score was employment status, with those in employment being less likely to report being in the upper (worst) physical symptom tertile versus the other two tertiles (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.28-0.62, P<.001). For the psychological symptom burden model, those recruited via the Web were significantly more likely to report being in the upper (worst) tertile (adjusted OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.41-3.44, P=.001). In addition, those in employment were less likely to report being in the upper (worst) psychological symptom tertile compared to those not in employment (adjusted OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.21-0.49, P<.001). Conclusions Our data have revealed a number of differences. Compared to the clinic sample, the Web-based sample had worse psychological symptom burden, younger average age, higher prevalence of employment, and a lower proportion on ART. For future research, we recommend that Web-based data collection should include the demographic variables that we note differed between samples. In addition, we recognize that each recruitment method may bring inherent sampling bias, with clinic populations differing by geographical location and reflecting those accessing regular medical care, and Web-based sampling recruiting those with greater Internet access and identifying survey materials through specific searches and contact with specific websites. PMID:25793749

  11. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  12. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  13. Demographical, Clinical, and Psychological Characteristics of Users and Nonusers of an Online Platform for T2DM Patients (e-VitaDM-3/ZODIAC-44).

    PubMed

    Roelofsen, Yvonne; van Vugt, Michael; Hendriks, Steven H; van Hateren, Kornelis J J; Groenier, Klaas H; Snoek, Frank J; Kleefstra, Nanne; Huijsman, Robbert; Bilo, Henk J G

    2016-01-01

    Background. Online platforms offer opportunities for support in changing lifestyle and taking responsibility for one's health, but engaging patients with type 2 diabetes is challenging. Previous studies have shown that patients interested in platforms were more often male, younger, and higher educated. This study aims to investigate differences in clinical and psychological characteristics between users and nonusers of a newly developed platform. Methods. A prospective study started in the Drenthe region of Netherlands. Participants in the study concerning quality of care and quality of life were additionally invited to use the platform. Results. 633 patients were registered after they opted for platform use. Of these patients, 361 (57.0%) never logged on, 184 (29.1%) were labeled "curious" users, and 88 (13.9%) were identified as "active" users. Users had lower HbA1c levels and more often hypertension compared to nonusers, and reported higher quality of life, better well-being, lower diabetes-related distress, and better medication adherence. Discussion. Platform use was associated with more favorable clinical and psychological characteristics relative to nonuse. Those with greater severity of disease, lower mood, and progression of disease used the platform the least. Other approaches need to be developed to reach these patients. Furthermore, improving the platform could also help to reach them. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01570140. PMID:26682232

  14. Demographical, Clinical, and Psychological Characteristics of Users and Nonusers of an Online Platform for T2DM Patients (e-VitaDM-3/ZODIAC-44)

    PubMed Central

    Roelofsen, Yvonne; van Vugt, Michael; Hendriks, Steven H.; van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Snoek, Frank J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Huijsman, Robbert; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Online platforms offer opportunities for support in changing lifestyle and taking responsibility for one's health, but engaging patients with type 2 diabetes is challenging. Previous studies have shown that patients interested in platforms were more often male, younger, and higher educated. This study aims to investigate differences in clinical and psychological characteristics between users and nonusers of a newly developed platform. Methods. A prospective study started in the Drenthe region of Netherlands. Participants in the study concerning quality of care and quality of life were additionally invited to use the platform. Results. 633 patients were registered after they opted for platform use. Of these patients, 361 (57.0%) never logged on, 184 (29.1%) were labeled “curious” users, and 88 (13.9%) were identified as “active” users. Users had lower HbA1c levels and more often hypertension compared to nonusers, and reported higher quality of life, better well-being, lower diabetes-related distress, and better medication adherence. Discussion. Platform use was associated with more favorable clinical and psychological characteristics relative to nonuse. Those with greater severity of disease, lower mood, and progression of disease used the platform the least. Other approaches need to be developed to reach these patients. Furthermore, improving the platform could also help to reach them. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01570140. PMID:26682232

  15. The development of a diversity mentoring program for faculty and trainees: A program at the Brown Clinical Psychology Training Consortium

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Marcel A.; Kuo, Caroline; Hernandez, Lynn; Clark, Uraina S.; Wenze, Susan J.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Hunter, Heather L.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Zlotnick, Caron

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need for increasing the diversity representation among clinicians and researchers in academic medicine, including departments of psychiatry and psychology. Mentorship of under-represented groups has been identified as an important way to remediate diversity-related barriers in the field. This paper outlines the early development and pilot implementation of a diversity mentorship program at Brown University. In an effort to inform and guide future diversity programs, we discuss the challenges faced in creating the program, the successes experienced during the first year, and the future directions undertaken as a means for improving the program. PMID:25346563

  16. Psychological Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Holidays Personal Stories IBS Awareness Month The Art of IBS Who We Are Contact Us Donate Psychological Treatments Jump to Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS The cause ...

  17. A Narrative Inquiry of Clinical Supervision in Psychology: A Discourse Analysis of the Storying-Restorying Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lionberg, Carrie Ann

    Exploring how people create meaning from their personal experience is central to clinical practice, and is equally important in examining the development of the intern therapist's clinical skills. This study examined supervision session discussions and interns' accounts of their training experiences in order to understand how meaning and knowledge…

  18. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of low-intensity psychological interventions for the secondary prevention of relapse after depression: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, M; Asaria, M; Walker, S; McMillan, D; Lucock, M; Harden, M; Palmer, S; Eastwood, A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Depression is the most common mental disorder in community settings and a major cause of disability across the world. The objective of treatment is to achieve remission or at least adequate control of depressive symptoms; however, even after successful treatment, the risk of relapse after remission is significant. Although the effectiveness of low-intensity interventions has been extensively evaluated to treat primary symptoms of psychological difficulties, there has been substantially less research examining the use of these interventions as a relapse prevention strategy. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of low-intensity psychological or psychosocial interventions to prevent relapse or recurrence in patients with depression. As the broader definition of 'low-intensity' psychological intervention is somewhat contested, the review was conducted in two parts: A, a systematic review of all evaluations of 'low-intensity' interventions that were delivered by para-professionals, peer supporters or psychological well-being practitioners as defined by the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies programme; and B, a scoping review of relevant evaluations of interventions involving qualified mental health professionals (e.g. psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, cognitive behavioural therapists) involving < 6 hours of contact per patient. DATA SOURCES Comprehensive literature searches were developed; electronic databases were searched from inception until September 2010 (including MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library), internet resources were used to identify guidelines on the treatment of depression, and the bibliographies of relevant reviews, guidelines and included studies were scrutinised. REVIEW METHODS Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts; data were extracted independently by one reviewer using a standardised data extraction form and checked by another. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus, with involvement of a third reviewer when necessary. The inclusion criteria were population - adults or adolescents who had received treatment for depression; intervention - part A, low-intensity interventions, specifically any unsupported psychological/psychosocial interventions or any supported interventions that did not involve highly qualified mental health professionals, and, part B, interventions carried out by qualified mental health professionals that involved < 6 hours of contact per patient; comparator - any, including no treatment, placebo, psychological or pharmacological interventions; outcomes - relapse or recurrence, other outcomes (e.g. social function, quality of life) were recorded where reported; and study design - for clinical effectiveness, randomised, quasi-randomised and non-randomised studies with concurrent control patients. For cost-effectiveness, full economic evaluations that compared two or more treatment options and considered both costs and consequences. No studies met the main part A inclusion criteria. RESULTS For the clinical effectiveness review, 17 studies (14 completed, three ongoing), reported in 27 publications, met the part B inclusion criteria. These studies were clinically and methodologically diverse, and reported differing degrees of efficacy for the evaluated interventions. One randomised controlled trial (RCT), which evaluated a collaborative care-type programme, was potentially relevant to part A; this study reported no difference between patients receiving the intervention and those receiving usual care in terms of relapse of depression over 12 months. For the cost-effectiveness review, two studies met the criteria for part B. One of these was an economic evaluation of the RCT above, which was potentially relevant to part A. This evaluation found that the intervention may be a cost-effective use of resources when compared with usual care; however, it was unclear how valid these estimates were for the NHS. LIMITATIONS Although any definition of 'brief' is likely to be somewhat arbitrary, an inclusion threshold of 6 hours contact per patient was used to select brief high-intensity intervention studies. Most excluded studies evaluated clearly resource-intensive interventions, though occasionally, studies were excluded on the basis of having only slightly more than 6 hours contact per patient. CONCLUSIONS There is inadequate evidence to determine the clinical effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of low-intensity interventions for the prevention of relapse or recurrence of depression. A scoping review of brief high-intensity therapies indicates that some approaches have shown promise in some studies, but findings have not been consistent. Many uncertainties remain and further primary research is required. Careful consideration should be given to the scope of such research; it is important to evaluate the broader patient pathway accounting for the heterogeneous patient groups of interest. Future RCTs conducted in a UK primary care setting should include adult participants in remission or recovery from depression, and evaluate the quality of the intervention and consistency of delivery across practitioners where appropriate. The occurrence of relapse or recurrence should be measured using established methods, and functional outcomes as well as symptoms should be measured; data on quality of life using a generic instrument, such as the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), should be collected. FUNDING The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme. PMID:22642789

  19. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  20. Mathematical psychology.

    PubMed

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271659

  1. Socioecological psychology.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility ? anxiety ? familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking ? dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments. PMID:23987114

  2. Political and clinical developments in analytical psychology, 1972-2014: subjectivity, equality and diversity-inside and outside the consulting room.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Utilizing Jung's idea of theory as a 'personal confession', the author charts his own development as a theorist, establishing links between his personal history and his ideas. Such links include his relationship with both parents, his sexuality, his cultural heritage, and his fascination with Tricksters and with Hermes. There follows a substantial critical interrogation of what the author discerns as the two main lines of clinical theorizing in contemporary analytical psychotherapy: interpretation of transference-countertransference, and the relational approach. His conclusion is that neither is superior to the other and neither is in fact adequate as a basis for clinical work. The focus then shifts to explore a range of political and social aspects of the clinical project of analytical psychology: economic inequality, diversity within the professional field, and Jung's controversial ideas about Jews and Africans. The author calls for an apology from the 'Jungian community' for remarks about Africans analogous to the apology already issued for remarks about Jews. The paper is dedicated to the author's friend Fred Plaut (1913-2009). PMID:25331504

  3. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of primary care physicians in Scotland and north England. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (referral rates for lumbar spine x-rays), behavioural simulation (lumbar spine x-ray referral decisions based upon scenarios), and behavioural intention (general intention to refer for lumbar spine x-rays in patients with low back pain). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Weinstein's Stage Model termed the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP), and knowledge. For each of the outcome measures, a generalised linear model was used to examine the predictive value of each theory individually. Linear regression was used for the intention and simulation outcomes, and negative binomial regression was used for the behaviour outcome. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross-theoretical construct' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all individual constructs across theories. Results Constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT predicted behaviour; however, the theoretical models did not fit the data well. When predicting behavioural simulation, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 11.6%, SCT 12.1%, OLT 8.1%, and II 1.5% of the variance, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, CS-SRM and II explained 16.5% of the variance in simulated behaviours. When predicting intention, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 25.0%, SCT 21.5%, CS-SRM 11.3%, OLT 26.3%, PAP 2.6%, and knowledge 2.3%, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT explained 33.5% variance in intention. Together these results suggest that physicians' beliefs about consequences and beliefs about capabilities are likely determinants of lumbar spine x-ray referrals. Conclusions The study provides evidence that taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain. PMID:21619689

  4. Acute and chronic psychological stress as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: Insights gained from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Lagraauw, H Maxime; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of death worldwide and identification and therapeutic modulation of all its risk factors is necessary to ensure a lower burden on the patient and on society. The physiological response to acute and chronic stress exposure has long been recognized as a potent modulator of immune, endocrine and metabolic pathways, however its direct implications for cardiovascular disease development, progression and as a therapeutic target are not completely understood. More and more attention is given to the bidirectional interaction between psychological and physical health in relation to cardiovascular disease. With atherosclerosis being a chronic disease starting already at an early age the contribution of adverse early life events in affecting adult health risk behavior, health status and disease development is receiving increased attention. In addition, experimental research into the biological pathways involved in stress-induced cardiovascular complications show important roles for metabolic and immunologic maladaptation, resulting in increased disease development and progression. Here we provide a concise overview of human and experimental animal data linking chronic and acute stress to CVD risk and increased progression of the underlying disease atherosclerosis. PMID:26256574

  5. Psychology in Spain: Its Historical and Cultural Roots, Instruction, Research and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes-Berges, Beatriz; Aranda, Maria; Castillo-Mayen, Maria del Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Roots in Spanish Psychology dated back to Huarte de San Juan (1575). From this period to nowadays, Psychology has notably developed, branching in different areas such as psychology and sports and physical exercise, clinical and health psychology, educational psychology, psychology of social intervention, legal psychology, work and organisational…

  6. Psychological aspects of headache

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, P. K.

    1971-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common symptoms encountered in clinical practice. Its conceptual problems are those of pain in general and some of the theories concerning pain, especially those attempting to relate psychological and physical aspects, are considered. The classifications which have been suggested for headaches associated with emotional causes are described and it is shown that these are of limited clinical value. Some of the psychogenic causes of headache are considered and the associations of the symptom with various psychiatric illnesses are described. Headache is especially likely to be found with depressive illnesses. The treatments for various psychological types of headache are reviewed.

  7. Test Reviews: Bracken, B. A., & Howell, K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Depression." Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghakhani, Anoosha; Chan, Eric K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD), a 50-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms designed for children, adolescents, adults, and elderly adults from 8 to 79 years of age. Purporting to be sensitive to depressive symptomatology across the lifespan, the test items were written to reflect the…

  8. Test Reviews: Bracken, B. A., & Howell, K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Depression." Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghakhani, Anoosha; Chan, Eric K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD), a 50-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms designed for children, adolescents, adults, and elderly adults from 8 to 79 years of age. Purporting to be sensitive to depressive symptomatology across the lifespan, the test items were written to reflect the…

  9. An online guided ACT intervention for enhancing the psychological wellbeing of university students: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Panajiota; Lappalainen, Päivi; Muotka, Joona; Tolvanen, Asko; Lappalainen, Raimo

    2016-03-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are relatively common problems among university students. This study examined whether an online psychological intervention aiming at enhancing the wellbeing of university students could be an effective and practical alternative for meeting the needs of a university population. University students (N = 68; 85% female; 19-32 years old) were randomly assigned to either a guided seven-week online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (iACT) intervention or a waiting list control condition (WLC). A between-groups pre-post (iACT vs WLC) design with 12-month follow-up for the iACT participants was conducted. The intervention participants were offered two face-to-face meetings, completed online exercises during a five-week period, and received personal weekly written feedback via the website from their randomly assigned, trained student coaches. Waitlist participants were offered the intervention program soon after the post measurements. Results in this small efficacy trial showed that the iACT participants had significantly higher gains in wellbeing (between group, d = 0.46), life satisfaction (d = 0.65), and mindfulness skills (d = 0.49). In addition, iACT participants' self-reported stress (d = 0.54) and symptoms of depression (d = 0.69) were significantly reduced compared to the participants in the control group. These benefits were maintained over a 12-month follow-up period (within iACT group, d = 0.65-0.69, for primary measures). The results suggest that an online-based, coach-guided ACT program with blended face-to-face and online sessions could be an effective and well-accepted alternative for enhancing the wellbeing of university students. PMID:26848517

  10. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  11. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  12. [Psychological violences].

    PubMed

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  13. A Conceptual and Empirical Review of the Meaning, Measurement, Development, and Teaching of Intervention Competence in Clinical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jacques P.

    2009-01-01

    Through the course of this paper we discuss several fundamental issues related to the intervention competence of psychologists. Following definitional clarification and proposals for more strictly distinguishing competence from adherence, we interpret Dreyfus and Dreyfus’s (1986) five stage theory of competence development (from novice to expert) within a strictly clinical framework. Existing methods of competence assessment are then evaluated, and we argue for the use of new and multiple assessment modalities. Next, we utilize the previous sections as a foundation to propose methods for training and evaluating competent psychologists. Lastly, we discuss several potential impediments to large scale competence assessment and education, such as the heterogeneity of therapeutic orientations and what could be termed a lack of transparency in clinical training. PMID:18952334

  14. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  15. Humanistic Psychology: Some Unfinished Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippner, Stanley

    The need for humanistically-oriented research may be viewed as the unfinished business of humanistic psychology. Additional research is needed to support some of the theoretical positions of humanistic psychology which have emerged from clinical practice, education, and management consultation rather than from laboratories and field studies. The…

  16. A Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the Use of 3-D Virtual Worlds in Clinical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Vigna, Cinzia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the role played by three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds in eHealth applications, addressing some potential advantages and issues related to the use of this emerging medium in clinical practice. Due to the enormous diffusion of the World Wide Web (WWW), telepsychology, and telehealth in general, have become accepted and validated methods for the treatment of many different health care concerns. The introduction of the Web 2.0 has facilitated the development of new forms of collaborative interaction between multiple users based on 3-D virtual worlds. This paper describes the development and implementation of a form of tailored immersive e-therapy called p-health whose key factor is interreality, that is, the creation of a hybrid augmented experience merging physical and virtual worlds. We suggest that compared with conventional telehealth applications such as emails, chat, and videoconferences, the interaction between real and 3-D virtual worlds may convey greater feelings of presence, facilitate the clinical communication process, positively influence group processes and cohesiveness in group-based therapies, and foster higher levels of interpersonal trust between therapists and patients. However, challenges related to the potentially addictive nature of such virtual worlds and questions related to privacy and personal safety will also be discussed. PMID:18678557

  17. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  18. Social and psychological factors in the distribution of STD in male clinic attenders. I Demographic and social factors.

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, K W; Catterall, R D; Hoinville, E; Lim, K S; Wilson, G D

    1983-01-01

    We describe three related studies of possible aetiological risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in men attending an STD clinic. In this paper we present the results for a variety of social and demographic variables traditionally associated with STD. In contrast to the results in the next two papers, these were largely negative. Occurrence rates of overall STD or of hepatitis, syphilis, gonorrhoea, or non-specific urethritis (NSU) had no aetiologically relevant association with age, nationality, marital status, social class, occupation, non-sexual social contact, drug abuse, or aggressive attitudes and behaviour. Gonorrhoea, however, was the only STD which correlated with alcohol abuse and with eating out rather than at home. We conclude that, with the possible exception of gonorrhoea, social factors contribute little to the distribution of STD risk within the study population. PMID:6688959

  19. Is training effective? A study of counseling psychology doctoral trainees in a psychodynamic/interpersonal training clinic.

    PubMed

    Hill, Clara E; Baumann, Ellen; Shafran, Naama; Gupta, Shudarshana; Morrison, Ashley; Rojas, Andrés E Pérez; Spangler, Patricia T; Griffin, Shauna; Pappa, Laura; Gelso, Charles J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated changes over 12 to 42 months in 23 predoctoral trainees during their externship training in a psychodynamic/interpersonal psychotherapy clinic. Over time, trainees increased in client-rated working alliance and real relationship, therapist-rated working alliance, client-rated interpersonal functioning, ability to use helping skills (e.g., challenges, immediacy), higher-order functioning (e.g., conceptualization ability, countertransference management), feelings about themselves as therapists (e.g., more authentic, more self-aware), and understanding about being a therapist (e.g., theoretical orientation, curiosity about client dynamics). In contrast, trainees did not change in engaging clients (return after intake or for at least 8 sessions), judge-rated psychodynamic techniques in third and ninth sessions across clients (although trainees used more cognitive-behavioral techniques over time in third but not ninth sessions), or changes in client-rated symptomatology. Trainees primarily attributed changes to graduate training, individual and group supervision, research participation, and working with clients. Implications for training and research are discussed. PMID:25602603

  20. Clinical efficacy and changes in the dosages of concomitantly used psychotropic drugs in memantine therapy in Alzheimer’s disease with behavioral and psychological symptoms on dementia

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Akiyoshi; Mikami, Katsunaka; Gen, Keishi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the clinical efficacy and changes in the dosages of concomitantly used psychotropic drugs in memantine therapy in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with behavioral and psychological symptoms on dementia (BPSD). Methods: The subjects were 38 inpatients who had been diagnosed with AD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). The outcome measures assessed were BPSD and cognitive function. BPSD was assessed using the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) and cognitive function was assessed using the mini-mental examination (MMSE). The changes in the dosages of concomitant psychotropic drugs were also assessed. Results: Significant decreases were found in the memantine therapy group in the following NPI total score and five NPI subscales: delusions, hallucinations, agitation, irritability, and aberrant motor behavior, but no significant differences were seen between the memantine therapy group and the control group. Furthermore, the memantine therapy group allowed the dosage of the psychotropic drugs to be significantly reduced compared with the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the administration of memantine to patients with AD with BPSD may afford superior efficacy and may also make it possible to reduce the risperidone equivalent dose, the diazepam equivalent dose and the dosage of the psychotropic drugs. PMID:24167684

  1. Psychological counterterrorism.

    PubMed

    Everly, George S

    2003-01-01

    At the end of the last century international terrorist groups declared war on the United States. Rather than pursue this war using conventional means, terrorist tactics have been employed. Terrorism represents psychological warfare, not traditional military combat. Threats of assassination, bioterrorism, and even nuclear detonations have been used. Numerous attacks have subsequently been realized against both domestic and international American targets. Winning the war against terrorism means acknowledging and responding to the psychological dynamics inherent in this form of warfare, as well as the military and law enforcement aspects of the war. Consistent with Caplan's notions of preventive psychiatry, the fight against terrorism must occur on three levels: (1) prevention of the terrorist attacks themselves, (2) mitigating the adverse psychological impact of the persistent threats of terrorist acts, as well as the terrorist attacks when they do occur, and (3) psychological treatment of the lingering adverse effects of threatened or actualized terrorist attacks. The preplanned and/or coordinated psychological efforts to counteract terrorism and prevail in any given war against terrorism shall be herein discussed and subsequently referred to as "psychological counterterrorism." PMID:12882091

  2. Annotated Bibliography on the Teaching of Psychology: 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David E.; Schroder, Simone I.

    1998-01-01

    Includes materials on: (1) abnormal and clinical psychology, and personality; (2) career issues; (3) cognition and learning; (4) educational technology; (5) faculty evaluation; (6) graduate education; (7) high school instruction; (8) history of psychology; (9) introductory psychology; (10) perception, and physiological and comparative psychology;…

  3. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  4. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  5. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  6. Psychology Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  7. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    PubMed

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion. PMID:17036424

  8. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  9. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  10. When did "scientific psychology" begin in Russia?

    PubMed

    Sirotkina, Irina

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of the institutionalisation of psychology in Russia was as complex as in other countries. The institutionalisation was more than a single event or even a series of events: it was a manifold process that involved various actors, groups, and political parties, and took at least several decades. Psychology was taught within the subject of philosophy, but as a separate course, at high schools, from the early nineteenth century. When, in mid-century, philosophy was banned from universities for political reasons, logic and psychology still remained in the curriculum. Psychology became a contested area in the 1860s, with the rise of the radical movement that accompanied the abolition of serfdom and other reforms. The young radicals, or nihilists, favoured positive science and gave clear preference to physiology; at medical schools, psychology gradually became part of physiology and psychiatry teaching. Psychiatric clinics provided a venue for the first psychological experiments; the first courses in experimental psychology were also taught to psychiatry students. At the turn of the century, humanities departments joined in by opening laboratories and adding courses in experimental psychology to the philosophical psychology traditionally taught. Yet by 1917, the year when the monarchy ended in Russia, only two universities, in Moscow and Odessa, had succeeded in founding laboratories. The institutionalisation of psychology on a mass scale followed the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. The new communist regime facilitated the country's modernisation, and psychology became one of its instruments. PMID:19569437

  11. A Coaching Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008), John Radford considers "what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education". In this article, the author looks at the possible inclusion of coaching psychology within undergraduate psychology programmes. Coaching psychology as an applied area of psychology…

  12. Psychology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography lists reference sources which are useful for research in psychology. Contents are selected, emphasizing clinical psychology. Two major sections of the guide, general and specific topics, supplement each other. The general section, arranged by form--dictionaries, handbooks, and encyclopedias--includes works which treat all facets…

  13. Polycultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness. PMID:25251481

  14. An appraisal of self psychology.

    PubMed

    London, N J

    1985-01-01

    The strength of self psychology lies in its additions to psychoanalytic technique; its weakness in the reductionism of its theories. It offers a coherent clinical theory for treatment within the 'widening scope' consistent with the core technique of psychoanalysis. There are also significant applications to the treatment of neuroses. Self psychology is focused in technique on needs, met in accordance with Rapaport's concept of 'stimulus nutriment', which are, in their essence, outside the sphere of intrapsychic conflict. Archaic needs include processes related to psychotic phenomena and, I suggest, to deficits in the organization of fantasy. Such deficits lead to excessive dependence on the environment so that an interactional theory is required. Self psychology adds an interactional point of view through the concept selfobject. This point of view is focused on the subjective experience of the patient by the recommendation for 'prolonged empathic immersion'. Self psychology has an implicit concept of limited goals so that an analytic end result may mean a reorganization of the self without necessarily leading to object love. The reductionism in self psychology obscures its valid contributions to the role of aggression, conflicts and parental failures in empathy. Integration of self psychology with psychoanalysis requires clarification of the limits of 'prolonged empathic immersion' and the place for interpretation of resistance, defense and drive conflicts. PMID:4066171

  15. Does psychological testing help to predict the response to acupuncture or massage/relaxation therapy in patients presenting to a general neurology clinic with headache?

    PubMed

    Wylie, K R; Jackson, C; Crawford, P M

    1997-06-01

    Patients with chronic headache were offered treatment by acupuncture or massage with relaxation instead of a change in their prescribed medication. They were randomly allocated to either treatment. There was a significant improvement in pain ratings with both treatment types. Specifically a greater effect was seen in migraine patients treated by massage with relaxation when compared to acupuncture. No psychological factors were found to predict response to either treatment. At the end of the study, 13% of patients were significantly more worried that there may be a more serious cause underlying their headache despite reassurance and an improvement in their headache scores. PMID:10437184

  16. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  17. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  18. 20 CFR 416.1016 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1016 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1616 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1016 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1616 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1616 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1616 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1016 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1616 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1016 - Medical or psychological consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... licensed or certified as a psychologist at the independent practice level of psychology by the State in which he or she practices; and (2)(i) Possesses a doctorate degree in psychology from a program in clinical psychology of an educational institution accredited by an organization recognized by the...

  8. The State of the Psychology Health Service Provider Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…

  9. [Emotional consequences of psychological trauma].

    PubMed

    Boulenger, Jean-Philippe

    2009-09-20

    The emotional consequences of psychological traumatisms are varied: major depression, anxiety disorders, addictive behaviour, adjustement disorders, and functional symptoms. The most severe traumatisms are likely to trigger an acute stress reaction which can lead to a chronic state called post-traumatic stress disorder. A rigorous clinical evaluation will determine not only the nature of the causal events but also the factors involved in the patient's emotional vulnerability elicited through his personal biography. Apart from specific psychiatric syndromes the treatment of adjustment disorders will rely mainly on social and psychological interventions; the use of psychotropic drugs will be prudent and limited in time. PMID:19839467

  10. A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual’s physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women. The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. Methods/Design This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women’s study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women’s health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. Discussion The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women’s risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and health status in women. PMID:24400870

  11. Introduction to Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

  12. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  13. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  14. Introduction to Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

  15. Predictors of Psychology Graduate Student Interest in the Field of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viecili, Michelle A.; MacMullin, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictors of interest in the future provision of clinical services to people with developmental disabilities by Canadian graduate students in psychology. Utilizing a cross-sectional survey, 458 psychology students from clinical, clinical neuropsychology, and counseling psychology programs from across Canada provided…

  16. Predictors of Psychology Graduate Student Interest in the Field of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viecili, Michelle A.; MacMullin, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictors of interest in the future provision of clinical services to people with developmental disabilities by Canadian graduate students in psychology. Utilizing a cross-sectional survey, 458 psychology students from clinical, clinical neuropsychology, and counseling psychology programs from across Canada provided…

  17. A socio-psychological investigation into limitations and incentives concerning reporting a clinically suspect situation aimed at improving early detection of classical swine fever outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Elbers, A R W; Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, M J; van der Velden, P G; Loeffen, W L A; Zarafshani, K

    2010-04-21

    The aim of this study was to identify limitations and incentives in reporting clinically suspect situations, possibly caused by classical swine fever (CSF), to veterinary authorities with the ultimate aim to facilitate early detection of CSF outbreaks. Focus group sessions were held with policy makers from the veterinary authorities, and representatives of veterinary practitioners and pig farmer unions. Personal interviews with a small group of pig farmers and practitioners were held to check limitations raised and solutions proposed during the focus group sessions. An electronic questionnaire was mailed to pig farmers and practitioners to investigate perceptions and attitudes with respect to clinically suspect situations possibly caused by CSF. After triangulating the responses of veterinary authorities, veterinary practitioners and farmers, six themes emerged across all groups: (1) lack of knowledge on the early signs of CSF; (2) guilt, shame and prejudice; (3) negative opinion on control measures; (4) dissatisfaction with post-reporting procedures; (5) lack of trust in government bodies; (6) uncertainty and lack of transparency of reporting procedures. The following solutions to facilitate early detection of CSF were put forward: (a) development of a clinical decision-support system for vets and farmers, in order to get faster diagnosis and detection of CSF; (b) possibility to submit blood samples directly to the reference laboratory to exclude CSF in a clinical situation with non-specific clinical signs, without isolation of the farm and free of charge for the individual farmer; (c) decrease social and economic consequences of reporting CSF, for example by improving the public opinion on first reports; (d) better schooling of veterinary officers to deal with emotions and insecurity of farmers in the process after reporting; (e) better communication of rules and regulations, where to report, what will happen next; (f) up-to-date website with information and visual material of the clinical signs of CSF. PMID:19854004

  18. Cognitive Defusion versus Thought Distraction: A Clinical Rationale, Training, and Experiential Exercise in Altering Psychological Impacts of Negative Self-Referential Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Wendell, Johanna W.; Sheehan, Shawn T.

    2010-01-01

    Using two modes of intervention delivery, the present study compared the effects of a cognitive defusion strategy with a thought distraction strategy on the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts. One mode of intervention delivery consisted of a clinical rationale and training (i.e., Partial condition). The…

  19. The Illinois Articulation Initiative Major Fields Panels' Recommendations for Business, Clinical Laboratory Science, Education--Early Childhood, Education--Elementary, Education--Secondary, Music, Nursing, Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Developed by the Illinois Articulation Initiative (IAI), this report provides recommendations for improving articulation through state high schools, community colleges, and institutions of higher education. The recommendations are presented by field of study for business, clinical laboratory science, early childhood education, elementary…

  20. Cognitive Defusion versus Thought Distraction: A Clinical Rationale, Training, and Experiential Exercise in Altering Psychological Impacts of Negative Self-Referential Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Wendell, Johanna W.; Sheehan, Shawn T.

    2010-01-01

    Using two modes of intervention delivery, the present study compared the effects of a cognitive defusion strategy with a thought distraction strategy on the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts. One mode of intervention delivery consisted of a clinical rationale and training (i.e., Partial condition). The…

  1. Using Positive Psychology with Special Mental Health Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohiuddin, Ahmed; Boisvert, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    In our clinical practice, we have attempted to use a positive psychology approach in working with people with schizophrenia and youths with behavioral disorders. We present three clinical applications that use a positive psychology approach with these populations: group treatment with persons with schizophrenia; individual cognitive stimulation…

  2. Using Positive Psychology with Special Mental Health Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohiuddin, Ahmed; Boisvert, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    In our clinical practice, we have attempted to use a positive psychology approach in working with people with schizophrenia and youths with behavioral disorders. We present three clinical applications that use a positive psychology approach with these populations: group treatment with persons with schizophrenia; individual cognitive stimulation…

  3. Psychology in Action: Psychology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Sigmund

    1977-01-01

    "Psychologists in the People's Republic of China are engaged in research concerning theory, Chinese language, child development, vision, audition, and areas of physiological psychology including acupuncture, pain, memory, and central nervous system functioning. The Institute of Psychology within the Chinese Academy of Sciences represents the…

  4. Psychology in Action: Psychology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Sigmund

    1977-01-01

    "Psychologists in the People's Republic of China are engaged in research concerning theory, Chinese language, child development, vision, audition, and areas of physiological psychology including acupuncture, pain, memory, and central nervous system functioning. The Institute of Psychology within the Chinese Academy of Sciences represents the…

  5. Mistreating Psychology in the Decades of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    We systematically mistreat psychological phenomena, both logically and clinically. This article explores three contentions: that the dominant discourse in modern cognitive, affective, and clinical neuroscience assumes that we know how psychology/biology causation works when we do not; that there are serious intellectual, clinical, and policy costs to pretending we do know; and that crucial scientific and clinical progress will be stymied as long as we frame psychology, biology, and their relationship in currently dominant ways. The arguments are developed with emphasis on misguided attempts to localize psychological function via neuroimaging, misunderstandings about the role of genetics in psychopathology, and unfortunate constraints on health-care policy and clinical service delivery. A particular challenge, articulated but not resolved in this article, is determining what constitutes adequate explanation in the relationship between psychology and biology. PMID:21949539

  6. Psychological Component of Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Organizations Resources: FAQs › FAQs - The Psychological Component of Infertility -- written by the ASRM Mental Health Professional Group ( ... Professional in your area ) Q1. What impact does infertility have on psychological well being? Infertility often creates ...

  7. School Psychology in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Martin H.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the status of school psychology in Australia. Information is presented on the education system, the role of the school psychologist, historical development, special problems, contributions, and future trends in Australian school psychology. (Author)

  8. Humanistic Psychology and Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders Richards, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The place of the encounter group within the framework of humanistic psychology is examined and an assessment of the moral significance of the humanistic psychology movement and the encounter group technique is attempted. (Editor)

  9. Essential tension: specialization with broad and general training in psychology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael C

    2006-11-01

    The practice fields of psychology develop through specialization in training and education. The recognized specialties play a major role in developing new opportunities for professional psychology and providing quality services for the public. The essential tension comes from the balance of innovation and tradition and, in professional psychology, from the balance of fragmentation and unification. As an example, specialization in clinical child psychology is integrated within the broad and general traditions. The greater degree of focused science and practice in a specialty is the logical consequence of advances of the discipline and profession of psychology. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115833

  10. Psychology: Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1986 introduces students to psychology and its related subject areas. Students learn that psychology has matured through the centuries from its taboo beginnings in supernatural beliefs and magic to its current status as a scientific discipline. Sections of the book include: (1) "What is Psychology?"; (2) "Human Development";…

  11. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  12. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  13. Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  14. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  15. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Behavioral Activation (BA) Therapy for Improving Psychological and Physical Health in Dementia Caregivers: Results of the Pleasant Events Program (PEP)

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Raeanne C; Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Ceglowski, Jennifer; Ho, Jennifer; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Ziegler, Michael G; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor; Mausbach, Brent T

    2013-01-01

    Dementia caregiving is associated with elevations in depressive symptoms and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study evaluated the efficacy of the Pleasant Events Program (PEP), a 6-week Behavioral Activation intervention designed to reduce CVD risk and depressive symptoms in caregivers. One hundred dementia family caregivers were randomized to either the 6-week PEP intervention (N=49) or a time-equivalent Information-Support (IS) control condition (N=51). Assessments were completed pre- and post-intervention and at 1-year follow-up. Biological assessments included CVD risk markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer. Psychosocial outcomes included depressive symptoms, positive affect, and negative affect. Participants receiving the PEP intervention had significantly greater reductions in IL-6 (p=.040), depressive symptoms (p=.039), and negative affect (p=.021) from pre- to post-treatment. For IL-6, clinically significant improvement was observed in 20.0% of PEP participants and 6.5% of IS participants. For depressive symptoms, clinically significant improvement was found for 32.7% of PEP vs 11.8% of IS participants. Group differences in change from baseline to 1-year follow-up were non-significant for all outcomes. The PEP program decreased depression and improved a measure of physiological health in older dementia caregivers. Future research should examine the efficacy of PEP for improving other CVD biomarkers and seek to sustain the intervention’s effects. PMID:23916631

  16. A randomized clinical trial of Behavioral Activation (BA) therapy for improving psychological and physical health in dementia caregivers: results of the Pleasant Events Program (PEP).

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Ceglowski, Jennifer; Ho, Jennifer; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Ziegler, Michael G; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor; Mausbach, Brent T

    2013-10-01

    Dementia caregiving is associated with elevations in depressive symptoms and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study evaluated the efficacy of the Pleasant Events Program (PEP), a 6-week Behavioral Activation intervention designed to reduce CVD risk and depressive symptoms in caregivers. One hundred dementia family caregivers were randomized to either the 6-week PEP intervention (N = 49) or a time-equivalent Information-Support (IS) control condition (N = 51). Assessments were completed pre- and post-intervention and at 1-year follow-up. Biological assessments included CVD risk markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer. Psychosocial outcomes included depressive symptoms, positive affect, and negative affect. Participants receiving the PEP intervention had significantly greater reductions in IL-6 (p = .040), depressive symptoms (p = .039), and negative affect (p = .021) from pre- to post-treatment. For IL-6, clinically significant improvement was observed in 20.0% of PEP participants and 6.5% of IS participants. For depressive symptoms, clinically significant improvement was found for 32.7% of PEP vs 11.8% of IS participants. Group differences in change from baseline to 1-year follow-up were non-significant for all outcomes. The PEP program decreased depression and improved a measure of physiological health in older dementia caregivers. Future research should examine the efficacy of PEP for improving other CVD biomarkers and seek to sustain the intervention's effects. PMID:23916631

  17. A brief screening tool for assessing psychological trauma in clinical practice: development and validation of the New York PTSD Risk Score?,??

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N.; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective was to develop a brief posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening instrument that is useful in clinical practice, similar to the Framingham Risk Score used in cardiovascular medicine. Methods We used data collected in New York City after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD) and other trauma data to develop a new PTSD prediction tool — the New York PTSD Risk Score. We used diagnostic test methods to examine different clinical domains, including PTSD symptoms, trauma exposures, sleep disturbances, suicidal thoughts, depression symptoms, demographic factors and other measures to assess different PTSD prediction models. Results Using receiver operating curve (ROC) and bootstrap methods, five prediction domains, including core PTSD symptoms, sleep disturbance, access to care status, depression symptoms and trauma history, and five demographic variables, including gender, age, education, race and ethnicity, were identified. For the best prediction model, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.880 for the Primary Care PTSD Screen alone (specificity=82.2%, sensitivity=93.7%). Adding care status, sleep disturbance, depression and trauma exposure increased the AUC to 0.943 (specificity=85.7%, sensitivity=93.1%), a significant ROC improvement (P < .0001). Adding demographic variables increased the AUC to 0.945, which was not significant (P=.250). To externally validate these models, we applied the WTCD results to 705 pain patients treated at a multispecialty group practice and to 225 trauma patients treated at a Level I Trauma Center. These results validated those from the original WTCD development and validation samples. Conclusion The New York PTSD Risk Score is a multifactor prediction tool that includes the Primary Care PTSD Screen, depression symptoms, access to care, sleep disturbance, trauma history and demographic variables and appears to be effective in predicting PTSD among patients seen in healthcare settings. This prediction tool is simple to administer and appears to outperform other screening measures. PMID:21777981

  18. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of sensory, psychological and behavioural interventions for managing agitation in older adults with dementia.

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Gill; Kelly, Lynsey; Lewis-Holmes, Elanor; Baio, Gianluca; Morris, Stephen; Patel, Nishma; Omar, Rumana Z; Katona, Cornelius; Cooper, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Agitation is common, persistent and distressing in dementia and is linked with care breakdown. Psychotropic medication is often ineffective or harmful, but the evidence regarding non-pharmacological interventions is unclear. OBJECTIVES We systematically reviewed and synthesised the evidence for clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for reducing agitation in dementia, considering dementia severity, the setting, the person with whom the intervention is implemented, whether the effects are immediate or longer term, and cost-effectiveness. DATA SOURCES We searched twice using relevant search terms (9 August 2011 and 12 June 2012) in Web of Knowledge (incorporating MEDLINE); EMBASE; British Nursing Index; the Health Technology Assessment programme database; PsycINFO; NHS Evidence; System for Information on Grey Literature; The Stationery Office Official Documents website; The Stationery National Technical Information Service; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; and The Cochrane Library. We also searched Cochrane reviews of interventions for behaviour in dementia, included papers' references, and contacted authors about 'missed' studies. We included quantitative studies, evaluating non-pharmacological interventions for agitation in dementia, in all settings. REVIEW METHOD We rated quality, prioritising higher-quality studies. We separated results by intervention type and agitation level. As we were unable to meta-analyse results except for light therapy, we present a qualitative evidence synthesis. In addition, we calculated standardised effect sizes (SESs) with available data, to compare heterogeneous interventions. In the health economic analysis, we reviewed economic studies, calculated the cost of effective interventions from the effectiveness review, calculated the incremental cost per unit improvement in agitation, used data from a cohort study to evaluate the relationship between health and social care costs and health-related quality of life (DEMQOL-Proxy-U scores) and developed a new cost-effectiveness model. RESULTS We included 160 out of 1916 papers screened. Supervised person-centred care, communication skills (SES = -1.8 to -0.3) or modified dementia care mapping (DCM) with implementing plans (SES = -1.4 to -0.6) were all efficacious at reducing clinically significant agitation in care home residents, both immediately and up to 6 months afterwards. In care home residents, during interventions but not at follow-up, activities (SES = -0.8 to -0.6) and music therapy (SES = -0.8 to -0.5) by protocol reduced mean levels of agitation; sensory intervention (SES = -1.3 to -0.6) reduced mean and clinically significant symptoms. Advantages were not demonstrated with 'therapeutic touch' or individualised activity. Aromatherapy and light therapy did not show clinical effectiveness. Training family carers in behavioural or cognitive interventions did not decrease severe agitation. The few studies reporting activities of daily living or quality-of-life outcomes found no improvement, even when agitation had improved. We identified two health economic studies. Costs of interventions which significantly impacted on agitation were activities, £80-696; music therapy, £13-27; sensory interventions, £3-527; and training paid caregivers in person-centred care or communication skills with or without behavioural management training and DCM, £31-339. Among the 11 interventions that were evaluated using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the incremental cost per unit reduction in CMAI score ranged from £162 to £3480 for activities, £4 for music therapy, £24 to £143 for sensory interventions, and £6 to £62 for training paid caregivers in person-centred care or communication skills with or without behavioural management training and DCM. Health and social care costs ranged from around £7000 over 3 months in people without clinically significant agitation symptoms to around £15,000 at the most severe agitation levels. There is some evidence that DEMQOL-Proxy-U scores decline with Neuropsychiatric Inventory agitation scores. A multicomponent intervention in participants with mild to moderate dementia had a positive monetary net benefit and a 82.2% probability of being cost-effective at a maximum willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life-year of £20,000 and a 83.18% probability at a value of £30,000. LIMITATIONS Although there were some high-quality studies, there were only 33 reasonably sized (> 45 participants) randomised controlled trials, and lack of evidence means that we cannot comment on many interventions' effectiveness. There were no hospital studies and few studies in people's homes. More health economic data are needed. CONCLUSIONS Person-centred care, communication skills and DCM (all with supervision), sensory therapy activities, and structured music therapies reduce agitation in care-home dementia residents. Future interventions should change care home culture through staff training and permanently implement evidence-based treatments and evaluate health economics. There is a need for further work on interventions for agitation in people with dementia living in their own homes. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION The study was registered as PROSPERO no. CRD42011001370. FUNDING The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme. PMID:24947468

  19. The psychological impact of torture

    PubMed Central

    van der Merwe, Jannie

    2013-01-01

    Many refugees in the developed world are survivors of torture and present with health needs without their traumatic experience being disclosed or identified. Chronic pain is a common problem, as are symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and other distress. Current circumstances, particularly poverty, uncertainty about asylum, separation from or loss of family and roles, and difficulties settling in the host country, all contribute to current psychological problems and exacerbate existing ones. Psychological treatment studies tend to be focused either on PTSD diagnosis and use protocol-driven treatment, usually in the developed world, or on multiple problems using multimodal treatment including advocacy and welfare interventions, usually in the developing world. Reviews of both of these, and some of the major criticisms, are described. Psychological interventions tend to produce medium-sized changes in targeted measures of distress, when compared with waiting lists or standard treatment, but these may fall well short of enabling recovery, and long-term follow-up is rare. A human rights context, with reference to cultural difference in expressing distress and seeking help, and with reference to the personal meaning of torture, is essential as a basis for formulating treatment initiatives based on the evidence reviewed. Summary points Refugees with a history of torture may have a wide range of psychological and social difficulties which do not easily fit within diagnostic categories. Torture and its sequelae can have multiple meanings and, in the clinical context, it is the interpretation of the torture survivor that matters. There are doubts about applying the concept and measures of post-traumatic stress disorder: symptoms should be assessed separately. Current circumstances can be as important as trauma history in understanding the psychological state of a torture survivor. Cognitive behavioural therapy and narrative exposure therapy seem equally effective in reducing trauma symptoms, and to a lesser extent, depression. PMID:26516507

  20. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

  1. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private practices. Counselling psychologist is the primary professional identity of many practising psychologists in Ireland and the Psychological Society of Ireland's Division of Counselling Psychology is the main affiliation of at least 179 members. With its focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span and its emphasis on the therapeutic process, the specialism continues to bridge the disciplines of psychology, counselling and psychotherapy. In this article, some of the challenges still faced by counselling psychology are explored as it navigates its way through the changing landscape of further development and evolution. PMID:26494940

  2. Latino healing: The integration of ethnic psychology into psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Comas-Diaz, Lillian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues for the need to culzturally adapt mainstream psychotherapy to Latino populations. It discusses ethnic psychology as a cultural resilient practice. Examples of Latino ethnic psychology include cuento, dichos, and spirituality. The article introduces Latino healing as the integration of ethnic psychology into mainstream psychotherapy. A clinical vignette illustrates the application of Latino healing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122135

  3. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  4. Social Justice: A Long-Term Challenge for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Allen E.; Collins, Noah M.

    2003-01-01

    Counseling psychology has a long history of interest and commitment to social justice and multicultural issues. This article discusses some of that history and, in addition, speaks to specifics of implementing a liberation psychology frame of reference into clinical practice along with the issues of implementation and challenges faced by those of…

  5. Practicing Psychology? What You Call the Treatment Makes a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Harold B., III

    Previous research has shown that members of the general public respond differentially to the psychological service provider labels, e.g., behavior analyst, behavior modifier, behavior therapist, clinical psychologist, counseling psychologist, and psychologist, but not to the psychological procedure labels, e.g., behavior modification, behavior…

  6. A Training Program for Family Psychology: Evaluation, Prevention and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Abate, Luciano

    1985-01-01

    Family psychology stresses theory testing, outcome of interventions, and prevention with functional or at-risk families. An academic curriculum in family psychology, which has been operational for 10 years, is presented. Clinical training follows a gradual approach, starting with relatively simple Structured Enrichment, progressing to more complex…

  7. Topical and Applied Interests of Introductory Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalder, Daniel R.; Stec, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Using forced-choice and continuous measures, introductory psychology students reported highest interest for the topical areas of clinical and social psychology (over biological, cognitive, and developmental) and for the applied areas of education and health (over business, environment, and law) at both the beginning and end of semesters. Among…

  8. Reactions to the Names "Counseling Center" and "Psychological Center"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieveking, Nicholas A.; Chappell, James E.

    1970-01-01

    A questionnaire administered to 376 college students on three campuses found consistent differences in reactions to names Counseling Center (CC) and Psychological Center (PC). The CC-PC differences are discussed as they relate to issues in clinical and counseling psychology. (Author)

  9. Transforming Coverage of Primary Prevention in Abnormal Psychology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that a comprehensive understanding of abnormal psychology requires coverage of recent advances in primary prevention. Describes a conceptual scheme and recommends resources and teaching methods for instructors. Asserts that clinical and community psychology are conceptually distinct but complementary fields. (CFR)

  10. Linked Psychology and Writing Courses across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

    2007-01-01

    To enhance student performance, prevent attrition, and build a learning community, two courses were linked together by requiring concurrent enrollment. "Writing Effectively," an upper-division composition course, was linked with "Abnormal Psychology," an upper-division clinical psychology course, requiring concurrent enrollment in both. In short,…

  11. Identifying Effective Psychological Treatments of Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtagh, Douglas R. R.; Greenwood, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    Clarified efficacy of psychological treatments for insomnia through a meta-analysis of 66 outcome studies representing 139 treatment groups. Psychological treatments produced considerable enhancement of both sleep patterns and the subjective experience of sleep. Participants who were clinically referred and who did not regularly use sedatives…

  12. Linked Psychology and Writing Courses across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

    2007-01-01

    To enhance student performance, prevent attrition, and build a learning community, two courses were linked together by requiring concurrent enrollment. "Writing Effectively," an upper-division composition course, was linked with "Abnormal Psychology," an upper-division clinical psychology course, requiring concurrent enrollment in both. In short,…

  13. [Containment as a psychological process].

    PubMed

    Milleur, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    To move away from the clinical simplification of the term and restore its full complexity, it is possible to approach the notion of containment through the prism of psychological processuality. Beyond the theory, the caregiver's experience in their practice and in their contact with the patient can be considered on the basis of a series of standpoints which form the sphere of the "capacity of internal containment". However, containment is not the be all and end all of care. Containment has its limits and care must also be viewed as a constellation of complementary processes. PMID:25562910

  14. Psychological functioning in headache sufferers.

    PubMed

    Andrasik, F; Blanchard, E B; Arena, J G; Teders, S J; Teevan, R C; Rodichok, L D

    1982-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological test responses of 99 headache sufferers and 30 matched nonheadache controls. Headache subjects were of four types: migraine (n = 26), muscle contraction (n = 39), combined migraine-muscle contract ion (n = 22), and cluster (n = 12). Measures consisted of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, a modified hostility scale derived from the MMPI, Back Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Autonomic Perception Questionnaire, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist, Schalling-Sifneos Scale, Need for Achievement, and Hostile Press. Significant differences were found on five clinical scales of the MMPI--1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. Of the non-MMPI scales, only the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and Trait Anxiety Inventory were significant. Control subjects revealed no significant findings on any tests. The headache groups fell along a continuum, beginning with cluster subjects, who showed only minimal distress, continuing through migraine and combined migraine-muscle contraction, and ending with muscle contraction subjects, who revealed the greatest degree of psychological disturbance. However, none of the headache groups could be characterized by marked elevations on any of the psychological tests, which contrasts with past research findings. It is suggested that the present results may be more representative of the "typical" headache sufferer. PMID:7089156

  15. Psychological burden of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions. In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food. PMID:17659692

  16. Teaching Anomalistic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Warren; Zusne, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions…

  17. Industrial Psychology in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  18. Teaching Anomalistic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Warren; Zusne, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions…

  19. Techniques in Adlerian Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.

    This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus…

  20. The Psychology of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  1. Foundations of Phenomenological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aanstoos, Christopher M.

    Phenomenology, hermeneutics and experiential psychology form the backbone of an emerging paradigm within psychology known as human science. Human science's use of phenomenology provides a way to set aside the naturalistic presupposition and directly study the irreducible involvement of human existence within a meaningful world, as it is given in…

  2. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  3. Techniques in Adlerian Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.

    This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus…

  4. Rehabilitation: Psychology's Greatest Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Robert G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how psychologists have established themselves as integral health care providers in rehabilitation. Discusses how psychologists and the psychological associations have failed to recognize the importance of public policy for the practice of psychology. Explores the role of Medicare, and the effects of the inclusion of psychologists in…

  5. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  6. Transpersonal Psychology in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  7. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  8. Sex-Role Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Frank; Wesley, Claire

    The book explores the psychological aspects of sex-role development and investigates various approaches which have been suggested to provide greater equality between females and males. Chapter one describes the psychology of women and identifies possible approaches toward integration of male and female characteristics. Chapter two discusses…

  9. Language and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko

    Input language may have an effect on child development that goes far beyond language development alone. Language is the medium by which children acquire at least a portion of their sex role and social class or group characteristics, world view, and emotional and psychological well-being. Existing theories of psychological development ignore…

  10. Avian psychology and communication.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution. PMID:15306314

  11. Ethical considerations in writing psychological assessment reports.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Mark H

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses the ethical questions and decision evaluators associated with the writing of psychological assessment reports. Issues related to confidentiality, clinical judgment, harm, labeling, release of test data, and computer usage are addressed. Specific suggestions on how to deal with ethical concerns when writing reports are discussed, as well as areas in need of further research. PMID:16273511

  12. Between Education and Psychology: School Staff Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Tim; Finney, Dave

    2015-01-01

    When discussing contributions from psychology in/to educational practices like school-based mental health promotion, it is peculiar that psychologists (of an educational or clinical kind) or education-oriented sociologists, both not often based in schools or classrooms, dominate the topic. It has been acknowledged that school staff have been over…

  13. Psychological and Vocational Assessment of Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    This paper introduces important issues in the psychological and vocational assessment of Native Americans in schools, mental health clinics, counseling centers, and rehabilitation programs. A primary concern is to conduct such assessment in a fair and unbiased manner. Various methods are used to gather information: interviewing the client, family…

  14. Psychological Impairments in the Patients with Acne

    PubMed Central

    Behnam, Behnaz; Taheri, Ramin; Ghorbani, Raheb; Allameh, Peyvand

    2013-01-01

    Background: The psychological impacts of acne appearance and its-related negative emotional reactions have been proved; however, these reactions are varied in different populations. Aim: We investigated whether acne and its severity affected psychological functioning in those who suffered from this disorder among Iranians. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six patients with acne vulgaris who consecutively attended the dermatology outpatient clinics in Semnan city in 2008 were included. Among them, 103 patients met the study's inclusion criterion and agreed to participate. One hundred and six age and gender cross-matched healthy volunteers were included as controls that attended the clinic with their diseased relatives. All acne patients were evaluated using the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). Results: According to the American Academy of Dermatology classification, 25.2% of the patients had mild acne, 50.5% moderate acne, and 24.3% severe acne. A higher percentage of participants than controls required further evaluation and psychological consultant when studying each psychological problem. The most common psychological symptoms requiring treatment due to disturbed daily activities in acne group were psychoticism (34.0%) and depression (31.1%), respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between the duration of illness and SCL-90 total score. When evaluating the SCL-90 scores, patients with multiple sites of involvement were affected more severely than those with a single site of involvement. Conclusion: Acne vulgaris has significant effects on psychological status. Effective concomitant anti-acne therapy and psychological assessment make significant contributions for the mental health and should be strongly recommended. PMID:23372208

  15. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  16. Using an Internship Opportunity to Expand Awareness of Industrial/Organizational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisamore, Jennifer L.; Alexander, Evangeline

    2008-01-01

    The public perception of the field of psychology tends to be limited to the clinical area. Exposure to other areas of psychology through broad, introductory courses helps expand students' perspectives of psychology. This exposure may be too late, however, as many colleges cannot afford to devote entire courses to each of the many subfields of…

  17. Statistical Power of Psychological Research: What Have We Gained in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated power for 6,155 statistical tests in 221 journal articles published in 1982 volumes of "Journal of Abnormal Psychology,""Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," and "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Power to detect small, medium, and large effects was .17, .57, and .83, respectively. Concluded that power of…

  18. Statistical Power of Psychological Research: What Have We Gained in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated power for 6,155 statistical tests in 221 journal articles published in 1982 volumes of "Journal of Abnormal Psychology,""Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," and "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Power to detect small, medium, and large effects was .17, .57, and .83, respectively. Concluded that power of…

  19. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  20. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  1. International School Psychology: Psychology's Worldwide Portal to Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…

  2. Predicting Students' Performance in Introductory Psychology from their Psychology Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.

    2009-01-01

    Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A…

  3. Applied Developmental Psychology: What Is Its Relationship to School Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    The identity problems of school psychologists are complicated by the emergence of applied developmental psychology. Traditionally, school psychology has recognized developmental psychology as one of its major foundations; however, the two fields are not synonymous. School psychology also applies other disciplinary practices, and conversely, all…

  4. Darwin and Evolutionary Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghiselin, Michael T.

    1973-01-01

    Darwin's views on various psychological behaviors were significant. Basing his conclusions on empirical research, he wrote extensively on the phylogeny of behavior, emotional expression, sexual selection, instincts, evolution of morals, ontogeny of behavior, and genetics of behavior. (PS)

  5. A New Theoretical Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longuet-Higgins, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that the study of artificial intelligence can provide ways of thinking about the human mind that are potentially valuable in formulating cognitive theories. Theoretical psychology is proposed as an appropriate classification for this branch of theory. (MSE)

  6. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  7. Operational Psychology Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  8. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    PubMed

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011). PMID:21809179

  9. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  10. Maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sklansky, Mark; Tang, Alvin; Levy, Denis; Grossfeld, Paul; Kashani, Iraj; Shaughnessy, Robin; Rothman, Abraham

    2002-02-01

    The maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography may be deleterious in the face of newly diagnosed congenital heart disease. This questionnaire-based study prospectively examined the psychological impact of both normal and abnormal fetal echocardiography. Normal fetal echocardiography decreased maternal anxiety, increased happiness, and increased the closeness women felt toward their unborn children. In contrast, when fetal echocardiography detected congenital heart disease, maternal anxiety typically increased, and mothers commonly felt less happy about being pregnant. However, among women who had recently delivered infants with congenital heart disease, those who had had fetal echocardiography during the pregnancy felt less responsible for their infants' defects and tended to have improved their relationships with the infants' fathers after the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Further study of the psychological and medical impact of fetal echocardiography will be necessary to define and optimize the clinical value of this powerful diagnostic tool. PMID:11836491

  11. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  12. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  13. [Ibn Sina--psychology and psychological disorders].

    PubMed

    Ceri?, I; Mehi?-Basara, N

    1997-01-01

    Ebu Ali Husein Ibn Ali Ibn Sina (or Avicenna) was primarily a philosopher with amusing knowledge, who dealt in all aspects of art of medicine, astronomer, poet, musician and psychologist. This giant with an encyclopedic knowledge has dealt in almost all scientific branches or praxis with the great success. Numerous statements of his have been cornerstone of many sciences for centuries; and some of them are (in the era of computers and Internet) still current. The best known treatise on medicine of his is El-Kanun, consisting of five volumes, wherein all medical achievements (including psychology, psychiatry and neurology) of that period were described clearly. In his psychology, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) analyses the essence of human soul, mind, psychical streams, intellectum, dreams and prophecy, man's desires etc. in details. It is unnecessary to point out how much these items are actual in the contemporary psychology. Ibn al-Nefis has described systematically the symptoms and recovery of "head sick" (including headaches, cerebral sick like cranitis, letargy, coma, demency, melancholy, insomnia, nightmares, epilepsy, appoplexy, paralysis, spasm and many others) in his Mujez al-Kanun, that is synopsis of Ibn Sina Kanun. We need much time to see magnificance of this philosopher, that is best known as the great one among the physicians. His writings could be found in whole Bosnia, but there were many few that would study him and his works. It is out task to enable the future generations not only to know those works exist, but, also, to realize the essence of this marvelous genius; because there are very few people that can be compared to him. PMID:9324566

  14. The impact of clinical conditions and social factors on the psychological distress of cancer patients: an explorative study at a consultation and liaison service in a rural general hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent decades, increasing attention has been paid to the subjective dimension of cancer, especially to psychosocial screening procedures, major psychiatric disorders but also psychological and psychosocial distress, and finally to met needs of oncologic patients. This study aims first to describe cancer patients in a rural hospital attended by a psycho-oncological consultation-liaison team, second to assess predictors for psychological distress in cancer patients, and finally to identify predictors for recommendation of further psychosocial support. Methods The sample (n = 290) comprises a full survey of patients at breast and bowel cancer services (n=209) and patients referred by other medical and surgical services because of psychosocial impairment (n = 81). All patients were assessed by means of the PO-Bado (Psycho-Oncological Basic Documentation) expert rating scale. Assessment of predictors for psychological distress was conducted by multivariate regression models and assessment for predictors for need for outpatient psychosocial support by a logistic regression analysis. All analyses were conducted using STATA 12. Results Most members of the assessed sample (average age 65, 82% women) were not severely impaired from a functional and psychological point of view. A total of 14% had received psychiatric treatment before. Mood swings, anxiety, grief, and fatigue were the most important distress symptoms. Selectively referred patients vs. full survey patients of cancer centres, as well as bowel vs. breast cancer patients show a higher level of psychological and physical distress. Fatigue, assessed metastases, and functional limitations were the best predictors for psychological burden. Referral mode, gender, age, family problems, fatigue, and previous psychiatric treatment were associated with further need of psychosocial support. Conclusions Psycho-oncological consultation and liaison services may offer support to patients in an early stage of cancer, especially in cancer centres. Because of selectively referred patients show a higher burden, the use of basic screening instruments could be meaningful. Fatigue, metastases status, and functional limitations may better predict psychological distress than pain, duration of illness, psychosocial conditions or previous psychiatric treatment. More attention has to be paid to outpatient follow-up with older cancer patients, those with family problems, and those suffering from significant fatigue. PMID:24053562

  15. Intrusive Images in Psychological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, Chris R.; Gregory, James D.; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in the medial and lateral parietal cortices, the lateral temporal cortex, and the medial temporal lobe. Evidence from cognitive psychology and neuroscience implies distinct neural bases to abstract, flexible, contextualized representations (C-reps) and to inflexible, sensory-bound representations (S-reps). We revise our previous dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder to place it within a neural systems model of healthy memory and imagery. The revised model is used to explain how the different types of distressing visual intrusions associated with clinical disorders arise, in terms of the need for correct interaction between the neural systems supporting S-reps and C-reps via visuospatial working memory. Finally, we discuss the treatment implications of the new model and relate it to existing forms of psychological therapy. PMID:20063969

  16. Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs. PMID:24060917

  17. Psychological Factors in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk factors and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122

  18. Advancing family psychology.

    PubMed

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publicaton rate to eight issues per year. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845635

  19. Embodiment in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. PMID:22777820

  20. The Place and Promise of Theory in Rehabilitation Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Dana S.; Elliott, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Although rehabilitation psychology is more focused on empirical evidence and clinical application than theory development, we argue for the primacy of theory, and explain why theories are needed in and useful for rehabilitation psychology. Impediments to theory development are discussed, including the difficulties of applying psychological theories in multidisciplinary enterprises, and the difficulties in developing a theory-driven research program. We offer suggestions by reviewing research settings, knowledge gained through controlled studies, grantsmanship, and then identify topical areas where new theories are needed. We remind researcher-practitioners that rehabilitation psychology benefits from a judicious mix of scientific rigor and real-world vigor. Conclusions We close by advocating for theory-driven research programs that embrace a methodological pluralism, which will in turn advance new theory, produce meaningful research programs that inform practice, and realize the goals of this special issue of Rehabilitation Psychology—advances in research and methodology. PMID:19649146

  1. Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383

  2. Psychological lessons of Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Abramova, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Up to the time of the disaster, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was regarded as one of the best in the USSR, and the city of Pripyat, housing the plant's staff, was rightly called one of the most comfortable. Also, the psychological climate of the plant provided no causes for worry. This was a worked-in team, composed of seasoned and knowledgeable experts. How can one then explain the events that happened in such an unlikely place. Isn't there a danger that the situation will repeat itself. The author considers the question and other psychological aspects of the Chernobyl incident.

  3. Psychological models of suicide.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena. PMID:24568371

  4. Gender and Psychological Essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs. PMID:21528097

  5. Psychology Seminar: Careers and Graduate Study in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Jerry P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a course for junior and senior psychology majors which informs them about career options and graduate school opportunities in psychology. Discusses details about course planning and organization. Survey results indicate that student response has been consistently positive. (MJP)

  6. Psychological treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Grilo, Carlos M; Vitousek, Kelly M

    2007-04-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Important challenges remain. Even the most effective interventions for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder fail to help a substantial number of patients. A priority must be the extension and adaptation of these treatments to a broader range of eating disorders (eating disorder not otherwise specified), to adolescents, who have been largely overlooked in clinical research, and to chronic, treatment-resistant cases of anorexia nervosa. The article highlights current conceptual and clinical innovations designed to improve on existing therapeutic efficacy. The problems of increasing the dissemination of evidence-based treatments that are unavailable in most clinical service settings are discussed. PMID:17469898

  7. Sport Psychology: An Emerging Domain in the Counseling Psychology Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…

  8. Overlapping Issues in Medical Psychology, Rehabilitation Psychology and Behavioral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Wayne A.

    Behavioral medicine is a field which attempts to integrate social, behavioral, and biological sciences through an application of bio-behavioral methods to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness. Because behavioral medicine overlaps many psychological disciplines, some disciplines of psychology such as medical psychology and…

  9. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  10. Broadening the Boundaries of Psychology through Community Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for community psychology to be included within the discipline boundaries of psychology. In doing this, it will enable psychology to begin to address some of the large scale social issues affecting people's well-being. It will be necessary, however, to incorporate aspects of other disciplines, make explicit the political…

  11. Factors Influencing the Spiritual Competency of Predoctoral Psychology Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…

  12. Psychology and Services to Southern Arizonas Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Marvin W.

    Since 1969, the clinical program of the Psychology Department of the University of Arizona has been associated with mental health programs and services for Tucson area ethnic minorities and the poor which have provided realistic training for clinical students and established continuing community based services sensitive to the culture of the…

  13. Factors Influencing the Spiritual Competency of Predoctoral Psychology Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haasz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among spiritual competencies, personal spiritual beliefs, and clinical supervision in spirituality with professional psychology predoctoral interns. It was hypothesized personal spiritual beliefs and supervision in spirituality would be predictors of spiritual competencies in clinical practice. Social…

  14. Psychological and Social Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce D.; Eysenck, Michael W.; Siefen, Georg R.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is an enormous amount of literature demonstrating socio-psychological determinants of suicide and self-injurious behaviour among adults or clinical samples of children and adolescents, there is a scarcity of studies focussing on non-clinical adolescent samples. The current study examined associations between self-reported data on…

  15. Psychological and Social Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce D.; Eysenck, Michael W.; Siefen, Georg R.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is an enormous amount of literature demonstrating socio-psychological determinants of suicide and self-injurious behaviour among adults or clinical samples of children and adolescents, there is a scarcity of studies focussing on non-clinical adolescent samples. The current study examined associations between self-reported data on…

  16. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES IN DIALECTOLALIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HURST, CHARLES G.; AND OTHERS

    A TOTAL OF 1,209 HOWARD UNIVERSITY FRESHMEN REPRESENTING 42 STATES WERE ADMINISTERED (1) A STANDARD AUDIOMETRIC EXAMINATION, (2) A SPEECH BATTERY, (3) A BATTERY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, (4) A SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ATTITUDE INVENTORY IN THE FORM OF A 25-ITEM, LIKERT-TYPE SCALE, AND (5) A SOCIOECONOMIC ASSESSMENT INVENTORY CONTAINING 42 OPEN-ENDED AND…

  18. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  19. On Psychological Liberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, David

    1972-01-01

    The liberation of oppressed people involves a kind of subjective or psychological liberation as well as an objective (political, economic, and social) one. It is time to define what such subjective liberation involves, how it can be achieved, and its relationship to objective liberation and other objective social conditions. (RJ)

  20. Schizophrenia and ego psychology.

    PubMed

    Annitto, W J

    1981-01-01

    The psychology of hallucinations has been viewed as an "etiopathogenetic" tool for the diagnosis of schizophrenia (Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1979). This phenomenological misrepresentation is criticized as possibly damaging for both the schizophrenic and the drug abuser. The need to accept the often chronic course of schizophrenia as an organic disease is discussed. PMID:7280558

  1. Psychology of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers discuss the psychology of deafness. They include seven papers from the United States: "Deafness: The Interdependent Variable" by M. Vernon and D. A. Rothstein, "The Reliability and Construct Validity of the Self-Concept of Academic Ability Scale-Form D for Hearing Impaired Students" by L. M. JOINER, "Studies of the…

  2. Giftedness and Psychological Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the psychological types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), of 966 students at a public residential magnet high school for academically talented students with other gifted and traditional high school students found both magnet school students and gifted students showed a particular MBTI distribution. (DB)

  3. Rediscovering Differential Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takooshian, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  4. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  5. Psychology of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers discuss the psychology of deafness. They include seven papers from the United States: "Deafness: The Interdependent Variable" by M. Vernon and D. A. Rothstein, "The Reliability and Construct Validity of the Self-Concept of Academic Ability Scale-Form D for Hearing Impaired Students" by L. M. JOINER, "Studies of the…

  6. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  7. A Psychology of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  8. The Psychology of Syllogisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Laird, Philip N.; Steedman, Mark

    1978-01-01

    Based upon the concept that the psychological meaning of a syllogism depends upon the order of the premises in addition to the formal logic expressed, the analogical theory of the interpretation of syllogisms is developed, experimentally tested, and implemented as a computer program. (CTM)

  9. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  10. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…

  11. Theory and Motivational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, John W.

    Motivational psychology and test theory are compared in this discussion, which focuses on distinguishing the effects of motivation and of ability on test performance and educational achievement. Recent theory in achievement motivation considers the motivational significance of future goals as they affect present activities that are instrumental in…

  12. Psychological Tests and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brenda Johnson; Isenstein, Vivian R.

    The problems with traditional testing, particularly as they relate to minorities, are discussed; and psychological tests designed specifically for Blacks are reviewed. Considered are general problems, problems with testing at the higher education level and for employment, and moral and legal implications of the testing controversy. The rationale…

  13. Confronting Psychology's Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Prilleltensky (this issue, pp. 116-136) seeks to make community psychology a more effective force for social justice. His discussion of psychopolitical validity raises a number of questions: How perfect must the theoretical framework be to usefully oppose unjust power? In what way is the notion of "psychopolitical validity" most useful? How…

  14. Advances in Adolescent Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violato, Claudio; Travis, Leroy

    Adolescence is a multiplicity of events, experiences, behavior, people, and cultural meanings. This book attempts to provide detailed and in-depth analysis of the central issues related to adolescent psychology, while taking this multiplicity into account. A comprehensive representation of the topic is provided through integration of historical,…

  15. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…

  16. Rediscovering Differential Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takooshian, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  17. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    PubMed

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. PMID:26315443

  18. Misconceptions of Psychology among Academicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Rick M.; Hund, Renee M.

    1983-01-01

    Study findings indicate that there is correspondence between faculty members' misconceptions related to psychology and students' mistaken beliefs about psychology. Subjects were 303 psychologists teaching in colleges and universities who completed a true-false questionnaire. (AM)

  19. The history of psychological categories.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger

    2005-03-01

    Psychological terms, such as 'mind', 'memory', 'emotion' and indeed 'psychology' itself, have a history. This history, I argue, supports the view that basic psychological categories refer to historical and social entities, and not to 'natural kinds'. The case is argued through a wide ranging review of the historiography of western psychology, first, in connection with the field's extreme modern diversity; second, in relation to the possible antecedents of the field in the early modern period; and lastly, through a brief introduction to usage of the words 'soul', 'mind', 'memory' and 'emotion'. The discussion situates the history of psychology within a large historical context, questions assumptions about the continuity of meaning, and draws out implications for the philosophical and social constitution of 'psychology' and 'the psychological' from the existing literature. The historical evidence, this paper concludes, does not support the conventional presumption that modern psychological terms describe 'natural kinds'. PMID:16120260

  20. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  1. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  2. Psychological disturbance in Darwin evacuees following cyclone Tracy.

    PubMed

    Parker, G

    1975-05-24

    The incidence and course of psychological reactions following natural disasters has been based on clinical impressions in the past. In the present study, 67 survivors of cyclone Tracy who had been evacuated to Sydney were studied by an objective test, the General Health Questionnaire, which has been found to be a reliable and valid instrument in determining non-psychotic psychological disturbance. Fifty-eight per cent of these Darwin evacuees scored as "probable psychiatric cases" when tested five to eight days after the cyclone. Psychological disturbance increased with age and was more pronounced in females. PMID:1152720

  3. Chassidic Teachings and Modern Psychology: Toward a More Unified Approach.

    PubMed

    Turner, Akiva

    2016-06-01

    This article describes how many modern psychological constructs and theories exist in older as well as newer Chassidic and Jewish teachings, particularly those of Chabad Lubavitch. This exploration points toward a potential benefit for a unification of psychology and Chassidic teachings. Psychological theories and constructs explored are Freudian psychoanalysis, cognitive dissonance, cognitive restructuring/reframing, self-efficacy/planned behavior, and logotherapy/existentialism. The article then concludes with a discussion of possible implications of moving toward a unified approach for clinical practitioners. PMID:26507951

  4. The psychological and legal aftermath of false arrest and imprisonment.

    PubMed

    Simon, R I

    1993-01-01

    False arrest and imprisonment can be an extraordinarily stressful psychological trauma. This is clearly demonstrated in the evaluation of forensic cases alleging false arrest and imprisonment, a review of the recent forensic psychiatric literature and reported legal cases. A clinical vignette is presented that illustrates the psychological trauma and sequelae associated with false arrest and imprisonment. Psychiatric treatment of these individuals is discussed. A number of these cases are litigated. PMID:8054682

  5. Positive Psychology: The Emerging Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2000-01-01

    Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…

  6. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  7. Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendler, Howard H.

    2005-01-01

    Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic…

  8. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  9. Behavioral Strategies for Psychological Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    Ten papers contributed by school psychologists or university educators working with school psychology programs review psychological theory and research on behavioral strategies for psychological intervention. Following an overview on the effective use of behavior modification in the school, nine behavior change methods are examined in terms of…

  10. [The psychological dimensions of falls].

    PubMed

    Schoenenburg, Sylvie; Beghin, Vinciane; Pardessus, Vinciane; Puiseux, François

    2015-01-01

    Falls in the elderly can have serious consequences both functional and psychological. In addition to the severe post-fall syndrome, other psychological consequences require adapted care. This article intends to highlight the multiple dimensions of the psychological impact of falls, through testimony. Loss of control of her body, awakening of fear of death, narcissistic injury...; the elderly talk about their felt. PMID:25966526

  11. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  12. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  13. The Process of Psychological Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Anna; Moreland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Consultation is a key means of service delivery in many psychological services. However, the "process" of consultation is little explored in Educational Psychology literature, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper focuses on a small-scale qualitative research study of psychological consultation provided by educational…

  14. Psychological Sciences Division: 1985 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Psychological Sciences Div.

    This booklet describes research carried out under sponsorship of the Psychological Sciences Division of the U.S. Office of Naval Research during Fiscal Year 1985. The booklet is divided into three programmatic research areas: (1) Engineering Psychology; (2) Personnel and Training; and (3) Group Psychology. Each program is described by an overview…

  15. Transpersonal: The New Educational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford

    This article lists some of the major ideas and topics of interest in transpersonal psychology and illustrates them with examples of transpersonal education applied to schools. Transpersonal psychology includes psychological aspects of such things as new world views, altered states of consciousness, an impulse toward higher states, self-realization…

  16. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  17. A Positive Psychology That Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

    2006-01-01

    The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

  18. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  19. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  20. The Process of Psychological Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Anna; Moreland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Consultation is a key means of service delivery in many psychological services. However, the "process" of consultation is little explored in Educational Psychology literature, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper focuses on a small-scale qualitative research study of psychological consultation provided by educational…

  1. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  2. Positive Psychology: The Emerging Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2000-01-01

    Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…

  3. Social Justice and School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  4. [Placebo effect: a contribution of social psychology].

    PubMed

    Balez, R; Leroyer, C; Couturaud, F

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews the psychosocial variables, which are of interest in the relationship between the patient and the physician. According to a classical model of social psychology, such a relationship might contribute to the placebo/nocebo effects. We develop herein various relational and contextual variables, taking into account four dimensions (intra-individual, interpersonal, positional and ideological) and their potential effects on therapeutic responses. This applies both in the setting of daily clinical practice and of clinical trials. The placebo effect offers an opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between social scientists and physicians. PMID:25391506

  5. Internet-Delivered Psychological Treatments.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Gerhard

    2016-03-28

    During the past 15 years, much progress has been made in developing and testing Internet-delivered psychological treatments. In particular, therapist-guided Internet treatments have been found to be effective for a wide range of psychiatric and somatic conditions in well over 100 controlled trials. These treatments require (a) a secure web platform, (b) robust assessment procedures, (c) treatment contents that can be text based or offered in other formats, and (d) a therapist role that differs from that in face-to-face therapy. Studies suggest that guided Internet treatments can be as effective as face-to-face treatments, lead to sustained improvements, work in clinically representative conditions, and probably are cost-effective. Despite these research findings, Internet treatment is not yet disseminated in most places, and clinical psychologists should consider using modern information technology and evidence-based treatment programs as a complement to their other services, even though there will always be clients for whom face-to-face treatment is the best option. PMID:26652054

  6. Environmental psychology matters.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters. PMID:24050189

  7. Normality in analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  8. [Psychological treatment for obesity].

    PubMed

    Larrañaga, Alejandra; García-Mayor, Ricardo

    2007-09-22

    Obesity is a chronic disease. Current management is based in the modification of the lifestyle, mainly regarding to eating habits and physical activity. Eating habits are acquired during the childhood and kept through the entire life. Modification of any habit requires the use of specific psychological methods such as cognitive-behavioural therapy, which is based on first notions of learning theories. Very often, obese patients and therapist think that the obesity is a problem not related to other aspects of their lives. Thus the objective of the treatment is only weight loss, instead of looking for a modification of patient's behaviour. In the present review we try to update the treatment of obesity in adult patients mainly regarding to the psychological approach. PMID:17915136

  9. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  10. Resting-State EEG Delta Power is Associated with Psychological Pain in Adults with a History of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Meerwijk, Esther L.; Ford, Judith M.; Weiss, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological pain is a prominent symptom of clinical depression. We asked if frontal alpha asymmetry, frontal EEG power, and frontal fractal dimension asymmetry predicted psychological pain in adults with a history of depression. Resting-state frontal EEG (F3/F4) was recorded while participants (N=35) sat upright with their eyes closed. Frontal delta power predicted psychological pain while controlling for depressive symptoms, with participants who exhibited less power experiencing greater psychological pain. Frontal fractal dimension asymmetry, a nonlinear measure of complexity, also predicted psychological pain, such that greater left than right complexity was associated with greater psychological pain. Frontal alpha asymmetry did not contribute unique variance to any regression model of psychological pain. As resting-state delta power is associated with the brain’s default mode network, results suggest that the default mode network was less activated during high psychological pain. Findings are consistent with a state of arousal associated with psychological pain. PMID:25600291

  11. The organization and delivery of psychological treatments.

    PubMed

    Denman, Chess

    2007-02-01

    This article reviews the major issues which face health providers when they seek to organise the delivery of psychological treatments to best effect. A lack of consensus on efficacy, efficiency and acceptability makes policy decisions difficult. Streamlined focused services offering evidence based interventions for a limited target group are compared with broader enterprises offering comprehensive provision of a range of therapies. The dilemmas that the relative strengths and weaknesses of these two models pose are compared in relation to setting, cost efficiency, patient acceptability, equitable access and the pragmatics of staff training, service delivery and clinical governance. It is suggested that changes in the structure of health service provision more generally and the potential inherent in new technology and innovative ways of working may provide new solutions to some of these difficulties and the successive restructurings of a department of psychological treatments are adduced as an example. PMID:17365160

  12. The archive of the History of Psychology at the University of Rome, Sapienza.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Fox Lee, Shayna

    2016-02-01

    The History of Psychology Archive at the University of Rome, Sapienza was founded in 2008 in the Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology. The archive aspires to become an indispensable tool to (a) understand the currents, schools, and research traditions that have marked the path of Italian psychology, (b) focus on issues of general and applied psychology developed in each university, (c) identify experimental and clinical-differential methodologies specific to each lab, (d) reconstruct the genesis and consolidation of psychology institutions and, ultimately, (e) write a "story," set according to the most recent historiographical criteria. The archive is designed according to scholarship on the history of Italian psychology from the past two decades. The online archive is divided into five sections for ease of access. The Sapienza archive is a work in progress and it has plans for expansion. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844656

  13. Psychological Experience of Parents of Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Robin; Jaser, Sarah; Chao, Ariana; Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review is to describe the prevalence of psychological distress in parents of children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), the relationship between parental psychological distress and health outcomes, and parents’ psychological experience of having a child with T1DM. Clinical and research implications are presented. Method A systematic mixed-studies review was undertaken to review the quantitative and qualitative research on the parental experience of having a child with T1DM. A total of 34 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Results The prevalence of parental psychological distress across all studies ranged from 10% to 74%, with an average of 33.5% of parents reporting distress at diagnosis and 19% of parents reporting distress 1 to 4 years after diagnosis. Parental psychological distress in parents of children with T1DM, regardless of how it was defined, was associated with higher child self-report of stress and depressive symptoms, more problematic child behavior, and lower child self-report of quality of life. Parental psychological distress also had negative effects on diabetes management. Themes of the qualitative synthesis indicated that parents perceived T1DM as a difficult diagnosis that contributed to significant family disruption. Adjustment occurred over time; however, ongoing stress was experienced. Conclusions Screening for psychological distress in parents of children with T1DM is indicated, and preventive interventions are needed. PMID:22581804

  14. [Psychological intervention after trauma--does it work?].

    PubMed

    Smedsrud, Marit Kristine; Hem, Erlend; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2005-06-30

    A Cochrane review from 1998 concluded that single-session intervention does not prevent the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder. This led to a debate about what is the best, if any, psychological treatment after traumas. In consequence, some clinicians have become doubtful about as how to deal with traumatized patients. We present three examples in order to illustrate situations in which psychological intervention is useful. The conclusions in the Cochrane review are well documented. However, insufficient correspondence between the traumas and the intervention offered gave us cause to question the clinical importance of existing studies. Future studies of psychological intervention after traumas should use an individualized design in which the intervention is in proportion to the trauma. Based on knowledge not given by randomized controlled studies, we recommend clinicians to offer psychological help to those exposed to traumatic incidents. Most people need adequate information after traumas. For those who develop health problems, intervention until recovery is recommended. PMID:16012553

  15. History of psychology.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844648

  16. Psychological Aspects of Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ah Reum; Kim, Chan Yun; Kang, Min Hee; Kim, Na Rae

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is a group of optic neuropathies that is more prevalent among the elderly population and commonly associates with comorbidities, including mental disorders in that population. This article reviews the relationship between glaucoma and mental disorders. In it, we discuss the coexistence of glaucoma and mental illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease, depression, and personality disorder. We also focus on the proper treatment approaches for glaucoma patients with mental comorbidity and poor treatment adherence. We summarize some cautiously recommended psychotherapeutic medications, while also discussing the psychologically adverse effects of antiglaucoma medications. PMID:26919300

  17. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  18. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  19. Conceptual overlap of psychological constructs in low back pain.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Paul; Bishop, Annette; Dunn, Kate M; Main, Chris J; Thomas, Elaine; Foster, Nadine E

    2013-09-01

    The biopsychosocial model is increasingly accepted in low back pain (LBP) research and clinical practice. In order to assess the role of psychological factors in the development and persistence of pain, a wide array of measures has been developed. Yet there is likely to be considerable conceptual overlap between such measures, and consequently, a lack of clarity about the importance of psychological factors. The aims of this study were to investigate the extent of any such overlap. An observational cohort study of 1591 LBP patients consulting in primary care completed data on a range of psychological instruments. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA, respectively) were carried out at the subscale level (n=20) to investigate factor structure. The influences of the derived factors on clinical outcomes (pain intensity and self-reported disability) were then tested using linear regression. EFA yielded 4 factors, termed "Pain-related distress," "Cognitive coping," "Causal beliefs," and "Perceptions of the future," which accounted for 65.5% of the variance. CFA confirmed the validity of these factors models. The pain-related distress factor was found to have the strongest association to LBP patients' outcomes, accounting for 34.6% of the variance in pain intensity, and 51.1% of the variance in disability. Results confirmed that considerable overlap exists in psychological measures commonly used in LBP research. Most measures tap into patients' emotional distress. These findings help us to understand how psychological constructs relate together; implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:23726935

  20. A Long-Term Psychological Observation in an Adolescent Affected with Gardner Diamond Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bizzi, Fabiola; Sciarretta, Lucia; D’Alessandro, Matteo; Picco, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Gardner-Diamond syndrome (GDS) is an uncommon disease clinically characterized by a wide spectrum of psycho-emotive symptoms associated with painful ecchymoses/purpuric lesions and positivity of auto-erythrocyte sensitization skin test. Herein, a perspective clinical and psychological observation of an adolescent GDS is firstly reported focusing on her psychological features long-term monitored for a 1-year period. The administration of a standardized tools battery allowed us to define psychological features of the young patient over time and to monitored clinical course and response to treatment. PMID:27011410

  1. The psychology of humanness.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures. PMID:23947277

  2. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Jared

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

  3. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  4. The Window on Psychology's Literature: A History of Psychological Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.; VandenBos, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of scientific information at the end of the 19th century, disciplines sought ways to keep their members abreast of the relevant research. Those pressures were felt in the science of psychology in the United States, where psychologists developed a bibliographic aid, The Psychological Index, in 1895 only a little more than a…

  5. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Jared

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

  6. Social Psychology, Naive Psychology and Folklore: All Together Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Gary A.

    The divisions between social psychology, naive psychology, and folklore are fundamentally artifical ones. It is argued that all three have many of the same goals--that is, the prediction and control of behavior and the comprehension of the orderly processes of everyday life. Each attempts to understand how social intercourse is to proceed.…

  7. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  8. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  9. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Tom

    2014-11-01

    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making. PMID:25486164

  10. Beyond the Mechanics of Infertility: Perspectives on the Social Psychology of Infertility and Involuntary Childlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Anne Martin; Matthews, Ralph

    1986-01-01

    Examines the social and social psychological implications of infertility and involuntary childlessness. Examines the clinical and popular literature on the correlates and causes of infertility and the social psychological consequences of infertility. Suggests ways that family practitioners and researchers might overcome some of the limitations.…

  11. Neuropsychology and the Instructional Psychology of Mathematics. The First Annual Dr. John W. Wilson Memorial Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Vincent J.

    This address stresses the idea that selected findings from research in neuropsychology can be of use in courses in diagnostic and prescriptive teaching and in clinical work with children and adults. A short history of psychological theories from faculty psychology through Piagetian techniques is given. Then efforts in neurospsychology are…

  12. Improving the Recruitment and Retention of American Indian Students in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    There is a great need to increase the number of American Indian students in psychology, especially in clinical and counseling psychology. Nationally, there are fewer than 200 American Indian psychologists, and most mental health services for Indian people are provided by paraprofessionals, who may be poorly trained for this function. In addition,…

  13. Career Interests of Students in Psychology Specialties Degrees: Psychometric Evidence and Correlations with the RIASEC Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Aristides I.; Rodrigues, Rosa I.; da Costa Ferreira, Paula

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present the development of a vocational interest scale for university students studying psychology. Three dimensions were extracted through principal component analysis, namely, organizational, educational, and clinical psychology. A second study with confirmatory factor analysis replicated the same three factors obtained in the…

  14. Chronic Hepatitis C and Antiviral Treatment Regimens: Where Can Psychology Contribute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evon, Donna M.; Golin, Carol E.; Fried, Michael W.; Keefe, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the existing literature on psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and antiviral treatment; provide the state of the behavioral science in areas that presently hinder HCV-related health outcomes; and make recommendations for areas in which clinical psychology…

  15. Counseling Psychology from Greyston to Atlanta: On the Road to Armageddon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprinthall, Norman A.

    1990-01-01

    Briefly describes the model for counseling psychology developed during the Greyston Conference of 1964 and compares it with the current view from the Atlanta Conference. Suggests that the shift of counseling psychology from schools, colleges, and career development toward a medical model of clinical treatment may eliminate an independent…

  16. Bethany Ann Teachman: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bethany Ann Teachman for transformative, translational research integrating social cognition, life-span, and perceptual approaches to investigating clinical…

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Psychological Needs of Adults Living with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pakhale, Smita; Baron, Justine; Armstrong, Michael; Tasca, Georgio; Gaudet, Ena; Aaron, Shawn; Cameron, William; Balfour, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are prevalent in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet psychological services are rarely accessible in CF clinics. This cross-sectional single center study reports on a psychological needs assessment of people with CF. Methods We asked adults attending a CF clinic, without integrated psychological services, to complete a psychological needs assessment survey that included items on: a) past access to psychological services (via a CF referral service), b) concerns relevant to discuss with a psychologist, and c) their likelihood of accessing psychological services if available at the CF clinic, and standardized measures of depression (CES-D) and anxiety (GAD-7). Results We enrolled 49 participants and 45 (91.8%) completed the survey. Forty percent reported elevated symptoms of depression and 13% had elevated anxiety. A majority of individuals (72.2% and 83.3%, respectively) indicated they would be likely to use psychological services, if available at the clinic. Concerns considered most relevant to discuss with a psychologist were: 1) worries (51.1%), 2) mood (44.4%), 3) life stress (46.6%), 4) adjustment to CF (42.2%), 5) life transitions (42.2%) and 6) quality of life (42.2%). Conclusions This study highlights the rationale for screening adults with CF for depression and anxiety, and to facilitate provision of psychological services and preventative mental health interventions as an integral component of multi-disciplinary CF care. PMID:26102351

  18. Career Interests of Students in Psychology Specialties Degrees: Psychometric Evidence and Correlations with the RIASEC Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Aristides I.; Rodrigues, Rosa I.; da Costa Ferreira, Paula

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present the development of a vocational interest scale for university students studying psychology. Three dimensions were extracted through principal component analysis, namely, organizational, educational, and clinical psychology. A second study with confirmatory factor analysis replicated the same three factors obtained in the…

  19. Perfectionism affects change in psychological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Sauer, Eric M; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Roberts, Kristin E; Garrison, Angela M

    2015-06-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine how perfectionism affects psychological symptoms during the course of treatment. We examined session-by-session symptom changes in a sample of 105 adult clients who presented for counseling at a psychology training clinic housed at a large Midwestern university in the United States. Using a recently developed measure of perfectionism (Short Almost Perfect Scale [SAPS]) that possesses good psychometric features, we were able to investigate effects of both maladaptive (high self-criticism) and adaptive (high standards with low self-criticism) perfectionistic characteristics on indicators of personal and interpersonal psychological distress across time. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that both symptomatic distress and interpersonal problems improved over the course of therapy. Maladaptive perfectionism was associated with higher levels of interpersonal problems and distress at the outset of therapy, and related differentially to change patterns in symptom distress and interpersonal problems over the course of treatment. Maladaptive perfectionism, however, was not related to level of symptoms at the end of therapy. Adaptive perfectionistic characteristics were associated with fewer interpersonal problems at the beginning and end of therapy. Results suggest the value of assessing perfectionistic characteristics at the onset of treatment, even for clients not presenting with obvious concerns linked to such individual differences. PMID:24866970

  20. Idiographic Filters for Psychological Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesselroade, John R.; Gerstorf, Denis; Hardy, Sam A.; Ram, Nilam

    2007-01-01

    Ideally, the unit of analysis in psychology is the individual. However, many psychological methods do not cope well, either at the level of construct definition or at the level of measurement, with individuality in behavior. There is little leeway for constructs to be both idiosyncratically tailored to the individual, and still identified as…

  1. The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.…

  2. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  3. Teaching Communication Skills in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rileigh, Kathryn K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a course on communication skills in psychology that includes learning library research skills, writing research reports and term papers, making behavioral observation notes, and giving oral presentations. Shows that student performance in tests on knowledge of American Psychological Association principles improved during the course.…

  4. Power and Women's Psychological Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marecek, Jeanne

    Power and women's mental health are considered from two perspectives. First, evidence that powerlessness is psychologically stressful is presented. It is argued that powerlessness associated with the female role may be responsible for women's elevated risk of psychological disorder. Second, the paper considers the extent to which psychotherapy is…

  5. Disconnecting Positive Psychology and OBM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyten, Cloyd

    2005-01-01

    This paper responds to the article by Wiegand and Geller which advocates broadening the content of OBM by assimilating content from non-behavioral psychologies. I argue that these psychologies have theories and aims so incompatible with OBM that no added value will be obtained by forming an interconnection. Specific problems with positive…

  6. Psychological Foundations of Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Wm. Clark, Ed.; Haddan, Eugene E., Ed.

    This book of readings in educational psychology for teachers contains selections which are both historical and technological. More emphasis is placed on general information and direct educational applications than on theoretical and experimental education psychology, and some of the articles have been abridged. Topics covered include teacher…

  7. Psychology Practice: Design for Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodheart, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential…

  8. Psychological Foundations of Educational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Wm. Clark, Ed.; Haddan, Eugene E., Ed.

    This book of readings in educational psychology for teachers contains selections which are both historical and technological. More emphasis is placed on general information and direct educational applications than on theoretical and experimental education psychology, and some of the articles have been abridged. Topics covered include teacher…

  9. Teaching Psychology to Computing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first aim is to discuss some observations gained from teaching psychology to computing students, highlighting both the wide range of areas where psychology is relevant to computing education and the topics that are relevant at different stages of students' education. The second aim is to consider findings…

  10. Educational Psychology within Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulou, Maria

    2005-01-01

    In a context where the role of the teacher and teacher education are undergoing considerable change, the role of educational psychology in teacher preparation is discussed within a new framework. Educational psychology is now perceived as an inherent component within teacher training and professional development, having previously been an…

  11. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND RACIAL BALANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PAJONAS, PATRICIA J.; PETTIGREW, THOMAS F.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RACIAL BALANCE AND EDUCATION WAS EXPLORED. HISTORICAL, POLITICAL, LEGAL, MORAL, AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL ANSWERS IN TERMS OF HUMAN LEARNING, COMMUNICATION, CREATIVITY, AND PERSONALITY DYNAMICS WERE DISCUSSED. ON THE BASIS OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS, PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS WERE RECOMMENDED. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT…

  12. [Psychological time, definition and challenges].

    PubMed

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-10-01

    Psychological time comprises different forms of time. Each form of time corresponds to different psychological mechanisms. The human being is subject to distortions of time under the effect of emotions. The effectiveness of social interaction depends on our aptitude to synchronise ourselves with others. PMID:23167123

  13. Self Psychology as Feminist Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Judith Kegan

    1987-01-01

    Although the "self psychology" theories of Heinz Kohut tend to neglect gender, they hold promise for feminist theory because they avoid some problems and limitations of the object-relations theory, especially its conflation of femininity with heterosexuality and apparent closure to historical change. Feminist self-psychology theory, in contrast,…

  14. Educational Psychology within Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulou, Maria

    2005-01-01

    In a context where the role of the teacher and teacher education are undergoing considerable change, the role of educational psychology in teacher preparation is discussed within a new framework. Educational psychology is now perceived as an inherent component within teacher training and professional development, having previously been an…

  15. Psychology Practice: Design for Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodheart, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a blueprint for modernizing the delivery of high-quality behavioral health care and for improving access to care by a public sorely in need of psychological services. The blueprint brings together disparate elements of psychology practice into a more unified structure, an updated house, based upon advances in the essential…

  16. "Project Psychology": A Classroom Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Bethany K. B.; Hussey, Heather D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an original and unique series of classroom group-work activities organized as a competitive game called "Project Psychology," which was implemented in an Introduction to Psychology course. The project goals included increasing student participation, interest, content comprehension, and motivation. Fostering connections to…

  17. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  18. Objective techniques for psychological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortz, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Ross, T.

    1973-01-01

    A literature review and a pilot study are used to develop psychological assessment techniques for determining objectively the major aspects of the psychological state of an astronaut. Relationships between various performance and psychophysiological variables and between those aspects of attention necessary to engage successfully in various functions are considered in developing a paradigm to be used for collecting data in manned isolation chamber experiments.

  19. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  20. Traveling Psychology Fair: Learner-Centered Outreach Activities to Stimulate Interest in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew T.; Mandernach, B. Jean

    2006-01-01

    The Traveling Psychology Fair is designed to bridge the gap between secondary and college psychology education, encourage enthusiasm for the study of psychology, enhance teaching resources for high school psychology instructors, and promote a deeper understanding of psychological principles for psychology majors. Consisting of 24 outreach…

  1. Traveling Psychology Fair: Learner-Centered Outreach Activities to Stimulate Interest in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew T.; Mandernach, B. Jean

    2006-01-01

    The Traveling Psychology Fair is designed to bridge the gap between secondary and college psychology education, encourage enthusiasm for the study of psychology, enhance teaching resources for high school psychology instructors, and promote a deeper understanding of psychological principles for psychology majors. Consisting of 24 outreach…

  2. The psychological aspects of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Silvan, Matthew

    2004-03-01

    Dermatologists are likely to be confronted with patients who present with a wide range of psychiatric issues and problems. Writers on psychocutaneous medicine have described a variety of conditions that represent the interplay between the psyche and the soma. Vitiligo is one such disease and will be the focus of this article. Specifically, 3 areas will be examined: (1) the psychological impact vitiligo has on patients, (2) how psychological factors contribute to the etiology and course of the illness, and (3) the benefits of offering adjunctive psychological treatment. By exploring these aspects of vitiligo in more detail, I hope to illustrate the profound importance psychological factors play in this disease and the value of incorporating a psychological approach in its treatment. PMID:15074343

  3. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    PubMed

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena. PMID:26403987

  4. Psychological Reasoning in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, Renée; Scott, Rose M; Bian, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Adults routinely make sense of others' actions by inferring the mental states that underlie these actions. Over the past two decades, developmental researchers have made significant advances in understanding the origins of this ability in infancy. This evidence indicates that when infants observe an agent act in a simple scene, they infer the agent's mental states and then use these mental states, together with a principle of rationality (and its corollaries of efficiency and consistency), to predict and interpret the agent's subsequent actions and to guide their own actions toward the agent. In this review, we first describe the initial demonstrations of infants' sensitivity to the efficiency and consistency principles. We then examine how infants identify novel entities as agents. Next, we summarize what is known about infants' ability to reason about agents' motivational, epistemic, and counterfactual states. Finally, we consider alternative interpretations of these findings and discuss the current controversy about the relation between implicit and explicit psychological reasoning. PMID:26393869

  5. [Psychological theories on delinquency].

    PubMed

    Ferracuti, F; Newman, G R

    1976-01-01

    The authors review the various psychological explanations of delinquency, based on a psycholgoical etiological approach, considered within three broad categories: 1) Unchanging intrapersonal factors; 2) Changeable intra-personal factors, and 3) Interpersonal factors. For each theory, three criteria of validity have been used, based on the theory explanatory power in relation to: 1) the differential rates of deliquency for various subgroups, and the peaking at age 16; 2) the various forms of delinquent behavior, and, 3) the individual motivations to delinquency. The implications for prevention, of the different theoretical approaches, are also briefly discussed. The interpersonal theories appear to offer the most fruitful research and action opportunities. The practical implications for primary prevention, particularly at the school level, are discussed. PMID:1025584

  6. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  7. Evidence in the Psychological Therapies: A Critical Guide for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Chris, Ed.; Moorey, Stirling, Ed.; Roberts, Bernard, Ed.

    Research is increasingly used as the benchmark of clinical quality and evidence-based practice is likely to determine standards for psychotherapists in the future. This book explains why psychotherapeutic services should be more evidenced-based, and presents the types of evidence thought to be most relevant to psychological therapies. The…

  8. Hispanic Psychology: Critical Issues in Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M., Ed.

    This book provides students, researchers, and practitioners with access to major theoretical and empirical issues in the field of Hispanic psychology. The book is divided into six parts: acculturation and adaptation, ethnic identity and behavior, clinical research and services, health and AIDS research, gender studies research, and education and…

  9. Content, Structure, and Usefulness of Juvenile Predisposition Psychological Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Samantha L.; Cruise, Keith R.; Hinz, Holly; Holloway, Evan D.; Chapman, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of research regarding the content and structure of juvenile predisposition psychological evaluations. Limited research suggests that key mental health domains are insufficiently represented and judges use evaluator recommendations regarding legal outcomes more often than clinical outcomes. Studies have not addressed…

  10. Integrating Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues into Mainstream Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfried, Marvin R.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how clinical and research writings on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues remain invisible to mainstream psychology in such areas as life span development and aging, teen suicide, substance abuse, victimization, and family and couple relationships, examining determinants of wellbeing among GLBs and discussing what mainstream…

  11. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  12. Content, Structure, and Usefulness of Juvenile Predisposition Psychological Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Samantha L.; Cruise, Keith R.; Hinz, Holly; Holloway, Evan D.; Chapman, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of research regarding the content and structure of juvenile predisposition psychological evaluations. Limited research suggests that key mental health domains are insufficiently represented and judges use evaluator recommendations regarding legal outcomes more often than clinical outcomes. Studies have not addressed…

  13. Integrating Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues into Mainstream Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfried, Marvin R.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how clinical and research writings on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues remain invisible to mainstream psychology in such areas as life span development and aging, teen suicide, substance abuse, victimization, and family and couple relationships, examining determinants of wellbeing among GLBs and discussing what mainstream…

  14. Hispanic Psychology: Critical Issues in Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M., Ed.

    This book provides students, researchers, and practitioners with access to major theoretical and empirical issues in the field of Hispanic psychology. The book is divided into six parts: acculturation and adaptation, ethnic identity and behavior, clinical research and services, health and AIDS research, gender studies research, and education and…

  15. Adam M. Reid: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Adam M. Reid, who received this award "for his community service, in which he has integrated the highest standards of professional psychological clinical practice and science." Adam's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26618976

  16. Psychological Distress in Young Adult Males with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Heon; Hur, Jae; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hae-Sim; Hong, Chang Hyung; Son, Sang Joon; Chang, Ki Jung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between atopic dermatitis (AD) and psychological distress has been well established for children and adolescents. However, it is unclear whether this relationship exists in young adults. This study aimed to assess the relationship between AD and psychological distress in young male adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional study was conducted using regional conscription data from 2008 to 2012. A dermatologist diagnosed AD based on historical and clinical features, and determined severity using the eczema area and severity index. A psychiatrist used medical records, an interview, and a psychological test to examine psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and somatization). The relationship between psychological distress and AD was assessed by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Among the 120,508 conscripts, 1517 (1.2%) presented with AD. The odds of having each type of psychological distress were significantly greater for individuals with AD compared with those without AD. The adjusted odds ratios for depression, anxiety, and somatization were 1.79 (95% CI 1.40–2.29), 1.38 (95% CI 1.08–1.76), and 1.75 (95% CI 1.40–2.20), respectively. Moderate-to-severe AD was significantly related to depression and somatization to a greater extent compared with mild AD. Depression, anxiety, and somatization are strongly and independently associated with AD in young adult males. Early treatment of skin inflammation might modify the risk of psychiatric problems. Prospective cohort studies are needed to verify causal relationships. PMID:26061325

  17. Historical understanding and teaching in professional psychology.

    PubMed

    Baker, David B

    2002-08-01

    The teaching of the history of psychology in professional psychology training programs presents to students and teachers any number of opportunities and challenges. The increasing number of professional psychologists teaching the history of psychology coupled with advances in historical scholarship point to an ongoing evolution in the teaching of the history of psychology. In this introduction to the articles that follow, issues of content and context in teaching the history of psychology in professional psychology are discussed and affirmations offered. PMID:12269332

  18. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  19. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  20. Psychiatry Today : Biology vs. Psychology.

    PubMed

    Berman, I; Fried, W; Berman, S M; Lengua, J A; Alpert, M

    1995-06-01

    This research addresses preferences and theoretical leanings of present-day psychiatrists along the continuum defined at one end by biology and at the other by psychology. A questionnaire was devised and sent to 5,702 randomly selected members of the American Psychiatric Association in 1990. The response rate was 307%. The results were analyzed for two groups: psychiatrists with fewer than 15 years of practice since residency and psychiatrists with more than 15 years of practice since graduation. Although the great majority of psychiatrists in both groups equally valued psychology and biology, the senior group attributed a greater importance to psychological methods, whereas the younger group stressed equally the importance of biology and psychology. This suggests that psychiatry has evolved over the years from a predominantly psychological practice to one with a more equal emphasis on psychology and biology. Recent advances in neuroscience may have shifted the pendulum toward a more balanced willingness of clinicians to consider the broad armamentarium of psychosocial and biological treatments. The results point to the need for further conceptualization into the relationship between biology and psychology and its incorporation into the psychiatric residency curriculum. PMID:24442524

  1. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  2. Working with LGBT Individuals: Incorporating Positive Psychology into Training and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Megan C.; Vaughan, Michelle D.; Rodriguez, Eric M.; Shmerler, David L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how positive psychology principles can be incorporated into clinical training and practice to work with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) clients. LGBT psychology literature has all too often relied on heterosexual and cisgender reference groups as the norm with respect to psychological health, primarily framing the experiences of LGBT individuals through the lens of psychopathology. As a result, strengths that could be ascribed to the LGBT experience have been overlooked within training and practice. While positive psychology is actively being incorporated into clinical and counseling psychology curricula, broadening the paradigm to include LGBT individuals has generally not been included in the discussion. Specific recommendations for training psychologists to incorporate and foster positive social institutions, positive subjective experiences and character strengths when working with LGBT clients and celebrating their unique experiences are provided. PMID:25544947

  3. Revenge: An Analysis of Its Psychological Underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Grobbink, Leonie H; Derksen, Jan J L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2015-07-01

    An overview of the literature and theories concerning revenge is presented in this study. The aim is to clarify the boundaries between a healthy and pathological way of dealing with revenge to improve diagnostics, with regard to both theory and clinical practice. Revenge is an intrapersonal phenomenon and the extent to which people need revenge has a certain degree of stability. A healthy way of dealing with revenge may restore the psychological balance that has previously been disturbed. However, the desire for revenge can be long-lasting and dysfunctional due to, among other things, early problems in development and specific personality traits. Consequently, a pathological way of dealing with revenge can be part of a disorder and can lead to destructive acts such as homicide and even mass murder. Some clinical examples are presented and points of attention regarding diagnostics and treatment are discussed. PMID:24441031

  4. Psychological deterrents to nuclear theft

    SciTech Connect

    Lapinsky, G.

    1981-06-01

    In 1975 the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the National Bureau of Standards jointly conceived the psychological deterrents project as an on-going review of the unclassified and the classified literature relating to psychological factors that may have impact on the design and development of DNA's Forced Entry Deterrent System (better known as FEDS). The classified and unclassified literature suggest that it may be possible to manipulate several human behavioral processes, but that there are few definitive data directly related to achieving deterrence by means of these psychological manipulations.

  5. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2014-12-01

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed.

  6. Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Cerejeira, J.; Lagarto, L.; Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long-term hospitalization, misuse of medication, and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis, and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social, and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological, and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes associated with BPSD. PMID:22586419

  7. [Prostate cancer and androgen deprivation: benefits of psychological counseling].

    PubMed

    Frambati, L; Weber, K; Canuto, A; Miralbell, R; Zilli, T; Pichard, C; Joly, C; Voison, N; Santos, J Flores Alves Dos

    2013-02-13

    Androgen deprivation is a therapeutic option for patients with prostate cancer, however with a range of side effects that negatively affects their physical and psychological condition. A multidisciplinary care program, ADAPP ("Androgenic deprivation in prostate cancer patients"), has been created with a special focus on managing these side effects. This article describes the intervention of the liaison psychiatry within this program, with care options ranging from psychological support to intensive psychotherapy to address patients' intrapsychic dynamics throughout this care program. Clinical cases are reported to illustrate the relevance and the necessity of this specialized counselling. PMID:23477070

  8. Emotions in robot psychology.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, V; Popp, M

    2014-10-01

    In his famous thought experiments on synthetic vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg stipulated that simple stimulus-response reactions in an organism could evoke the appearance of complex behavior, which, to the unsuspecting human observer, may even appear to be driven by emotions such as fear, aggression, and even love (Braitenberg, Vehikel. Experimente mit künstlichen Wesen, Lit Verlag, 2004). In fact, humans appear to have a strong propensity to anthropomorphize, driven by our inherent desire for predictability that will quickly lead us to discern patterns, cause-and-effect relationships, and yes, emotions, in animated entities, be they natural or artificial. But might there be reasons, that we should intentionally "implement" emotions into artificial entities, such as robots? How would we proceed in creating robot emotions? And what, if any, are the ethical implications of creating "emotional" robots? The following article aims to shed some light on these questions with a multi-disciplinary review of recent empirical investigations into the various facets of emotions in robot psychology. PMID:24677038

  9. Psychological Causes of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines not only the path of my recovery but also the conclusions of my therapeutic journal that developed over a period of several years. This journal evolved into the following structure: description of personal pain body, moving forward with transformations, and active living—implementation of intention and desire that continues. My journal has evolved from the written word to transformation, current lived experience, and the expectation of good things yet to come. Many transformations were integrated into my thinking and emotions over the years. As I developed solutions to my pain body, the structure of the psychological causes of my paranoid schizophrenia became clear. The voices and interference are at bay, hallucinations and delusions are understood, and paranoid disposition transformed to a more normal way of thinking and reacting. I continue on a low maintenance dose of atypical antipsychotic medication. My hope is that my conclusions will inspire researchers and clinicians and help other peers with their recovery. An open mind, moving forward in work, self-direction, and transformative learning have contributed significantly to my recovery. PMID:19176473

  10. Computer Developments and Educational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riding, R. J.; Buckle, C. F.

    1987-01-01

    Examines some of the research and development implications of classroom computer use for educational psychology. Considers the implications of further developments in tutorial uses, reading instruction, and facilitation of thinking. (RKM)

  11. Cognitive Psychology and Mathematical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Brian

    1981-01-01

    This review illustrates aspects of cognitive psychology relevant to the understanding of how people think mathematically. Developments in memory research, artificial intelligence, visually mediated processes, and problem-solving research are discussed. (MP)

  12. On the Heels of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Burton, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The author cites S. Sarason's book "Psychology Misdirected" and applies Sarason's views to the field of learning disabilities. A shift toward understanding individual behavior in terms of the larger society is suggested. (SB)

  13. Psychology in the public service.

    PubMed

    Zimbardo, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties. PMID:12094437

  14. [Mediation model in adolescent psychology].

    PubMed

    Deguitre, Marie; Pascal-Verdelhan, Chantal; Saez, Catherine; Calmels, Marie-Jeanne; Nesensohn, Jessica; Legras, Stéphanie; Paradis, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Body mediation is today used as a tool for establishing a relationship with a young person experiencing psychological suffering. It is particularly useful in adolescence, a period marked by the destabilisation of emotional and relational fields. PMID:24941629

  15. The Psychology of Working Theory.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Ryan D; Blustein, David L; Diemer, Matthew A; Autin, Kelsey L

    2016-03-01

    In the current article, we build on research from vocational psychology, multicultural psychology, intersectionality, and the sociology of work to construct an empirically testable Psychology of Working Theory (PWT). Our central aim is to explain the work experiences of all individuals, but particularly people near or in poverty, people who face discrimination and marginalization in their lives, and people facing challenging work-based transitions for which contextual factors are often the primary drivers of the ability to secure decent work. The concept of decent work is defined and positioned as the central variable within the theory. A series of propositions is offered concerning (a) contextual predictors of securing decent work, (b) psychological and economic mediators and moderators of these relations, and (c) outcomes of securing decent work. Recommendations are suggested for researchers seeking to use the theory and practical implications are offered concerning counseling, advocacy, and public policy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26937788

  16. Psychological Development: Becoming a Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Patricia M.

    1999-01-01

    Explains classic theories of adult development (stage/phase and life events and transitions) as well as newer theories (women's psychological development, Kegan's theory of consciousness). Presents implications for adult learning. (SK)

  17. Psychological Interventions with Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, James N.; And Others

    Psychotherapy is an alien concept to many refugees from traditional cultures, since much of psychotherapy is tied to Western thoughts, practices, and belief systems. However, a variety of therapeutic strategies can be effective with refugees if modified to account for cultural factors. Four clinical intervention strategies are discussed with…

  18. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... improved relapse-free survival in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2011;29(19):2645-2652. [PubMed Abstract] Moreno-Smith M, Lutgendorf SK, Sood AK. Impact of stress on cancer metastasis. Future Oncology 2010; ...

  19. Psychological aspects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Exploring the nature of nuclear war, this treatise examines human reaction to nuclear disaster and accidental explosions. The discussion is based on evidence of human fallibility that has emerged from the psychology of accidents and from research into decision-making in military and political contexts. The book draws on the psychology of negotiation and conflict resolution to suggest ways in which the threat of nuclear war might be reduced.

  20. Graduate Study in Psychology, 2013 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APA Books, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Graduate Study in Psychology" is the best source of information related to graduate programs in psychology and provides information related to approximately 600 graduate programs in psychology in the U.S. and Canada. "Graduate Study in Psychology" contains information about: (1) number of applications received by a program; (2) number of…

  1. Raising Students' Awareness of Women in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie; Townsend, Deborah T.

    2006-01-01

    The near invisibility of women's contributions to psychology is a serious problem in the teaching of psychology. We tested the effectiveness of a teaching exercise aimed at increasing students' awareness of women's contributions to psychology. The exercise involved making, displaying, and examining posters about women in psychology. Students (a)…

  2. Social Psychology: Humanist Roots and Feminist Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Bernice

    1991-01-01

    A feminist perspective is necessary for the continued vitality of social psychology. Major themes of the feminist perspective are reviewed, and some important women from early U.S. psychology are identified as founders of social psychology. In the future, the feminist perspective will function in social psychology as a systems theory. (SLD)

  3. Raising Students' Awareness of Women in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie; Townsend, Deborah T.

    2006-01-01

    The near invisibility of women's contributions to psychology is a serious problem in the teaching of psychology. We tested the effectiveness of a teaching exercise aimed at increasing students' awareness of women's contributions to psychology. The exercise involved making, displaying, and examining posters about women in psychology. Students (a)…

  4. The Psychology of Women and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumville, Miriam McCarthy

    Although standard courses in psychology are offered each academic year at New Jersey's Raritan Valley Community College (RVCC), the psychology of women and gender has yet to be incorporated into the curriculum. The psychology of women developed with the emergence of the second wave of feminism, beginning with a critical analysis of psychology's…

  5. Is Vygotsky Relevant? Vygotsky's Marxist Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between Vygotsky's psychology and Marxism, arguing that his was a "Marxist psychology" in its "historical foundation": a specific conception of history. This conception of history is evident in Vygotsky's analysis and diagnosis of the crisis in psychology. The creation of a Marxist, general psychology was the…

  6. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    PubMed

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  7. Psychological sequelae of acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Magin, Parker; Adams, Jon; Heading, Gaynor; Pond, Dimity; Smith, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the psychological sequelae of acne vulgaris. DESIGN Qualitative study using a grounded-theory approach. SETTING General practices and specialty dermatology practices in Newcastle, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Patients with current acne recruited from the practices. METHOD We used semistructured interviews and recorded participants’ comments verbatim. Data analysis was cumulative and concurrent throughout the data-collection period. Coding and analysis was done in the inductive tradition. MAIN FINDINGS Interviews were conducted with 26 subjects who represented a range of ages and acne severity. Psychological morbidity was considerable. Though participants had mood and anxiety symptoms, these symptoms tended to be subsyndromal and evanescent. More prominent symptoms were embarrassment, impaired self-image, low self-esteem, self-consciousness, frustration, and anger. Some subjects thought that acne had affected their personalities permanently and adversely. Psychological sequelae were attributed to the effects of facial acne on appearance. CONCLUSION The psychological effects of acne can be considerable. The psychological morbidity is complex and often does not conform to standard psychiatric disease criteria. Recognition and management of the psychological sequelae of acne by general practitioners is of considerable importance. PMID:17273501

  8. Buddha philosophy and western psychology

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between “two of the most powerful forces” operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote ‘if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy’. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249

  9. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. PMID:17623872

  10. [The medical social and psychological issues of women with mastopathy].

    PubMed

    Sukharev, A E; Ermolaeva, T N; Beda, N A; Krylov, G F

    2009-01-01

    The study revealed that 92.5% of female patients consulted by themselves the physician on the subject of mastopathy were town inhabitants with secondary special and humanitarian higher education from the white-collar social group. The concomitant diseases of digestial organs and urogenital system and the deviant psychological characteristics of personality as well had been registered reliably much more frequently among women with a mastopathy in comparison with the control group. More than 70% of females noted the intensification of mastopathy symptoms after the exacerbation of somatic diseases and nervous stresses. Also, more than 80% of female patients experienced psychological discomfort due to doctor's referral to the oncological dispensary. In authors'judgment, the special-purpose mammological consulting rooms under maternity welfare clinics and polyclinics has to be organized to provide efficient diagnostics, treatment and psychological adjustment of female patients with benignant diseases of mammary glands. PMID:19708591

  11. Alan E. Kazdin: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Alan E. Kazdin, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology. "For outstanding and pathbreaking contributions to the understanding of the development, assessment, and treatment of psychopathology. Alan E. Kazdin's theoretically innovative, methodologically rigorous, and scientifically informed research has significantly advanced knowledge of child and adolescent psychopathologies such as depression and conduct problems. His writings on research strategies and methods have set a high standard for rigor in the field. His work and his ideas have had an enormous impact on the science, practice, and teaching of psychology, and his research has strengthened assessment and treatment of children and adolescents in scientific and clinical settings. His passion, energy, wisdom, and wit have inspired countless colleagues and students over the years, and his work will no doubt continue to do so for many generations to come." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22082383

  12. Exploring the psychological and somatic impact of identity theft.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Tracy; Shreve-Neiger, Andrea; Fremouw, William; Kane, John; Hutton, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    Identity theft is a new and growing form of white-collar crime. This exploratory study examined the psychological and somatic impact of identity theft and coping methods utilized by victims. Thirty-seven victims of identity theft participated in regional victim focus groups. Participants completed a victim impact questionnaire designed by the authors and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). The majority of participants expressed an increase in maladaptive psychological and somatic symptoms post victimization. Results on the BSI indicated that identity theft victims with unresolved cases, in contrast to those with resolved cases, were more likely to have clinically elevated scores when compared with a normative sample. Relatively similar coping mechanisms were utilized across victims. The results from this study suggest that victims of identity theft do have increased psychological and physical distress, and for those whose cases remain unresolved, distress is maintained over time. PMID:14979359

  13. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  14. Cognitive development and female psychology.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M A

    1981-01-01

    Freud was an astute observer, but his understanding of female psychology was distorted by centration on biological forces, the adult neurosis, libido theory, the Oedipus complex, and male psychology. His views on the role of penis envy, narcissism, and masochism in women, and on the female superego, currently are being updated on the basis of new data emerging out of psychoanalytic investigation and direct observational studies. It has become clear, for example, that core feminine gender identity develops very early and that it is mediated in large part by cognitive development and learning rather than by the impact of the observation of genital differences between the sexes. The little girl's level of cognitive organization does not permit her at first to construct logical, consistent categories of female and male, predicated or coordination of criteria of inclusion and exclusion. She puts girls and women into one group out of intuitive recognition that they "go together" and builds up a view of herself as female on the basis of what she feels as her mother's daughter and what she perceives of the way her parents and other significant object see her. Her mother's feelings about her, about herself, and about females in general influence her greatly, and her father's responses to and expectations of her have an important impact on her self-image and self-esteem. Her representation of herself as female at first does not necessarily take genital differences between the sexes into account. The discovery, some time in the second or third year, that the genitals of boys and girls are different from one another presents the girl with a number of problems, however. Her cognitive organization makes it extremely difficult for her to apprehend her complex, incompletely demarcated, and to a large extent internal, unobservable, and impalpable sexual organs. Her initial conclusion is that she lacks desirable body parts which are possessed by other beings. Because of the narcissistic-exhibitionistic libidinal organization of that period of life, this represents a painful narcissistic injury. The intensity of the girl's castration reaction and the degree to which she will be able to overcome it in the course of further development are determined by multiple internal and external developmental factors. Masochism, narcissistic vulnerability, and penis envy are neither limited to the female sex nor normal outcomes of female development. Where they are prominent features in the psychopathology of female patients, it is insufficient to interpret them as emanating from penis envy as a bedrock, primal cause. Detailed clinical examples are presented to illustrate the thesis that through exploration and explication of the multiple sources of such symptomatology in a female analysand is the most effective way of relieving the symptomatology and releasing the potential for emotional growth. PMID:7299032

  15. Competencies in Training at the Graduate Student Level: Example of a Pediatric Psychology Seminar Course

    PubMed Central

    Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E.; Hazen, Rebecca A.; Fehr, Karla K.

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed competencies in pediatric psychology from the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Task Force on Competencies and Best Training Practices in Pediatric Psychology provide a benchmark to evaluate training program practices and student progress toward training in level-specific competency goals. Graduate-level training presents a unique challenge for addressing the breadth of competencies required in pediatric psychology while maintaining development of broader clinical psychology training goals. We describe a recurring graduate-level pediatric psychology seminar course that addresses training in a number of the competency cluster areas. The structure of the seminar, examples of classroom topics that correspond with competency cluster areas as well as benchmarks used to evaluate each student’s development in the competency area are provided. Specific challenges in developing and maintaining the seminar in this format are identified, and possible solutions are offered. This training format could serve as a model for established pediatric psychology programs to expand their didactic training goals or for programs without formal pediatric psychology training to address competencies outside of clinical placements. PMID:26900536

  16. Considerations on self-psychology and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Di Luzio, GianCarlo

    2015-12-01

    In this narrative review article, some considerations are reported on the psychoanalytic point of view of self-psychology on eating disorders in a multidisciplinary team approach, a theoretic and clinical perspective in which the Author recognizes himself. Some author's clinical ideas and concepts as "negative self", "eclipse of the self", "rebound syndrome", "bluff syndrome", "deficit of subjective attribution", related to the topic of the deficit of the Self, are exposed along with technical aspects, clinical material and references to the comparison of psychoanalysis with the EBM literature on psychotherapy of EDs and its contemporary role in an integrated multi-disciplinary treatment of these disorders. PMID:26376997

  17. An Ecosystems and Vulnerable Populations Perspective on Solastalgia and Psychological Distress After a Wildfire.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David; McCaffrey, Sarah; Donatello, Ian; Marshal, Grant

    2015-12-01

    We studied the relationship between psychological distress and relative resource and risk predictors, including loss of solace from the landscape (solastalgia), one year after the Wallow Fire, in Arizona, United States. Solastalgia refers to the distress caused by damage to the surrounding natural environment and it has not been examined for its relationship to psychological health. Doing so opens avenues of research that inquire into how land management might be able to support improved community resilience and psychological health outcomes after a wildfire. In 2012, we conducted a household survey mailed to all 1387 households in the five communities surrounding the fire. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale assessed psychological distress. In the multivariate analysis, higher solastalgia score and an adverse financial impact of the fire were associated with clinically significant psychological distress. Annual household income ≥ $80,000 and a higher family functioning score were associated with less psychological distress. Part-time residents were no more likely to have psychological distress than full-time residents. We conclude that dramatic transformation of a landscape by an environmental event such as a wildfire can reduce its value as a source of solace. These results call for novel post-wildfire community recovery interventions that wed forest management and community psychology. PMID:26302957

  18. Psychological harm after PANE: NEPA's requirement to consider psychological damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.S. III

    1984-01-01

    In Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE), the Supreme Court held that the National Environmental Policy Act does not require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider the probable impact of its actions on psychological health. The Court's opinion, however, supports the conclusion that NEPA generally requires federal agencies to consider such probable impacts. This article examines the scope of federal responsibility following this decision. It delineates the causal relationship test that the Court adopted in PANE, and discusses possible obstacles to the consideration of psychological impacts under NEPA. It divides federal actions into four categories, then considers the benefits and burdens of the ruling using the NRC's responsibility to consider psychological health effects before licensing new nuclear reactors. 221 references.

  19. A Model for a Doctor of Psychology Program in Forensic Psychology: Curriculum and Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, C. Abraham; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An overview of the objectives and courses of a doctoral program in forensic psychology is provided. Forensic psychology is the application of psychological methods, principles, and skills to the relevant needs of the legal system. (DE)

  20. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PMID:24446855

  1. E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana

    Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

  2. The psychology of suicide terrorism.

    PubMed

    Post, Jerrold M; Ali, Farhana; Henderson, Schuyler W; Shanfield, Steven; Victoroff, Jeff; Weine, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews current understandings of the psychology of suicide terrorism for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals to help them better understand this terrifying phenomenon. After discussing key concepts and definitions, the paper reviews both group and individual models for explaining the development of suicide terrorists, with an emphasis on "collective identity." Stressing the importance of social psychology, it emphasizes the "normality" and absence of individual psychopathology of the suicide bombers. It will discuss the broad range of terrorisms, but will particularly emphasize terrorism associated with militant Islam. The article emphasizes that comprehending suicide terrorism requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes anthropological, economic, historical, and political factors as well as psychological ones. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research, policy, and prevention, reviewing the manner in which social psychiatric knowledge and understandings applied to this phenomenon in an interdisciplinary framework can assist in developing approaches to counter this deadly strategy. PMID:19366292

  3. Psychological Sequelae of Elective Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Bruce D.; Golbus, Mitchell S.

    1975-01-01

    A mild, short, depressive and guilt ridden period following abortion is quite common, but a severe psychological reaction is rare. The indication for the abortion and the preabortal psychological state of the patient are the two most important factors. Almost all reported instances of postabortion psychoses have occurred in patients who had severe preabortal psychiatric problems. Women undergoing abortion for socioeconomic or psychosocial indications appear to be at minimal risk for long-term negative psychological sequelae. In contrast, women in whom abortion is carried out because of exposure to rubella and the risk of fetal malformation, maternal organic disease or the prenatal diagnosis of a genetically defective fetus are at greater risk and may need supportive psychotherapy. PMID:1099808

  4. The Council of Psychological Advisers.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2016-01-01

    Findings in behavioral science, including psychology, have influenced policies and reforms in many nations. Choice architecture can affect outcomes even if material incentives are not involved. In some contexts, default rules, simplification, and social norms have had even larger effects than significant economic incentives. Psychological research is helping to inform initiatives in savings, finance, highway safety, consumer protection, energy, climate change, obesity, education, poverty, development, crime, corruption, health, and the environment. No nation has yet created a council of psychological advisers, but the role of behavioral research in policy domains is likely to grow in the coming years, especially in light of the mounting interest in promoting ease and simplification ("navigability"); in increasing effectiveness, economic growth, and competitiveness; and in providing low-cost, choice-preserving approaches. PMID:26393867

  5. 'What's Psychology got to do with it?' Applying psychological theory to understanding failures in modern healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Rydon-Grange, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has, for over four decades, been beset with numerous 'scandals' relating to poor patient care across several diverse clinical contexts. Ensuing inquiries proceed as though each scandal is unique, with recommendations highlighting the need for more staff training, a change of culture within the NHS based upon a 'duty of candour', and proposed criminal sanctions for employees believed to breach good patient care. However, mistakes reoccur and failings in patient safety continue. While inquiries describe what went awry in each case, questions of how and why such failures came to be remain unanswered. Psychology has a role in answering these questions. Applying psychological theory can guide an understanding of the causes that lead to catastrophic failures in healthcare settings. Indeed, what is often neglected in inquiries is the role of human behaviour in contributing to these failures. Drawing upon behavioural, social and cognitive theories, a psychological analysis of key factors, typically present in clinical contexts where serious failures of care occur, is presented. Applying theory and models from the field of psychology can guide further understanding of the precipitants to poor care. PMID:26401049

  6. Psychological Consequences of Hematopoieitc Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Liz; Gemmill, Robin; Kravits, Kate; Grant, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To address the psychological impact of the transplant on quality of life including physical, psychological, social and spiritual for the patient and caregiver and to discuss the nurse’s emotional labor of caring and compassion fatigue for such an intense vulnerable population. Data Sources Psychological transplant studies, peer review journals, and textbooks. Conclusions The psychological impact after an experience of a transplant can leave an indelible impression on the patient, caregiver and nurse. Implications for Nursing Practice Suggestions are made for assessment and management of various potential psychological issues for the three mentioned populations. With these issues being better understood, nurses can actively lessen psychological morbidity. PMID:19411017

  7. The More You Know: The Impact of Publication and Peer-Review Experience on Psychology Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Jennifer M.; Somerville, William; Harlem-Siegel, Jessica; Steele, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The New School Psychology Bulletin (NSPB) is a peer-reviewed journal operated by clinical psychology graduate students. Forty-four members of the editorial board and 27 authors were surveyed before and after working with NSPB. Results of the survey demonstrated that experience with the publication process resulted in quantitative decreases in…

  8. The Psychological Impact on Incest on Its Victim: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamura, Karin Ruth

    The literature on incest was reviewed with specific emphasis on the psychological impact that the incestuous relationship has on the female victim. The goals of the review were to identify the psychological impact of incest as supported by clinical observations and empirical research and to review literature on intervention strategies. These…

  9. Unresolved Questions Concerning the Effectiveness of Psychological Assessment as a Therapeutic Intervention: Comment on Poston and Hanson (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Garb, Howard N.; Wood, James M.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Poston and Hanson (2010) reported a meta-analysis of 17 studies on the use of psychological assessment as a therapeutic intervention (PATI) and concluded that "psychological assessment procedures--when combined with personalized, collaborative, and highly involving test feedback--have positive, clinically…

  10. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  11. A New Stress-Based Model of Political Extremism: Personal Exposure to Terrorism, Psychological Distress, and Exclusionist Political Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; Sharvit, Keren; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2009-01-01

    Does exposure to terrorism lead to hostility toward minorities? Drawing on theories from clinical and social psychology, we propose a stress-based model of political extremism in which psychological distress--which is largely overlooked in political scholarship--and threat perceptions mediate the relationship between exposure to terrorism and…

  12. Student Reviews of Selected Current Articles in Adolescent Psychology: Academics, Developmental Issues, Psychopathology, Sexual Behavior, Substance Abuse, and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, H. Lee, Ed.; Sirmans, Amanda, Ed.

    Critical annotations of articles written in 1988 or 1989 and selected from "PSYCHSCAN: Clinical Psychology" are presented in this document. The annotations were written by college students in an undergraduate adolescent psychology class. The annotations are clustered under the following topics: (1) academics, including learning disabilities, sleep…

  13. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Gurvinder; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Shah, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity. PMID:23766572

  14. Displaced Children: The Psychological Implications.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Paramjit T; Fayyad, John A

    2015-10-01

    Millions of people across the world have been displaced or live in exile and/or as refugees largely as a consequence of wars, acts of terrorism, and catastrophic natural disasters. There are serious psychological consequences as a result of these extremely difficult life circumstances. Adults often can express their needs and have them be heard, whereas children are unable to do so. The children may be provided food, shelter, and clothing and have their medical needs attended to, but their emotional and psychological needs go unrecognized and unmet, with dire and monumental long-term consequences. PMID:26346385

  15. Manned Mars mission psychological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    The research on isolated environments over the last thirty years suggests that psychological factors associated with such environments will lead to negative changes in individual and group performance. A mission to Mars will be the greatest undertaking ever devised by the human species. The members of such a mission will be in an environment whose potential dangers are not even completely known at this time. The psychological factors generated by such an environment, and which might adversely affect accomplishment of mission goals, can be minimized or planned for in advance. It is hoped that these issues will not be ignored in planning for this great adventure.

  16. The evolutionary psychology of violence.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Aaron T

    2010-02-01

    This paper reviews theory and research on the evolutionary psychology of violence. First, I examine evidence suggesting that humans have experienced an evolutionary history of violence. Next, I discuss violence as a context-sensitive strategy that might have provided benefits to our ancestors under certain circumstances. I then focus on the two most common forms of violence that plague humans -violence over status contests and intimate partner violence- outlining psychological mechanisms involved in each. Finally, I suggest that greater progress will be made by shifting the study from contexts to mechanisms. PMID:20100422

  17. Evaluation of Some Psychological Factors in Psoriatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Fakour, Yousef; Nazemei, Mohammad Javad; Ehsani, Amirhooshang; Morteza, Afsaneh; Mokhtari, Leila; Khosrovanmehr, Najmeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a disease which may have a direct impact on the psychological and social aspects of the patient, particularly due to its visibility. To date, we are unaware of any study showing a relationship between psoriasis and psychological parameters such as psychological vulnerability and coping strategies. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of psoriasis on some psychological parameters in an Iranian population. Methods: Patients having histopathologically confirmed psoriasis for at least 6 months attending the Dermatology Clinic of Razi Hospital were included if they agreed to participate in the study. Patients with history of schizophrenia, major depression or other psychological disorders were excluded. All patients were at least 18 years old. The patients were then referred to the researchers for filling out the appropriate questionnaires under the guidance of an involved psychologist. To evaluate skin involvement, Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score was calculated and used for all patients. All data were stored in files for further analysis. Results: There were 101 females and 99 males with the mean age of 43.2(±16.32). The mean PASI Score was 6.58 ± 6.04. Diffuse skin involvement was the commonest form of disease (133 patients, 66.5%). The highest score for Illness perception belonged to those with genitalia involvement (185.2, worst illness perception), and the lowest score for Illness perception belonged to those with nail involvement (168.2). Consistently, the lowest score of facing the problems (CISS: approach strategy to disease) belonged to those with hand involvement (50.5) whereas the highest score belonged to those with genitalia involvement (60.4). There was a significant correlation between psychological vulnerability vs. Illness perception score as well as psychological vulnerability vs. coping strategies score. Surprisingly, PASI score had an insignificant relationship with illness perception, coping strategies or psychological vulnerability score. Conclusion: PASI score as a representing factor of skin involvement has a limited role in predicting the effect of psoriasis on mental status and illness perception of psoriatic patients. Psychological vulnerability of the patients is the main predicting factor of illness perception and coping strategies (representing patients approach to their disease or their treatment beliefs). PMID:26005479

  18. Diversity Competence for Psychological Practitioners: Eliminating Disparities in Psychological Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help pursue its objective of enhancing the focus of licensed psychologists on matters related to human diversity, the California Board or Psychology decided to establish a work group. This report summarizes the process used by and the accomplishments of the group. Six appendices include: (1) Work Group Members; (2) Some Guiding Resources;…

  19. Psychological stress associated with cardiogenetic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hidayatallah, Nadia; Silverstein, Louise B; Stolerman, Marina; McDonald, Thomas; Walsh, Christine A; Paljevic, Esma; Cohen, Lilian L; Marion, Robert W; Wasserman, David; Hreyo, Sarah; Dolan, Siobhan M

    2014-01-01

    Aim Genetic testing now makes it possible to identify specific mutations that may lead to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. This article presents data from a qualitative research study that explored the subjective experiences of individuals and families with cardiogenetic conditions. We focus on describing patients’ experiences of psychological stresses associated with having a cardiogenetic condition, illustrating the importance of integrating psychological and medical care. This integration of care is particularly important as personalized genomic medicine continues to evolve and the implications of genetic testing have a profound effect on individuals and families. Methods The researchers interviewed 50 participants from 32 families. The research team used a systematic, grounded theory procedure to code and analyze interview and focus group transcripts, incorporating multiple coders at several stages of the data analysis process. Results Three major themes emerged: a bereavement trajectory associated with sudden death in the absence of prior symptoms; high anxiety about transmitting a genetic mutation; and resilience reflected in positive lifestyle changes and participation in support groups. Conclusion This article identifies patient perspectives on personalized genomic medicine in cardiogenetics that can improve clinical care, including: specialized bereavement counseling; improving education about cardiogenetic conditions for medical professionals; parent guidelines for discussing cardiogenetic conditions with their children; information about support groups; and the routine inclusion of clinical psychologists in interdisciplinary treatment teams. Given recent advances in technology and decreasing costs, whole-genome sequencing is likely to become common practice in the near future. Therefore, these recommendations are likely to be relevant for other genetic conditions, as well as the entire field of personalized genomic medicine. PMID:25431604

  20. Evolution of psychology and counseling in infertility.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Jacky; Gameiro, Sofia

    2015-08-01

    Five key paradigm shifts are described to illustrate the evolution of psychology and counseling in infertility. The first paradigm shift was in the 1930s when psychosomatic concepts were introduced in obstetrics and gynecology as causal factors to explain why some couples could not conceive despite the absence of organic pathology. In the second shift, the nurse advocacy movement of the 1970s stimulated the investigation of the psychosocial consequences of infertility and promoted counseling to help couples grieve childlessness when medical treatments often could not help them conceive. The third shift occurred with the advent of IVF, which created a demand for mental health professionals in fertility clinics. Mental health professionals assessed the ability of couples to withstand the demands of this new high technology treatment as well as their suitability as potential parents. The fourth shift, in the 1990s, saw reproductive medicine embrace the principles of evidence-based medicine, which introduced a much more rigorous approach to medical practice (effectiveness and safety) that extended to psychosocial interventions. The most recent paradigm shift, in the new millennium, occurred with the realization that compliance with protracted fertility treatment depended on the adoption of an integrated approach to fertility care. An integrated approach could reduce treatment burden arising from multiple sources (i.e., patient, clinic, and treatment). This review describes these paradigm shifts and reflects on future clinical and research directions for mental health professionals. PMID:26092131